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Sample records for corrupt practices act

  1. Corruption overseas. [The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as applied to interntional independent power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantz, D.A.; Goodwin, L.M.

    1993-11-01

    Early on, companies participating in the international independent power industry learned that just because they were doing business abroad, they were not exempt from US law. For example, initial efforts at international development were hampered by the global reach of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. And while compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act has been simplified considerably by the National Energy Act, compliance remains an important consideration for utility affiliates. Similarly, tax planning requires considering not only the US tax system, but that of the host country as well as applicable international tax treaties. One of the most important but least understood US laws affecting international developers is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The FCPA was enacted by Congress in 1977 in reaction to disclosures that certain large US corporations had bribed foreign officials to obtain business. The FCPA is intended to discourage a wide variety of actions considered corrupt. The cost of noncompliance is high, both in actual penalties and the effect on a company's international business reputation. Accordingly, FCPA compliance has become a key issue for the leading international independent power developers, and should be a primary consideration for any company that wants to play a meaningful role in the industry.

  2. Legal-Ease The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act-Implications for U.S. Businesses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS; RAYMOND; REED; BAKER

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have seen significant media interest directed at U.S. companies operating in China and how the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) may affect them. American businesses in China must be aware that their organization can be

  3. Legal-Ease:The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act-Implications for U.S. Businesses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS; RAYMOND; REED; BAKER

    2006-01-01

    Bookkeeping and documentation provisions of the FCPA To ensure proper paper trails are created, documented and retained, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) requires that proper accounting and internal controls be established for foreign entities. These requirements are basic, and prudent organizations should maintain these provisions. The act

  4. 40 CFR 35.936-17 - Fraud and other unlawful or corrupt practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fraud and other unlawful or corrupt... Water Act § 35.936-17 Fraud and other unlawful or corrupt practices. All procurements under grants are covered by the provisions of § 30.245 of this subchapter relating to fraud and other unlawful or corrupt...

  5. Acceptance of Corrupt Acts: a Comparative Study of Values Regarding Corruption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA POP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution seeks to explain variation in the degree of acceptance of corrupt acts by taking into consideration bothindividual characteristics and societal ones. We used a large dataset covering 43 European countries and employed multi-levelmodels in order to disentangle the compositional and contextual effects. Our main findings suggest that young single Europeanswith no occupation but with material possibilities are more likely to consider corrupt acts as being acceptable. The presence of apartnership and of children as well as high confidence in the governance bodies of a country makes corrupt acts less acceptable.In addition, the society where one lives is also important: individuals living in the former soviet countries display on averagehigher acceptance of corrupt acts than individuals living in the former communist block or in long established democracies. Thisconclusion holds also after controlling for how widespread corruption is in these countries or how high their income inequality is.

  6. Corruption and managing the project cycle : the role of corrupt practices in NGO funding in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    This Master’s thesis research explores the role of corrupt practices in development projects implemented by local NGOs in Pakistan. The intention is not to expose particular cases of corruption, but to study corruption risks and vulnerabilities in different phases of the project cycle and financial management (budgeting, accounting, financial reporting and auditing). It also explores other program support functions, i.e. procurement and human resources, and their vulnerability to corruption. ...

  7. Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Hanna, Rema N.; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a new framework for analyzing corruption in public bureaucracies. The standard way to model corruption is as an example of moral hazard, which then leads to a focus on better monitoring and stricter penalties with the eradication of corruption as the final goal. We propose an alternative approach which emphasizes why corruption arises in the first place. Corruption is modeled as a consequence of the interaction between the underlying task being performed by bureaucra...

  8. Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Shleifer; Vishny,Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents two propositions about corruption. First, the structure of government institutions and the political process are a very important determinant of the level of corruption. In particular, weak governments which do not control their agencies would lead to ultra-high corruption levels. Second, the illegality of corruption and the need for secrecy make it much more distortionary and costly than its sister activity, taxation. These results may explain why in some less developed c...

  9. Graft and Corruption Practices Among Selected Public Officials in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Husain L. Laut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the graft and corruption practices among selected public officials in southern Philippines. The study is qualitative in nature making use of case study method in which an in-depth analysis of primary data obtained from eight informants, four of whom are town mayors and their four incumbent municipal treasurers, is employed. The findings revealed that the mayor informants got elected through vote buying and bribery. Politics and family matters intersect as informants are supported by their families during election who used guns, gold and goons to ensure election victory. The clannish nature of the community finds expression also in the selection of relatives in municipal employment and in accessing municipal resources. The most prevalent corruption practice disclosed by the informants is amassing the internal revenue allotment (IRA for personal purposes in order to recover the huge amount of money spent during election. Other types of corruption practices also include falsification of documents, nepotism, bribery, kickbacks, and evasion of public bidding. These public officials also do not seem to perform official duties in their towns as they live outside of their municipalities. Inter-agency involvement of corruption among different government agencies in the areas studied are also uncovered. Moreover, the perceived negative effects of corruption are manifested in the poor delivery of the community’s basic social services in health, water supply, education, and security protection. Corruption also adversely affects the construction of community infrastructure facilities and the establishment of an equitable and solid economic base. The study has implications to the strict policy implementation of the provisions of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and other pertinent laws in order to improve the transparency, integrity and accountability of public officials

  10. On Certain Aspects of Acts of Corruption Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamitova, Zhanat A.; Kumarbekkyzy, Zhaniya; Tapenova, Asem R.; Mahanov, Talgat G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of developing countries, including Kazakhstan, is corruption. Corruption significantly decelerates the development of economic and social institutions, which may cause distrust in the authorities and a social crisis. Therefore, fighting corruption is a top-priority task of the government of Kazakhstan; this task…

  11. Corruption at the data capture stage and good laboratory practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, E.; Lenk, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim (Germany)

    1994-05-01

    Possible sources of data corruption at the data capture stage include errors from the analogue input signal to be sampled, incorrect timing of the realtime sampling, loss of data on the data transmission path, and malfunctions of hardware and software components. Hardware and software measures to avoid such errors and provisions to adhere to good laboratory practice rules are discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. CORRUPTION IN MEDICAL PRACTICE: WHERE DO WE STAND?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in health care sector affects all countries, including the United States, China and India. Pakistan is no exception. It is preventing people from having access to the quality medical care. Corruption in medical practice include ordering unnecessary investigations, and procedures for kickbacks and commissions; significant absenteeism, which adversely affects patient care; and the conflict of interest within the physician-pharmaceutical nexus, which exploits patients. To overcome corruption there is need to establish a framework for accountability, eliminating the physician-pharmaceutical nexus; and emphasizing medical ethics at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is also important to open a dialogue amongst health care professionals and encourage the establishment of an ethical health care system in Pakistan.

  13. Corruption in Education Systems: A Review of Practices, Causes, Effects and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cárdenas Denham

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving higher levels of transparency and accountability in education systems is essential for attaining an adequate distribution of educational opportunities. Studies of corruption in education systems are important since they can contribute to increasing public awareness of the harmful effects of corruption and promote political support for the implementation of anti-corruption initiatives in education. This paper describes a typology of corrupt practices and develops a classification for the findings reported in the literature on corruption in education, such as causes, consequences and recommendations, as well as a classification of the methodologies applied to the study of corrupt practices. Finally, it describes the possible implications of these findings for policymakers.

  14. Law Enforcement Criminal Acts of Corruption in The Perspective of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall impact of the acts of corruption according to criminology science, certainly can happen due to two things, namely the first due to the intent or in the science of law is referred to as the evil inner attitude (Mens Rea, and the second because of an opportunity to do evil deeds (Actus Reus. Actus Reus and Mens Rea are an essential element of a crime. The eradication of corruption and the efforts of promoting and fulfilling human rights are not simply left to the elite rulers, because frequently they are more corrupt and oppressive. Corruption eradication efforts can be maximized, while a simultaneous awareness of the Government and people of the importance of protecting, fulfill, maintain, and promote human rights, then it is not impossible that Indonesia becomes a prosperous country, given the authorized capital of development in this country has been in existence since ancient times which is a priceless grace of God Almighty. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2015. Law Enforcement Criminal Acts of Corruption in The Perspective of Human Rights. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 79-108. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.83

  15. Eradicating Corruption in Public Office in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Attah Ademu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a model for dealing with the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It uses an analytical approach to explore the Singapore model of dealing with acts of corruption to serve as a model for Nigeria. Corruption is inimical to socio-economic development of any country where it is practised on any scale. This explains why all nations make efforts to minimize or eradicate corruption in their economies. Nigeria has been ranked among the most corrupt nations of the World by many international anti-corruption agencies. If other nations take measures to eradicate corruption from their economies because of its negative consequences, Nigeria cannot be an exception. Corruption has led to gross misuse of public funds in Nigeria and has caused untold hardship to her citizens via non-payments of people’s benefits and lack of provision of basic public utilities. To deal with corruption in Nigeria, various anti-corruption agencies were set up but the problem remains. This paper therefore recommends the Singapore model as a method of dealing with corruption in Nigeria. This model holds each sectional head responsible for any act of corruption in his/her unit if established. The government was strong and determined to deal with the transgressors; there was political will to tame corruption and therefore there was government support to the anti-corruption agencies. If this model is adopted and faithfully implemented, corruption could be eradicated from Nigeria. In addition, constitutional amendments that would update and clearly define acts that constitute corrupt practices as these acts manifest in various forms are necessary to facilitate interpretation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws.

  16. Victimological aspect of a corruption deal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to present the author39s concept of the victimological aspect of corruption crime. Methods dialectical method of cognition mainly the systemic approach analysis. Results the article discusses the concept of corruption deal as an unlawful act statutory offence bribery and subornation law abuse by the authorized entity. The illegal most common and manipulative types of corruption deals and their mechanisms are defined as well as the ways of their implementation which include mutually beneficial bilateral trade extortion and initiative active bribery. The diverse negative effects of corruption on the legal relationships are proved. The danger of the crime deal is shown as the factor of corrupt behavior and active means of formation of corruption networks which increases victimogenity of corruption acts doing harm not only to physical but also legal entities. In accordance with this the point of view supported and proved that it is necessary to expand the notion of victim of corruption offences to legal persons. The conclusion is made about the feasibility of a legal assessment of corruption deals as a qualifying feature of a criminal offense. Scientific novelty the article justifies the author39s position in relation to an assessment of corruption victimization of the deal victimological characteristic of a corrupt deals victim are given critical analysis of basic victimological concepts is made to identify the potential corrupt deals victims and ensure victim safety. Practical significance the idea is expressed of reorienting public consciousness views on corruption as a way of solving problems of changing tolerance to corruption due to which the legal subjects become victims of corrupt deals of amending the anticorruption policies towards more careful attention to the protection of the legal relations subjects against the corruption threat. nbsp

  17. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6%of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.

  18. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  19. White coated corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    This essay documents the state of the medical profession which was once a respected line of work but today is corrupted at every level, from medical education to medical practice, and ir both the private and government sectors. It calls for doctors, thE government and the public to act against dishonest doctors restore the dignity of the profession and work for the benefit of society.

  20. Assessment on the “institutional economics” of corruption. Business and development in Romania, between formal and informal practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to draw the attention on the very subtle consequences of the corruption in the operational field, the deviation from the institutional arrangement in use. We will not insist for example on the subject according to which “the public domain”, as expression of the “joint property”, but also of the “tragedy of the commons” may be considered in a meta-institutional sense as corrupt. Anyhow, many enough differences of operational corruption require the use of institutional compared opinions about “corruption on a background of corrupt institutions” vs. „corruption on a background of healthy institutions”. The first part of the study will present briefly an institutional perspective a priori the corruption and its impact on the economic climate, drawing the attention on the distortions this one causes to the durability of the overall economic performance. The second part will present a synopsis of the “tense relationship” existing in Romania between the actually productive business environment and the legal, political and administrative environment which tolerates / temps perverse practices, either for the eviction or capture of the relevant political decision, underlining the relationship between the phenomenon of corruption and the economic performance in our country.

  1. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence in corpo...

  2. Efficiency of the institution of independent anti-corruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan O. Dolotov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the factors affecting the efficiency of civil society representatives accredited by the Russian Ministry of Justice as independent experts authorized to conduct anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts as well as the main problems faced by independent experts in conducting the anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts by the example of Saratov oblast. Methods general scientific methods of theoretical cognition and sociological method of empirical data collection indepth interviews. Results the main problems are revealed associated with low efficiency of the institution of independent anticorruption expertise comprehensive proposals are developed for improving its effectiveness in particular it is proposed to establish administrative responsibility for failure to give ignoring a reasoned answer to the conclusions submitted by independent experts to stipulate additional requirements for applicants natural persons for obtaining the status of an independent expert other than those currently stipulated higher professional education and work experience in the specialty not less than 5 years when developing the next National plan for corruption counteraction in Russia to include instructions to the Russian Ministry of Justice on the organization of monitoring of the accredited independent experts efficiency as well as on preparing and periodically publishing the eBulletin dedicated to independent anticorruption examination it is necessary to stipulate liability in the form of deprivation of the independent expert status for deliberately false anticorruption expertise and for anticorruption examination in the case of lobbying. Scientific novelty it is concluded that the key directions to increase the efficiency of independent anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts are a more detailed regulation of the status of the independent expert and the interaction of

  3. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti-policy......, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...

  4. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-01-01

    Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in p...

  5. Managing Corruption Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the emerging engagement of private actors and specifically Western corporations in international anti-corruption, drawing on Foucauldian studies of governmentality. It explores this engagement as governing practices that have emanated quite independently from the inter......-state system commonly understood to be at the core of the anti-corruption regime. It demonstrates how corporate anti-corruption ties in with a relatively new way of perceiving corruption. In this framing, anti-corruption comes out as risk management, which is latched on to notions of corporate social...... responsibility and business ethics. Moreover, the constitution of corruption risk relates to the rise of new actors and networks engaged in a wider business of anti-corruption, including commercial and hybrid actors that supply corporations with managerial instruments, benchmarks for best practice, rankings...

  6. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence...... in corporate anti-corruption work, building on concepts from studies of the cultural political economy, risk and classifications in examination process. Empirically we focus on anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm specialized in corporate mergers and acquisitions....

  7. PROBLEMATIC APPLICATION OF CRIMINAL REVOCATION OF POLITICAL RIGHTS IN PERSPECTIVE OF CORRUPTION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi As’Adi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of fighting corruption in Indonesia based on the spirit of the Declaration of the 8th International Conference against Corruption and Indonesia United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC UN 58/ 4 dated October 31, 2003, and Law No. 7 of 2006 on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Anti-Corruption of 2003 and Act No. 20 of 2001. The implementation of the Law on Corruption tends not optimal. As a new breakthrough reached the imposition of criminal sanctions in the form of revocation of political rights for the accused of corruption. Although in practice the criminal is considered unconstitutional. Given the enormous impact of corruption, namely the loss suffered by the people and the state, the current criminal disenfranchisement for perpetrators of political corruption has been duly applied.

  8. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti......-policy, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  9. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    , and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between......High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms...

  10. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms...

  11. Enforcement and public corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    We use panel data on corruption convictions, new panels of assistant US Attorneys and relative public sector wages, and careful attention to the consequences of modeling endogeneity to estimate the impact of prosecutorial resources on criminal convictions of those who undertake corrupt acts. Cons...

  12. The First Fruits in the Fight Against Corruption in Costa Rica: Conviction in a Criminal Court for Offenses under the Act Against Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Isabel Arroyo Chacón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and shares one of the first experiences generated in the fight against corruption in Costa Rica after the adoption of the Law against corruption and illicit enrichment in the public service in this country. To understand the case, this paper begins with a review of corruption fighting in Costa Rica, citing international and national legal instruments and the institutions responsibility for this function. Next, it analyses the penalization for the readers to understand the existing legal framework at the time of the events. Also, this document presents the judgment of the Third Chamber of the Supreme Court, which supports the conviction of the accused of the offenses of corruption in the public service. It details each offense and the reasoning displayed by the Court in its judgment, enriching the discussion of the fight against corruption in the public service. Finally, the document highlights the importance of this first precedent in the fight against corruption in the public service and follow suit.

  13. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  14. Investigating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Canice

    2000-01-01

    Agency theory has had little to say about the control of bureaucratic corruption, perhaps the greatest agency problem that exists. The author considers the role of incentive contracting in reducing corruption through the use of independent investigations-a common way to monitor corruption. In simple settings, bureaucratic corruption can be suppressed by rewarding and penalizing bureaucrats...

  15. Corruption in the Media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge,

  16. Corruption in the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge, ca

  17. Corruption and Anti-Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Larmour, Peter; Wolanin, Nick

    2013-01-01

    There is new international attention being given to the old problem of corruption. It has been taken up by international organisations, and driven by economic analysis. It is impatient of cultural justifications, and suspicious of state action. It is concerned with corruption prevention as much as detection, investigation and prosecution. Corruption and Anti-Corruption deals with the international dimensions of corruption, including campaigns to recover the assets of former dictators, and...

  18. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries' data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks' Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p developing countries.

  19. CORRUPTION, SOCIAL VIOLENCE AND ETHICAL CULTURE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dimensional phases of corruption in Nigeria and the salient mandate of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC as well as Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC. Unfortunately, the work reveal that the effectiveness of the above institutions and other corruption-watchdog setups has being watered-down by the negative push and pull effects of what is popularly known as the ‘Nigerian factor’. Finally, it argues that the most dangerous implications of corruption are the recurrence of social violence and the near-total collapse of ethical culture in every sector of the Nigerian national life, while recommending multidimensional transformative cultures of corruption management that must be collectively championed by the citizenry.

  20. Enforcement and Public Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer

    We use high-quality panel data on corruption convictions, new panels of assistant U.S. attorneys and relative public sector wages, and careful attention to the consequences of modeling endogeneity to estimate the impact of prosecutorial resources on criminal convictions of those who undertake...... corrupt acts. Consistent with "system capacity" arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. We find more limited, recent evidence for the deterrent effect of increased prosecutions. We control for and confirm in a panel context...... the effects of many previously identified correlates and causes of corruption. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from past corruption convictions and political considerations, we show that this specification leads to larger estimates of the effect of resources...

  1. Corruption dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal

    2017-07-01

    The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.

  2. Power and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Francisco; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A

    2011-04-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in the natural world. What seems nonsensical is why natural selection favors a behavior whereby individuals would lose out by benefiting their competitor. This conundrum, for almost half a century, has puzzled scientists and remains a fundamental problem in biology, psychology, and economics. In recent years, the explanation that punishment can maintain cooperation has received much attention. Individuals who punish noncooperators thrive when punishment does not entail a cost to the punisher. However when punishment is costly, cooperation cannot be preserved. Most literature on punishment fails to consider that punishers may act corruptly by not cooperating when punishing noncooperators. No research has considered that there might be power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers that turn one of these type of individuals more or less susceptible to experiencing punishment. Here, we formulate a general game allowing corruption and power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers. We show that cooperation can persist if punishers possess power and use it to act corruptly. This result provides a new interpretation of recent data on corrupt policing in social insects and the psychology of power and hypocrisy in humans. These results suggest that corruption may play an important role in maintaining cooperation in insects and human societies. In contrast with previous research, we contend that costly punishment can be beneficial for social groups. This work allows us to identify ways in which corruption can be used to the advantage of a society. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  4. Improving the Transparency/Anti-corruption Efforts in Defense Procurement: Recommendations from Global Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    officials, and speaking out against malpractices .” (OECD, 2006) e. Reform Toolkit - Combating Corruption: A Private Sector Approach This toolkit was...mechanisms at national levels. It is prepared by journalists, local researchers and academics to give policymakers and citizens of nations a set of...facilitated by media investigations, parliamentary oversight, and academic scrutiny. Ensuring transparency requires proactive measures: providing

  5. From mobsters to managers. RIC0 (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act) extends its reach beyond the underworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J S

    1989-10-01

    The federal Racketeer influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) was enacted in 1970 to combat the infiltration of organized crime into legitimate businesses operating in interstate commerce. During the first 10 years of its existence, the statute was applied almost exclusively in charges requiring criminal penalties. Section 1964 of RICO, however, allows civil remedies for injuries resulting from certain defined criminal activities. These civil remedies authorize treble damages and a reasonable attorney's fee. The Supreme Court has upheld the extension of this law to apply to general business activities, including hospitals. Hospitals risk involvement in civil RICO litigation as they become increasingly active in alternative healthcare businesses--medical supply operations real estate ventures, etc.--that involve public participation and the sale of securities, partnership units, and other equity interests. A disgruntled investor in a failed venture may initiate litigation. Other areas where hospitals are vulnerable to RICO claims include medical staff grievances, involvement in health maintenance organizations, and profile protest activities. The RICO civil provisions contain five basic elements: injury, person, enterprise, pattern of racketeering activity, and interstate or foreign commerce. Basically, this means that any person injured by the unlawful conduct of a person who is employed by or associated with any enterprise that engages in a pattern of activity which affects interstate commerce is entitled to civil RICO damages.

  6. Misunderestimating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kraay, Aart; Murrell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the extent of corruption rely largely on self-reports of individuals, business managers, and government officials. Yet it is well known that survey respondents are reticent to tell the truth about activities to which social and legal stigma are attached, implying a downward bias in survey-based estimates of corruption. This paper develops a method to estimate the prevalence of...

  7. Corrupt practices in chinese medical care: the root in public policies and a call for Confucian-market approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2007-06-01

    This paper argues that three salient corrupt practices that mark contemporary Chinese health care, namely the over-prescription of indicated drugs, the prescription of more expensive forms of medication and more expensive diagnostic work-ups than needed, and illegal cash payments to physicians-i.e., red packages-result not from the introduction of the market to China, but from two clusters of circumstances. First, there has been a loss of the Confucian appreciation of the proper role of financial reward for good health care. Second, misguided governmental policies have distorted the behavior of physicians and hospitals. The distorting policies include (1) setting very low salaries for physicians, (2) providing bonuses to physicians and profits to hospitals from the excessive prescription of drugs and the use of more expensive drugs and unnecessary expensive diagnostic procedures, and (3) prohibiting payments by patients to physicians for higher quality care. The latter problem is complicated by policies that do not allow the use of governmental insurance and funds from medical savings accounts in private hospitals as well as other policies that fail to create a level playing field for both private and government hospitals. The corrupt practices currently characterizing Chinese health care will require not only abolishing the distorting governmental policies but also drawing on Confucian moral resources to establish a rightly directed appreciation of the proper place of financial reward in the practice of medicine.

  8. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  9. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Maskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and common corruption. In terms of tackling some problems of corruption, there are so many things to do including international law commitment. Some international law commitment can be seen like OAS Convention, OECD’s anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the United Nation Convention against Corruption (UNCAC. Those laws must be analyzed not only in context of substantive of those laws but also how they are implemented in state practices.

  10. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  11. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  12. On Mao Zedong's Anti-corruption Thoughts and its Practical Significance%试论毛泽东反腐败思想及其现实意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建宾

    2012-01-01

    毛泽东反腐败思想是毛泽东思想的重要组成部分。毛泽东同志的反腐败思想内容十分丰富,主要有:反腐败关系党和国家兴亡的战略思想;惩治腐败,从严治党的思想;发扬民主,加强人民群众监督的思想;反腐败教育的思想;以身作则,正人先正己等反腐败思想。在新时期,结合改革开放和现代化建设的现实情况,学习和研究毛泽东的反腐败思想,对于正在进行的党风廉政建设和深入开展反腐败斗争,具有十分重要的现实意义。%Mao Zedongls anti-corruption is an important part of the Mao Zedong Thoughts. The contents are very rich, mainly as follows: the strategic thoughts of anti-corruption related to the prosperity and decline of the party and the nation, the thoughts of punishing corruption and governing the party strictly, the thoughts of promoting democracy and strengthening the peoplels supervision, the thoughts of anti-corruption education; the set-an-example and sweep-before-your-own-door thoughts. In the new period of reform, opening-up and modernization construction, combining with the reality, it is of great practical significance to study Mao Zedong's anti-corruption thoughts for the ongoing construction of a clean and honest government and indepth development of anti-corruption struggle.

  13. CORRUPTION IN ACCESS TO EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is universally valued as a formative condition of human and national development. Corruption not only distorts access to education but also affects the quality of education and the reliability of academic research findings. Corruption risks can be found at every level of education and research systems. Corruption in education has adverse implications for educational quality and learning outcomes. Financial fraud remains a major challenge for universities. The lack of academic integrity can also lead to corruption practices. The ingredients of good university governance can be used for combating corruption. Better management, good governance and oversight of funds in traditionally vulnerable areas, could help reduce financial fraud in education system.

  14. The Road to Bribery and Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-03-01

    Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual). Neither the size of the payoffs, which we kept constant, nor evaluations of the actions could account for these differences. Contrary to widely shared beliefs, sometimes the route to corruption leads over a steep cliff rather than a slippery slope.

  15. Discourses of Anti-corruption in Mexico. Culture of Corruption or Corruption of Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global capitalism the so-called developing countries are considered ‘commodities’ in offer in the global economy as emerging markets or for foreign investment. Countries need to show they are potentially highly competitive with low risk. The value of country characteristics is set by globalised managerial discourses, based on postcolonial ideologies that rate cultures and societies in terms of linear notions of progress and civilisation. Cultures and behaviours are judged positively or negatively according to the position countries supposedly have in the evolution of world society. In this framework one element that countries need to eradicate or reduce in order to be seen as ‘attractive’ is corruption. Towards this aim international and national government and non-government organisations have put in place anti-corruption campaigns. In communications with the general public, these schemes represent actors and acts of corruption through discursive strategies that characterize world cultures and their links with corruption in terms of postcolonial ideologies. In this paper I focus on the implications of the metaphor ‘culture of corruption’ for rating countries, questioning its effectiveness in anti-corruption campaigns. I argue that anti-corruption instruments based on postcolonial ideologies corrupt representations of national cultures and peoples behaviours, instead of targeting local and global sectors that gain from institutionalised corruption. Through the analysis of anti-corruption cultural texts publicly available in Mexico I illustrate how the ideological misrepresentation of corruption fails its stated aim, to transform a ‘culture of corruption’ into a ‘culture of legality’.

