WorldWideScience

Sample records for corrosive materials

  1. DPC materials and corrosion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Bryan, Charles R.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    After an exposition of the materials used in DPCs and the factors controlling material corrosion in disposal environments, a survey is given of the corrosion rates, mechanisms, and products for commonly used stainless steels. Research needs are then identified for predicting stability of DPC materials in disposal environments. Stainless steel corrosion rates may be low enough to sustain DPC basket structural integrity for performance periods of as long as 10,000 years, especially in reducing conditions. Uncertainties include basket component design, disposal environment conditions, and the in-package chemical environment including any localized effects from radiolysis. Prospective disposal overpack materials exist for most disposal environments, including both corrosion allowance and corrosion resistant materials. Whereas the behavior of corrosion allowance materials is understood for a wide range of corrosion environments, demonstrating corrosion resistance could be more technically challenging and require environment-specific testing. A preliminary screening of the existing inventory of DPCs and other types of canisters is described, according to the type of closure, whether they can be readily transported, and what types of materials are used in basket construction.

  2. Materials selection and corrosion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, I.; Greif, R.; Treseder, R.S.

    1974-06-28

    Data tabulated for chemical composition of geothermal waters are presented for four areas of interest in Nevada: Beowawe steam well and Beowawe Hot Spring, Buffalo Valley Hot Springs, Kyle Hot Springs, and Leach Hot Springs. Material recommendations were prepared for the Nevada geothermal well. A detailed field corrosion test program planned for the Nevada test well is included. A progress report is presented for a laboratory research program on velocity effects in corrosion. (MHR)

  3. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  4. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  5. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  6. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  7. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Rudolph G.; Martinez, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  8. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  9. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the

  10. PH and Electrochemical Responsive Materials for Corrosion Smart Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Calle, Luz M.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion is a costly issue for military operations and civil industries. While most corrosion initiates from localized corrosion form, such as pitting, failure directly caused by localized corrosion is the most dangerous kind, because it is difficult to anticipate and prevent, occurs very suddenly and can be catastrophic. One way of preventing these failures is with a coating that can detect and heal localized corrosion. pH and other electrochemical changes are often associated with localized corrosion, so it is expected that materials that are pH or otherwise electrochemical responsive can be used to detect and control corrosion. This paper will review various pH and electrochemical responsive materials and their potential applications in corrosion smart coatings. Current research results in this field will also be reported.

  11. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  12. Effect of Flow Velocity on Corrosion Rate and Corrosion Protection Current of Marine Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Jong [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In spite of highly advanced paint coating techniques, corrosion damage of marine metal and alloys increase more and more due to inherent micro-cracks and porosities in coatings formed during the coating process. Furthermore, flowing seawater conditions promote the breakdown of the protective oxide of the materials introducing more oxygen into marine environments, leading to the acceleration of corrosion. Various corrosion protection methods are available to prevent steel from marine corrosion. Cathodic protection is one of the useful corrosion protection methods by which the potential of the corroded metal is intentionally lowered to an immune state having the advantage of providing additional protection barriers to steel exposed to aqueous corrosion or soil corrosion, in addition to the coating. In the present investigation, the effect of flow velocity was examined for the determination of the optimum corrosion protection current density in cathodic protection as well as the corrosion rate of the steel. It is demonstrated from the result that the material corrosion under dynamic flowing conditions seems more prone to corrosion than under static conditions.

  13. Microorganisms as potential corrosion inhibitors of metallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Žaklina Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion presents the destruction of materials through chemical or electrochemical interactions with their environment. Interactions between the metal surface and bacterial cells or products of their metabolic activities can lead to microbially-influenced corrosion. Also, it is known that certain microorganisms can contribute to corrosion inhibition. In accordance to that, the literature dealing with the application of different microorganisms as a potentialy corrosion inhibitors of metals is investigated. Different bacterial strains as a corrosion inhibitor of a metalic materials are examined. Further, the role of extracellular polymeric substances in corrosion behavior of metals is emphasized. Based on the data presented in this work, it can be said that inhibition efficiency depends on microorganism as well as type of metal. Also, it is presented that some bacterial species can be used as a good corrosion inhibitor instead of toxic organic compounds.

  14. IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

    2012-10-01

    Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

  15. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  16. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  17. Corrosion resistance of high-performance materials titanium, tantalum, zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high–performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self–healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valua...

  18. Diffusion model for acid corrosion of cemented materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, J.C.; De Moel, P.J.; Nooyen, W.F.; Nuiten, P.C.

    1986-09-25

    The acid corrosion of cemented materials is an important aspect in engineering practice. Corrosion affects the strength of materials and may cause a deterioration of water quality. This article deals with corrosion due to non-erosive acid attacks. A diffusion model is presented in which the depth of attack increases in proportion to the square root of both time, the hydronium ion concentration in the water, and the inverse of the total concentration of lime in the solid phase. Experiments verifying the model are presented. The experiments also reveal that the corrosion of asbestos cement proceeds faster as compared to concrete because of desintegration of the structure of asbestos cement. The diffusion model also worked out to be applicable for corrosion by agressive CO/sub 2/. The lower corrosion rate due to the formation of CaCO/sub 3/ can for this case be described by a lower diffusion coefficient. 4 tabs., 6 figs., 9 refs.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis....... Tantalum showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media. On the contrary, passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 degrees C....

