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Sample records for corsica northwestern mediterranean

  1. Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (northwestern Mediterranean Sea: use as a biological monitor?

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    Gosselin Marc

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within semi-closed areas like the Mediterranean Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in Mediterranean coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1 the spatial and 2 temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3 to compared these two types of tissues. Results We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the Mediterranean Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue and in sheaths (dead tissue demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Conclusion Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades, seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment

  2. Contrasting Patterns of Phytoplankton Assemblages in Two Coastal Ecosystems in Relation to Environmental Factors (Corsica, NW Mediterranean Sea

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    Marie Garrido

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ecosystems of Corsica (the deep Bay of Calvi and the shallow littoral of Bastia show contrasting patterns over a one-year cycle. In order to determine what drives these variations, seasonal changes in littoral phytoplankton are considered together with environmental parameters. Our methodology combined a survey of the physico-chemical structure of the subsurface water with a characterization of the phytoplankton community structure. Sampling provided a detailed record of the seasonal changes and successions that occur in these two areas. Results showed that the two sampled stations presented different phytoplankton abundance and distribution patterns, notably during the winter–spring bloom period. Successions in pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton communities appeared mainly driven by differences in the ability to acquire nutrients, and in community-specific growth rates. Phytoplankton structure and dynamics are discussed in relation to available data on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These results confirm that integrated monitoring of coastal areas is a requisite for gaining a proper understanding of marine ecosystems.

  3. Parasitofauna study of the brown trout, Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei from Corsica (Mediterranean island rivers

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    Quilichini Y.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corsica is a mediterranean island characterised by a great number of rivers. Salmonides are the main fishes which populate these rivers. Very appreciated by fishermen, Salmonides are represented by three species in the insular hydrographical network, among which an autochthonous species, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. In the present work, we have analysed the parasitofauna of this species. According to our knowledge, this research has never been carried out in Corsica. In a first step, we drew up an inventory of the parasites found in this freshwater fish. In a second step, we studied the differences which appeared in the composition of parasite communities of this species.

  4. Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

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    Richomme, Céline; Boschiroli, María Laura; Hars, Jean; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.

  5. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

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    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  6. A Mediterranean atmospheric and oceanographic observatory in Corsica within the framework of HyMEx, ChArMEx and MERMEx

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    Lambert, D.

    2009-09-01

    Corsica is an island located near the most cyclogenetic area of the western Mediterranean basin, south of the Gulf of Genoa. Corsica is regularly affected by intense meteorological events: windstorms, heavy precipitation, waves and coastal erosion, droughts, forest fires, and lightning. All these events are crucial for the economic activity of Corsica, which is mainly based on tourism, nautical activities, agriculture and farming. In spite of recent improvements in operational forecasting, numerical weather predictions regularly fail to reproduce the intensity and distribution of precipitation of heavy rainstorms at the mesoscale. Local weather forecasters still have difficulties in predicting such precipitation events, particularly over the sea close to complex topography. Corsica is also relevant for the study of most of intense precipitation cases affecting continental south eastern France and northern Italy: they are generally characterized by low level warm and moist air mass transport from the south, channelled not only by the continental orography but also by the Corsica-Sardinia islands ridge. In these situations, Corsica is located in the near upstream area of the flow finally generating the cyclogenesis and subsequent high impact weather over the Gulf of Genoa. Its geographical situation would allow Corsica to play the role of a "sentry", not yet exploited for these events. In addition and due to the presence of various aerosol types over the Mediterranean region, such as mineral dust particles (mostly transported from the Saharan desert), anthropogenic aerosols (due to urban and industrial activities mainly from its northern continental border), but also biomass burning aerosols from forest fires and marine aerosols, atmospheric particles are likely to have a significant impact on the regional climate and on the hydrological cycle over the Mediterranean basin. In parallel and due to high deposition fluxes of desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols (which

  7. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean).

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    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  8. Simulation and analysis of the mesoscale circulation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

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    V. Echevin

    Full Text Available The large-scale and mesoscale circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are simulated with an eddy-resolving primitive-equation regional model (RM of 1/16° resolution embedded in a general circulation model (GM of the Mediterranean Sea of 1/8° resolution. The RM is forced by a monthly climatology of heat fluxes, precipitation and wind stress. The GM, which uses the same atmospheric forcing, provides initial and boundary conditions for the RM. Analysis of the RM results shows that several realistic features of the large-scale and mesoscale circulation are evident in this region. The mean cyclonic circulation is in good agreement with observations. Mesoscale variability is intense along the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Catalan Sea. The length scales of the Northern Current meanders along the Provence coast and in the Gulf of Lions’ shelf are in good agreement with observations. Winter Intermediate Water is formed along most of the north-coast shelves, between the Gulf of Genoa and Cape Creus. Advection of this water by the mean cyclonic circulation generates a complex eddy field in the Catalan Sea. Intense anticyclonic eddies are generated northeast of the Balearic Islands. These results are in good agreement with mesoscale activity inferred from satellite altimetric data. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a down-scaling system composed of a general-circulation, a regional and a coastal model, which is one of the goals of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (currents; eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation

  9. The role of meiofauna in the energy transfer in a Mediterranean seagrass bed (Calvi, Corsica)

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    Mascart, Thibaud

    2010-01-01

    Meiofaunal communities of five different habitats characterised by different qualities of macrophytodetritus were sampled in a Mediterranean seagrass bed. Two different kinds of meiofauna communities were distinguished amongst the five habitats. A benthic community of meiofauna living on a sediment substrate or in highly fragmented macrophytodetritus and a foliar, epiphytal community associated with seagrass leaves and low fragmented macrophytodetritus leaves. The diversity index amongst thes...

  10. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

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    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  11. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France

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    J. Kuhlemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448–2007 AD reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480–1520 and 1950–2007 AD and cool summers during 1580–1620 and 1820–1890 AD.

  12. Rifting and thermal evolution of the Northwestern Mediterranean

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    P. Chiozzi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural setting of the Northwestern Mediterranean stems from tectonothermal processes which reflect on the nature of the crust. The Oligocene to Present evolution is here analysed with a thermal model which takes into account the significant extension of the continentallithosphere before the onset of sea-floor spread- ing in the bathyal zone. Subsidence data were used to set the boundaries of the oceanic realm which was com- pared with previous reconstructions inferred from other geophysical evidence. The thermal features of the transitional crust that lies between the oceanic crust and the stretched continental margins were also outlined. The Ligurian-Proven~al basin is a marginaI basin, whereas only the continental crust is expected in the Valen- cia trough. An evolutionary sketch of the study area that accounts for the observed subsidence and heat flux is proposed.

  13. The sequence of moderate-size earthquakes at the junction of the Ligurian basin and the Corsica margin (western Mediterranean): The initiation of an active deformation zone revealed?

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    Larroque, Christophe; Delouis, Bertrand; Sage, Françoise; Régnier, Marc; Béthoux, Nicole; Courboulex, Françoise; Deschamps, Anne

    2016-04-01

    A new seismically active zone is found in the southern part of the Ligurian basin, 80-km west of Corsica (western Mediterranean). The activity began in February 2011 with a foreshock (ML 4) and a mainshock (ML 5.3) 5 days later, followed by numerous aftershocks. We first analyze the fore- and mainshock in detail. We compare the results obtained using classical methods (linear location in a 1D medium and focal mechanisms from P and S polarities) and new approaches (non-linear location in a 3D medium and waveform modeling for determining the seismic moment and the focal mechanism). Both methods provided similar results for location, depth (in the range of 6-13 km) and focal mechanisms, which reveal reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented N-S and NE-SW. We then locate 27 of the aftershocks in the 3D model and find a 10-km-long NE-SW alignment with a depth between 7 and 16 km. In 2012 and 2013, three other moderate-size events (ML 3.8, 4 and 4.5) occurred and confirm that this zone is still active. The epicentral area is located in the oceanic domain of the Ligurian Basin. From analysis of the bathymetry and high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles, no morphologic anomaly at surface and no inherited fault in the shallow ~ 4 km depth were imaged, which suggest that no significant deformation occurred in the area since 5 Ma. Thus, the structure(s) activated during the 2011-2013 sequence remain unknown. In light of these results, we point out a notable difference on both sides of the Ligurian Basin: the northern margin, close to the alpine chain, suffered strong earthquakes and large cumulated deformation since 5 Ma, while the southern margin, close to the Corsica-Sardinia continental block, is poorly deformed since 5 Ma.

  14. The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean

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    Novelletto Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of Greek colonization of the central and western Mediterranean during the Archaic and Classical Eras has been understudied from the perspective of population genetics. To investigate the Y chromosomal demography of Greek colonization in the western Mediterranean, Y-chromosome data consisting of 29 YSNPs and 37 YSTRs were compared from 51 subjects from Provence, 58 subjects from Smyrna and 31 subjects whose paternal ancestry derives from Asia Minor Phokaia, the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE Greek colonies of Massalia (Marseilles and Alalie (Aleria, Corsica. Results 19% of the Phokaian and 12% of the Smyrnian representatives were derived for haplogroup E-V13, characteristic of the Greek and Balkan mainland, while 4% of the Provencal, 4.6% of East Corsican and 1.6% of West Corsican samples were derived for E-V13. An admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization. Using the following putative Neolithic Anatolian lineages: J2a-DYS445 = 6, G2a-M406 and J2a1b1-M92, the data predict a 0% Neolithic contribution to Provence from Anatolia. Estimates of colonial Greek vs. indigenous Celto-Ligurian demography predict a maximum of a 10% Greek contribution, suggesting a Greek male elite-dominant input into the Iron Age Provence population. Conclusions Given the origin of viniculture in Provence is ascribed to Massalia, these results suggest that E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic pioneer colonization.

  15. Corsica and Sardinia

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    2002-01-01

    Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, (top) and Sardinia, Italy, (bottom) have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries. Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the sapphire blue Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France. The island enjoys a relatively warm climate consisting of hot, dry summers full of sunshine, and mild winters that rarely dip below 0oC (32oF). In this scene, Corsica is the smaller island to the north. The island has almost 1,700 hills and mountains, ranging from 300 to over 2,700 meters in height. The tallest of these peaks is the snow-capped Monte Cinto toward the northern end of the island. Coursing throughout the island is an extensive network of rivers, carved into Corsica's granite face by snowmelt and rainwater runoff. The Corsican Cape sits on the island's northern finger; its eastern slope is somewhat hilly. There are quite a few agricultural fields and vineyards visible as the light green swath to the south all along the eastern shore. Along the southern shore are the dazzling cliffs of Bonifacio. Moving up the west coast in the state of Ajaccio we see a jagged, chiseled water front, reminiscent of the famous fjords of Norway. There are four large gulfs and many smaller rocky inlets sculpted into Corsica's west coast. Moving soutward, they are the Gulfs of Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio, and Valinco. The larger island to the south--across the Strait of Bonifacio--is Sardinia, Italy, one the earliest populated lands of Europe. Some ancient artifacts date human populations there as old as 6000 B.C. Around 1500 B.C., another group of settlers arrived on the island (historians don't know where they came from) and spread quickly across the island. Known as the Nuragic people, these settlers built almost 30,000 circular fortresses--called 'nuraghe'-- around the island; each

  16. Drivers of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in a pristine NW Mediterranean site, the Bay of Calvi (Corsica): A long-term study (1979-2011)

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    Goffart, Anne; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Legendre, Louis

    2015-09-01

    This work is based on a long time series of data collected in the well-preserved Bay of Calvi (Corsica island, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) between 1979 and 2011, which include physical characteristics (31 years), chlorophyll a (chl a, 15 years), and inorganic nutrients (13 years). Because samples were collected at relatively high frequencies, which ranged from daily to biweekly during the winter-spring period, it was possible to (1) evidence the key role of two interacting physical variables, i.e. water temperature and wind intensity, on nutrient replenishment and phytoplankton dynamics during the winter-spring period, (2) determine critical values of physical factors that explained interannual variability in the replenishment of surface nutrients and the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom, and (3) identify previously unrecognised characteristics of the planktonic ecosystem. Over the >30 year observation period, the main driver of nutrient replenishment and phytoplankton (chl a) development was the number of wind events (mean daily wind speed >5 m s-1) during the cold-water period (subsurface water ⩽13.5 °C). According to winter intensity, there were strong differences in both the duration and intensity of nutrient fertilisation and phytoplankton blooms (chl a). The trophic character of the Bay of Calvi changed according to years, and ranged from very oligotrophic (i.e. subtropical regime, characterised by low seasonal variability) to mesotrophic (i.e. temperate regime, with a well-marked increase in nutrient concentrations and chl a during the winter-spring period) during mild and moderate winters, respectively. A third regime occurred during severe winters characterised by specific wind conditions (i.e. high frequency of northeasterly winds), when Mediterranean "high nutrient - low chlorophyll" conditions occurred as a result of enhanced crossshore exchanges and associated offshore export of the nutrient-rich water. There was no long-term trend (e

  17. Carbonaceous aerosols in the Western Mediterranean during summertime and their contribution to the aerosol optical properties at ground level: First results of the ChArMEx-ADRIMED 2013 intensive campaign in Corsica

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    Sciare, Jean; Dulac, Francois; Feron, Anais; Crenn, Vincent; Sarda Esteve, Roland; Baisnee, Dominique; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Hamonou, Eric; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Nicolas, Jose B.; Bourrianne, Thierry; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre; Mocnik, Grisa; Drinovec, Luka; Marpillat, Alexandre; Serrie, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica) and the ANR-ADRIMED programs, a large set of real-time measurements of carbonaceous aerosols was deployed in June 2013 at the Cape Corsica atmospheric supersite (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/reports.asp?StationID=2076203042). Submicron organic aerosols (OA) were monitored every 30 min using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM; Aerodyne Res. Inc. MA, USA); Fine (PM2.5) Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) were measured every 2h using an OCEC Sunset Field Instrument (Sunset Lab, OR, USA) and every 12h using a low-vol (Leckel) filter sampler running at 2.3m3/h. Equivalent Black Carbon (BC) was monitored using two Aethalometers (models AE31 and AE33, Magee Scientific, US & Aerosol d.o.o., Slovenia) and a MAAP instrument (Thermo). Quality control of this large dataset was performed through chemical mass closure studies (using co-located SMPS and TEOM-FDMS) and direct comparisons with other real-time instruments running in parallel (Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler-Ion-Chromatograph for ions, filter sampling, ...). Source apportionment of OA was then performed using the SourceFinder software (SoFi v4.5, http://www.psi.ch/acsm-stations/me-2) allowing the distinction between hydrogen- and oxygen-like organic aerosols (HOA and OOA, respectively) and highlighting the major contribution of secondary OA in the Western Mediterranean during summer. Using this time-resolved chemical information, reconstruction of the optical aerosol properties were performed and compared with integrating nephelometer (Model 3563, TSI, US) and photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, DMT, US) measurements performed in parallel. Results of these different closure studies (chemical/physical/optical) are presented and discussed here in details. They highlight the central role of carbonaceous aerosols on the optical properties of aerosols at ground level

  18. Habitat structure and zonation patterns of northwestern Mediterranean shoreline strands

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    Simone Mariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat structure (macrofaunal assemblages and bottom types and zonation patterns of 29 unvegetated shoreline strands along the 900-km coast of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean Sea. Organisms were sampled with grabs, pitfall traps, sticky traps, clam nets and spades to ensure capture of the different proportions of macrofaunal assemblages from the supra-, medio- and infralittoral levels. We collected 211 taxa: 194 animals and 17 algae. The most abundant and dominant organisms collected with van Veen grabs were Nematoda, Oligochaeta and Collembola at the supralittoral level; the polychaetes Saccocirrus spp. and Pisione remota, the amphipod Corophium orientale, Nematoda, and Turbellaria at the mediolittoral level; and Nematoda at the upper infralittoral level. SIMPER analysis revealed great dissimilarity between the organisms inhabiting the supralittoral and the other littoral levels. Regarding the epifauna, the sticky traps used at the supralittoral level mainly collected Collembola, which were nearly absent in pitfall traps. The qualitative study performed with a clam net and a small spade revealed that Nematoda, Saccocirrus spp., Turbellaria, Nemertea and the polychaete P. remota were the most abundant animals at both the medio- and the infralittoral levels and no differences were found between these levels. Different qualitative sampling methodologies showed that in fine sediments the bivalves Donax trunculus and D. semistriatus determined more than 97% of dissimilarity from coarse-sand sites. Richness increased in protected sandy and cobble shores. Littoral level and bottom-type features were only to a certain extent valid indicators of specific biotic components for a specific habitat.

  19. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

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    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  20. Vertical distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Pujol, Ll.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Lab. of Radiation Physics

    1995-07-01

    Caesium-137, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am concentration profiles (0-1000 m) have been determined in unfiltered large volume water samples collected from the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean). Results showed that radiocaesium concentration decreases quickly through the water column while the transuranic concentration increases with depth, showing a faster migration to the bottom layers. Comparing our results with those reported by other authors (1975-1980), radiocaesium input from Chernobyl releases has been identified through the profile. In addition, transuranic concentrations have decreased considerably in the different layers of the profile. (Author).

  1. Cross-sectional serosurvey of feline leishmaniasis in ecoregions around the Northwestern Mediterranean.

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    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Iniesta, Laura; Quintana, Josefina; Pastor, Joseph; Espada, Yvonne; Portús, Montserrat; Alberola, Jordi

    2007-04-01

    A cross-sectional serosurvey using Leishmania infantum ELISA was performed on 445 cats living in ecoregions around the Northwestern Mediterranean basin; 58 cats from an area of the US where leishmaniasis is not endemic were used as negative controls. ELISA results were further confirmed in 69 cats by Western blot (WB). Finally, 76 of them were also tested for FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence by ELISA-prot A was 6.29%, and that by ELISA-IgG was 5.25%. Positive cat sera recognized patterns of polypeptides in WB, including L. infantum-specific antigenic fractions. There was no association with retroviruses. Leishmania-specific antibodies are prevalent in cats living in ecoregions around the Northwestern Mediterranean basin; thus, leishmaniasis must be included in the differential diagnosis of diseases in cats living in these ecoregions. Their role as peridomestic reservoirs for L. infantum needs further characterization, but it could be hypothesized that the cat is a secondary reservoir host, rather than an accidental one.

  2. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  3. Ocean acidification impacts on nitrogen fixation in the coastal western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, AP; Turk-Kubo, KA; Al-Moosawi, L; Alliouane, S.; F. Gazeau; Hogan, ME; Zehr, JP

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification on nitrogen (N2) fixation rates and on the community composition of N2-fixing microbes (diazotrophs) were examined in coastal waters of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Nine experimental mesocosm enclosures of ∼50 m3 each were deployed for 20 days during June-July 2012 in the Bay of Calvi, Corsica, France. Three control mesocosms were maintained under ambient conditions of carbonate chemistry. The remainder were manipulated with CO2 saturated seawater to...

  4. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  5. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: Importance of food sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresson, P., E-mail: pierre.cresson@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Fabri, M.C., E-mail: marie.claire.fabri@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Bouchoucha, M., E-mail: marc.bouchoucha@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Brach Papa, C., E-mail: christophe.brach.papa@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre Atlantique, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Chavanon, F., E-mail: fabienne.chavanon@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Jadaud, A., E-mail: angelique.jadaud@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 30171, F-34203 Sète Cedex (France); Knoery, J., E-mail: joel.knoery@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre Atlantique, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Miralles, F., E-mail: fmarco@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Cossa, D., E-mail: daniel.cossa@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); IS Terre, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30 ± 0.61 to 7.13 ± 7.09 μg g{sup −1} dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends. - Highlights: • Hg and stable isotope ratios were assessed in 7 species from Mediterranean slope. • Settling phytoplankton was the main OM and Hg source, as confirmed by δ{sup 13}C values. • All species except one exceeded Hg consumption limits. • Depth and diet were important factors explaining Hg content. • Results confirmed the concern about Hg in the deep Mediterranean.

  6. Feeding ecology of two demersal opportunistic predators coexisting in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nieves; Navarro, Joan; Barría, Claudio; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of marine organisms is crucial to understanding their ecological roles and advancing our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to analyse the trophic ecology of two demersal predator species, black anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) and white anglerfish (L. piscatorius), in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Both species are important in the study area due to their high abundance and economic value, but information about their feeding behaviour is scarce. Here, we described the diet composition and ecological role of these two species, investigating whether trophic segregation exists between them and amongst fish of different sizes. In addition, by using experimental survey data we described the spatial distribution of both species to help us interpret trophic behaviour patterns. We gathered samples of two different sizes (small individuals of a total length echinoderms. We found trophic segregation between the two species and the two sizes, indicating that they feed on different prey, in line with differences in their spatial distribution within the study area. This partial partition of food resources could also be explained by the differences in rhythms of activity that were reported in previous studies. In addition, although both species occupied a high position within the food web, our results showed that white anglerfish individuals and the large-sized fish of both species held higher trophic positions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of complementary approaches for trophic studies and confirms that both anglerfish species play an important role as predators in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea food web.

  7. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: importance of food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, P; Fabri, M C; Bouchoucha, M; Brach Papa, C; Chavanon, F; Jadaud, A; Knoery, J; Miralles, F; Cossa, D

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30±0.61 to 7.13±7.09 μg g(-1) dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends.

  8. Artificial radionuclides in a high resolution water column profile from the Catalan Sea (the Northwestern Mediterranean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Bruach, J.M.; Masque, P.; Pujol, Ll. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellatera (Spain). Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions

    1997-12-31

    {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 90}Sr concentration profiles (0-1200 m) were determined in filtered large volume water samples collected from the Catalan Sea (the Northwestern Mediterranean) in August 1993. Plutonium isotopes were also measured in the suspended matter. {sup 137}Cs concentrations showed a maximum surface activity of 4.45 {+-} 0.38 Bq m{sup -3} and decreased along the water column to a minimum value. The total {sup 137}Cs inventory in the water column was 3.30 {+-} 0.13 kBq m{sup -2}. {sup 90}Sr concentration profile showed a similar behaviour, but levels rose slightly near the bottom. On the other hand, soluble {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations showed a broad subsurface maximum centered at about 400 m depth, where its maximum value was found. This observation is in agreement with that found by others in open ocean waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea. The soluble {sup 239,240}Pu inventory was 17.4 {+-} 0.5 Bq m{sup -2}. In comparison with the inventories reported earlier, the vertical flux of plutonium was determined to be 1.97 {+-} 0.14 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, roughly 10% of the annual standing inventory. This indicated that {sup 239,240}Pu may be used to trace particulate vertical transport processes in open sea waters. (author) 21 refs.

  9. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  10. Where and how Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) spreads in Corsica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Olivier; Orgeas, Jérôme; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Provost, Erick

    2009-08-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Dolichoderinae), is one of the most widespread invasive ant species in the world. When established in optimal habitat, this species usually excludes most other local ants and can heavily impact other arthropods as well. Although Argentine ants have been present in southern Europe for more than 100 years, they were first noted in Corsica, a French Mediterranean island, in 1957 in only one urban station. In this study, we aimed to map precisely their geographical distribution in Corsica and to quantify their presence by using an infestation index. We recorded changes in the distribution of Argentine ants in Corsica over the past decade. Argentine ants appeared to be well established within their introduced range and spreading along the Corsican coasts principally through Human-mediated jump-dispersal but not homogenously.

  11. Presence of trace metals in aquaculture marine ecosystems of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Brizio, P; Stella, C; Prearo, M; Pastorino, P; Serracca, L; Ercolini, C; Abete, M C

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding chemical pollutant levels in farmed fish and shellfish, along with the risks associated with their consumption is still scarce. This study was designed to assess levels of exposure to 21 trace elements in fish (Dicentrarchus labrax), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from aquaculture marine ecosystems of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Metal concentrations showed great variability in the three species; the highest values of the nonessential elements As and Cd were found in oysters while the highest levels of Al, Pb and V were found in mussels. The essential elements Cu, Mn and Zn were highest in oysters, but Fe, Cr, Ni, Se, Co and Mo levels were highest in mussels. Fish had the lowest concentrations for all trace elements, which were at least one order of magnitude lower than in bivalves. The rare earth elements cerium and lanthanum were found at higher levels in mussels than in oysters, but undetectable in fish. The maximum values set by European regulations for Hg, Cd and Pb were never exceeded in the examined samples. However, comparing the estimated human daily intakes (EHDIs) with the suggested tolerable copper and zinc intakes suggested a potential risk for frequent consumers of oysters. Similarly, people who consume high quantities of mussels could be exposed to concentrations of Al that exceed the proposed TWI (tolerable weekly intake). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Observability of fine-scale ocean dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Carret, Alice; Birol, Florence; Nino, Fernando; Valladeau, Guillaume; Boy, Francois; Bachelier, Celine; Zakardjian, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances in the recent satellite altimeter missions of Jason-2, SARAL/AltiKa and CryoSat-2 have improved their signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to observe finer-scale ocean processes with along-track data. Here, we analyse the noise levels and observable ocean scales in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, using spectral analyses of along-track sea surface height from the three missions. Jason-2 has a higher mean noise level with strong seasonal variations, with higher noise in winter due to the rougher sea state. SARAL/AltiKa has the lowest noise, again with strong seasonal variations. CryoSat-2 is in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode in the Mediterranean Sea but with lower-resolution ocean corrections; its statistical noise level is moderate with little seasonal variation. These noise levels impact on the ocean scales we can observe. In winter, when the mixed layers are deepest and the submesoscale is energetic, all of the altimeter missions can observe wavelengths down to 40-50 km (individual feature diameters of 20-25 km). In summer when the submesoscales are weaker, SARAL can detect ocean scales down to 35 km wavelength, whereas the higher noise from Jason-2 and CryoSat-2 blocks the observation of scales less than 50-55 km wavelength. This statistical analysis is completed by individual case studies, where filtered along-track altimeter data are compared with co-located glider and high-frequency (HF) radar data. The glider comparisons work well for larger ocean structures, but observations of the smaller, rapidly moving dynamics are difficult to co-locate in space and time (gliders cover 200 km in a few days, altimetry in 30 s). HF radar surface currents at Toulon measure the meandering Northern Current, and their good temporal sampling shows promising results in comparison to co-located SARAL altimetric currents. Techniques to separate the geostrophic component from the wind-driven ageostrophic flow need further development in this coastal

  13. Coastal ocean acidification and increasing total alkalinity in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Alliouane, Samir; Gazeau, Frédéric; Mousseau, Laure; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Coastal time series of ocean carbonate chemistry are critical for understanding how global anthropogenic change manifests in near-shore ecosystems. Yet, they are few and have low temporal resolution. At the time series station Point B in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, seawater was sampled weekly from 2007 through 2015, at 1 and 50 m, and analyzed for total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkalinity (AT). Parameters of the carbonate system such as pH (pHT, total hydrogen ion scale) were calculated and a deconvolution analysis was performed to identify drivers of change. The rate of surface ocean acidification was -0.0028 ± 0.0003 units pHT yr-1. This rate is larger than previously identified open-ocean trends due to rapid warming that occurred over the study period (0.072 ± 0.022 °C yr-1). The total pHT change over the study period was of similar magnitude as the diel pHT variability at this site. The acidification trend can be attributed to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) forcing (59 %, 2.08 ± 0.01 ppm CO2 yr-1) and warming (41 %). Similar trends were observed at 50 m but rates were generally slower. At 1 m depth, the increase in atmospheric CO2 accounted for approximately 40 % of the observed increase in CT (2.97 ± 0.20 µmol kg-1 yr-1). The remaining increase in CT may have been driven by the same unidentified process that caused an increase in AT (2.08 ± 0.19 µmol kg-1 yr-1). Based on the analysis of monthly trends, synchronous increases in CT and AT were fastest in the spring-summer transition. The driving process of the interannual increase in AT has a seasonal and shallow component, which may indicate riverine or groundwater influence. This study exemplifies the importance of understanding changes in coastal carbonate chemistry through the lens of biogeochemical cycling at the land-sea interface. This is the first coastal acidification time series providing multiyear data at high temporal resolution. The data confirm rapid warming in

  14. Nutrient supply controls picoplankton community structure during three contrasting seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mouriño-Carballido, B

    2016-02-03

    We investigated the influence of ocean mixing and nutrient supply dynamics on picoplankton community composition in the context of Margalef’s Mandala (Margalef 1978). Simultaneous measurements of microturbulence, nutrient concentration, and autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton properties, were collected during 3 cruises carried out in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea in March (F1), April/May (F2) and September (F3) 2009. The 3 cruises sampled different oceanographic conditions, starting with early stages of the late winter-early spring bloom, followed by the late stage of the bloom, and finally summer stratification. As a result of the variability in vertical diffusivity and the nitrate gradient across the nitracline, nitrate vertical fluxes were higher during F1 (23 ± 35 mmol m-2 d-1), compared to F2 (0.4 ± 0.2 mmol m-2 d-1) and F3 (0.09 ± 0.09 mmol m-2 d-1). Prochlorococcus abundance was low when nitrate supply was high, Synechococcus exhibited the highest abundances at intermediate levels of nitrate supply and highest irradiance during F2, and large and small picoeukaryotic groups increased their abundance under high nutrient supply in F1. No significant relationships between the abundance of high and low nucleic acid heterotrophic bacteria and nitrate supply were found. In agreement with Margalef’s model, our results show different responses of picophytoplankton groups to nitrate supply (probably reflecting differences in nutrient uptake abilities), and that the ratio of prokaryotic to picoeukaryotic photoautotrophic biomass decreases with increasing nitrate supply.

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of key exploited marine species in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Morfin

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the temporal variability/stability of the spatial distributions of key exploited species in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. To do so, we analyzed data from the MEDITS bottom-trawl scientific surveys from 1994 to 2010 at 66 fixed stations and selected 12 key exploited species. We proposed a geostatistical approach to handle zero-inflated and non-stationary distributions and to test for the temporal stability of the spatial structures. Empirical Orthogonal Functions and other descriptors were then applied to investigate the temporal persistence and the characteristics of the spatial patterns. The spatial structure of the distribution (i.e. the pattern of spatial autocorrelation of the 12 key species studied remained highly stable over the time period sampled. The spatial distributions of all species obtained through kriging also appeared to be stable over time, while each species displayed a specific spatial distribution. Furthermore, adults were generally more densely concentrated than juveniles and occupied areas included in the distribution of juveniles. Despite the strong persistence of spatial distributions, we also observed that the area occupied by each species was correlated to its abundance: the more abundant the species, the larger the occupation area. Such a result tends to support MacCall's basin theory, according to which density-dependence responses would drive the expansion of those 12 key species in the Gulf of Lions. Further analyses showed that these species never saturated their habitats, suggesting that they are below their carrying capacity; an assumption in agreement with the overexploitation of several of these species. Finally, the stability of their spatial distributions over time and their potential ability to diffuse outside their main habitats give support to Marine Protected Areas as a potential pertinent management tool.

  16. Modelling the habitat suitability of cetaceans: Example of the sperm whale in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praca, Emilie; Gannier, Alexandre; Das, Krishna; Laran, Sophie

    2009-04-01

    Cetaceans are mobile and spend long periods underwater. Because of this, modelling their habitat could be subject to a serious problem of false absence. Furthermore, extensive surveys at sea are time and money consuming, and presence-absence data are difficult to apply. This study compares the ability of two presence-absence and two presence-only habitat modelling methods and uses the example of the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The data consist of summer visual and acoustical detections of sperm whales, compiled between 1998 and 2005. Habitat maps were computed using topographical and hydrological eco-geographical variables. Four methods were compared: principal component analysis (PCA), ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA), generalized linear model (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). The evaluation of the models was achieved by calculating the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the models and their respective area under the curve (AUC). Presence-absence methods (GLM, AUC=0.70, and MARS, AUC=0.79) presented better AUC than presence-only methods (PCA, AUC=0.58, and ENFA, AUC=0.66), but this difference was not statistically significant, except between the MARS and the PCA models. The four models showed an influence of both topographical and hydrological factors, but the resulting habitat suitability maps differed. The core habitat on the continental slope was well highlighted by the four models, while GLM and MARS maps also showed a suitable habitat in the offshore waters. Presence-absence methods are therefore recommended for modelling the habitat suitability of cetaceans, as they seem more accurate to highlight complex habitat. However, the use of presence-only techniques, in particular ENFA, could be very useful for a first model of the habitat range or when important surveys at sea are not possible.

  17. Cold-Water Corals and Anthropogenic Impacts in La Fonera Submarine Canyon Head, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderic Lastras

    Full Text Available We assess the occurrence and extent of cold-water coral (CWC species Madrepora oculata and Dendrophyllia cornigera, as well as gorgonian red coral Corallium rubrum, in La Fonera canyon head (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, as well as human impacts taking place in their habitats. Occurrence is assessed based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video imaging. Terrain classification techniques are applied to high-resolution swath bathymetric data to obtain semi-automatic interpretative maps to identify the relationship between coral distribution patterns and canyon environments. A total of 21 ROV immersions were carried out in different canyon environments at depths ranging between 79 and 401 m. Large, healthy colonies of M. oculata occur on abrupt, protected, often overhanging, rocky sections of the canyon walls, especially in Illa Negra branch. D. cornigera is sparser and evenly distributed at depth, on relatively low sloping areas, in rocky but also partially sedimented areas. C. rubrum is most frequent between 100 and 160 m on highly sloping rocky areas. The probable extent of CWC habitats is quantified by applying a maximum entropy model to predict habitat suitability: 0.36 km2 yield M. oculata occurrence probabilities over 70%. Similar predictive models have been produced for D. cornigera and C. rubrum. All ROV transects document either the presence of litter on the seafloor or pervasive trawling marks. Nets and longlines are imaged entangled on coral colonies. Coral rubble is observed at the foot of impacted colonies. Some colonies are partially covered by sediment that could be the result of the resuspension generated by bottom trawling on neighbouring fishing grounds, which has been demonstrated to be responsible of daily increases in sediment fluxes within the canyon. The characteristics of the CWC community in La Fonera canyon are indicative that it withstands high environmental stress of both natural and human origin.

  18. Urban Ozone Concentration Forecasting with Artificial Neural Network in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Wani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollutants concentration forecasting is an important issue in air quality monitoring. Qualitair Corse, the organization responsible for monitoring air quality in Corsica (France, needs to develop a short-term prediction model to lead its mission of information towards the public. Various deterministic models exist for local forecasting, but need important computing resources, a good knowledge of atmospheric processes and can be inaccurate because of local climatical or geographical particularities, as observed in Corsica, a mountainous island located in the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, we focus in this study on statistical models, and particularly Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs that have shown good results in the prediction of ozone concentration one hour ahead with data measured locally. The purpose of this study is to build a predictor realizing predictions of ozone 24 hours ahead in Corsica in order to be able to anticipate pollution peaks formation and to take appropriate preventive measures. Specific meteorological conditions are known to lead to particular pollution event in Corsica (e.g. Saharan dust events. Therefore, an ANN model will be used with pollutant and meteorological data for operational forecasting. Index of agreement of this model was calculated with a one year test dataset and reached 0.88.

  19. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  20. Dense shelf water cascading in the northwestern Mediterranean during the cold winter 2005: Quantification of the export through the Gulf of Lion and the Catalan margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Puig, P.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Marsaleix, P.

    2008-01-01

    Dense shelf water cascading in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during winter 2005, which was shown to cause large erosion in the canyons and to influence deep benthic ecosystem, was investigated using numerical modeling validated with temperature and current observations. Intense dense water

  1. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  2. Ongekende varkenshouderij floteert op Corsica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    De intensivering van de varkenshouderij in Europa in de tweede helft van de vorige eeuw betekende een krachtige trendbreuk met de huishoudelijke varkenshouderij van daarvoor. In heel Europa? Neen. Op Corsica ontstond er weliswaar een ontwikkeling naar gespecialiseerde bedrijven, maar die markante tr

  3. Long-term variability and environmental preferences of calycophoran siphonophores in the Bay of Villefranche (north-western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licandro, P.; Souissi, S.; Ibanez, F.; Carré, C.

    2012-05-01

    Long-term variability of the main calycophoran siphonophores was investigated between 1974 and 1999 in a coastal station in the north-western Mediterranean. The data were collected at weekly frequency using a macroplankton net (680 μm mesh size) adapted to quantitatively sample delicate gelatinous plankton. A 3-year collection (1967-1969) of siphonophores from offshore waters using the same methodology showed that the patterns of variability observed inshore were representative of siphonophores’ changes at a regional scale. The aims of the study were: (i) to investigate the patterns of variability that characterised the dominant calycophoran species and assemblages; (ii) to identify the environmental optima that were associated with a significant increase in the dominant siphonophore species and (iii) to verify the influence of hydroclimatic variability on long-term changes of siphonophores. Our results showed that during nearly 3 decades the standing stock of calycophoran siphonophores did not show any significant change, with the annual maximum usually recorded in spring as a result of high densities of the dominant species Lensia subtilis, Muggiaea kochi and Muggiaea atlantica. Nevertheless, major changes in community composition occurred within the calycophoran population. Since the middle 1980s, M. kochi, once the most dominant species, started to decrease allowing other species, the congeneric M. atlantica and Chelophyes appendiculata, to increasingly dominate in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. The comparison of environmental and biotic long-term trends suggests that the decrease of M. kochi was triggered by hydrological changes that occurred in the north-western Mediterranean under the forcing of large-scale climate oscillations. Salinity, water stratification and water temperature were the main hydroclimatic factors associated with a significant increase of siphonophores, different species showing different environmental preferences.

  4. {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux and growth rates of a microbial mat from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Ebro River Delta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Masque, P.; Martinez-Alonso, M.; Mir, J.; Esteve, I.