  16. Corruption and firm performance: Evidence from Greek firms

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between corruption and firm performance in Greece using firm level data. Corruption is overall negatively associated with firm size and growth at the firm level. We focus on the effect of ‘administrative corruption’, whereby firms engage in corrupt practices and bribery of government officials. We contrast the firm experience of corruption and the contextual experience of corruption at the sectoral level and find that the latter, contextual corruptio...

  17. A possible solution for corruption in South Africa with the church as initiator: A practical theological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. du Plessis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Transparency International, Africa is the most corrupt region in the world. In South Africa, there is an annual ’loss’ of about R30 billion as a result of bribery and corruption. It would appear that it is exactly the poor and the vulnerable who suffer most under the scourge of corruption. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of corruption on victim(s and to evaluate it in an effort to formulate solutions as to how such individuals can be guided and supported in the suffering and hardship that they endure and that specifically emanate from corruption. In the research, an effort was made to move away from the trend of the fragmenting of aid and to present guidelines or suggestions that can lead to a global solution, where multi-disciplinary involvement can be facilitated. The researchers agree that the church can play a key role in this, and the solution was sought in the principles expounded in 1 Corinthians 12. The research method known as action research was investigated as a workable method to be used by the multi-disciplinary aid team in their struggle against corruption. In the final instance, the principles used by Touching Africa in their work were investigated so that these could also be used in the quest for a solution.

  18. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  19. Medical rosters and the Trade Practices Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengilley, Warren

    2003-04-07

    Medical rosters are not free of trade practices problems, notwithstanding assurances by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). Neither the ACCC nor the recently convened Wilkinson Committee has applied rigorous legal principles in interpreting the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cwlth) to reach its conclusions. The Australian law should be changed to bring it into line with that of the United States and New Zealand.

  20. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  1. Discourse on corruption counteraction in network trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Zhigun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the

  2. Education and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…

  3. Education and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…

  4. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of m

  5. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  6. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  8. Corruption and Publicity

    OpenAIRE

    Erzsébet Németh; Gábor Körmendi; Beatrix Kiss

    2011-01-01

    The present study sets out to examine the subject of corruption and publicity. It states that: 1. publicity can help to uncover and prevent corruption, and take sanctions against it, 2. business and political interests might hinder the media’s effective anti-corruption activities; 3. the media are able to influence the social judgement of the extent and frequency of corruption. The study proposes to investigate, with empirical research, the links between the level of corruption, its media pre...

  9. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different theore

  10. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  11. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Corruption research is cross-disciplinary and focuses on the violation of rules and norms for individual or organizational benefit and at the cost of wider publics, as epitomized by corporate payment of illegal bribes to public officials with the goal of gaining a contract. Corruption research...... is both microscopic and macroscopic and is subject to conceptual and methodological challenges with respect to empirical investigation. It generally aims to understand the dynamics whereby individuals and organizations engage in corruption, the implications of corruption at the individual, organizational......, and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...

  12. Foreign Experience of Formation of Anti-Corruption Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaganbetov, Pernebay; Kenzhibekova, Elmira; Khvedelidze, Teimuraz; Buranbayeva, Saliman; Sailibayeva, Zhanel

    2016-01-01

    Corruption is the main obstacle on the way toward state's economic and political growth. Corrupt practices are one of the oldest forms of crime that arose with an appearance of nationhood. Nowadays, corruption harms the economies of developing countries that are undergoing a process of an economic model transformation. Kazakhstan is among these…

  13. DISCUSSIONS ABOUT CORRUPTION: WHAT THE RESULTS WE HAVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantseva E. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The data of the sociological polls show that the corruption problem hasn’t been decreasing for many years. Because corruption causes the damage to the most part of the population, the author believes that the anti-corruption policy is very significant, as well as the social policy of the state. In the article there is the analysis of the dissertation researches devoted to corruption of more than 20 years. The provisions of the scientific discussion concern: a the search of the corruption definition, more perspective for legislation adjustments; b the specification of the most important spheres of corruption distribution; c the classification of the types of the corruption with the allocation more significant or less significant; d the allocation of the reasons of the corruption emergence; e definition of types and the scales of the damages from the corruption; e the search of the most constructive measures of the anti-corruption fight in Russia. According to the author, the anti-corruption struggle has to carry not selective, but purposefully all-embracing character, not mix concept "guilty" and affected by corruption acts. The scientific researches have to lean on the real facts, to consider the specific Russian conditions of the distribution and the anti-corruption fight. It is also necessary to carry out the analysis of the extent of the information distortion of the reality, etc.

  14. Corruption Cases Mapping Based on Indonesia’s Corruption Perception Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerlina; Wulandhari, L. A.; Sasmoko; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.

    2017-01-01

    Government plays an important role in nation economic growth. Nevertheless, there are still many occurrences of government officers abusing their offices to do an act of corruption. In this order, the central government should pay attention to every area in the nation to avoid corruption case. Meanwhile, the news media always constantly preach about corruption case, this makes the news media relevant for being one of the sources of measurement of corruption perception index (CPI). It is required to map the corruption case in Indonesia so the central government can pay attention to every region in Indonesia. To develop the mapping system, researchers use Naïve Bayes Classifier to classify which news articles talk about corruption and which news articles are not, before implementing a Naïve Bayes Classifier there are some text processing such as tokenizing, stopping, and stemming.

  15. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of t...

  16. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    tiwari, aviral kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of t...

  17. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....

  18. On the new directions of criminological monitoring of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to broaden the knowledge of the criminological nature of corruption on the basis methods of mathematical analysis and modeling of social processes and phenomena. Methods in addition to the dialectical and systematic methods the author uses a combination of specific scientific techniques the sociological method the method of content analysis factor analysis mathematical modeling etc. Results in this work the author substantiates the necessity to develop corruptiometrics as a new direction of criminological research oriented towards the search of systemic connections between bribery and socioeconomic conditions. Corruption in Russia is considered in a sociological aspect shown to be dependent on the level of material welfare of population consumer expectations entrepreneurial activity unemployment rate etc. In addition systemic relationship between the level of bribery the size and structure of the state apparatus was revealed the close links between the various corruption crimes were shown. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the study presents the correlation analysis of bribery as a social phenomenon defines the instrumental value of mathematical methods for statistical array investigation. In addition the presented article is the original presentation of the author39s model of corruption monitoring focused on the search for the causes of the statistical reduction of bribery. Practical significance the possibility to using the findings and conclusions as part of the development of new methods of corruption assessment and prediction in the practical activity of prevention subjects in anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts in research activities and work to improve the skills of law enforcement officers. nbsp

  19. Corruption Clubs: Endogenous Thresholds in Corruption and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.E.; R Kneller

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between corruption and economic development is characterised by three stylised facts: (i) a strong negative correlation between corruption and development (ii) countries can remain trapped in high corruption-low development or low corruption-high development equilibria (iii) amongst intermediate levels of development corruption levels are more variable, some countries have high corruption and others low corruption. This paper argues that existing models are consistent with th...

  20. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.

  1. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  2. Dying of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Sören; Rothstein, Bo

    2011-10-01

    In many poor countries, over 80% of the population have experienced corrupt practices in the health sector. In rich countries, corruption takes other forms such as overbilling. The causal link between low levels of the quality of government (QoG) and population health can be either direct or indirect. Using cross-sectional data from more than 120 countries, our findings are that more of a QoG variable is positively associated with higher levels of life expectancy, lower levels of mortality rates for children and mothers, higher levels of healthy life expectancies and higher levels of subjective health feelings. In contrast to the strong relationships between the QoG variables and the health indicators, the relationship between the health-spending measures and population health are rather weak most of the time and occasionally non-existent. Moreover, for private health spending as well as for private share of total health spending, the relation to good health is close to zero or slightly negative. The policy recommendation coming out of our study to improve health levels around the world, in rich countries as well as in poor countries, is to improve the QoG and to finance health care with public, not private, money.

  3. State Administrative Legal Review on the Bill of Retraction Law of Corrupted Assets in Eradication Effort of Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puji Simatupang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.

  4. "MAGIC" FORMULA OF THE JOINT AUDITS IN RAISING REVENUE THROUGH WEEDING OUT CORRUPT PRACTICES (BASED ON ROMANIA AND MOLDOVA CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Around one trillion Euros is lost to tax evasion and avoidance every year in the EU. In this context, governments have increasingly been tempted to turn to cross-border audits to secure needed resources and expertise to assist in ensuring international compliance with various taxes and other sources of revenue. However to manage international tax compliance revenue authorities are faced with the significant problem of corruption. The aim of this paper is to examine whether joint audits have to be applied in order to increase the efficiency of revenue collection. In order to narrow the field of investigation, the article focuses primarily on the situation faced by the Romania and Moldova.

  5. Corruption case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    A Federal jury in Puerto Rico found three defendants guilty of participating in the theft of $2.2 million in Federal funds from the San Juan AIDS Institute. The key figure in the case is [name removed], a consultant to the institute. He was convicted of 12 counts of money laundering and faces up to 25 years in prison. Two other administrative officials were also convicted in the case. Four others have pleaded guilty, and three more await trial. Rep. Jose Granados Navado was among those implicated; he received $100,000 for his campaign for mayor of San Juan in 1988 from the institute=s medical director. U.S. Rep. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) has called for an audit of all Ryan White CARE Act funds since this scandal was uncovered.

  6. Corruption and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović-Bojanić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the difference between the ancient and modern (even postmodern understandings of corruption, I am curious to explore why the bond linking corruption and sex seems so obvious. I have no intention of investigating both phenomena in the context of any moral category. What then did Flaubert have on his mind when he wrote that Rodolphe “treated Emma quite sans façon. He made of her something supple and corrupt.” What underpins the irresistible attraction between corruption and sex? Why is it impossible to eradicate corruption and repress sex and perceive them as solely functional strategies of generation and reproduction? This short outline follows certain philosophical remarks of Luce Irigaray and her thematization of the sexual difference in the demarcation of generation and corruption.

  7. Corruption in political democracy is hard to control with law only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Bhowmik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the types of corruption. To research sources of corruption and defects of corruption control mechanism. To propose ways of solving the problem of corruption. Methods methods of analysis synthesis analogy and summarizing were used. Result The reveals the imperfections of the systemic mechanism of corruption counteraction and analyzes its causes. The stages and scope of imperfections are also indentified. The world economical inequality which determines the lawmakersrsquo activities is a big concern of corruption controlling system. Biometric signature may be used as individual identification at all financerelated performance will identify the corrupt personals at all levels. Scientific novelty As it is stated in the article many dimensions of corruptions may be eliminated with the help of regulatory devices or a total digital controlling system. Practical significance introduction of the digital controlling system will allow to identify and control the corrupt officials at all levels and help to efficient struggle against corruption. nbsp

  8. The Effects of Practice Reading of ACT Science Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Feng S.; Soldan, Christina

    This study investigated the effects of two practice reading methods (an ACT [American College Test]-prep program) on the performance of 11th grade students (N=43) on an ACT science portion mockup sub-test. A pre-test, treatment, post-test with control group design was used in the study. The treatments included that students read the ACT science…

  9. Enforcement and Public Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer

    the effects of many previously identified correlates and causes of corruption. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from past corruption convictions and political considerations, we show that this specification leads to larger estimates of the effect of resources...

  10. Fresh Drive Against Corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s government is making efforts to prevent corruption by taking harsh measures against the illegal selection and appointment of cadres on the 10th anniversary of China’s anti-corruption drive,President Hu Jintao called fogreater efforts to carry it out.

  11. Weeding Out the Corrupt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China takes a tough stand on bribery and corruption of officials The Communist Party of China’s (CPC) Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) had a busy year in 2009 as it worked to fight corruption. At CCDI’s annual work review press conference on January 7, Deputy Secretary Gan Yisheng recited a list of

  12. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  13. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  14. Corruption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu DUȚULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide

  15. The Epidemics of Corruption

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, P; Krüger, T; Martin, P; Blanchard, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    We study corruption as a generalized epidemic process on the graph of social relationships. The main difference to classical epidemic processes is the strong nonlinear dependence of the transmission probability on the local density of corruption and the mean field influence of the overall corruption in the society. Network clustering and the degree-degree correlation play an essential role in corruption dynamics. We discuss phase transitions, the influence of the graph structure and the implications for epidemic control. Structural and dynamical arguments are given why strongly hierarchically organized societies like systems with dictatorial tendency are more vulnerable to corruption than democracies. A similar type of modelling can be applied to other social contagion spreading processes like opinion formation, doping usage, social disorders or innovation dynamics.

  16. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  17. Leadership, Corruption and Governance in Nigeria: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    case due to leadership failure, corruption and bad governance. ... regimes have been deeply engrossed in excessive acts of corruption and bad ... raider to allow for private airlines; the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) .... Development Programme (UNDP, 2011) governance is defined as “the exercise of.

  18. The Corruption Trend among Public Officials in Malaysia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The war against corruption is vital to a nation. No one can dispute the negative consequences of corruption, but still, there are those who tend to condone its practice and view it as a necessary evil of economic development. Governments in several Asian and African countries tend to accept this as part and partial of economic development. However, the fallacy of this argument was exposed following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which demonstrated how corruption had short-changed the countr...

  19. Key opinion leaders and the corruption of medical knowledge: what the Sunshine Act will and won't cast light on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, in its marketing efforts, often turns to "key opinion leaders" or "KOLs" to disseminate scientific information. Drawing on the author's fieldwork, this article documents and examines the use of KOLs in pharmaceutical companies' marketing efforts. Partly due to the use of KOLs, a small number of companies with well-defined and narrow interests have inordinate influence over how medical knowledge is produced, circulated, and consumed. The issue here, as in many other cases of institutional corruption, is that a few actors have accumulated the power to shape the information on which many others base their decisions. Efforts to address this corruption should focus on correcting large imbalances in the current political economy of medical knowledge. A sequestration of pharmaceutical research and development on one hand from pharmaceutical marketing on the other, though difficult to achieve, would address this and many other problems. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Issues of formation of anti-corruption outlook in the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan A. Abramov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to show that the formation of anticorruption outlook is an important and vital aspect of modern society and to prove that it is more useful to prevent corruption manifestations than to combat them. Methods the methodological basis of the research is the universal analysis and synthesis of anticorruption issues allowing to actually or virtually divide the objects into constituent parts and to find out which parts they consists of what its properties and characteristics are and to synthesize their consolidation into a single organic whole not into a mechanical unit. Also a method of survey and statistical polls was used including conversation interviews massive data collection through questionnaires and their systematization into a single report. Results the paper studies the corruption institution as a social act allowing to destabilize the socioeconomic situation in the country as a whole. At the same time it proves the necessity to combat this phenomenon including level impacts related to the institutional nature of the formation of a comprehensive system of the countryrsquos sustainable development. The corruption perception by young people is explored. Basing on the conducted research it is demonstrated that the introduction of profile and specialized courses on the existing anticorruption state policy in the system of higher and additional education forms a new correct outlook on the perception of corruption which eventually should lead to the reduction of corruption level in the country. This also proves the point that prevention is more effective than struggle with corruption. Also it is proved that for the effectiveness of combating corruption and clarifying the corruption dynamics it is advisable to periodically conduct monitoring seminars round tables conferences and other practical applied measures with the participation of practitioners. Scientific novelty the paper contains provisions on the formalization of corruption

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF CORRUPTION ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS: SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF RAPIDLY DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle I. Caron; Aysun Ficici; Christopher L. Richter

    2012-01-01

    This article evaluates the relationship between the level of corruption in rapidly developing economies and corporate governance processes therein.  Previous literature illustrates a strong relationship between corporate governance and corruption and suggests that in countries with high levels of corruption, firms lack efficient corporate governance practices.  Similarly, countries with deficient corporate governance practices and low levels of compliance to these standards breed corruption l...

  2. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  3. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses e

  4. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important. Corr

  5. Corruption perception and sustainable development: Sharing Botswana’s anti-graft agency experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gbadamosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Unethical practices and corruption issues have become one of the greatest challenges to Africans and their leaders, threatening to undermine economic growth, democratic stability and sustenance, and general developmental efforts. Against this background, this paper examines corruption perception in Africa using indicators of Transparency International as benchmark. The costs of corruption to the continent’s progress were highlighted. The paper also focuses on Botswana’s efforts to fight corruption through its Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC. The factors that have aided the qualified successes of the anti-corruption efforts as well as lessons that may be learnt by other African countries are discussed.

  6. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to review the current corruption prevention practices in China’s construction industry and suggest ways for improvement. To collect useful and insightful information, desktop studies, focus-group workshops and face-to-face interviews were conducted with supervisory and construction officers at different levels – state, province and municipal in China, who have direct responsibilities and experience in cracking down construction corruption. It was found that corruption happens in different forms during any stage of construction project procurement, and the current anti-corrupt practices are reactive rather than proactive. It was also found that improvements on the legal system, inspection strategies and processes, and promotion of ethical culture are all required. Based on the research findings, corruption prevention strategies were developed. The paper concludes that institution of random and regular checks, severe punishment and prosecution to corrupt personnel, and promotion of a healthy and clean construction culture are all necessary to mitigate the scourge.

  7. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  8. Kicking Soccer Corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tries to revive its soccer leagues by fighting corruption During the new round of probes into gambling and match-fixing in the professional Chinese soccer system,three former officials, including

  9. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  10. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  11. Enforcement and public corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    . Consistent with system capacity arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from partisan and administrative considerations, we show that this specification...

  12. Bureaucratic Corruption In Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Tizora, Rumbidza Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    The declining Zimbabwean economy has resulted in corruption reaching epidemic proportions. There is a high tolerance for it in society as it is seen as the only way to get timely service or any service at all especially in the public sector which is infested with petty corruption. Through some examples this paper reveals that in the education, health, justice, transport and custom sectors it is common to find public servants charging extra for services, seeking small favours, or using pubic f...

  13. Polyfactorial corruption index in the Russian regions: methodology of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize criminological social and economic indicators of development of the Russian Federation subjects to identify and assess the hidden system dependencies between social indicators and levels of corruption to define the links between individual indicators and to develop the methodology of anticorruption ranking of the regions. Methods comparison analysis synthesis mathematical modeling correlation comparisons and extrapolation. Results in the work the author describes the methodology of the complex analysis of corruption in the Russian Federation subjects and elaborates forecasts for its development short term and medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the algorithm is proposed of studying and forecasting regional corruption on the basis of polyfactorial analysis of criminological social and political indicators. For profound and comprehensive study of the regional aspects of corruption a model was developed to monitor and forecast on the basis of measuring the polyfactorial corruption index PCI. PCI consists of two groups of parameters corruption potential of the region of the country CPR and corruption risk in the region CRR. Practical significance the research results can be used in the process of developing regional strategies of corruption counteraction as well as in adjustment of the existing methods of corruption prevention.

  14. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  15. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  16. Corruption or professional dignity: An ethical examination of the phenomenon of "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) in medical practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang

    2017-05-21

    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  18. Efficient and Universal Corruption Resilient Fountain Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Asaf; Tzachar, Nir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new family of fountain codes which overcome adversarial errors. That is, we consider the possibility that some portion of the arriving packets of a rateless erasure code are corrupted in an undetectable fashion. In practice, the corrupted packets may be attributed to a portion of the communication paths which are controlled by an adversary or to a portion of the sources that are malicious. The presented codes resemble and extend LT and Raptor codes. Yet, their benefits over existing coding schemes are manifold. First, to overcome the corrupted packets, our codes use information theoretic techniques, rather than cryptographic primitives. Thus, no secret channel between the senders and the receivers is required. Second, the encoders in the suggested scheme are oblivious to the strength of the adversary, yet perform as if its strength was known in advance. Third, the sparse structure of the codes facilitates efficient decoding. Finally, the codes easily fit a decentralized scenario wi...

  19. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  20. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  1. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  2. [Corruption and health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.

  3. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  4. Game as motivation and action in the corruptive social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L. Iakovleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the game component in the form of motivation and action which stimulate the specific corruption form of conduct in the space of social glamorous. Methods a complex of classical and postclassical research methods including analytical phenomenological and dialectical methods of cognition in relation to game to gaming motivations and actions setting a variety of game forms attesting to its attractiveness flexibility and plasticity as well as postmodern paradigm of interpretation of the glamour ideology and a special type of personality ndash the corrupt official with the characteristics of a trickster. Results Russian society being in anomia condition exacerbated by corruption however does not give cause for pessimism. Anticorruption policy promoting the scientific search of the motivational causes and effects of personality showing the corrupt behavior and corrupt activity makes the research results known to a wide audience and introduces them into the practical anticorruption activity associated with upbringing education and promotion of anticorruption and inclusive way of living that embodies the included state in the mode of ldquoto Berdquo. Scientific novelty the analysis of the game phenomenon can help to detect corruption in the space where the phenomenon presents itself as motivation and action determined by its ontological inclusiveness and gamification of the modern social. The difficulty to identify the game within the context of its epistemological corruption is caused by its gnosiological incomprehensiveness transformation in the modernity as well as foggy goals and actions of the corruptionist. The study leads to the identification of a new type of personality ndash the corruptionisttrickstertrickstercorruptionist. Knowledge of the gaming motivations and actions of the corruptionist allows to navigate through the complex situations of today having corrupt motives. Practical significance the main provisions and

  5. Corporate governance and public corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corrupt...

  6. Initiation of corrupt exchanges and severity of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Goel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of corruption control depending upon whether the bribe taker or the bribe giver initiates the corrupt interaction. The probability of corrupt exchanges depends upon the bribe and the corrupt market structure. The probability of apprehension is set but punishment can be influenced via bribes. Results show that the effectiveness of apprehension hinges on whether higher bribes invite harsher fines. Competition for favors intimidates the bribe giver into offering lower bribes, while greater agency competition has a similar effect on the bribe demanded. Consistent with intuition, better paid bureaucrats demand smaller bribes. Some implications for anti-corruption policy are discussed.

  7. Can an Oath Keep Government Officials Corruption-Proof?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Making a pledge under oath has been used throughout history to affirm one's allegiance to a cause or code of conduct. Now the practice is being used in China to combat the rampant corruption sweeping the country.

  8. Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.

  9. Corrupt Official Finally Charged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Zheng Xiaoyu, former head of China’s State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), went on trial on May 16 after months of investiga-tion for corruption. Zheng, 63, was accused of tak-ing bribes worth 6.45 million yuan (nearly $838,000) and dereliction of d

  10. Forms of corruption in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be

  11. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  12. Prevention of fraud, corruption and bribery committed through legal entities for the purpose of financial and economic gain

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hartmann; Hulst, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn Dutch law there is no overall criminal offence on corruption. In Dutch criminal law corruption is divided in specific criminal offences which all have their own specific definition. Most corruption can be qualified as a criminal offence but it is sometimes difficult to qualify them as such. Qualifying in general as an offence is easy (forgery for example) but proving that the act specifically qualifies as corruption is harder. Given this general observation, a specific form of ...

  13. THE OPTIMIZATION OF CORRUPTION PREVENTION TOWARDS INDONESIA CORRUPTION-FREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibnu Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and eraducation of corruption case are the strategy which can’t be implemented separatly it should be done synergistically, integrated and concurrently to prevent a new corruptor generation and other new corruptor. So the problem comes on how the strategy which are prevention and eraducation corruption by Indonesian goverment to reach Indonesia free from corruption and what the obsacles in order to reach strategy prevention and eraducation of corruption that already done by Indonesiaan goverment. This research used empirical yuridical method with descriptive analysis, qualitatieve descriptive and conten analysis. By this research can be known that goverment already had preventive and solutive corruption strategy to solve corruption, but there is still be found obstacles such as oerlaping, weak supervison among institution, profesion that related with law enforcemen and not maximal enough witness and informl protection.

  14. Corruption Perception Studies and Anti-Corruption in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Aiyede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception studies of corruption have proliferated in the last decade. However, there is a lingering controversy over the proper us of the outputs from such studies to benefit anti-corruption efforts. Against this backdrop, these paper reviews the theoretical context of the perception studies of corruption and their justifications. It examined key perception studies of corruption at the global, regional and national levels in relation to Nigeria and discusses key issues associated with them. These include controversies around the definition of corruption, methodological issues such as the reliability of the perception approach to the study of corruption, possibilities of cross country comparisons, the connections between global, regional and local anticorruption studies and the issue of how such studies and rankings reflect power relations. The paper argues that perception studies will be significant and effective to the extent that elites and government officials continue to take the opinion and perception of citizens and other stakeholders seriously.

  15. Institutional system response mechanism towards corruption: a point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.

  16. A model of interaction between anticorruption authority and corruption groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 35, Universitetskii prospekt, Petrodvorets, 198504 Email:elenaneverowa@gmail.com, malafeyevoa@mail.ru (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game.

  17. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  18. Thinking About Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Azariadis; Ioannides, Yannis M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of corruption, which appears to be endemic in Greece. It reviews the facts about corruption as multi-faceted phenomenon and its close relationship to tax evasion, by comparing Greece to its EU partners, as well internationally. It addresses corruption as an instance of anti-social behavior by means of a number of simple metaphors that allow reliance on powerful tools of modern social interactions and property rights literatures. It emphasizes that whereas tepid e...

  19. CORRUPTION ONSET IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaukhar Kaliyeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discloses the public officers’ corruption at the end of 19th century. I have post-evaluated tsarist Russia legislative acts. We have emphasized legal-social essence of corruption. We have tried to reveal and proof that giving presents and gifts in return for various assistance in a Kazakh society is a regular thing. We have manifested the reasons for corruption among the governmental officials. Based on the research we have concluded that corruption was distinctive for the governmental officials of the peripheral region because of its specific features, legal traditions and incomplete legislative system of Russia, which by the end of the 19th century spread in Kazakhstan.

  20. WHY CORRUPTION MAY HAPPEN?: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Anti Corruption course is one of several ways of anti-corruption’s campaign in Indonesia’s higher education system. In terms of education, the Anti Corruption’s curriculum were prepared and developed by Indonesia’s ministry of education, but in practice it is possible for lecturers to creatively modify the way of delivering subjects to students. The purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives on what causes corruption. The researches itself is a classroom action research, and discuss through intrepretative approach. Sampling technique were done through judgemental sampling. Respondents involved were students who attend the anti-corruption class year 2013 (n = 20. Data collection is done by using open question form in e-learning (elearning.paramadina.ac.id. Questions will lead to response of students about their perspectives of what causes corruption and as a results, students perspectives are then classified into three kinds of responses, they are internal causes of corruption, external and internal causes of corruption and external causes of corruption.