  20. A study of microbial population dynamics associated with corrosion rates influenced by corrosion control materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Yu Jie; Hung, Chun Hsiung; Lee, Jyh Wei; Chang, Yi Tang; Lin, Fen Yu; Chuang, Chun Jie

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the variations of microbial community structure under anaerobic corrosive conditions, using molecular fingerprinting method. The effect of adding various materials to the environment on the corrosion mechanism has been discussed. In the initial experiment, sulfate-re

  1. A study of microbial population dynamics associated with corrosion rates influenced by corrosion control materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Yu Jie; Hung, Chun Hsiung; Lee, Jyh Wei; Chang, Yi Tang; Lin, Fen Yu; Chuang, Chun Jie

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the variations of microbial community structure under anaerobic corrosive conditions, using molecular fingerprinting method. The effect of adding various materials to the environment on the corrosion mechanism has been discussed. In the initial experiment,

  2. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures; Corrosion et protection des materiaux a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbaud, F.; Desgranges, Clara; Martinelli, Laure; Rouillard, Fabien [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Duhamel, Cecile [Mines ParisTech, Centre des materiaux UMR-CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Marchetti, Loic; Perrin, Stephane [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse (France); Molins, Regine [Mines ParisTech, Direction de la Recherche, 60 Bvd Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Chevalier, S.; Heintz, O. [Laboratoire interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); David, N.; Fiorani, J.M.; Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy-1 - CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wouters, Y.; Galerie, A. [SIMAP UMR CNRS 5266, Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la Piscine BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France); Mangelinck, D. [IM2NP, UMR6242, CNRS, Univ. Paul Cezanne, Case 142, Faculte de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Viguier, B.; Monceau, D. [Univ. de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, INP-ENSIACET, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 44362, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Soustelle, M. [Ecole nationale superieure des mines, Saint Etienne (France); Pijolat, M. [Centre Spin, Ecole des mines de Saint Etienne (France); Favergeon, J.; Brancherie, D.; Moulin, G.; Dawi, K. [Laboratoire Roberval, UTC (France); Wolski, K.; Barnier, V. [Centre SMS, EMSE, UMR 5146, LCG, Univ. de Lyon, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Univ. de Bordeaux (France); Lavigne, O. [Onera, Dep. Materiaux et Structures Metalliques, BP 72, 29 av. de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon (France); Brossard, J.M. [Dep. energetique et procedes, Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation, Limay (France); Ropital, F. [IFP Energies Nouvelles, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Mougin, J. [CEA-Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-01

    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  3. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  4. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  5. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that stainless steels are the most inclined to corrosion under high anodic polarization. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance under conditions, simulating HTPEMWE. In particular, Inconel625 is the most promising alloy...

  6. The influence of insulation materials on corrosion under insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.; Evans, O. [Aspen Aerogels Inc., Northborough, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the ways in which insulation materials influence corrosion under insulation (CUI) behaviour. Laboratory and field tests of 7 industrial insulation materials and 1 composite system were conducted to identify metrics for improving insulation system designs and determine insulation degradation mechanisms. The tested materials included calcium silicate; expanded perlite; cellular glass; mineral wool; and 2 types of aerogel blanket material. Twelve-week accelerated corrosion tests were conducted to gauge the level of corrosion that occurred beneath the materials on uncoated carbon steel pipe. Drying rate curves for porous materials were also established. A series of aqueous extraction studies was conducted to characterize the durability of various inhibitors on the pipe samples. Results of the study showed that the use of corrosion inhibitors and ensuring the thermal stability of hydrophobing agents will help to prevent CUI. 16 refs., 7 tabs., 17 figs.

  7. An overview of materials degradation by stress corrosion in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P. M. [Framatome ANP, Tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aging of water cooled and moderated nuclear steam supply systems has given rise to many material corrosion problems of which stress corrosion cracking has proved to be one of the most serious. The aim of this paper is to review some examples of corrosion and particularly stress corrosion problems from the author's experience of interpreting and modelling these phenomena in PWR systems. Examples of stress corrosion cracking in PWR systems described include the major issue of Alloy 600 intergranular cracking in primary PWR coolants, for which it is generally perceived that both adequate life prediction models and remedial measures now exist. Intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes that occur in occluded superheated crevices on the secondary side of steam generators due to hide-out and concentration of water borne impurities are also addressed. Rather less extensive or well known examples are discussed such as the stress corrosion cracking of carbon and low alloy steels and of stainless steels in occluded dead-leg situations where it is sometimes difficult to guarantee adequate control of water chemistry, particularly at plant start-up. Reference is also be made to the use of high strength fastener materials in PWR systems as well as to the emerging issue of the effect of high neutron doses on the stress corrosion resistance of core structural components fabricated from austenitic stainless steels. (authors)

  8. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance...... was measured under simulated conditions (molten KH2PO4) corresponding to the proton-conducting solid acids or transition metal phosphates as electrolytes. It was shown that, unlike at temperatures below 200 °C, gold is unstable with respect to corrosion in molten KH2PO4. Platinum demonstrated high corrosion...... resistance and the anodic and cathodic limits were for the first time found for the electrolyte. Nickel, niobium, Inconel®625, Hastelloy®C-276 and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as construction materials for bipolar plates. © (2013) Trans...