    1999-11-01

    Environmental archives are needed to study the variability of natural systems and the impact of man on them. Microbial mats, modern homologues of stromatolites, can be found in extreme environments such as the Ebro River Delta and were studied as potential environmental archives of atmospheric deposition. {sup 210}Pb, a radiotracer widely used in geochronology studies, was used both to determine the growth rates of a microbial mat from this environment and to estimate the {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The {sup 210}Pb profile showed the presence of three distinct peaks related to low growth-rate periods. This variability indicted the sensitivity of the system to external forcing. The annual atmospheric flux of {sup 210}Pb was 81.2 {+-} 1.4 B1 m{sup {minus}2}yr{sup {minus}1}, which is similar to other values found in the literature. The age profile showed two layers of differing growth rates, being 0.99 {+-} 0.10 mm yr{sup {minus}1} from the surface down to 10 mm depth. The accumulated mass profile showed a change at about 9 mm depth, corresponding to year 1983 {+-} 1. It is noteworthy that this is coincident with a strong El Nino Southern Oscillation event during 1982--1983, which has been shown to affect other ecosystems, including some in the Mediterranean area.

  5. Downward and suspended sediment fluxes in the Palamós submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanques, A.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Guillén, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Palamós canyon is deeply incised in the Northern Catatonia continental shelf (North-western Mediterranean) which favour an active shelf-slope sediment transfer. To study particle dynamics in this canyon, seven moorings arrays equipped with current meters, turbidimeters and sediment traps were deployed near the bottom along the main canyon axis (400, 1200 and 1700 m depth), on both canyon walls (1200 m depth) and on the adjacent slope (1200 m depth). One set of these instruments was also deployed at intermediate waters (400 m water depth) in the canyon axis. At surface and mid-depths, suspended sediment fluxes were oriented along the mean flow direction (NE-SW), whereas near-bottom sediment fluxes were more constrained by the local bathymetry. The higher near-bottom downward and suspended particle fluxes were not recorded in the canyon head but in the mid-canyon axis, suggesting additional sediment supplies through or over the canyon walls and/or sediment resuspension in the mid canyon region. Several events of sharp sediment flux increases took place in the mid-canyon axis site during the water stratification season. These events could be related to the action of internal waves and even to fishing activities. In the canyon walls, downward and suspended particle fluxes were higher in the southern wall, where currents were lower than in the northern wall, evidencing an asymmetrical pattern. In the adjacent slope sediment fluxes were significantly lower than in the canyon. An important increase of downward particle fluxes in the canyon axis and both walls occurred by mid-November when a severe storm took place. The pattern of the sediment fluxes in the Palamós Canyon has some differences in relation to those observed in other Mediterranean submarine canyons and has downward particle fluxes from 2 to10 times higher than other studied canyons of this region.

  6. Comparison of Ocean Dynamics with a Regional Circulation Model and Improved Altimetry in the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bouffard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal resolution of satellite altimetry is usually sufficient for monitoring the changes of sea surface topography in the open ocean. However, coastal ocean dynamics are much more complex, being characterized by smaller spatial and temporal scales of variability. The quality and availability of satellite-derived products along the coasts have to be improved, with a strategy optimized for coastal targets. Therefore a coastal multi-satellite altimetry dataset (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1; Envisat; GFO at a 10 - 20 Hz sampling rate has been derived from routine geophysical data products using a new processing software dedicated to coastal zone applications. Improved along-track sea level variations with fine space scales are available in the North-western Mediterranean Sea from 2001 to 2003, and are compared with high-resolution numerical model elevations from the eddy-resolving model SYMPHONIE. This preparatory work emphasizes the potential of improved multi-satellite altimetry for validating coastal hydro-dynamical models and could contribute in the future to a better tuning of the boundary conditions of the simulations.

  7. Use of bias correction techniques to improve seasonal forecasts for reservoirs - A case-study in northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Ma Carmen; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, we have compared different bias correction methodologies to assess whether they could be advantageous for improving the performance of a seasonal prediction model for volume anomalies in the Boadella reservoir (northwestern Mediterranean). The bias correction adjustments have been applied on precipitation and temperature from the European Centre for Middle-range Weather Forecasting System 4 (S4). We have used three bias correction strategies: two linear (mean bias correction, BC, and linear regression, LR) and one non-linear (Model Output Statistics analogs, MOS-analog). The results have been compared with climatology and persistence. The volume-anomaly model is a previously computed Multiple Linear Regression that ingests precipitation, temperature and in-flow anomaly data to simulate monthly volume anomalies. The potential utility for end-users has been assessed using economic value curve areas. We have studied the S4 hindcast period 1981-2010 for each month of the year and up to seven months ahead considering an ensemble of 15 members. We have shown that the MOS-analog and LR bias corrections can improve the original S4. The application to volume anomalies points towards the possibility to introduce bias correction methods as a tool to improve water resource seasonal forecasts in an end-user context of climate services. Particularly, the MOS-analog approach gives generally better results than the other approaches in late autumn and early winter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Natural Sunlight on Bacterial Activity and Differential Sensitivity of Natural Bacterioplankton Groups in Northwestern Mediterranean Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Gasol, Josep M.; Lefort, Thomas; Hofer, Julia; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural sunlight on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton in short-term experiments. We used a single-cell level approach involving flow cytometry combined with physiological probes and microautoradiography to determine sunlight effects on the activity and integrity of the cells. After 4 h of sunlight exposure, most bacterial cells maintained membrane integrity and viability as assessed by the simultaneous staining with propidium iodide and SYBR green I. In contrast, a significant inhibition of heterotrophic bacterial activity was detected, measured by 5-cyano-2,3 ditolyl tetrazolium chloride reduction and leucine incorporation. We applied microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to test the sensitivity of the different bacterial groups naturally occurring in the Northwestern Mediterranean to sunlight. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes groups appeared to be highly resistant to solar radiation, with small changes in activity after exposure. On the contrary, Alphaproteobacteria bacteria were more sensitive to radiation as measured by the cell-specific incorporation of labeled amino acids, leucine, and ATP. Within Alphaproteobacteria, bacteria belonging to the Roseobacter group showed higher resistance than members of the SAR11 cluster. The activity of Roseobacter was stimulated by exposure to photosynthetic available radiation compared to the dark treatment. Our results suggest that UV radiation can significantly affect the in situ single-cell activity of bacterioplankton and that naturally dominating phylogenetic bacterial groups have different sensitivity to natural levels of incident solar radiation. PMID:16957198

  9. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gérald; Bouchez, Agnès; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy, Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copolymer coatings [SPC], including four commercial ones) were quantitatively studied, after 1 month of immersion in summer in the Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France), by using flow cytometry (FCM), microscopy, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FCM was used after a pretreatment to separate cells from the biofilm matrix, in order to determine densities of heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria, and pico- and nanoeukaryotes on these coatings. Among diatoms, the only microphytobenthic class identified by microscopy, Licmophora, Navicula, and Nitzschia were determined to be the dominant taxa. Overall, biocide-free coatings showed higher densities than all other coatings, except for one biocidal coating, whatever the group of microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria always showed the highest densities, and diatoms showed the lowest, but the relative abundances of these groups varied depending on the coating. In particular, the copper-free SPC failed to prevent diatom settlement, whereas the pyrithione-free SPC exhibited high picocyanobacterial density. These results highlight the interest in FCM for antifouling coating assessment as well as specific selection among microbial communities by antifouling coatings. PMID:24907329

  10. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  11. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes, respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  12. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GONZALEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  13. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GONZALEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  14. Impact of Hellenic Arc Tsunamis on Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Audrey; Schindelé, F.; Hébert, H.

    2016-12-01

    In the historical period, the Eastern Mediterranean has been devastated by several tsunamis, the two most damaging were those of AD 365 and AD 1303, generated by great earthquakes of magnitude >8 at the Hellenic plate boundary. Recently, events of 6-7 magnitude have occurred in this region. As the French tsunami warning center has to ensure the warning for the French coastlines, the question has raised the possibility for a major tsunami triggered along the Hellenic arc to impact the French coasts. The focus is on the Corsica coasts especially, to estimate what would be the expected wave heights, and from which threshold of magnitude it would be necessary to put the population under cover. This study shows that a magnitude 8.0 earthquake nucleated along the Hellenic arc could induce in some cases a tsunami that would be observed along the Corsica coasts, and for events of 8.5 magnitude amplitudes exceeding 50 cm can be expected, which would be dangerous in harbors and beach areas especially. The main contribution of these results is the establishment of specific thresholds of magnitude for the tsunami warning along the French coasts, 7.8 for the advisory level (coastal marine threat with harbors and beaches evacuation), and 8.3 for the watch level (inland inundation threat) for tsunamis generated along the Hellenic arc.

  15. Impact of Hellenic Arc Tsunamis on Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Audrey; Schindelé, F.; Hébert, H.

    2016-08-01

    In the historical period, the Eastern Mediterranean has been devastated by several tsunamis, the two most damaging were those of AD 365 and AD 1303, generated by great earthquakes of magnitude >8 at the Hellenic plate boundary. Recently, events of 6-7 magnitude have occurred in this region. As the French tsunami warning center has to ensure the warning for the French coastlines, the question has raised the possibility for a major tsunami triggered along the Hellenic arc to impact the French coasts. The focus is on the Corsica coasts especially, to estimate what would be the expected wave heights, and from which threshold of magnitude it would be necessary to put the population under cover. This study shows that a magnitude 8.0 earthquake nucleated along the Hellenic arc could induce in some cases a tsunami that would be observed along the Corsica coasts, and for events of 8.5 magnitude amplitudes exceeding 50 cm can be expected, which would be dangerous in harbors and beach areas especially. The main contribution of these results is the establishment of specific thresholds of magnitude for the tsunami warning along the French coasts, 7.8 for the advisory level (coastal marine threat with harbors and beaches evacuation), and 8.3 for the watch level (inland inundation threat) for tsunamis generated along the Hellenic arc.

  16. Characterizing, modelling and understanding the climate variability of the deep water formation in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, Samuel; Houpert, Loic; Sevault, Florence; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Waldman, Robin; Cassou, Christophe; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Adloff, Fanny; Nabat, Pierre; Herrmann, Marine

    2016-08-01

    Observing, modelling and understanding the climate-scale variability of the deep water formation (DWF) in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea remains today very challenging. In this study, we first characterize the interannual variability of this phenomenon by a thorough reanalysis of observations in order to establish reference time series. These quantitative indicators include 31 observed years for the yearly maximum mixed layer depth over the period 1980-2013 and a detailed multi-indicator description of the period 2007-2013. Then a 1980-2013 hindcast simulation is performed with a fully-coupled regional climate system model including the high-resolution representation of the regional atmosphere, ocean, land-surface and rivers. The simulation reproduces quantitatively well the mean behaviour and the large interannual variability of the DWF phenomenon. The model shows convection deeper than 1000 m in 2/3 of the modelled winters, a mean DWF rate equal to 0.35 Sv with maximum values of 1.7 (resp. 1.6) Sv in 2013 (resp. 2005). Using the model results, the winter-integrated buoyancy loss over the Gulf of Lions is identified as the primary driving factor of the DWF interannual variability and explains, alone, around 50 % of its variance. It is itself explained by the occurrence of few stormy days during winter. At daily scale, the Atlantic ridge weather regime is identified as favourable to strong buoyancy losses and therefore DWF, whereas the positive phase of the North Atlantic oscillation is unfavourable. The driving role of the vertical stratification in autumn, a measure of the water column inhibition to mixing, has also been analyzed. Combining both driving factors allows to explain more than 70 % of the interannual variance of the phenomenon and in particular the occurrence of the five strongest convective years of the model (1981, 1999, 2005, 2009, 2013). The model simulates qualitatively well the trends in the deep waters (warming, saltening, increase in the

  17. SAETTA: high resolution 3D mapping of the lightning activity around Corsica Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the French atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica), a total lightning activity detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) has been deployed in Corsica Island in order to strengthen the potential of observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods in the West Mediterranean basin. SAETTA is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array) developed by New Mexico Tech (USA). The instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal (80 µs) and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 350 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and batteries). Initially deployed in May 2014, SAETTA operated from July 13 to October 20 in 2014 and from April 19 to December 1st in 2015. It is now in permanent operation since 16 April 2016. Many high quality observations have been performed so far that provide an accurate location in space and time of the convective events. They also bring interesting dynamical and microphysical features of those events. For example the intensity of the convective surges, the transport of charged ice particles in the stratiform area of the thunderclouds can be deduced from SAETTA observations. Specific events have also been detected as well: bolts-from-the-blue, inter cloud discharges, high level discharges in convective but also in stratiform areas, inverted dipoles. The specific lightning patterns of 2015 illustrate the complex influence of the relief, probably via slope and valley winds over Corsica and via induced lee-side convergences over the sea. SAETTA is expected to operate for at least a decade over Corsica so it will participate to the calibration/validation of upcoming lightning detectors from space such as MTG-LI. It will also be a key instrument during the field

  18. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  19. HyMeX-SOP1: The Field Campaign Dedicated to Heavy Precipitation and Flash Flooding in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ducrocq, Véronique; Braud, Isabelle; Davolio, Silvio; Ferretti, Rossella; Flamant, Cyrille; Jansa, Agustin; Kalthoff, Norbert; Richard, Evelyne; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Ayral, Pierre-Alain; Belamari, Sophie; Berne, Alexis; Borga, Marco; Boudevillain, Brice; Bock, Olivier; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bousquet, Olivier; Bouvier, Christophe; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Cimini, Domenico; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Coppola, Laurent; Cocquerez, Philippe; Defer, Eric; Delanoë, Julien; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Doerenbecher, Alexis; Drobinski, Philippe; Dufournet, Yann; Fourrié, Nadia; Gourley, Jonathan J; Labatut, Laurent; Lambert, Dominique; Le Coz, Jérôme; Marzano, Frank S; Molinié, Gilles; Montani, Andrea; Nord, Guillaume; Nuret, Mathieu; Ramage, Karim; Rison, William; Roussot, Odile; Said, Frédérique; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Testor, Pierre; Van Baelen, Joël; Vincendon, Béatrice; Aran, Montserrat; Tamayo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash floods, landslides, and mudslides that cause hundreds of millions of euros in damages per year and often, casualties...

  20. HYMEX-SOPI the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash flooding in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrocq, V; Braud, I.; S. Davolio; Ferretti, R.; Flamant, C; Jansa, A.; Kalthoff, N.; Richard, E.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Ayral, P. A.; Belamari, S.; A. Berne; Borga, M; Boudevillain, B.; Bock, O.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash floods, landslides, and mudslides that cause hundreds of millions of euros in damages per year and, often, casualties. A major field campaign was devoted to heavy precipitation and flash floods from 5 September to 6 November 2012 within the framework of the 10-yr international Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related high-impact ...

  1. Lonely populations in the deep: genetic structure of red gorgonians at the heads of submarine canyons in the north-western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Portela, Rocío; Cerro-Gálvez, Elena; Taboada, Sergi; Tidu, Carlo; Campillo-Campbell, Carolina; Mora, Joan; Riesgo, Ana

    2016-09-01

    The red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata plays a central role in coralligenous ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea, being relatively abundant in shallow habitats (5-35 m depth). Recently, deeper populations have been discovered at the heads of submarine canyons in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, between 50 and 70 m deep. Colonies from some of these deeper populations were exceptionally large (>1 m high), contrasting with the general prevalence of smaller size classes in shallower populations. Importantly, the high pressure of trawling activities on the nearby continental shelf could threaten these populations of large and old colonies. Although the genetic diversity and structure of populations in shallow habitats is relatively well known, very little is known about deeper populations. We aimed to assess the genetic structure, connectivity and potential demographic decline of six deep populations of P. clavata located at the heads of La Fonera, Blanes and Arenys de Mar submarine canyons, as well as potential gene flow between those and the two nearest shallow populations. A total of 188 individuals were genotyped using nine microsatellite loci. Results showed strong genetic differentiation among populations in different submarine canyons, among populations within one of the canyons and between shallow and deep populations. Gene flow among populations was very limited, estimates of effective population size in some populations were small, and evidence of recent population reductions (bottlenecks) was detected in several populations. The large genetic differentiation in populations of P. clavata among canyons is related to limited effective dispersal.

  2. Open-ocean convection process: A driver of the winter nutrient supply and the spring phytoplankton distribution in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

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    Severin, Tatiana; Kessouri, Faycal; Rembauville, Mathieu; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia Denisse; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Mayot, Nicolas; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Conan, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    This study was a part of the DeWEX project (Deep Water formation Experiment), designed to better understand the impact of dense water formation on the marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, nutrient and phytoplankton vertical and horizontal distributions were investigated during a deep open-ocean convection event and during the following spring bloom in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). In February 2013, the deep convection event established a surface nutrient gradient from the center of the deep convection patch to the surrounding mixed and stratified areas. In the center of the convection area, a slight but significant difference of nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations was observed possibly due to the different volume of deep waters included in the mixing or to the sediment resuspension occurring where the mixing reached the bottom. One of this process, or a combination of both, enriched the water column in silicate and phosphate, and altered significantly the stoichiometry in the center of the deep convection area. This alteration favored the local development of microphytoplankton in spring, while nanophytoplankton dominated neighboring locations where the convection reached the deep layer but not the bottom. This study shows that the convection process influences both winter nutrients distribution and spring phytoplankton distribution and community structure. Modifications of the convection's spatial scale and intensity (i.e., convective mixing depth) are likely to have strong consequences on phytoplankton community structure and distribution in the NWM, and thus on the marine food web.Plain Language SummaryThe deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea is an important process for the formation and the circulation of the deep waters of the entire Mediterranean Sea, but also for the local spring phytoplankton bloom. In this study, we showed that variations of the convective mixing depth induced different supply in nitrate

  3. Species composition and structure of a photophilic algal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia (L. Sauvageau from the North-Western Mediterranean

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    Ballesteros, Enric

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A photophilic agal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia and other brown algae is described from sheltered environments from the North-Western Mediterranean rocky bottoms. This community is included in the Padino-Cladostephetum hirsutae previously described by FELDMANN(1937 for the same geographical area. This plant association is characterized by the lack of an upper erect stratum of Fucales and by the low degree of presence of thermophilic species which typify other similar communities described from other Mediterranean areas. Algal biomass ranges from 1100 to 2500 g dw m-2 and coverage percentage ranges from 250 to 450 %. The great miniaturization and the extraordinary diversity and species richness of Mediterranean photophilic algal communities is assessed. Although there is not a clear seasonal change in biomass of the dominant species in the community, two structural stages can be discerned along an annual cycle: a developed community (summer and a diversified community (winter. Finally, the community structure and the environmental factors that impinge upon it are compared with those found in other Mediterranean phytobenthic communities.

    Se describe una comunidad de algas fotófilas mediterráneas de modo calmado dominada por Hatopteris scoparia y otros feófitos de porte mediano, la cual se adscribe a la asociación Padino-Clodostephetum hirsutae J. Feldmann 1937. Dicha asociación se caracteriza por la ausencia de un estrato elevado de Fucales y el escaso grado de presencia de especies termófilas propia de comunidades similares descritas de otras zonas del Mediterráneo. La biomasa algal oscila entre 1100 y 2500 g ps m-2 mientras que el porcentaje de recubrimiento varía entre el 250 y el 450%. Se pone de manifiesto la gran miniaturización de las comunidades de algas fotólitas mediterráneas y su extraordinaria diversidad y riqueza especificas. Pese a no existir un claro

  4. Modeling the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the copepod Centropages typicus in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during the year 2001 using a 3D ecosystem model

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    Carlotti, F.; Eisenhauer, L.; Campbell, R.; Diaz, F.

    2014-07-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of a simulated Centropages typicus (Kröyer) population during the year 2001 at the regional scale of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are addressed using a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. The setup of the coupled biological model comprises a pelagic plankton ecosystem model and a stage-structured population model forced by the 3D velocity and temperature fields provided by an eddy-resolving regional circulation model. The population model for C. typicus (C. t. below) represents demographic processes through five groups of developmental stages, which depend on underlying individual growth and development processes and are forced by both biotic (prey and predator fields) and abiotic (temperature, advection) factors from the coupled physical-biogeochemical model. The objective is to characterize C. t. ontogenic habitats driven by physical and trophic processes. The annual dynamics are presented for two of the main oceanographic stations in the Gulf of Lions, which are representative of shelf and open sea conditions, while the spatial distributions over the whole area are presented for three dates during the year, in early and late spring and in winter. The simulated spatial patterns of C. t. developmental stages are closely related to mesoscale hydrodynamic features and circulation patterns. The seasonal and spatial distributions on the Gulf of Lions shelf depend on the seasonal interplay between the Rhône river plume, the mesoscale eddies on the shelf and the Northern Current acting as either as a dynamic barrier between the shelf and the open sea or allowing cross-shelf exchanges. In the central gyre of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the patchiness of plankton is tightly linked to mesoscale frontal systems, surface eddies and filaments and deep gradients. Due to its flexibility in terms of its diet, C. t. succeeds in maintaining its population in both coastal and offshore areas year round. The simulations suggest that

  5. Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwestern Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys.

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    Simone Panigada

    Full Text Available Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87-254 and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939-29 273 and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447-53 968. Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population.

  6. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

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    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  7. Dense water formation in the north-western Mediterranean area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions

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    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The north-western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western Mediterranean dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in the surface microlayer and subsurface water from the urban coastal marine area off Marseilles, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

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    Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Giorgi, Sébastien; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-12-01

    Aliphatic (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in dissolved and particulate material from surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface water (SSW) sampled at nearshore observation stations, sewage effluents and harbour sites from Marseilles coastal area (Northwestern Mediterranean) in 2009 and 2010. Dissolved and particulate AH concentrations ranged 0.05-0.41 and 0.04-4.3 μg l(-1) in the SSW, peaking up to 38 and 1366 μg l(-1) in the SML, respectively. Dissolved and particulate PAHs ranged 1.9-98 and 1.9-21 ng l(-1) in the SSW, amounting up 217 and 1597 ng l(-1) in the SML, respectively. In harbours, hydrocarbons were concentrated in the SML, with enrichment factors reaching 1138 for particulate AHs. Besides episodic dominance of biogenic and pyrogenic inputs, a moderate anthropisation from petrogenic sources dominated suggesting the impact of shipping traffic and surface runoffs on this urbanised area. Rainfalls increased hydrocarbon concentrations by a factor 1.9-11.5 in the dissolved phase.

  9. Bacteria as part of bioluminescence emission at the deep ANTARES station (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) during a one-year survey

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    Martini, S.; Michotey, V.; Casalot, L.; Bonin, P.; Guasco, S.; Garel, M.; Tamburini, C.

    2016-10-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria have been studied during a one-year survey in 2011 at the deep ANTARES site (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, 2000 m depth). The neutrino underwater telescope ANTARES, located at this station, has been used to record the bioluminescence at the same depth. Together with these data, environmental variables (potential temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen) have been characterized in water samples. The year 2011 was characterized by relatively stable conditions, as revealed by minor variability in the monitored oceanographic variables, by low bioluminescence and low current speed. This suggests weak eukaryote participation and mainly non-stimulated light emission. Hence, no processes of dense water have affected the ANTARES station during this survey. Abundance of bioluminescent bacteria belonging to Photobacterium genus, measured by qPCR of the luxF gene, ranged from 1.4×102 to 7.2×102 genes mL-1. Their effective activity was confirmed through mRNA luxF quantification. Our results reveal that bioluminescent bacteria appeared more active than the total counterpart of bacteria, suggesting an ecological benefit of this feature such as favoring interaction with macro-organisms. Moreover, these results show that part of the bioluminescence, recorded at 2000 m depth over one year, could be due to bioluminescent bacteria in stable hydrological conditions.

  10. Seasonal Variations in the Contributions of Different Bacterial Groups to the Uptake of Low-Molecular-Weight Compounds in Northwestern Mediterranean Coastal Waters▿

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    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Gasol, Josep M.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the contributions of different heterotrophic bacterial groups to the uptake of several low-molecular weight compounds during a seasonal cycle on the northwestern Mediterranean coast (Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory). The bacterial assemblage structure had been shown to change substantially year-round for this site, but whether changes in the activities of the different bacterial groups also occurred on the seasonal scale was unknown. Microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to analyze the patterns of glucose, amino acid, and ATP uptake by different bacterial groups. Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were not very active in the uptake of glucose at any time of the year (20% of cells were active). Dissolved free amino acids were taken up considerably by Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria but not by Bacteroidetes. Relatively high percentages of cells of the three broad phylogenetic groups actively took up ATP, which could be related to the important phosphorous limitation of bacterial production during most of the year in Blanes Bay. The contribution of SAR11 to the uptake of the monomers was variable year-round, generally with fewer than 30% of the cells being active. By contrast, Roseobacter were highly overrepresented in the uptake of all the substrates throughout all the year, with more than 50% of cells being active in all the samples and for all substrates. Our results suggest that substantial changes in the activity of some phylogenetic groups of bacteria occur throughout the year. PMID:17400772

  11. The open sea as the main source of methylmercury in the water column of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Daniel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Schäfer, Jörg; Lanceleur, Laurent; Guédron, Stéphane; Buscail, Roselyne; Thomas, Bastien; Castelle, Sabine; Naudin, Jean-Jacques

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ecologic and economical importance of coastal areas, the neurotoxic bioaccumulable monomethylmercury (MMHg) fluxes within the ocean margins and exchanges with the open sea remain unassessed. The aim of this paper is to address the questions of the abundance, distribution, production and exchanges of methylated mercury species (MeHgT), including MMHg and dimethylmercury (DMHg), in the waters, atmosphere and sediments of the Northwestern Mediterranean margin including the Rhône River delta, the continental shelf and its slope (Gulf of Lions) and the adjacent open sea (North Gyre). Concentrations of MeHgT ranged from waters, whereas, within the shelf waters, MeHgT/HgT proportions were the lowest (1-3%). We calculate that the open sea is the major source of MeHgT for the shelf waters, with an annual flux estimated at 0.68 ± 0.12 kmol a-1 (i.e., equivalent to 12% of the HgT flux). This MeHgT influx is more than 80 times the direct atmospheric deposition or the in situ net production, more than 40 times the estimated "maximum potential" annual efflux from shelf sediment, and more than 7 times that of the continental sources. In the open sea, ratios of MMHg/DMHg in waters were always water column, where MeHg concentrations are maximum. This observation supports the idea that MMHg could be a degradation product of DMHg produced from inorganic divalent Hg.

  12. Budget of organic carbon in the North-Western Mediterranean open sea over the period 2004-2008 using 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical modeling

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    Ulses, C.; Auger, P.-A.; Soetaert, K.; Marsaleix, P.; Diaz, F.; Coppola, L.; Herrmann, M. J.; Kessouri, F.; Estournel, C.

    2016-09-01

    A 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model has been used to estimate a budget of organic carbon and its interannual variability over the 5 year period 2004-2008 in the North-Western Mediterranean Open Sea (NWMOS). The comparison of its results with in situ and satellite observations reveals that the timing and the magnitude of the convection and bloom processes during the study period, marked by contrasted atmospheric conditions, are reasonably well reproduced by the model. Model outputs show that the amount of nutrients annually injected into the surface layer is clearly linked to the intensity of the events of winter convection. During cold winters, primary production is reduced by intense mixing events but then spectacularly increases when the water column restratifies. In contrast, during mild winters, the primary production progressively and continuously increases, sustained by moderate new production followed by regenerated production. Overall, interannual variability in the annual primary production is low. The export in subsurface and at middepth is however affected by the intensity of the convection process, with annual values twice as high during cold winters than during mild winters. Finally, the estimation of a global budget of organic carbon reveals that the NWMOS acts as a sink for the shallower areas and as a source for the Algerian and Balearic subbasins.

  13. Small-scale variability in the coupling/uncoupling of bacteria, phytoplankton and organic carbon fluxes along the continental margin of the Gulf of Lions, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, F.; Heussner, S.; Diaz, F.; Raimbault, P.; Conan, P.

    2002-06-01

    A High Frequency Flux (HFF) experiment was conducted during spring 1997 on the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) with the aim of examining the dynamical and biological processes controlling particle transfer in this margin environment. Within this general framework, a special attention was paid to short temporal and small spatial variations of phytoplankton and bacterial production through six hydrological and biological surveys performed during a 7-week period at nine sampling stations located on a 10×20-mile grid. Downward fluxes of particulate organic carbon at each station were measured by traps deployed at 240 m depth. The f-ratio and the ratio of integrated bacterial to primary production (IBP/IPP ratio), computed as indexes of biological export for each survey and station, did not provide a clear, unambiguous understanding of the importance of biological processes in the cycling of carbon in the upper water column. However, the data collected allowed to draw up carbon budgets for the different phases of the experiment. The comparison of primary production with measured and estimated organic carbon removal terms (sinking, cycling through the microbial food web, grazing by ciliates and metazoans) showed that a balance was never reached between fluxes of production and removal of organic carbon during the course of the experiment. The system shifted from an initial situation of 'missing' carbon (removal>production) to one of 'excess' carbon (removalimportant factor affecting the budget.

  14. Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies.

  15. Ecological understanding for fishery management: Condition and growth of anchovy late larvae during different seasons in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, D.; Tecchio, S.; Palomera, I.; Álvarez-Calleja, I.; Ospina-Álvarez, A.; Raicevich, S.

    2011-07-01

    The fishery of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Mediterranean needs several ecological approaches to be properly managed. As such, several surveys were carried out to study the ecology of larvae and juveniles of this species, which reproduces during the warmest period of the year (May through September) in the Gulf of Lions. In particular, we studied the late larvae (15 mm total length until metamorphosis), especially as other authors have focused on larvae below that size. Unexpectedly, we also collected anchovy late larvae during the December 2007 survey, whose range in size corresponded to a later spawning period than previously reported. Differences in the nutritional condition of these larvae were assessed by comparing indices of lipid composition and estimating growth rates from otolith measurements to provide information on the probability of survival between the two groups. The analysis of fatty acids, used as tracers of trophic relationships, indicates that these larvae fed mainly on zooplankton. Nutritional conditions of summer and late autumn larvae were very similar. In contrast, growth rates were higher for August larvae, probably due to the different temperatures in the two seasons. Our results are especially relevant in an ecological context where the increasing mean water temperatures in the Western Mediterranean could favor the extension of the anchovy spawning period up to late-Autumn months.

  16. Role of deep convection on anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

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    Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.; Houpert, L.; de Madron, X. Durrieu; Lefèvre, D.; Stabholz, M.; Guglielmi, V.

    2016-07-01

    The most active deep convection area in the western Mediterranean Sea is located in the Gulf of Lions. Recent studies in this area provides some insights on the complexity of the physical dynamics of convective regions, but very little is known about their impacts on the biogeochemical properties. The CASCADE (CAscading, Surge, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events) cruise, planed in winter 2011, give us the opportunity to compare vertical profiles of properties sampled either during stratified conditions or after/during a convection event. In the present study, we focus on the distributions of the carbonate system properties (mainly total alkalinity, AT; and total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) because, in the context of the climate change, deep convection areas are suspected to significantly increase the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 (CANT). Given its limited size, the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the global carbon budget is probably minor but this marginal sea can be used as a laboratory to better understand carbon sequestration and its transfer to the basin interior by deep convection processes. Distributions of AT and CT, both measured from bottle samples, and that of CANT (estimated with the TrOCA approach) are first analyzed in the light of other key properties (salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen). An objective interpolation procedure is then applied to estimate CT and AT from CTD measured properties. With this procedure, the vertical resolution goes from a maximum of 32 samples per station to one property estimate every meter (more detailed distributions are obtained). Results provide arguments to conclude that CANT is rapidly transferred to the deepest layer due to deep convection events. During deep convection events, the increase of CANT in the water column is positively correlated to that of potential density and oxygen content. The challenge of quantifying the amount of sequestered carbon is however not resolved due to the

  17. Reproductive cycle and trophic ecology in deep versus shallow populations of the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis (Cap de Creus, northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, A.; Viladrich, N.; Gili, J.-M.; Kotta, M.; Cucio, C.; Magni, L.; Bramanti, L.; Rossi, S.

    2012-09-01

    The annual gonad development of a shallow (20 m depth) population of the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis was found to be closely synchronized with that of a deep (60 m depth) population, but differences were observed in the gonadal output, with the shallow population producing more and larger sexual products. Lipid content in the shallow population showed a marked seasonality, peaking during summer. In contrast, lipid content remained persistently lower in the deep population. Fatty acids as well as C/N composition were also seasonal in the shallow population and more constant in the deep one. The isotopic composition (δ15N and δ13C) of the shallow colonies was similar to values observed for passive suspension feeders with symbiotic algae, whereas the deep colonies exhibited values similar to those of aposymbiotic passive suspension feeders that primarily feed on microzooplankton and particulate organic matter. These results highlight the importance of considering the depth-related variability among populations in order to achieve a better understanding of the ecology of sessile benthic suspension feeders.

  18. Nutrient dynamics under different ocean acidification scenarios in a low nutrient low chlorophyll system: The Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, J.; Guieu, C.; Gazeau, F.

    2017-02-01

    Two pelagic mesocosm experiments were conducted to study the impact of ocean acidification on Mediterranean plankton communities. A first experiment took place in summer 2012 in the Bay of Calvi (France) followed by an experiment in winter 2013 in the Bay of Villefranche (France) under pre-bloom conditions. Nine mesocosms were deployed: three served as controls and six were acidified in a targeted partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) gradient from 450 to 1250 μatm. The evolution of dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient concentrations was observed using nanomolar techniques. The experiments were characterized by a large contribution of organic nutrients to nutrient pools and contrasting in situ conditions with an inorganic N/P ratio of 1.7 in summer and of 117 in winter. In the Bay of Calvi, initial conditions were representative of the summer oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea. While inorganic phosphate concentrations were depleted during both experiments, in situ inorganic nitrogen concentrations were higher in winter. However, nitrate was rapidly consumed in winter in all mesocosms during the acidification phase, leading to a decrease in N/P ratio to 13. During these first mesocosm experiments conducted in a low nutrient low chlorophyll area, nutrient dynamics were insensitive to CO2 enrichment, indicating that nutrient speciation and related biological processes were likely not impacted. During both experiments, nitrate and phosphate dynamics were controlled by the activity of small species that are favored in low nutrient conditions. In contrast to the theoretical knowledge, no increase in iron solubility at high pCO2 was observed.

  19. Relationships between trace elements in Posidonia oceanica shoots and in sediment fractions along Latium coasts (northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, I; Focaracci, F; Cerfolli, F; Papetti, P

    2016-03-01

    The Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica is widely used as a sensitive bioindicator of trace elements (TEs) in the coastal environment. Therefore, a bulk of data exist on TE levels from impacted versus unpolluted sites while only recent studies started comparing TE accumulation in plant compartments versus both water column and sediment characteristics. In this study, six TEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) were analyzed in P. oceanica shoots related to depth (-10 and -20 m) and to TE concentrations in the different grain size fractions of the sediment, from two Sites of Community interest (SIC) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. TE concentrations in both shoots and sediment were generally low, except for Cr. Cu was the only element showing significantly different concentrations at the two sites while As differed significantly between samples taken at different depths. TE concentrations in the unsieved sediment were found uncorrelated to TEs in shoots except for the important nutrient Cu (positive correlation). The finest sediment fractions were enriched in TEs and significantly correlated to Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the shoots.

  20. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative PCR Coupled with Melt Curve Analysis for Detection of Selected Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Karl B.; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Elandaloussi, Laurence M.; Quijano-Scheggia, Sonia; Sampedro, Nagore; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Diogène, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the coast of Catalonia have been increasing over the past 20 years. As species from this genus that are documented as toxigenic have been found in local waters, with both toxic and nontoxic species cooccurring in the same bloom, there is a need to develop management tools for discriminating the difference. Currently, differentiation of toxic and nontoxic species requires time-consuming electron microscopy to distinguish taxonomic features that would allow identification as to species, and cryptic species can still remain misidentified. In this study, cells of Pseudo-nitzschia from clonal cultures isolated from seawater were characterized to their species identity using scanning electron microscopy, and subsamples of each culture were used to create an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA database for development of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Once developed, these qPCR assays were applied to field samples collected over a 2-year period in Alfaques Bay in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea to evaluate the possibility of a comprehensive surveillance for all Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using molecular methods to supplement optical microscopy, which can discern taxonomy only to the genus level within this taxon. Total Pseudo-nitzschia cell density was determined by optical microscopy from water samples collected weekly and compared to results obtained from the sum of eight Pseudo-nitzschia species-specific qPCR assays using duplicate samples. Species-specific qPCR followed by melt curve analysis allowed differentiation of amplicons and identification of false positives, and results correlated well with the total Pseudo-nitzschia cell counts from optical microscopy. PMID:21193668

  2. Chrysophyte cysts from lake sediments reveal the submillennial winter/spring climate variability in the northwestern Mediterranean region throughout the Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, Sergi [Queen' s University, PEARL, Department of Biology, Kingston, ON (Canada); Catalan, Jordi [CSIC, CSIC-UB Limnology Group, Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB), Blanes (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    In the last decade, much effort was dedicated to the reconstruction of past climate at high temporal resolution. Here, we show the suitability of chrysophyte cysts from lake sediments for revealing continental climate variability when used in sensitive sites, such as those in high mountains. We demonstrate that altitude is a main factor influencing the present distribution of chrysophytes and develop a transfer function to evaluate the local ''altitude anomaly'' on a lake site throughout time. Based on our knowledge of chrysophyte ecology, the altitude anomalies are interpreted as winter/spring climate signatures. The method was applied to a Holocene record from a lake in the Pyrenees showing submillennial climatic variability in this northwestern Mediterranean zone. A warming trend was present from the early Holocene to 4 kyear BP. Comparison with pollen-based reconstructions of summer temperatures denoted a contrasting decrease in continentality between the two parts of the Holocene. Oscillations of 1 cycle per ca. 2,000 years appeared throughout the record. The warmest Holocene winters were recorded during the Medieval Warm Period at ca. AD900 and 450 and the Roman Warm Period (2.7-2.4 kyear BP). Winters in the period AD1,050-1,175 were inferred to be as cold as in the Little Ice Age. The period between 3 and 7 kyear BPshowed lower intensity in the fluctuations than in early and late Holocene. The cold event, 8,200 years ago, appeared embedded in a warm fluctuation. Another cold fluctuation was recorded around 9 kyear BP, which is in agreement with Irish and Greenland records. (orig.)