  1. [The prevention of corruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaliani, Vito; Quintaliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The escalation of the crisis between society and administration had a negative impact on public administration, as highlighted by criminal acts (bribery, extortion, abuse of power). Other consequences of this crisis have been the bad administration phenomena, such as delays in carrying out the practices, lack of attention to people's questions and failure to comply with working hours. These phenomena culminate in treating people without due respect and necessary kindness. In this context, the so-called applied ethics has developed, consisting of the construction of rules for moral behaviour, adapted to particular fields as well as to the public.

  2. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  3. Murder, Sex, Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    such as increased fragmentation, vested interests, corruption, social unrest, increased income and social inequalities and a de facto reform stop since 2009. Some scholars believe that we now see the end of ‘resilient authoritarianism’ and that China either will experience a political and social collapse or move...... towards a democratic system. However, developments since 1989 show the regime’s amazing ability to revitalize its organizational capabilities and regain its Mandate of Heaven. It may be too early to declare the Party over....

  4. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  5. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on others to…

  6. Control of corruption in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal

    2015-01-01

    A recently published article on corruption in Indian healthcare in the BMJ has triggered a hot debate and numerous responses (1, 2, 3, 4). We do agree that corruption in Indian healthcare is a colossal issue and needs to be tackled urgently (5). However, we want to highlight that corruption in healthcare is not a local phenomenon confined to the Indian subcontinent, though India does serve as a good case study and intervention area due to the magnitude of the problem and the country's large population (6). Good governance, strict rules, transparency and zero tolerance are some of the strategies prescribed everywhere to tackle corruption. However, those entrusted with implementing good governance and strict rules in India need to go through a process of introspection to carry out their duties in a responsible fashion. At present, it looks like a no-win situation. In this article, we recommend education in medical ethics as the major intervention for dealing with corruption in healthcare.

  7. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Serfontein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at establishing freedom and security for everyone and a democracy 'for the people, by the people'. The aim of this article is to determine whether South African public education is safe from the corruption 'bogey', where reflection is made on professional public school management, which is the responsibility of school principals. Our objectives include designing an education-specific definition of corruption to advance accountable and transparent leadership; establishing the degree to which corruption has infiltrated the public education sphere; and making recommendations to fight corruption in public schools at professional public school management level. Among other findings, we found that even though some principals actively advocate upholding high morals, their conduct proves differently.

  8. Corruption Perception and Sustainable Development: Sharing Botswana’s Anti-Graft Agency Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2006-01-01

    Unethical practices and corruption issues have become one of the greatest challenges to Africans and their leaders, threatening to undermine economic growth, democratic stability and sustenance, and general developmental efforts. Against this background, this paper examines corruption perception in Africa using indicators of Transparency International as benchmark. The costs of corruption to the continent’s progress were highlighted. The paper also focused on Botswana’s efforts to fight corru...

  9. Reduction methods of the corruption risks in the public procurement sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the dominant place in the Russian state policy against corruption belongs to the struggle against low-level corruption, virtually, high-level corruption is tending to be ignored. In these conditions it is highly important to analyze international experience for the reduction of its risks. The fact that the issue is closely connected to politics in order to satisfy the needs of public sector, is exacerbated more by the huge sums of public expenditures and simultaneously growing losses because of the corruption. Author analyzes international experience of the corruption restriction in the public procurement system beginning with the UN Convention against corruption and ending with the modern widely spread in international practice method of disqualification. The comparative analysis of international and Russian anti-corruption policies in the public procurement sphere was conducted. The author substantiated the methods of corruption revelation and the ways of resistance towards corruption which help to reduce the losses. In the final analysis complex arrangements for the corruption restriction were proposed.

  10. Purge corruption detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nankee, R.J. II; Frantz, D.C.; Tamm, J.R.; Gutermuth, T.R.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an adaptive memory cell update method for the detection and correction of a possible purge corruption of the adaptive memory portion of the memory in an internal combustion engine control unit, the adaptive memory portion having purge free cells and normal cells. The method consists of: determining the adaptive memory cells to be used during the adaptive memory cell update by determining if the engine conditions are right to turn the purge system off; if the conditions are right to turn the purge system off, turning the purge system off and using the purge free cells in the adaptive memory cell update; if the conditions are not right to turn the purge system off, turning the purge system on and using the normal cells in the adaptive memory cell update.

  11. Corruption and Anti-Corruption Strategies: An Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian ARON

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Causal explanations of corruption and governance abound in the literature, as well as studies about the effects upon outcomes such as economic growth, political equilibrium and social equality. When countries are confronted with failed reforms and corruption scandals, this can aggravate the economic crisis. European countries vary enormously in the extent to which politicians or public officials abuse their powers for private gain. In this context, of greaterintellectual interest are those methods or strategies by which one could tackle the challenge of reform in order to reduce the severity of corruption. In this regard, this article aims to shape and improve the literature that deals with corruption and provides ways to reduce this widespread phenomenon.

  12. CORRUPTION PATTERN IN INDONESIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Soseco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian Corruption Perception Index (CPI is one way to measure corruption practices in Indonesia. By using Geographic Information System (GIS,this paper divulged that high corruption inci-dence is existed in cities that has a play role as an economic growth pole. For instance,Jakarta and Surabaya as the bipolar economic growth centresin Java, and Medan, Pekanbaru and Palembang as the economic growth poles in Sumatera. Those findings drive us to think that economic growth centres theo¬ries are not pertinent with those conditions. Indeks Persepsi Korupsi (IPK Indonesia adalah salah satu cara untuk mengukur praktek korupsi di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG, penelitian ini berusaha meng¬ung-kap tingginya korupsi yang ada di kota-kota yang berperan sebagai tiang pertumbuhan ekonomi. Misalnya, Jakarta dan Surabaya sebagai pusat bipolar pertumbuhan ekonomi di Jawa; kemudian Medan, Pekanbaru dan Palembang sebagai pusat pertumbuhan ekonomi di Sumatera. Temuan-temuan tersebut mendorong kita untuk berpikir bahwa teori pusat-pusat pertumbuhan ekonomi tidak relevan dengan kondisi tersebut

  13. [Corruption as individual and organizational sinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The article qualifies the nature of psychosociological perspective in analysing corruption in organizations. Corruption is analysed as a mental event and social conditions of corruption are investigated. In particular six social and organizational factors are identified as relevant in determining the diffusion of corruption: meaning, work wellbeing, consistency, social recognition, reflexivity, social relations. The main hypothesis explored in the article is that to take managerial care of the organisational factors above mentioned is a strong and active prevention of the risk of corruption.

  14. 反贪侦查中非法证据排除规则的现实应对%Practical Measures of the Illegal Evidence Exclusionary Rules in the Anti-Corruption Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗武

    2015-01-01

    The new criminal procedure law on the basis of practical experience to further standardize and improve the illegal evidence exclusionary rules in china.The establishment and application of the rules will bring the enormous challenge and impact on anti-corruption investigation work, will also be on the case handling personnel quality put forward higher requirements.In order to safeguard the anti-corruption investigation work in accordance with the law,the sustainable and healthy development it is necessary to study on the exclusionary rules of illegal evidence for rational dialectical treatment, careful and proactive response to.In the Zhang Guoxi bribery case perspective,put forward to collect evidence prohibited strictly enforced anti-corruption investigation work,the full implementation of synchronized audio and video recording of the whole course system,improve the ability to deal with the investigators to testify in court,the establishment of early warning mechanism of illegal evidence exclusion and good evidence ex post correction to deal with illegal evidence exclusion rules of countermeasures.%新刑事诉讼法在总结实践经验的基础上进一步规范和完善了我国非法证据排除规则。该规则的确立和应用将对反贪侦查工作带来巨大的影响和挑战,也将对办案人员的素质提出更高的要求。要保障反贪侦查工作依法、持续、健康开展,就必须对非法证据排除规则进行理智辩证的对待、认真细致的研究和积极主动的应对。以章国锡受贿案为透视,提出了在反贪侦查工作中,严格执行收集证据的禁止性规定,全面落实全程同步录音录像制度,提高侦查人员出庭作证的应对能力,建立非法证据排除的预警机制和做好证据的事后补正等应对非法证据排除规则之对策。

  15. Analysis of Mao Zedong,s Thought and Practical Experience on Combating Corruption and Upholding Integrity%毛泽东反腐倡廉思想及实践经验探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁柱

    2014-01-01

    如何避免历史上农民战争由胜利复归失败的教训,如何防止由“社会公仆”变为“社会主人”,切实保证人民政权的性质,成为革命临近胜利时党和毛泽东思考的一个重要问题。七届二中全会防止腐蚀的方针,表明在建国前夕,毛泽东就把党执政后反腐蚀的问题提到了全党面前。他一再告诫全党:“不要滋长官僚主义作风,不要形成一个脱离人民的贵族阶层。”“三反”运动在严惩腐败、防止蜕变、从严治党等方面所提供的基本经验,以及紧紧依靠群众发扬艰苦奋斗、永不褪色的革命精神,仍有重要的启示作用和现实意义。%How to avoid historical pitfalls of peasant wars from victories to failures and prevent"public servants for society" becoming "masters of society" so that to genuinely safeguard the nature of people, s polity became an important issue for the Party and Mao Zedong on the verge of victory for the revolution. The principle of corruption prevention made at the Second Plenary Session of Seventh Central Committee indicates that at the dawn of New Chi-na, Mao Zedong raised to the whole Party the question of anti-corruption upon the Party's taking over governance. He repeatedly warned the whole Party"not to foster the bureaucratic style of work and grow into an aristocratic stra-tum divorced from the people." The"Three Antis" campaign provided basic experience in various aspects such as severe punishment against corruption, transmutation prevention, and strict party management. The campaign close-ly relied on the masses to promote the revolutionary spirits of plain living and hard struggle, and of never fading. These experience and spirits still have important inspiration effects and practical significance.

  16. The Power of Performance Indices in the Global Politics of Anti-corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    corruption, pointing to their importance for the determination of what constitutes legitimate social practice. More generally, the paper contributes to the study of global governance literatures by highlighting how practices of calculation, measurement and comparison can play a distinctive role...

  17. CORRUPTION: HOW SHOULD CHRISTIANS RESPOND?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    audit (Joubert 2011:2; Mohamed 2011:4), money-laundering (Broughton & ... United Nations General Assembly also recognised the need of an effective international legal .... quotations from newspaper articles reporting on corruption.

  18. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice found to be made or...

  19. Organized Crime, Corruption and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Maurice; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We analyze an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations globally compete on criminal activities and engage in local corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid, difficult to bribe and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. However, when bribing costs are low, that is badly-paid and dishonest law enforcers work in a weak governance environment, and the rents from crimin...

  20. Corruption, Inequality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ambar, Rabnawaz

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is worst curse of social system, which ruins all values of community and derails badly. It causes inequality in the whole chain, due to which some parties get too much profit, while other becomes miserable, leading to several street crimes as well as moral devaluations. Due to corruption and inequality, the economic growth is poorly affected, leading to imbalance in the society, causing lack of demand in the market, opportunities of labor and misbehavior of customers. Public can no...

  1. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably help…

  2. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably help…

  3. Badly designed institutions, informal rules and perverse incentives: local government corruption in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez, Fernando; Villoria, Manuel; Quesada, Monica Garcia

    2012-01-01

    ... ones. KEYWORDS: * corruption * informal institutions * integrity systems * town planning * low-quality equilibrium * Spain Introduction States are considered less likely to fall into corrupted practices when they are highly developed and long-established liberal democracies, with a free and widely read press, a high share of women in government, and...

  4. Fighting corruption when existing corruption-control levels count : what do wealth effects tell us?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? How do wealth effects play-out when existing corruption-control levels matter in the corruption battle? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption. The following broad findings are established. (1) Population growth is a(an)...

  5. The Culture of Construction Organisations: the Epitome of Institutionalised Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Oyen Arewa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The culture of an organisation is a vital element of business competency that must align with its strategic goals, and enhance peoples’ perceptions, feelings and behaviour in adapting to the world around them. Organisational culture may also bring about negative practices such as dishonesty and unethical behaviours. Recently the culture of some construction organisations has been called into question. For example, major construction projects around the globe have become involved in allegations of fraud and corruption. The cost is currently estimated at US$860 billion globally; with forecasts that it may rise to US$1.5 trillion by 2025. Hitherto the role of the culture of construction organisations in fraud and corruption activities has been largely hidden. The study aim is to establish whether the culture of construction organisations promotes corrupt practices in the UK construction and infrastructure sector. The study employed mixed research methods with interviews supported by a questionnaire and an examination of five case studies in different countries. Findings show that the culture of construction organisations together with the nature of the industry promotes fraud and corruption. The study subsequently highlights key cultural factors that support fraud and corruption in a way that is almost institutionalised.

  6. [Income inequality, corruption, and life expectancy at birth in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2005-01-01

    To ascertain if the effect of income inequality on life expectancy at birth in Mexico is mediated by corruption, used as a proxy of social capital. An ecological study was carried out with the 32 Mexican federative entities. Global and by sex correlations between life expectancy at birth were estimated by federative entity with the Gini coefficient, the Corruption and Good Government Index, the percentage of Catholics, and the percentage of the population speaking indigenous language. Robust linear regressions, with and without instrumental variables, were used to explore if corruption acts as intermediate variable in the studied relationship. Negative correlations with Spearman's rho near to -0.60 (p Corruption and Good Government Index correlated with men's life expectancy at birth with Spearman's rho -0.3592 (p inequality on life expectancy at birth. This effect was greater among men. The findings suggest a negative effect of income inequality on life expectancy at birth in Mexico, mediated by corruption levels and other related cultural factors.

  7. Meaning Of The Term "Corruption Offense" As A Feature Of The Public Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Legislation On The Corruption Counteraction In The Municipal Governments Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya D. Okuneva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article theoretical and practical aspects of the corruption offense definition, which are being characteristic features of the methodology of prosecutorial supervision over the legislation on counteraction to corruption in local government are analyzed. Federal Law of Jan. 17, 1992 No. 2202-1 "On the Procuracy of the Russian Federation" (Article 21 establishes the public prosecutor's supervision over the legislation on combating corruption in local government execution, which is a special sub-cluster. On general terms of theoretical techniques of the prosecutor's supervision, taking into account its specific and complex nature of corruption prosecutors based activities in this area. Author emphasizes attention on characteristics of the corruption offense, as well as aspects of legal responsibility, which lie in the fact that it is applied in accordance with law to offender as measures of state coercion of personal, financial or organizational nature for the offense committed; responsibilities of the person, who committed the offense, to be subject to measures of state coercion. In the conclusion author notes that specifics of corruption offenses that are subject of prosecutorial supervision over the execution of legislation on combating corruption in local government is determined by the special status of the offense subjects, as well as the content of legal prohibitions and legal responsibilities in the field of ​​anti-corruption at the municipal level.

  8. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains.

  9. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  10. Probabilistic Recovery Guarantees for Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Graeme; Studer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We consider the recovery of sparse signals subject to sparse interference, as introduced in Studer et al., IEEE Trans. IT, 2012. We present novel probabilistic recovery guarantees for this framework, covering varying degrees of knowledge of the signal and interference support, which are relevant for a large number of practical applications. Our results assume that the sparsifying dictionaries are solely characterized by coherence parameters and we require randomness only in the signal and/or interference. The obtained recovery guarantees show that one can recover sparsely corrupted signals with overwhelming probability, even if the sparsity of both the signal and interference scale (near) linearly with the number of measurements.

  11. Corruption – A Major Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Cristina Pană; Ileana Nișulescu

    2016-01-01

    AbstractCorruption in the public sector is seen by citizens and public authorities as a major problem for the of system integrity across Europe.The aim of the work was to perform a comparative analysis in terms of corruption in EU globally in 2014, with emphasis on institutionalized corruption. Variables were used on the dynamics of corruption, such as the index of perception of corruption and the corruption level  in public institutions. In this regard, we used surveys initiated by Transpare...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF CORRUPTION ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS: SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF RAPIDLY DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Caron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the relationship between the level of corruption in rapidly developing economies and corporate governance processes therein.  Previous literature illustrates a strong relationship between corporate governance and corruption and suggests that in countries with high levels of corruption, firms lack efficient corporate governance practices.  Similarly, countries with deficient corporate governance practices and low levels of compliance to these standards breed corruption leading to a wide range of transparency dilemmas.  This study delves deeper through careful examination regarding the level of compliance with corporate governance standards and the pervasive effects of corruption on the governance processes of firms with specific regard to rapidly developing economies as well as offering comparisons and similarities of shared characteristics among these countries.

  13. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word

  14. HOW DOES CORRUPTION AFFECTS HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in the healthcare sector is a reflection of the structural challenges in the health care system. The problem of corruption in healthcare is of a multidimensional nature. The Bulgarian health care system is based on a regulated regime. On one hand there is the functioning of a state-owned and state-controlled health fund financed through obligatory contributions by all income earners, and on the other, a union of health providers that negotiate a national framework health contract with the fund. Causes of corruption are classified as different factors such as structural factors and government policies factors. The health sector is susceptible to corruption for various reasons, mostly related to its organization. The health sector is a complex sector. In order to be effective, reforms to combat corruption must be informed by theory, guided by evidence and adapted to context. It is necessary to review and develop diagnostic and treatment algorithms as standards of good medical practice, which would help to assess the package of medical and non-medical activities.

  15. Social impacts of corruption upon community resilience and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption at all levels of all societies is a behavioural consequence of power and greed. With no rulebook, corruption is covert, opportunistic, repetitive and powerful, reliant upon dominance, fear and unspoken codes: a significant component of the ‘quiet violence’. Descriptions of financial corruption in China, Italy and Africa lead into a discussion of ‘grand’, ‘political’ and ‘petty’ corruption. Social consequences are given emphasis but elude analysis; those in Bangladesh and the Philippines are considered against prerequisites for resilience. People most dependent upon self-reliance are most prone to its erosion by exploitation, ubiquitous impediments to prerequisites of resilience – latent abilities to ‘accommodate and recover’ and to ‘change in order to survive’. Rarely spoken of to those it does not dominate, for long-term effectiveness, sustainability and reliability, eradication of corrupt practices should be prerequisite to initiatives for climate change, poverty reduction, disaster risk reduction and resilience. 

  16. WHY CORRUPTION MAY HAPPEN?: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Maharani

    2014-01-01

    The Anti Corruption course is one of several ways of anti-corruption’s campaign in Indonesia’s higher education system. In terms of education, the Anti Corruption’s curriculum were prepared and developed by Indonesia’s ministry of education, but in practice it is possible for lecturers to creatively modify the way of delivering subjects to students. The purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives on what causes corruption. The researches itself is a classroom action research, and...

  17. Disciplinarian Heads Anti-Corruption Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China has recently ramped up its anti-corruption efforts by establishing the National Corruption Prevention Bureau(NCPB).Appointed to lead the bureau,which falls under the Chinese Central Government,is

  18. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  19. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  20. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  1. Corruption and Tax Evasion = Yolsuzluk ve Vergi Kaçakçılığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Hadi AKDEDE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption and tax evasion problems have been investigated separately before. Tax evasion is also considered to be a corrupt behavior itself. However, in this paper, corruption is taken to be a bribe taken by a government official and tax evasion is defined as an illegal act to avoid paying taxes by violating tax laws. An interesting research question would be to see whether corruption can induce tax evasion in individuals ? It is found in the paper that the size of bribe can negatively affect tax evasion. It is shown that when a bribe is sufficiently large, taxpayers prefer to pay their taxes voluntarily, not to evade taxes.

  2. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  3. Misery, Corruption, and Presidential Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38.......This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38....

  4. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara Brooks

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…

  5. 9 CFR 354.46 - Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or... PRODUCTS THEREOF Violations § 354.46 Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice made or committed by any person...

  6. REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS - THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA EMILIA STEFAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Revocation is a method of terminating the legal effects of an administrative act.Just like the general theory of law admits that any subject of law, author of a manifestation of will, is able to withdraw it, in the administrative law there is also possibility for the authority that issued the administrative act to abrogate its own act under certain circumstances.Thus, this study aims at making a presentation of the legal regime of the revocation of administrative acts, starting from aspects such as terminology, legal grounds, reasons, term, and ending with the analysis of the applicable legislation on revocation, particularly of the law on administrative disputes, and much more. Hence, revocability appears to be the fundamental principle of the legal regime of administrative acts, in close connection with the principle of stability of legal relationships.

  7. REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS - THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Emilia TEFAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Revocation is a method of terminating the legal effects of an administrative act. Just like the general theory of law admits that any subject of law, author of a manifestation of will, is able to withdraw it, in the administrative law there is also possibility for the authority that issued the administrative act to abrogate its own act under certain circumstances. Thus, this study aims at making a presentation of the legal regime of the revocation of administrative acts, starting from aspects such as terminology, legal grounds, reasons, term, and ending with the analysis of the applicable legislation on revocation, particularly of the law on administrative disputes, and much more. Hence, revocability appears to be the fundamental principle of the legal regime of administrative acts, in close connection with the principle of stability of legal relationships.

  8. Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Caroline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, the monitoring of prompt and effective treatment for malaria with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is conducted largely through household surveys. This measure; however, provides no information on case management processes at the health facility level. The aim of this review was to assess evidence from health facility surveys on malaria prescribing practices using ACT, in the presence and absence of ACT stock, at time and place where treatment was sought. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted. Findings were collated and data extracted on proportion of patients prescribed ACT and alternative anti-malarials in the presence and absence of ACT stock. Results Of the 14 studies identified in which ACT prescription for uncomplicated malaria in the public sector was evaluated, just six, from three countries (Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, reported this in the context of ACT stock. Comparing facilities with ACT stock to facilities without stock (i ACT prescribing was significantly higher in all six studies, increasing by a range of 21.3% in children Conclusions Prescriber practices vary based on ACT availability. Although ACT prescriptions increased and alternative anti-malarials prescriptions decreased in the presence of ACT stock, ACT was prescribed in the absence, and alternative anti-malarials were prescribed in the presence of, ACT. Presence of stock alone does not ensure that treatment guidelines are followed. More health facility surveys, together with qualitative research, are needed to understand the role of ACT stock-outs on provider prescribing behaviours and preferences.

  9. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym

    2008-01-01

    Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…

  10. Operationalizing Counter/Anti-Corruption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    2013. 45 Francisco -Javier Urra, “Assessing Corruption: An Analytical Review of Corruption measurement and its problems: Perception, Error and...144 SIGAR “Quarterly Report to Congress,” 30 April 2011, page 76. 145 Francisco -Javier Urra, “Assessing Corruption...157 The term ANSF is inclusive of Afghan security institutions ( ASI ), training institutions, and fielded security forces

  11. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym

    2008-01-01

    Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…

  12. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…

  13. Corruption – A Major Global Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Pană

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCorruption in the public sector is seen by citizens and public authorities as a major problem for the of system integrity across Europe.The aim of the work was to perform a comparative analysis in terms of corruption in EU globally in 2014, with emphasis on institutionalized corruption. Variables were used on the dynamics of corruption, such as the index of perception of corruption and the corruption level  in public institutions. In this regard, we used surveys initiated by Transparency International, Global Integrity and the European Commission and DNA. It is not to be neglected the answer to the question Why have you not reported an incident of corruption? 58% of Romanians said it would not make any difference, and 20% of respondents said they fear the consequences.Comprehensive anti-corruption policy is expressed in the most efficient manner, through a national program to prevent corruption, articulated in sector prevention strategies directed towards the most vulnerable targets: politics, administration and justice.Keywords: public institutions, transparency, corruption, perception index of corruption, the corruption level in institutions.

  14. A principal-agent model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  15. The role of political affiliation in the beliefs and discourses legitimising corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López-López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is defined as the abuse of power in order to obtain personal benefit. Central and South America, with the exception of Chile, Uruguay and the French Guiana, show high rates of corruption. This study sought to find the meanings that ordinary people attach to corruption as well as the relationship between their narratives and sociodemographic characteristics, such as sex and educational level, and political standpoints, such as their political party affiliation. A total of 325 people participated, 166 females aged 18-69 (M=35.58, SD=13.44 and 159 males aged 19-74 (M=36.09, SD=13.02. All education levels (primary, secondary, technical, university, postgraduate and none were represented in the sample. Narratives were analysed via uni- and multidimensional methods and using the SPAD software programme. Variables used for the analysis were: meaning of corruption, corruption cases, seriousness of corruption (textual, and sex, educational level, socioeconomic level, political party affiliation (categorical. The primary results suggested that the meanings and definitions of corruption frequently feature the following verbs: to benefit, power, to obtain, to take advantage of, to steal, to bribe, and to threaten. Participants also mentioned acts of corruption that they learned about via mass media, and that involved the participation of government agents and large amounts of money. A third result was evidence that sociodemographic characteristics such as sex and education level are closely related with perceptions of what is and is not corrupt. Likewise, identification with a political party influences the judgments made on acts of corruption by both the opposing group and the group to which participants belong. We first discuss the gender difference in terms of the facts and meanings of corruption, and then we discuss how the facts of corruption (big and small are perceived as serious or not depending on the education level of the citizens

  16. A Good Turn Deserves Another: Political Stability, Corruption and Corruption-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2015-01-01

    We build on existing literature and contemporary challenges to African development to assess the role of political stability in fighting corruption and boosting corruption-control in 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. We postulate that on the one hand, an atmosphere of political instability should increase the confidence of impunity owing to less corruption-control. On the other hand, in the absence such impunity from corruption, political instability further fuels corruption. Our...

  17. Review of corruption in the health sector: theory, methods and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing interest among health policymakers, planners and donors in how corruption affects health care access and outcomes, and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Efforts to explain the risk of abuse of entrusted power for private gain have examined the links between corruption and various aspects of management, financing and governance. Behavioural scientists and anthropologists also point to individual and social characteristics which influence the behaviour of government agents and clients. This article presents a comprehensive framework and a set of methodologies for describing and measuring how opportunities, pressures and rationalizations influence corruption in the health sector. The article discusses implications for intervention, and presents examples of how theory has been applied in research and practice. Challenges of tailoring anti-corruption strategies to particular contexts, and future directions for research, are addressed.