  9. Prediction of Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Fabricated Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Anderko; G. Engelhardt; M.M. Lencka (OLI Systems Inc.); M.A. Jakab; G. Tormoen; N. Sridhar (Southwest Research Institute)

    2007-09-29

    The goal of this project is to provide materials engineers, chemical engineers and plant operators with a software tool that will enable them to predict localized corrosion of process equipment including fabricated components as well as base alloys. For design and revamp purposes, the software predicts the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and assists the user in selecting the optimum alloy for a given environment. For the operation of existing plants, the software enables the users to predict the remaining life of equipment and help in scheduling maintenance activities. This project combined fundamental understanding of mechanisms of corrosion with focused experimental results to predict the corrosion of advanced, base or fabricated, alloys in real-world environments encountered in the chemical industry. At the heart of this approach is the development of models that predict the fundamental parameters that control the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environmental conditions and alloy composition. The fundamental parameters that dictate the occurrence of localized corrosion are the corrosion and repassivation potentials. The program team, OLI Systems and Southwest Research Institute, has developed theoretical models for these parameters. These theoretical models have been applied to predict the occurrence of localized corrosion of base materials and heat-treated components in a variety of environments containing aggressive and non-aggressive species. As a result of this project, a comprehensive model has been established and extensively verified for predicting the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and temperature by calculating the corrosion and repassivation potentials.To support and calibrate the model, an experimental database has been developed to elucidate (1) the effects of various inhibiting species as well as aggressive species on localized corrosion of nickel

  10. Penetration of corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Brad J.; Peterova, Adela;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experimental investigations on corrosion-induced deterioration in reinforced cementitious materials and the subsequent development and implementation of a novel conceptual model. Rejnforced mortar specimens of varying water-to-cement ratios were subjected to current-induced c......This paper describes experimental investigations on corrosion-induced deterioration in reinforced cementitious materials and the subsequent development and implementation of a novel conceptual model. Rejnforced mortar specimens of varying water-to-cement ratios were subjected to current......-induced corrosion (10, 50, and 100 mu A/cm(2)). X-ray attenuation measurements and visual investigations provided both qualitative and quantitative information on the penetration of solid corrosion products into the surrounding cementitious matrix. X-ray attenuation measurements provided time- and location......-dependent concentrations of corrosion products averaged through the specimen thickness. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure corrosion-induced deformations including deformations between steel and cementitious matrix as well as formation and propagation of corrosion-induced cracks. Based on experimental...

  11. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  12. Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1980-05-01

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

  13. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters.

  14. Materials corrosion in ammonia/solid heat pump working media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.F.; Howell, M.; DeVan, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Salt/ammonia complexes will undergo thermal cycles during use as working media for heat pumps. The interaction between container materials and complexes under thermal cyclic conditions was assessed to screen possible containment materials. Aluminum alloys 3003, 1100, and 6063 and carbon steel A214 were tested against possible heat pump working media SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. None of the containment materials showed susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. While all the materials demonstrated excellent general corrosion resistance to SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, only A214 displayed good general corrosion resistance to CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. The complex CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} was found to be subject to thermal cyclic instability and should not be used as a heat pump working medium.

  15. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  16. Corrosion testing of urea-formaldehyde foam insulating material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, R.; Graviano, A.; Sheppard, K.

    1980-09-01

    Two tests of the corrosiveness of urea-formaldehyde (UF) foam insulating materials were compared. One test, the Timm test, had test coupons foamed in place. In the second, the Canadian test, blocks of foam already set were placed in contact with test coupons. The Timm test uses 10 gage thick coupons, while the Canadian test specifies 3 mil thick ones. Two samples of UF foam were tested by the Timm and the Canadian tests. The electrical-resistance probes showed that the corrosion rate against steel was initially quite high, of the order of 12 to 20 mpy (mils per year). After about 20 days, the rate was almost zero. In the Timm test, the corrosion rates of steel coupons were of the order to 0.5 to 2 mpy when averaged over the 28 or 56 day test period. The greater corrosion rate of the thick coupons in the Canadian test as well as poor reproducibility of the corrosion rates was attributed primarily to variations in the contact areas between the sample and the UF foam. The corrosion rates of galvanized steel coupons in the Canadian test in several cases exceeded the failure value. In the Timm test, the corrosion rates averaged over the whole test period were quite low. The corrosion rates of copper and aluminum in both tests were quite low. On the basis of the results of this study the following recommendations for a corrosion-test procedure for UF foam were made: two corrosion tests should be conducted, one for foam while curing and one after it has stabilized; the Timm test for corrosiveness while curing should be used, but for only 1 to 2 days; the test for corrosiveness after stabilizing should be of the accelerated type such as the Canadian one. To insure a constant-contact area, thicker coupons should be used; and the coupons for both tests should have a controlled part of the area not in contact with the foam to simulate field conditions.