  3. CORSICA modelling of ITER hybrid operation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Bulmer, R. H.; Campbell, D. J.; Casper, T. A.; LoDestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Snipes, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid operating mode observed in several tokamaks is characterized by further enhancement over the high plasma confinement (H-mode) associated with reduced magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) instabilities linked to a stationary flat safety factor (q ) profile in the core region. The proposed ITER hybrid operation is currently aiming at operating for a long burn duration (>1000 s) with a moderate fusion power multiplication factor, Q , of at least 5. This paper presents candidate ITER hybrid operation scenarios developed using a free-boundary transport modelling code, CORSICA, taking all relevant physics and engineering constraints into account. The ITER hybrid operation scenarios have been developed by tailoring the 15 MA baseline ITER inductive H-mode scenario. Accessible operation conditions for ITER hybrid operation and achievable range of plasma parameters have been investigated considering uncertainties on the plasma confinement and transport. ITER operation capability for avoiding the poloidal field coil current, field and force limits has been examined by applying different current ramp rates, flat-top plasma currents and densities, and pre-magnetization of the poloidal field coils. Various combinations of heating and current drive (H&CD) schemes have been applied to study several physics issues, such as the plasma current density profile tailoring, enhancement of the plasma energy confinement and fusion power generation. A parameterized edge pedestal model based on EPED1 added to the CORSICA code has been applied to hybrid operation scenarios. Finally, fully self-consistent free-boundary transport simulations have been performed to provide information on the poloidal field coil voltage demands and to study the controllability with the ITER controllers. Extended from Proc. 24th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, 2012) IT/P1-13.

  4. Distribution of Grimmia Hedw. on Mediterranean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    On the six largest Mediterranean islands: Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Mallorca, Sardinia and Sicily, the moss genus Grimmia (Grimmiaceae, Musci) is represented by 29 species. Many of these are newly recorded. The importance of the islands for bryophyte conservation is stressed. -Author

  5. Life-style and genome structure of marine Pseudoalteromonas siphovirus B8b isolated from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B; Acinas, Silvia G

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  6. Life-style and genome structure of marine Pseudoalteromonas siphovirus B8b isolated from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lara

    Full Text Available Marine viruses (phages alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested, which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes, but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads. Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  7. Sequential extension as a record of Corsica Rotation during Apennines slab roll-back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Phillippon, Mélody; Noury, Mélanie

    2017-07-01

    The Mediterranean geodynamic system is an exceptional natural laboratory to study the complexities of back-arc extension during subduction rollback. Corsica is a key locality that recorded the Alpine subduction-collision history followed by 30 Ma of the Apennines slab rollback, responsible for the successive opening, from West to East, of the Liguro-Provençal basin and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The overall strain pattern of the Alpine metamorphic units of Alpine Corsica is studied through a synthesis of i) available geological maps, ii) geochronological data and iii) newly acquired structural data relative to successive events of ductile and brittle extension. Three main stages of extension are recorded: 1/ Syn-metamorphic Oligocene extension accommodated by N140° trending ductile shear zones, that correspond to the reactivation of a major Alpine thrust; 2/ Burdigalian ramp-flat extension with N60°-70° trending fault zones that controlled the deposition of onshore piggy-back basins (e.g. St Florent basin), and 3/ Serravalian N-S trending fault zones. From a geodynamical point of view, these successive extensional deformations in Alpine Corsica can be correlated to the history of the Apennines slab rollback. The two first stages are related to a southeastward rollback of the Appennines slab that successively triggered: 1/ Continental rifting in Oligocene leading to the opening of the Liguro-Provençal basin and 2/ Burdigalian extension with N60°-70° trending fault zone, oblique to the Alpine thrust that, after a counterclockwise rotation of the Corso-Sardinian block, became unable to accommodate extension. Finally, the third stage that gave NS-trending fault zones developed in Serravalian, at the onset of Tyrrhenian rifting, related to an eastward rollback of the Apennines slab, as a response of slab tearing in Sicily.

  8. Carbonate chemistry in sediment porewaters of the Rhône River delta driven by early diagenesis (northwestern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassmann, Jens; Lansard, Bruno; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    The Rhône River is the largest source of terrestrial organic and inorganic carbon for the Mediterranean Sea. A large fraction of this terrestrial carbon is either buried or mineralized in the sediments close to the river mouth. This mineralization follows aerobic and anaerobic pathways, with a range of impacts on calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the sediment near the sediment-water interface. This study focuses on the production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) by early diagenesis, consequential pH variations and the effect on calcium carbonate precipitation or dissolution. The sediment porewater chemistry was investigated along a transect from the Rhône River outlet to the continental shelf. TA and concentrations of DIC, SO42- and Ca2+ were analyzed on bottom waters and extracted sediment porewaters, whereas pH and oxygen concentrations were measured in situ using microelectrodes. The average oxygen penetration depth into the sediment was 1.7 ± 0.4 mm close to the river mouth and 8.2 ± 2.6 mm in the continental shelf sediments, indicating intense respiration rates. Diffusive oxygen fluxes through the sediment-water interface ranged between 3 and 13 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. In the first 30 cm of the sediment, TA and DIC porewater concentrations increased with depth up to 48 mmol L-1 near the river outlet and up to 7 mmol L-1 on the shelf as a result of aerobic and anaerobic mineralization processes. Due to aerobic processes, at all stations pH decreased by 0.6 pH units in the oxic layer of the sediment accompanied by a decrease of the saturation state regarding calcium carbonate. In the anoxic layer of the sediments, sulfate reduction was the dominant mineralization process and was associated with an increase of porewater saturation state regarding calcium carbonate. Ultimately anoxic mineralization of organic matter caused calcium carbonate precipitation demonstrated by a large decrease in Ca2+ concentration with depth in

  9. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  10. Habitat use, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea in relation to oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the habitat utilization, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (ABFT) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, based on 36 pop-up archival tags and different environmental data sets. Tags were deployed on early mature ABFT (127-255 cm) between July and November in 2007-2014, on the shelf area off Marseille, France. The data obtained from these tags provided 1643 daily summaries of ABFT vertical behaviour over 8 years of tag deployment. Based on a hierarchical clustering of this data, we could identify four principle daily vertical behaviour types, representing surface (≦ 10 m) and subsurface (10-100 m) orientation, moderate (50-200 m) and deep (≧ 200 m) diving behaviour. These vertical behaviour types showed seasonal variations with partly opposing trends in their frequencies. Accordingly, ABFT were more surface orientated during summer, while moderate diving behaviour was more common during winter. Depth time series data further revealed inverted day-night patterns for both of these periods. Tagged ABFT frequented the surface waters more regularly during daytime and deeper waters during the night in summer, while the opposite pattern was found in winter. Seasonal changes in the vertical behaviour of ABFT were accompanied by simultaneous changes in environmental conditions (SST, chla, thermal stratification). Accordingly, surface orientation and moderate diving behaviour appeared to be triggered by the thermal stratification of the water column, though less pronounced than previously reported for ABFT in the North Atlantic, probably indicating adaptive vertical behaviour related to the availability of epipelagic food resources (anchovies and sardines). Deep diving behaviour was particularly frequent during months of high biological productivity (February-May), although one recovered tag showed periodic and unusual long spike dives during summer-autumn, in relation to

  11. Fluorescence and absorption properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM in coastal surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, influence of the Rhône River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Para

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seawater samples were collected monthly in surface waters (2 and 5 m depths of the Bay of Marseilles (northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 5°17'30" E, 43°14'30" N during one year from November 2007 to December 2008 and studied for total organic carbon (TOC as well as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence. The annual mean value of surface CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm [aCDOM(350] was very low (0.10 ± 0.02 m−1 in comparison to values usually found in coastal waters, and no significant seasonal trend in aCDOM(350 could be determined. By contrast, the spectral slope of CDOM absorption (SCDOM was significantly higher (0.023 ± 0.003 nm−1 in summer than in fall and winter periods (0.017 ± 0.002 nm−1, reflecting either CDOM photobleaching or production in surface waters during stratified sunny periods. The CDOM fluorescence, assessed through excitation emission matrices (EEMs, was dominated by protein-like component (peak T; 1.30–21.94 QSU and marine humic-like component (peak M; 0.55–5.82 QSU, while terrestrial humic-like fluorescence (peak C; 0.34–2.99 QSU remained very low. This reflected a dominance of relatively fresh material from biological origin within the CDOM fluorescent pool. At the end of summer, surface CDOM fluorescence was very low and strongly blue shifted, reinforcing the hypothesis of CDOM photobleaching. Our results suggested that unusual Rhône River plume eastward intrusion events might reach Marseilles Bay within 2–3 days and induce local phytoplankton blooms and subsequent fluorescent CDOM production (peaks M and T without adding terrestrial fluorescence signatures (peaks C and A. Besides Rhône River plumes, mixing events of the entire water column injected relative aged (peaks C and M CDOM from the bottom into the surface and thus appeared also as an important source

  12. Methyl mercury distributions in relation to the presence of nano- and picophytoplankton in an oceanic water column (Ligurian Sea, North-western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Cossa, Daniel; Marty, Jean-Claude; Migon, Christophe; Averty, Bernard; Dufour, Aurélie; Ras, Josephine

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings on the distribution of methylated mercury (MeHg T) in waters have highlighted the importance of organic carbon remineralization on the production of these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we present the first time-series (20 monthly samplings between July 2007 and May 2009) of high-resolution vertical profiles (10-12 depths in a 2350 m water column) of MeHg T distributions in an open ocean environment, the Ligurian Sea (North-western Mediterranean Sea). Concentrations varied within the sub-picomolar range (general mean: 0.30 ± 0.17 pmol L -1, n = 214) with the lowest values at the surface, increasing with depth up to the oxygen minimum zone, and decreasing slowly at greater depth. Concentrations in the surface waters never exceeded 0.15 pmol L -1, while the highest concentrations (up to 0.82 pmol L -1) were associated to the hypoxycline during the autumn bloom. A detailed vertical MeHg T profile reveals a "double-peak" pattern, coincidental with the two microbial layers described by Tanaka and Rassoulzadegan (2002), the so-called "microbial food web" in the euphotic zone (microbial loop" in the aphotic zone (>100 m). Temporal variations in the MeHg T abundance and distribution in the water column were linked to seasonality. The highest MeHg T concentrations were found in the oxygen minimum zone during the period of stratification, and coincide with the greatest abundance of nano- and picophytoplankton (cyanobacteria, nanoflagellates, etc.) in the euphotic layer. None of our deep MeHg T measurements (˜100 m above the sea bottom) revealed a significant sedimentary source of MeHg T. We explored the correlation between MeHg T concentrations and the apparent oxygen utilization, a proxy of organic matter remineralization, over the study period. Results of this study strengthen the hypothesis that net mercury methylation in the open ocean occurs in the water column, is linked to organic matter regeneration, and is promoted by the presence of small

  13. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in the northwestern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrocq, V; Braud, I.; S. Davolio; Ferretti, R.; Flamant, C; Jansa, A.; Kalthoff, N.; Richard, E.; Taupier Letage, I.; Ayral, P. A.; Belamari, S.; A. Berne; Borga, M; Boudevillain, B.; Bock, O.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash floods, landslides, and mudslides that cause hundreds of millions of euros in damages per year and often, casualties. A major field campaign was devoted to heavy precipitation and flash floods from 5 September to 6 November 2012 within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related high-impact...

  14. Temporal evolution of (137)Cs, (237)Np, and (239+240)Pu and estimated vertical (239+240)Pu export in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressac, M; Levy, I; Chamizo, E; La Rosa, J J; Povinec, P P; Gastaud, J; Oregioni, B

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of (137)Cs, (237)Np and (239+240)Pu at the DYFAMED station (NW Mediterranean) is discussed in relation to physical processes, downward fluxes of particles, and changes in the main input sources. The data set presented in this study represents the first complete (237)Np vertical profiles (0.12-0.27μBqL(-1)), and constitutes a baseline measurement to assess future changes. A similar behavior of Cs and Np has been evidenced, confirming that Np behaves conservatively. While the (137)Cs decrease has been driven by its radioactive decay, the vertical distribution of (237)Np has not substantially changed over the last decade. In the absence of recent major inputs, a homogenization of their vertical distribution occurred, partly due to deep convection events that became more intense during the last decade. In contrast, (239+240)Pu surface levels in the NW Mediterranean waters have fallen in the past four decades by a factor of 5. This decrease in surface has been balanced by higher concentrations in the deep-water layers. A first estimate of the downward (239+240)Pu fluxes in the NW Mediterranean Sea is proposed over more than two decades. This estimation, based on the DYFAMED sediment trap time-series data and published (239+240)Pu flux measurements, suggests that sinking particles have accounted for 60-90% of the upper layer (0-200m) Pu inventory loss over the period 1989-2013. The upper layer residence time of Pu is estimated to be ~28years, twice as long as the residence time estimated for the whole western Mediterranean (~15years). This difference highlights the slow removal of Pu in the open waters of the NW Mediterranean and confirms that most of the Pu removal occurs along the coastal margin where sedimentation rates are high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2010-02-01

    Since 1967, the alumina plants in the Marseilles area (Barasse and Gardanne) have been discharging the mineral residue (i.e., red mud) resulting from the alkaline processing of bauxite into the submarine Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea) through pipes situated at 320-330 m in depth. The Barasse pipe stopped being used in 1988. From 1987 to 1996, many decrees and regulations were promulgated by the French State to rule the conditions under which the Gardanne alumina refinery was authorized to dispose of the bauxite residue in the sea. The refinery was required: (i) to study the hydrodynamic circulation in the Cassidaigne canyon to evaluate the potential dispersion and transport of fine elements discharged into the water mass and their impact on the pelagic ecosystem; (ii) to survey the marine environment every five years to control the expansion and thickness of the red mud deposit and compare the evolution of the benthic macrofauna at representative sampling sites in the environment affected by the red mud discharge with that of reference sites outside of the red mud plume; (iii) to study the effect of the discharge on fishing activities; and (iv) to investigate the toxicity of the red mud, particularly its persistence, accumulation, interaction and effect on the marine ecosystem, paying special attention to the bio-accumulation of chromium and vanadium. A Scientific Committee was created to insure an independent evaluation of the studies promised by the manufacturer in response to the State's regulations. Since the beginning of the 1960s, data have been accumulating on the structure and long-term functioning of the Cassidaigne bathyal ecosystem. This paper presents the collaborative efforts of the State-Manufacturer-Committee triplet and summarizes the main results obtained during the last period's sea campaigns (1991-2007). This paper also illustrates how national regulations concerning manufacturers, such as Gardanne alumina refinery, have

  16. Dynamics of the bathyal Benthic Boundary Layer in the northwestern Mediterranean: depth and temporal variations in macrofaunal megafaunal communities and their possible connections within deep-sea trophic webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution patterns of benthopelagic fauna and the macrofauna-megafauna trophic relationships in the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) were studied. The study is based on data collected during 6 sampling cruises off the Catalan coast (western Mediterranean) during 1991-1995 at depths ranging from 389-1355 m. Crustaceans were the dominant benthopelagic macrofauna in the BBL level closest to the sea bed (~0-1.5 m above bottom) on the Catalan Sea slope. Copepods and peracarid crustaceans (mysids, amphipods, isopods, and cumaceans) were dominant, whereas euphausiids and natantian decapods, some taxa of gelatinous plankton (siphonophores, medusae, and chaetognaths), and benthopelagic fishes were also well represented groups. Seasonal changes in megafaunal decapod crustaceans abundance seem to be linked to changes in the density and the biological cycle of BBL macrofauna, which constitute an important part of the available food exploited by megafauna. Both the advective and the vertical flow of organic matter in the north-western Mediterranean should simultaneously influence peaks of available food (BBL macrofauna) for bathyal-megafaunal decapods. Recruitment of macrofaunal (suprabenthos and infauna) species at the level of canyons and neighbouring slope zones mainly occurred between late autumn-late winter and would probably be mainly induced by an advective component. However, the macrofaunal sizes consumed by megafaunal decapods are found more abundantly represented in spring and summer populations. In parallel, the vertical fluxes seem to determine maxima in the abundance of planktonic organisms (especially copepods) which also occur in late spring-summer. Size, natatory capability, and energetic value are important factors in the selection of food-resources by megafaunal decapods, which would have a greater availability of food in late spring-summer. This would explain both the seasonal maxima of decapod abundance in summer, and maxima in the catches of some

  17. Sensitivity of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea coastal and thermohaline circulations simulated by the 1/12°-resolution ocean model NEMO-MED12 to the spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Béranger, Karine; Drobinski, Philippe

    The northwestern Mediterranean (NWM) Sea is prone to intense weather events, associated with high winds, that are characterized by strong shallow jets and a high spatial and temporal variability. The ocean response in this area is very sensitive to the atmospheric conditions, particularly in the Gulf of Lions coastal zone. The ocean response to strong winds is here investigated using the NEMO-MED12 eddy-resolving model, driven by four atmospheric forcings differing in spatial resolution (20 km, 6.7 km) and temporal resolution (daily or 3 h) and produced with the non-hydrostratic mesoscale WRF model. The noticeable effects of the higher-frequency forcing are (i) to reduce the shelf dense-water formation and the deep offshore convection in winter due to the explicit simulation of the diurnal cycle that warms and stratifies the ocean upper layers and (ii) to increase the vertical velocity in the upwelling cells. The higher spatial resolution allows, in particular, the production of stronger winds and the accurate reproduction of the near-surface sub-mesoscale eddies in the coastal areas, in agreement with observations.

  18. Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, A.; Orejas, C.; Madurell, T.; Bramanti, L.; Martins, M.; Quintanilla, E.; Marti-Puig, P.; Lo Iacono, C.; Puig, P.; Requena, S.; Greenacre, M.; Gili, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    Submarine canyons are known as one of the seafloor morphological features where living cold-water coral (CWC) communities develop in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated the CWC community of the two westernmost submarine canyons of the Gulf of Lions canyon system: the Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon (LDC). Coral associations have been studied through video material recorded by means of a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle. Video transects have been conducted and analyzed in order to obtain information on (1) coral bathymetric distribution and density patterns, (2) size structure of coral populations, and (3) coral colony position with respect to the substrate. Madrepora oculata was the most abundant CWC in both canyons, while Lophelia pertusa and Dendrophyllia cornigera mostly occurred as isolated colonies or in small patches. An important exception was detected in a vertical cliff in LDC where a large L. pertusa framework was documented. This is the first record of such an extended L. pertusa framework in the Mediterranean Sea. In both canyons coral populations were dominated by medium and large colonies, but the frequent presence of small-sized colonies also indicate active recruitment. The predominant coral orientation (90° and 135°) is probably driven by the current regime as well as by the sediment load transported by the current flows. In general, no clear differences were observed in the abundance and in the size structure of the CWC populations between CCC and LDC, despite large differences in particulate matter between canyons.

  19. Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons are known as one of the seafloor morphological features where living cold-water coral (CWC communities develop in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated the CWC community of the two westernmost submarine canyons of the Gulf of Lions canyon system: the Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC and Lacaze Duthiers Canyon (LDC. Coral associations have been studied through video material recorded by means of a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle. Video transects have been conducted and analyzed in order to obtain information on (1 coral bathymetric distribution and density patterns, (2 size structure of coral populations, and (3 coral colony orientation with respect to the substrate. Madrepora oculata was the most abundant CWC in both canyons, while Lophelia pertusa and Dendrophyllia cornigera mostly occurred as isolated colonies or in small patches. An important exception was detected in a vertical cliff in LDC where a large Lophelia pertusa framework was documented. This is the first record of such an extended L. pertusa framework in the Mediterranean Sea. In both canyons coral populations were dominated by medium and large colonies, but the frequent presence of small-sized colonies also indicate active recruitment. The predominant coral orientation with respect to the substrate (90° and 135° is probably driven by the current regime as well as by the sediment load transported by the current flows. In general no clear differences were observed between the CWC populations from CCC and LDC, despite large differences in particulate matter between canyons.

  20. Bathymetrical distribution and size structure of cold-water coral populations in the Cap de Creus and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons (northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons are known as one of the seafloor morphological features where living cold-water coral (CWC communities develop in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated the CWC community of the two westernmost submarine canyons of the Gulf of Lions canyon system: the Cap de Creus Canyon (CCC and Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon (LDC. Coral associations have been studied through video material recorded by means of a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle. Video transects have been conducted and analyzed in order to obtain information on (1 coral bathymetric distribution and density patterns, (2 size structure of coral populations, and (3 coral colony position with respect to the substrate. Madrepora oculata was the most abundant CWC in both canyons, while Lophelia pertusa and Dendrophyllia cornigera mostly occurred as isolated colonies or in small patches. An important exception was detected in a vertical cliff in LDC where a large L. pertusa framework was documented. This is the first record of such an extended L. pertusa framework in the Mediterranean Sea. In both canyons coral populations were dominated by medium and large colonies, but the frequent presence of small-sized colonies also indicate active recruitment. The predominant coral orientation (90° and 135° is probably driven by the current regime as well as by the sediment load transported by the current flows. In general, no clear differences were observed in the abundance and in the size structure of the CWC populations between CCC and LDC, despite large differences in particulate matter between canyons.

  1. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean); Distribution et remobilisation du plutonium dans les sediments du prodelta du Rhone (Mediterranee nord-occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansard, B

    2004-06-15

    plutonium budget determined for the study area indicates that at least 85 % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  2. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Aleksandra; Petrović Marko; Vuković Darko

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused ...

  3. Will the French Riviera disappear? Ancient and present day submarine landslides along the north-western Ligurian Margin (NW Mediterranean) under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, V.; Migeon, S.; Larroque, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    deposits and numerous wide-transparent bodies being turbidite deposits. These deposits are cutting by many saliferous faults. (7) Some thick MTDs affect the messinian erosion surface and the deposits set up right after this erosional period. The water handing-over of the basin is probably the main triggering factor of these failures. Thus, only the association of tectonic deformation and earthquake activity, sea-level fluctuations, high sedimentation rates and steep continental slope could explain the distribution and types of submarine instabilities along a steep margin showing a complex tectonic setting together with a complex topography as it is the case for the north-western Ligurian Margin.

  4. Multivariate analysis of traditional pig management practices and their potential impact on the spread of infectious diseases in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, A; Charrier, F; Trabucco, B; Maestrini, O; Molia, S; Chavernac, D; Grosbois, V; Casabianca, F; Etter, E; Jori, F

    2015-10-01

    Corsica is a French Mediterranean island with traditional extensive pig farming oriented towards the production of high quality cured meat products. The increasing success of these cured products in continental Europe has triggered the development and organisation of an extensive pig farming industry. However, these pig farming practices have seldom been described and analysed to understand the potential risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Corsica in 2013 to characterise the main pig management practices and to identify groups of farms with similar practices and therefore homogeneous risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We interviewed 68 pig farmers and investigated different farm management practices which could lead to contact between herds, such as trading animals, sharing pastures, feed and reproduction management (direct contacts), slaughtering and carcass waste management, and contacts with people and vehicles (indirect contacts). The practices were described and the farms grouped by multiple factor and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results revealed interesting patterns in the introduction and spread of infectious disease, such as the seasonality of pig production, the potential local spread of diseases in pastures due to the presence of free-ranging boars, carcasses, and animal waste. Multivariate analyses identified four groups of farms with different levels of risk of the spread of infectious disease, illustrating changes in farmers' customs from free-range uncontrolled farming systems to more controlled systems aimed at the production of high quality pork products. These results will be useful to more realistically simulate the spread of infectious diseases among Corsican pig farms and highlight the need for awareness raising campaigns among the stakeholders to reduce risky practices.

  5. Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Faccenna, Claudio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Rossetti, Federico; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Danišík, Martin; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Piromallo, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Since the first discovery of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks 30 years ago in the Western Alps, the mechanisms for exhumation of (U)HP terranes worldwide are still debated. In the western Mediterranean, the presently accepted model of synconvergent exhumation (e.g., the channel-flow model) is in conflict with parts of the geologic record. We synthesize regional geologic data and present alternative exhumation mechanisms that consider the role of divergence within subduction zones. These mechanisms, i.e., (i) the motion of the upper plate away from the trench and (ii) the rollback of the lower plate, are discussed in detail with particular reference to the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary, and along three different transects (Western Alps, Calabria-Sardinia, and Corsica-Northern Apennines). In the Western Alps, (U)HP rocks were exhumed from the greatest depth at the rear of the accretionary wedge during motion of the upper plate away from the trench. Exhumation was extremely fast, and associated with very low geothermal gradients. In Calabria, HP rocks were exhumed from shallower depths and at lower rates during rollback of the Adriatic plate, with repeated exhumation pulses progressively younging toward the foreland. Both mechanisms were active to create boundary divergence along the Corsica-Northern Apennines transect, where European southeastward subduction was progressively replaced along strike by Adriatic northwestward subduction. The tectonic scenario depicted for the Western Alps trench during Eocene exhumation of (U)HP rocks correlates well with present-day eastern Papua New Guinea, which is presented as a modern analog of the Paleogene Adria-Europe plate boundary.

  6. Macrobenthic physiological responses to environmental fluctuations: the reproductive cycle and enzymatic polymorphism of a eurybathic sea-urchin on the northwestern Mediterranean continental shelf and slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féral, Jean-Pierre; Ferrand, Jean-Guy; Guille, Alain

    1990-09-01

    Two hundred and twenty-seven sea-urchins, Brissopsis lyrifera, were collected in the Gulf of Lions between 60 and ca 1000 m depth, over a21/2 year period. The reproductive cycle was found to be independent of depth. Males and females were sexually mature at the end of summer. After a period of gonadal rest during winter, gametogenesis resumed at the beginning of spring. Specific enzymatic reactions on gut extracts, after PAA-electrophoresis, indicated that B. lyrifera is not a very polymorphic species and is generally homozygotic at the tested loci, except for esterases. Individual regrouping (discriminant factorial analysis) did not appear to be sensitive to the depth factor. On the contrary, a relationship between zymogrammes of the digestive tube and the sampling season was enhanced when sex and maturation stage were considered (main concerned activities: alkaline phosphatase ALK 1 and α-amylase AMY 1 and AMY 2), especially for females. These results indicate that enzymatic activities may be seasonal. They also indicate metabolic differences dependent upon the sex in somatic tissues, on one hand, and depending on environmental fluctuations on the other. Biological cycles are seasonal in the Mediterranean Sea, to 1000 m. In the case of B. lyrifera, a relationship could be established between flux increases of sediment carbon and sterols in winter and the beginning of gametogenesis. It is concluded that physiological signals, studied at different depths, would permit us to appreciate biological components of the margin ecosystem dynamics. This will also help define the place of life in the general oceanic fluxes (matter and energy).

  7. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  8. First mesocosm experiments to study the impacts of ocean acidification on plankton communities in the NW Mediterranean Sea (MedSeA project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, F.; Sallon, A.; Maugendre, L.; Louis, J.; Dellisanti, W.; Gaubert, M.; Lejeune, P.; Gobert, S.; Borges, A. V.; Harlay, J.; Champenois, W.; Alliouane, S.; Taillandier, V.; Louis, F.; Obolensky, G.; Grisoni, J.-M.; Guieu, C.

    2017-02-01

    There is a growing international interest in studying the effects of ocean acidification on plankton communities that play a major role in the global carbon cycle and in the consumption of atmospheric CO2 via the so-called biological pump. Recently, several mesocosm experiments reported on the effect of ocean acidification on marine plankton communities, although the majority were performed in eutrophic conditions or following nutrient addition. The objective of the present study was to perform two mesocosm experiments in the oligo- to meso-trophic Northwestern Mediterranean Sea during two seasons with contrasting environmental conditions: in summer 2012 in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, France) and in winter 2013 in the Bay of Villefranche (France). This paper describes the objectives of these experiments, the study sites, the experimental set-up and the environmental and experimental conditions during the two experiments. The 20-day experiment in the Bay of Calvi was undoubtedly representative of summer conditions in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea with low nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations, warm waters and high surface solar irradiance. In contrast, the winter experiment, which was reduced to 12 days because of bad weather conditions, failed to reproduce the mesotrophic conditions typical of the wintertime in this area. Indeed, a rapid increase in phytoplankton biomass during the acidification phase led to a strong decrease in nitrate concentrations and an unrealistic N and P co-limitation at this period of the year. An overview of the 11 other papers related to this study and published in this special issue is provided.

  9. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh....... This is the first study to assess plastic pollution levels in SW Mediterranean Sea....

  10. Pseudotachylytes and mirror-like surfaces from extensional faults in Alpine Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G.; Prando, F.; Mazzoli, C.; Nestola, F.; Zorzi, F.; Pennacchioni, G.

    2016-12-01

    At present we cannot investigate several phenomena occurring during earthquake propagation by means of seismological methods, mainly because of source, path and attenuation effects that result in loss of information transported by seismic waves. The above limitation forces us to a complementary approach which involves field geology (investigation of ancient now exhumed seismogenic structures), deep drilling projects (investigation of active seismogenic structures), microstructural (investigation of natural fault zone rocks) and laboratory (experiments reproducing seismic deformation conditions) studies. Here we propose that, because of the eastward migration of the lithospheric extension in this area of the Mediterranean, the Oligocene-in-age normal faults now outcropping in Alpine Corsica are the exhumed analogues of the seismogenic structures now active at depth in the Italian Apennines. The investigated fault zones cut serpentinites, quartzites, marbles and calc-schists of the Schistes Lustrés Complex (peak metamorphism Late Cretaceous- Late Eocene). Microstructural (EDS-equipped field emission scanning electron microscope, optical microscope cathodoluminescence) and mineralogical (micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray powder diffraction) studies conducted on rocks sampled from the normal faults, evidenced a sequence of seismic and inter-seismic deformation processes during exhumation. Pseudotachylyte (scars of ancient seismic ruptures) produced at 8-15 km depth were overprinted by carbonate-rich veins and eventually cut by mirror-like fault surfaces made by nano-grains (< 50 nm in size) of quartz. The above overprinting microstructural relationships suggest continuous seismicity aided by the ingression of CO2-rich fluids during exhumation. These relationships are consistent with those proposed between crustal-mantle degassing and ingression of CO2-rich fluids in the faults responsible for the actual seismicity in the Italian Apennines.

  11. Detection of Saharan dust and biomass burning events using near-real-time intensive aerosol optical properties in the north-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Ripoll, Anna; Pérez, Noemí; Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The study of Saharan dust events (SDEs) and biomass burning (BB) emissions are both topics of great scientific interest since they are frequent and important polluting scenarios affecting air quality and climate. The main aim of this work is evaluating the feasibility of using near-real-time in situ aerosol optical measurements for the detection of these atmospheric events in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). With this aim, intensive aerosol optical properties (SAE: scattering Ångström exponent, AAE: absorption Ångström exponent, SSAAE: single scattering albedo Ångström exponent and g: asymmetry parameter) were derived from multi-wavelength aerosol light scattering, hemispheric backscattering and absorption measurements performed at regional (Montseny; MSY, 720 m a.s.l.) and continental (Montsec; MSA, 1570 m a.s.l.) background sites in the WMB. A sensitivity study aiming at calibrating the measured intensive optical properties for SDEs and BB detection is presented and discussed. The detection of SDEs by means of the SSAAE parameter and Ångström matrix (made up by SAE and AAE) depended on the altitude of the measurement station and on SDE intensity. At MSA (mountain-top site) SSAAE detected around 85 % of SDEs compared with 50 % at the MSY station, where pollution episodes dominated by fine anthropogenic particles frequently masked the effect of mineral dust on optical properties during less intense SDEs. Furthermore, an interesting feature of SSAAE was its capability to detect the presence of mineral dust after the end of SDEs. Thus, resuspension processes driven by summer regional atmospheric circulations and dry conditions after SDEs favoured the accumulation of mineral dust at regional level having important consequences for air quality. On average, SAE, AAE and g ranged between -0.7 and 1, 1.3 and 2.5 and 0.5 and 0.75 respectively during SDEs. Based on the aethalometer model, BB contribution to equivalent black carbon (BC) accounted for 36 and 40

  12. Real-time measurement of reactive gases (NO, NO2, O3, CO) at ERSA, Cape Corsica, a long term Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Jean-Marc; Colomb, Aurelie; Gheusi, Francois; Sauvage, Stephane; Pont, Veronique; Tison, Emmanuel; Bordier, Florent; Grignion, Guillaume; Savelli, Jean-Luc; Dulac, Francois; Sciare, Jean; Nicolas, Jose; Bourrianne, Thierry; Bouvier, Laetitia

    2013-04-01

    Important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly airmasses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The ERSA observatory is a french initiative within the framework of CHARMEX (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) and CORSICA (Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (http://www2.obs-mip.fr/corsica) . The measurements of the station include real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges), a broad spectrum of aerosol properties (chemical composition, ground optical properties, integrated and space-resolved optical properties , size distribution properties, mass, hygroscopicity as well as dry/wet depositions). Among all the parameters, reactive gases are recognized as precursors of ozone and aerosol. The primarily emitted nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) have a substantial impact on radical chemistry, ozone (O3) formation and aerosol by their atmospheric oxidation to aerosol nitrate. Carbon monoxide (CO) is mostly primarily emitted from combustion processes, but it is also formed in substantial amounts from the oxidation of methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Due to its high global turn-over rates CO is a major O3 precursor, and it has a strong impact on the oxidizing capacity and thus indirectly on the concentration of the climate gas CH4. O3 is a climate gas itself, however, also strongly involved in NO/NO2 partitioning and oxidizing capacity, thus coupling back on several photochemical processes. Accordingly, impacts on climate are multiple and rather complex. The understanding requires high quality, long-term observations of these reactive species. We

  13. Constraints on the topographic evolution of Corsica and Sardinia from geological and geomorphic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quye-Sawyer, Jennifer; Whittaker, Alexander; Roberts, Gareth; Rood, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    The western Mediterranean Sea and its surroundings form part of a well-studied region whose geodynamic history is broadly known. However, how the topography of this area has responded to its tectonic and geodynamic influences is not fully understood. In particular, the relative importance of convergent, extensional and dynamic process is not known. Here we focus on the islands of Corsica, France, and Sardinia, Italy, which have played an important role in Alpine-Apennine system. They experienced a similar kinematic history during the Cenozoic, however their different positions on the Tethyan margin allow the relative effects of Alpine collision and rates of back-arc stretching to be compared. In particular, the two stages of back-arc extension (Liguro-Provençal basin to the west and Tyrrhenian Sea on the east) can provide information about how rollback-induced extension developed with time from the late Oligocene to the present. The two islands are historically tectonically quiescent, however they still preserve evidence of collision and subsequent extension from slab roll-back. In this study we have used a combination of geological and geomorphic techniques to provide new constraints into the vertical motions of Corsica and Sardinia. To quantify the spatial and temporal landscape evolution we have integrated stratigraphic, structural and thermochronological data and re-evaluated these alongside present-day geomorphic and geophysical observations. In addition, we have used digital elevation models to acquire 2030 fluvial longitudinal profiles for both islands. Knickpoints identified on these longitudinal profiles have been compared to geological maps to test the influence of rock strength on erosion. Our analysis reveals the presence of non-lithologically controlled knickpoints which we interpret to have been created by Miocene to Recent changes in uplift rate of the landscape. The longitudinal profiles were subsequently used in drainage inversion modelling, whose

  14. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part I: The North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettex, Emeline; David, Léa; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Laran, Sophie; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Virgili, Auriane; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Scientific investigation in offshore areas are logistically challenging and expensive, therefore the available knowledge on seabird at sea distribution and abundance, as well as their seasonal variations, remains limited. To investigate the seasonal variability in seabird distribution and abundance in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS), we conducted two large-scale aerial surveys in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012, covering a 181,400 km2 area. Following a strip-transect method, observers recorded a total of 4141 seabird sightings in winter and 2334 in summer, along 32,213 km. Using geostatistical methods, we generated sightings density maps for both seasons, as well as estimates of density and abundance. Most taxa showed seasonal variations in their density and distribution patterns, as they used the area either for wintering or for breeding. Highest densities of seabirds were recorded during winter, although large-sized shearwaters, storm petrels and terns were more abundant during summer. Consequently, with nearly 170,000 seabirds estimated in winter, the total abundance was twice higher in winter. Coastal waters of the continental shelf were generally more exploited by seabirds, even though some species, such as Mediterranean gulls, black-headed gulls, little gulls and storm petrels were found at high densities in highly offshore waters. Our results revealed areas highly exploited by the seabird community in the NWMS, such as the Gulf of Lion, the Tuscan region, and the area between Corsica and Sardinia. In addition, these large-scale surveys provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird at sea distribution, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  15. SAETTA: fine-scale observation of the total lightning activity in the framework of the CORSiCA atmospheric observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Martin, Jean-Michel; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2015-04-01

    Located in the West Mediterranean basin, Corsica is strategically positioned for atmospheric studies referred by MISTRALS/HyMeX and MISTRALS/CHARMEX programs. The implementation of the project of atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (supported by the Collectivité Territoriale de Corse via CPER/FEDER funds) was an opportunity to strengthen the potential observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods, by acquiring a total lightning activity detection system adapted to storm tracking at a regional scale. This detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array). Developed by New Mexico Tech (USA), the instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 300 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and battery). Each LMA station samples the signal at high rate (80 microseconds), records data on internal hard disk, and transmits a decimated signal in real-time via the 3G phone network. The decimated data are received on a server that calculates the position of the detected sources by the time-of-arrival method and manages a quasi real-time display on a website. The non decimated data intended for research applications are recovered later on the field. Deployed in May and June 2014, SAETTA operated nominally from July 13 to October 20, 2014. It is to be definitively re-installed in spring 2015 after a hardware updating. The operation of SAETTA is contractually scheduled until the end of 2019, but it is planned to continue well beyond to obtain longer-term observations for addressing issues related to climatic trends. SAETTA has great scientific potential in a broad range of topics: physics of discharge; monitoring and simulation of storm systems

  16. Three poorly known and rarely reported bucephalid species (Digenea) in fishes from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Pierre; Bray, Rodney A; Gibson, David I

    2005-10-01

    Three poorly known bucephalid species are described from off Corsica, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Bucephalus gorgon (Linton, 1905) (syn. B. introversus Manter, 1940) from Seriola dumerili is reported for only the third time in the Mediterranean Sea. Prosorhynchoides arcuatus (Linton, 1900) from Sarda sarda is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. P. tergestinum (Stossich, 1883) n. comb. (originally in Gasterostomum von Siebold 1848; has also been in Bucephalopsis Diesing, 1855 and Bucephalus von Baer, 1827) from Gobius geniporus is reported for only the second time.