  18. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  19. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:27462297

  20. Hospital physician payment mechanisms in Austria: do they provide gateways to institutional corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit; Stepan, Adolf

    2017-12-01

    Institutional corruption in the health care sector has gained considerable attention during recent years, as it acknowledges the fact that service providers who are acting in accordance with the institutional and environmental settings can nevertheless undermine a health care system's purposes as a result of the (financial) conflicts of interest to which the service providers are exposed. The present analysis aims to contribute to the examination of institutional corruption in the health sector by analyzing whether the current payment mechanism of separately remunerating salaried hospital physicians for treating supplementary insured patients in public hospitals, in combination with the public hospital physician's possibility of taking up dual practice as a self-employed physician with a private practice and/or as an attending physician in private hospitals, has the potential to undermine the primary purposes of the Austrian public health care system. Based on the analysis of the institutional design of the Austrian public hospital sector, legal provisions and directives have been identified, which have the potential to promote conduct on the part of the public hospital physician that systematically undermines the achievement of the Austrian public health system's primary purposes.

  1. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In

  2. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In th

  3. Social preferences, culture and corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neoclassical economics more or less postulates that agents tend to maximize their own narrow self-interests and will hence break the law if the gains outweigh the costs of potential punishment. In this thesis, I argue that more understandings of corruption can be obtained incorporating insights from

  4. Corruption and the South African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SAPS justified the change, ... corruption and its effect on civilian perceptions ... groups were that participants had to be older than ... South African survey data on citizen attitudes towards police have, for the past ten years ... What would you like the government to do to .... time… when police used to come into the houses.

  5. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  7. Evolving righteousness in a corrupt world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A Duéñez-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Punishment offers a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of cooperation in human and animal societies, but the maintenance of costly punishment itself remains problematic. Game theory has shown that corruption, where punishers can defect without being punished themselves, may sustain cooperation. However, in many human societies and some insect ones, high levels of cooperation coexist with low levels of corruption, and such societies show greater wellbeing than societies with high corruption. Here we show that small payments from cooperators to punishers can destabilize corrupt societies and lead to the spread of punishment without corruption (righteousness. Righteousness can prevail even in the face of persistent power inequalities. The resultant righteous societies are highly stable and have higher wellbeing than corrupt ones. This result may help to explain the persistence of costly punishing behavior, and indicates that corruption is a sub-optimal tool for maintaining cooperation in human societies.

  8. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Jia; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investments per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investments.

  9. Evolving Righteousness in a Corrupt World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A.; Sadedin, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Punishment offers a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of cooperation in human and animal societies, but the maintenance of costly punishment itself remains problematic. Game theory has shown that corruption, where punishers can defect without being punished themselves, may sustain cooperation. However, in many human societies and some insect ones, high levels of cooperation coexist with low levels of corruption, and such societies show greater wellbeing than societies with high corruption. Here we show that small payments from cooperators to punishers can destabilize corrupt societies and lead to the spread of punishment without corruption (righteousness). Righteousness can prevail even in the face of persistent power inequalities. The resultant righteous societies are highly stable and have higher wellbeing than corrupt ones. This result may help to explain the persistence of costly punishing behavior, and indicates that corruption is a sub-optimal tool for maintaining cooperation in human societies. PMID:22984510

  10. Virtuous acts as practical medical ethics: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Kerridge, Ian

    2011-10-01

    To examine the nature, scope and significance of virtues in the biographies of medical practitioners and to determine what kind of virtues are at play in their ethical behaviour and reflection. A case study involving 19 medical practitioners associated with the Sydney Medical School, using semi-structured narrative interviews. Narrative data were analysed using dialectical empiricism, constant comparison and iterative reformulation of research questions. Participants represented virtuous acts as centrally important in their moral assessments of both themselves and others. Acts appeared to be contextually virtuous, rather than expressions of stable character traits, and virtue was linked to acts that served to protect or enhance fundamental values attached to ontological security and human flourishing. Virtue ethics, in this sense, was the single most important ethical system for each of the participants. Virtue ethics, construed as the appraisal of acts in contexts of risk, danger or threat to foundational values, emerged as the 'natural' ethical approach for medical practitioners in this case study. Teaching medical ethics to students and graduates alike needs to accommodate the priority attached to virtuous acts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertisement, if those stores do not have the advertised products in stock and readily available to customers... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. 424.1 Section 424.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES RETAIL FOOD...

  12. 76 FR 78121 - Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Regulation F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... rulemaking authority over a motor vehicle dealer that is predominantly engaged in the sale and servicing of... necessary to reflect nomenclature and other technical amendments required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Notably..., replacing appropriate ] nomenclature to reflect the transfer of authority to the Bureau, and changing...

  13. Fighting Corruption when Existing Corruption-Control Levels Count: What do Wealth-Effects Tell us in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2013-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? Do income-levels matter in the fight against corruption when existing corruption-control levels also matter? In other words, how does the wealth of nations matter in the fight against corruption when corruption is assessed throughout the conditional distribution of corruption-control from countries with low initial levels of corrup...

  14. Fighting corruption when existing corruption-control levels count : what do wealth-effects tell us in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? Do income-levels matter in the fight against corruption when existing corruption-control levels also matter? In other words, how does the wealth of nations matter in the fight against corruption when corruption is assessed throughout the conditional distribution of corruption-control from countries with low initial levels of corrup...

  15. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably…

  16. Relationship between collectivism and corruption in American and Chinese books: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongshuai; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Liu, Li

    2017-07-13

    Previous research on the relationship between collectivism and corruption has not investigated their co-variation over time. In this study, we use Google Ngram Viewer to track the frequency of words related to collectivism and corruption in American books (1800-2000) and in Chinese Books (1970-2008). The results demonstrate that a positive association between the usage of these terms during the periods in both Chinese and American books, with changes in words related to collectivism preceding changes in words related to corruption in American books. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Translating evidence-based guidelines to improve feedback practices: the interACT case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, Karen L; Schofield, Susie J; McAleer, Sean; Ajjawi, Rola

    2016-01-01

    ...'. The aim of this paper is to present a case study demonstrating how an entire programme's assessment and feedback practices were re-engineered and evaluated in line with evidence from the literature in the interACT...

  18. "Speech Act" Fra Teoria e Prassi Didattica. (The Speech Act between Theory and Pedagogical Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)

  19. "Speech Act" Fra Teoria e Prassi Didattica. (The Speech Act between Theory and Pedagogical Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)

  20. Corruption in Higher Education: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Forms of corruption are multiple. Measuring corruption is necessary not only for getting ideas about the scale and scope of the problem, but for making simple comparisons between the countries and conducting comparative analysis of corruption. While the total impact of corruption is indeed…

  1. 7 CFR 56.69 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or... identification in the labeling or advertising of any product. [71 FR 42011, July 24, 2006] ...

  2. Local Level Perception of Corruption: An Anthropological Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewanta Kattel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying problem of corruption in Nepal at the micro level stems from the 'capture' of the sustainable number of the policies and implementing rules and regulations of the different laws by vested interests. The long standing collusion between political parties and government officials has resulted in a destructed economy that favors private economic interests over the broader public goods. The situation is compounded by the patterns of non transparent and illegitimate practice that sustain the culture of corruption. Sources of income for individual and employees are unregulated and often arbitrarily determined through the patronage system that is link to the culture of silence underpinning such patronage. The role of civil society is to controlling corruption by working at the grass roots political and bureaucratic, and legal judicial level. Key words: Civil society; problem; power; judicial; corruption DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2785 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 163-174

  3. Topical legal aspects of corruption counteraction in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Zemlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the current developments in the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction and the legislation on public procurement system on this basis to study legal conflicts and gaps and to develop proposals under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. Methods historical formallegal logical and systemicfunctional structural and contextual approach to the study of law and theoretical propositions concerning the definition nature and characteristics of legal relations arising in the process of and relating to the corruption counteraction in the public procurement system. Results аn aggregate of theoretical conclusions and proposals aimed at perfection of anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system is presented. Scientific novelty the results of the author39s interpretation of changes in the Russian anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system existing legal conflicts and gaps. Practical significance developing proposals for improving the standards of anticorruption legislation and legislation on public procurement system under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. nbsp

  4. Balancing act. Using the clinic scorecard to improve practice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Art

    2007-02-01

    The balanced scorecard is a strategic management system that impels managers to focus on the performance metrics that drive success. It measures the business process and links a management method for process improvement to strategic goals. A medical practice can use a balanced scorecard to improve operational performance and quality or service, which generates higher levels of patient satisfaction and better financial management.

  5. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  6. Review of the monograph “Corruption: nature, revelation, interaction” / editor-in-chief Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences T. Ya. Khabrieva. Мoscow: “Yurisprudentsiya” Publishers, 2014, 688 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Milyukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the authorsrsquo opinion of the monograph ldquoCorruption nature revelation interactionrdquo editorinchief Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences T. Ya. Khabrieva. Selected chapters and paragraphs are reviewed and analyzed. The authors note both positive and negative sides of the monograph. The concept of corruption as a social phenomenon is discussed as well as the need to implement international norms in national legislation the legal framework for combating corruption in Russia the activities of the various institutions to fight against corruption combating corruption in state and municipal service ways of overcoming the corruption potential of legal acts impact of corruption on business and methods of combating corruption abroad. The team of authors including a large number of wellknown scientists and politicians S. B. Ivanov S. B. Naryshkin S. V. Stepashin Yu. A. Tikhomirov A. V. Fedorov T. Ya. Khabrieva etc. view corruption as a social phenomenon highlight the issues of international cooperation on corruption issues give a detailed review of legislation including international on combating corruption and name individual institutions to counteract this dangerous phenomenon. Special chapters are devoted to corruption in the system of state and municipal service and corruption in the business sector. Detailed attention in a separate chapter is given to the institution of anticorruption expertise. nbsp

  7. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Sundström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  8. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes of Belgrade University employees on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gredelj Stjepan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is widely overspread phenomenon in all transition countries. In this sense Serbia is not exception, on the contrary, it was always highly ranked in all corruption indices of Transparency International. Among social areas which are considered as saturated with corruption highly ranked is the field of university education. In order to check justification of such perceptions, we have conducted a survey among Belgrade University employees. The findings confirmed that there exist corruption in high education on one side and that there is not too much readiness of employees to oppose it, if not to tear it out, than at least to diminish it.

  10. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

  11. Selecting less corruptible bureaucrats: A quasi-auction approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Zou, L.

    2008-01-01

    A government official's propensity to corruption, or corruptibility, can be affected by his intertemporal preference over job benefits. Through a dynamic model of rent-seeking behavior, this paper examines how endogenously determined corruptibility changes with monitoring intensity, salary growth,

  12. Selecting less corruptible bureaucrats: a quasi-auction approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Zou, L.

    2007-01-01

    A government officials' propensity to corruption, or corruptibility, can be affected by his intertemporal preference over job benefits. Through a dynamic model of rent-seeking behavior, this paper examines how endogenously determined corruptibility changes with monitoring intensity, salary growth,

  13. Corruption and Re-election Chances of Incumbent Parties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Fayoyin

    Transparency International defines corruption as the abuse of public resources for .... Corruption is measured by the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) compiled by .... Definition. Mean Std. Dev. Min. Max. Re-election. 1 if reelected and 0 if not.

  14. Civil Service Reforms in Thailand: Political Control and Corruption.

    OpenAIRE

    Prijono Tjiptoherijanto

    2012-01-01

    After the 1973 student demonstration marked a changing in Thai political history. The principle of Weberian bureaucracy such as political neutrality becomes the legal framework of the Civil Service under democratic environment. However, given the cultural values and their impact on the bureaucracy, any serious change must came from the top leadership.Another characteristic of the Thai's civil service is corruption practices. The close personal connections between politician, civil service, an...

  15. Supreme audit institutions and anti-corruption initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, David S.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins with a review of the effect of public sector corruption and its causes. It explains the role of supreme audit institutions (SAI) in anti-corruption initiatives. The author ends with strategic recommendations for anti-corruption initiatives within SAIs including reducing the opportunities and incentives for corruption, increasing the cost of corrupt behavior and changing public expectations that cases of corruption will be successfully prosecuted. Este artículo principia...

  16. The collaborative roots of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-08-25

    Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration-particularly on equal terms-in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments-to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration-people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration.

  17. Efficiency of anti-corruption policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Gorshenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the issues of anticorruption policy effi ciency to disclose the contents of the categories quotpolicyquot quotefficiencyquot quotcriteriaquotnbspquotmonitoringquot to formulate the provisions that reflect the author39s concept of efficiency of managerial influence on corruption. Methods systemic approach as a method of universal methodology general scientific methods structuralfunctional analysis comparison logicalnbspmethod. Results the definition and the content of anticorruption policies are corrected the comparative analysis is carried out of the four interconnectednbspmultilevel categories quotanticorruption policyquot quotefficiencyquot quotefficiency criteriaquot quotmonitoringquot their intrinsic and formal features are shown innbspthe transition implementation of concepts into lawmaking as the regulatory basis for substantive work on implementing legislation and othernbspplanning activities. knowledge about the issue of the anticorruption policy efficiency is systematized representing the productivity of humannbspmaterial financial and information resources. Scientifi c novelty the article presents the author39s position on the definition of anticorruption policy in which the main conceptual frameworknbspof guiding ideas is allocated and which determines the content and character of the two other subsystems i.e. law making and enforcement. The concept of efficiency or successfulness of anticorruption policy is proposed as well as approaches to defining the evaluation criteria.nbsp Practical significance the possibility of differentiated approach to the development of regional concept of anticorruption policy its regulatorynbspframework and appropriate executive action as well as the unique quotmeasurement and evaluationquot system of anticorruption monitoring. The possibilitynbspis shown to elaborate a new system of evaluating the effectiveness of the ideological mechanism of infl uencing the management

  18. Corruption, Trust and their Public Sector Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness of t...

  19. Should 'Anti-Corruption' Accounts Be Abolished?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The "account against corruption" originated in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. At the beginning of 2000, after Xu Yunhong, former Secretary of the Ningbo Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China, and some other top officials were arrested on corruption charges, the municipal government set up China's

  20. Nigeria: Government Corruption and Electoral Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    charges of 26 Chris Albin -Lackey and Eric Guttschuss, “Corruption on Trial?” Human Rights Watch, August... Albin -Lackey, Chris and Eric Guttschuss. “Corruption on Trial?” Human Rights Watch, August 25, 2011. http://www.hrw.org/print/reports/2011/08/25

  1. Method of replacing corrupted audio data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, J.; Meijerink, Arjan

    2006-01-01

    A decoding method for coded data representing original data. Corrupted data is detected and replaced with buffered data. The buffered data is stored in the buffer a time interval corresponding to an estimated periodicity or an integer multiple thereof before the corrupted data was received. The esti

  2. THE MAIN PROBLEM OF COUNTERACTION AGAINST CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sergeevich Dilkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of corruption. The experience of anti-corruption activities in various countries shows convincingly that to completely get rid of corruption is impossible, as any other social evil, with solid foundations in economic, social and political system of society. You can put a question only about how to reduce the scale of corruption to the socially acceptable level. Corruption infringes upon interests and constitutional rights of citizens, undermines the rule of law and democratic principles, suggests discrediting the activities of the state apparatus, distorts the principle of legality, hinders economic reforms and therefore requires detailed investigation with the scientific side to find the most effective ways of countering this phenomenon. Corruption can be done in different ways and methods. The conclusion that corruption is not only a form of criminal enrichment bureaucratic state apparatus, it has always been the main source of criminalization of social life, its degradation.Corruption is both a prerequisite and a consequence of the functioning of the shadow economy, strengthening property differentiation of the society, the fall of morals and degradation of the socio-political life.

  3. Corruption, trust and inequality in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Ardelyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relationship between the level of corruption and inequality in modern society. Taking into account the existing theoretical approaches to having a direct or inverse relationship between corruption and inequality this relationship is complemented by addressing the issue of trust.

  4. DAMAGE FROM CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Ovsepyan S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a problem of identification and assessment of damage from corruption in public procurement. We have presented an analysis of the methodology for the calculation and assessment of accumulated financial and economic damage caused by corruption in public procurement. The conclusion about the need for further development of research on this issue has been made

  5. Corruption: A many-headed monster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. van der Walt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of corruption poses a serious threat to our nation. This paper intends to investigate, apart from the various forms of corruption and our reactions to them, the causes of and the possible cures for this evil in our society.

  6. Staple of the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act%法律专家解读美国《反海外腐败法》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    越石

    2009-01-01

    @@ 在新世纪全球公司论坛上,美国驻华大使馆法律顾问李张健仪介绍了美国的(FCPA),在讲解这部法律之前,她特别指出:中国有热情待客的传统,中国的好客程度远远高于其他国家.

  7. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  8. Do Corruption Measures Have a Perception Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    How well do corruption perception measures reflect actual levels of public sector corruption? Leading cross-national corruption perception measures have come under much theoretical and empirical scrutiny in recent years, with serious implications for the validity and reliability of the data...... in this ever growing sub-field. Critics argue that perceptions – in particular those of outside experts – do not reflect actual corruption in that they are far too ‘noisy’ or simply biased by external factors such as economic performance. Moreover, a number of recent empirical studies, focused on developing...... areas, have put forth evidence that outside expert assessments of corruption correspond little, if at all, with the experiences and views of actual citizens, and that such a lack of correspondence demonstrates pessimism for existing perception measures. This study offers a systematic analysis...

  9. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  10. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  11. CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: THE PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. LITVYAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the problem of corruption in various fields of activities of bodies of state power and administration has acquired a global and systemic character. Corruption presents a direct threat to national security, impedes the development of institutions of democracy and civil society in our country, realization by citizens of their constitutional rights in the field of education, health, welfare, and property relations. The article focuses on the study of corruption in Russia. The authors highlight the historical aspects of the development of corruption, what allowed not only to reveal the Genesis of the issue, but also to identify the circumstances that affect directly the state of corruption in modern Russia.

  12. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and accountable and transparent practices aimed at verifying whether regulations and standards are met. The strategy also emphasizes the training of public officials, to provide them with appropriate skills and professional capacity to identify and manage corruption risks. The last part of the paper recommends future research to identify best practices among different communities and states attempting to control corruption practices when contracting out public services.

  13. Non-financial reports, anti-corruption performance and corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maider Aldaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper analyzes whether the anti-corruption reporting practices of the companies are a reflection of adequate anti-corruption systems put in place by companies, or whether the disclosure is merely a tool for companies to improve their reputation and thus maintain their legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – We apply the PLS method to the collected data in a content analysis of the sustainability reports of 31 companies within the Ibex 35 in December 2008. Theoretical foundation – In the analysis, we use both the legitimacy theory and the stakeholder theory, because we consider them as complementary theories and consistent with our approach. Findings – The results show that regarding the corruption issue there is a negative relationship between disclosure and performance, that is, companies with poor performance disclose more. On the other hand, the results reflect the existence of a positive relationship between disclosure and reputation, i.e. report information to interested parties enhances the perception of stakeholders about the company. This finding could be justified by the above two theories. However, we can’t conclude that companies with good performance disclose information to key stakeholders in order to strengthen relations, as stated by the stakeholder theory. Practical implications – this study provides evidence of how companies use non-financial reporting-specifically anti-corruption data- to improve corporate reputation. It is also noted that reporting practices not necessarily have to be in accordance with the actual anti-corruption practices of firms.

  14. Cultural Specific Training in Corruption Reporting for Pacific Island Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen; McCarthy, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Notes that very few journalists have formal training in corruption reporting. Discusses workshops held in 2000 and 2001 on the subject of corruption reporting for Pacific Island journalists. Explains the role of the media as an anti-corruption mechanism and the difficulty journalists face in identifying and sometimes stamping out corruption. Looks…

  15. 75 FR 60352 - Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Mortgage Acts and Practices - Advertising Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ..., mortgage broker, or others. Marketers and advertisers widely disseminate mortgage advertisements to... advertisement discloses the rates or payments that will apply over the full term of the advertised loan; (3... CFR Part 321 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Mortgage Acts and Practices - Advertising Rule...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17g-6 - Prohibited acts and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of any asset-backed or mortgage-backed securities transaction, unless all or a portion of the assets... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited acts and practices. 240.17g-6 Section 240.17g-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  17. End-of-life practices in the Netherlands under The Euthanasia Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Rurup, Mette L.; Buiting, Hilde M.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Hanssen-de Wolf, Johanna E.; Janssen, Anke G. J. M.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Rietjens, Judith A. C.; Prins, Cornelis J. M.; Deerenberg, Ingeborg M.; Gevers, Joseph K. M.; van der Maas, Paul J.; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2002, an act regulating the ending of life by a physician at the request of a patient with unbearable suffering came into effect in the Netherlands. In 2005, we performed a follow-up study of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other end-of-life practices. METHODS: We mailed q

  18. Misunderstanding corruption and community: comparative cultural politics of corruption regulation in the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Findlay, M

    2007-01-01

    This paper will take as its empirical foundation the author’s experience of corruption and regulation in small Pacific island states. The argument is that notions of corruption and strategies for its regulation suitable for modernized societies, which lack cultural specificity and community engagement, may in fact stimulate corruption relationships in transitional cultures. The other consequence of the imposition of inappropriate definitions and regulation strategies is a profound misundersta...

  19. DNA evidence in rape cases and the Debbie Smith Act: forensic practice and criminal justice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsavaara, Terhi V T; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2006-10-01

    The Debbie Smith or "Justice for All" Act was passed on November 1, 2004. The act addresses the problem of collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from backlogged rape kits sitting in crime laboratories around the country. Presently, no empirical data exist by which to assess the soundness of the legislation. However, the act clearly affects discrete operations within the forensic and criminal justice systems. This article explores the relative merits of the Debbie Smith law, highlighting changes in Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs, law enforcement, court administration, correctional treatment, and juvenile justice practices. Concerns linked to the likely impact of the "Justice for All" Act raise significant questions about its overall programmatic utility and treatment efficacy.

  20. Corruption and Political Participation in the Americas and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bonifácio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an issue as yet little explored in the vast literature about political participation: the role of corruption in political engagement. It investigates whether the coexistence, the values and the perception of citizens in relation to corrupt practices and actors have effects on political activism, and it verifies the direction in which this is evolving, whether it is in the direction of engagement in or withdrawal from politics. The unit of analysis is the individual, the geographic sector includes the Americas and the Caribbean, and the time frame includes biennial intervals between 2004 and 2012. A theoretical discussion and empirical analysis of the data from the Americas Barometer is used. Five distinct types of political participation were identified: contact with political and governmental actors, community activism, partisan and electoral activism, voter turnout and protest activism. The article concludes that the experience with corruption and the tolerance for bribe increase the chances of engagement in participative activities, going against the principal contributions of the specialized literature.

  1. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  2. Anti-corruption system in the foreign countries

    OpenAIRE

    Indarbaev, Ashab

    2015-01-01

    There is no country where corruption would not take a place all. Just need to distinguish between petty corruption when officials take bribes from citizens, and corruption at the highest level, when a major government official receives a reward, for example, the allocation of public orders or pushing favourable laws for someone interests. In this regard, the particular interest attracts the state, attained some success in the fight against corruption. The idea of isolating anti-corruption pro...

  3. THE POLICY OF GRANTING REMISSION TO CORRUPTION INMATES IN ORDER TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts to revise the provisions concerning remission, it should consider how far can reduce corruption and its impact on inmates and the public

  4. Fake Populism or Real Populism: Pork Barrel Policy as Political Corruption in House of Representative During 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the practice of pork barrel politics in the level of Indonesia legislature tiers and its political management campaign. Since 2004, electoral democracy already delegate to the common people to chosen their representation directly through general election in the level executive and legislative. Those conditions oblige politician and political parties to approaching the commons in order to obtain their vote and popularize both actors into public. The paradigm of research is a pork barrel politics. This paradigm supports to understand and analyze the corruption symptoms i.e. politico corruption in legislative tier and electoral-corruption in political-campaign which become chronic problems in this country. Result of research has showed populism is pivotal key which triggered up politician and parties to corruption in order to persist their political tenure and funding their political cost in pursue to re-elect again in second office terms. No matter their corruption practice that implicate to budgeting fraud. Both actors take political favor to disguise within social aids following the governmental policy, so that, they hindered from corruption accusation. Finally, this paper wants to recommend legal improvement into our budgeting cycle wherein there are public participation to watch it and moral improvement to politician and parties to reducing their corruption if they wants to become truly populist politician figure into public.

  5. History gone wrong: Rousseau on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that Rousseau is one of the most acute thinkers of the corruption of civilization. In fact, the Second Discourse and the Essay on the Origins of Languages could be read as elaborate analyses of advanc­ing social and cultural decline inasmuch as mankind is continually moving away from the original state of natural innocence. But Rousseau’s idea of corruption is not straightforward. I try to show that in the Essay, Rousseau emphasizes the natural causes for corruption. I argue that an opposition between necessity and contingency, which more accurately represents the two modes operating in Rousseau’s doctrine, should replace the standard nature/culture divide. The contingency of natural catastrophes is found to be ultimately responsible for the corruption in the social realm, which is therefore largely driven by natural causes.

  6. Korean nuclear industry hit by corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Bin

    2013-12-01

    After a four-month investigation, a court in South Korea has indicted 100 officials and suppliers on corruption charges over bogus safety certifications for parts that were supplied to some of the country's 23 nuclear reactors.

  7. CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA: A CULTURE OR RETROGRESSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    method of approach is descriptive and phenomenological approaches based on the review ... Keywords: corruption, culture, bribe, extortion, policy, traditional gift, church ... Economic development is stunted, because foreign direct investment.

  8. Careers, Connections and Corruption Risks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dahlström, Carl; Fazekas, Mihály

    the interplay between politics and bureaucracy. It suggests that corruption risks are minimized when the two groups involved in decision-making on public contracts—politicians and bureau-crats—have known different interests. This is institutionalized when politicians are accountable to the electorate, while.......4 million procurement contracts. Both show a remarkable sub-national variation across Europe. The study finds corruption risks significantly lower where bureau-crats’ careers do not depend on political connections....

  9. The determinants of corporate corruption in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Atangana ondoa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of corporate corruption in Cameroon with data of the national institute of statistics in Cameroon. I find out that, companies have devoted 0.747% and 1.56% of their turnover (companies' revenue) respectively to pay bribes and to give gifts to civil servants. In addition, corporate corruption in Cameroon is caused by poverty and the weak institutions, it is more rampant in certain regions rich in natural resources. For these reasons, ...

  10. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...