  17. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Neutron Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd Lister; Ron Mizia; Arnold Erickson; Tammy Trowbridge

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of crevice-corrosion tests for six alloys in solutions representative of ionic compositions inside the Yucca Mountain waste package should a breech occur. The alloys in these tests are Neutronit A978a (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B4 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B5 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B6 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy2 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), and Alloy 22 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled).

  18. Localized corrosion in materials for geothermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A.; Peterson, J.A.; Hehemann, R.F.; Troiano, A.R.

    1980-12-01

    Ten different commercially available steels were examined for general and localized corrosion in 14 different environmental conditions. The chloride concentration was varied from 1 to 24 percent. In general, the influence of chloride was minor and seemed slightly more agressive at 1 than at 5 or 24 percent. The brines were examined with and without saturated H/sub 2/S. Saturation with H/sub 2/S increased the general corrosion rate but appeared to reduce crevice attack in the acid solutions. Selected brines were examined in both acid and neutral conditions. As anticipated, a neutral brine with or without H/sub 2/S greatly reduced all forms of attack. Tests at 150/sup 0/C exhibited greater attack than at ambient. A relatively new alloy, Ni-Cu-Cb, consistently demonstrated good resistance to both general and localized attack. Typical economical N80 grade steels clearly demonstrated the strong dependence of localized attack on inclusion variables and offer great promise in the minimized and/or controlled inclusion condition. The Cr-Mo steels surprisingly did not look good at ambient but did exhibit substantial improvement at 150/sup 0/C. The laboratory tests gave higher weight loss values for similar steels recently tested in a well; although in neutral brines without saturated H/sub 2/S, the difference was not significantly larger.

  19. Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for

  20. Intercalation and Stability of Layered Semiconductive Material in Corrosive Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The intercalation of 4-methyl pyridine (4-picoline) into layered semiconductive material (MnPS3) and the stability of the resulting materials in corrosive environments (water, HCI and open atmosphere) were investigated.Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of water and hydrochloric acid greatly influenced the existing form of intercalation and its orientation in the interlayer of the host. Atmospheric environment (open air) affected the guest orientation in the interlayer of the host material. Phase transformation occurred and the material was stable. The intercalated compounds could be indexed in the trigonal unit cell. The XRD patterns exhibited sharp hkl reflections of the intercalated compounds, which formed in water and HCI,confirming that the materials were well crystalline and stable in corrosive environments.

  1. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy......Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...

  2. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  3. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  4. High temperature corrosion of separator materials for MCFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Kojima, Toshikatsu [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is one of promising high efficiency power generation devices with low emission. Molten carbonate used for its electrolyte plays an important role in MCFC. It separates between anode and cathode gas environment and provides ionic conductivity on MCFC operation. Stainless steel is conventionally used as separator/current collector materials in MCFC cathode environment. As corrosion of the components of MCFC caused by the electrolyte proceeds with the electrolyte consumption, the corrosion in the MCFC is related to its performance and life. To understand and inhibit the corrosion in the MCFC is important to realize MCFC power generation system. We have studied the effect of alkaline earth carbonate addition into carbonate on corrosion of type 316L stainless steel. In this paper, we describe the effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior of type 316L stainless steel with carbonate mixture, (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, under the cathode environment in out-of-cell test.

  5. Water Vapor Corrosion in EBC Constituent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Fox, Dennis; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) materials are sought after to protect ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in high temperature turbine engines. CMCs are particularly susceptible to degradation from oxidation, Ca-Al-Mg-Silicate (CMAS), and water vapor during high temperature operation which necessitates the use of EBCs. However, the work presented here focuses on water vapor induced recession in EBC constituent materials. For example, in the presence of water vapor, silica will react to form Si(OH)4 (g) which will eventually corrode the material away. To investigate the recession rate in EBC constituent materials under high temperature water vapor conditions, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is employed. The degradation process can then be modeled through a simple boundary layer expression. Ultimately, comparisons are made between various single- and poly-crystalline materials (e.g. TiO2, SiO2) against those found in literature.

  6. Static Corrosion Test of Porous Iron Material with Polymer Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markušová-Bučková, Lucia; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Gorejová, Radka; Kupková, Miriam; Hrubovčáková, Monika; Baláž, Matej; Kováľ, Karol

    2016-12-01

    At present biodegradable implants received increased attention due to their use in various fields of medicine. This work is dedicated to testing of biodegradable materials which could be used as bone implants. The samples were prepared from the carbonyl iron powder by replication method and surface polymer film was produced through sol-gel process. Corrosion testing was carried out under static conditions during 12 weeks in Hank's solution. The quantity of corrosion products increased with prolonging time of static test as it can be concluded from the results of EDX analysis. The degradation of open cell materials with polyethylene glycol coating layer was faster compared to uncoated Fe sample. Also the mass losses were higher for samples with PEG coating. The polymer coating brought about the desired increase in degradation rate of porous iron material.

  7. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  8. A non-destructive test method to monitor corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Peterova, Adela

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a non-destructive test method to monitor the development of corrosion products as well as the corrosion-induced formation and propagation of cracks in cementitious materials. A parametric experimental investigation (utilizing x-ray attenuation measurement technique...