  17. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  18. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  19. A new coumarin glucoside, coumarins and alkaloids from Ruta corsica roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Cédric; Fabre, Nicolas; Moulis, Claude

    2004-03-01

    A new coumarin glucoside, 3'(S)-hydroxy-2',2'-dimethyl-dihydropyranocoumarin-8-beta-d-glucopyranosyl, one coumarin, five furanocoumarins, three bicoumarins, three quinoline alkaloids and one sinapoyl sucrose derivative have been isolated from the roots of Ruta corsica.

  20. MRG2007_CORSICA_ALLXYZ.SHP: Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile (CRP) Data Below the Sediment Water Interface From the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland Collected from May 15 to May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  1. FA07005_LOGBOOK.PDF: Acquistion Log in PDF Format Maintained on USGS Cruise 07005 in the Corsica River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  2. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  3. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  4. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  5. Copepod response to ocean acidification in a low nutrient-low chlorophyll environment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoudaki, S.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Moutsopoulos, T.; Protopapa, M.; Marro, S.; Gazeau, F.

    2017-02-01

    In order to identify how ocean acidification will influence biological interactions and fluxes among planktonic organisms and across trophic levels, a large-scale mesocosm experiment was performed in the oligotrophic Northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the European MedSeA project. Nine mesocosms were deployed in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, France) in summer 2012. Six mesocosms were subjected to different levels of CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 550, 650, 750, 850, 1000 and 1250 μatm) covering the range of atmospheric pCO2 anticipated for the end of this century depending on future emission scenarios, and the last three mesocosms were unaltered (ambient pCO2 of ∼450 μatm). During this 21-day experiment, we monitored copepod egg and naupliar stocks, estimated copepod (Acartia clausi and Centropages typicus) feeding rates and determined the abundance and taxonomic composition of the mesozooplankton community at the start and at the completion of the experiment. This community was clearly dominated by copepods and its final composition slightly varied between mesocosms most likely due to natural and experimental variability that cannot be related to CO2 conditions. The abundances of eggs and nauplii as well as feeding rates of A. clausi and C. typicus on diatoms, dinoflagellates and ciliates showed no significant differences among CO2 levels. The above findings suggest that the experimental set-up especially for the specific trophic conditions and the short duration of the experiment did not provide the information on the effect of acidification that was expected. The acidification might have an effect on planktonic communities and even worsen the problems imposed by food limitation, therefore on this short time scale experiment and under the extreme ologotrophic conditions the signal that dominates was the food limitation.

  6. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae) Berries from Corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Chiaramonti; Lionel Massi; Magali Cannac; Toussaint Barboni; Yolanda Perez-Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae) by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France) and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compo...

  7. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2016-10-01

    The island of Corsica (France) plays a central role in any reconstruction of Western Mediterranean geodynamics and paleogeography but several key aspects of its geological evolution are still uncertain. The most debated topics include the interpretation of the Corsican orogen as the result of an east- or west-directed subduction, and the actual involvement of the Variscan basement of Corsica in the Alpine orogenic cycle. This study integrates 40Ar-39Ar laserprobe, mesostructural, microtextural, and microchemical analyses and places relevant constraints on the style, P-T conditions, and timing of Alpine-age, pervasive ductile shear zones which affected the Variscan basement complex of central Corsica, a few kilometers to the west of the present-day front of the Alpine nappes. Shear zones strike ~ NNE-SSW, dip at a high angle, and are characterized by a dominant sinistral strike-slip component. Two of the three investigated shear zones contain two texturally and chemically resolvable generations of white mica, recording a prograde (burial) evolution: (1) deformed celadonite-poor relicts are finely overgrown by (2) a celadonite-rich white mica aligned along the main foliation. White mica from a third sample of another shear zone, characterized by a significantly lower porphyroclast/matrix ratio, exhibits a nearly uniform high-celadonite content, compositionally matching the texturally younger phengite from the nearby shear zones. Mineral-textural analysis, electron microprobe data, and pseudosection modeling constrain P-T conditions attained during shearing at ~ 300 °C and minimum pressures of ~ 0.6 GPa. In-situ 40Ar-39Ar analyses of coexisting low- and high-celadonite white micas from both shear zones yielded a relatively wide range of ages, ~ 45-36 Ma. Laser step-heating experiments gave sigmoidal-shaped age profiles, with step ages in line with in-situ spot dates. By contrast, the apparently chemically homogenous high-celadonite white mica yielded concordant in

  8. Gone with the plate: the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin drove the diversification of ground-dweller spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Bidegaray-Batista Leticia; Arnedo Miquel A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The major islands of the Western Mediterranean--Corsica, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands--are continental terrenes that drifted towards their present day location following a retreat from their original position on the eastern Iberian Peninsula about 30 million years ago. Several studies have taken advantage of this well-dated geological scenario to calibrate molecular rates in species for which distributions seemed to match this tectonic event. Nevertheless, the use of...

  9. The plutonium as transfer tracer and particulates contribution accumulating from the Rhone to the north-western Mediterranean sea; Le plutonium comme traceur du transfert et de l`accumulation des apports particulaires du Rhone en Mediterranee nord-occidentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, M.H.

    1996-03-29

    To follow the alluvial deposits from the Rhone in Mediterranean Sea, since the principle hydroelectric constructions (1960), it was necessary to find an adequate tracer. The plutonium isotopes have satisfied to the different characteristics. The specificity of the Rhone contribution is bound to the existence of the irradiated spent fuels reprocessing plant of Marcoule; the releases of this plant are characterized by the predominance of Plutonium 238. The results of this study show that the percentage of sediments coming from the Rhone in the recent contribution, is low beyond the pro delta: less than 5% of the sediment of the continental shelf concern the Rhone contribution. However, there are two zones for which the contribution is important and could play a role in the particulate transfer towards the high sea. (N.C.). 157 refs., 60 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. From Corsica to Britain: new outdoor records of Ocnerodrilidae (Annelida: Clitellata in western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rota

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ocnerodrilids Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895 and Ocnerodrilus occidentalis Eisen, 1878 are reported for the first time from outdoor localities above 42° N in Europe. The present new records comprise the first ever from England (River Thames, central London and from France (River Golo, northern Corsica and the northernmost occurrences in Italy (Liguria and Veneto. The new latitudinal limits and the numerosity of outdoor records suggest that the current environmental and climate changes are substantially enhancing the dispersal and survival possibilities of these worms, even though different transport vectors seem to be involved for the two species.

  11. STAtion of Reference and rEsearch on Change of local and global Anthropogenic Pressures on Mediterranean Ecosystems Drifts: The STARECAPMED project

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Abadie, Arnaud; Marc BINARD; Biondo, Renzo; Boissery, Pierre; Borges, Alberto; Cimiterra, Nicolas; Collignon, Amandine; Champenois, Willy; Donnay, Annick; Fréjefond, Charlène; Goffart, Anne; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Lejeune, Pierre; Lepoint, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The Marine and Oceanographic Research Station STARESO in the Calvi Bay, Corsica (France), is a unique tool in a preserved natural site that includes all the characteristic ecosystems of the Mediterranean littoral. The station, established in 1970, has archived environmental data for decades. The STARECAPMED project, multidisciplinary, articulates itself around these two main features. Its objective is to understand how human activities can interact with the fundamental processes that govern t...

  12. On the tectonic evolution of the Tyrrhenian basin: new data from detrital zircons sampled in the Sardinia-Corsica Block and in the Calabria-Peloritain Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanetto, Pamela; Funedda, Antonio; Matteini, Massimo; Loi, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic models and palinspastic reconstructions of pery-Thyrrenian terranes in the Western Mediterranean area are still extremely complex and speculative (Stampfly & Borel 2002, Trombetta et al., 2004; Alvarez & Shimabukuro, 2009; Carminati et al., 2012).A contribute can be done by considering the relationships between Sardinia-Corsica Block (SCB) and Calabria-Peloritain Arc (CPA). They shared a similar Variscan evolution and were the western part of the Briançonnais plate until the opening of the Algero-Provençal Basin during Burdigalian and then were separated in Late Tertiary during the spreading of South-Tyrrhenian Basin. During this period the CPA moved southeastward, with respect to the SCB, driven by a progressive roll-back of the subducted slab. However, is still ambiguous if the CPA was a single terrane during the Middle and Late Tertiary (Amodio Morelli et alii, 1976) or formed by the amalgamation of two or more continental "terranes" that collided during the Tertiary (Bonardi et al., 1980; Scandone, 1982; Alvarez & Shimabukuro, 2009). The data about the paleo-tectonic linkages, the terranes derivations, and the tectonic setting of the SCB and CPA as peri-Tyrrhenian blocks during Tertiary are still poor. Some evidence of their early evolution could be found in coeval Tertiary deposits cropping out both in the SCB and CPA. These deposits represent the early stage of the estensional event developed in the Tyrrhenian region during late Oligocene-Lower Miocene in a broader regional context dominated by the opening of Atlantic Ocean and the resulting convergence of Europe and Apulia microplate (Oggiano et al., 2009). To improve the knowledge on this topic, combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses on zircons from Tertiary detrital sediments from Sardinia, Corsica, and both North and South Calabria have been performed using a Thermo-Fisher Neptune MC-ICP-MS coupled with a Nd:YAG UP213 New Wave laser ablation system, at the Laboratory of Geochronology of the

  13. First record of the Central Indo-Pacific reef coral Oulastrea crispata in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. HOEKSEMA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A live colony of a non-indigenous zooxanthellate scleractinian coral was found in shallow water at the west coast of Corsica, western Mediterranean. Its diameter of 6 cm suggests that it has already survived for some years. It was identified as Oulastrea crispata, a species native on near-shore coral reefs in the central Indo-Pacific with a high tolerance for low water temperatures at high latitudes. Based on its morphology it can be distinguished from other zooxanthellate colonial scleractinians in the Mediterranean. O. crispata has a reputation of being a successful colonizer because it is able to settle on a wide variety of substrata and because it utilizes various reproductive strategies as simultaneous hermaphrodite and producer of asexually derived planulae. Owing to its original distribution range in temperate and subtropical waters, it is likely that it will be able to meet a suitable temperature regime in the Mediterranean for further range expansion.

  14. Biodiversity and biogeographic relationships of the polychaete fauna in French Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Dauvin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the literature, including the recent systematic reviews, reveals that 934 polychaete species have been recorded in French Atlantic (including the English Channel and Mediterranean marine waters, including 818 species living on the continental shelf and 116 species that are strictly bathyal. These 934 species belong to 71 families, among which the Syllidae is the most diverse (97 species, followed by the Serpulidae (69 species, Spionidae and Phyllodocidae, each with more than 40 species. Forty-four families have fewer than 10 species recorded in each. The total number of species is spread over 11 continental shelf areas as well as the Atlantic and Mediterranean bathyal depths. In terms of species diversity, the richest areas are the Mediterranean coasts of Provence-Côte d’Azur (507 species and Languedoc-Roussillon (483 species, the western part of the English Channel (402 species, and the southern part of the Bay of Biscay (343 species. The lowest numbers of species were recorded in the eastern English Channel, due to an impoverishment of all the fauna in this part of the Channel. Other areas—for example, the Iroise Sea, the coast of Corsica and Mediterranean bathyal depths—also show low numbers, but this may only reflect the fact that insufficient information about these areas is available. A similarity analysis of 13 areas distinguishes four distinct faunal groups, each specific to one of four general locations: (1 the bathyal Atlantic and Mediterranean zones, including the coast of Corsica, (2 the two Mediterranean coastal areas (Provence-Côte d’Azur and Languedoc-Roussillon, (3 the four zones of the Atlantic continental shelf, and (4 the English Channel. The combined species can be separated into 17 different biogeographic groups.

  15. Variability of polyphenol compounds in Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) berries from Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Toussaint; Cannac, Magali; Massi, Lionel; Perez-Ramirez, Yolanda; Chiaramonti, Nathalie

    2010-11-03

    Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae) by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France) and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA) is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  16. «A Muvra», 1920-1939: la caricatura in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Lepeltier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At the end of XIX century nationalist movements proliferated all over Europe. During this period, an autonomist tendency emerged in Corsica. In 1923, Petru Rocca, inspired by the Sardinian Action Party, founded Partitu Corsu d’Azione which subsequently took the name of Partitu Corsu Autonomista. This party, arisen in the inner circle of intellectuals, denounced that French political system was the cause of all of the island problems and defended Corsica’s language and culture. The political newspaper «A Muvra», founded in 1920 – and partly edited in Corsican language – served as tribune of the PCA, fighting against Corsica’s “Frenchification”.

  17. Il banditismo d’onore in Corsica nell’immaginario di viaggio francese (1815-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Tatasciore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reconstructing the representations of Corsican banditry given by French travelers during the 19th century, taking into account travel guides and tourists reports. Between 1815 and 1915 an increasing interest in Corsica takes place; the island is perceived as a wild and archaic spot, outside civilization. French travelers incorporate the romantic idealization and literary figure of the bandit of honor, to whom they attribute positive morale values​​. The representation of banditry provided by travelers is closely related to the representation of the Corsican people. The banditisme honoraire will become the island’s main tourist object, so as to transform the legendary Antonio Bellacoscia in bandit decoratif.

  18. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  19. Raw and Modified Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  20. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  1. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  2. Raw and Modified Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  3. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  4. Raw and Modified Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  5. Modified Processed Continous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15 and May 16 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  6. COMBELEV: ESRI Format Binary Grid of the Merged Bathymetry and Elevation Data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland For Use with USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  7. RES2DINV Format for Modified Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15 and May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  9. Petrographic of Northwestern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nafi M; Abdullatif O M

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentology of the Northwestern Sudan consists of lower, middle and upper cycles.The lower and upper cycles are composed of intercalated fluvial and shallow marine facies, whereas the middle cycle consists entirely of fluvial and glaciofluvial facies. The petrographic analysis shows that the lower and upper cycles consist of quartz and lithic arenite sandstones, whereas the middle cycle consists of arkosic and lithic arenite sandstones. The lower and upper cycle sandstones reflect derivation mainly from recycled orogens with minor contribution from craton interior provenances. However, the middle cycle sandstones indicate derivation from basement uplift, transitional and mainly recycled orogens provenances.

  10. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  11. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused on the identification of economic and socioeconomic importance that tourism has on the overall economic development of the region, in order to enable the implementation of tourism regionalization. In order to tourism regionalization of this area carried out, it is necessary to include research components, such as geographic environment, tourist motives and attractions that are located in this area, as well as other elements relevant to the separation of the region from the neighboring regions of France.

  12. Mapping Mediterranean seagrasses with Sentinel-2 imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traganos, Dimosthenis; Reinartz, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Mediterranean seagrasses have been hailed for their numerous ecosystem services, yet they are undergoing a decline in their coverage. The major complication with resolving this tendency is the sparsity of data on their overall distribution. This study addresses the suitability of the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite for mapping the distribution of Mediterranean seagrass meadows. A comprehensive methodology is presented which applies atmospheric and analytical water column corrections and compares the performance of three different supervised classifiers. Remote sensing of the Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea (Greece, eastern Mediterranean Sea) reveals that the utilization of Support Vector Machines on water column corrected reflectances yields best accuracies. Two Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, cover a total submerged area of 1.48km(2) between depths of 1.4-16.5m. With its 10-m spatial resolution and 5-day revisit frequency, Sentinel-2 imagery can mitigate the Mediterranean seagrass distribution data gap and allow better management and conservation in the future in a retrospective, time- and cost-effective fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Xanthium spinosum L., an Invasive Species of Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Stéphane; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Xanthium spinosum L. is a highly invasive plant originated from South America throughout the world as well as in Corsica Island. The chemical composition of X. spinosum essential oils from 25 Corsican locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Seventy-four components, which accounted for 96.2% of the total amount, were reported for the first time in the essential oil from aerial parts. The main compounds were eudesma-4(14),7-dien-1β-ol (61; 21.3%), germacrene D (36; 8.8%) and cadalene (60; 8.7%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican essential oil and eudesma-4(14),7-dien-1β-ol could be used as taxonomical marker to the systematics of the Xanthium genus. The essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the plant vegetative cycle were also studied to gain more knowledge about the correlations between the volatile production and the phenological states of this weed. The production of oxygenated sesquiterpenes was predominant during the plant-flowering process. The study focuses on direct correlation between the chemical composition of individual 25 oil samples and the morphological differences of the plant. Our results have gained more knowledge about the secondary metabolite production that occurs during the plant life, they could be interesting in order to manage the dispersal of X. spinosum.

  14. Chemical variability of the wood essential oil of Cedrus atlantica Manetti from Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Mathieu; Nam, Anne-Marie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2011-02-01

    The composition of 48 samples of essential oil isolated from the wood of Cedrus atlantica growing in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR. Twenty-three compounds accounting for 73.9-96.0% of the oil composition were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpenes, in particular α-pinene (5; up to 79.4%), himachalol (4; up to 66.2%), β-pinene (up to 21.4%), β-himachalene (2; up to 19.3%), γ-himachalene (3; up to 11.0%), and α-himachalene (1; up to 10.9%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal-component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of Group I (44% of the samples) was dominated by 5, while the samples of Group II (56% of the samples) contained mainly 4.

  15. Influence of Cultivation Parameters on the Mineral Composition of Kiwi Fruit from Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, François; Barboni, Toussaint; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2016-06-01

    The effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C, and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) from Corsica were evaluated. The kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two-week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. The kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one growing season. The concentrations of 67 elements in kiwi fruit were measured using various analytical methods, such as flow injection spectrophotometry, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, flame atomic emission spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and filtration. The main elements in kiwi fruit are K, N, Cl, P, and Si and, to a lesser amount, Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe. This study demonstrates a high degree of difference in the amount of 23 mineral elements depending on the harvest date, the time of storage, and the input of fertilizers.

  16. The radon in Corsica: evaluation of exposure and associated risks; Le radon en Corse: evaluation de l'exposition et des risques associes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The average level found in Corsica is superior to that one found in France. On the basis of the results of it campaign I.R.S.N.-D.G.S., the French average is of 90 Bq.m{sup 3} against 197 Bq.m{sup 3} for Corsica. The risk of dying from a lung cancer attributable to the radon was estimated at 13 % in France. The evaluation of risk led on Corsica shows a risk attributable to the radon included between 21.5 and 28 %.This evaluation of risk is only a stage. It is important to arrest better the exposure to the radon of the Corsican population. For a good estimation of the levels of radon and thus the impact of this one, additional measures are necessary. The results of the data analysis of exposure allow to guide the choice of the new measures: a campaign on the season effect in Corsica and a completion of the measures in housing are two main axes.Seen the importance of the interaction between the tobacco and the radon, a good estimation of the tobacco customs in Corsica and its evolution in the time seems essential to estimate indeed the impact of the radon in this region. (N.C.)

  17. Redhead production areas : Northwestern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey of redhead production areas in northwestern Nevada. Breeding pair summaries are also provided for a number waterfowl species.

  18. Graphitic carbon formation through calcite reduction in blueschist metasediments from Alpine Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, M.; Beyssac, O.; Martinez, I.; Benzerara, K.; Malvoisin, B.

    2012-04-01

    The geochemistry of reduced carbon in subduction zones is strongly affected by mineral equilibria. We study here the geochemistry of carbon in siliceous-marbles at the direct contact with serpentinites in the Alpine eclogitic meta-ophiolithic units of northern Corsica (France). We have combined petrology, Raman spectroscopy and carbon isotopy to provide a description of both the organic and carbonate components of the rocks across a reaction front where the reaction CaCO3+SiO2+2H2=CaSiO3+C+2H2O is evidenced. The continuous reaction zone is composed by a centimeter thick pale nephrite layer at the contact with the serpentinites, followed by a thin wollastonite layer and a 5 to 20 cm thick dark zone composed of wollastonite, carbonaceous material (CM), quartz but no carbonates. There is a sharp transition to the overlying original metasediment composed of calcite+quartz which is significantly less rich in CM. Raman spectroscopy shows that CM is much more graphitic in the reaction zone than in the original sediment. Significant isotopic differences are observed apart the reaction front with δ13C (CM) and δ13C (calcite) around -15‰ and 1.3‰ respectively in the original rock far from the reaction zone, whereas δ13C (CM) is around -1‰ in the reaction zone. We interpret the graphitic CM in the reaction zone as formed from the destabilization and reduction of calcite due to the diffusion of reducing fluids from the underlying serpentinite unit. Mass balance calculations support this hypothesis and show that a complete reduction of carbonates might have occurred. The timing of this abiotic macromolecular and graphitic C formation is discussed. We show that the combined study of isotopic geochemistry and structure of inorganic and organic carbon in metamorphic rocks might be suited to reveal with great fidelity redox gradients in subduction zones.

  19. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresson, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.cresson@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, RHMN, Centre Manche — Mer du Nord, BP 669, F-62 321 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bouchoucha, Marc [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Morat, Fabien [IRSTEA, 3275 Route Cézanne, CS 40061, F-13 182 Aix en Provence Cedex 5 (France); Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Loizeau, Veronique [Ifremer, LBCO, Centre Atlantique, BP 70, F-29 280 Plouzané (France); Cossa, Daniel [ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38 041 Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g{sup −1} dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average values < 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dm), where Rhône River input caused high PCB burdens. CB 153 average concentrations ranged between 4.00 ± 0.64 and 18.39 ± 12.38 ng g{sup −1} dm in the Gulf of Lions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g{sup −1} dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. - Highlights: • Hg and PCB concentrations were assessed in French Mediterranean hake. • Stable isotope and otolith shape analyses were used in combination. • Local isotopic and contamination patterns were observed. • Hg values were high in Corsica, PCB in the Gulf of Lions. • Combined ecotracers are powerful to discriminate between local populations.

  20. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  1. Grazing, differential size-class dynamics and survival of the Mediterranean sponge Corticium candelabrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics and survival of the sponge Corticium candelabrum (Demospongiae: Homosclerophorida) were surveyed in the northwestern Mediterranean for more than 3 yr. Growth and regeneration rates, fission and fusion events and survival were monitored monthly. Moreover, in situ punctual clearanc

  2. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and South-East of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than one year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA ("Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie" in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during one to three years depending on the station. The sites include, from South to North, Lampedusa Isl., Mallorca Isl., Corsica Isl., Frioul Isl. and Le Casset (South of French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the 5 sites. The mean Saharan dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the North African coasts and decrease following a South to North gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 yr−1 in Lampedusa (35°31' N–12°37' E to 1 g m−2 yr−1 in Le Casset (44°59' N–6°28' E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Mallorca with only 2 other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 yr−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 yr−1. From the 537 available samples, ninety eight major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more than eighty percent of the major dust

  3. Redescriptions of Magnibursatus blennii (Paggi & Orechhia, 1975) n. comb. and Arnola microcirrus (Vlasenko, 1931) (Digenea: Derogenidae) from marine teleosts off Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova, Aneta; Bartoli, Pierre; Gibson, David I; Raga, Juan Antonio

    2004-06-01

    Two species of halipegine derogenids are redescribed in detail from marine fishes off Corsica. Following a study of specimens from blennies off Corsica and museum material, Tyrrhenia Paggi & Orecchia, 1975 is considered to be a synonym of Magnibursatus Naidenova, 1969, and its type-species, T blennii Paggi & Orecchia, 1975, is transferred to the latter genus as M. blennii (Paggi & Orecchia, 1975) n. comb. M. blennii differs from all species of Magnibursatus in possessing suckers of a similar size, numerous uterine loops in the forebody, and a sinus-sac which is small in relation to the forebody and which has relatively thin, muscular walls. This species is recorded from Salaria pavo (Risso), Paralipophrys trigloides (Valenciennes) and Parablennius sp. and distinguished from similar species of the genus. Arnola microcirrus (Vlasenko, 1931) is recorded from Boops boops (L.), which appears to be its main host off Corsica, Diplodus sargus (L.), D. annularis (L.) and Spondyliosoma cantharus (L.). The material from Corsica is compared with previous descriptions and material of this species, and differences were considered to be within the bounds of intra-specific variation.

  4. The summer 2012 Saharan dust season in the western Mediterranean with focus on the intense event of late June during the Pre-ChArMEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, François; Nicolas, José B.; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Sicard, Michaël; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Nabat, Pierre; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Roberts, Greg; Attié, Jean-Luc; Somot, Samuel; Laurent, Benoît; Losno, Rémi; Vincent, Julie; Formenti, Paola; Bergametti, Gilles; Ravetta, François

    2013-04-01

    Saharan dust is an usual aerosol over the Mediterranean basin that contributes to the high average aerosol load during summer in the western Mediterranean marine environment. Satellite monitoring shows that dust events were numerous during summer 2012. Even though most of the transport of dust particles occurs in altitude, as shown by surface lidars and airborne data, dust events significantly impact surface PM10 concentrations even in urban traffic type of air quality monitoring stations, and background stations are needed to assess the contribution of desert dust. During the pre-ChArMEx field campaign and associated field campaigns TRAQA and VESSAER in the north-western Mediterranean, a large scale African dust event occurred in late June-early July with optical depth levels in the visible up to 0.5-0.7 rather unusual in that area according to long time remote sensing AERONET or satellite series. We have performed measurements in the dust plume for several days with a particularly large variety of both ground-based and airborne (from sounding balloons, an aircraft and an ultra-light aircraft) remote sensing and in situ instruments. In addition to satellite aerosol products including MSG/SEVIRI, which provides the spatial distribution of the aerosol optical depth over the basin up to 4 times per hour, POLDER and CALIOP, this yields a complete set of unusual quantitative constraints for model simulations of this event, combining data on aerosol optical depth, vertical distribution, particle size distribution, chemical, optical and microphysical properties. We shall provide an overview of the data set that includes original measurements of the vertical profile of the aerosol size distribution with a new small balloon borne OPC called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) showing large dust particles (up to 30 µm in diameter) within a thick dust layer between 1 and 5 km above south-eastern France, and original network measurement of weekly dust deposition with a new

  5. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down through ...

  6. Initiating intermediate-depth earthquakes: Insights from a HP-LT ophiolite from Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.

    2014-10-01

    The hypocentres of intermediate-depth earthquakes have been shown to overlap with the regions in subducting slabs that contain high abundances of hydrous minerals. This relationship was initially revealed using geophysical and numerical modelling and until recently has lacked corroboration from direct field-based research. We evaluated the relationship of the coincidence of intermediate-depth earthquakes with hydrous minerals in the slab by undertaking detailed geochemical analyses of blueschist to lawsonite to eclogite facies pseudotachylytes and their hostrocks located within an exhumed ophiolite, the Eocene Schistes Lustres Complex in Corsica. These units comprise incompletely metamorphosed metagabbro and peridotite. The wallrocks of the pseudotachylytes contain variable amounts of hydrous minerals: tremolite, Mg-hornblende, glaucophane in the metagabbro, and serpentine, tremolite and chlorite in the peridotite. Back-scatter-electron images show that the hydrous minerals entrained in the melt undergo fusion rather than dehydration. Vesicular and H2O-rich melt veins are observed cross-cutting partially molten pseudotachylyte fault veins and show evidence of H2O exsolution during melt solidification. The crystallisation products of these melts indicate formation under high temperature, high pressure conditions (1400-1700 °C; 1.5 GPa). The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylytes crystallised olivine, orthopyroxene and diopside, which are surrounded by interstitial Al- and H2O-rich glass. The metagabbro pseudotachylyte is dominated by Al-rich omphacite, ilmenite and high-Fe anorthite. XRF bulk analyses of the wallrock of the pseudotachylyte and electron microprobe analyses of the pseudotachylyte matrix, entrained survivor clasts and the crystallisation products show that near-total disequilibrium melting took place. The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylyte composition is skewed strongly towards chlorite; however, the preservation of delicate dendritic diopside and olivine

  7. RESGPSPNTS_JD136.SHP: Navigation and Bathymetry Points of Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  8. RESGPSLNS_JD135.SHP: Ship Trackline along which Continuous Resistivity Profile Data were Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  9. RESGPSLNS_JD136.SHP: Ship Trackline along which Continuous Resistivity Profile Data were Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 16, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  10. RESGPSPNTS_JD135.SHP: Navigation and Bathymetry Points of Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 15, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  11. RESGPSPNTS_JD137.SHP: Navigation and Bathymetry Points of Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  12. RESGPSLNS_JD137.SHP: Ship Trackline along which Continuous Resistivity Profile Data were Collected in the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland on May 17, 2007 on USGS Cruise 07005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine the importance of nutrient...

  13. Teleconnections between Indian monsoon and Sahel rainfall and the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicich, Fabio; Pinardi, Nadia; Navarra, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    The teleconnections with Indian monsoon and Sahel rainfall indices are investigated here on an interannual time scale in terms of meteorological and marine dynamics over the Mediterranean area. Sea-level pressure from gridded data sets and from individual stations, together with sea-level data from stations all around the Mediterranean coastlines, are used.In summer (July-August-September, JAS) the sea-level pressure field over the eastern Mediterranean anticorrelates with the Indian monsoon index (correlation coefficient C = -0.5 on average). A Mediterranean pressure index (MPI), defined as the standardized difference between sea-level atmospheric pressure at Mersa Matruh (southeastern Mediterranean) and Marseille (northwestern Mediterranean) stations, anticorrelates with Indian monsoon index even more (C = -0.68). The MPI is proportional to the mean geostrophic surface flow field across an imaginary line joining the two stations and turns out to be significantly correlated with the meridional wind component over the eastern Mediterranean, known as the low-level Etesian wind regime. This wind regime represents the inflow surface field into the African inter-tropical convergence zone and, therefore, has an association with the Indian monsoon regime. The ocean response, evident by sea-level anomalies at coastal stations, shows a maximum anticorrelation with Indian monsoon index in late summer and autumn (September-October-November, SON).The Sahel index anticorrelates with sea-level pressure, with the maximum absolute value in June-July-August. This may be interpreted as a tendency of the Mediterranean sea-level pressure anomalies to precede those of Sahel precipitation, which is characterized by maximum rainfall in July-September. The MPI anticorrelates with Sahel index during and before JAS, indicating that the Etesian wind regime intensity is connected to Sahel rainfall. The sea level again anticorrelates with the Sahel index, with the maximum absolute value in

  14. Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark J.; Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (>1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark J.; Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (>1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean. PMID:28266529

  16. The distribution of Quercus suber chloroplast haplotypes matches the palaeogeographical history of the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, D; Fineschi, S; Bellarosa, R; Buonamici, A; Sebastiani, F; Schirone, B; Simeone, M C; Vendramin, G G

    2007-12-01

    Combining molecular analyses with geological and palaeontological data may reveal timing and modes for the divergence of lineages within species. The Mediterranean Basin is particularly appropriate for this kind of multidisciplinary studies, because of its complex geological history and biological diversity. Here, we investigated chloroplast DNA of Quercus suber populations in order to detect possible relationships between their geographical distribution and the palaeogeographical history of the western Mediterranean domain. We analysed 110 cork oak populations, covering the whole distribution range of the species, by 14 chloroplast microsatellite markers, among which eight displayed variation among populations. We identified five haplotypes whose distribution is clearly geographically structured. Results demonstrated that cork oak populations have undergone a genetic drift geographically consistent with the Oligocene and Miocene break-up events of the European-Iberian continental margin and suggested that they have persisted in a number of separate microplates, currently found in Tunisia, Sardinia, Corsica, and Provence, without detectable chloroplast DNA modifications for a time span of over 15 million years. A similar distribution pattern of mitochondrial DNA of Pinus pinaster supports the hypothesis of such long-term persistence, in spite of Quaternary climate oscillations and of isolation due to insularity, and suggests that part of the modern geographical structure of Mediterranean populations may be traced back to the Tertiary history of taxa.

  17. Epidemiology and Viral Etiology of the Influenza-Like Illness in Corsica during the 2012–2013 Winter: An Analysis of Several Sentinel Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, Laëtitia; Arena, Christophe; Heuze, Guillaume; Ruello, Marc; Amoros, Jean Pierre; Souty, Cécile; Varesi, Laurent; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is important to identify circulating and emerging/reemerging strains and unusual epidemiological trends. The present study aimed to give an accurate picture of the 2012–2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica by combining data from several surveillance systems: general practice, emergency general practice, hospital emergency units, intensive care units, and nursing homes. Twenty-eight respiratory viruses were retrospectively investigated from patients in general practice with ILI. Sequence analysis of the genetic changes in the hemagglutinin gene of influenza viruses (A(H1N1)pdm2009, A(H3N2) and B) was performed. The trends in ILI/influenza consultation rates and the relative illness ratios (RIRs) of having an ILI consultation were estimated by age group for the different surveillance systems analyzed. Of the 182 ILI patients enrolled by general practitioners, 57.7% tested positive for influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a genetic drift for influenza B and A(H3N2) viruses. The ILI/influenza surveillance systems showed similar trends and were well correlated. In accordance with virological data, the RIRs of having an ILI consultation were highest among the young (ILI outbreak in Corsica as monitored through several surveillance systems. To improve ILI surveillance in Corsica, a consortium that links together the complementary regional surveillance ILI systems described here is being implemented. PMID:24959929

  18. Schmidtea mediterranea phylogeography: an old species surviving on a few Mediterranean islands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pala Maria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola is found in scattered localities on a few islands and in coastal areas of the western Mediterranean. Although S. mediterranea is the object of many regeneration studies, little is known about its evolutionary history. Its present distribution has been proposed to stem from the fragmentation and migration of the Corsica-Sardinia microplate during the formation of the western Mediterranean basin, which implies an ancient origin for the species. To test this hypothesis, we obtained a large number of samples from across its distribution area. Using known and new molecular markers and, for the first time in planarians, a molecular clock, we analysed the genetic variability and demographic parameters within the species and between its sexual and asexual populations to estimate when they diverged. Results A total of 2 kb from three markers (COI, CYB and a nuclear intron N13 was amplified from ~200 specimens. Molecular data clustered the studied populations into three groups that correspond to the west, central and southeastern geographical locations of the current distribution of S. mediterranea. Mitochondrial genes show low haplotype and nucleotide diversity within populations but demonstrate higher values when all individuals are considered. The nuclear marker shows higher values of genetic diversity than the mitochondrial genes at the population level, but asexual populations present lower variability than the sexual ones. Neutrality tests are significant for some populations. Phylogenetic and dating analyses show the three groups to be monophyletic, with the west group being the basal group. The time when the diversification of the species occurred is between ~20 and ~4 mya, although the asexual nature of the western populations could have affected the dating analyses. Conclusions S. mediterranea is an old species that is sparsely distributed in a harsh habitat

  19. Mediterranean “regionalism"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the Mediterranean ‘region’ has been contested both theoretically and empirically time and again. But, what are its current meanings if any? What do the never-ending internal divisions between and within countries in this imagined space tell us about the state of the Mediterranean t...

  20. The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in Mediterranean coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (northwestern Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the Mediterranean could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.

  1. Quaternary history of an endemic passerine bird on Corsica Island: Glacial refugium and impact of recent forest regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Jean-Claude; Cibois, Alice; Prodon, Roger; Pasquet, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Molecular studies support the hypothesis that Corsica Island was a glacial refugium for a number of forest birds during the Pleistocene. We focused on the Corsican nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi), an endemic passerine strongly associated with the laricio pine (Pinus nigra laricio). The range of laricio pine has been impacted by the Pleistocene glacial periods and forest has been recently fragmented by cutting and fires. Using both molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear) and morphological characters, we assessed the variation within the nuthatch population. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Corsican nuthatch endured through the late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic variations, and sustained the subsequent cycles of forests reduction/expansion. The results also suggest that the recent anthropization of the landscape resulted in the isolation of a cluster of populations in the northern part of the island. The fragmentation of the habitat of the nuthatch may impede the future of the bird by creating isolated population units between which the gene flow is reduced.

  2. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  3. Evaluations of Threshold and Curvature Mixed Layer Depths by Various Mixing Schemes in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    KPP 20 OISS MY KT i: \\’J 5 PIMP - /’•- i nh 1 1 t: 1’’: 60 Bfl Tt j^ 1 /’ ••’ 1 /•’ 12.5 13 Temperature, C 13.5 10 15 20...Northwestern Mediterranean.). Phys. Oceanogr. 28. 1410 -1424. NAVOCEANO. 2003. Database description for the generalized digital environmental model (GDEM-V

  4. Mediterranean basin-wide correlations between Saharan dust deposition and ocean chlorophyll concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gallisai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizing potential of atmospheric deposition on ocean production in the Mediterranean is a matter of debate. In this study, eight years (from 2000 to 2007 of weekly chlorophyll concentration data derived from SeaWiFS satellite observations and dust deposition data provided by the BSC-DREAM8b model are investigated in a basin-wide scale in the Mediterranean Sea to describe the geographical distribution and dynamics of both variables and to find potential relationships between them.