  11. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  12. On official corruption in the Yuan dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi'an

    2006-01-01

    The vicious cycle of official corruption got worse unprecedent edly in the Yuan dynasty (ca.1279-1368).Corrupt officials at all levels from the local to the central governments were "extremely shameless and greedy."Even many court ministers got involved in the vicious cycle of corruption.The top officialdom was polluted and degenerated badly because the Mongolian nobles made their "Sauqaf" (taking gifts) tradition and the Semu,both official and merchant groups,took bribes as a way to amass wealth.Although the Mongol Yuan rulers did make a set of anti-corruption policies such as detailed rules of censorship and inspection relating to corruption crimes,these didn't work well.Of all the reasons of the Yuan official corruption,the old Mongolian steppe traditions play the most important role,which formed the context for the low salary,improper selection and poor quality of the officials and of bending the law wrongly to pardon official misconduct.

  13. Post 9-11 Terror Hysteria: Social Work Practice and The US Patriot Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred H. Besthorn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It was only weeks after the planes crashed into the twin towers on that bright, sunlit morning of September 11th, 200l, that it became apparent that the most important challenge now facing American democracy was how well would we strike a balance between liberty and security. This paper will look at the history of civil liberties in light of threats to national security. It will examine components of the US Patriot Act, how these provisions are being applied and the potential implication of the act on social work education and practice. Suggestions of how social work might respond to these new realities will be discussed.

  14. "It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets": How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Mcintosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption.

  15. “It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets”: How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. Objective To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. Methods We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Results Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. Conclusion The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption. PMID:28746025

  16. 16 CFR 312.3 - Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... children on the Internet. 312.3 Section 312.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.3 Regulation of unfair... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts...

  17. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  18. The Practical Enlightenment of Confucian "Governing with the Power of Virtue" to Our Country's Current Anti-corruption Work%孔子“为政以德”思想的现实启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蓓

    2011-01-01

    "为政以德"思想是儒家思想的重要内容,它主张为政者要以身作则,以民为本,以刑辅德。这一思想深刻影响到后世统治者的治国方略。继承和发扬孔子的"为政以德"思想,对我国当前反腐败工作的开展具有非常重要的现实意义。%The thinking of "governing with the power of virtue" is the important content of Confucianism.Its connotation is abundant and profound.It requires the governor to lead by example,rely on the people,and enforce morality with the assistance of punishment.This thinking has deeply influenced the later governors' governing strategies.Until today,corruption has become a severe problem that our economic and social development facing.Carrying on and promoting Confucian thinking of "governing with the power of virtue" has signal value to the development of anti-corruption work.

  19. 十八大以来新一届中央领导集体反腐倡廉的理论与实践∗%Theory and practice of anti-corruption and clean governance of new central leadership team since 18 th CPC National Congress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙应帅

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大以来,以习近平为总书记的党中央更加重视反腐倡廉建设,在认识上将反腐败斗争提高到事关“亡党亡国”的高度,要求“老虎”、“苍蝇”一起打。党在实践上强调,要更多地依靠制度和法律建设推进反腐倡廉建设,更好地完善全方位反腐倡廉体系,把“权力关进制度的笼子里”,并用“治标”为“治本”赢得时间,以更快回应人民的反腐败要求。通过深化改革促进反腐倡廉建设,推进巡视制度,试行官员财产申报公开制度,通过网络微博等新媒体率先发力,引起网民热议监督、纪委迅速回应查处等新方式,加速形成党内党外、体制内和体制外的全方位联动反腐机制。通过严格执行八项规定、公务接待、公车改革等切实纠正“四风”,铲除腐败滋生的温床,加大对高级领导干部、责任缺失、失职渎职行为的查处力度等举措,成为新一届中央领导集体推进反腐倡廉建设的若干亮点。%Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the construction of anti-corruption and clean governance is paid more emphasis by the Central Committee of the Party led by the General Secretary XI Jin-ping. The struggle of combating corruption is promoted to the level that it is related with “the death of Party and the death of country” in cognition, which demands that to beat “tigers” and “flies” at the same time. The Party emphasizes in practice that the construction of anti-corruption and clean governance should be promoted by more and more construction of institution and law, the all-around system of anti-corruption and clean governance should be perfected better,“the power should be locked into a cage”, and the time for“effecting a permanent cure” should be gained by “taking temporary solution”, in order to response the demands of combating corruption of the people more quickly. The construction of anti-corruption

  20. Administrative corruption from sociology perspective and the relationship between administrative corruption and social security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zarei Jlyany

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available certain principles Observance and non- Observance on organizing a social system will have Indisputable effect at the Organization. And administrative systems are not exempt from this, also the selection of the Administration components and also How to Place the components together can affect its performance. Meanwhile, the government's role in the prevalence or no-prevalence, the extent type and the way of administrative corruption influence, in this article, researchers wants to explore the reasonable cause of this procedure prevalence. So Thought owners by thinking more in this context, compensate Analysis deficiencies. Also following topics are included in this article, first of all. A Administrative corruption and social security definitions B Impact of administrative corruption on Social Security In terms of rational - traditional C the most important point of  Sociological Analysis And sociological theories relation with administrative corruption And relate these theories to deviations And its role in administrative corruption cases have been investigated.

  1. On Unbiased Estimation of Sparse Vectors Corrupted by Gaussian Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Alexander; Hlawatsch, Franz; Eldar, Yonina C

    2010-01-01

    We consider the estimation of a sparse parameter vector from measurements corrupted by white Gaussian noise. Our focus is on unbiased estimation as a setting under which the difficulty of the problem can be quantified analytically. We show that there are infinitely many unbiased estimators but none of them has uniformly minimum mean-squared error. We then provide lower and upper bounds on the Barankin bound, which describes the performance achievable by unbiased estimators. These bounds are used to predict the threshold region of practical estimators.

  2. China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.

  3. Robust Matrix Completion with Corrupted Columns

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yudong; Caramanis, Constantine; Sanghavi, Sujay

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of matrix completion, when some number of the columns are arbitrarily corrupted, potentially by a malicious adversary. It is well-known that standard algorithms for matrix completion can return arbitrarily poor results, if even a single column is corrupted. What can be done if a large number, or even a constant fraction of columns are corrupted? In this paper, we study this very problem, and develop an efficient algorithm for its solution. Our results show that with a vanishing fraction of observed entries, it is nevertheless possible to succeed in performing matrix completion, even when the number of corrupted columns grows. When the number of corruptions is as high as a constant fraction of the total number of columns, we show that again exact matrix completion is possible, but in this case our algorithm requires many more -- a constant fraction -- of observations. One direct application comes from robust collaborative filtering. Here, some number of users are so-called mani...

  4. On Capability Approach, Poverty and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiu Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of development is to face up with the challenge of the issue of poverty, which directly is associated with the ultimate goal of social, political and economic development. If the poverty has not been properly handled, development will be inefficient and unsustainable. This paper briefly indicates the main idea of Amartya Sen’s capability approach, then utilizing the approach to analyze poverty and the bottleneck in dealing such issues. It illustrates the inter-relationship of capability, poverty and corruption, and demonstrates that corruption is both the cause and the consequence of poverty and the failure of capability. When there corruption comes, the essential power to alleviate and eliminate poverty such as political accountability, transparency, engagement and openness are all spoiled and even wiped off. Political accountability, transparence, engagement are of great importance to both anti-corruption and poverty and promotion of capability. Economic aid for the poor and needy should be reinforced by fostering and promoting the capability of the poor and needy, so that the purpose of eliminating poverty and corruption could be achieved.

  5. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998-2002) and 5 years after (2003-2007) implementation of the Act. Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10,000 and thereafter to 2.8/10,000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10,000 to 2.6/10,000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10,000 to 3.1/10,000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females.

  6. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998–2002) and 5 years after (2003–2007) implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10 000 and thereafter to 2.8/10 000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10 000 to 2.6/10 000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10 000 to 3.1/10 000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. PMID:20353671

  7. Application and Practice of Information Technology for Preventing Corruption in Water Resources Construction Project%信息技术在水利项目预防腐败中的应用与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡旭东; 李观义

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the water conservancy construction projects are numerous and spent large quantity of funds. It puts forward higher request to the financial supervision and corruption prevention. Using of information technology, it develops financial supervision platform for construction of water conservancy project at all levels of users, monitoring the use of funds during entire process of projects from feasibility study to completion. It ensures that the water administration department real-timely, accurately grasps the dynamic information of water conservancy construction projects. The system can early warn online about the construction schedule, payment time limit and the completed investment. It effectively monitors the use and disbursement of funds, and prevents the occurrence of corruption. The effect is good.%近年来,水利建设项目数量众多、资金庞大,对资金监管和预防腐败提出了更高要求。利用信息化技术,开发建设广东省水利系统各级用户使用的资金监管平台,实现项目从可研立项到竣工验收全过程的资金使用情况进行全程监控,确保水行政主管部门实时、准确掌握水利建设项目的动态信息,对建设进度、资金拨付时限、投资完成等进行在线预警,对资金的使用和拨付进行有效监督,有效地预防腐败行为的发生,效果良好。

  8. Refocusing Perspectives on Public Corruption Away from the Individual: Insights from the Moldovan Social Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Vasile ROMAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Public corruption has received significant attention from scholars across a large array of disciplines. Despite the numerous academic efforts, however, our current understandings of the motivation and the evolution of public corruption still suffer from an agonizing amount of ambiguity, and on many occasions fail to provide practical guidance. One of the reasons for the limited progress in the area is the fact that, given its nature, corruption does not lend itself easily to empirical studies. Especially rare is qualitative research that examines and challenges the findings of previous studies within different institutional, cultural and social environments.This article provides the results of a study that examined nine theory building propositions suggested by de Graaf and Huberts (2008 within the context of developing democracies, specifically the Republic of Moldova. The study confirmed six of the nine propositions. Among others, it was determined that in developing de- mocracies corruption is highly influenced by the social matrix and public officials often assume their positions with the implicit expectations of reaping rewards from corrupt behaviors.

  9. 发展中国家反腐败制度建设的政治动力机制——基于印度制定“官员腐败调查法”的分析%The Political Impetus behind the Construction of Anti-corruption Institutions in Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Process Leading up to India's Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (LALA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖滨; 黄迎虹

    2016-01-01

    Existing anti-corruption theories adopt "state-eentric," "market-centrie" or "governance/good governance" approaches as their dominant research direction.These theories are grounded in Western systems of liberty and democracy and their analysis is couched in terms of the logic of the division between public and private,which makes it difficult for their proponents to gain an insight into the unique experience of developing countries.The process behind India's Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (LALA),starting from 2010,shows that developing countries may have another anti-corruption route:a composite tripartite anti-corruption model.In this model,the government,the elite and the mass of the people constitute the three main players in the anti-corruption drive.The three forms a complex multi-faceted relationship premised on compliance with bottom-line standards and the use of positive interaction in a dynamic balance that advances the construction of anti-corruption institutions.Summing up the experience and synthesizing the theory of this model will not only help us explore a new anti-corruption approach but will also stimulate our thinking about the unique state-society relationships of developing countries and the political impetus underlying their institutional construction.%当前的反腐理论以“国家中心主义”、“市场中心主义”和治理与善治理论为主要研究路径,它们在理论上建立于西方自由民主的制度基础上,在分析上又局限于公私两大领域的划分逻辑之中,从而难以对发展中国家的独特经验有更为贴切的理解.2010年以来印度制定“官员腐败调查法”的过程表明,发展中国家的反腐败存在另一种可能路径——“三元复合反腐”模式.在这种反腐模式中,政府、社会精英与社会大众构成反腐的三大主体,他们在遵守底线规范的前提下,形成了复杂的多面关系,以动态平衡的良性互动机制推动反腐败的制度建设.对

  10. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  11. Corruption in the System of Higher Education: Problems and Ways to Prevent Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostev, A. N.; Demchenko, T. S.; Borisova, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of an analysis of the literature, social practice, and the results of a concrete sociological survey, the article examines the main problems of education in Russia today, the ways they are conditioned by corruption, and possible solutions. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  12. EDUCATION CORRUPTION AND TEACHER ABSENTEEISM IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Education corruption displays ample evidence that warrants inefficiencies and absenteeism among teachers. Teachers are the transmitters of knowledge who help to ensure that children learn, they are role models and in most rural communities they are the most educated and respected personages. High teacher absenteeism can exist when teachers have very low levels of motivation to work and little commitment to the profession, and when there is lack of accountability in the education sector. Because of the importance of education to society, international bodies emphasize the need for attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. It is necessary to state that reducing official corruption in the education sector, promoting teacher welfare, designing better systems for monitoring and reducing invalid absences are among the critical measures of combating teacher absenteeism. The survey research design was used for the study and the result supports that education corruption has significant positive relationship with teacher absenteeism

  13. Corruption, Insecurity and Border control in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    In Niger, building more border offices has proven insufficient to tackle the spread of smuggling, drug trade and circulation of jihadists in the Sahel. Instead, everyday petty corruption makes border control ineffective and, while apparently benign, this has severe consequences in contexts...... of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...... meetings, reporting, law implementation and sanctions as well as new modalities to reward border guards and other state agents. Because corruption is, to a large extent, embedded in the social norms of the users of public service in Niger, sensitisation among transporters, passengers and traders is crucial....

  14. Corrupción pública/Public corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.

  15. Accountability and Corruption in Argentina During the Kirchners’ Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzetti, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    centralized authority in the name of expanding government intervention in the economy. In both cases, corruption has tended to go unchecked due to insufficient government accountability. Therefore, although economic policies and political rhetoric have changed dramatically, government corruption remains...

  16. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Keywords: corruption; decentralisation of power; education corruption; maladministration; misappropriation; .... Authority used in bad faith, fraudulently or ... deceitful exercise of power. In this ..... the door for excessive use of discretion, which.

  17. Corrupción pública/Public corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.

  18. DISPARITY OF PUNISHMENT AT THE COURT OF THE CRIME OF CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuddin -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the judge's ruling against the disparity of offender criminal acts of corruption as well as the factors that influence the occurrence of the judge's verdict, the disparity was held in the Court of a criminal offence, Corruption in the courts, the courts of Makassar Tipikor Tipikor Bandung, with this type of problem identification research perskriptif-shaped, with the descriptive nature of the use of legal normative approach. Primary data obtained through interviews with as many as 15 judges and prosecutors as well as 7 5 academics 3 advocates determination technique done with a sample of secondary data and sampling purporsiv acquired through the study of librarianship is analyzed then qualitatively.The research results showed that determination of the disparity, mistakes and condemnation to the perpetrator of the criminal offence of corruption in the courts, the courts of Makassar Tipikor Ti [ikor Jakarta and Bandung Tipikor Court as well as in the great Mahkama occurs because positive Indonesia corruption criminal law that gives broad freedom to determine fault and criminal type (strafsoort both weighs criminal ringannya or (strafmaat to the perpetrator of the criminal offence of corruption all not under the minimum standard of judgment and memlampaui the maximum punishment standards defined in legislation the eradication of criminal acts of corruption. Factors that cause the occurrence of an error or judgment determining the disparity to the perpetrator of the criminal offence of corruption in the courts, the courts of Makassar Tipikor Ti [ikor Jakarta and Bandung Tipikor Court as well as in legal substance Agungadalah Mahkama factor, which gives freedom to the judge in deciding guilt and punishment inflicted to the defendant, politics and power, because the perpetrator of the criminal offence of corruption involves many officials or former officials of the regional social stratification, which is strong in the Association

  19. ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES FOR CORPORATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate security should commit to ethical management and raising the quality of companies and markets through improving cooperation and transparency by applying anticorruption measures such as accepting a code of ethics; respect and follow international business principles for dealing with bribery; improve their transparency - via access to information; involvement in politics to protect persons who disclose corruption cases; and improving corporate governance - through active mutual discussions on adjustment of legal regulations. Research methods used in the paper are: qualitative analysis of secondary data obtained from relevant institutions. Results obtained from the survey include fighting corruption in corporations must find a unique solution that is long-term strategy developed transparent society crucial criteria and principles to meet the political criteria by the fulfillment of anti-corruption standards; it requires continuous cooperation of public and private sector, NGOs and the general corpus of all stakeholders in the country against corruption; the lack of a legal framework or platform for establishing public and private partnerships, is an important factor for anti-corruption measures to improve corporate governance; mechanisms for cooperation does not seem sufficiently developed between the public, private, political and civil society; the most important factor to tackle corruption is to adopt a law on public prosecutors and determination of higher norms and standards. Conclusions drawn from the survey: in the area of pre-trial procedure requires shifting responsibilities of Interior Ministry body training in the area of the judicial system; it is necessary to change the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code by changing certain legal provisions which refer to the Agency for money laundering SCCP, a financial police and overall legislation.

  20. Corruption in international sports and how it may be combatted

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Maennig

    2008-01-01

    This contribution attempts a delimitation of the concept of corruption in sport and gives an overview of topical instances. It is thereby demonstrated why the definition of corruption in sport is especially problematic. The causes of the corruption and their social costs are analysed. The anti-corruption measures of the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) and the German Football Association (DFB) are described. These are based on two fundamentally different approaches and can be r...

  1. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified......, no effective separation exists even within a presidential system, but, we argue, can be partially restored by having an accountable judiciary. Our empirical findings show that a divided government and elected, rather than appointed, state supreme court judges are associated with lower corruption and...

  2. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  3. Using Supply, Demand, and the Cournot Model to Understand Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…

  4. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  5. Corruption and Educational Outcomes: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis Lim

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is a problem that continues to plague developed and developing countries worldwide. Previous studies have explored the negative implications of corruption on several aspects of human development, but, despite its serious and long-lasting consequences, the impact of corruption on educational outcomes has started to receive attention only…

  6. Corruption in Russian Higher Education as Reflected in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers corruption in higher education in Russia as reflected in the national media, including such aspects as corruption in admissions to higher education institutions and corruption in administering the newly introduced standardized test. The major focus is on the opinions of the leading figures of the education reform as related to…

  7. Using Supply, Demand, and the Cournot Model to Understand Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…

  8. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  9. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  10. A new cross-national measure of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Escresa, Laarni; Picci, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    A new measure of cross-national corruption is constructed based on the geographic distribution of public officials involved in cross-border corruption cases. A comparison is made between the Public Administration Corruption Index (PACI) and perception-based measures, considers the extent to which differences between them are driven by systematic factors, and concludes that they are not. As...

  11. Investigating the cultural patterns of corruption: A nonparametric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2011-01-01

    By using a sample of 77 countries our analysis applies several nonparametric techniques in order to reveal the link between national culture and corruption. Based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the corruption perception index, the results reveal that countries with higher levels of corruption tend to have higher power distance and collectivism values in their society.

  12. The Topography of Corruption: Explorations in a Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenheimer, Arnold J.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes how corruption is linked to scandalization in the traditions of European countries and how this has helped shape contemporary perceptions. Compares and contrasts levels of tolerance and manifestations of corruption. Includes a table of nations ranked on reputation for corrupt public services. (MJP)

  13. Analysis of Ukrainian legislation on state anti-corruption policy at the present stage of the reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliia Bakunchyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the state of implementation of anti-corruption policy in Ukraine has been analyzed. The basic legal and regulatory backgrounds of the country’s anti-corruption activities are examined. Based on analysis of the ways of improving the state anticorruption policy, improve the efficiency of its practical implementation in Ukraine. Corruption remains a major problem in Ukraine and continues to threaten its economic development, political stability, reputation (confidence level of the public authorities. Analyzing the phenomenon of corruption, it is necessary to emphasize that corruption is reformed in a reliable instrument to implement or achieve certain goals not only in individual format, but like leverage in the form of inter-state relations. This article shows the Ukraine’s achievement in the field of development the legislating basis for anticorruption policy, the practical instruments of its implementation on the institutional level. Steps made by the new elected authority involving publicity in order to improve the transparency and integrity building are reviewed as well as main tasks of the country to combat the corruption and the recommendations for its capability development. Combating corruption, our country has made considerable progress through the adoption of the anti-corruption legislation. It also covers reform of relevant government institutions that are unconditional guarantee of performance and implementing the rules. Many changes occurred and continue to occur with the support and under the close supervision of the foreign community, as well as a number of international organizations and institutions. At the same time, while preparing this materiel the influence of the international lessons learned experience had been taking in to consideration, which found its reflection and was actively implemented in the creating of anticorruption programs of governmental establishments as well as in Ministry of Defence.

  14. The Paradox of Czech Crusaders: Will They Ever Learn the Corruption Lesson? (Corruption and Anticorruption in the Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomir Lizal; Evzen Kocenda

    2001-01-01

    Corruption has a negative impact on society and economy. The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) uncovered dormant possibilities for corruption and necessity for appropriate steps to be taken. We document the state of corruption in the Czech Republic and the measures introduced to fight it. We cover sectors of society and economy according to their importance of a consequential corruption hazard. We also described the government's program of anticorruption and its achieveme...

  15. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  16. Volunteerism among Dental Hygienists: The Relationship between a Practice Act Incentive, Behaviors, Perceptions and Motivational Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Sandra D; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J

    2015-10-01

    Thirteen states in the nation authorize dental hygienists to satisfy re-licensure requirements in part, by performing pro bono oral health services in lieu of participating in continuing education courses This study compared registered dental hygienists' donations of time and professional expertise, perceptions of volunteerism and motivational orientations as they practice in both the presence and absence of a practice act statute intended to incentivize volunteerism. Volunteer behaviors, perceptions and motivational orientations of a non probability sample of 316 dental hygienists actively licensed by the states of Idaho or Utah, were assessed using an online survey which included the Self Determination Theory General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS). Survey Monkey results were analyzed using Mann Whitney U tests, Chi-Square analysis and an Independent Samples t-test at the 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant differences were found between dental hygienists' volunteer behaviors, perceptions of volunteerism or scores on the GCOS Autonomy and Impersonal subscales in the 2 states studied. Statistical analysis of dental hygienists' mean scores on the GCOS measure of Controlled motivational orientation yielded a significant difference (p=0.001) among Utah and Idaho dental hygienists. Dental hygienists require evidence based practice statutes and regulations that keep pace with the need to provide universal access to comprehensive oral care. Additional research is required to determine the effectiveness of legislation intended to encourage registered dental hygienists' altruistic expressions. Dental hygienists are frequently unaware of opportunities to volunteer their services and how state practice act regulations impact those opportunities. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  17. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Hanf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. METHODS: The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. FINDINGS: The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2= 0.89 included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001, logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006, Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001, presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006, and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001. A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. INTERPRETATIONS: Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  18. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  19. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the

  20. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  1. Corrupting the Curriculum? The Case of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Morgan, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers influences on the contemporary school curriculum in England. It does so mainly through a critical analysis of one significant critique of the curriculum made by the think tank Civitas in their collection of essays asserting the "corruption" of the curriculum, published in 2007. The paper places the Civitas position…

  2. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption....

  3. Economies of favors pr corrupt societies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Ledeneva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The only functioning system for transactions in the Soviet Union was in fact blat, the system of corruption and tacit agreement and alliances among all parties involved in a given transaction, is here argued. The “knowing smile” was a shared signal for those in the system.

  4. Glossary of Higher Education Corruption with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education corruption is an emerging sub-field of research that has yet to develop its terminological apparatus and own specific research methodologies. The interdisciplinary nature of this sub-field predetermines its dependency on other well-established fields, such as microeconomics, organizational theory, political economy, education…

  5. Enterprises Dealing with Corruption: A Microeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermira Hoxha Kalaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on survey data and qualitative evidence from Albanian manufacturing firms to examine the scale and consequences of corruption and tax evasion at the enterprise level. It discusses the costs and benefits from the entrepreneur’s perspective. The vector of covariates includes information about; use of external finance, policy influence, experience of corruption, firms size and ownership structure. To control for differences in the availability of collateral, the proportion of the fixed assets is included. The models used in the paper are probit where the dependent variable is binary and ordered probit where the dependent variable is categorical and orderable. Empirical results show that manufacturing firms operating in an environment in which tax evasion is more prevalent are more likely to suffer demands for bribes from corrupt officials. The regression analysis shows that tax evasion is a matter of degree and that is not limited to small and medium-sized enterprises. Even quite large firms acknowledge concealing part of their sales from tax authorities. Enterprises that are evading taxes are less likely to obtain an external audit. In addition, the data predict that corruption and tax evasion is more likely to occur when the principal owner is male rather than female. Moreover, findings show that the main effect of the separation of ownership on the likelihood of bribery is insignificant.

  6. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  7. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the invo

  8. Does Foreign Direct Investment Decrease Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Larraín; José Tavares

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of openness on corruption, using foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows as a measure of openness, after trade intensity is accounted for. We use a broad cross section of countries over the period 1970 to 1994 and address th

  9. Key words: corruption, business, entrepreneurship, Kenya, economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INgunjiri

    set up to unravel the scandals but all of them have proved to be an exercise in futility3 A .... (1975) and others as contributing to entrepreneurship, but excessive ... The World Bank defines corruption as the misuse of public power for private ...

  10. Infrastructure and Corruption: a Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This short paper takes stock of our collective knowledge on the importance of corruption in the infrastructure. It covers the measurement, the effects on the sector performance and the interactions with other sectors. It concludes with a few recommendations for the international community.

  11. Corrupting the Curriculum? The Case of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Morgan, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers influences on the contemporary school curriculum in England. It does so mainly through a critical analysis of one significant critique of the curriculum made by the think tank Civitas in their collection of essays asserting the "corruption" of the curriculum, published in 2007. The paper places the Civitas position in a wider…

  12. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  13. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii) abil...

  14. Combating Corruption in China: The Role of the State and Other Agencies in Comparative Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LESLIE; HOLMES

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first to compare China’s current anticorruption approach with those of both post-communist and other Sinic states/regions.Its principal purpose is to compare anti-corruption in China with the situation in countries that constitute appropriate comparators—either systemically(post-communist transition states)or culturally(predominantly Sinic states/regions)—and suggest ways in which China could usefully learn from these comparators.A comparative public policy evaluative approach forms the core of the analysis.The study uses publicly available survey data,both perceptual and experiential,for drawing inferences about the corruption levels in China and the other states analyzed.A neo-Weberian approach to system legitimacy and delegitimation is employed in analyzing the potential dangers of a radical anti-corruption approach,while Giddensian structuration theory is used to emphasize the interplay between structure and agency in anti-corruption.The findings and value of this research are primarily practical,in that it highlights potential lessons China could learn from Singapore and the Hong Kong SAR while also identifying the principal obstacles to the adoption of such measures.In particular,the establishment of a single and independent anti-corruption agency would almost certainly have a positive impact on the reduction of corruption levels.But this is politically difficult,since such a body could be perceived as constituting a threat to the Communist Party.Moreover,all comparisons betweenstates are limited,since some features are unique to a given country.