  9. Erosion/corrosion testing of materials for oil sands applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.; Wolodko, J.; Alemaskin, K.; Been, J.; Danysh, M. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Erosion and corrosion are common wear mechanisms for components used in oil sands processing facilities. This paper described a slurry jet test apparatus designed to evaluate and assess materials for oil sands service conditions. The jet testing apparatus was designed to mimic the wet erosion phenomena typically found in oil sands applications. Wear- and corrosion-resistant materials tested by the apparatus included carbon steel, tungsten carbide metal matrix composite (WC-MMC) overlays, and a range of polymer and rubber liner materials. Polymeric materials included hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR); polyurethane elastomer; and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Material losses were determined by measuring the mass of the samples before and after testing. Normalized rates of abrasion were calculated by dividing total mass lost in the specimens by the total mass of sand impinged on the sample surface. Samples were also visually assessed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine failure modes. Tests were conducted for a 2-hour period at an impingement angle of 90 degrees. Results of the study showed that the average abrasion rates of the polymeric samples are lower than rates seen with the carbon steel and overlay materials. Future work on the apparatus will include testing the materials under varying slurry jet parameters. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Materials and corrosion characterization using the confocal resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, C.P.; Sorensen, N.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Improved characterization and process control is important to many Sandia and DOE programs related to manufacturing. Many processes/structures are currently under-characterized including thin film growth, corrosion and semiconductor structures, such as implant profiles. A sensitive tool is required that is able to provide lateral and vertical imaging of the electromagnetic properties of a sample. The confocal resonator is able to characterize the surface and near-surface impedance of materials. This device may be applied to a broad range of applications including in situ evaluation of thin film processes, physical defect detection/characterization, the characterization of semiconductor devices and corrosion studies. In all of these cases, the technology should work as a real-time process diagnostic or as a feedback mechanism regarding the quality of a manufacturing process. This report summarizes the development and exploration of several diagnostic applications.

  11. Corrosion-Resistant Container for Molten-Material Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.; McNaul, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In a carbothermal process, gaseous methane is passed over molten regolith, which is heated past its melting point to a temperature in excess of 1,625 C. At this temperature, materials in contact with the molten regolith (or regolith simulant) corrode and lose their structural properties. As a result, fabricating a crucible to hold the molten material and providing a method of contact heating have been problematic. Alternative containment approaches use a large crucible and limit the heat zone of the material being processed, which is inefficient because of volume and mass constraints. Alternative heating approaches use non-contact heating, such as by laser or concentrated solar energy, which can be inefficient in transferring heat and thus require higher power heat sources to accomplish processing. The innovation is a combination of materials, with a substrate material having high structural strength and stiffness and high-temperature capability, and a coating material with a high corrosion resistance and high-temperature capability. The material developed is a molybdenum substrate with an iridium coating. Creating the containment crucible or heater jacket using this material combination requires only that the molybdenum, which is easily processed by conventional methods such as milling, electric discharge machining, or forming and brazing, be fabricated into an appropriate shape, and that the iridium coating be applied to any surfaces that may come in contact with the corrosive molten material. In one engineering application, the molybdenum was fashioned into a container for a heat pipe. Since only the end of the heat pipe is used to heat the regolith, the container has a narrowing end with a nipple in which the heat pipe is snugly fit, and the external area of this nipple, which contacts the regolith to transfer heat into it, is coated with iridium. At the time of this reporting, no single material has been found that can perform the functions of this combination

  12. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  13. Application of High Temperature Corrosion-Resistant Materials and Coatings Under Severe Corrosive Environment in Waste-to-Energy Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yuuzou

    2007-06-01

    Corrosion-resistant materials (CRMs) and coatings are key technologies to increase power generation efficiency and reduce maintenance in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. Corrosion environment became severe as steam temperatures have increased. The steam condition of more than 400 °C/3.9 MPa became possible in WTE boilers by using highly durable corrosion-resistant coatings, such as thermal spray of Al/80Ni20Cr alloy, HVOF-sprayed NiCrSiB alloy, Alloy 625 weld overlay for waterwall tubes and also superheater tubes. Also, the use of 310S type stainless steels and high Cr-high Mo-Ni base and high Si-Cr-Ni-Fe alloys have progressed because of a better understanding of corrosion mechanisms. Furthermore, high durability coatings using cermet and ceramic materials were applied to high temperature superheaters. This paper describes the major developments and the application of CRMs and coating technologies in the last 30 years in WTE plants, the corrosion mechanisms of alloys, the deterioration mechanisms of spray coating layers, and future subjects for the development of corrosion-resistant materials and coatings.