    In all analyses the largest positive cross correlation values are found with a time lag of 0 8-d periods. The coupling between annual cycles of chlorophyll and dust deposition may on average explain an 11.5% in chlorophyll variation in a large part of the Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean shows the largest annual correlations, while the responsiveness to large events is small. The contrary is true for the Western and Northwestern Mediterranean where, if anything, only large events may add to the chlorophyll variability. The Central Mediterranean shows the highest responsiveness of chlorophyll to mineral dust deposition with annual contributions from seasonal variability as well as stimulations owing to large events.

    These results highlight the importance of dust deposition from African and Middle East origin in the potential stimulation of phytoplankton production in the nutrient depleted surface layers of the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Modeling Mediterranean ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mikolajewicz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the last glacial maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions nontrivial. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of the salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.

  6. Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mikolajewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions complicated. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.

  7. Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesco; Myers, Ransom A; Serena, Fabrizio; Lotze, Heike K

    2008-08-01

    Evidence for severe declines in large predatory fishes is increasing around the world. Because of its long history of intense fishing, the Mediterranean Sea offers a unique perspective on fish population declines over historical timescales. We used a diverse set of records dating back to the early 19th and mid 20th century to reconstruct long-term population trends of large predatory sharks in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We compiled 9 time series of abundance indices from commercial and recreational fishery landings, scientific surveys, and sighting records. Generalized linear models were used to extract instantaneous rates of change from each data set, and a meta-analysis was conducted to compare population trends. Only 5 of the 20 species we considered had sufficient records for analysis. Hammerhead (Sphyrna spp.), blue (Prionace glauca), mackerel (Isurus oxyrinchus and Lamna nasus), and thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) declined between 96 and 99.99% relative to their former abundance. According to World Conservation Union (IUCN) criteria, these species would be considered critically endangered. So far, the lack of quantitative population assessments has impeded shark conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. Our study fills this critical information gap, suggesting that current levels of exploitation put large sharks at risk of extinction in the Mediterranean Sea. Possible ecosystem effects of these losses involve a disruption of top-down control and a release of midlevel consumers.

  8. Aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties at regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël; Barragan, Rubén; Dulac, François; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Mallet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) program, the seasonal variability of the aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network; http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is examined in two regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean Basin: Ersa (Corsica Island, France) and Palma de Mallorca (Mallorca Island, Spain). A third site, Alborán (Alborán Island, Spain), with only a few months of data is considered for examining possible northeast-southwest (NE-SW) gradients of the aforementioned aerosol properties. The AERONET dataset is exclusively composed of level 2.0 inversion products available during the 5-year period 2011-2015. AERONET solar radiative fluxes are compared with ground- and satellite-based flux measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that AERONET fluxes are compared with measurements at the top of the atmosphere. Strong events (with an aerosol optical depth at 440 nm greater than 0.4) of long-range transport aerosols, one of the main drivers of the observed annual cycles and NE-SW gradients, are (1) mineral dust outbreaks predominant in spring and summer in the north and in summer in the south and (2) European pollution episodes predominant in autumn. A NE-SW gradient exists in the western Mediterranean Basin for the aerosol optical depth and especially its coarse-mode fraction, which all together produces a similar gradient for the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The aerosol fine mode is rather homogeneously distributed. Absorption properties are quite variable because of the many and different sources of anthropogenic particles in and around the western Mediterranean Basin: North African and European urban areas, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, most forest fires and ship emissions. As a result, the aerosol direct forcing efficiency, more dependent to absorption than the absolute

  9. Primary and secondary particles chemical composition of marine emissions from Mediterranean seawaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Meme, Aurelie; Rmili, Badr; Pey, Jorge; Marchand, Nicolas; Schwier, Allison; Sellegri, Karine; Charriere, Bruno; Sempere, Richard; Mas, Sebastien; Parin, David

    2015-04-01

    Marine emissions are among the largest source of both primary particles and do highly contribute secondary organic aerosols (SOA) at a global scale. Whereas physical processes control the primary production of marine aerosols, biological activity is responsible for most of the organic fraction released from marine sources, potentially transformed into SOA when exposed to atmospheric oxidants. The Mediterranean atmosphere displays important concentrations of SOA, especially in summer, when atmospheric oxidants and photochemical activity are at their maximum. The origin of these elevated concentrations of SOA remain unclear. Here we present the results from a mesocosms study in a remote location in Corsica and a chamber study (using fresh sea water from Western Mediterranean) as part of the Source of marine Aerosol particles in the Mediterranean atmosphere (SAM) project. The mesocosm study was conducted at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO (Corsica) in May 2013. One mesocosm was used as a control (with no enrichment) and the other two were enriched with nitrate and phosphate respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16) in order to produce a bloom of biological activity. Physical and chemical properties of the enclosed water samples together with their surrounding atmosphere were monitored during 20 days by a multi-instrumental high-time resolution set-up. In parallel, numerous additional measurements were conducted including water temperature, incident light, pH, conductivity, chemical and biological analyses, fluorescence of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen concentration. The chamber studies were performed in a Teflon chamber of 1. 5m3 that accommodates a pyrex-container for the fresh sea-water samples. After injection of sea-water in the pyrex-container, the system is allowed to stabilize to 20-30 minutes, then it was exposed to 60-100ppbv of ozone and/or UV-A irradiation. Aerosol concentrations and their physical characteristics were followed by means of Scanning

  10. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial Mediterranean fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...

  11. Multi-stage melt-rock interaction in the Mt. Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic peridotites: microstructural and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Piccardo, Giovanni B.; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    2008-10-01

    Spinel and plagioclase peridotites from the Mt.Maggiore (Corsica, France) ophiolitic massif record a composite asthenosphere-lithosphere history of partial melting and subsequent multi-stage melt-rock interaction. Cpx-poor spinel lherzolites are consistent with mantle residues after low-degree fractional melting ( F = 5-10%). Opx + spinel symplectites at the rims of orthopyroxene porphyroclasts indicate post-melting lithospheric cooling ( T = 970-1,100°C); this was followed by formation of olivine embayments within pyroxene porphyroclasts by melt-rock interaction. Enrichment in modal olivine (up to 85 wt%) at constant bulk Mg values, and variable absolute REE contents (at constant LREE/HREE) indicate olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution during reactive porous melt flow. This stage occurred at spinel-facies depths, after incorporation of the peridotites in the thermal lithosphere. Plagioclase-enriched peridotites show melt impregnation microtextures, like opx + plag intergrowths replacing exsolved cpx porphyroclasts and interstitial gabbronoritic veinlets. This second melt-rock interaction stage caused systematic chemical changes in clinopyroxene (e.g. Ti, REE, Zr, Y increase), related to the concomitant effects of local melt-rock interaction at decreasing melt mass, and crystallization of small (<3%) trapped melt fractions. LREE depletion in minerals of the gabbronoritic veinlets indicates that the impregnating melts were more depleted than normal MORB. Preserved microtextural evidence of previous melt-rock interaction in the impregnated peridotites suggests that they were progressively uplifted in response to lithosphere extension and thinning. Migrating melts were likely produced by mantle upwelling and melting related to extension; they were modified from olivine-saturated to opx-saturated compositions, and caused different styles of melt-rock interaction (reactive spinel harzburgites, vs. impregnated plagioclase peridotites) depending on the

  12. 3D Recording methodology applied to the Grotta Scritta Prehistoric Rock-Shelter in Olmeta-Di-Capocorso (Corsica, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Burens, A.; Guillemin, S.; Alby, E.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Marchetti, M.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The Grotta Scritta I prehistoric site is located on the west side of Cap Corse, in the territory of the municipality of Olmeta-di- Capocorso (Haute-Corse, France). This rock shelter is located on a western spur of the mountains La Serra, at 412 m height above sea level. In the regional context of a broad set of megalithic burial sites (regions Nebbiu and Agriates) and a rich insular prehistoric rock art with several engraved patterns (mainly geometric), the Grotta Scritta is the only site with painted depictions of Corsica. Around twenty parietal depictions are arranged in the upper part of the rock-shelter and takes advantage of the microtopography of the wall. Today, the Grotta Scritta is a vulnerable site, made fragile by the action of time and man. The 3D scanning of the rockshelter and paintings of the Grotta Scritta was carried out by surveyors and archaeologists from INSA Strasbourg and from UMR 5602 GEODE (Toulouse), by combining accurate terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques. These techniques are based on a full 3D documentation without contact of the rock-shelter paintings. The paper presents the data acquisition methodology followed by an overview of data processing solutions based on both imaging and laser scanning. Several deliverables as point clouds, meshed models, textured models and orthoimages are proposed for the documentation. Beyond their usefulness in terms of valorization, communication and virtual restitution, the proposed models also provide support tools for the analysis and perception of the complexity of the volumes of the shelter (namely for the folded forms of the dome housing the paintings) as well as for the accuracy of the painted depictions recorded on the orthophotos processed from the 3D model.

  13. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  14. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabou, J.; Sala, E.; Linares, C.; Ledoux, J. B.; Montero-Serra, I.; Dominici, J. M.; Kipson, S.; Teixidó, N.; Cebrian, E.; Kersting, D. K.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline.

  15. Is Posidonia oceanica regression a general feature in the Mediterranean Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONACORSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a widespread regression of Posidonia oceanica meadows has been noticed in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the magnitude of this decline is still debated. The objectives of this study are (i to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of Posidonia oceanica around Cap Corse (Corsica over time comparing available ancient maps (from 1960 with a new (2011 detailed map realized combining different techniques (aerial photographs, SSS, ROV, scuba diving; (ii evaluate the reliability of ancient maps; (iii discuss observed regression of the meadows in relation to human pressure along the 110 km of coast. Thus, the comparison with previous data shows that, apart from sites clearly identified with the actual evolution, there is a relative stability of the surfaces occupied by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The recorded differences seem more related to changes in mapping techniques. These results confirm that in areas characterized by a moderate anthropogenic impact, the Posidonia oceanica meadow has no significant regression and that the changes due to the evolution of mapping techniques are not negligible. However, others facts should be taken into account before extrapolating to the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. actually mapped surfaces and assessing the amplitude of the actual regression.

  16. Is Posidonia oceanica regression a general feature in the Mediterranean Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONACORSI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a widespread regression of Posidonia oceanica meadows has been noticed in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the magnitude of this decline is still debated. The objectives of this study are (i to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of Posidonia oceanica around Cap Corse (Corsica over time comparing available ancient maps (from 1960 with a new (2011 detailed map realized combining different techniques (aerial photographs, SSS, ROV, scuba diving; (ii evaluate the reliability of ancient maps; (iii discuss observed regression of the meadows in relation to human pressure along the 110 km of coast. Thus, the comparison with previous data shows that, apart from sites clearly identified with the actual evolution, there is a relative stability of the surfaces occupied by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The recorded differences seem more related to changes in mapping techniques. These results confirm that in areas characterized by a moderate anthropogenic impact, the Posidonia oceanica meadow has no significant regression and that the changes due to the evolution of mapping techniques are not negligible. However, others facts should be taken into account before extrapolating to the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. actually mapped surfaces and assessing the amplitude of the actual regression.

  17. The fate of Cystoseira crinita, a forest-forming Fucale (Phaeophyceae, Stramenopiles), in France (North Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanfuné, A.; Boudouresque, C. F.; Verlaque, M.; Thibaut, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, Fucales, and in particular the species of the genus Cystoseira C. Agardh, are habitat-forming species dominating several benthic assemblages from the littoral fringe down to 70-80 m depth in the clearest waters. They generate high primary production involved in the maintenance of diversified trophic levels, they provide shelter, food, habitat and nursery areas to many species, and they are long-lived species that constitute a good model for studying human impact on species diversity. Cystoseira crinita Duby is a Mediterranean endemic cespitose species, living in shallow waters (0-5 m depth), in places with little wave action and high solar irradiance. To reconstruct the long-term patterns of change in its distribution along the French Mediterranean coast (French Catalonia, Languedoc, Provence, French Riviera and Corsica), all the historical data (published articles, unpublished reports and herbarium vouchers) collected since the 18th century were searched and analysed. To assess the current status of the species, several field surveys were conducted between 2010 and 2016 by snorkelling and SCUBA diving. Cystoseira crinita is currently extinct in French Catalonia, near-extinct in Languedoc and western Provence, and functionally extinct on the French Riviera coast, while the eastern Provence and Corsican populations have remained stable. The main probable causes of decline are habitat destruction and overgrazing by herbivores.

  18. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  19. European and Mediterranean hydroclimate responses to tropical volcanic forcing over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. P.; Cook, B. I.; Cook, E. R.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Krusic, P. J.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Buckley, B. M.; Davi, N. K.; Leland, C.; Griffin, K. L.

    2017-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions have global climate impacts, but their effect on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood. We use a modified version of superposed epoch analysis, an eruption year list collated from multiple data sets, and seasonal paleoclimate reconstructions (soil moisture, precipitation, geopotential heights, and temperature) to investigate volcanic forcing of spring and summer hydroclimate over Europe and the Mediterranean over the last millennium. In the western Mediterranean, wet conditions occur in the eruption year and the following 3 years. Conversely, northwestern Europe and the British Isles experience dry conditions in response to volcanic eruptions, with the largest moisture deficits in posteruption years 2 and 3. The precipitation response occurs primarily in late spring and early summer (April-July), a pattern that strongly resembles the negative phase of the East Atlantic Pattern. Modulated by this mode of climate variability, eruptions force significant, widespread, and heterogeneous hydroclimate responses across Europe and the Mediterranean.

  20. Turbulent mixing in the eddy transport of Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water to the Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forryan, A.; Allen, J. T.; Edhouse, E.; Silburn, B.; Reeve, K.; Tesi, E.

    2012-09-01

    Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water (WIW) is formed in winter in the North-Western Mediterranean. WIW, identifiable as a distinct temperature minimum layer between Atlantic-Mediterranean Interface waters and the denser Levantine Intermediate Water, is carried down the east coast of Spain in anticyclonic mode water eddies, or “weddies” eventually reaching the Alboran sea. A previous detailed analysis of a weddy in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front indicated that it could have accounted for 10% of a winter's production of WIW, but this analysis was unable to consider turbulent dissipation. In this study we present microstructure measurements across a similar observation of WIW in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front and show that this figure could be conservative by 15-50% due to the turbulent dissipation associated with a weddy.

  1. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  2. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.

    The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of Mediterranean climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.

  3. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  4. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    tugal. G. Parrnlla is at Instituto EspaWol Oceanografia , Fig. 2A. [Adapted from (36)] (C) The maximum observed velocity of outflow currents in the eastern...its sur- Oceanografia Fisica del Estrecho de Gibraltar, J. of Mediterranean water that we observed at the roundings (34) and retains its chemical L

  5. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The X-chromosome has valuable characteristics for population genetic studies. In order to investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations further, we developed a 25 X-chromosome SNP-multiplex typing system. The system was based on PCR multiplex amplification and subsequent multipl...

  6. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.

    2016-12-01

    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows

  7. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  8. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  9. The conservation significance of natural hybridisation in Mediterranean plants: from a case study on Cyclamen (Primulaceae) to a general perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John D; Gauthier, Perrine; Papuga, Guillaume; Pons, Virginie; Debussche, Max; Farris, Emmanuele

    2017-06-23

    Hybridisation plays a prominent role in plant evolution due to its influence on genetic diversity, fitness and adaptive potential We identify a case of on-going hybrid evolution of floral phenotypes in disjunct populations of Cyclamen balearicum and C. repandum subsp. repandum on Corsica and Sardinia. Hybrid populations on the two islands contain similar patterns of variation in flower colour and size but are probably at different stages in the evolutionary process of hybridisation and differences in the frequency of floral types and flower size suggest hybrid vigour that may contribute to the dynamics and maintenance of hybrid forms. In a review of cases of hybridisation in Mediterranean plants we found an equivalent number of cases for the contemporary occurrence of mixed hybrid populations, as there are cases of homoploid hybrid species differentiation. We argue for the development of a conservation strategy for Mediterranean plants that integrates the need to protect not just pure endemic species (some of hybrid origin) but also mixed populations where adaptive variation and new species are evolving due to contemporary hybridisation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions familial Mediterranean fever familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  11. Excess of (236)U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, E; López-Lora, M; Bressac, M; Levy, I; Pham, M K

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first (236)U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. (236)U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25'N, 07°52'E). The obtained (236)U/(238)U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2×10(-9) at 100m depth to about 1.5×10(-9) at 2350m depth, indicate that anthropogenic (236)U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6ng/m(2) or 32.1×10(12) atoms/m(2)) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5ng/m(2) or 13×10(12) atoms/m(2)), evidencing the influence of local or regional (236)U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of (236)U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional (236)U annual deposition of about 0.2pg/m(2) based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that (236)U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the (236)U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin.

  12. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  13. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Piermaria; Badalamenti, Emilio; Pasta, Salvatore; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta) and ...

  14. Genetic structure of human A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza virus on Corsica Island: phylogenetic analysis and vaccine strain match, 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Falchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic patterns of Hemagglutinin (HA genes of influenza A strains circulating on Corsica Island during the 2006-2009 epidemic seasons and the 2009-2010 pandemic season. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples from 371 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI were collected by General Practitioners (GPs of the Sentinelles Network through a randomised selection routine. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of HA revealed that A/H3N2 strains circulating on Corsica were closely related to the WHO recommended vaccine strains in each analyzed season (2006-2007 to 2008-2009. Seasonal Corsican influenza A/H1N1 isolated during the 2007-2008 season had drifted towards the A/Brisbane/59/2007 lineage, the A/H1N1 vaccine strain for the 2008-2009 season. The A/H1N1 2009 (A/H1N1pdm strains isolated on Corsica Island were characterized by the S220T mutation specific to clade 7 isolates. It should be noted that Corsican isolates formed a separate sub-clade of clade 7 as a consequence of the presence of the fixed substitution D222E. The percentages of the perfect match vaccine efficacy, estimated by using the p(epitope model, against influenza viruses circulating on Corsica Island varied substantially across the four seasons analyzed, and tend to be highest for A/H1N1 compared with A/H3N2 vaccines, suggesting that cross-immunity seems to be stronger for the H1 HA gene. CONCLUSION: The molecular analysis of the HA gene of influenza viruses that circulated on Corsica Island between 2006-2010 showed for each season the presence of a dominant lineage characterized by at least one fixed mutation. The A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm isolates were characterized by multiples fixation at antigenic sites. The fixation of specific mutations at each outbreak could be explained by the combination of a neutral phenomenon and a founder effect, favoring the presence of a dominant lineage in a closed environment such as Corsica Island.

  15. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  16. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations.

  17. Excess of {sup 236}U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); López-Lora, M., E-mail: mlopezlora@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Bressac, M., E-mail: matthieu.bressac@utas.edu.au [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Levy, I., E-mail: I.N.Levy@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Pham, M.K., E-mail: M.Pham@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first {sup 236}U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. {sup 236}U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10{sup −9} at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10{sup −9} at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m{sup 2} or 32.1 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m{sup 2} or 13 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}), evidencing the influence of local or regional {sup 236}U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of {sup 236}U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional {sup 236}U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m{sup 2} based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that {sup 236}U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the {sup 236}U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First {sup 236}U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • {sup 236}U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P. [Univ. Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

  19. Northwestern University trial emerging optical solutions

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Nortel Networks, SBC Ameritech and Northwestern University announced the creation of OMNInet (Optical Metro Network Initiative), a collaborative experimental network. The OMNInet technology trial, a four-site network located in Chicago, will provide a test bed for all-optical switching, advanced high-speed technology such as 10 gigabit Ethernet (10GE) and will test next-generation applications in healthcare, industrial design, finance and commerce.

  20. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  1. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  2. Scenarios of Future Water use on Mediterranean Islands based on an Integrated Assessment of Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The availability of water in sufficient quantities and adequate quality presents considerable problems on Mediterranean islands. Because of their isolation and thus the impossibility to draw on more distant or more divers aquifers, they rely entirely on precipitation as natural replenishing mechanism. Recent observations indicate decreasing precipitation, increasing evaporation and steadily growing demand for water on the islands. Future climate change will exacerbate this problem, thus increasing the already pertinent vulnerability to droughts. Responsible planning of water management strategies requires scenarios of future supply and demand through an integrated assessment including climate scenarios based on regional climate modeling as well as scenarios on changes in societal and economical determinants of water demand. Constructing such strategies necessitates a thorough understanding about the interdependencies and feedbacks between physical/hydrological and socio-economic determinants of water balances on an island. This has to be based on a solid understanding of past and present developments of these drivers. In the framework of the EU-funded MEDIS project (Towards sustainable water use on Mediterranean Islands: addressing conflicting demands and varying hydrological, social and economic conditions, EVK1-CT-2001-00092), detailed investigations on present vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies to droughts have been carried out on Mallorca, Corsica, Sicily, Crete and Cyprus. This was based on an interdisciplinary study design including hydrological, geophysical, agricultural-, social and political sciences investigations. A central element of the study has been the close interaction with stakeholders on the islands and their contribution to strategy formulation. An important result has been a specification of vulnerability components including: a physical/environmental-, an economical/regulatory- and a social/institutional/political component. Their

  3. Chemical properties and morphology of Marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean atmosphere: a mesocosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Sellegri, Karine; Charrière, Bruno; Sempéré, Richard; Mas, Sébastien; Marchand, Nicolas; George, Christian; Même, Aurèlie; R'mili, Badr; Delmont, Anne; Schwier, Allison; Rose, Clémence; Colomb, Aurèlie; Pey, Jorge; Langley Dewitt, Helen

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a special marine environment characterized by low biological activity and high anthropogenic pressure. It is often difficult to discriminate the contribution of Primary Sea Salt Aerosol formed at the sea surface from background level of the aerosol. An alternative tool to study the sea-air exchanges in a controlled environment is provided by the mesocosms, which represent an important link between field studies and laboratory experiments. The sea-air transfer of particles and gases was investigated in relation to water chemical composition and biological activity during a mesocosm experiment within the SAM project (Sources of marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean) at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO in Western Corsica (May 2013). Three 2 m mesocosms were filled with screened (treatments: one was left unchanged as control and two were enriched by addition of nitrates and phosphates respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16). The evolution of the three systems was followed for 20 days. The set of sensors in each mesocosm was allowed to monitor, at high frequency (every 10 min), the water temperature, conductivity, pH, incident light, fluorescence of chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentration. The mesocosm seawaters were daily sampled for chemical (colored dissolved organic matter, particulate matter and related polar compounds, transparent polysaccharides and nutrients concentration) and biological (chlorophyll a, virus, phytoplankton and zooplankton) analyses. Both dissolved and gaseous VOCs were also analyzed. In addition, few liters of seawater from each mesocosm were daily and immediately collected and transferred to a bubble-bursting apparatus to simulate nascent sea spray aerosol. On-line chemical analysis of the sub-micrometer fraction was performed by a TOF-AMS (Aerodyne). Off-line analysis included TEM-EDX for morphology and size distribution studies and a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer) for

  4. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Albayrak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects males and females. FMF gene is on the short arm of chromosome 16. It is most often found in Jews, Arabs, Turks, and Armenians. Amyloidosis is charecterized by the deposition of a particular protein between the cells in the tissue. It is a potentially serious complication of FMF. The kidney is a prime target for the amyloid. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 260-267

  5. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  6. Annual burned area across a precipitation gradient in northwestern patagonia steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Fire is one of the most important disturbances on the Earth affecting most terrestrial ecosystems. Evidence suggests that since the last glaciations there has been a substantial interaction among climate, vegetation and fire. In fact fire is recognized as an emergent property of climate and vegetation type, which determine that distinct regions are differently affected by wildfires. For instance, it has been suggest that relative roles of weather/climate and fuel on fire activity change along the global productivity/aridity (intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis). At one extreme of the gradient we find dry-unproductive regions (deserts) where fire is absent owing to very low fuel loads, while at the other extreme we have wet-productive environments (rain forest) with fire being unlikely due to high fuel moisture. Environments located around middle of the gradient, such as Mediterranean ecosystems, have a high fire activity but is difficult to predict if the fuel moisture conditions are a stronger constrain on the fire regime or it is constrained by biomass production (i.e. fuel load). The intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis has been tested in recent works at global scale. However, data resolution at global scale is coarse and thus is not possible know the fire variability occurring at scales of more spatial detail. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the information obtained at global scale with studies at finer scales exploring fire-productivity/aridity relationships in particular portions of the gradient. We elaborate fire cartography from Landsat temporal series (1973-2011) for a portion (560250 ha - regional scale) of northwestern Patagonian steppe. The study zone corresponds to a Mediterranean environment and is part of a gradient defined by a sharp drop in the precipitation regime (600mm to 280mm). This environmental gradient predisposes a change in fuel load and fuel moisture and therefore could be affecting the fire regime. We divided the

  7. Temporal variability of vertical export flux at the DYFAMED time-series station (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Lavigne, Héloïse; Migon, Christophe; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Estournel, Claude; Coppola, Laurent; Miquel, Juan-Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the vertical export flux at the DYFAMED time-series station (Ligurian Sea) over the last 20 years reveals a strong interannual variability. Winter convection allows particulate (and dissolved) matter to be vertically exported (“flush-down” effect). The efficiency of this process determines also the concentration of nutrients brought to surface waters and, therefore, the intensity of the subsequent phytoplankton bloom. The sequence “convection-bloom” is the main driving force of vertical export flux in this region. The present work attempts to better identify the parameters that control vertical export flux dynamics by observing a 20 year time-series in relation with the temporal variability of mixed layer depth and surface primary production. The consequences of a more stratified water column in the future on biological productivity and vertical export flux are pointed out. In winter, the cooling of surface water, combined with evaporation, increases its density and determines the vertical convection. This allows for a rapid downward transfer of dissolved and particulate matter, yielding high vertical export flux. This “flush-down effect” results from a combination of convection and gravitational flux, since the diving of dense surface waters breaks the stratification of the water column and carries all material (particulate + dissolved) accumulated in the surface layer to depth. The rapid downward transfer of dissolved and particulate matter by this “flush-down effect” yields high vertical export fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes may vary according to the amount of atmospheric material accumulated in surface waters during the preceding stratified period. In the present data set, highest vertical export fluxes were observed in 1999, 2003 and 2004. In those years, the MLD was greater (Fig. 2), suggesting a causal relationship between the efficiency of vertical mixing and the subsequent vertical export flux. In spring, nutrients brought to surface waters by the vertical mixing trigger phytoplankton blooms, which generate new material for the vertical transfer of dissolved and particulate matter. Maximum Chl-a occurs shortly after the MLD maximum. Gačić et al. (2002) observed a marked seasonal variability of POC fluxes in the Adriatic Sea. Spring maxima are associated with phytoplankton blooms. In spite of interannual variations in the intensity of the phytoplankton blooms, their seasonal distribution and biomass abundance are reproducible (Marty et al., 2002), with maximum values of carbon assimilation in March and April (Marty and Chiavérini, 2002; Fig. 2). Indeed, high vertical export fluxes were observed within the present dataset in spring, as a result of biological productivity (e.g. 2000). In summer and fall, the heating of the sea surface results in a stratified water column with a shallow ML which is rapidly exhausted of nutrients. During such oligotrophic conditions (June to November), the concentrations of biogenic matter in the photic layer are minimal. Therefore, owing to insignificant transfer of POC, atmospherically-transported individual particles presumably do not sink (or sink with negligible sinking velocity), according to Stokesian settling calculations (Stokes, 1901). In the absence of packaging into large biogenic material (adsorption onto phytoplanktonic debris or incorporation into fecal pellets), atmospheric particles thus accumulate in the surface ML. In addition, dissolved atmospheric matter (e.g., from atmospheric wet deposition) is not removed from surface waters via its assimilation by phytoplankton, and it accumulates in the surface ML (e.g. dissolved organic matter (DOM); (Copin-Montégut and Avril, 1993)). Consequently, the lowest vertical export fluxes are observed during this period of the year. For example, years 2003 and 2004 exhibited minimal vertical export fluxes during summer and fall (Fig. 2). However, summer 2002 was unusual, with relatively a high vertical export flux. This resulted from the combination of particularly strong summer stratification and the erosion of the thermocline by wind gales in late summer, with the subsequent release of the organic particulates accumulated above the pycnocline (Martín and Miquel, 2010).

  8. Vertical distributions of macroplankton and micronekton in the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas (northwestern Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Andersen; Francois, F; Sardou, J.; M. Picheral; Scotto, M.; Nival, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Cette étude présente et compare les distributions verticales et les migrations nycthémérales des principales espèces de macroplancton et de micronecton observées en mer Ligure et en mer Tyrrhénienne (Méditerranée nord-occidentale). Dix-neuf stations ont été échantillonnées, en avril 1994, jusqu'à 700 m de profondeur généralement ou jusqu'à 350, 450 ou 550 m pour les zones côtières ou peu profondes. La majorité des vingt espèces étudiées montre des distributions similaires sur l'ensemble de la...

  9. Sediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, northwestern Mediterranean: Distribution, availability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiquio, Ma Gregoria Joanne; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas; Taneez, Mehwish; Andral, Bruno; Jordan, Norbert; Francour, Patrice

    2017-05-15

    The concentration, potential mobility, cation exchange capacity and toxicity of eight sediment-bound metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, France were examined. Results revealed significant spatial gradient of metal contamination along Golfe-Juan coast. The distribution and concentration of the metals appear to be influenced by the geochemical properties of the sediment, proximity to anthropogenic sources and general water circulation in the bay. The portion of trace metals found in the exchangeable, carbonate, oxidizable and reducible fractions of the sediment constitute 31%-58% of the total sediment-bound trace metal content, suggesting significant potential for remobilization of metals into the water column. Pb and Ni content of the sediment exceed the limits of the French marine sediment quality. Whole sediment extracts showed acute toxicity to marine rotifers. This study concludes that monitoring and management of sediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay are important so as not to underestimate their availability and risk to the marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morpho-structure and sedimentology of the Holocene Ebro prodelta mud belt (northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J.I.; Palanques, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Guillen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Ebro "mud belt" is a Holocene prodeltaic deposit which has developed around, and southwestward from, the present Ebro Delta plain, covering most of the inner and middle Ebro continental shelf. Seismic-reflection profiles of this mud belt exhibit a complex sigmoid-oblique configuration. Top-set strata dip gently seaward to the 20 m isobath, and overly the fore-set beds which are exposed in up to 40-60 m water depth. Top-set and fore-set beds have mostly parallel and high continuity reflectors. Thin, acoustically transparent bottom-set beds are present at the base of the fore-set beds and extend to the distal edge of the prodelta (60-80 m water depth), where they overly relict transgressive sand deposits. There is no evidence of mass movement. The suspended load discharged by the river is mainly transported alongshelf by advective processes. This dynamics produces thin clinoform deposits that extend alongshelf for tens of kilometres. Mud belt deposition began about 10,000-11,000 years BP. Accumulation rate ranges from less than 0.5 mm y-1 on the seaward and southern edges of the deposit to about 2.5 mm y-1 near the present river mouth. Copyright ?? 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Caralt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862, which produces avarol, a sterol with interesting pharmaceutical attributes. The soft consistency of this species makes the traditional culture method based on holding explants on ropes unsuitable. We have tested alternative culture methods for D. avara and optimized the underwater structures to hold the sponges to be used in aquaculture. Explants of this sponge were mounted on horizontal ropes, inside small cages or glued to substrates. Culture efficiency was evaluated by determination of sponge survival, growth rates, and bioactivity (as an indication of production of the target metabolite. While the cage method was the best method for explant survival, the glue method was the best one for explant growth and the rope method for bioactivity.

  12. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera) in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Sanchez-Fontenla, J.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of th

  13. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S.; Gasol, Josep M.; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M.; Lotze, Heike K.; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Saša; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet—undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  14. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular

  15. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuseppe Suaria; Carlo G Avio; Annabella Mineo; Gwendolyn L Lattin; Marcello G Magaldi; Genuario Belmonte; Charles J Moore; Francesco Regoli; Stefano Aliani

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown...

  16. The petroglyphs of Dowzdaghi, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazempur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with recording and interpreting a complex of petroglyphs at Dowzdaghi in the northern part of Iranian Azerbaijan in Northwestern Iran. The assemblage can be divided into four sub-assemblages; the designs and images depicted on the surfaces of isolated boulders usually constitute a panel and sometimes individual motifs and inscriptions. The investigations have revealed more than 400 carved and scratched drawings on rock boulders on Mt. Dowzdaghi. The main themes include anthropomorphic figures, animals (ibex, with long elaborated curved horn, deer, dog, horse, bull, ram, fox, snake, alligator, and hedgehog, hunting scenes, Arabic and Persian inscriptions, and symbolic designs.

  17. Fire effects on soil properties and post-fire recovery in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, A.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Ghiglieri, G.; Pittalis, D.; Deroma, M.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the large number of works on fire effects on soil and post-fire recovery in Mediterranean areas, several aspects need to be established. The study area is located in north-western Sardinia. The climate is sub-arid Mediterranean, with a mean annual temperature of about 16.8 °C and mean annual precipitation ranging from 600 mm to 700 mm, with an autumn maximum. The area is mainly covered by the typical shrubland Mediterranean vegetation. The object of this study is: i) to compare burned and unburned soil in order to evaluate the effect of fire on physical and chemical soil properties; ii) to analyse the vegetation recovery of the main Mediterranean maquis species. The analysis was carried out in a human caused fire occurred in North-West Sardinia (Italy) immediately after fire in 2006, and during the 2007 and 2008 summer seasons. Several pedological samples were collected from various depths (0-5, 5-15 and 15-25 cm) and under the canopy of different species (Chamaerops humilis L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Calycotome spinosa L.), both in burned and in unburned plots. The soil organic matter content, total and available element concentrations, and soil texture were then determined in laboratory. Different statistical parameters were calculated to describe the relationships between soil properties and species composition comparing burned and unburned plots.

  18. CORAL ASSEMBLAGES AND BIOCONSTRUCTIONS ADAPTED TO THE DEPOSITIONAL DYNAMICS OF A MIXED CARBONATE-SILICICLASTIC SETTING: THE CASE STUDY OF THE BURDIGALIAN BONIFACIO BASIN (SOUTH CORSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO BRANDANO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral bioconstructions associated with mixed carbonate-siliciclastic settings are known to be strongly controlled by coastal morphology and paleotopography. A striking example is represented by the different types of coral bioconstructions and coral-rich deposits of the Cala di Labra Formation deposited in the coastal environment of the Bonifacio Basin (Corsica, France during the Early Miocene. Detailed mapping on photomosaics allowed accurate documentation of the internal organization of coral deposits as well as lateral and vertical facies relationships. Four types of coral bioconstructions (CB  and one reworked coral deposits (RCD have been recognized. The CB are represented by sigmoidal cluster reefs, coral carpets and skeletal conglomerates rich in corals. The RCD occurs in lens-shaped bodies intercalated within clinoforms composed of bioclastic floatstones and coarse packstones. The investigated bioconstructions can be contextualised in a coastal environment. In the upper shoreface corals developed in association with the oyster Hyotissa, above bioclastic conglomerates sourced by ephemeral streams and erosion of the granitic coastline. In the lower shoreface corals formed sigmoidal bioconstructions interpreted as cluster reefs, whereas  coral carpets developed during a relative sea-level rise related to the middle Burdigalian transgressive phase. The reworked coral deposits can be interpreted as lobe-shaped deposits of coarse-grained bioclastic submarine fans formed at the base of the depositional slope of an infralittoral prograding wedge system.

  19. THE MEDITERRANEAN TOURISTIC PHENOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available At the beggining of the XXI century has started to record a series of tedentiangs în the planof Spanish touristic sector, translated trough the reduction of tourism participating în PIB including of thecontribution of international tourism. This changes from the plan of the demand and offer from the last decade iscoincideing with a scenario where the touristic offer is seeing marked more and more by the accelerated processof urbanizeing from the Mediterranean area, Blaeares and Canaris. The natural and cultural enviorment qualityis essentialy the main atraction of this areas. The itinerarys are wishing to offer a exclusive alternating to thelocals of valorification of the turistic potential of the regions and to offer new turistic products.

  20. Global security in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the WEU, NATO and specially the European Union (in the framework of the Barcelona process initiated security dialogues with countries East and South of the Mediterranean Basin. Those processes are far to achieve significant progress. Some arguments help to explain the present situation: on the one hand, European countries and organizations lack clear strategic goals and consistent policies. On the other, difficulties to create a security dialogue in the Mediterranean, which is a precondition to generateboth a common language and security culture, are the result of differences between the European and the Arab security cultures. Nevertheless, the geopolitical environment, the Euro-Mediterranean process itself and the development of the European Union demanda strategic revision on how to implement the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, reformulating the idea of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership towards a new concept of shared security that integrates Southern interests and concerns.

  1. Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouillon

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a systematic account of the hydrozoan species collected up to now in the Mediterranean Sea. All species are described, illustrated and information on morphology and distribution is given for all of them. This work is the most complete fauna of hydrozoans made in the Mediterranean. The fauna includes planktonic hydromedusae, benthic polyps stages and the siphonophores. The Hydrozoa are taken as an example of inconspicuous taxa whose knowledge has greatly progressed in the last decades due to the scientific research of some specialists in the Mediterranean area. The number of species recorded in the Mediterranean almost doubled in the last thirty years and the number of new records is still increasing. The 457 species recorded in this study represents the 12% of the world known species. The fauna is completed with classification keys and a glossary of terms with the main purpose of facilitating the identification of all Meditrranean hydrozoan species

  2. Transplantation experiments with Mediterranean gorgonians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Branches of gorgonians belonging to four different Mediterranean species (Eunicella singularis (Esper), Paramuricea clavata (Risso), Corallium rubrum (Linnaeus) and Lophogorgia ceratophyta (Linnaeus)) were transplanted to different habitats by means of three different methods, and survival and growt

  3. Seismicity and seismotectonics of northwestern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Suleman, Abdunnur; Elmeladi, Abdalla

    2014-05-01

    As a result of the relative motion of the African and European plates, Libya has experienced a considerable intraplate tectonism particularly at its northern regions. In this study we investigate the seismic activity and the seismotectonics of northwestern Libya. The northwestern part of Libya has experienced a number of earthquakes including earthquakes of magnitude greater than six. The seismic activity shows three major seismic trends. The first trend is a NW-SE trending cluster of seismicity coinciding with the eastern boarder of the Hun Graben. A second trend is also a NW-SE direction in the offshore area northern of the city of Misuratah. The third cluster was located in the western Gulf of Sirt. The rest of seismicity is diffuse either offshore or in land, with no good correlation with well-mapped faults. Fault plane solution was estimated for 17 earthquakes recorded by the Libyan National Seismograph Network. Fault plain solution for the first area suggests oblique reverse to strike slip faulting with dominant compressional P-axes trending NW-SE and NE-SW. The second area suggests strike-slip to reverse faulting with dominant compressional P-axes trending NW-SE and NE-SW. Fault plain solution for 3 earthquakes located southern Tripoli suggests an oblique normal faulting with dominant compressional P-axes trending E-W to NE-SW. Further west to the Tunisian boarder, fault plain solution suggests oblique normal faulting with dominant compressional P-axes trending NW-SE.