  15. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for clinically distressed health care workers: Waitlist-controlled evaluation of an ACT workshop in a routine practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Cerith S; Frude, Neil; Flaxman, Paul E; Boyd, Jane

    2017-08-30

    To examine the effects of a 1-day acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) workshop on the mental health of clinically distressed health care employees, and to explore ACT's processes of change in a routine practice setting. A quasi-controlled design, with participants block allocated to an ACT intervention or waiting list control group based on self-referral date. Participants were 35 health care workers who had self-referred for the ACT workshop via a clinical support service for staff. Measures were completed by ACT and control group participants at pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Participants allocated to the waitlist condition went on to receive the ACT intervention and were also assessed 3 months later. At 3 months post-intervention, participants in the ACT group reported a significantly lower level of psychological distress compared to the control group (d = 1.41). Across the 3-month evaluation period, clinically significant change was exhibited by 50% of ACT participants, compared to 0% in the control group. When the control group received the same ACT intervention, 69% went on to exhibit clinically significant change. The ACT intervention also resulted in significant improvements in psychological flexibility, defusion, and mindfulness skills, but did not significantly reduce the frequency of negative cognitions. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that the reduction in distress in the ACT condition was primarily associated with an increase in mindfulness skills, especially observing and non-reactivity. These findings provide preliminary support for providing brief ACT interventions as part of routine clinical support services for distressed workers. A 1-day ACT workshop delivered in the context of a routine staff support service was effective for reducing psychological distress among health care workers. The brief nature of this group intervention means it may be particularly suitable for staff support and primary care mental

  16. End-of-life practices in the Netherlands under the Euthanasia Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Rurup, Mette L; Buiting, Hilde M; van Delden, Johannes J M; Hanssen-de Wolf, Johanna E; Janssen, Anke G J M; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rietjens, Judith A C; Prins, Cornelis J M; Deerenberg, Ingeborg M; Gevers, Joseph K M; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2007-05-10

    In 2002, an act regulating the ending of life by a physician at the request of a patient with unbearable suffering came into effect in the Netherlands. In 2005, we performed a follow-up study of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other end-of-life practices. We mailed questionnaires to physicians attending 6860 deaths that were identified from death certificates. The response rate was 77.8%. In 2005, of all deaths in the Netherlands, 1.7% were the result of euthanasia and 0.1% were the result of physician-assisted suicide. These percentages were significantly lower than those in 2001, when 2.6% of all deaths resulted from euthanasia and 0.2% from assisted suicide. Of all deaths, 0.4% were the result of the ending of life without an explicit request by the patient. Continuous deep sedation was used in conjunction with possible hastening of death in 7.1% of all deaths in 2005, significantly increased from 5.6% in 2001. In 73.9% of all cases of euthanasia or assisted suicide in 2005, life was ended with the use of neuromuscular relaxants or barbiturates; opioids were used in 16.2% of cases. In 2005, 80.2% of all cases of euthanasia or assisted suicide were reported. Physicians were most likely to report their end-of-life practices if they considered them to be an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, which was rarely true when opioids were used. The Dutch Euthanasia Act was followed by a modest decrease in the rates of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The decrease may have resulted from the increased application of other end-of-life care interventions, such as palliative sedation. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  17. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  18. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  19. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  20. Corruption and Stock Market Development: New Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Alsherfawi Aljazaerli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between corruption and stock market development has been debated quite extensively in the literature, yet the evidence on the impact of corruption on stock market development remains contradictory and ambiguous. This paper investigates the impact of corruption, as measured by Corruption Perception Index (CPI published by Transparency International, on stock market development focusing exclusively on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries with its special characteristics of combining richness with relatively high level of corruption. Results from an estimation of alternative regression models on a panel of six GCC countries over the period 2003–2011, through which CPI is legitimately comparable, confirms a positive impact of corruption on stock market development, where the latter is measured by market capitalization. This is consistent with the view that corruption greases the wheels of economy by expediting transactions and allowing private firms to overcome governmentally imposed inefficiencies.

  1. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  2. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN EAST ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA: AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent FDI studies have focused on the effects of corruption on FDI inflows. Theoretically, corruption can act as either a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs, which should impede FDI, or a helping hand by “greasing” the wheels of commerce in the presence of weak regulatory framework, which should facilitate FDI. This study analyzes the impact of corruption on FDI inflows in East Asia and South Asia – two regions that have recently received huge FDI inflows. Using GLS methodology with 1995-2011 panel data, this study finds that the impact of corruption on FDI is significantly negative and robust, which validates the “grabbing hand” hypothesis. It is also found that, even after accounting for the economic fundamentals, East Asia seems to enjoy a locational advantage in attracting FDI vis-à-vis South Asia. These results further our knowledge of the FDI dynamics, which policymakers should find helpful in devising pro-FDI strategies.

  3. The disease of corruption: views on how to fight corruption to advance 21(st) century global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Savedoff, William D; Vogl, Frank; Lewis, Maureen; Sale, James; Michaud, Joshua; Vian, Taryn

    2016-09-29

    Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle, despite its enormous costs, which have been estimated in the billions of dollars. In this forum article, we asked anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas that urgently need global attention in order to advance the fight against global health corruption. The views shared by this multidisciplinary group of contributors reveal several fundamental challenges and allow us to explore potential solutions to address the unique risks posed by health-related corruption. Collectively, these perspectives also provide a roadmap that can be used in support of global health anti-corruption efforts in the post-2015 development agenda.

  4. 科学发展观指导下的廉政教育内容与形式设计——基于南通反腐倡廉教育实践的思考%Study on the Content and Form Design of Anti-corruption Edu- cation from the View of Scientific Outlook on Development - Based on the Thoughts of Anti-corruption Education Practice in Nantong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳

    2012-01-01

    Anti-corruption education guided by the scientific outlook on development is the proper meaning of the basic frame- work of the punishing and preventing corruption system; at the same time, it is the inevitable requirement to promote anti-cor- ruption and socialist harmonious society construction. In the overall view of anti-corruption, education is as important as insti- tution and supervision, and even more fundamental than them. From the actual experience, faith wavering of party members and cadres, the lack of moral integrity and the indifference to laws and regulations directly lead to corruption. With the requirements of human development, it is helpful for the actual effect of anti-corruption education to carry out the content and form design according to the development path from "having no desire of corruption", "fearing corruption" to "preventing and refusing cor- ruption".%科学发展观指导下的廉政教育是搭建惩防体系基本框架的应有之义,是全面推进反腐倡廉建设的必然要求,是构建社会主义和谐社会的客观需要。从实际经验来看,党员干部理想信念的动摇、道德操守的缺失、法律法规的淡漠是导致腐败的直接因素。提高廉政教育实效性,应以人性的发展要求为出发点,根据“不想腐”、“不愿腐”一“畏腐”、“惧腐”一“防腐”、“拒腐”的发展路径,积极开展廉政教育内容与形式的设计。

  5. Corruption Kills: Estimating the Global Impact of Corruption on Children Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Background Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. Methods The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national “perceived level of corruption” (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. Findings The final multivariable model (adjusted R2 = 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001), logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006), Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001), presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006), and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001). A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Interpretations Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related. PMID:22073233

  6. Trading legitimacy: everyday corruption and its consequences for medical regulation in southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Gillian

    2013-09-01

    Government regulation of health professionals is believed to ensure the efficacy and expertise of practitioners for and on behalf of patients. Certification and licensing are two common means to do so, legalizing a physician to practice medicine. However, ethnography from Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) suggests that in corrupt socioeconomic environments, certification and licensing can alternatively produce a trade in legitimacy. Drawing on participant observations during 15 months of fieldwork with 25 medical acupuncturists in private practice in HCMC, southern Vietnam, and their patients, I argue that everyday practices of corruption and the importance of personal networks meant that legality, efficacy, and expertise separated. Certificates and licenses did not unproblematically validate expertise and efficacy. Consequently, compliance and enforcement of regulations as solutions to inadequate medical care may not achieve the effects intended. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  7. Anti-Corruption Parties and Good Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    position to enrich themselves at the expense of the society at large? The answer from research, so far, is through formal and informal institutional constraints, which in different ways alter incentives at the top. This edited volume contributes to the knowledge of the interaction between elites......, institutions and other constraints and how this affects corruption and other forms of bad government. It problematizes the incentives for elites and masses to fight grand and petty corruption, respectively, and demonstrates the importance of elite constraints for good societies, where infant mortality is low...... incite elites to behave either in line with their immediate self-interests or with the interest of the society at large. Taking a step further, it considers different ways in which elites' preferences are more closely aligned with the general interest when, for example, monitoring mechanisms...

  8. Malpractice, corruption and judgements of professional ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Salcedo Megales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the use of legal methods to form ethical judgements in the professional field. In particular, I try to show the disadvantages of using the legal method of malpractice for this purpose. I introduce the moral concept of professional corruption because it enables us to understand the differences of theses two ways –the legal and the ethical- of approaching professional misconduct, and avoids the drawbacks of mixing these two viewpoints.

  9. Corruption, croissance et capital humain : quels rapports ?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 oct. 2013 ... Les résultats confirment qu'il existe effectivement une relation négative et significative (dans un intervalle de .... avancée était que les pots de vin aidaient les hommes d'affaires à éviter les lenteurs ... corruption et croissance économique à travers son impact négatif sur ..... droit vers l'extinction. A ce propos ...

  10. Roots of political corruption in ancient history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.

  11. Fighting Corruption in Mexico: Lessons from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    household. Without you, my life would be virtually empty. Thank you for all the joy and support that you have given to me during our years together, and...Thacker supports this hypothesis by stating, ―while democracy tends to lower corruption in the long run, in the short term it virtually has no impact...smuggled U.S. originated weapons. The two are also creating and perfecting Plataforma Mexico, a data tracing and drug intelligence collection and

  12. Corruption in healthcare and medicine: why should physicians and bioethicists care and what should they do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Corruption, an undeniable reality in the health sector, is arguably the most serious ethical crisis in medicine today. However, it remains poorly addressed in scholarly journals and by professional associations of physicians and bioethicists. This article provides an overview of the forms and dynamics of corruption in healthcare as well as its implications in health and medicine. Corruption traps millions of people in poverty, perpetuates the existing inequalities in income and health, drains the available resources undermines people's access to healthcare, increases the costs of patient care and, by setting up a vicious cycle, contributes to ill health and suffering. No public health programme can succeed in a setting in which scarce resources are siphoned off, depriving the disadvantaged and poor of essential healthcare. Quality care cannot be provided by a healthcare delivery system in which kickbacks and bribery are a part of life. The medical profession, historically considered a noble one, and the bioethics community cannot evade their moral responsibility in the face of this sordid reality. There is a need to engage in public discussions and take a stand - against unethical and corrupt practices in healthcare and medicine - for the sake of the individual's well-being as well as for social good.

  13. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  14. Modelling of corruption repression by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhammad Ridwan Reza; Nuraini, Nuning

    2017-03-01

    Based on data from transparency.org, in 2015 Indonesia was ranked 88 out of 168 most corrupt countries in the world, with a score of 36 (high corruption levels 0 - 100 free of corruption). Scores of corruption in Indonesia increased from 32 to 36 since 2012 until 2015. Since 2002, the eradication of corruption in Indonesia conducted by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi. The number of legal actions undertaken by the Commission since 2002 to 2015 increased. In the mathematical model, we want to know the tendency of many legal actions carried out by the Commission for the foreseeable future. By knowing these trends, we can take a variety of strategies that can make Indonesia free from corruption.

  15. Corruption: Taking into account the psychological mimicry of officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesin, Igor; Malafeyev, Oleg; Andreeva, Mariia; Ivanukovich, Georgiy

    2017-07-01

    A mathematical model of corruption with regard to psychological mimicry in the administrative apparatus with three forms of corruption is constructed. It is assumed that the change of officials forms of corruption is due to situational factors, and anti-corruption laws imply the change of the dominant form. Form's changing is modeled by the system of four differential equations (including groups of corrupt officials), describing the number of groups. The speed of the transition from group to group is expressed through the frequency of meetings. The controlling influence is expressed through the force of anticorruption laws. Two cases are discussed: strictly constant and variable (depending on the scope of one or another form). The equilibrium states that allow to specify the dominant form and investigate its stability, depending on the parameters of the psychological mimicry and rigor of anti-corruption laws are found and discussed.

  16. Corruption and stock market development: A quantitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    2011-11-01

    Studying the relation between corruption and economic factors and examining its consequences for economic development have attracted many economists and physicists in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stock market development on corruption. Analyzing a data set of corruption and stock market development measures such as market capitalization and total value of share trading for 46 countries around the world for the period 2007-2009, we examine the dependence of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) on stock market development. Our findings suggest that there exists a power-law dependence between corruption and stock market development. We also observe a negative relation between level of corruption and financial system improvement.

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper is dedicated to estimating the influence of corruption upon Romania’s economic growth by means of an econometric model ARMA component. In order to quantify the impact, firstly some indicators have been identified to properly assess the economic condition and corruption. The most important economic growth indicator is real GDP growth rate (or chain index of real GDP. In order to estimate the level of corruption, the authors have used the Corruption Perceptions Index, annually launched and calculated by Transparency International. The model chosen for this paper has an ARMA component and expresses the dependence of the economic variable on the corruption variable by a straight-line relationship. The model shows that one of the factors having a significant negative impact upon the economic growth is corruption.

  18. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY,THE CORRUPTION . A WAY OF MANIFESTING THE FISCAL EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Alina Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal evasion is mainly found within the underground economy, came to the specialists’ attention within the 1960s, moment in which it took a great extent. The main cause which leads to activities within the underground economy is represented by the increase of direct taxes, which has the largest influence, followed by the intensity of the regulations and the complexity of the fiscal system. The imposed taxes determine more and more countries to act within the underground economy, as long as there is not a proper offer of public goods and infrastructure. In his study, Vito Tanzi indicated as the main cause of the underground economy the level of taxes.(Tanzi,1983:11-15 He adds the instability of the legislative framework, legislative restrictions imposed within certain states, corruption and bureaucracy. Corruption and the activities specific to the underground economy are realities all the states confront with. Gathering information about the dimensions of corruption and the connection with the underground economy proves to be a task which is impossible to achieve, because all the people involved within these mechanisms prefer not to be identified. Even if the underground economy and corruption are considered as being twins, the questions which appear are: who needs them and who fights against them? Theoretically speaking, corruption and the underground economy can be complementary or substitutable.The anticorruption efforts have to focus on a real reform of the administrative system, whereas the citizen’s perception on corruption is mainly based on his personal experiences in direct connection with the state institutions. Both the public sector as well as the private sector should become more responsible, so that the public institutions to be able to carry out their obligations under integrity conditions and without external pressure or implication. Corruption attracts the economic agents to the underground economy, which leads

  19. 7 CFR 28.32 - Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices; violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or... Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Violations § 28.32 Misrepresentation; deceptive or... any or all benefits of the Act: (a) Any knowing misrepresentation or deceptive or fraudulent act or...

  20. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Patrick X. W.

    2006-01-01

    Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  1. Essays on Corruptible Markets, Strategic Certification and Online Peer Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shubhranshu Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets offer significant business opportunities. However, local and foreign firms selling in these markets are often faced with corrupt agents. The first essay investigates the marketing strategy implications for firms competing for business in a corruptible market. We consider a setting in which a buyer (a firm or government) seeks to purchase a good through a corruptible agent. Supplier firms, that may or may not be a good fit, compete to be selected by the agent. Only the agent o...

  2. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  3. SPECIAL ISSUE: ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGIES IN TRANSITIONAL CHINA%SPECIAL ISSUE:ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGIES IN TRANSITIONAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhigang; Yu Shihua

    2011-01-01

    Corruption has been a common phenomenon throughout human development rather than something that appears only in certain stages of development in certain countries or societies.Since countries differ in their political,economic and socio-cultural development,the forms in which corruption manifests itself and the extent of its impact on society differ greatly.Therefore,appropriate means and strategies to curb corruption have to be chosen on the basis of each country's actual situation.

  4. 5 CFR 6701.107 - Reporting waste, fraud, abuse and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corruption. 6701.107 Section 6701.107 Administrative Personnel GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL..., fraud, abuse and corruption. GSA employees shall disclose immediately any waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities, such as the Office of Inspector General. ...

  5. 论邓小平的反腐败斗争思想%On Deng Xiaoping’s Anti-corruption Thoughts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丽

    2012-01-01

      随着改革开放的不断深化和发展,腐败逐渐成为了一个突出而严重的政治和社会问题。邓小平站在历史的高度,立足国情,从改革开放和现代化事业出发,科学地分析了为什么反对腐败和怎样反对腐败这两个问题,深刻地指出了进行反腐败斗争的紧迫性和重要性,提出了反腐败的一系列措施。邓小平在反腐败理论和实践上的探索,构成了了邓小平反腐败思想的科学的理论体系。重温邓小平的反腐败斗争思想,对我国转型时期深入开展反腐败斗争具有重要的启迪和现实指导意义%  With the deepening of reform and opening up, corruption has become a serious political and social prob⁃lem. Standing in the height of the history, Deng Xiaoping analyzed why to fight against corruption and how to fight against corruption and pointed out the urgency and importance of struggling against corruption. Deng Xiaoping put forward a series of measures against corruption. Theoretical and practical exploration of anti-corruption formed a scientific theory system of anti-corruption. Anti-corruption of Deng Xiaoping’s thoughts has an important enlight⁃enment and realistic meaning for the transformation of in-depth development in the struggle against corruption.

  6. Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants: Practical Considerations for Emergency Medicine Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, W Frank; Rafique, Zubaid; Singer, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF-) related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban-have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE) in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.

  7. Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants: Practical Considerations for Emergency Medicine Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frank Peacock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF- related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs—dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban—have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.

  8. To what extent do primary care practice nurses act as case managers life style counselling regarding weight management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background - In this review study, we are the first to explore whether the practice nurse (PN) can act as case manager lifestyle counselling regarding weight management in primary care. Methods - Multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO) were searched to identify relevant literature after 19

  9. Manifestations of corruption in Serbia during Uprisings (1804-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The statehood of the Serbian nation was manifested early (as early as the Middle Ages, but the modern Serbian state was built gradually, starting from the First and Second Serbian Uprising (1804-1815, through the self-governed Principality of Serbia (1830 to the international recognition of the independence of the Principality of Serbia (1878. The young Serbian state in the period of the First Serbian Uprising had all the attributes that constitute a state: the governing apparatus that included both central and local authorities, territory, and population. Having inherited nepotism and corruption (two major evil remnants of the Ottoman rule, the emerging state undertook a number of measures to curb them, so that the centralised administration should be able to strengthen the state apparatus. Instead of qadis and musellims, who had lived mainly on bribe, the developing state had to confront its own officials who tended to abuse their positions in order to achieve economic prestige and separate themselves from the general population of the Pashaluk. They took the best and the largest shares of the spoils won while combating the Turks, arbitrarily appropriated Turkish houses and other property, took over control the ferries and customs checkpoints, held a monopoly in trading and used the 'official toil' the forced labour that Serbian peasants were obliged to do for the spahijas (feudal lords before the uprising. Manifestations of corruptive practices inherited from the Turkish era still persisted, although with certain new habits emerging at the time of the creation of the Serbian state and reflecting the general belief that money could buy everything.

  10. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption.......This article uses panel data from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam to uncover which firms pay bribes and which do not. We also study how bribe paying evolved between 2005 and 2007 and test how the determinants of bribes changed between the two years. Three sets of insights...

  11. THE JOINT IMPACT OF STOCK MARKET AND CORRUPTION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM COINTEGRATION AND VECM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Kamaldeen Nageri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of capital market on economic growth in the presence of corruption in the Nigerian context. We employed the use of cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. We find out that both corruption and capital market has long run associationship with economic development in Nigeria but has no short run relationship. This simply means that there is short run gain and long run pain for the Nigerian economy if corruption and capital market are not checked and well regulated respectively in Nigeria. We therefore recommend that government should strengthen the anti-graft agencies and equip them technologically and make them independent, educate the public on the problems associated with corrupt practices and the economic implication especially through the capital market and encourage local investors to invest in the capital market to improve liquidity and profitability of the Nigerian capital market.

  12. "Fin de Siecle" Corruption: Change, Crisis, and Shifting Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meny, Yves

    1996-01-01

    Defines corruption as a violation of the duties of office and a negation of the values that should underlie the democratic political and administrative system founded on the rule of law. Examines the reasons for the increase in corruption over the last decade and its internationalization. (MJP)

  13. Corruption in Education Sector Development: A Suggestion for Anticipatory Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinichiro

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an anticipatory strategy that will help protect education sector development from corruption. The strategy, which may exist as a "hidden agenda" within a project, focuses on diagnosing rather than redressing a system thought to be corrupt, adopting prevention rather than punishment, informal rather than formal approaches, and…

  14. Corruption as a Propensity: Personality and Motivational Determinants Among Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Aaron Adibe; Iwundu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi

    2016-01-01

    Psychologically oriented studies on corruption are lacking despite the fact that psychology has contributed enormously to the understanding of criminal behaviors over the past decades. Part of this problem relates to the lack of psychological tone in the definition and measurement of corruption. Taking a clue from the extensive psychological discourse on crime, which provides strong evidence for the existence of criminal tendencies, we conceptualized corruption here in terms of propensity. Possible personality and motivation determinants of this propensity were then explored. Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness positively and inversely predicted corruption tendencies, respectively. Results further showed that extrinsic motivation positively potentiates corruption tendencies, whereas intrinsic motivation was inversely related to corruption tendencies. Analysis of demographic variables revealed that males were more likely to be corrupt than their female counterparts. In general, findings here are consistent with the criminal behavior literature, which strongly suggests that the study of corruption is indeed amenable to psychological theories and methods and that individual differences variables constitute important explanatory variables in this regard.

  15. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  16. Updating the Potential of Culture in the Prevention of Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kislov, Alexander G.; Syuzeva, Natalya V.; Ozhegova, Anna P.; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is due to the danger and at the same time the prevalence of corruption, so special attention is given to the need to supplement the repressive state and awareness-raising measures forming, especially in educational institutions of special subculture, raising a categorical rejection of corruption. The…

  17. Corruption clubs: empirical evidence from kernel density estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    A common finding of many analytical models is the existence of multiple equilibria of corruption. Countries characterized by the same economic, social and cultural background do not necessarily experience the same levels of corruption. In this article, we use Kernel Density Estimation techniques to

  18. Corruption in Public Procurement: Finding the Right Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.S.; Unger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk

  19. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  20. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  1. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  2. On the Causes for and Countermeasures against Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongning, Yuan; Jian, Zhang; Haibo, Wang

    2007-01-01

    Combating corruption is an important condition for bringing about the flourishing of academic research. There are many reasons for the emergence and proliferation of academic corruption today. These are closely related to the long-term lack of training among our country's scholars in modern academic standards and the absence of an academic spirit…

  3. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  4. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education matters. It is a gateway to prosperity of individuals and economies alike. Integrity in education matters too. Corruption hinders prosperity, causes long-term damage to societies, and diminishes the efficiency of investment in their human potential. Driven by the insight that corruption in education can undermine even the best of…

  5. Corruption clubs: empirical evidence from kernel density estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    A common finding of many analytical models is the existence of multiple equilibria of corruption. Countries characterized by the same economic, social and cultural background do not necessarily experience the same levels of corruption. In this article, we use Kernel Density Estimation techniques to

  6. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  7. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education matters. It is a gateway to prosperity of individuals and economies alike. Integrity in education matters too. Corruption hinders prosperity, causes long-term damage to societies, and diminishes the efficiency of investment in their human potential. Driven by the insight that corruption in education can undermine even the best of…

  8. Corruption and inequality of wealth amongst the very rich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); E.A. de Groot (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCorruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel mode

  9. Corruption and legal (in)effectiveness: an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the causes and measured the consequences of differences in corruption among countries. An effective legal system has been viewed as a key component in reducing corruption. However, estimating cross-sectional as well as panel data models, we find a significant inter

  10. Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  11. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  12. The Economic Cost of Corruption: A Survey and New Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreher, A.; Herzfeld, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic costs of corruption. Corruption affects economic growth, the level of GDP per capita, investment activity, international trade and price stability negatively. Additionally, it biases the composition of government expenditures. The second pa

  13. Private Remedies for Corruption: towards an international framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Makinwa (Abiola)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is a shift taking place in the fight against corruption. Increasingly attention is turning to the role of the private actor.2 This can be characterized as a shift from a public approach that sees the state and government as the primary driving force in the fight against corruption

  14. FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Izotov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

  15. THE LEGAL REGIME OF CORRUPTION IN ETHIOPIA: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2010), The European Union's Fight against Corruption: The Evolving Policy towards. Member States ... anti-corruption laws, policies, action plans and strategies. 9 and all these .... 2439/14493/file/sourcebook.pdf.zip> (last accessed on 1 March 2013), p.7. 20Id. p. 8. .... offices and public enterprises and has a long history.

  16. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  17. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.V. Vigneswaran

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  18. Corruption and Public Governance: Implication for Customer Due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Key Words: Corruption, Public Governance, Customer Due Diligence ... Corruption is being addressed by financial institutions, government agencies, bilateral .... National Petroleum Corporation, and the arrest of seven judges recently among others. .... behaviour (e.g. by corporate purchasing agents, or in job recruitment).

  19. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    2006-01-01

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political stabilit

  20. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS IN EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the interaction between corruption and foreign direct investment inflows in 23 emerging market economies during the period 2002-2014 by employing Westerlund-Durbin-Hausman (2008 cointegration test. We found that control of corruption and rule of law had no statistically significant impact on attraction of foreign direct investments in overall panel.