  14. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants in simulated geothermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haofeng [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Graduate School; Niu Libin; Oishi, Shuji [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Naigai Chemical Products Co. (Japan); Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Sakai, Yoshihiro [Fuji Electric Advanced Technology Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    In order to evaluate the influence of chloride, sulfate and carbon dioxide in water on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of geothermal steam turbine materials, measurements of the anodic polarization and the pitting corrosion potential were conducted in simulated geothermal waters. The corrosion resistance of all materials tested was lowered by an increasing carbon dioxide content in the simulated geothermal waters. Higher chloride concentrations in the waters induced lower corrosion resistance and also lower pitting corrosion potentials for materials with higher chromium contents, suggesting the corrosion behavior was mainly controlled by the chromium content of the materials. The corrosion resistance of 9CrMoV and 13Cr steels was also influenced by the concentration of sulfate in the water. The improved heat-treated 16Cr-4Ni material for turbine blades showed excellent corrosion resistance. In the presence of sulfate, the corrosion reactions are mitigated due to a decreasing concentration of chloride (due to the presence of sulfate) in corrosion pits. (orig.)

  15. Improvement on Corrosion Resistance of Zirconia-Graphite Material for Powder Line of SEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; YANG Bin; YANG Jinsong; LIU Guoqi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of anti-oxidation additions and microstructure characters off used zirconia raw materials on the corrosion resistance of ZrO2-C were studied. The results show that BN addition can enhance the corrosion resistance of ZrO2-C due to the prevention of graphite oxidation,and zirconia raw material with good crystallization and densification will give better corrosion resistance by restrain the reaction between slag and zirconia.

  16. Assessment of the corrosiveness of cellulosic insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, R.; Graviano, A.

    1979-06-01

    A discussion of the information which is available about the corrosiveness of cellulose and other related properties is presented. A survey of the literature dealing with the corrosiveness of wood products other than cellulose and of the corrosiveness in other media by fire-retardant chemicals generally used with cellulosic insulation is included. The types of corrosion which could be caused by cellulosic insulation are briefly discussed.

  17. CORROSION AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED FOR MINCED MEAT PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    The risk of material degradation is present in minced-meat processing equipment. Corrosion, wear and tribocorrosion properties of commonly used steel materials for such processing equipment are therefore studied in detail. Corrosiveness of minced meat has been evaluated by potentiodynamic...

  18. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  19. High Temperature Corrosion of Water Wall Materials T23 and T24 in Simulated Furnace Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钦新; 张知翔; 成丁南; 王云刚; 邓翔

    2012-01-01

    Candidate materials for water wall of supercritical and ultra-supercritical utility boilers,T23 and T24,were chosen as the experimental samples and exposed to oxidizing atmosphere,reducing atmosphere and oxidizing/reducing alternating atmosphere separately.The corrosion temperature was 450-550?C.The effects of oxygen con-tent and temperature on the corrosion in reducing atmosphere and alternating atmosphere were investigated.The scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) were used to examine the corroded samples.The results show that the corrosion kinetics of T23 and T24 can be described by the double logarithmic equation and parabolic equation respectively.To describe the corrosion of materials accurately it is not sufficient to analyze the macro-mass gain and the macro-thickness of the corroded layer only,but the EDS should be applied to examine the migration depth of corrosive elements O and S.It is revealed that the corrosion becomes more severe when H2S is present in the corrosive gas.S is more active than O,and Cr can reduce the migration of oxygen but not S.The combination corrosion of S and O and pure [S] has a stronger corrodibility than pure H2S.T24 suffers the most severe corrosion at oxygen content of 0.8%.Corrosion is aggravated when the corrosion temperature is above 450 ℃ in the alternating atmosphere.T23 has better corrosion resistance than T24 and W contributes a lot to the corrosion resistance of T23.

  20. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture; Novak, Tomislav [NMP Produkt Ltd., Nedelisce (Croatia)

    2014-06-15

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  1. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingyuan (王清远); N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials are known to have a considerable scatter due to the random nature of materials,loading,and environmental conditions.A probabilistic approach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effect of the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigue process (i.e.the pit nucleation and growth,pit-crack transition,short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size,corrosion pitting current,and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data.Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the failure probability distribution.Predicted cumulative distribution functions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清远; N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials axe known to have a considerablescatter due to the random nature of materials, loading, and environmental conditions. A probabilisticapproach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effectof the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigueprocess (i.e. the pit nucleation and growth, pit-crack transition, short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size, corrosion pittingcurrent, and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data. Monte Carlo simu-lations were performed to define the failure probability distribution. Predicted cumulative distributionfunctions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  4. Polymeric nano-materials for corrosion control of steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varini, M.; Koleva, D.A.; Denkova, A.G.; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric nano-materials utilization in reinforced concrete, aiming to deal with steel corrosion was developed in previous works. Promising results were obtained with PEO–b–PS nano-formations, both in terms of enhanced bulk matrix properties and improved steel corrosion resistance. Recent research h

  5. Corrosion-resistant tube materials for extended life of openings in recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, L.D.; Danielson, M.J.; Harper, S.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.); Barna, J.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.)

    1993-08-01

    The corrosive conditions causing rapid corrosion of Type 304L stainless steel in tube openings have been duplicated in the laboratory. Alternate materials also have been tested, and some show improved corrosion resistance over Type 304L. Alloy 825 and Alloy 625 composite tubing and Alloy 600 and Alloy 625 weld overlay materials all show promise as a replacement for Type 304L in tube openings. All recovery boilers designed or operated at 8.375 MPa (1,200 psi) and above should consider using these replacement materials for tube openings.