  4. Analysis of the atmospheric composition during the summer 2013 over the Mediterranean area using the CHARMEX measurements and the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ADRIMED campaign provides measurements of all key parameters regarding atmospheric composition in the Mediterranean area during the summer 2013. This is an opportunity to quantify the ability of current models to adequately represent the atmospheric composition in this complex region, which is influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe, Africa, the Middle-East and from shipping activities as well as mineral dust emissions mostly from the arid areas in Africa, sea-salt emissions, biomass burning emissions and biogenic emissions from the vegetation. The CHIMERE model in its present version is a chemistry-transport model which takes into account all these processes. We show here by simulating the period from 5 June to 15 July 2013 with the CHIMERE model and comparing the results to both routine and specific ADRIMED measurements that this model allows an adequate representation the atmospheric composition over the western Mediterranean, in terms of ozone concentration, particulate matter (PM and aerosol optical depth (AOD. It is also shown that the concentrations of PM on all the considered area is dominated by mineral dust, even though local dust emissions in Europe are certainly overestimated by the model. A comparison with sulphate concentrations at Cape Corsica exhibits some discrepancies related to the regridding of shipping emissions.

  5. Use of timesat to estimate phenological parameters in Northwestern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Minotti, Priscilla; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Under a global change context, ecosystems are receiving high pressure and the ecology science play a key role for monitoring and assessment of natural resources. To achieve an effective resources management to develop an ecosystem functioning knowledge based on spatio-temporal perspective is useful. Satellite imagery periodically capture the spectral response of the earth and remote sensing have been widely utilized as classification and change detection tool making possible evaluate the intra and inter-annual plant dynamics. Vegetation spectral indices (e.g., NDVI) are particularly suitable to study spatio-temporal processes related to plant phenology and remote sensing specific software, such as TIMESAT, has been developed to carry out time series analysis of spectral indexes. We used TIMESAT software applied to series of 25 years of NDVI bi-monthly composites (240 images covering the period 1982-2006) from the NOAA-AVHRR sensor (8 x 8 km) to assessment plant pheonology over 900000 ha of shrubby-grasslands in the Northwestern of Patagonia, Argentina. The study area corresponds to a Mediterranean environment and is part of a gradient defined by a sharp drop west-east in the precipitation regime (600 mm to 280 mm). We fitted the temporal series of NDVI data to double logistic functions by least-squares methods evaluating three seasonality parameters: a) start of growing season, b) growing season length, c) NDVI seasonal integral. According to fitted models by TIMESAT, start average of growing season was the second half of September (± 10 days) with beginnings latest in the east (dryer areas). The average growing season length was 180 days (± 15 days) without a clear spatial trend. The NDVI seasonal integral showed a clear trend of decrease in west-east direction following the precipitation gradient. The temporal and spatial information allows revealing important patterns of ecological interest, which can be of great importance to environmental monitoring. In this

  6. Precipitation in the Mediterranean basin as seen from the 2000-2010 TRMM-3B42-v6 database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrand, B.; Dulac, F.; Baldi, M.; Bargaoui, Z.; Cindrić, K.; Ducrocq, V.; Labiadh, M.; Schiavone, J.; de Silvestri, L.; Somot, S.; Tovar-Sánchez, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of 11 yrs of the version 6 of the TRMM-3B42 multi-sensor precipitation product (3-h and 0.25° resolution) from March 2000 to February 2011 over the whole Mediterranean basin and surrounding areas including the Black Sea (25°N-50°N, 10°W-43°E). We first discuss some issues in the data set regarding spatial and temporal discontinuities in coastal areas, and further illustrate a critical underestimation of light rains at latitudes higher than 36-37° that somewhat improves from 2007 on and is associated to the absence of coverage by the Precipitation Radar. North of the radar field of view, it seems that the marine coastal band is subject to a significant under detection of precipitation, whereas, on the opposite, the terrestrial coastal band south of 35°N in North Africa and the Near East shows unrealistic over detection of precipitation. We then evaluate the product against rain gauges with a focus on the western Mediterranean basin and the Adriatic. Our reference rain gauge data set includes about 1 million daily rain reports from more than 260 Mediterranean surface stations from Croatia, France, Italy, Malta, Spain (including 2 stations on the northern coast of Africa) and Tunisia, and from 9 additional non-Mediterranean stations from a flat region in France. It includes stations from almost 20 small Mediterranean islands. The comparison shows a significant correlation between TRMM-3B42v6 and rain gauges but with an overall tendency to underestimation. The average ratio of daily rates between surface stations and TRMM product is ~0.63 with significant regional variations, Corsica showing the poorest results and Spain the best. Over the Mediterranean stations considered, the average rate of success on the occurrence of precipitation (~0.75) is enhanced by the high proportion of dry days in the Mediterranean climate (~4 over 5 on average in the rain gauge data set) and drops off when only days with precipitation recorded

  7. Preliminary bathymetry of Northwestern Fiord and Neoglacial changes of Northwestern Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    The first preliminary bathymetry (at 1:20,000 scale) and other scientific investigations of Northwestern Fiord, Alaska, were conducted by the Research Vessel Growler in 1978, disclosing this 10.5-mile-long branched waterway to be a deep basin enclosed by a terminal-moraine shoal. The basin was formerly filled by Northwestern Glacier, which began a drastic retreat around 1909 and reached the head of the main arm around 1960. Soundings and profiles show the main channel to be as much as 970 feet deep and to have the typical U shape of a severely glacially eroded valley; since the glacier 's retreat, sediments have formed nearly level deposits in the deepest reaches, while the rest of the basin has a hard, rocky bottom. Preneoglacial forest debris dated by carbon-14 indicates Northwestern Glacier to have advanced into the fiord prior to 1,385 years before present (B.P.); a branch glacier evidently advanced into forest 1,635 years B.P. The combined glaciers from several arms culminated on the present terminal-moraine shoal around 1894. (USGS)

  8. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  9. Adaptive radiation in mediterranean cistus (cistaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lledó, María Dolores; Vargas, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood. The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of 12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and is herein subject to analysis...

  10. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  11. Spatial extent of new particle formation events over the Mediterranean Basin from multiple ground-based and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Kevin; Rose, Clémence; Pey, Jorge; Culot, Anais; Freney, Evelyn; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgios; Cerro, José Carlos; Mallet, Marc; Sartelet, Karine; Beckmann, Matthias; Bourriane, Thierry; Roberts, Greg; Marchand, Nicolas; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Sellegri, Karine

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, new particle formation (NPF), i.e., the formation of new particle clusters from gas-phase compounds followed by their growth to the 10-50 nm size range, has been extensively observed in the atmosphere at a given location, but their spatial extent has rarely been assessed. In this work, we use aerosol size distribution measurements performed simultaneously at Ersa (Corsica) and Finokalia (Crete) over a 1-year period to analyze the occurrence of NPF events in the Mediterranean area. The geographical location of these two sites, as well as the extended sampling period, allows us to assess the spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric nucleation at a regional scale. Finokalia and Ersa show similar seasonalities in the monthly average nucleation frequencies, growth rates, and nucleation rates, although the two stations are located more than 1000 km away from each other. Within this extended period, aerosol size distribution measurements were performed during an intensive campaign (3 July to 12 August 2013) from a ground-based station on the island of Mallorca, as well as onboard the ATR-42 research aircraft. This unique combination of stationary and mobile measurements provides us with detailed insights into the horizontal and vertical development of the NPF process on a daily scale. During the intensive campaign, nucleation events occurred simultaneously both at Ersa and Mallorca over delimited time slots of several days, but different features were observed at Finokalia. The results show that the spatial extent of the NPF events over the Mediterranean Sea might be as large as several hundreds of kilometers, mainly determined by synoptic conditions. Airborne measurements gave additional information regarding the origin of the clusters detected above the sea. The selected cases depicted contrasting situations, with clusters formed in the marine boundary layer or initially nucleated above the continent or in the free troposphere (FT) and

  12. Pennsylvanian bryozoans from the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, A.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Bryozoans from six Pennsylvanian localities in the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain) are described. The faunas include 54 species, of which two are new, Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) peculiaris sp. nov. and Bashkirella minor sp. nov. Bryozoans are represented mainly by fenestrates (27

  13. Territory Characteristics of Cassin's Sparrows in Northwestern Oklahoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Els, Paul; Cooper, Brett S.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Guthery, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Cassin's sparrow (Aimophila cassinii) territory characteristics in shrub-grassland in northwestern Oklahoma during the 2008 breeding season. We estimated Cassin's sparrow territory area using territory mapping and song playback. Additionally, we determined vegetation cover, and aspect wi

  14. Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria: prevalence and ... fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, insulin resistance and blood pressure was ... Most of the women had low HDL (62.2%) and central obesity elevated (49.8%).

  15. Structural and chemical variations in phlogopite from lamproitic rocks of the Central Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Giovanni O.; Bindi, Luca; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Conticelli, Sandro; Bonazzi, Paola

    2017-08-01

    Micas from mafic ultrapotassic rocks with lamproitic affinity from several localities of the Central Mediterranean region were studied through single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MöS), when feasible, was also applied to minimise the number of unknown variables and uncertainties. Analysed lamproitic samples cover the most important Central Mediterranean type localities, from Plan d'Albard (Western Alps) to Sisco (Corsica), Montecatini Val di Cecina and Orciatico (Tuscany, Italy) and Torre Alfina (Northern Latium, Italy). The studied crystals show distinctive chemical and structural features; all of them belong to the phlogopite-annite join and crystallise in the 1M polytype, except for micas from Torre Alfina, where both 1M and 2M1 polytypes were found. Studied micas have variable but generally high F and Ti contents, with Mg/(Mg + Fe) ranging from 0.5 to 0.9; 2M1 crystals from Torre Alfina radically differ in chemical composition, showing high contents of Ti and Fe as well as of Al in both tetrahedra and octahedra, leading to distinctive structural distortions, especially in tetrahedral sites. SIMS data indicate that studied micas are generally dehydrogenated with OH contents ranging from 0.2 apfu (atoms per formula unit) for Orciatico and Torre Alfina to 1.4 for Plan d'Albard crystals; this feature is also testified by the length of the c parameter, which decreases with the loss of hydrogen and/or the increase of the F → OH substitution. Chemical and structural data suggest that the entry of high charge octahedral cations is mainly balanced by an oxy mechanism and, to a lesser extent, by a M3 +,4 +-Tschermak substitution. Our data confirm that Ti preferentially partitions into the M2 site and that different Ti and F contents, as well as different K/Al values, are both dependant upon fH2O and the composition of magma rather than controlled by P and T

  16. Ocean acidification effect on prokaryotic metabolism tested in two diverse trophic regimes in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celussi, Mauro; Malfatti, Francesca; Annalisa, Franzo; Gazeau, Frédéric; Giannakourou, Antonia; Pitta, Paraskevi; Tsiola, Anastasia; Del Negro, Paola

    2017-02-01

    Notwithstanding the increasing amount of researches on the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems, no consent has emerged on its consequences on many prokaryote-mediated processes. Two mesocosm experiments were performed in coastal Mediterranean areas with different trophic status: the summer oligotrophic Bay of Calvi (BC, Corsica, France) and the winter mesotrophic Bay of Villefranche (BV, France). During these experiments, nine enclosures (∼54 m3) were deployed: 3 unamended controls and 6 elevated CO2, following a gradient up to 1250 μatm. We present results involving free-living viral and prokaryotic standing stocks, bacterial carbon production, abundance of highly active cells (CTC+), and degradation processes (beta-glucosidase, chitinase, leucine-aminopeptidase, lipase and alkaline phosphatase activities). The experiments revealed clear differences in the response of the two prokaryotic communities to CO2 manipulation. Only abundances of heterotrophic prokaryotes, viruses and lipase activity were not affected by CO2 manipulation at both locations. On the contrary, the percent of CTC+ was positively correlated to CO2 only in BC, concomitantly to a bulk reduction of [3H]-leucine uptake. The other tested parameters showed a different response at the two sites suggesting that the trophic regime of the systems plays a fundamental role on the effect of OA on prokaryotes through indirect modifications of the available substrate. Modified degradation rates may affect considerably the export of organic matter to the seafloor and thus ecosystem functioning within the water column. Our results highlight the need to further analyse the consequences of OA in oligotrophic ecosystems with particular focus on dissolved organic matter.

  17. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  18. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  19. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea – results from two years of shipborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Velchev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favoring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggest a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, found along the coast south of Genova and between Napoli and Palermo, respectively. While it was found that the influence of plumes from areas with high pollutant levels might explain most episodes in the Northwestern transect, such "local" influences appeared to be of minor importance within the Napoli-Palermo transect.

  20. Mediterranean diet and diabetes: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-04-04

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed.

  1. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.; Formenti, P.; Nabat, P.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Pelon, J.; Ancellet, G.; Tanré, D.; Parol, F.; Denjean, C.; Brogniez, G.; di Sarra, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Arndt, J.; Auriol, F.; Blarel, L.; Bourrianne, T.; Chazette, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Claeys, M.; D'Anna, B.; Derimian, Y.; Desboeufs, K.; Di Iorio, T.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand, P.; Féron, A.; Freney, E.; Gaimoz, C.; Goloub, P.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Grand, N.; Hamonou, E.; Jankowiak, I.; Jeannot, M.; Léon, J.-F.; Maillé, M.; Mailler, S.; Meloni, D.; Menut, L.; Momboisse, G.; Nicolas, J.; Podvin, T.; Pont, V.; Rea, G.; Renard, J.-B.; Roblou, L.; Schepanski, K.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Sicard, M.; Solmon, F.; Somot, S.; Torres, B.; Totems, J.; Triquet, S.; Verdier, N.; Verwaerde, C.; Waquet, F.; Wenger, J.; Zapf, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a) including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy) and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS) and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows) were not favorable to producing high levels of atmospheric pollutants or intense biomass burning

  2. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  3. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  4. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  5. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-05-27

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  6. Modern dust aerosol availability in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Cheng, Hong; Che, Huizheng; Sun, Jimin; Lu, Huayu; Qiang, Mingrui; Hua, Ting; Zhu, Bingqi; Li, Hui; Ma, Wenyong; Lang, Lili; Jiao, Linlin; Li, Danfeng

    2017-08-18

    The sources of modern dust aerosols and their emission magnitudes are fundamental for linking dust with climate and environment. Using field sample data, wind tunnel experiments and statistical analysis, we determined the contributions of wadis, gobi (stony desert), lakebeds, riverbeds, and interdunes to modern dust aerosol availability in the three important potential dust sources including the Tarim Basin, Qaidam Basin, and Ala Shan Plateau of China. The results show that riverbeds are the dominant landscape for modern dust aerosol availabilities in the Qaidam Basin, while wadis, gobi, and interdunes are the main landscapes over the Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin. The Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin are potential dust sources in northwestern China, while the Qaidam Basin is not a major source of the modern dust aerosols nowadays, and it is not acting in a significant way to the Loess Plateau presently. Moreover, most of modern dust aerosol emissions from China originated from aeolian processes with low intensities rather than from major dust events.

  7. Wild Rodent Ectoparasites Collected from Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Zarei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents play an important role as reservoir of some pathogens, and the host of some ectoparasites as well. These ectoparasites can transmit rodents’ pathogens to human or animals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and infestation load of ectoparasites on rodents in Meshkin-Shahr District, northwestern Iran.Method: Rodents were captured using baited live traps in spring 2014 from Meshkin-Shahr District and were trans­ferred to the laboratory for identification to the species level. Their ectoparasites were collected, mounted and identi­fied.Results: Three rodent species including Meriones persicus (74%, Mus musculus (16.9% and Cricetulus migrato­rius (9% were identified. Among all rodents, 185 specimens (90.69% were infested with a total of 521 ectopara­sites. Overall, 10 arthropods species were collected, including fleas (97.6%, one mite (1.6% and one louse species (0.6% as follows: Xenopsylla nubica, X. astia, X. buxtoni, X. cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, N. iranus, Cten­ocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus rettigismiti, Ornithonyssus sp and one species of genus Polyplax. The most prev­alent ectoparasites species was X. nubica (89%.Conclusion: Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla species. Monitoring of ectoparasites on infested rodents is very important for awareness and early warning towards control of arthropod-borne diseases.

  8. Spatial dynamics of Fabiana imbricata shrublands in northwestern Patagonia in relation to natural fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ghermandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a critical disturbance in the structuring and functioning of most Mediterranean ecosystems. In northwestern Patagonia, vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by fire and environmental heterogeneity. Dendroecology, together with satellite imagery and GIS, have been demonstrated to be useful tools in studies that relate to fire effects with patches, patterns and species dynamics at landscape scale. Such studies can be approached from landscape ecology, which has evolved in the last years supported by the development of remote sensing and GIS technologies. This study evaluates the spatial dynamic of F. imbricata in response to fire using remote sensing, GIS and dendrochronology techniques, at landscape scale. Two sites were evaluated and one of them was affected by fire in the year 1999. The digital processing images (using the NBR spectral index and the dendroecological analysis verified this. A fire, occurring in 1978, was also detected by the analysis of F. imbricata growth rings. The relation between F. imbricata shrubland dynamics and spatial configuration with fire, land topography and hydrography was established in the study area.

  9. Anatomically and morphologically unique dark septate endophytic association in the roots of the Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Borovec, Ondřej; Župan, Ivan; Vondrášek, David; Petrtýl, Miloslav; Sudová, Radka

    2015-11-01

    Roots of terrestrial plants host a wide spectrum of soil fungi that form various parasitic, neutral and mutualistic associations. A similar trend is evident in freshwater aquatic plants and plants inhabiting salt marshes or mangroves. Marine vascular plants (seagrasses), by contrast, seem to lack specific root-fungus symbioses. We examined roots of two Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea for fungal colonization using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We found that P. oceanica, but not C. nodosa, is regularly associated with melanized septate hyphae in a manner resembling colonization by the ubiquitous dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots of most terrestrial plants. P. oceanica roots were found to be colonized by sparse dematiaceous running hyphae as well as dense parenchymatous nets/hyphal sheaths on the root surface, intracellular melanized microsclerotia and occasionally also intra- and intercellular hyphae. The colonization was most prominent in the thick-walled hypodermis of the thinnest healthy looking roots, and the mycobiont seemed to colonize both living and dead host cells. Dark septate hyphae infrequently occurred also inside rhizodermal cells, but never colonized vascular tissues. The biological significance of this overlooked marine symbiosis remains unknown, but its morphology, extent, distribution across the NW Mediterranean Sea and absence in C. nodosa indicate an intriguing relationship between the dominant Mediterranean seagrass and its dark septate root mycobionts.

  10. Interactions between climate change and human activities during the early to mid-Holocene in the eastern Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jean-Francois; Lespez, Laurent; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Glais, Arthur; Hourani, Fuad; Barra, Adrien; Guilaine, Jean

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on early Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) records in the Mediterranean zone, which are under-represented in continental archives (9.2 to 8.2 ka events) and on their impact on prehistoric societies. This lack of data handicaps the general interpretation of climate impacts on human societies, which flourished in recent years. Key questions remain about the impact of early Holocene cooling events on the Mediterranean climate, ecosystems and human societies. In this paper, we discuss some examples from river and lake systems from the eastern to central Mediterranean area (central Anatolia, Cyprus, northeastern and northwestern Greece) that illustrate some palaeohydrological and erosion variations that modified the sustainability of the first Neolithic populations in this region. Results allow us to present direct land-sea correlations and to reconstruct regional long-term trends as well as millennial- to centennial-scale climatic changes. In this context, we question the socio-economic and geographical adaptation capacities of these societies (mobility, technology, economic practices, social organisation) during the "early Holocene" interval (11.7 to 8.2 ka), which corresponds partly to the Sapropel 1 deposition in the eastern Mediterranean sea.

  11. Aerosol Optical Properties over Northwestern European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousta Floutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Riva, Riccardo; Biskos, George

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In order to quantify these effects it is necessary to determine the aerosol load. An effective way to do this is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). Besides AOD, the Fine mode Fraction (AOD of particles smaller than 1 μm / total AOD, FF) is a useful parameter for the characterization of the aerosol and provides a good proxy for particle size. In this study, we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD and FF over the Western and Northwestern European Seas (43° N - 67° N, 10° W - 31° E), where significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles are located. Anthropogenic particles (mostly fine mode) originate from ship activity, or from urban-industrial and biomass-burning processes in the European countries. The natural, coarse mode particles are primarily sea salt. The study is performed using Collection 006 Level-3 mean daily aerosol data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board Aqua satellite, available in 1° × 1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002- 2014. Our results indicate significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AOD values (up to 0.32 on annual level) are observed over the English Channel and the coasts of the Netherlands and Germany. In these regions the highest FF values are also observed (up to 0.77), indicating a relatively large contribution of anthropogenic particles to the aerosol load. Offshore, both AOD and FF are lower compared to coastal regions, indicating the predominance of maritime aerosols (sea salt). The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with larger aerosol load during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.60), and lower during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.30). A similar

  12. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  13. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2013 at zero lobsters....

  14. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean sclerophyllou

  15. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean

  16. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean sclerophyllou

  17. The Mediterranean is getting saltier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borghini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea have been getting saltier and warmer for at least the past 40 yr at rates of about 0.015 and 0.04 °C per decade. Here we show that two processes contribute to these increases in temperature and salinity. On interannual time scales, deep water formation events in severe winters transmit increasingly salty intermediate waters into the deep water. The second process is a steady downward flux of heat and salt through the halocline-thermocline that connects the Levantine Intermediate Water with the deep water. We illustrate these two processes with observations from repeat surveys of the western Mediterranean basin we have made over the past 10 yr.

  18. Clowning, Location, and Mediterranean Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Publicover, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the ways in which early modern clowns disturb both spatial and generic decorum within early modern drama, and examines the ideological implications of these disturbances. With a particular focus on plays set in the Mediterranean, it demonstrates how clown-figures, through a variety of techniques, refocus attention on the performance space even at moments when plays seem most concerned with the real geographical locations they present. The essay ends by considering the impa...

  19. Characterization of Mediterranean Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of motile prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and cosmopolitan in distribution. In this study, we collected magnetotactic bacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable diversity of morphotypes was observed, including muiticellular types that seemed to differ from those previously found in North and South America. Another interesting organism was one with magnetosomes arranged in a six-stranded bundle which occupied one third of the cell width. The magnetosome bundle was evident even under optic microscopy. These cells were connected together and swam as a linear entire unit. Magnetosomes did not always align up to form a straight linear chain. A chain composed of rectangle magnetosomes bent at a position with an oval crystal. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the crystal at the pivotal position suggested uncompleted formation of the crystal. This is the first report of Mediterranean magnetotactic bacteria, which should be useful for studies of biogeochemical cycling and geohistory of the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Forest Fires and Prevention Strategies in Northwestern Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The paper described the natural conditions and forest types in Northwestern Region of China. Most forests in the region are distributed in subalpine areas. It is important to protect the existent forests in the region for maintaining ecological balance. According to the statistics results of 1991~2000, the paper analyzes the forest fires distribution and fire severity. Annually the numbers of forest fires range from 52 to 240. The incidence rate of forest fires in Northwestern Region is under 0.33 per t...

  1. 40 CFR 81.126 - Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.126 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate...

  2. Gone with the plate: the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin drove the diversification of ground-dweller spiders

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    Bidegaray-Batista Leticia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major islands of the Western Mediterranean--Corsica, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands--are continental terrenes that drifted towards their present day location following a retreat from their original position on the eastern Iberian Peninsula about 30 million years ago. Several studies have taken advantage of this well-dated geological scenario to calibrate molecular rates in species for which distributions seemed to match this tectonic event. Nevertheless, the use of external calibration points has revealed that most of the present-day fauna on these islands post-dated the opening of the western Mediterranean basin. In this study, we use sequence information of the cox1, nad1, 16S, L1, and 12S mitochondrial genes and the 18S, 28S, and h3 nuclear genes, along with relaxed clock models and a combination of biogeographic and fossil external calibration points, to test alternative historical scenarios of the evolutionary history of the ground-dweller spider genus Parachtes (Dysderidae, which is endemic to the region. Results We analyse 49 specimens representing populations of most Parachtes species and close relatives. Our results reveal that both the sequence of species formation in Parachtes and the estimated divergence times match the geochronological sequence of separation of the main islands, suggesting that the diversification of the group was driven by Tertiary plate tectonics. In addition, the confirmation that Parachtes diversification matches well-dated geological events provides a model framework to infer substitution rates of molecular markers. Divergence rates estimates ranged from 3.5% My-1 (nad1 to 0.12% My-1 (28S, and the average divergence rate for the mitochondrial genes was 2.25% My-1, very close to the "standard" arthropod mitochondrial rate (2.3% My-1. Conclusions Our study provides the first unequivocal evidence of terrestrial endemic fauna of the major western Mediterranean islands, whose origin can

  3. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED summer 2013 campaign

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    M. Mallet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ADRIMED project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental set-up also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modelling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows were not favorable to produce high level of atmospheric pollutants nor intense biomass burning events in

  4. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  5. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

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    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  6. Age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean: Insight from rutile and minute zircon inclusions in a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst (Edough Massif, NE Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguier, Olivier; Bosch, Delphine; Caby, Renaud; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Fernandez, Laure; Hammor, Dalila; Laouar, Rabah; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Abdallah, Nachida; Mechati, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    Diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks witness for subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle and their return to shallow levels. In this study we present U-Pb and trace elements analyses of zircon and rutile inclusions from a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst collected in a mélange unit exposed on the northern margin of Africa (Edough Massif, NE Algeria). Large rutile crystals (up to 300 μm in size) analyzed in situ provide a U-Pb age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde to peak subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Trace element analyses of minute zircons (≤30 μm) indicate that they formed in equilibrium with the garnet megacryst at a temperature of 740-810 °C, most likely during HP retrograde metamorphism. U-Pb analyses provide a significantly younger age of 20.7 ± 2.3 Ma attributed to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean Orogen to the Oligocene/early Miocene, thus unambiguously relating UHP metamorphism to the Alpine history. Exhumation of these UHP units is coeval with the counterclockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block and most likely resulted from subduction rollback that was driven by slab pull.

  7. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  8. Back arc extension, tectonic inheritance, and volcanism in the Ligurian Sea, Western Mediterranean

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    Rollet, Nadège; Déverchère, Jacques; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Guennoc, Pol; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Sosson, Marc; Truffert, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    The Ligurian basin, western Mediterranean Sea, has opened from late Oligocene to early Miocene times, behind the Apulian subduction zone and partly within the western Alpine belt. We analyze the deep structures of the basin and its conjugate margins in order to describe the tectonic styles of opening and to investigate the possible contributions of forces responsible for the basin formation, especially the pulling force induced by the retreating subduction hinge and the gravitational body force from the Alpine wedge. To undertake this analysis, we combine new multichannel seismic reflection data (Malis cruise, 1995) with other geophysical data (previous multichannel and monochannel seismic sections, magnetic anomalies) and constrain them by geological sampling from two recent cruises (dredges from Marco cruise, 1995, and submersible dives from Cylice cruise, 1997). From an analysis of basement morphology and seismic facies, we refine the extent of the different domains in the Ligurian Sea: (1) the continental thinned margins, with strong changes in width and structure along strike and on both sides of the ocean; (2) the transitional domain to the basin; and (3) a narrow, atypical oceanic domain. Margin structures are characterized by few tilted blocks along the narrow margins, where inherited structures seem to control synrift sedimentation and margin segmentation. On the NW Corsican margin, extension is distributed over more than 120 km, including offshore Alpine Corsica, and several oceanward faults sole on a relatively flat reflector. We interpret them as previous Alpine thrusts reactivated during rifting as normal faults soling on a normal ductile shear zone. Using correlations between magnetic data, seismic facies, and sampling, we propose a new map of the distribution of magmatism. The oceanic domain depicts narrow, isolated magnetic anomalies and is interpreted as tholeitic volcanics settled within an unroofed upper mantle, whereas calcalkaline volcanism

  9. Lead sources and transfer in the coastal Mediterranean: evidence from stable lead isotopes in marine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Hamelin, B.; Véron, A. J.; Miquel, J.-C.; Heussner, S.

    Time series of settling and suspended particles have been collected by sediment traps and in situ pumps respectively, under contrasted hydrographic conditions in the Gulf of Lions and the Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean. Lead concentrations measured in sediment trap samples vary from 41±7 ppm in the Ligurian Sea to 58±10 ppm in the Gulf of Lions. These concentrations, 2-10 times lower than those measured previously in the Gulf of Lions, reflect the reduction of lead fallout from gasoline during the last decade. While atmospheric lead still originates mainly from anthropogenic emissions (automotive and industrial exhausts), stable lead isotopes demonstrate that anthropogenic and lithogenic lead are in similar proportions in the marine particles from the northwestern Mediterranean. Sequential extraction analyses performed on trap samples suggest that the isotopic variations can be explained by a three-component mixing between anthropogenic, natural soluble, and natural refractory sources. In the suspended particulate matter from the Gulf of Lions, lead concentrations range from 0.2 to 30 ng/ l, with isotopic compositions comparable to those of the settling particles ( 206Pb/ 207Pb from 1.165 to 1.178). This indicates a common origin in these two types of particles, probably mainly controlled by the Rhône River discharge and by resuspension processes on the continental shelf. By contrast, lead concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples from the Ligurian Sea (0.5 to 1.7 ng/ l). In this case, the isotopic signature (1.165±0.002) is in equilibrium with the dissolved fraction, as previously found in other oligotrophic sites in the open ocean, where the suspended particles are mainly of biological origin and lead essentially authigenic in these particles.

  10. Evaluating and adapting the Mediterranean diet for non-Mediterranean populations: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2013-09-01

    This review outlines the limitations of current techniques for evaluating the Mediterranean diet in Mediterranean versus non-Mediterranean populations. Differences between the two populations with regard to the foods that are available, food processing and preparation techniques, and eating and lifestyle habits may influence the implementation and effects of a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean regions. For example, the composition of food groups may vary significantly, due to differences in the specific foods within a food group and to differences in aspects of food production and preparation. Notable differences between the diets of Mediterranean versus non-Mediterranean populations include the source of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil versus meat), the amount of vegetables consumed and their manner of preparation, the source of alcohol (wine versus other) and the pattern of intake, and the types of meat and dairy products consumed. Lifestyle factors such as meal patterns and exposure to sunlight may also act as confounding factors when the overall benefits of a Mediterranean diet are assessed. Improving the calculation of Mediterranean diet scores and measuring plasma nutrient levels may help mitigate the effects of confounders. These considerations could have important health implications when a Mediterranean diet is implemented by non-Mediterranean populations.

  11. Pennsylvanian bryozoans from the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, A.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Bryozoans from six Pennsylvanian localities in the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain) are described. The faunas include 54 species, of which two are new, Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) peculiaris sp. nov. and Bashkirella minor sp. nov. Bryozoans are represented mainly by fenestrates (27 species)

  12. The Hermit Crabs (Crustacea Decapoda, Paguridea) of Northwestern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic study has been made of the Paguridea (exclusive of the Lithodidae) from northwestern North America. In addition to the redescriptions of all known species, two subgenera are herein raised to generic rank and a new genus is described. Several systematic problems have been resolved, and h

  13. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

  14. Capturing Qualitative Data: Northwestern University Special Libraries' Acknowledgments Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigberg, Sara; Guittar, Michelle; Morse, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and supporting data have become of increasing interest in librarianship. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of the Northwestern University Library Acknowledgments Database tool, which gathers and documents qualitative data, as well as its component reporting function. This collaborative project and resulting…

  15. Agricultural knowledge transfer and innovation processes in Vietnam's northwestern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas; Hoffmann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses processes of adoption of agricultural innovations introduced to the northwestern uplands of Vietnam since the late 1950s as a result of external driving forces and the motivation of adopting farmers. We found that innovations which meet the immediate needs of food security...

  16. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  17. From desert to deluge in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Some time between five and six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean. In consequence some areas dried out -- hence the title of Kenneth Hsü’s book The Mediterranean was a Desert 1 -- and large salty lakes recharged by rivers flowing through deep canyons rep

  18. Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcia, Luis

    2013-01-01

    measurements from eddy covariance systems located in two functionally different sparsely vegetated drylands sites: a littoral Mediterranean semiarid steppe and a dry-subhumid Mediterranean montane site. The method providing the best results in both areas was fdrying (mean absolute error of 0.17 mm day−1) which...

  19. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  20. Hydrological changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean, DYFAMED site during 1995–2007 and biogeochemical consequences

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    J. C. Marty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the monthly cruises of the DYFAMED time-series study (northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the period 1995–2007 were compiled to examine the hydrological changes and the linked variation of some biogeochemical characteristics (nutrients and pigments. A regular increase of temperature and salinity (0.005 °C y−1, 0.0022 psu y−1 was recorded in deep waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea (2000 m depth during 1995–2005. In February 2006 an abrupt increase in T (+0.1 °C and S (+0.03 psu was measured at 2000 m depth as the result of successive intense winter mixing events during the 3 previous years. The February 2006 event led to the mixing of the whole water column (0 to >2000 m and increased salt and heat content of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water by mixing with saltier and warmer Levantine Intermediate Water. The deficit in fresh water inputs to the western Mediterranean basin in three successive years (2003–2005 was suspected to be the major cause of this event since an increase of salinity in surface waters was monitored during these years. The measured phytoplankton biomass was specifically high after the periods of intense mixing. Chlorophyll a integrated biomass reached 230 mg m−2 in 1999, 175 mg m−2 in 2003, and 206 mg m−2 in 2006. The high levels of biomass were related to the particularly high increases in nutrients content in surface layers following the intense water column mixing and the subsequent development of a diatom bloom (as seen by fucoxanthin content. The occurrence of extreme events (high mixing, high nutrients, and high biomass increased in recent drought years (2003 to 2006. Our results indicated that the NW Mediterranean Sea productivity is increasing.

  1. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  2. Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Stüben, D.; Varnavas, S. P.

    1999-08-01

    Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea results from the collision of the African and European plates, with the subduction of the oceanic part of the African plate below Europe. High heat flows in the resulting volcanic arcs and back-arc extensional areas have set-up hydrothermal convection systems. Most of the known hydrothermal sites are in shallow coastal waters, <200 m depth, so that much of the reported fluid venting is of the gasohydrothermal type. The hydrothermal liquids are of varying salinities, both because of phase separation as a result of seawater boiling at the low pressures and because of significant inputs of rainfall into the hydrothermal reservoirs at some sites. The major component of the vented gas is carbon dioxide, with significant quantities of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane and hydrogen also being released. Acid leaching of the underlying rocks leads to the mobilisation of heavy metals, many of which are deposited sub-surface although there is a conspicuous enrichment of metals in surficial sediments in venting areas. Massive polymetalic sulphides have been reported from some sites. No extant vent-specific fauna have been described from Mediterranean sites. There is a reduced diversity of fauna within the sediments at the vents. In contrast, a high diversity of epifauna has been reported and the vent sites are areas of settlement for exotic thermophilic species. Large numbers of novel prokaryotes, especially hyperthermophilic crenarchaeota, have been isolated from Mediterranean hydrothermal vents. However, their distribution in the subsurface biosphere and their role in the biogeochemistry of the sites has yet to be studied.

  3. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  4. Life-history traits of temperate and thermophilic barracudas (Teleostei: Sphyraenidae) in the context of sea warming in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Hernández, H; Muñoz, M; Lloret, J

    2014-06-01

    This study indicated that the life-history traits of European barracuda Sphyraena sphyraena are apparently better suited to their environmental conditions compared to the more physically restricted life-history traits of the yellow-mouth barracuda Sphyraena viridensis, which co-habit the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The latter thermophilic species has a considerably higher reproductive potential as it invests its energy reserves in larger numbers of hydrated eggs per spawning batch. This would favour its population growth rates within the study area, especially if sea warming continues, in which case it is likely that the spawning phenology of this species would give it an advantage.

  5. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  6. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romero Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have concluded that incidences of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures vary across the European Union, the lowest incidence being reported in the Mediterranean area. The beneficial effect is mainly attributed to a specific eating pattern. The Mediterranean diet contain a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive molecules with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and alkalinising properties that may contribute to the bone-sparing effect of the Mediterranean diet. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of Mediterranean diet on bone health. Methods: The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol", "bone", "osteoporosis", "fracture", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and bone" or "Mediterranean diet and fracture". Results: A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between Mediterranean Diet and bone health, and they have reported conflicting results. On the one hand, adherence to a traditional MeDi has been associated with higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. The results of these studies could be attributed to the combined beneficial effects of individual components of the Mediterranean diet. On the contrary, several studies failed to show any association between adherence to the MeDi and indices of bone mass. Conclusions: Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on bone health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of osteoporosis.