  1. Resisting Corporate Corruption: Cases in Practical Ethics From Enron Through The Financial Crisis, 2nd Edition. By Stephen V. Arbogast, Wiley-Scrivener, 2013; 552 Pages. Price US $75.00, ISBN 978-1-118-20855-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The following paragraphs are reproduced from the website of the publisher [1]. Taking a unique approach to business ethics unlike the typical focus on conceptual/legal frameworks, this book features 25 case studies that cover a full range of business practices, controls, and ethics issues. The new edition is fully updated with new case studies from the recent financial crisis, comparing it with Enron's crossing of various ethical lines. Interpretive essays explore financial control systems and lessons learned from specific case studies and circumstances. Readers will find a practical toolkit they can use to identify ethics issues and tackle problems effectively within corporations.

  2. Punishing personal and electoral corruption: Experimental evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weschle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature examines the effect of corruption on political behavior. However, little attention has been paid so far to the fact that politicians engage in it for various reasons and with different welfare consequences. In this article, I argue that voters judge corrupt politicians differently depending on what the money is used for. I show results from a survey experiment in India in which respondents heard about a politician who accepted money for a political favor. One treatment group was told that the politician used the money to personally enrich himself (personal corruption, while the other group was informed that he used it to buy votes (electoral corruption. Respondents who received the vote buying treatment were clearly and consistently less likely to agree with a series of potential punishments. This suggests that the overall welfare consequences of corrupt exchanges are an important factor when voters decide how to judge offending politicians.

  3. [Corruption risks in relations between doctor and patient ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwitz, Marcin; Gąsiorowski, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the problem of corruption occurring in the relationship between doctor and patient. The doctor-patient relationship, including the provision of health services, is one of several potential areas of corruption in the health care system. Among the reasons for the existence of corruption in these relationships are the need to obtain better healthcare for the patient, and higher earnings in the case of a doctor. Indications of corruption are utilitarian (action for personal advantage without ethical aspects), but may also be (actually or in the patient's opinion) the only way to obtain services and save health and even life. Corruption between the doctor and the patient can be limited by better organization of the health care system, including the financing of benefits and education of medical personnel and patients, as well as traditional legal measures, such as prevention or the application of criminal sanctions.

  4. Revenue Administrations and Corruption: Motivations, Opportunities and Fighting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Benk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Revenue administration is very important for a state’s economic development as it significantly affects its public expenditures capacity. But corruption in revenue administration can have a serious impact on fiscal sustainability by reducing the tax revenue of a government. Corruption in revenue administration also discourages honest taxpayers by making the black-market a more attractive alternative. Revenue administration is an attractive sector for corruption to take place as the opportunities and motivations to engage in illicit activity are numerous. The complexity of tax systems, the high discretionary powers of tax officials, the low cost of punishment, the pressure from tax evaders are only some factors creating environment for corruption in revenue administration. The aim of this study is to examine opportunities, motivations and fighting methods of corruption in revenue administrations.

  5. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  6. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-06

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.

  8. M Gwanyanya THE SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANIES ACT AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manson

    used for the realisation of corporate human rights responsibilities, although ..... Regulation 43 also covers issues of equality, of the prevention of corruption, and ..... Muswaka L "Corporate Governance under the South African Companies Act: A.

  9. Anti-corruption legislation of the Russian empire XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Korneva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of anti-corruption and bribery as one of its kinds in the Russian Empire. Corruption as a complex social phenomenon that occurs in the process of socio-economic, political and social relations has become one of the most pressing political, social and economic problems of modern Russia. The corruption in the state apparatus not only cause serious, sometimes unsolvable problems for the citizens, but also hinder the normal functioning of the administrative bodies and authorities. The legal component, the development and adoption of relevant laws perform a special role in combating corruption. For many centuries government has repeatedly attempted if not to eliminate or at least to curb corruption in numerous managerial and administrative apparatus. The greatest interest in this regard is the imperial period of Russian history. The authors study the history of the development of criminal and civil law in the Code of the Russian Empire Publishing Laws 1832 of the penal Code and criminal Corrections 1845 judicial statutes in 1864 and subsequent legislation late XIX – the beginning of the XX century, the history of the development of appropriate laws, trace the change in order to prosecute and the degree of responsibility of the officials on the basis of unpublished material of the State Council, the State Duma and the Ministry of Justice, are stored in the Russian State Historical Archive, as well as the published acts of the Russian legislation, the verbatim records of the State Duma and the Council of State. During the XIX and early XX centuries Russian legislation has been streamlined and systematized: work was carried out on the codification of laws, created new codes of substantive and procedural law, a significant development has been and anti-corruption legislation. The appeal to the legislative materials, to the works of pre-revolutionary Russian lawyers and statesmen and the Ministry of Justice, are

  10. Spiraling Down into Corruption: A Dynamic Analysis of the Social Identity Processes that Cause Corruption in Organizations to Grow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. den Nieuwenboer (Niki); S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo date, theory and research on corruption in organizations have primarily focused on its static antecedents. This paper focuses on the spread and growth of corruption in organizations. For this purpose three downward organizational spirals are formulated: the spiral of divergent norms,

  11. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  12. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  13. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  14. Corruption in the sphere of nature management, or “the resource curse”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. KHALILOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the dependencies between the resource wealth of a country and the corruption in its economy. Methods the methodological base of the research is general scientific methods of cognition such as analysis and synthesis summarizing expert evaluation. The main method is the comparative method which allows through comparison to identify the common and specific features of corruption in the sphere of nature management in different countries. Results the problem of nature management is so versatile that there appeared and are widely used a lot of terms associated with the description of this phenomenon quotthe resource cursequot quotresource burdenquot quotparadox of abundancequot ldquothe Dutch syndromequot quotthe rage of the feederquot etc. Experience of many countries shows that the availability of mineral raw materials has an ambiguous impact on the level and dynamics of economic development of the national economy and ultimately on its international competitiveness. Scientific novelty a negative correlation between resource wealth of a country and corruption in its economy has been revealed as well as the efficiency levels of public administration inflation human development index as an integral indicator of standard of living literacy education and longevity which is typical mainly for states with undeveloped civil society and the lack of openness of state power. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific pedagogical and practical activities for the analyzing and formulating the economic policy measures taking into account the problem of the quotresource cursequot. nbsp

  15. Mao Zedong ’ s Anti-Corruption Thought and Its Contemporary Value%毛泽东反腐倡廉思想及其当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桥

    2014-01-01

    Mao Zedong has attached great importance to anti-corruption work in various periods of revolu-tion and construction .He put forward a series of concepts and measures of anti-corruption , tested them contin-uously through practice , and ultimately formed Mao Zedong ’ s Anti-corruption Thought which guided the party and state to carry out anti-corruption work .Mao Zedong ’ s Anti-corruption Thought is the origin and foundation of the anti-corruption ideas of socialism with Chinese characteristics , and it is a powerful ideological weapon guiding anti-corruption work carried out under the new situation .The paper proposes a series of considerations about further development and refinement of Mao Zedong ’ s Anti-corruption Thought by combining the current new situation of corruption and new anti-corruption practice at home and abroad so as to be of some help to the anti-corruption work of our country .%毛泽东在革命和建设的各个时期都十分重视反腐倡廉工作,提出了一系列反腐倡廉的理念和措施,并通过实践不断检验,最终形成了指导党和国家开展反腐倡廉工作的毛泽东反腐倡廉思想。毛泽东反腐倡廉思想是中国特色社会主义反腐倡廉思想的起源和基础,是指导新形势下开展反腐倡廉工作的强大思想武器。文章结合当前形势和国内外反腐倡廉的新实践,提出了一系列进一步发展和完善毛泽东反腐倡廉思想的思考,以期对我国反腐倡廉事业有所助益。

  16. Auditing Nicaragua's anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Hernandez, Carlos; Suazo, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2011-12-21

    Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period--with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009--but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption.Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed

  17. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  18. Corruption in a Comprehensive School: Sociological Diagnosis and Educational Providence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the phenomenon of corruption in a comprehensive school. It analyses the expression forms of corruption and their peculiarities and disputes the main reasons stimulating educators to take part in corrupt interchanges thus tolerate it. On the ground of empirical research in Vilnius secondary schools it discloses attitudes of teachers, schoolchildren and parents towards corruption. The research was carried out in Vilnius Salomėja Nėris gymnasium, Vilnius Mikalojus Daukša secondary school, Mindaugas secondary school, Užupys gymnasium, Antakalnis gymnasium, Naujamiestis secondary school and Stanevičius secondary school. Overall 500 respondents were questioned: 300 pupils of ninth – twelfth forms, 100 teachers and 100 parents of schoolchildren. Difficult financial circumstances were pointed out as the main reason stimulating teachers to take part in corrupt interchanges. This answer was chosen by 42 per cent of respondents. Most of them think that raising wages would reduce corruption crimes. The research data show it is an important problem in schools though 70 per cent of respondents state it is not the biggest problem in their school. Only 15 per cent of questioned schoolchildren, 4 per cent of parents and 14 percent of teachers safely state that corruption is the main problem in their school. About 20 per cent of respondents (21.4 per cent of schoolchildren, 19 per cent of parents and 21 per cent of teachers acknowledge of making a payoff or receiving an offer to take it. Respondents state that 30 per cent of their friends and relatives made a payoff to school staff. 26.7 percent of schoolchildren and 27 per cent of parents’ acquaintances made a payoff to school staff. Only the answers of teachers did not change – 21 per cent of their colleagues were offered a payoff. These results do not let affirm that corruption is very widely spread in schools and therefore could be named as the biggest problem here. Though

  19. Perception of Corruption in 36 Major Chinese Cities: Based on Survey of 1,642 Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuguang; Cheng, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    Perception surveys remain an important tool to measure corruption. However, most existing perception surveys only analyze corruption at the national or international level, and do not provide information about corruption at local levels. But it is corruption in local areas that really influences the everyday life of ordinary people. In order to…

  20. Perception of Corruption in 36 Major Chinese Cities: Based on Survey of 1,642 Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuguang; Cheng, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    Perception surveys remain an important tool to measure corruption. However, most existing perception surveys only analyze corruption at the national or international level, and do not provide information about corruption at local levels. But it is corruption in local areas that really influences the everyday life of ordinary people. In order to…

  1. Higher Education Corruption in the World Media: Prevalence, Patterns, and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is a newly emerging topic in the field of education research. There is a phenomenal growth in the number of media reports on corruption in higher education over the last decade. However, the rigorous systematic research on education corruption is virtually nonexistent. This paper considers corruption in higher…

  2. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobis, N.C.; Prooijen, van J-W.; Righetti, F.; Lange, van P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do

  3. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobis, N.C.; Prooijen, van J-W.; Righetti, F.; Lange, van P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do

  4. Is monitoring implementation the key to preventing repeated workplace corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Plibersek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey results published in 2009 by the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC of New South Wales reported that most public sector organisations in its jurisdiction have established integrity policies and procedures – or ‘organisational integrity systems’ (ICAC 2009. Despite this, many of the public inquiries conducted by the ICAC that find corrupt conduct often also find a failure to implement or enforce existing anti-corruption mechanisms in agencies. More recently an ICAC inquiry reported that similar patterns of repeated corrupt conduct had been pervasive in one government agency since the early 1990s despite being prohibited by organisational policy (ICAC 2008. These findings are also consistent with the anecdotal experience of integrity practitioners that public sector agencies are experiencing repeated workplace corruption despite the presence of apparently adequate organisational integrity systems. When workplace corruption is exposed, it may be professionally investigated and reforms to address the problems proposed and attempted, yet the same or similar workplace corruption reoccurs. As Barber suggests, ensuring successful delivery requires a “long grind” of “steady, persistent implementation” and “gentle pressure, relentlessly applied” (Barber 2008:112 and 119. This paper examines cases of low-level non-compliance in a municipal waste collection services and a state owned railway to identify some of the factors that could be contributing to reoccurring workplace corruption. The analysis suggests that a major factor in repeated workplace corruption is the failure to monitor and implement reforms recommended by investigations and existing organisational integrity systems.

  5. Corruption Drives the Emergence of Civil Society

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Sherief; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Peer punishment of free-riders (defectors) is a key mechanism for promoting cooperation in society. However, it is highly unstable, due to its susceptibility to second-order free-riding, in which some cooperators contribute to a common project, but fail to punish defectors. This problem can be eliminated with centralized sanctioning institutions (e.g. tax-funded police force, criminal courts), which can maintain stable cooperation by punishing both types of free-riders. Such institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, and completely displace all other forms of punishment. This,however, raises a puzzle: Why do many highly centralized authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation, while states with high levels of contributed public goods have higher tolerance for citizen-driven peer punishment? Here we show that while increasing the power of state-sanctioned punishment increases stability, this stability disappears when institutional corruption allows people to avoid c...

  6. To what extent do primary care practice nurses act as case managers life style counselling regarding weight management?

    OpenAIRE

    Dillen, van, J.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background - In this review study, we are the first to explore whether the practice nurse (PN) can act as case manager lifestyle counselling regarding weight management in primary care. Methods - Multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO) were searched to identify relevant literature after 1995. Forty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In addition, all studies were judged on ten quality criteria by two independent reviewers. Results - Especially in the last three years, man...

  7. 加强反腐倡廉制度建设的对策思考%Countermeasures to strengthen the construction of anti-corruption regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉昆

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental measure for preventing corruption from its root is to establish and improve the punishing and preventing corruption system of education, institution and supervision that are compatible to our socialist market economic system, which further deepens our Party' s understanding of the governing rules and the working rules of anti-corruption. The practice shows that in recent years, anti-corruption and construction of clean government system that are used to punish and prevent corruption is still weak. It' s very necessary to strengthen the construction of the basic anti-corruption system; further improve the anti-corruption laws and standardize the political behavior regulations of the national staff, the disciplinary system for discipline violations, leadership system and working mechanism for anti-corruption.%建立健全与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的教育、制度、监督并重的惩治和预防腐败体系是我们党对执政规律和反腐倡廉工作规律认识的进一步深化,是从源头上防治腐败的根本举措。实践表明,近年来反腐败和党风廉政制度建设在惩治和预防腐败体系尚处于薄弱环节,迫切需要在加强反腐倡廉基本制度建设的基础上,进一步完善反腐倡廉相关法律和规范国家工作人员从政行为的制度,对违纪违法行为的惩处制度,反腐败领导体制、工作机制。

  8. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-10-22

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  9. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  10. Legal Policy Of Corruption Eradication At State-Owned Enterprises Sector In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkipli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A mandate of the constitution of the Republic of Indonesia as the highest law is the creation of Indonesia people that is just and prosperous and then the development in all sectors becomes a necessity for achieving that goal. To achieve continuity and development success the enforcement of law supremacy in the form of prevention and eradication of corruption is a necessary condition condition sine qua non. Type of legal research conducted is normative. This research was carried out by discussion of concepts doctrine and theory principles as well as legislation which is correlated to the philosophical construction on state finances. The results of the research indicated that law enforcement of corruption against the management of limited state-owned enterprises during this that damage SEOs state is one of the important parts in the form of control the management of SOEs whose responsible and integrity. Though on the other hand the debate over the use of the criminal instruments in resolving the problems that occurred in the transaction of SOEs state that damage will continue to occur but against the actor of state-owned companies still put forward the principle of prudence in running the business because in some judicial practice has been expandingconstructing carelessness be a part of unlawful action in corruption crime.

  11. Anti-corruption protection of investments: the primary foundations of the regional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor V. Astanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of the opinions presented in this paper is to update promising models of implementation of anticorruption measures and procedures with respect to investment and foreign economic activity that are implemented in regional policy format. The methods that served as the basis for the contents and conclusions presented by the author are contained in the general means of cognition systemic approach comparative law analysis hypotheses testing. The academic novelty of this paper consists in a comprehensive consideration of a specific research subject that is prevention of manifestations of corruption using general and specialised prevention means with a view to safeguard the investment attractiveness of regional economy as illustrated by the example of the Republic of Tatarstan. The practical significance of the paper is determined in its resolution part where scientifically grounded recommendations on the organisation of the prevention of manifestations of corruption based on a package of measures are set forth among them ensuring the quality of normative law regulation of the activities of subjects of investment operations special anticorruption awareness raising for law enforcement officials from amongst public functionaries forming and implementing principles of due diligence in interacting with contracting parties which allows to avoid manifestations of corruption and their adverse consequences.

  12. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corr...

  13. Volunteerism among Dental Hygienists: The Relationship between a Practice Act Incentive, Behaviors, Perceptions and Motivational Orientations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkie, Sandra D; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J

    2015-01-01

    ... courses This study compared registered dental hygienists' donations of time and professional expertise, perceptions of volunteerism and motivational orientations as they practice in both the presence...

  14. Investing in threatened species conservation: does corruption outweigh purchasing power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living.

  15. FUSION OF ANTI–CORRUPTION AGENCIES IN NIGERIA: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    acquisition and receipt of properties, deliberate frustration of investigation by the ... corruption, a wrongful desire for pecuniary gain or some other advantage(s) ...... Federation called for the merger of the two agencies.110 His argument was ...

  16. The impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemaies Bougatef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking is developing rapidly around the world and is increasingly recognized as a viable alternative mode of financing especially these last years when capitalism has shown its limits and weaknesses. However, this astronomical growth of banking and Islamic finance was associated with a high level of corruption that plagues many Muslim countries. This ailment of corruption can deter Islamic banking to be a better effective and meaningful pathway for poverty reduction and economic development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks (IBs. Using a panel of 69 IBs over the period 2008–2010, we provide robust evidence that the corruption level aggravates the problem of impaired financing.

  17. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  18. 'tone at the top': fighting military corruption in latin america

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    to assess and measure military governance and integrity. It appears that ... corrupt military environment more effectively by finding the right tone. Method ..... In order to bring about a change in an ethically soiled corporate military culture, the ...

  19. Do Politics in Europe Benefit from Politicising Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In this article, two unexplored trends in European electoral politics are highlighted. Using newly collected data the article tracks the politicisation of corruption in electoral campaigns from 1981 to 2011, an electoral strategy that has been increasing over time in most European countries......-set that employs multi-level data (parties nested in countries) the results demonstrate first that politicisation of corruption occurs systematically more often among established parties from the main opposition, new parties and parties on the political right, and occurs as a function of country-level corruption......, district magnitude and public party financing. Second, it is found that the main opposition and new parties that use such a campaign strategy make significant electoral gains relative to the previous election compared to parties that do not politicise corruption. Yet gains are offset in low...

  20. nigeria's cobweb of corruption and the path to underdevelopment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Corruption is seen as a symptom of numerous ..... politics, the struggle for and the exercise of power created the context and culture of predation and ..... of this to Nigeria is bad image among the international communities, and lack of trust.

  1. Curbing Corruption in Nigeria: The Imperatives of Good Leadership

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... effectively fighting and curbing corruption and the leadership style in. Nigeria. ... By 2009, the Global Perception Index (CPI) by TI rated Nigeria ..... any credible political leadership in the context of the pervasive electoral.

  2. On the Interpretation of Bribery in a Laboratory Corruption Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    in corruption in the bribery frame than in the alternative and the average bribe amount is lesser in the former than in the latter. These suggest that moral costs are indeed at work. A third treatment, which relabels the bribery game in neutral language, indicates that the observed treatment effect arises......Past studies on laboratory corruption games have not been able to find consistent evidence that subjects make “immoral” decisions. A possible reason, and also a critique of laboratory corruption games, is that the experiment may fail to trigger the intended immorality frame in the minds...... of the participants, leading many to question the very raison d’être of laboratory corruption games. To test this idea, we compare behavior in a harassment bribery game with a strategically identical but neutrally framed ultimatum game. The results show that fewer people, both as briber and bribee, engage...

  3. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  4. 1 Gender and Corruption: Insights from Nigeria Democracy (1999 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    understanding and offer suggestions with regard to improving gender ... Corruption has become a social disease plaguing almost every nation of the world. However ..... some complex interactions of socio-economic, political and institutional.

  5. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Corruption and inequality of wealth amongst the very rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franses, Philip Hans; de Groot, Bert

    Corruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel model for current and one-year lagged competitiveness and GDP growth rates, we find no such effect. In fact, we find that more competitiveness decreases inequality amongst the wealthiest.

  7. The Impact of Public Transparency in Fighting Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Batista Vieira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to shed light on the causes of corruption through empirical analysis of the impact of public transparency mechanisms on the frequency of improbities in Brazilian municipalities. First, we have presented a new model of corrupt agent´s utility function to better explain the results, and then some empirical evidences in favor of the hypotheses that E-government mechanisms are negatively associated with improbities in Brazilian local government.

  8. Legal Corruption, Politically Connected Corporate Governance and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Domadenik, Polona; Prašnikar, Janez; Svejnar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present and test a theory of how political corruption, found in many transition and emerging market economies, affects corporate governance and productive efficiency of firms. Our model predicts that underdeveloped democratic institutions that do not punish political corruption result in political connectedness of firms that in turn has a negative effect on performance. We test this prediction on an almost complete population of Slovenian joint stock companies with 100 or mor...

  9. Swiss multinational enterprises and transnational corruption: management matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno,N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...

  10. CORRUPTION AND WELFARE: A SIMPLE ECONOMETRIC ACROSS COUNTRIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure the impact of corruption on welfare, and to compare the magnitude of impact between high-income and low-income countries. Corruption perception index is used as a proxy of corruption level; human development index is used to represent welfare. Natural resource endowment and international trade are included in analysis to control robustness of corruption. The results show that corruption has negative impact on welfare. The impact in low-income countries is more destructive. Natural resource endowment and trade also have significant impacts, particularly for low-income countries. Since the corruption is destructive, government should eradicate corruption using preventive and repressive actions. Keywords:Economic development, corruption, low income countries, human development indexJEL classification numbers: D73, D31, I31AbstrakKajian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur dampak korupsi pada kesejahteraan, dan untuk membandingkan besarnya dampak antara negara-negara berpenghasilan tinggi dan berpenghasilan rendah. Indeks persepsi korupsi digunakan sebagai proksi tingkat korupsi; indeks pembangunan manusia digunakan sebagai pendekatan kesejahteraan. Sumber daya alam dan perdagangan internasional dimasukkan dalam analisis untuk mengontrol kekuatan variabel korupsi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa korupsi berdampak negatif pada kesejahteraan. Dampak korupsi di negara-negara miskin lebih buruk dari pada di negara-negara kaya. Sumber daya alam dan perdagangan juga memiliki dampak yang signifikan, terutama untuk negara-negara miskin. Karena korupsi bersifat merusak, pemerintah harus memberantas korupsi menggunakan tindakan preventif maupun represif.Kata kunci: Pembangunan ekonomi, korupsi, negara berpenghasilan rendah, IPMJEL classification numbers: D73, D31, I31

  11. Playing a quantum game in a corrupt world

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F

    2000-01-01

    The quantum advantage arising in a simplified multi-player quantum game, is found to be a disadvantage when the game's qubit-source is corrupted by a noisy "demon". Above a critical value of the corruption-rate, or noise-level, the coherent quantum effects impede the players to such an extent that the optimal choice of game changes from quantum to classical.

  12. Informal sector and corruption: An empirical investigation for India

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Nabamita; Kar,Saibal; Roy, Sanjukta

    2011-01-01

    India is a country characterized by a huge informal sector. At the same time, it is a country where the extent of corruption in every sector is remarkably high. Stifling bureaucratic interference and corruption at every stage of economic activities is one of the main reasons behind high participation in informal and unregulated sectors. For economies characterized by high inequality and poverty, a useful tool for the government to pacify social unrest, is to choose a lower level of governance...

  13. Political decentralization and corruption: Evidence from around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, CS; Lin, C.; Treisman, D

    2009-01-01

    How does political decentralization affect the frequency and costliness of bribe extraction by corrupt officials? Previous empirical studies, using subjective indexes of perceived corruption and mostly fiscal indicators of decentralization, have suggested conflicting conclusions. In search of more precise findings, we combine and explore two new data sources—an original cross-national data set on particular types of decentralization and the results of a firm level survey conducted in 80 count...

  14. 腐败与经济:对腐败有利于经济发展的观点的批判%On Corruption and Economy:A Criticism of the Viewpoints on Corruption Being Beneficial to Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许欢科; 段加保

    2015-01-01

    Corruption has done more harm to our reform and opening-up policy as well as modern-ized construction.Therefore,our CPC and Government,as well as our people have paid great atten-tion and emphasis on corruption issues.But,the viewpoints that “clean and honest policy must go a-way if we intend to improve economy”still exist in the mind of some local governments,which imply that corruption to some extent will be beneficial to the economic growth.Thus,how to properly and wholly evaluate the relationship between corruption and economy has become an important theoretical and practical problem in the transitional course.%腐败对改革开放和现代化建设大业的危害突出,为此,党和政府以及人民群众对腐败问题均非常重视和关注。然而,“经济要上,廉政要让”等认为腐败一定程度上有助于经济增长的观点,仍部分存在于地方政府部门的实践中。因此,如何正确全面评价腐败与经济的关系,成为转型期中一个重要的理论和实践问题。

  15. Corruption and use of antibiotics in regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnerstrand, Björn; Lapuente, Victor

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between corruption and antibiotic use at sub-national level. We explore the correlation between, on the one hand, two measures of corruption (prevalence of corruption in the health sector and prevalence of bribes in the society) at regional level from the European Quality of Government Index; and, on the other, the consumption of antibiotics in those European regions from a 2009 Special Euro Barometer. In a multivariate regression model, we control for potential confounders: purchasing power of standardized regional gross domestic product, inhabitants per medical doctor and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates. We find that there is a strong positive association between both measures of corruption (i.e. in the health sector, and in the society at large) and antibiotics use; and that this association is robust to the introduction of the control variables. These results support previous findings in the literature linking corruption to higher antibiotic use at cross-national level. We show that corruption does seem to account for some of the remarkable between-region variation in antibiotic consumption in Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. What makes corruption in the public procurement process awful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Osei-Afoakwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ugly head in the process through which governments acquire goods, works and services for the purpose of running their business, it is highly unacceptable and particularly dangerous to such nations. But why is there the cause to worry about corruption? Why is corruption unacceptable? A theoretical basis is provided to elucidate societal abhorrence to corruption as it affects public procurement in particular using the deontologist-consequentialist dichotomised ethical and moral explanations. It has been concluded that corruption in procurement is awful not only because of its negative consequences but because it is inherently wrong, unethical, immoral and above all an illegality.