  6. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  7. Influence of chloride and carbon dioxide on general and crevice corrosion of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, HaiFeng; Niu, Libin; Oishi, Shuji; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo [Fuji Electric Advanced Technology Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakai, Yoshihiro [Fuji Electric Systems Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    The influence of chloride and CO{sub 2} on general and crevice corrosion of steam turbine materials for geothermal power plants was investigated in two simulated geothermal waters. The general corrosion rates of the rotor steels with a lower Cr content were accelerated due to the CO{sub 2} in the water, while the corrosion rates of the blade steels with a higher Cr content were controlled mainly by the chloride concentration in the waters. Concerning the crevice corrosion behavior, the galvanic corrosion effects in each of the waters were confirmed for the rotor steels with lower corrosion potentials than those of the blade materials, and almost no difference in corrosion behavior was observed between the two waters tested. Regarding general and crevice corrosion in the two simulated geothermal waters, it was determined that a newly developed rotor material and also an improved heat-treated blade material are promising for actual usage in geothermal power plants. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of Corrosion Characteristics and Development of Remedial Technologies in Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    In general, materials having superior resistance to corrosion are used for main components and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) to improve their safety. During long-term operations in the high temperature and pressure environment, however, localized-corrosion related degradations occur frequently in those materials, leading to unexpected shutdown of the plants. The unexpected shutdowns may lower the operating efficiency of the power generation and expand the repair period, which results in a huge economical loss. Moreover, since the damages may cause a leakage of the primary coolant that brings about a contamination by radioactive substances, the corrosion related degradations of structural materials have become a menace to the safety of NPPs. The steam generator tubes forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs are one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion. Therefore, it is strongly required to verify the degradation mechanisms of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 materials used in the steam generator tubes and primary systems, to establish remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, (1) the assessment techniques of corrosion damages were improved and the database of the obtained results were established. (2) The basic technologies of the management of corrosion damages were developed for the practical use. (3) The fundamental technologies for inhibition and repair of corrosion damages were also developed. The results of this project are applicable to the assessment, failure analysis and life estimation of the materials against corrosion damages. The assessment data obtained in this work are available for the technical references of the corrosion failures of components in NPPs during operation. Furthermore, it is applicable to establish materials design requirements, to establish the optimum operation condition and to

  9. ICP Materials Trends in Corrosion, Soiling and Air Pollution (1987–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidblad, Johan; Faller, Markus; de la Fuente, Daniel; Yates, Tim; Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Grøntoft, Terje; Hans, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987–2014 and include pollution data (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease. SO2 levels, carbon steel and copper corrosion have decreased even after 1997, which is more pronounced in urban areas, while corrosion of the other materials shows no decrease after 1997, when looking at one-year values. When looking at four-year values, however, there is a significant decrease after 1997 for zinc, which is not evident when looking at the one-year values. This paper also presents results on corrosion kinetics by comparison of one- and four-year values. For carbon steel and copper, kinetics is relatively independent of sites while other materials, especially zinc, show substantial variation in kinetics for the first four years, which needs to be considered when producing new and possibly improved models for corrosion. PMID:28825611

  10. Construction and Application of a National Data-Sharing Service Network of Material Environmental Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of a newly developed national data-sharing online network for material environmental corrosion. Written in Java language and based on Oracle database technology, the central database in the network is supported with two unique series of corrosion failure data, both of which were accumulated during a long period of time. The first category of data, provided by national environment corrosion test sites, is corrosion failure data for different materials in typical environments (atmosphere, seawater and soil. The other category is corrosion data in production environments, provided by a variety of firms. This network system enables standardized management of environmental corrosion data, an effective data sharing process, and research and development support for new products and after-sale services. Moreover this network system provides a firm base and data-service platform for the evaluation of project bids, safety, and service life. This article also discusses issues including data quality management and evaluation in the material corrosion data sharing process, access authority of different users, compensation for providers of shared historical data, and finally, the related policy and law legal processes, which are required to protect the intellectual property rights of the database.

  11. A non-destructive test method to monitor corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Peterova, Adela;

    2011-01-01

    ) was conducted to describe the impact of water-to-cement ratio and corrosion current density (i.e., corrosion rate) on the reinforcement corrosion process. Focus was placed, in particular on the determination of the corrosion accommodating region (CAR) and time to corrosion-induced cracking. Experimental results...

  12. Study on applying technology of utilizing long-term materials for corrosion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Chul; Park, Young Kyu; Baek, Soo Gon; Lee, Jong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Suk [Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rhyo Seong [Hankuk Aviation, University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays, as the pollution in seawater is escalating rapidly because of fast industrialization, corrosion rate and repairing frequency of seawater facilities in power plant are increasing. In addition, new construction is restricted with narrow limits due to the deterioration of social condition, asking for extension of facility life and repairing frequency. The objectives of this study are to select the appropriate new high corrosion resistance materials and apply them in the field, to make the corrosion data base in accordance with their usage conditions and to predict the remaining life and optimum repairing period by predicting the life of facilities. (author). 77 refs., 54 figs.