  7. A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the δ13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower δ13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. δ13C records from drier and warmer sites are

  8. Measurements of Land Subsidence Rates on the North-western Portion of the Nile Delta Using Radar Interferometry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Joseph M.

    The Nile Delta is home to around 75 million people and most of Egypt's farmland and agricultural production. This area is currently threatened by Mediterranean Sea waters due to factors such as sediment starvation, climate change, and sea level fluctuations as well as subsidence. The low elevation and relief of the Nile Delta exposes many coastal communities, including the city of Alexandria, to potential inundation. This situation has become a concern for the area's residents but a better understanding of the processes occurring there can aid in deciding a suitable response. Recent studies have documented Holocene subsidence rates in the northeast part of the Nile Delta that average up to 8mm/year. In this study, PS-InSAR techniques are used to measure modern land subsidence rates on the north-central and north-western Nile Delta. Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques were applied to 23 ESA radar scenes from 2 orbital tracks spanning from 1992 to 2000 in the north-central and north-west portions of the Nile Delta. The area includes the cities of Alexandria, Greater Mahala, and Mansoura as well as the Rosetta promontory and lake Burullus, Idku Lagoon, and Maryut Lagoon. Results indicate that modern average-vertical ground motion velocities for the north-western and north-central Nile Delta range from emergent to subsidence of 8.5 mm/yr. The range of velocities measured are spatially varied in a complex way across the study area. Patterns of subsidence correlate closely to areas of most recent sediment deposition such as along coastlines and rivers, as well as in lagoons and lakes. Average subsidence velocities are also lower across the western sections of the Nile Delta than in the northeastern delta.

  9. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Holon

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m. It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures

  10. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  11. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  12. Modern view of Western Mediterranean hydrography (Arne Richter Award Lecture for OYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is in many ways a miniature ocean. It has deep water formation varying on interannual time scales and a well-defined overturning circulation, and there are distinct surface, intermediate and deep water masses circulating between the western and the eastern basin. What makes the Mediterranean particularly useful for climate change studies is that its time scale is much shorter than for the global ocean, with a turnover time of roughly 60 years compared with more than 500 years for the global ocean. Changes can happen faster, on the time scale of a human lifetime. Thus the Mediterranean is useful as a laboratory for documenting changes within it (and hence anticipating similar changes in the global ocean) and for understanding the role of key processes involved in climate change (thus to make inferences on those processes on the global scale). It is a semi-enclosed basin for which a rewarding monitoring strategy should rely on regular ship-based surveys (Med-SHIP, as a component of GO-SHIP, to provide data over the entire water column, especially for the deep ocean below 2 km, i.e. more than 20% of Mediterranean volume), physical process studies (e.g. mixing, strait flows) and using it as a laboratory for climate change (e.g. deep water formation, slow changes in salinity and temperature). In the western deep layers, an almost constant trend towards higher salinity and temperature has been observed since the '50s. More recent observations evidenced an acceleration of this tendency. An alteration of the stratification, associated with an abrupt temperature and salinity increase has been observed. In particular, since March 2005 large volumes of new bottom water have formed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably this new bottom water is warmer and saltier than the old deep waters so it has become an easily recognized water mass when temperature and salinity profiles are made through the water column. Since its formation, this new bottom

  13. Habitat modeling for cetacean management: Spatial distribution in the southern Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, Maria Grazia; Mérigot, Bastien; Fonseca, Vinícius Prado; Monni, Virginia; Rotta, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Effective management and conservation of wild populations requires knowledge of their habitats, especially by mean of quantitative analyses of their spatial distributions. The Pelagos Sanctuary is a dedicated marine protected area for Mediterranean marine mammals covering an area of 90,000 km2 in the north-western Mediterranean Sea between Italy, France and the Principate of Monaco. In the south of the Sanctuary, i.e. along the Sardinian coast, a range of diverse human activities (cities, industry, fishery, tourism) exerts several current ad potential threats to cetacean populations. In addition, marine mammals are recognized by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive as essential components of sustainable ecosystems. Yet, knowledge on the spatial distribution and ecology of cetaceans in this area is quite scarce. Here we modeled occurrence of the three most abundant species known in the Sanctuary, i.e. the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), using sighting data from scientific surveys collected from 2012 to 2014 during summer time. Bayesian site-occupancy models were used to model their spatial distribution in relation to habitat taking into account oceanographic (sea surface temperature, primary production, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll-a concentration) and topographic (depth, slope, distance of the land) variables. Cetaceans responded differently to the habitat features, with higher occurrence predicted in the more productive areas on submarine canyons. These results provide ecological information useful to enhance management plans and establish baseline for future population trend studies.

  14. Wind-induced changes in the dynamics of fluorescent organic matter in the coastal NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Fran L; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; López-Sanz, Àngel; Pascual, Josep; Salat, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia D; La Fuente, Patricia De; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Cèlia

    2017-12-31

    Marine biogeochemistry dynamics in coastal marine areas is strongly influenced by episodic events such as rain, intense winds, river discharges and anthropogenic activities. We evaluated in this study the importance of these forcing events on modulating seasonal changes in the marine biogeochemistry of the northwestern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, based on data gathered from a fixed coastal sampling station in the area. A 4-year (2011-2014) monthly sampling at four depths (0.5m, 20m, 50m and 80m) was performed to examine the time variability of several oceanographic variables: seawater temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrient concentrations (NO3(-), PO4(3-) and SiO2), chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM). FDOM dynamics was predominantly influenced by upwelling events and mixing processes, driven by strong and characteristic wind episodes. SW wind episodes favored the upwelling of deeper and denser waters into the shallower shelf, providing a surplus of autochthonous humic-like material and inorganic nutrients, whereas northerlies favored the homogenization of the whole shelf water column by cooling and evaporation. These different wind-induced processes (deep water intrusion or mixing), reported along the four sampled years, determined a high interannual environmental variability in comparison with other Mediterranean sampling sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mahé, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-09-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

  16. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  18. Population – genetic structure on European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Engraulide from Mediterranean Basin and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. IVANOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle proteins of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus L. were analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing on thin polyacrylamide ampholine gel. Twenty-two protein loci were analyzed and polymorphism was found in six of them. Based on genetic-biochemical data, we hypothesize that there are two anchovy subspecies, European and African. The former inhabits the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean coast of Europe, and the Aegean, Marmora, Black, and Azov Seas. The latter is found in the Cape Blank region of the Atlantic Ocean and, probably, along the northwestern part of the African coast. The Aegean anchovy consists of hybrid populations, resulting from introgressive hybridization between the European and the African populations. No evidence for subspecies differentiation between the populations from the European coast of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean was found. Genetic distances between the Azov and Black Sea populations show that the former probably entered the Black Sea during the Karangad period and the latter during the last connection of the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The genetic distance between the Black Sea anchovy and the Azov anchovy shows that they could be specified as two different populations. Probably some earlier subspecies differences disappeared as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  19. Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Katherine; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of selected dietary components is favourably associated with prevention of type 2 diabetes, but discordant results for some foods or single nutrients continue to appear. The study of complete dietary patterns represents the most adequate approach to assess the role of diet on the risk of diabetes. The term 'Mediterranean diet' essentially refers to a primarily plant-based dietary pattern whose greater consumption has been associated with higher survival for lower all-cause mortality. At least five large prospective studies report a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy people or at risk patients with the highest adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Five randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean diet, as compared with other commonly used diets, on glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Improvement of HbA1c levels was greater with a Mediterranean diet and ranged from 0.1% to 0.6% for HbA1c . No trial reported worsening of glycaemic control with a Mediterranean diet. Although no controlled trial specifically assessed the role of a Mediterranean diet in reducing cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes, there is evidence that post-infarct or high-risk patients, including diabetic patients, may have cardiovascular benefits from a Mediterranean diet. The evidence so far accumulated suggests that adopting a Mediterranean diet may help prevent type 2 diabetes; moreover, a lower carbohydrate, Mediterranean-style diet seems good for HbA1c reduction in persons with established diabetes.

  20. Spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton dimensional classes in the Mediterranean Sea from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, Michela; Di Cicco, Annalisa; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-04-01

    coastal areas, such as the North Adriatic Sea, micro-phytoplankton fraction on Chl a is constant, all over the year. On contrary, the contribution of nano-phytoplankton seems to be quite constant (30-40%) over the basin, with higher values in the western basin. At sub-basin scale, the largest interannual variability occurs in specific areas, e.g. Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, influenced by physical processes, which strongly control the nutrients availability. In absence of sufficient in situ data of community composition, our analysis underlines the potential use of ocean colour data for monitoring the phytoplankton assemblage in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Hilmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing and cultured species (aquaculture prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.

  2. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  3. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S–23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may

  4. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise and in June–July 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts.

  5. Projections of ocean climate for northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI Byung Ho; KIM Dong Hoon; CHOI Young Jin; YUK Jin Hee

    2005-01-01

    The long-term adjustment processes of atmosphere and ocean in response to gradually increased atmospheric CO2 concentration havebeen analyzed in 70 and 140 a integrations with NCAR fully-coupled climate system model (CSM). In these experiments the CO2concentration has been increased to double and quadruples the initial concentration, respectively. After 70 a, at the time of CO2doubling, the model predicts surface air temperature rises by 1.2 and 1.5 K for the globe and the northwestern Pacific Ocean,respectively. The behavior of the quadrupling run is similar: each global and regional mean surface air temperatures increase by 2.8 and 3.0K at the time of CO2 quadrupling. From the experiments, surface air temperature changes in the northwestern Pacific Ocean will be more distinctive compared with the global average, mainly due to exceptionally large warming and sea level change near the entrance of the Kuroshio extension.

  6. Tropical storm Irene flood of August 2011 in northwestern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Olson, Scott A.; Massey, Andrew J.

    2016-09-02

    A Presidential disaster was declared in northwestern Massachusetts, following flooding from tropical storm Irene on August 28, 2011. During the storm, 3 to 10 inches of rain fell on soils that were susceptible to flash flooding because of wet antecedent conditions. The gage height at one U.S. Geological Survey streamgage rose nearly 20 feet in less than 4 hours because of the combination of saturated soils and intense rainfall. On August 28, 2011, in the Deerfield and Hoosic River Basins in northwestern Massachusetts, new peaks of record were set at six of eight U.S. Geological Survey long-term streamgages with 46 to 100 years of record. Additionally, high-water marks were surveyed and indirect measurements of peak discharge were calculated at two discontinued streamgages in the Deerfield and Hoosic River Basins with 24 and 61 years of record, respectively. This data resulted in new historic peaks of record at the two discontinued streamgages from tropical storm Irene.

  7. Northwestern University Schizophrenia Data and Software Tool (NUSDAST)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Kogan, Alex; Cobia, Derin; Alpert, Kathryn; Kolasny, Anthony; Miller, Michael I.; Marcus, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The schizophrenia research community has invested substantial resources on collecting, managing and sharing large neuroimaging datasets. As part of this effort, our group has collected high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) datasets from individuals with schizophrenia, their non-psychotic siblings, healthy controls and their siblings. This effort has resulted in a growing resource, the Northwestern University Schizophrenia Data and Software Tool (NUSDAST), an NIH-funded data sharing project ...

  8. Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests. PMID:22523580

  9. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, D; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  10. Multivariate statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry in Northwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Espada-Rios, M.I.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (University of Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Faculty of Mathematics, Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-07-01

    149 samples of rainwater were collected in the proximity of a power station in northwestern Spain at three rainwater monitoring stations. The resulting data are analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Firstly, the Principal Component Analysis shows that there are three main sources of pollution in the area (a marine source, a rural source and an acid source). The impact from pollution from these sources on the immediate environment of the stations is studied using Factorial Discriminant Analysis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  12. Sandstone petrofacies in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas, J.; Ochoa, M; R Mas; Arribas, Mª E.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2007-01-01

    [EN] During the most active rifting stages in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin (Cameros Basin and Aragonese Branch of the Iberian Range), thick sequences of continental clastic deposits were generated. Sandstone records from Rift cycle 1 (Permo-Triassic) and Rift cycle 2 (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) show similarities in composition. Based on the most recent data, this paper describes sandstone petrofacies developed during both rifting periods. Six petrofacies can be d...

  13. Sandstone petrofacies in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas Mocoroa, José; Ochoa, M; Mas Mayoral, José Ramón; Arribas Mocoroa, María Eugenia; González-Acebrón, L.

    2007-01-01

    During the most active rifting stages in the northwestern sector of the Iberian Basin (Cameros Basin and Aragonese Branch of the Iberian Range), thick sequences of continental clastic deposits were generated. Sandstone records from Rift cycle 1 (Permo-Triassic) and Rift cycle 2 (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) show similarities in composition. Based on the most recent data, this paper describes sandstone petrofacies developed during both rifting periods. Six petrofacies can be distinguishe...

  14. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  15. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  16. Steatosis and steatohepatitis in postmortem material from Northwestern Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; D; Zois; Gerasimos; H; Baltayiannis; Anna; Bekiari; Anna; Goussia; Peter; Karayiannis; Michalis; Doukas; Demetrios; Demopoulos; Antigoni; Mitsellou; Theodoros; Vougiouklakis; Vasiliki; Mitsi; Epameinondas; V; Tsianos

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of steatosis and steatohepatitis in a series of autopsies in Northwestern Greece. METHODS: Liver biopsy material from a total of 600 autopsies performed over a period of 2 years (2006-2008) to def ine the cause of death was subjected to histological examination. Patient demographic data were also collected. Tissue sections were stained with different dyes for the evaluation of liver architecture, degree of fibrosis and other pathological conditions when necessary. RESULTS: S...

  17. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  18. Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  19. "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  20. Familial Mediterranean Fever and Hypercoagulability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayer-Shifman, Oshrat E.; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad

    2011-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Colchicine which is the treatment of choice in FMF may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulability. PMID:21713077

  1. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta and an invasive alien grass (Pennisetum setaceum. Ampelodesmos mauritanicus is very common throughout the Mediterranean basin, mostly on north-facing slopes, H. hirta characterizes thermo-xeric grasslands, while P. setaceum is an alien species that is rapidly spreading along coastal areas. The measured morphometric attributes of individual plants as potential predictors were considered. The validation results corroborate the ability of the established models to predict above ground and total biomass of A. mauritanicus and P. setaceum. We also evaluated the total biomass per hectare for each species. The highest biomass per hectare was found for A. mauritanicus, whereas biomass was higher for H. hirta than for P. setaceum. The replacement of H. hirta by P. setaceum may reduce the total carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, P. setaceum allocates more resources to the roots, thus increasing the more stable and durable pool of carbon in grasslands.Los pastizales secundarios son uno de los tipos de vegetación más comunes en todo el mundo. En Europa y en la cuenca mediterránea, las actividades humanas han transformado muchos bosques en pastizales secundarios. A pesar de su reconocido papel en el ciclo global del carbono, hay muy pocos datos disponibles para la estimación de la biomasa de los pastizales mediterráneos. Hemos desarrollado modelos de regresión lineal con el fin de predecir la biomasa de dos gramíneas nativas del Mediterráneo (Ampelodesmos

  2. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  3. Food habits of pumas in northwestern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.

  4. Intercomparison of two Comparative Reactivity Method instruments in the Mediterranean basin during summer 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zannoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH plays a key role in the atmosphere, as it initiates most of the oxidation processes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, and can ultimately lead to the formation of ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA. There are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget assessed using current models of atmospheric chemistry and direct measurements of OH sources and sinks have proved to be valuable tools to improve our understanding of the OH chemistry. The total first order loss rate of OH, or total OH reactivity, can be directly measured using three different methods, such as: total OH Loss rate Measurement, Laser Induced Pump and Probe Technique and Comparative Reactivity Method. Observations of total OH reactivity are usually coupled to individual measurements of reactive compounds in the gas phase, which are used to calculate the OH reactivity. Studies using the three methods have highlighted that a significant fraction of OH reactivity is often not explained by individually measured reactive compounds and could be associated to unmeasured or unknown chemical species. Therefore accurate and reproducible measurements of OH reactivity are required. The Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM has demonstrated to be an advantageous technique with an extensive range of applications, and for this reason it has been adopted by several research groups since its development. However, this method also requires careful corrections to derive ambient OH reactivity. Herein we present an intercomparison exercise of two CRM instruments (CRM-LSCE and CRM-MD, conducted during July 2013 at the Mediterranean site of Ersa, Cape Corsica, France. We discuss in detail the experimental approach adopted and how the data sets were processed for both instruments. Corrections required for the two instruments lead to higher values of reactivity in ambient air; overall 20% increase for CRM-MD and 49% for CRM-LSCE compared to the raw data. We show that

  5. The Historical Construction of the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Dominic; Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    that brought the Mediterranean back into the limelight, as Europe first and then other world players recognized that the region’s concerns were also their own. Looking at the contemporary Mediterranean the authors see in it a scale-model of world affairs, a concentration of intense political situations......Ideas about what the Mediterranean is, was or is imagined to be abound, and the debate over definition continues to intrigue scholars more than ever, especially as the region’s heightened newsworthiness in recent years has forced the protagonists of world affairs to turn their attention to it....... Historically the status of the Mediterranean has changed over and over again, in terms of unity and cohesion, or lack thereof, but also of the region’s shifting place in the global hierarchy of power. The post-Cold War era rekindled or exposed a host of historically-engrained problems and developments...

  6. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.;

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reaso...

  7. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and

  8. Mediterranean diets: historical and research overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    1995-06-01

    Diets consumed by Mediterranean populations have been a subject of interest since antiquity, with more recent investigations focused on their evident health benefits. The work of Ancel Keys in the 1950s established the largely plant-based Mediterranean diet as the original prototype for current dietary guidelines in the United States and elsewhere. As a cultural model for dietary improvement, the Mediterranean diet can be recommended for both its health benefits and its palatability. Given worldwide trends toward dietary uniformity, classic Mediterranean diets may be becoming endangered species, and much basic and applied research is needed to define the ways in which such traditional and healthful dietary patterns can be preserved and promoted.

  9. New hexactinellid sponges from deep Mediterranean canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dubois, Maude; Goujard, Adrien; Fourt, Maïa; Pérez, Thierry; Chevaldonné, Pierre

    2017-02-21

    During the exploration of the NW Mediterranean deep-sea canyons (MedSeaCan and CorSeaCan cruises), several hexactinellid sponges were observed and collected by ROV and manned submersible. Two of them appeared to be new species of Farrea and Tretodictyum. The genus Farrea had so far been reported with doubt from the Mediterranean and was listed as "taxa inquirenda" for two undescribed species. We here provide a proper description for the specimens encountered and sampled. The genus Tretodictyum had been recorded several times in the Mediterranean and in the near Atlantic as T. tubulosum Schulze, 1866, again with doubt, since the type locality is the Japan Sea. We here confirm that the Mediterranean specimens are a distinct new species which we describe. We also provide18S rDNA sequences of the two new species and include them in a phylogenetic tree of related hexactinellids.

  10. Could the 'Mediterranean' Diet Help Prevent ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163317.html Could the 'Mediterranean' Diet Help Prevent ADHD? There's no solid proof, but encouraging healthy eating ... good" fats -- may be less likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a small study suggests. Research on 120 ...

  11. Mediterranean Aquaculture: Marine Fish Farming Development

    OpenAIRE

    Basurco, B

    2001-01-01

    in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly over recent years. Total aquaculture production in the region reached 1,266,959 t in 1999, which represents approximately 6% of the world aquaculture production (3% in 1995). Although Mediterranean aquaculture still focuses more on mollusc production (53.9%), the share of fish production is progressing constantly (46% in 1999, and 35% in 1995), parallel to global trends of world a...

  12. Acoustic and optical variations during rapid downward motion episodes in the deep north-western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, H.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, G.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-08-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was moored at the deep-sea site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope near Toulon, France, thus providing a unique opportunity to compare high-resolution acoustic and optical observations between 70 and 170 m above the sea bed at 2475 m. The ADCP measured downward vertical currents of magnitudes up to 0.03 m s-1 in late winter and early spring 2006. In the same period, observations were made of enhanced levels of acoustic reflection, interpreted as suspended particles including zooplankton, by a factor of about 10 and of horizontal currents reaching 0.35 m s-1. These observations coincided with high light levels detected by the telescope, interpreted as increased bioluminescence. During winter 2006 deep dense-water formation occurred in the Ligurian subbasin, thus providing a possible explanation for these observations. However, the 10-20 days quasi-periodic episodes of high levels of acoustic reflection, light and large vertical currents continuing into the summer are not direct evidence of this process. It is hypothesized that the main process allowing for suspended material to be moved vertically later in the year is local advection, linked with topographic boundary current instabilities along the rim of the 'Northern Current'.

  13. Acoustic and optical variations during rapid downward motion episodes in the deep north-western Mediterranean Sea

    CERN Document Server

    van Haren, H; Aguilar, J A; Albert, A; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J -J; Auer, R; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bazzotti, M; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bou-Cabof, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Brown, A; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Castel, D; Castorina, E; Cavasinni, V; Cecchini, S; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Cottini, N; Coyleh, P; Curtil, C; De Bonis, G; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Ernenwein, J -P; Escoffier, S; Fehr, F; Flaminio, V; Fratini, K; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J -L; Giacomelli, G; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Hößl, J; de Jong, M; Kalantar-Nayestanakia, N; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kretschmer, W; Lahmann, R; Lamare, P; Lambard, G; Laros, G; Laschinsky, H; Lefèvre, D; Lelaizant, G; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyons, K; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martinez-Mora, J A; Maurin, G; Mazure, A; Melissas, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Naumann, C; Neff, M; Ostasch, R; Palioselitis, G; Păvălaş, G E; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Picqu, C; Pillet, R; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Radu, A; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richardt, C; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Sales, F; Schoeck, F; Schuller, J -P; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Tamburini, C; Tasca, L; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was moored at the deep-sea site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope near Toulon, France, thus providing a unique opportunity to compare high-resolution acoustic and optical observations between 70 and 170 m above the sea bed at 2475 m. The ADCP measured downward vertical currents of magnitudes up to 0.03 m s-1 in late winter and early spring 2006. In the same period, observations were made of enhanced levels of acoustic reflection, interpreted as suspended particles including zooplankton, by a factor of about 10 and of horizontal currents reaching 0.35 m s-1. These observations coincided with high light levels detected by the telescope, interpreted as increased bioluminescence. During winter 2006 deep dense-water formation occurred in the Ligurian subbasin, thus providing a possible explanation for these observations. However, the 10-20 days quasi-periodic episodes of high levels of acoustic reflection, light and large vertical currents continuing into the summer are ...

  14. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gerald; Bouchez, Agnes; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy , Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copoly...

  15. Trace metals in seawater, sediments and some fish species from Marsa Matrouh Beaches in north-western Mediterranean coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa A. Abdel Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of trace metals (V, Al, Sn, As, and Se were measured in seawater, sediments, and muscles of fish species collected from beaches of Marsa Matrouh, North West coast of Egypt. The decreasing trend of metals was observed in water as Al > Sn > As > V > Se and in sediment as Al > Sn > V > As > Se. The levels of dissolved V, Se and As were lower than the typical natural trace element concentration of seawater while, Al surpassed. Dissolved Sn concentration was higher than the background concentration (0.01 μg/l but it is still lower than the toxic concentration for organisms. Pollution load index (PLI recorded values >1 indicate progressive deterioration of the sediment quality. Enrichment factor (EF, contamination factor (CF and geoaccumulation index (Igeo demonstrated that most of the sediment samples were moderately to heavily contaminated by Sn which surpassed the threshold limit value (TLV. Metal bioaccumulation in the muscles of fish species was in the decreasing order of Al > Sn > V > Se, while As was not detected in all species. Calculated metal pollution indices (MPI were lower than 1 except in Saurida undosquamis with 1.43 indicating that it is safe for human consumption.

  16. Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region: a consensus view among methods with different system identification and tracking criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Lionello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean storm track constitutes a well-defined branch of the North Hemisphere storm track and is characterised by small but intense features and frequent cyclogenesis. The goal of this study is to assess the level of consensus among cyclone detection and tracking methods (CDTMs, to identify robust features and to explore sources of disagreement. A set of 14 CDTMs has been applied for computing the climatology of cyclones crossing the Mediterranean region using the ERA-Interim dataset for the period 1979–2008 as common testbed. Results show large differences in actual cyclone numbers identified by different methods, but a good level of consensus on the interpretation of results regarding location, annual cycle and trends of cyclone tracks. Cyclogenesis areas such as the north-western Mediterranean, North Africa, north shore of the Levantine basin, as well as the seasonality of their maxima are robust features on which methods show a substantial agreement. Differences among methods are greatly reduced if cyclone numbers are transformed to a dimensionless index, which, in spite of disagreement on mean values and interannual variances of cyclone numbers, reveals a consensus on variability, sign and significance of trends. Further, excluding ‘weak’ and ‘slow’ cyclones from the computation of cyclone statistics improves the agreement among CDTMs. Results show significant negative trends of cyclone frequency in spring and positive trends in summer, whose contrasting effects compensate each other at annual scale, so that there is no significant long-term trend in total cyclone numbers in the Mediterranean basin in the 1979–2008 period.

  17. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within

  18. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within

  19. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  20. Mediterranean diet adherence in the Mediterranean healthy eating, aging and lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marventano, Stefano; Godos, Justyna; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-05-31

    A decline in adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern has been observed over the last years. The aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and possible determinants in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort. Demographic and dietary data of 1937 individuals were collected in 2014-2015 from the general population of Catania, Sicily (Italy). Food frequency questionnaires and the MEDI-LITE score were used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The score well characterised consumption of major food groups, micro- and macro-nutrients. The cohort had a general good adherence, but only a minority was highly adherent. High adherence was directly associated with education, non-smoking and physical activity and inversely with high occupational status. In conclusions, Mediterranean diet is still followed in Sicily; however, nutrition education campaigns should promote healthy traditional dietary patterns in certain groups of individuals.

  1. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  2. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  3. Effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts on the lipid traits of muscle and adipose tissues in corsican and corsican × large white pigs reared in a sylvo-pastoral system in corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutron-Gambotti, C; Gandemer, G; Casabianca, F

    1998-10-01

    In the sylvo-pastoral extensive system in Corsica, pigs are fattened with chestnuts. The decrease in chestnut resource forces the farmers to use more and more concentrated diets for feeding the pigs but so far they have disregarded the consequences of this on meat quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts during the fattening period on the lipid composition of adipose and muscle tissues of ham in Corsican and Corsican × Large-White pigs. The results showed that the Corsican × Large-White pigs had heavier carcasses (125kg versus 106kg) and hams (12·5kg versus 10·2kg) but the genotype affected neither the carcass fatness nor the lipid composition of the adipose and muscle tissues. In addition, compared to chestnuts, the concentrated diet used did not affect live-weight, carcass and ham weights, or the carcass fatness of the pigs at slaughter. However, pigs fattened with a concentrated diet had adipose tissue lipids, intramuscular triglycerides and phospholipids with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (8·1% versus 6·2%, 5·8% versus 4·5%, and 47·7% versus 37·1%, respectively).

  4. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  5. Familial Mediterranean fever in siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Z Birsin; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; Elhan, Atilla H; Yalçinkaya, Fatoş

    2012-11-01

    Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in disease severity and development of amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). We investigated similarities in clinical characteristics, disease severity, and treatment response within siblings with FMF. The study group consisted of 2 or more siblings who were followed in our center with the diagnosis of FMF. Siblings were evaluated for demographic data, clinical and laboratory disease features, genetic analysis of MEFV mutations, and disease severity score. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), which can be interpreted as the expected correlation between 2 siblings, was used to reflect within-family similarity. The study included 67 pediatric patients from 31 different families. When we investigated the similarity of siblings after adjusting for genetic effects, we found very low ICC with p > 0.05 in the majority of clinical features, disease severity, and colchicine dosages. However, age at disease onset, age at onset of therapy, attack-free acute-phase reactant levels, and presence of amyloidosis were found to be similar within siblings (relatively high ICC with p < 0.05). Siblings with FMF had different clinical findings and disease severity. They had similar amyloidogenic potential, proven by both similar presence of amyloid and increased levels of acute-phase reactants between attacks. Our findings strongly support that genetic factors may be more dominant in the development of amyloidosis.

  6. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönmez HE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hafize Emine Sönmez,* Ezgi Deniz Batu,* Seza ÖzenDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations.Keywords: familial Meditarranean fever, recommendation, child

  7. [Sacroiliitis in familial Mediterranean fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connemann, B J; Steinhoff, J; Benstein, R; Sack, K

    1991-11-22

    A 15-year-old girl of Turkish descent had for one year complained of severe recurrent fever-associated deep back pains. Since she was three years of age she had suffered from repeated attacks of fever and severe abdominal pain which ceased spontaneously in 1-3 days. On physical examination the sacrum and iliosacral joints were very painful to percussion, and she limped. Radiography revealed symmetric destructive sacroiliitis. Despite the unusual location of the arthritis, the triad of fever, abdominal pain and arthritis, as well as her belonging to an ethnic "at risk" group, pointed to the diagnosis of familial mediterranean fever (FML) or recurrent hereditary polyserositis. This diagnosis was confirmed by a positive metaraminol provocation test in that infusion of metaraminol reproduced the typical pains. Collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, acute porphyria and chronic infectious processes were excluded. The sacroiliitis quickly responded to long-term administration of colchicine, 0.5 mg twice daily. The patient also has Hageman factor deficiency whose significance remains unclear.

  8. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  9. FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Furthermore, it may well be that during the acute attack of FMF the procoagulant factors are consumed or used for the purpose of inflammation so that nothing is left for their role in the coagulation pathway. Colchicine may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulabilty

  10. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances protective ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" cholesterol, ...

  11. Mediterranean diet, culture and heritage: challenges for a new conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Medina, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss the role of the Mediterranean diet as a part of Human Culture and Intangible Cultural Heritage. Until the present, Mediterranean diet has been observed as a healthy model of medical behaviour. After its proposal as a Cultural Heritage of the Humanity at UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), Mediterranean diet is actually being observed as a part of Mediterranean culture and starting its concept as an equivalent of Mediterranean Cultural Food System or Mediterranean Culinary System. At the candidacy of Mediterranean diet as a World Cultural Intangible Heritage to be presented at UNESCO in 2008, this new conception is making sense. A new point of view that will be capital in the future discussions about the Mediterranean diet, their challenges and their future perspectives.

  12. Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159958.html Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review Still protected ... July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even a high-fat Mediterranean diet may protect against breast cancer, diabetes ...

  13. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  14. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  15. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia and eastern (Turkey realms.

    The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below −0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, Mordechai; Halpern, Gabrielle J

    2011-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. There are two phenotypes: types 1 and 2. Familial Mediterranean fever type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis, including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication. Familial Mediterranean fever type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever in an otherwise asymptomatic individual. Routine treatment of end-stage renal disease, including renal transplantation, is advised. Lifelong treatment with colchicine is required for homozygotes for the p.Met694Val mutation or compound heterozygotes for p.Met694Val and another disease-causing allele; this prevents the inflammatory attacks and the deposition of amyloid. Individuals who do not have the p.Met694Val mutation and who are only mildly affected should be either treated with colchicine or monitored every 6 months for the presence of proteinuria. Molecular genetic testing of the MEFV gene, the only gene currently known to be associated with familial Mediterranean fever, can be offered to family members, especially when the p.Met694Val allele is present, because renal amyloidosis can be prevented by colchicine.

  17. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.DELGADO-BAQUERIZO; F.COVELO; A.GALLARDO

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in soils has recently gained increasing interest because it may be both a direct N source for plants and the dominant available N form in nutrient-poor soils, however, its prevalence in Mediterranean ecosystems remains unclear. The aims of this study were to i) estimate soil DON in a wide set of Mediterranean ecosystems and compare this levels with those for other ecosystems; ii) describe temporal changes in DON and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) forms (NH4+ and NO3-), and characterize spatial heterogeneity within plant communities; and iii) study the relative proportion of soil DON and DIN forms as a test of Schimel and Bennett's hypothesis that the prevalence of different N forms follows a gradient of nutrient availability. The study was carried out in eleven plant communities chosen to represent a wide spectrum of Mediterranean vegetation types, ranging from early to late successional status. DON concentrations in the studied Mediterranean plant communities (0-18.2 mg N kg-1) were consistently lower than those found in the literature for other ecosystems. We found high temporal and spatial variability in soil DON for all plant communities. As predicted by the Schimel and Bennett model for nutrient-poor ecosystems, DON dominance over ammonium and nitrate was observed for most plant communities in winter and spring soil samples. However, mineral-N dominated over DON in summer and autumn. Thus, soil water content may have an important effect on DON versus mineral N dominance in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  18. Dance Poem presents Ancient Northwestern Settings and Folle Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WEST of the Yang Pass, a dance poem created and performed by the Lanzhou Song and Dance Troupe, presents the audience with a picture of ancient times and folk customs on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China. It depicts our ancestors’ staunch will to live, and their pioneering spirit, as well as the splendid traditional culture. The dance poem includes 11 sections: "Prelude," "Ancient Road," "Desert," "Camel Station," "Crescent Moon Spring," "Ancient Castle," "Temple Oil Lamps," "Mogao Grottoes," "Red Willows," "Market," "Ancient Battle Fields," and "Fields." West of the Yang Pass is a dance without particular characters or coherent plot. A group

  19. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in the northwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Rajendran, A.; Somasundar, K.; Haake, B.; Jenisch, A.; Shuo, Z.; Ittekkot, V.; Desai, B.N.

    / 6,, ~'F t 101 18 ~16 ~o* sb* ,b* 7'o- 8b. Fig. 1. Station locations in the northwestern Indian Ocean. 0 o 302 M. DILEEP KUMAR ET AL. F filtrate was fixed with HgC12 and analysed for DOC, within a month, by a high-temperature catalytic wet... compounds, by the high-temperature catalytic oxidation method used in this study, compared with the apparently incomplete decom- position by simple wet oxidation of Menzel (1964), should be the reason for large DOC differences between the two studies...

  20. Climate Change and Neotectonic History of Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Tom G.; Chadwick, Oliver; Evans, Diane; Gillespie, Alan; Peltzer, Gilles; Tapponnier, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The progress, results and future plans for the following objectives are presented: (1) To compare the types, rates, and magnitudes of surficial modification processes that have operated in Northwest China and the Southwestern U.S.; (2) To quantify and understand the basis of the remote sensing signatures of these processes to allow extrapolation from field sites to regional maps and to allow comparisons between widely separated arid regions; (3) To use the resulting chronologies to help define the temporal and spatial distribution of continental climate changes; and (4) Determine the ages of movements on some of the active faults in Northwestern China.

  1. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  2. Anesthesia experience along with familial Mediterranean fever and celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Sargın; Hale Borazan; Gülçin Hacıbeyoğlu; Şeref Otelcioğlu

    2015-01-01

    (Anesthetic management in patient with Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac Disease) Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive transmitted disease which often seen at Mediterranean origin society and it goes by deterioration at inflammation control. Celiac disease is a proximal small intestine disease which develops gluten intolerance by autoimmune mechanism in sensitive people. Association of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac disease is a rare situation. In this art...

  3. 78 FR 53175 - The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... COMMISSION The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application Agency: Securities... Section 17(b) of the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. Applicants: The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance...''), under each of the variable annuity contracts and variable life insurance policies issued by the...

  4. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2011 is established at...

  5. New insights on aerosol sources and properties of Organics in the west Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, José B.; Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Féron, Anais; Dulac, François; Hamonou, Eric; Gros, Valérie; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Sauvage, Stéphane; Léonardis, Thierry; Tison, Emmanuel; Colomb, Aurélie; Fresney, Evelyn; Pichon, Jean-Marc; Bouvier, Laetitia; Bourrianne, Thierry; Roberts, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin exhibits high PM concentrations for a marine area, in particular during the dry season (summer), associated with high photochemistry. The large population of the basin is impacted by both natural and anthropogenic aerosols of various sources from Europe and North Africa. Simulations predict significant climate changes in that area, with less precipitation and hotter temperatures, reinforced by an increasing anthropogenic pressure, which will be linked by higher emissions of pollutants and also by higher impacts on the health. Nevertheless the aerosol models in that area currently suffer from large uncertainties, due to a lack of knowledge in organic aerosol (OA) sources and processes. As part of the French program ChArMEx (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), a 5-week intensive campaign has been performed in June - July 2012 at the new Cape Corsica station (see Dulac et al. in that session), and aiming at a better characterization of anthropogenic versus biogenic aerosols, long range transport versus local influence, with a focus on fine OA. A complete instrumental strategy was deployed thanks to the contribution of a large French community: PM1 concentration every 6 min with a TEOM-FDMS 1405 (Thermo), major aerosol components in PM1 every 30 min (Organics, SO4, NO3, NH4) by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Aerodyne), Equivalent Black Carbon every 5 min with a 7-? aethalometer AE31 (Magee Scientific), on-line major anions and cations (incl. light organics like oxalate & MSA) every 10 min with Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS, Metrohm) coupled with Ion Chromatographs (Dionex), on-line water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) every 4 min with a PILS (Applikon) coupled with a Total Organic Carbon instrument (Ionics). Filter sampling in PM2.5 and PM10 was also performed every 12h for quality purposes (PM, EC/OC, ions) and for complementary measurements (metals by ICP-MS and organic tracers by LC

  6. Assimilation of lidar signals: application to aerosol forecasting in the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new application of assimilating lidar signals to aerosol forecasting. It aims at investigating the impact of a ground-based lidar network on analysis and short-term forecasts of aerosols through a case study in the Mediterranean. To do so, we employ a data assimilation (DA algorithm based on the optimal interpolation method developed in the chemistry transport model (CTM {Polair3D of the air quality modelling platform POLYPHEMUS. We assimilate hourly-averaged normalised range corrected lidar signals (PR2 retrieved from a 72 h period of intensive and continuous measurements performed in July 2012 by ground-based lidar systems of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET integrated into the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS and an additional system in Corsica deployed in the framework of the pre-ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/TRAQA (TRAnsport à longue distance et Qualité de l'Air campaign. This lidar campaign was dedicated to demonstrating the potential operationality of a research network like EARLINET and the potential usefulness of assimilation of lidar signals to aerosol forecasts. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 and those with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 2.5 μm but lower than 10 μm (PM2.5–10 are analysed separately using the lidar observations at each DA step. First, we study the spatial and temporal influences of the assimilation of lidar signals on aerosol forecasting. We conduct sensitivity studies on algorithmic parameters, e.g. the horizontal correlation length (Lh used in the background error covariance matrix (50 km, 100 km or 200 km, the altitudes at which DA is performed (0.75–3.5 km, 1.0–3.5 km or 1.5–3.5 km a.g.l. and the assimilation period length (12 h or 24 h. We find that DA with Lh = 100 km and assimilation from 1.0 to 3.5 km a.g.l. during a 12 h assimilation period length leads to

  7. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  8. Influence of Mediterranean Outflow on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    A cover article in Eos last year [Johnson, 1997] called for a dam across the Strait of Gibraltar to prevent a new Ice Age. In this article, R. G. Johnson argued that reduced Nile River flow after building the Aswan Dam increases Mediterranean Sea salinity, leading to enhanced outflow of salty water into the Atlantic Ocean. This, in turn, would alter the thermohaline (that is, temperature and salinity driven) circulation of the Atlantic, heat up the Labrador Sea and enhance evaporation there, and increase snowfall in Canada until a new ice sheet builds up. Ocean circulation model experiments, however, suggest that this fear is unfounded. While Mediterranean saltwater outflow (Figure 1a) does appear to have some effect on North Atlantic circulation and surface climate, the change in Mediterranean salt budget resulting from the Aswan Dam is far too small to have any noticeable impact.