  17. FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION: THE COMMON MISSION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper holds that an anti-corruption campaign in the process of modernization in developing countries must be sustained and systematic, and conformed, and geared to the whole modernization drive and be reconciled with economic development, social stability, improvement of efficiency and perfection of the legal system, with safeguarding and promoting the overall development of modernization as its purpose. Based on analysis of the characteristics of corruption among government officials, the present paper puts forward five measures to fight it.    Anti-corruption program in a political campaign is of so great importance that proper measures should be taken. The success of this campaign lies largely in the balance between the evil forces behind corruption and the combined force of all the good people in and outside the government, who are behind the anti-corruption campaign. With the spread of corruption, the campaign should not be confined to the government itself; the participation and support of non-governmental democratic institutions and organizations should be sought.

  18. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  19. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, J.E. van; Donker, G.A.; Marquet, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. AIM: To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasi

  20. Observe-reflect-act: The cycle of reflective practice on questioning in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, Erica

    Countless studies have been conducted on questioning techniques in education. However, little research has been focused on the use of reflective practice in relation to teachers' questioning techniques in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math education. Within this action research study of my own teaching, six lessons were taught, observed, and reflected upon. The main focus was on whether and how reflective practice influences questioning. Through the analysis of video footage, conversation transcriptions, reflective journal entries, pre-service teacher survey, and student work, the importance of different questioning techniques became apparent. They demonstrated that reflective practice has an impact on improving questioning skills and, thus, better engaging students in the learning process.

  1. Household Income and Relationships with Different Power Entities as Determinants of Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article adds to the corruption literature by identifying factors influencing Bangladeshi farm households’ probability of experiencing corruption in different service sectors. The econometric results show that households’ probability of being exposed to corruption can largely be explained through their income and their relationship with different power entities. The direction of the relationship between income and corruption vary across services. Relatively rich households have a higher probability of experiencing corruption in sectors such as education, health and electricity. These households are less likely to experience corruption in local government and agricultural extension services. The results here are contrary to the common trend in corruption research that addresses households’ aggregate corruption experiences. Households with relationships with different power entities have a lower probability of experiencing corruption than their counterparts without these types of relationships.

  2. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  3. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  4. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek eJaber-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0. However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1. The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder lose(s this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially towards the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (unethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  5. Participation citoyenne et lutte contre la corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les mouvements citoyens chinois utilisant les médias sociaux numériques comme moyens d’action pour lutter contre la corruption, dans le contexte actuel où la société chinoise connaît une période de grandes transformations. Nous cherchons à identifier les facteurs et les processus de ces mouvements et leurs effets sur les rapports entre les gouvernements et la population, ainsi que sur les décisions des gouvernements. Bien que l’analyse des études de cas révèle le potentiel de ces réseaux numériques comme un outil efficace de mobilisation et participation citoyenne chinoise, ainsi qu’une amélioration sensible des interactions gouvernement/citoyens, nous soulignons les limites de ce cybermouvement compte tenu des facteurs politiques et des résistances internes provenant de groupes d’intérêts.

  6. CREATING THE CORRUPTION COMBATER WARRIORS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hehamahua

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to obtain a comprehensive understanding of what, why, and how, the programs and performances which ideally need to be directed by integrity and professionalism are actually handled by the human resource management in the Corruption Eradication Commission (CEC. The qualitative approach to conduct the case study collected the data through a participant observation procedure, and triangulated with interviews with key informants, document analysis, and recordings. The study found that (1 the planning of the human resource, including the recruitment and selection process, has been conducted to follow the highest standards applied in state institutions and government agencies in Indonesia; (2 CEC is conducting education, training, and development programs of its human resource to improve organizational performance; (3 CEC is the first state institution or government agency to use performance as the parameter for reward and punishment; (4 CEC is the first state institution and government agency to use a merit system in determining the salary; (5 the values of integrity and professionalism constitute are the basic priciples to guide the corporate culture of the auditors of CEC. The findings indicate the need to improve the recruitment and selection process, to establish the standards of performance, evaluationj and career management in all the units, and to continue the Coaching, mentoring, and Counceling (CMC program to maintain integrity and professionalism of the whole body of the human resource of the CEC.

  7. [Physicians--victims or promoters of corruption?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, M

    2002-01-01

    According to the media the recent physician bribery scandal in Germany draws ever further sets. The public prosecutor determines against hospital physicians and coworkers of a pharmaceutical firm. The suspicion: Physicians were recompensed for using up medicines particularly with pleasure trips. Which is qualified in Germany regularly as bribery and advantage grant as well as aid for tax evasion, is punishable in Austria as unfaithfulness, gift acceptance as well as bribery. The following contribution lights up--from Austrian view--the criminal page of the narrow burr between permitted sponsoring and undue corruption in the medicine. Bribery is globally punishable in Austria. Allowances to physicians can be for the payee in particular gift acceptance (section 153a StGB) or gift acceptance by leading employees of a public enterprise (section 305 StGB), for the giver in particular bribery (section 307 StGB). Occasional allowances, which are not located in connection to a concrete business, but only promoted the sympathetic consideration of the recipient, are not usually punishable. The punishing frameworks for offensces reach up to three years imprisonment. In addition still the absorption of enriching comes (section 20 StGB).

  8. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest. PMID:25566002

  9. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Agricultural Produce Among Women Marketers in Ogbomoso. Agricultural of Oyo State, ... There is significant relationship between ... way or the other is done to increase their profit rate and also ... economic growth, democratic culture, national.

  10. Affordable Care Act Qualified Health Plan Enrollment for AIDS Drug Assistance Program Clients: Virginia's Experience and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kathleen A; Rodney, Robert C; Rhodes, Anne; Bailey, Steven; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014, many safety net resources, including state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), incorporated ACA Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) into their healthcare delivery model. This article highlights the benefits of the ACA for persons living with HIV. It also describes the range of strategies employed by state ADAPs to enroll patients in QHPs. The Virginia ADAP ACA implementation experience is described to illustrate one ADAP's shift to purchasing QHPs in addition to providing direct medications. Virginia ADAP is in a Medicaid nonexpansion state and funds the full costs of the QHP premiums, deductibles, and medication copayments. Virginia's experience is applicable to other Medicaid nonexpansion states and to state ADAPs in Medicaid expansion states, who are looking for options for their Medicaid ineligible clients. This article provides practical details of Virginia ADAP's ACA implementation as well as insights and best practices at both the state and clinic level.

  11. 廉政漫画在高校廉政文化建设中的作用%The Function of Anti-corruption Cartoons in College Anti-corruption Culture Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴端玲

    2016-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up Chinaˊs economy has made rapid development, the people has become rich, but with the development of economy, corruption problems have become increasingly prominent, clean government construction has also become a primary task of all walks of life. Anti-corruption cartoons can be just right to reflect the integrity of the school and play a great role in the campus in building an honest cam-pus. The anti-corruption cartoons allow students to better understand the integrity and also can upgrade students in psychology, which can fight against corruption practically and can bring college anti-corruption culture con-struction function into play.%改革开放以来,中国的经济取得了飞速得发展,人民富起来了,但随着经济的发展,腐败问题也日益突出,廉政建设已成为了各行各业的首要任务。廉政漫画能够恰到好处地将廉政体现出来,对于创造校园的廉洁起到了很大的作用。高校中廉政漫画能够让大学生更加了解廉政,还能够让大学生在心理上、思想上都有一个境界上的提升,做到实际意义上的反腐,发挥高校廉政文化建设的重要作用。

  12. The perils of payoff: corruption as a threat to global biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F

    2004-08-01

    Corruption is a worldwide phenomenon, particularly in many developing countries, which contain a large proportion of global biodiversity. Most alarming, from a biodiversity-conservation perspective, is the frequent corruption of government officials who manage valuable natural resources, such as timber, oil and precious minerals. A recent study by Joyotee Smith and colleagues describes rampant corruption in the timber industry of Indonesia, and shifts in the prevalence of different types of corruption as the country has become destabilized politically. By placing corruption into a conceptual framework, Smith et al. provide important insights into how developing nations and their natural resources can be besieged by corruption.

  13. Análise dos casos de corrupção na Petrobras sob a ótica dos princípios regulatórios propostos por Joseph Stiglitz / Analysis of the cases of corruption in Petrobras from the point of view of the regulatory principles proposed by Joseph Stiglitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio da Silva Falcão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To find, in light of the principles of regulation proposed by Joseph Stiglitz, how government and market failures contributed to the occurrence of corruption cases in Petrobras. Methodology/approach/design – This article analyzes corruption scandals in Petrobras based on the information gathered in Operation Car Wash and, based on the principles of regulation established by Joseph Stiglitz, critically verifies how market and government failures contributed to the fraud, collusion and corruption in the state-owned enterprise. Findings – Market and government failures contributed decisively to the occurrence of corruption in the state-owned enterprise. Practical implications – The present study can help designing a regulatory framework that effectively discourages the practice of fraud, collusion and corruption in public bids.

  14. Human Resource Development Practices, Managers and Multinational Enterprises in Australia: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablok, Gitika; Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Burgess, John; Boyle, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the HRD practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in Australia to understand the value that MNEs place on investment in their human capital, particularly managerial talent. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a representative sample of 211 MNEs operating in Australia, this paper…

  15. Acts of Discovery: Using Collaborative Research to Mobilize and Generate Knowledge about Visual Arts Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donna Mathewson

    2014-01-01

    Visual arts teachers engage in complex work on a daily basis. This work is informed by practical knowledge that is rarely examined or drawn on in research or in the development of policy. Focusing on the work of secondary visual arts teachers, this article reports on a research program conducted in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.…

  16. Acts of Discovery: Using Collaborative Research to Mobilize and Generate Knowledge about Visual Arts Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donna Mathewson

    2014-01-01

    Visual arts teachers engage in complex work on a daily basis. This work is informed by practical knowledge that is rarely examined or drawn on in research or in the development of policy. Focusing on the work of secondary visual arts teachers, this article reports on a research program conducted in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.…

  17. How science thinks and practice acts: bridging the gap in weight management interventions for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.; Bouwman, L.I.; Roos, de N.M.; Koelen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adolescent obesity calls for evidence-based treatment approaches given its long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. However, research shows there are many problems in the translation of scientific evidence into practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to develop science-

  18. 腐败存量特赦之证伪%The Falsification on theory of amnesty Stock of Corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫洪宪; 罗钢

    2013-01-01

    With the high incidence of corruption, especially the hu ge dark figure of crime, it has seriously affected the country's confidence in the fight against corruption and processes. So the theory of amnesty stock of corruption surfaced. As a political rhetoric, it reform to seek the support of the form, this view has significant flaws in logic and essential damage the criminal law in practice. And it also contrary to the basic spirit of the international anti-corruption treaty, damage to social justice and national laws emotions, So, the theory does not have the legitimacy and legality. Anti-corruption must adhere to the criminal policy of temper justice with mercy;, adhere to a zero tolerance attitude towards justice.%我国腐败高发,特别是腐败犯罪黑数巨大,腐败存量惊人的现实情况,已严重影响我国反腐斗争的信心和进程,基于此,腐败存量特赦论浮出水面。腐败存量特赦论作为一种政治话语,以交换形式谋求政治体制改革的支持,这种观点在逻辑上有重大缺陷,在实践上对刑事法治有质的破坏力,违背国际反腐条约的基本精神,损害社会正义和国民的法情感,不具有合理性和合法性。治理腐败必须坚持宽严相济的刑事政策,坚持零容忍的司法态度。

  19. Defensive medicine in general practice: recent trends and the impact of the Civil Liability Act 2002 (NSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Omar; Forster, Christine

    2009-10-01

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted among New South Wales medical practitioners to assess the extent to which the enactment of the Civil Liability Act 2002 (NSW) has reduced the practice of defensive medicine. The new legislation was intended in part to reduce the practice of defensive medicine, both "assurance-type" measures, such as performing additional tests to assure patients they have received all possible care, and "avoidance-type" measures, such as avoiding the treatment of patients who may be at a higher risk for adverse outcomes and therefore at higher risk for filing lawsuits. However, the results of the survey reveal that many medical practitioners in New South Wales remain unaware of the legal reforms and the consequent reduction in their legal liability and continue to practise defensive medicine. This article argues therefore that while the ultimate aim of reducing litigation has been achieved in New South Wales through the introduction of the Civil Liability Act, the underlying and arguably more important aim of providing medical practitioners with a more secure environment in which to practise their profession effectively has not been achieved. The apparent failure to disseminate the legal changes to the medical profession illustrates the limitations of law reform to effectively engender social change without the active use of educative and other implementation initiatives.

  20. China’s Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J. Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003—2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a “two stage auction”. The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are “cold”, which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities. PMID:25506125

  1. Corruption%腐败问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安德鲁·施莱弗; 罗伯特·维什尼; 孔雁

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two propositions about corruption. First, the structures of government institutions and of the political process are very important determinants of the level of corruption. In particular, weak governments that do not control their agencies experience very high corruption levels. Second, the illegality of corruption and the need for secrecy make it much more distortionary and costly than its sister activity, taxation. These results may explain why, in some less developed countries, corruption is so high and so costly to development.%文章就腐败问题提出了两个论点。第一,政府机构和政治进程的结构是决定腐败程度的关键因素。软弱的政府因对其附属机构无法进行有效的控制从而导致了较高程度的腐败。第二,与税收相比,腐败的非法性和隐蔽性使其更容易受到扭曲,代价也更大。这些结论说明了为什么在一些欠发达国家,腐败程度如此之高,给发展带来的代价如此之大。

  2. Compressed Sensing and Matrix Completion with Constant Proportion of Corruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    We improve existing results in the field of compressed sensing and matrix completion when sampled data may be grossly corrupted. We introduce three new theorems. 1) In compressed sensing, we show that if the m \\times n sensing matrix has independent Gaussian entries, then one can recover a sparse signal x exactly by tractable \\ell1 minimimization even if a positive fraction of the measurements are arbitrarily corrupted, provided the number of nonzero entries in x is O(m/(log(n/m) + 1)). 2) In the very general sensing model introduced in "A probabilistic and RIPless theory of compressed sensing" by Candes and Plan, and assuming a positive fraction of corrupted measurements, exact recovery still holds if the signal now has O(m/(log^2 n)) nonzero entries. 3) Finally, we prove that one can recover an n \\times n low-rank matrix from m corrupted sampled entries by tractable optimization provided the rank is on the order of O(m/(n log^2 n)); again, this holds when there is a positive fraction of corrupted samples.

  3. Is the Internet an Effective Mechanism for Reducing Corruption Experience? Evidence from a Cross-Section of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Bologna

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an indicator of Internet awareness of corruption as described in Goel et al. (2012) to see how this impacts both corruption perceptions and corruption experience. The results confirm the finding of Goel et al. (2012) that corruption perceptions are highly influenced by Internet awareness. However, the effect Internet awareness has on corruption experience is unclear. This paper finds that Internet awareness decreases the frequency of corruption experience of households, wh...

  4. THE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION OF BASIC SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS IN PARTICULAR: FORMAL-ETHIC AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Lobovikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to carry out historical-philosophical andlinguistic analysis of ethical and metaphysical doctrine of Aristotle on corruption in general; to discuss of formal-ethical view on the problem of corruption in basic scientific researches; to define the place and role of fundamental scientific researches in knowledge-based economy taken as a whole, and Boston Chart, in particular.Methods. The methods involve the historical-philosophical and logical-linguistic analysis of texts; creation and studying of the elementary discrete mathematical model of the researched moral phenomenon at the level of artificial language of two-digit algebra of the natural right and morals; use of such conceptual and figurative tool of the economic theory as Boston Chart.Results and scientific novelty. The definition of the concept «basic scientific research» is given for the first time; the concept includes time parameter and knowledge of utility (the practical importance of results of this research.Practical significance. The submitted definition (criterion gives a possibility to establish at any moment of time definite borderline between the basic and the applied scientific search (the line undergoes change in the flow of time. The effective criterion of basic scientific researches offered by the author, and also exact specifying of their place and role in lifecycle of knowledge as goods in market economy (at the conceptual level of the Boston Chart allow to designate an urgent problem of corruption of the scientific sphere in a new perspective. Along with some additional conditions, this new evidence could help to solve the problem.

  5. An Analysis of Administrative Corruption (Administrative Organizations of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Haghighatian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and comprehensive. It defines corruption as the abuse of public power, office, or resources by public or elected governmental officials for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. Recent research findings indicate that organizational commitment and work satisfaction on the part of employees could be an effective antidote to administrative corruption. On the other hand, employee sense of equity and fairness also has been shown to be effective in enhancing organizational commitment. Last but not least, employee financial needs could play a significant part in their vulnerability to corruption. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is as follows: by utilizing the ideas of Selznick on organizational commitment, Merton's views on work satisfaction, Taylor's and Schwartz's ideas on financial needs, and Barnard's views on managerial capabilities, the relationships of these variables on administrative corruption were studied. The other purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of some other related variables like age, sex, level of education, job seniority, and marital status on administrative corruption.     Material and Methods   The research method was quantitative, data collection technique was survey, and the tool of data collection was questionnaire. The research population of the study consisted of all 44116 employees of public organizations of the city of Yazd. Using a stratified sampling technique, 16 administrative organizations

  6. The Strengthening Authority Of Money Laundering Prosecution A Review Of Corruption Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of criminal law in Indonesia is quite dynamic and attract public attention because of criminal law at least has a pattern of punishment that are depriving the perpetrators of human rights such as imprisonment or the death penalty. Criminal law essentially regulates the crime offense criminal and punishment of the perpetrators of crimes and violations. Universally criminal law in the various countries have to recognize and organize a wide variety of crimes both crimes that are conventional such as murder theft fraud and embezzlement that are extra ordinary crimes such as terrorism corruption criminal acts of narcotic and psychotropic substances as well as criminal acts that are white collar crime as the crime of banking and money laundering.

  7. 国内外腐败指数及其对比研究%A Comparative Study on Corruption Indexes at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2012-01-01

    腐败的定量刻画是近年来腐败问题研究的主流趋势。腐败指数有两种:基于企业调查报告和专家评价基础上的主观腐败指数;基于腐败统计数据的客观腐败指数。主观指数比较直观、使用广泛,但是无法克服指标的偏向型和片面性;客观指数比较严格、科学,但是计算方法复杂、可操作性差。%The quantitative discription of corruption becomes the main trend of the relative researches recently. Overall, corruption indexes include subjective and objective indexes. The former is based on surveys on enterprises or assessments by experts, and the latter is calculated with objective data relating to corruption. Though subjective corruption indexes are intuitive and popu- lar, their bias and onesideness can't be ignored. On the contrary, objective corruption indexes are stricker and more scientific, while the calculating measures are too comprehensive, which greatly limits the practical application.

  8. Rural Educators' Understanding of the Legislations That Impact on School Practice with Specific Reference to the Bill of Rights and the South African Schools Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, M. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the rural educators' understanding of the legislations that impact on school practice. An argument is presented that the understanding of the legal frameworks that govern school practice begins with the educators' understanding of the Bill of Rights and the South African Schools Act. The article reports on…

  9. On Construction of Anti-corruption Basic law%“反腐败基本法”建构初论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳红; 冀洋

    2016-01-01

    In current China, the punishment and prevention system toward corruption in China has not been built up, and the construction of law system which is the fundamental part is under the way. An Anti-corruption Act is in need to be made as the ‘basic law’ in the anti-corruption law system. It is the actual demands by institutional anti-corruption which is helpful for the systematization and legalization of fragmented anti-corruption documents, ensuring the long-term effectiveness and stability of related punishment, prevention and international cooperation. The core value of the act should be power supervision, being the inevitable requirement of source treatment to corruption, the main contents of which include related basic principles, special agencies, interest conflict prevention, administrative publicity, property declaration of public officials, whistleblower protection, etc. Under the current absence of concrete anti-corruption laws, the Anti-corruption Act shoulders functions such as the common factors setup of anti-corruption evaluation and standards, direct stipulation of some related systems, top-level law design forming pressure and encouragement for concrete laws making, in order to supply the concrete laws with basic demands and framework. In conclusion, it is more essential to build up an Anti-corruption Act in countries that are less developed in legal institution of anti-corruption.%当前我国惩治和预防腐败体系并未建成,作为其中重要一环的国家法律体系正在加快推进,其中有必要制定《反腐败法》作为反腐败法律体系内的“基本法”。制定《反腐败法》是制度反腐的现实需求,有利于零散反腐败文件的系统化、法律化,保持惩治腐败、预防腐败以及反腐败国际合作上的长效和稳定。《反腐败法》的核心价值表现为权力监督,这是腐败犯罪源头治理的必然要求,主要内容包括反腐败基本原则、反腐败专门机

  10. On the Impact of Digital Technologies on Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars;

    We hypothesize that the spread of the Internet has reduced corruption, chiefly through two mechanisms. First, the Internet facilitates the dissemination of information about corrupt behavior, which raises the detection risks to shady bureaucrats and politicians. Second, the Internet has reduced...... the interface between bureaucrats and the public. Using cross-country data and data for the U.S. states, we test this hypothesis. Data spans the period during which the Internet has been in operation. In order to address the potential endogeneity problem, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet...... is a strong instrument for changes in Internet penetration; and we proceed to show that the spread of the Internet has reduced the extent of corruption across the globe and across the U.S. The size of the impact is economically and statistically significant...

  11. Corruption and internal fraud in the Turkish construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Murat; Önder, Oytun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding about the internal fraud and corruption problem in the Turkish construction industry. The reasons behind the internal fraud and corruption problem as well as the types of prevention methods were investigated; and as a result various recommendations were made. To this end, a risk awareness questionnaire was used to understand the behavioral patterns of the construction industry, and to clarify possible proactive and reactive measures against internal fraud and corruption. The type of fraud experienced by Turkish construction companies was also surveyed in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 89 firms; and depending on the collected data, certain recommendations for construction industry professionals were provided.

  12. Corrupted MP4 Carving Using MP4-Karver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nur Elmi Abdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the digital forensic, recovery of deleted and damaged video files play an important role in searching for the evidences. In this paper, MP4-Karver tool is proposed to recover and repair the corrupted videos. Moreover, MP4-Karver extracts frames from video for automatically screen-video to detect illegal cases instead of targeting or watching complete video. Therefore, many existing approaches such as Scalpel’s method, Garfienkel, Bi-Fragment Gap Carving, Smart Carving and Frame Based Recovery attempts to recover the videos in different ways, but most of the recovered videos are usually not complete playable. The proposed MP4-Karver focuses on recovery of video files and repair corrupted videos to complete and playable. Experimental results show that the proposed MP4-Karver effectively restores corrupted or damaged video for an improved percentage of the video restoration compared with existing tools.

  13. Corruption and innovation in the Albanian public procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reida Kashta

    2014-07-01

    The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public procurement field in Albania? Did they had any real impact or they just reshaped the ways of doing corruption? The main finding of this paper is that introduction of e-procurement system was one of the most appropriate means to fight corruption in Albania, because this system fixed one of the biggest problems of the Albanian Public Procurement system; lack of transparency. The electronic system is transparent, since it provides the increasing of information passing through it, and the most important, it enhances the responsibility in relations between the contracting authorities and economic operators, enabling a more effective and efficient use of the tax payers’ money.

  14. Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Shao, Jia; Njavro, Djuro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the dependence of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) per capita growth rates on changes in the Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI). For the period 1999 2004 for all countries in the world, we find on average that an increase of CPI by one unit leads to an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 1.7%. By regressing only the European countries with transition economies, we find that an increase of CPI by one unit generates an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 2.4%. We also analyze the relation between foreign direct investments received by different countries and CPI, and we find a statistically significant power-law functional dependence between foreign direct investment per capita and the country corruption level measured by the CPI. We introduce a new measure to quantify the relative corruption between countries based on their respective wealth as measured by GDP per capita.

  15. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  16. Bureaucratic complexity and impacts of corruption in utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seim, Line Toendel; Soereide, Tina [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O.Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-06-15

    This paper explores how the relationship between bureaucratic complexity and corruption affects the performance in utilities. We observe considerable variation in the performance of the utilities across countries, even across countries which appear to be relatively similar. Our hypothesis is that corruption plays an important role in explaining this observed difference in performance. In particular, corruption coupled with a complex regulatory structure can have negative effects on performance. The analysis points at the importance of considering the institutional framework and institutional quality when introducing new bureaucratic procedures, as the same set of policy advice will work differently in different countries. We measure bureaucratic complexity by the number of procedures needed for starting a business from the Doing Business Database provided by the World Bank. (author)

  17. INITIATED PENALTIES FOR CORRUPT BEHAVIOR IN A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSFEKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Haling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sociological persfektif in many social sanctions bid can be applied in corruptbehavior pananggulangan. The idea of social sanctions were proposed as a reactionagainst the growing number of corrupt behavior difficult resolved only throughnational and international legal instruments. It is time the exact type of sanctions werefound to tackle corrupt behaviour that are already classified as extraordinary crimes.Some ideas proposed as social sanctions to eradicate corrupt behavior i.e. criminalsanctions established on the basis of social stratification, pencemohan self and familycorruptor, no corpse mensholatkan corruptor before is no guarantee of the financialreturns of the State by the family of the perpetrator, serving in the corruptor's facetelivisi and penalties for disseminating the corruptor after death and as sanctionsultimium remidium every corruptor will be charged all his deeds before God afterdeath.

  18. Narrating the Mensalão Case : Configurations of Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Damgaard Andersen

    2015-03-01

    As a scandal potentially harmful for the governing party and the former president Luis “Lula” da Silva, the eyes and spotlights of the national media were fixed on the trial. However, the varying and contested ways in which the case was presented by media from the outbreak of the scandal in 2005 until the end of the trial bears witness to the fact that narratives concerning corruption scandals can potentially encompass a broad range of political and social actors besides those on trial. Viewing corruption as the thematic focus of the media texts, this wider scope of enquiry into the mensalão affair allows us to see that media, political actors and institutions use cases of corruption for much more than mere condemnation of transgressions: The narratives constructed in the Brazilian media reflect but also produce a series of salient political and social developments in the nation's self-imagination and political arena.

  19. Review of corruption in the health sector: theory, methods and interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vian, Taryn

    There is increasing interest among health policymakers, planners and donors in how corruption affects health care access and outcomes, and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector...

  20. Anti-Corruption strategies and development in Nigeria: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Corruption strategies and development in Nigeria: A case study of the ... of the rule of law and a culture of preferential treatment in the conduct of government business. ... by the present administration to combat corruption at various levels.