  9. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  10. FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Furthermore, it may well be that during the acute attack of FMF the procoagulant factors are consumed or used for the purpose of inflammation so that nothing is left for their role in the coagulation pathway. Colchicine may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulabilty

  11. THERMAL VARIATIONS IN OCTOBER 2013 IN NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDOSE T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis refers two weather situations in October 2013 in north-western Romania, represented by a period of cold weather in the first part of the month, and, respectively, a warm period in the last decade of the month. The cold wave produced minimum daily temperatures ranging between -6.4 and -1.9°C, in the lower areas, while in the mountainous region they were between -9.4 and -7.2°C. These values are by 0.2 to 5.6°C lower than the absolute daily minimum temperatures registered between 1961-2012 period. Positive deviations from the maximum daily absolute temperatures up to 4.0°C were recorded in the warm period at the end of the month. The data base used in the study was made up of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for the periods 3-8 and 22-30 October 2013, registered at 14 meteorological stations situated in north-western Romania. Other data used were the air temperature at standard isobaric levels of 850, 700 and 500 hPa, in the period 1973-2013. Synoptic reanalysis maps for the period 1961-2013 were also used.

  12. Data assimilation of Argo profiles in a northwestern Pacific model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyi; Storto, Andrea; Pinardi, Nadia; Liu, Guimei; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Based on a novel estimation of background-error covariances for assimilating Argo profiles, an oceanographic three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation scheme was developed for the northwestern Pacific Ocean model (NwPM) for potential use in operational predictions and maritime safety applications. Temperature and salinity data extracted from Argo profiles from January to December 2010 were assimilated into the NwPM. The results show that the average daily temperature (salinity) root mean square error (RMSE) decreased from 0.99 °C (0.10 psu) to 0.62 °C (0.07 psu) in assimilation experiments throughout the northwestern Pacific, which represents a 37.2 % (27.6 %) reduction in the error. The temperature (salinity) RMSE decreased by ˜ 0.60 °C ( ˜ 0.05 psu) for the upper 900 m (1000 m). Sea level, temperature and salinity were in better agreement with in situ and satellite datasets after data assimilation than before. In addition, a 1-month experiment with daily analysis cycles and 5-day forecasts explored the performance of the system in an operational configuration. The results highlighted the positive impact of the 3DVAR initialization at all forecast ranges compared to the non-assimilative experiment. Therefore, the 3DVAR scheme proposed here, coupled to ROMS, shows a good predictive performance and can be used as an assimilation scheme for operational forecasting.

  13. Numerical study of a downslope windstorm in Northwestern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsis, I.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Bartzokas, A.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the leeside wind storm of 25-26 March 1998, the most intense wind storm of the last decade in Northwestern Greece. This wind storm produced wind gusts of ˜ 30 m s - 1 that resulted in tree uprooting, roof damaging, electric power network disruption and flooding in the lake-side areas of Ioannina city in Northwestern Greece. With the aim to identify the role of Mountain Mitsikeli near the city of Ioannina on the windstorm and to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for such orographically induced weather events, numerical simulations with MM5 model have been performed. The model results showed that a resolution of 2-km resolution is necessary in order to reproduce the localized character of the wind storm. The analysis revealed that a synergistic combination of the cross-barrier northeasterly flow, the stable layer above the mountain top and the presence of a critical level, led to the intensification of the lee side winds during the studied wind event. Sensitivity experiments with modified topography, further supported the important role of mountain Mitsikeli that stands as an isolated obstacle, on the modification of the wind field during the observed windstorm.

  14. Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis of the Northwestern Aceh Coast, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, H. M.; Horton, B. P.; Rubin, C. M.; Daly, P.; Grand Pre, C.; Hawkes, A.; Daryono, M.; Ismail, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 2004 Andaman Aceh earthquake occasioned coseismic coastal subsidence in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 m on the northwestern Aceh coast. This coastal lowland contains stratigraphic evidence of previous great earthquakes and tsunamis on the Sunda megathrust that affected the coastline for hundreds of kilometers. We focused our research at three coastal sites in northwestern Aceh province. We conclude that three subduction zone earthquakes occurred in the early to mid Holocene (4500-7000 years ago) with an average recurrence of approximately 1000 years during conditions of relative sea level rise. Detailed investigations of lithology and micro- and macrofossil assemblages reveal regionally extensive buried mangrove soils that were coseismically subsided during the earthquakes and abruptly overlain by thin sand deposits of tsunami origin. The sands are covered by a sequence of intertidal muds. Tsunami deposits are inconsistently preserved, whereas the coseismic signal from buried soils is ubiquitously preserved. There is no stratigraphic record of subsidence in the late Holocene (4500 years to present) along the same coastal reach. In this time interval, far field locations such as Sumatra record stable or falling relative sea levels, which precludes coastal weltand progradation that leads to preservation of buried soils. In this younger, late Holocene time interval, the search for unique depocenters that preserve tsunami deposits provides a promising, alternative approach to constructing a paleoseimic record for the Aceh portion of the Sunda subduction zone.

  15. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete;

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often...... with long periods of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models...

  16. From desert to deluge in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Some time between five and six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean. In consequence some areas dried out -- hence the title of Kenneth Hsü’s book The Mediterranean was a Desert 1 -- and large salty lakes recharged by rivers flowing through deep canyons replaced the previously marine basins. During this time, the remaining bodies of water were either too salty or not salty enough for normal marine fauna to flourish. This was the so-called Messinian s...

  17. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  18. Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

    1988-12-01

    A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters.

  19. Anesthesia experience along with familial Mediterranean fever and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sargın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Anesthetic management in patient with Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac Disease Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive transmitted disease which often seen at Mediterranean origin society and it goes by deterioration at inflammation control. Celiac disease is a proximal small intestine disease which develops gluten intolerance by autoimmune mechanism in sensitive people. Association of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac disease is a rare situation. In this article we present our anesthesia experience on a bilateral septic arthritis case who also have Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac disease association.

  20. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.

    2013-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea) were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g-1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  1. First records, rediscovery and compilation of deep-sea echinoderms in the middle and lower continental slope of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Mecho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a compilation of all available information on deep-sea echinoderms from the middle and lower slopes of the Mediterranean Sea, with the aim of providing a unified source of information on the taxonomy of this group. Previous records of species are updated with new data obtained from 223 trawl hauls conducted in 11 cruises within the northwestern Mediterranean Sea between 800 m and 2845 m depth. Valid names, bathymetric ranges and geographic distributions are given for all species. The new data report, for the first time, the presence of the Atlantic echinoid Gracilechinus elegans (Düben and Koren, 1844 in the Mediterranean Sea. We also report the presence of the endemic holothurians Hedingia mediterranea (Bartolini Baldelli, 1914, dredged only once previously in 1914 in the Tyrrhenian Sea, and Penilpidia ludwigi (von Marenzeller, 1893, known previously only from three samples, two in the Aegean Sea and one in the Balearic Sea. Additionally, the deeper limits of the bathymetric distribution of four species have been expanded: the asteroid Ceramaster grenadensis (Perrier, 1881 to 2845 m; the echinoid Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841 to 2250 m; and the holothurians Hedingia mediterranea and Holothuria (Panningothuria forskali Delle Chiaje, 1823, to 1500 m and 850 m, respectively.

  2. An initial carbon export assessment in the Mediterranean Sea based on drifting sediment traps and the Underwater Vision Profiler data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondenc, Simon; Madeleine, Goutx; Lombard, Fabien; Santinelli, Chiara; Stemmann, Lars; Gorsky, Gabriel; Guidi, Lionel

    2016-11-01

    During the SESAME EU FP6 project, all available particulate organic carbon (POC) data collected from drifting sediment trap and Underwater Vision Profiler deployments (INSU PROOF database, 1991-2011) were gathered in order to assess carbon export at the scale of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we observed that particle size, POC export, and the contribution of microphytoplankton to the phytoplankton community structure, all decreased following the west to east net primary production gradient. One the other hand, no clear longitudinal gradient was found regarding particle composition (C/N ratio or lipid content). The above longitudinal patterns were also observed at the seasonal scale from spring to summer in the northwestern sub-basin. These observations suggest that particle size rather than organic matter composition controls fluxes of POC in the Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes highlights the different time-scale of physicals vertical mechanisms and suggests that DOC flux can play an underestimated role in the supply of fresh carbon to the deep waters Mediterranean Sea. Indeed, DOC supply to deeper layers can be one order of magnitude larger than particle carbon flux but occurs in pulses when stratification breaks due to (i) deep-water formation, or (ii) winter mixing. In contrast, the vertical export of POC occurs throughout the year bringing weak, but almost continuous, energy to meso- and bathypelagic organisms.

  3. Properties and pathways of Mediterranean water eddies in the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Calheiros, T.; Carton, X.

    2015-09-01

    Data from ship vertical casts (NODC data-set), ARGO profiling floats (Coriolis data-set) and RAFOS-type neutral density floats (WOCE data-set) are used to study characteristics of meddies in the Northeast Atlantic. In total 241 Mediterranean water eddies (meddies) and 236 parts of float trajectories within meddies are selected for detailed analysis. The results suggest that the meddy generation rate at the southern and southwestern Iberian Peninsula (Portimao Canyon, cap St. Vincent, Estremadura Promontory, Gorringe Bank) is 3 times that at the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Porto-Aveiro Canyons, Cape Finisterre and Galicia Bank). Meddies generated south of Estremadura Promontory (the southern meddies), as compared to those generated north of it (the northern meddies), have smaller radii, smaller vertical extension, higher aspect ratio, higher Rossby number and higher stability (stronger potential vorticity anomaly). These latter properties result from the southern meddies higher relative vorticity and stronger buoyancy frequency anomaly. Away from the generation regions, meddy drift concentrates along four main paths: three quasi-zonal paths (Northern, Central, Southern) and a path following the African coast (Coastal). The quasi-zonal paths are aligned to the isolines of the ambient potential vorticity field. Several cross-path exchanges, identified in this work, are aligned to topographic rises. Northward translation of the northern meddies within the North Atlantic Current to the subpolar gyre is detected. Within the first 600 km from the coast, meddy merger is proved to be a common event. This explains the observed difference in radii between the newly generated meddies and those away from the Iberian margin. The decay of the southern meddies proceeds mainly via the loss of their skirts and does not affect meddy cores until the latest stages. The decay of the northern meddies goes in parallel with the decay of their cores. In average meddy decay is achieved

  4. Role of hedgerows in agrosilvopastoral management of mountain Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsiadis, E.; Ispikoudis, I.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Hedgerows are part of the traditional agrosilvopastoral systems in the Mediterranean region. They are widely distributed all over the mountain areas and constitute important elements of the rural landscape. Their presence is dated back to the ancient times, uninterruptedly continued up to our days. They originate and coexist with agriculture and for this reason they are closely related to human activities. Hedgerows are associated with a great range of ecological, economic and social benefits. They ensure a refuge to a high number of animal and plant species and act as corridors, allowing dispersal and movement of them among habitats. They provide shelter from wind and dust, timber, fruits and other products, forage to domestic and wild animals, aesthetic qualities and protection from soil erosion. Recent studies emphasize their functional role in rural landscapes through the flow of wind, water, nutrients, energy and biota. In this paper, we studied an extensive network of hedgerows bordering cultivated fields in a mountainous village of western Macedonia, in northwestern Greece. The area covered amounts to about 1200 ha and is dominated by farms mainly cultivated with cereals, while vineyards and lucerne crops are also present. Hedgerows have been created and maintained by farmers. Their structure and composition vary greatly. Vegetation consists of trees, spontaneous or planted, shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition to bordering of farms, hedgerows provide several other goods and services. The most important use though is grazing by livestock, especially after cereal harvesting, in the summer and early autumn months. Thereby, they constitute a traditional agrosilvopastoral system. Measurements included type of hedgerows (earth or stone walls), morphology such as length, width, and height as well as vegetative cover and species composition. In addition, the ecological, economic and social roles of them were investigated through interviews with their owners

  5. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masque, Pere [Insitut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mitchell, Peter I.; Vintro, L. Leon [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Schell, William R. [Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Cross, Lluisa; Calbet, Albert [Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Pg. Maritim Barceloneta, 37-49 08003, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher {sup 239,240}Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors

  6. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  7. [Familial Mediterranean fever: not to be missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Bemelman, F.J.; Potter van Loon, B.J.; Simon, A.

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is common among Turkish and Moroccan migrants. We describe three patients with FMF. A 3-year-old girl with recurrent fever and abdominal pain who was diagnosed early with FMF and treated effectively with colchicine. An adolescent girl who required interleukin

  8. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the hydr

  9. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  10. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  11. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  12. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  13. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. A

  14. The Mediterranean blind: less light, better vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coch, H.; Serra, R.; Isalgue, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Escola d`Arquitectura de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    The mediterranean blind is one of the most efficient and sophisticated technical system to allow natural illumination in building. A simple solution permits good visual conditions with low heat gains and high ventilation. This solution shows how in architecture, simple designs following thoroughly understood principles can achieve far more suitable environment results than high-tech solution applied without criteria. (Author)

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  16. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the hydr

  17. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. A

  18. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascula

  19. Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology : A Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply i

  20. War traumas in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Moro, Maria Francesca; Bass, Judith

    2015-02-01

    The purpose is to explore the consequences of war and its impact on mental health with attention to the Mediterranean area. Narrative review of consequences of war on mental health and on the mental health of the communities in the current crises in the Mediterranean region. A series of outbreaks of war are still raging in the Mediterranean region and producing horrible effects with a considerable number of refugees with unsatisfied needs. Studies relating to conflicts of the past suggest that the mental health consequences of these wars may affect future generations for many years. While violations of human rights are not new, what is new are attacks on medical institutions perceived to be traditionally Western. The scientific community has to fight violence through mediation of conflicts. The idea that science can improve lives is a concept that is found in the history of all Mediterranean cultures. The Greek and Roman medical tradition was saved thanks to doctors of the Arab courts when Christian fundamentalism fought science in the Middle Ages. Health institutions are the product of the great Islamic medical tradition as well as Western culture. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Examining a Half Century of Northwestern North American Glacier Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Fahey, M. J.; Friesen, B.; Josberger, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 1957, as part of the United States' contribution to the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the American Geographical Society (AGS) initiated a multi-institutional mapping project to produce 1:10,000-scale topographic maps of nine northwestern North American glaciers. The project's goal was to prepare precise maps at large scales of selected small glaciers to form a permanent record of the condition of these glaciers so that at a future date they could be resurveyed and compared. Continued surveys would give the history of wastage and accumulation, and more accurate interpretation of the response of these glaciers to meteorological and other factors. The resulting maps and a descriptive summary brochure were published in 1960 by the American Geographical Society. The USGS Global Fiducials Program (GFP) began to systematically image the same nine glaciers approximately half-century after its IGY mapping. The results of the GFP analyses would permit the types of comparisons that were envisioned by the IGY project. Imagery of each of these nine glaciers has been collected from multiple sources, including Next View licensed commercial imagery, vertical and oblique aerial photography, Landsat, and US National Imagery Systems. Exploitation of the imagery has resulted in the production of new 21st century maps that can be compared and contrasted with the vintage AGS map set. Comparison will permit the calculation of a number of parameters which will provide a direct insight into the changes that northwestern North American glaciers have been experiencing during the past half century. Specifically, these comparisons will permit the calculation of changes in glacier length, area, thickness, and volume; computation of rates of glacier advance and/or retreat, rates of glacier thickening and/or thinning, and rates of volume change; production of digital elevation models (DEMs); and generation of velocity fields from crevasse migration. The subsequent re-mapping and

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  3. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  4. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf. 

  6. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm) was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts. PMID:27556233

  7. What drives LGM precipitation over the western Mediterranean? A study focused on the Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Kageyama, M.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Hatté, C.; Dumas, C.; Peterschmitt, J.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of precipitation is a key question concerning future climatic changes, especially in regions like the Mediterranean area which are currently prone to droughts. The influence of atmospheric circulation changes (in the mid-latitude westerlies or in the strength of the subtropical subsidence), along with changes in local mechanisms generating precipitation (such as convection) make it difficult to predict precipitation changes confidently over this area. Understanding its governing mechanisms is crucial. A possible approach is to test our understanding on different documented past climatic contexts. This paper focuses on the Last Glacial Maximum period (LGM) over the western Mediterranean region and puts in perspective the available information inferred from paleo-climatic records and the outputs of nine global climate models. We first review the available information on LGM precipitation in this region and find that the environmental conditions prevailing at this period range from humid to semi-arid, depending on the proxies. Model outputs from the PMIP3-CMIP5 database also yield a wide range of mean annual responses in this area, from wetter to drier conditions with respect to the pre-industrial period. This variety of responses allows to investigate the mechanisms governing LGM precipitation in the western Mediterranean area. Over the Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco, most models simulate a larger amount of LGM precipitation in winter w.r.t. the pre-industrial period. This feature is mainly due to the large-scale effect of the southward shift of the North Atlantic jet stream, which is closely associated with the surface air temperature changes over the northwestern North Atlantic. In summer, precipitation changes mainly result from convection and are correlated to local surface air temperature anomalies, highlighting the key role of local processes. These contrasted changes in winter and summer, linked to different mechanisms, could explain the

  8. Distribution of the Mediterranean hake populations (Merluccius merluccius smiridus Rafinesque, 1810 (Ostheichthyes: Gadiformes based on six years monitoring by trawl-surveys: some implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Orsi Relini

    2002-06-01

    recruitment occurs mainly in summer. MEDITS recruitment patterns therefore gave support to distinctions among Mediterranean hake populations, previously suggested on the basis of vertebral counts and other morpho-physiological, albeit fragmentary, data. In particular the central Mediterranean hake populations do not seem to be homogeneous, with an Adriatic unit very close to the northwestern one. The MEDITS experience therefore suggests that future management measures could take into account both general and regional patterns, the latter concerning mainly the younger fraction of the populations.

  9. Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Poppenga, Robert H; Bryan, John A; Bain, Matt; Pitman, Jim; Keel, M Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation.

  10. Development of the Gran Desierto sand sea, northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Grady; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1990-08-01

    Three major eolian sand populations can be recognized in the Gran Desierto sand sea of northwestern Mexico by using spectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper in conjunction with textural and mineralogical studies of surface sands. Each sand population has distinct textural, mineralogic, and spectral properties that can be related to sand-dune morphology and position with reference to source areas and transport paths of the sands. The oldest eolian sediment in the sand sea was derived from the early to middle Pleistocene Colorado River that flowed through the area of the western Gran Desierto. Subsequent inputs of eolian sands came from the area of the present Colorado River valley and the coast south of the sand sea. The spatial and temporal pattern of eolian deposition in the region has been controlled by Quaternary tectonic and climatic changes, resulting in the episodic input and deposition of sand.

  11. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... for subsistence purposes Quantitative ethno-botanical research in different forest types have identified thousands of different ways of using palms for food, construction, tool-making, etc. Although most palms are used by the person harvesting them, many are sold on local markets as fruits, fiber, tools...

  12. Sinking velocity of particulate radiocesium in the northwestern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Makio C.; Kawakami, Hajime

    2014-06-01

    Sinking particles (SP) were collected by time series sediment traps at two depths in the northwestern Pacific before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and accident-derived particulate radiocesium was measured. Radiocesium (137Cs) was first detected at 500 m (4810 m) about 2 weeks (1 month) after the accident. 137Cs of SP collected over 1 year revealed that the time lag between two depths was larger than that for the first 137Cs detection (about 2 weeks). We estimated the transient sinking velocity (SV) from the cumulative temporal 137Cs flux and the time lags at the two depths. Although the SV of SP collected in very early period was large, the estimated SV of most particulate 137Cs (about 80%) was about 50 m d-1. Based on comparison of 137Cs concentration in total SP with that in SP without organic materials, we suspect that most of the 137Cs was likely incorporated into aluminosilicates.

  13. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  14. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hosni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7% of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus and 2 (10.5% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes. Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans.

  15. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El; Ganghish, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans. PMID:26623318

  16. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  17. Understanding the Rainfall Daily Climatology of Northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Castillo, L.

    2007-05-01

    Maximum monthly precipitation (MMP) over northwestern Mexico is not concurrent because it occurs in different months from July through September. However, instead of occurring progressively from one month to the next as latitude increases, as it might be logic since rains move progressively from south to north as monsoon develops, MMP occurs in July in latitudes of Jalisco state, then MMP shifts to August more to the north in latitudes of Nayarit state and along the eastern coast of the Gulf of California, then it occurs in July in higher latitudes through the main axis of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), and finally MMP shifts to September to the west in the California Peninsula. The maximum monthly streamflow occurs in a similar pattern as MMP does but one month later. When daily rainfall climatology of the region is calculated, i.e. the long-term mean per day from stations with more than 20 years of data between 1940 and 2004, it is possible to understand why the behavior of MMP occurs in a July-August-July pattern from south to north. Preliminary results indicate that at latitudes of Nayarit state normal frequent storms with abundant rains develop at the end of July and through the August. These rains sum to the rains that move from the south to the north, as monsoon develops increasing the volume of precipitations at those latitudes in August. To the east crossing the SMO through northwestern Zacatecas state maximum volume of precipitations also is observed in August. However, in higher latitudes it is not observed any increment of rains in August and consequently maximum volume of precipitations occurs in July. To understand the dynamics of the rains at the latitudes of Nayarit state it results necessary to investigate the source of these local rains and explain why the increase of precipitations in August is limited at those latitudes.

  18. Haunted by History: China and its northwestern neighbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Hyer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones actuales de China con sus vecinos del noroeste, Rusia, Mongolia, y los nuevos estados nuevos de Asia central son influenciadas por la sombra del pasado que se echa sobre el presente. ¿En qué medida este pasado determina la posibilidad de abertura y cooperación estratégica ahora y en el futuro? La importante y compleja relación de China con Rusia será considerada primero, seguido por un análisis de las relaciones China-Mongolia y finalmente de la relación de China con los estados asiáticos centrales con los cuales comparte una frontera común. El factor importante de América también se considera. El artículo concluye que a pesar de las relaciones más cercanas que se están desarrollando entre China y los vecinos del noroeste, la herencia histórica de la dominación, los tratados desiguales, y el conflicto étnico marcaran la diferencia en las relaciones._____________ABSTRACT:China’s current relations with its northwestern neighbours, Russia, Mongolia, and the newly independent states of Central Asia are influenced by the shadow of the past that is cast over the present. To what degree does this checkered past fundamentally determine the possibility of close, strategic cooperation now and in the future? China’s important and complex relationship with Russia will be considered first, followed by an analysis of China-Mongolian relations and finally China’s relationship with the Central Asian states with which it shares a common border. The important America factor is also considered. The article concludes that despite the closer relations that are developing between China and it northwestern neighbours, the historical legacy of domination, unequal treaties, and ethnic conflict will haunt the significant improvement in relations.

  19. High resolution characterization of northwest Mediterranean coastal waters thermal regimes: To better understand responses of benthic communities to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Nathaniel; Romano, Jean-Claude; Harmelin, Jean-Georges; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2010-04-01

    In the North West Mediterranean (NWM), mass mortality events (MME) of long-lived benthic species that have occurred over the last two decades have been related to regional warming trend. Gaining robust data sets on thermal regimes is critical to assess conditions to which species have adapted, detect extreme events and critically evaluate biological impacts. High resolution temperature ( T) time series obtained during 1999-2006 from 5 to 40 m depth at four contrasted sites of the NWM were analyzed: Area Marina Protegida de les Illes Medes (NE Spain), Riou (Marseilles, France), Parc National de Port-Cros (France), and Réserve Naturelle de Scandola (Corsica, France). The seasonal pattern showed winter T around 11-13 °C, and summer T mainly around 22-24 °C near surface to 18-20 °C at depth. Stratification dynamics showed recurrent downwellings (>40 m) at Medes, frequent observation (1/3rd of the summer) of deep and cold upwelled waters at Riou, while Scandola exhibited stable summer stratification and highest suprathermoclinal T. Port-Cros showed an intermediate regime that oscillated between Riou and Scandola depending on the occurrence of northern winds. Data distribution study permitted to identify and to characterize 3 large scale positive anomalies concomitant with the mass mortality outbreaks of summers 1999, 2003 and 2006. The analysis of biological surveys on gorgonian populations showed significant impacts during the 3 years with temperature anomalies. Besides the degree of impact showed inter-annual differences which could be related to different T conditions concomitant to mortality events, from slight increase in T extreme of only 1-2 °C over short duration, to lengthened more classical summer conditions. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that shallow NWM populations of long-lived benthic species are living near their upper thermal thresholds. Given actual trends and projections in NWM, the repetition of new MMEs in the next decades is

  20. Neospora Caninum and Leishmania Infantum Co-Infection in Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi Foroushani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (MVL is an infectious disease that affects both human and ani­mals. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris are principal reservoir hosts of MVL caused by Leishmania infantum. Dogs are definitive hosts for Neospora caninum and a risk factor for infecting intermediate hosts. The immunosuppression caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL can promote the occurrence of co-infections with other agents such as neosporo­sis. This study aimed to determine the frequency of co-infection of the both protozoan parasites in the en­demic areas of VL from Meshkin-Shahr District, north-west of Iran. Methods: Altogether, 171 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs of Meshkin- Shahr District by multistage cluster sampling from October 2008 to August 2009. The collected serum samples were tested for the detection of simultaneous infection of L. infantum and N. caninum using direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Results: Of the 171 domestic dogs, 27 (15.8% and 52 (30.4% were showed antibodies against L. infantum and N. caninum, respectively. Simultaneous infections of N. caninum and L. infantum was found in 16 (9.4% of the dogs. In VL-positive and VL-negative dogs, N. caninum infection was found in 59.3% and 25.0%, respectively. A statisti­cally significant difference was found between VL-positive and VL-negative dogs with N. caninum infection (P= 0.001. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Meshkin-Shahr District in northwestern Iran is an active focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Neospora caninum and L. infantum co-infection is prevalent in the area and infection by L. infantum seems to enhance susceptibility to N. caninum infection in domestic dogs.

  1. Neospora caninum and Leishmania infantum Co-Infection in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharifdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (MVL is an infectious disease that affects both human and ani­mals. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris are principal reservoir hosts of MVL caused by Leishmania infantum. Dogs are definitive hosts for Neospora caninum and a risk factor for infecting intermediate hosts. The immunosuppression caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL can promote the occurrence of co-infections with other agents such as neosporo­sis. This study aimed to determine the frequency of co-infection of the both protozoan parasites in the en­demic areas of VL from Meshkin-Shahr District, north-west of Iran. Methods: Altogether, 171 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs of Meshkin- Shahr District by multistage cluster sampling from October 2008 to August 2009. The collected serum samples were tested for the detection of simultaneous infection of L. infantum and N. caninum using direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Results: Of the 171 domestic dogs, 27 (15.8% and 52 (30.4% were showed antibodies against L. infantum and N. caninum, respectively. Simultaneous infections of N. caninum and L. infantum was found in 16 (9.4% of the dogs. In VL-positive and VL-negative dogs, N. caninum infection was found in 59.3% and 25.0%, respectively. A statisti­cally significant difference was found between VL-positive and VL-negative dogs with N. caninum infection (P= 0.001. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Meshkin-Shahr District in northwestern Iran is an active focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Neospora caninum and L. infantum co-infection is prevalent in the area and infection by L. infantum seems to enhance susceptibility to N. caninum infection in domestic dogs.

  2. A review of the chronologies and geomorphology of the aeolian landforms in the northwestern Negev dunefield (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern (NW) Negev Desert dunefield covering an area of only 1,300 km2, comprises the eastern end of the northern Sinai Peninsula - NW Negev erg and is probably the most densely dated dune body in the INQUA Dunes Atlas chronologic database. Over 230 luminescence ages (TL, IRSL, and mainly OSL) and radiocarbon dates have been retrieved over the past course of 20 years from calcic and sandy palaeosols serving as dune substrates, sand sheets, vegetated linear dunes (VLDs), fluvial deposits, and archaeological sites. Despite being from different deposit types and aeolian morphologies, and based on different methodologies, the chronologies usually show good compatibility. By reviewing and reassessing the significance of the Eastern Mediterranean INQUA Dunes Atlas chronologies, along with detailed stratigraphic, structural and geomorphologic data and understandings, the major, and possibly extreme, episodes of aeolian activity and stability are outlined. Repetitive chronostratigraphic sequences in VLDs indicate that this dune type, at least in the Negev, comprises a reliable recorder of main dune mobilization periods. This presentation demonstrates that certain combinations of research finds, using different OSL dating strategies and other regional and local late Quaternary records and in particular aeolian ones, are required assets for providing for acceptable local and regional palaeoclimatic interpretations. The distribution of the VLD chronologies points to rapid mobilization during the Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas, characterized by powerful winds, though VLDs also form in late Holocene palaeoenvironments. Time slices illustrate the different sensitivities of the studied aeolian landforms to the source, availability, and supply of sediment; long- and short-term climate change, local human-induced environmental changes and also their joint effects, that enable evaluation of aeolian responses to future environmental and climate changes.

  3. 20th century trends of drought conditions in the Mediterranean: the influence of large-scale circulation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Here we have used the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) proposed by Wells et al (2004) as a more appropriate approach to characterize drought conditions in the Mediterranean area. The scPDSI has been shown to perform better (than the original PDSI) when evaluating spatial and temporal drought characteristics for regions outside the USA (Schrier et al, 2005). Seasonal and annual trends for the 1901-2000, 1901-1950 and 1951-2000 periods were computed using the standard Mann-Kendall test for trend significance evaluation. However, statistical significance obtained with this test can be highly misleading because it does not take into account the low variability nature that dominates the seasonal evolution of scPDSI fields. We have now improved these results by employing a modified Mann-Kendall test for auto-correlated series (Hamed and Ramachandra, 1997), such as the scPDSI case. This development allowed for a better definition of the Mediterranean areas characterized by significant changes in the scPDSI, namely the largely negative trends that dominate the Mediterranean basin, with the exceptions of parts of eastern Turkey and northwestern Iberia, since initially these areas were overestimated. The spatio-temporal variability of these indices was evaluated with an EOF analysis, in order to reduce the large dimensionality of the fields under analysis. Spatial representation of the first EOF patterns shows that EOF 1 covers the entire Mediterranean basin (16.4% of EV), while EOF2 is dominated by a W-E dipole (10% EV). The following EOF patterns present smaller scale features, and explain smaller amounts of variance. The EOF patterns have also facilitated the definition of four sub-regions with large socio-economic relevance: 1) Iberia, 2) Italian Peninsula, 3) Balkans and 4) Turkey. Afterwards we perform a comprehensive analysis on the links between the scPDSI and the large-scale atmospheric circulation indices that affect the Mediterranean basin, namely; NAO, EA, and SCAND

  4. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P16

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 50-meter transect line at Underwater Site P16 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  5. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 26-meter transect line at Underwater Site P2-C at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  6. Final unioned files for Yampa coal field resource calculations, northwestern Colorado (yam*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and final unioned polygon coverages used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  7. Variable relationships of DOC with oxygen in the northwestern Indian Ocean and their ecological implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; DileepKumar, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Desai, B.N.

    The relationships between DOC and AOU in the northwestern Indian Ocean regional variations reflecting the different biological characteristics dominanting the respective zones, resulting in the variable percentages of DOM respiration through nitrate...

  8. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFS P16

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 50-meter transect line at Underwater Site P16 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  9. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 40-meter transect line at Underwater Site P2 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  10. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number NIH P2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 47-meter transect line at Underwater Site P2 off Nihoa Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  11. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MAR P4

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 35-meter transect line at Underwater Site P4 off Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands...

  12. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P18

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 26-meter transect line at Underwater Site P18 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  13. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MAR P1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 35-meter transect line at Underwater Site P1 off Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands...

  14. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFSP12

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 36-meter transect line at Underwater Site P12 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  15. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MAR P15

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 50-meter transect line at Underwater Site P15 off Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  16. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P14

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 38-meter transect line at Underwater Site P14 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  17. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFS P13

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 36-meter transect line at Underwater Site P13 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  18. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 46-meter transect line at Underwater Site P19 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  19. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number LIS P9

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 51-meter transect line at Underwater Site P9 off Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  20. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number Lay P1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 51-meter transect line at Underwater Site P1 off Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  1. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number Lay P5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 38-meter transect line at Underwater Site P5 off Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  2. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number NIH P1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 50-meter transect line at Underwater Site P1 off Nihoa Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  3. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number GAR P1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 57-meter transect line at Underwater Site P1 off Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  4. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20m) of the shelf and slope environments of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 3 sites at Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern...

  6. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFSP1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the corals that were photographed at underwater site P1 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands along a 37-meter...

  7. Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the north-western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Aswanikumar, V.

    The depth profiles of phytoplankton pigments in the north-western Bay of Bengal are generally characterizEd. by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. The occurrence of subsurface chlorophyll maxima is discussed in relation to other information on water...

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers...

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of a digitized polygon of a constant recharge value for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace...

  10. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery...

  11. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  13. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P17

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 50-meter transect line at Underwater Site P17 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  14. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P1a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 26-meter transect line at Underwater Site P1-A at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  15. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Northampton Seamounts (100-004), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-004b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Northampton Seamounts in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  16. Geophysical and geological surveys along the northeastern flank of Mount error, Northwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rajendraprasad, B.; Hansen, R.D.

    Bathymetry, multichannel continuous seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity surveys and sampling were carried out over Mount Error in the northwestern Indian Ocean and along the northeastern flank of the seamount, to study the nature of its...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Reef in the Northwestern...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 3 sites at Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Lisianski Island in the Northwestern...

  1. A submerged temple complex off Pindara, on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Pindara has been an important religious centre since the early historical period as it has been recorded in several ancient texts. An onshore exploration on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra brought to light the remains of a temple complex...

  2. Final Critical Habitat for Amaranthus brownii from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Amaranthus brownii known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands occur...

  3. Final Critical Habitat for Schiedea verticillata from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Schiedea verticillata known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands...

  4. Final Critical Habitat for the Lo`ulu (Pritchardia remota) from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Lo`ulu (Pritchardia remota) known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer...

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid...

  7. Marine Debris Survey and Removal Efforts within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands since 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument includes the 1200 nautical mile chain of atolls and islets known as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) that are...

  8. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  9. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFS P3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 51-meter transect line at Underwater Site P3 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  10. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFS P2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 42-meter transect line at Underwater Site P2 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  11. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFSP11

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 51-meter transect line at Underwater Site P11 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  12. [High energy physics research]: Annual performance report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992. [Northwestern Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J; Block, M; Buchholz, D; Gobbi, B; Schellman, H; Buchholz, D; Rosen, J; Miller, D; Braaten, E; Chang, D; Oakes, R; Schellman, H

    1992-01-01

    The various segments of the Northwestern University high energy physics research program are reviewed. Work is centered around experimental studies done primarily at FNAL; associated theoretical efforts are included.

  13. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFS P14

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 51-meter transect line at Underwater Site P14 off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  14. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  15. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry of UTM Zone 4, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (60m) of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 4. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  16. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P13

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 52-meter transect line at Underwater Site P13 at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  17. Environmental Assessment of the Buccaneer Oil Field in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico 1978-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains analytical data from samples acquired from the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico area under contract to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)...

  18. Theory of Adaptive Change (TAC): Understanding Origin of Agricultural Lifestyle in North-Western India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amrita Sarkar; Sonika Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper discusses that the origin of agricultural lifestyle in north-western India did not happen only because of the collapse of the foraging economies due to climatic factor but also because...

  19. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  20. A faunistic study on the leafhoppers of northwestern Iran (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Tandis; Jalalizand, Ali Reza; Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The leafhopper fauna of northwestern Iran: Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil provinces is listed from previously published records and from our current work. Sixty-nine species are included with four species (Mogangellastraminea Dlabola, 1957, Doraturastylata (Boheman, 1847), Macrostelessordidipennis (Stål, 1858) and Psammotettixseriphidii Emeljanov, 1962) listed as new for Iran and Balcluthapunctata (Fabricius, 1775), as a new record for the region. A distribution map of the species in northwestern Iran is given.