  13. Corrosion of copper-based materials in irradiated moist air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-06-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of oxygen-free copper (CDA-102), 70/30 copper-nickel (CDA-715), and 7% aluminum bronze (CDA-613) in an irradiated moist air environment was investigated. Experiments were performed in both dry and 40% RH (@90{degree}C) air at temperatures of 90 and 150{degree}C. Initial corrosion rates were determined based on a combination of weight gain and weight loss measurements. Corrosion products observed were identified. These experiments support efforts by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to evaluate possible metallic barrier materials for nuclear waste containers. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Effervescent Cationic Film Forming Corrosion Inhibitor Material and Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-15

    1000 ppm in the volume of aliminum surface of a weapon in a launch tube on a seawater that floods the weapon tube. submarine with a corrosion inhibitor film, comprising: 20 * * * * * 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 a. 60 65

  15. Using New Coating Materials for Corrosion Prevention of Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshami Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of reinforcing concrete structures is a common problem among all the Mediterranean countries. To protect steel from corrosion, cobalt oxide with zinc oxide were successfully deposited on silica and alumina layer according to Core–shell theory. This theory based on depositing a surface layer of expensive efficient anticorrosive coating on a cheap extender expressing the bulk. The combination of both core and shell compounds led to the production of new coating with improved properties different from each of its individual components. These improved properties lead to change in the efficiency of protection properties of coating films containing these new coating. The objective of the present work is to prepare a new ecologically friendly natural and inorganic coating of Egyptian mix (kaolin and ceramic waste and zinc phosphate as corrosion inhibitors based on the solid–solid interaction to protect steel from corrosion in buildings construction. The results revealed that these new coating gives the best results in protecting steel substrates from corrosion especial in aggressive environment.

  16. Evaluation of nitrogen containing reducing agents for the corrosion control of materials relevant to nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Padma S. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Mohan, D. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Chandran, Sinu; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: svelu@igcar.gov.in [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-02-01

    Materials undergo enhanced corrosion in the presence of oxidants in aqueous media. Usually, hydrogen gas or water soluble reducing agents are used for inhibiting corrosion. In the present study, the feasibility of using alternate reducing agents such as hydrazine, aqueous ammonia, and hydroxylamine that can stay in the liquid phase was investigated. A comparative study of corrosion behavior of the structural materials of the nuclear reactor viz. carbon steel (CS), stainless steel (SS-304 LN), monel-400 and incoloy-800 in the oxidizing and reducing conditions was also made. In nuclear industry, the presence of radiation field adds to the corrosion problems. The radiolysis products of water such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide create an oxidizing environment that enhances the corrosion. Electrochemical studies at 90 °C showed that the reducing agents investigated were efficient in controlling corrosion processes in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Evaluation of thermal stability of hydrazine and its effect on corrosion potential of SS-304 LN were also investigated in the temperature range of 200–280 °C. The results showed that the thermal decomposition of hydrazine followed a first order kinetics. Besides, a change in electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) was observed from −0.4 V (Vs SHE) to −0.67 V (Vs SHE) on addition of 5 ppm of hydrazine at 240 °C. Investigations were also made to understand the distribution behavior of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine in water-steam phases and it was found that both the phases showed identical behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrazine was found to be a promising reducing agent for oxidant control. • In presence of hydrazine corrosion potential of SS304 LN was well below −230 mV. • SS304LN could be protected from IGSCC by hydrazine addition. • Thermal and radiation stability of hydrazine at 285 °C was found satisfactory.

  17. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ~3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  18. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  19. Microbial corrosion of metallic materials in a deep nuclear-waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoulil J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study summarises current knowledge on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The first part evaluates the general impact of microbial activity on corrosion mechanisms. Especially, the impact of microbial metabolism on the environment and the impact of biofilms on the surface of structure materials were evaluated. The next part focuses on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The study aims to suggest the development of the repository environment and in that respect the viability of bacteria, depending on the probable conditions of the environment, such as humidity of bentonite, pressure in compact bentonite, the impact of ionizing radiation, etc. The last part is aimed at possible techniques for microbial corrosion mechanism monitoring in the conditions of a deep repository. Namely, electrochemical and microscopic techniques were discussed.

  20. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  1. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  2. Effect of Permeable Crystalline Material on Steel Reinforcement Corrosion of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jian-ying; WANG Gui-ming

    2004-01-01

    Permeable crystalline materialcan permeate into pores and cracks of concrete and catalyze the reaction between Ca(OH) 2and unhydrated cement to generate a great quantity needle non-soluble crystals, which can stop up the pores and cracks of concrete, and increase the impermeability of concrete. This paper reported the results of a study conducted to evaluate steel reinforcement corrosion of concrete specimens uncoated and coated with permeable crystalline material as well as mixed with the permeable crystalline material. The properties evaluated for corrosion test were water impermeability, water absorption, compressive strength and potential. The results of water impermeability, water absorption, compressive strength clearly showed that the permeable crystalline material could prohibit water, any soluble salts and moisture from penetrating the concrete to cause corrosion, leaking, and other problems, and it did increase the compressive strength, which was favorable for protection of corrosion of reinforcing steel. Moreover, it was concluded from the potential-time curve that the steel reinforcement of uncoated specimen was in the state of activation whereas that of other specimens coated and mixed with the permeable crystalline material was in the state of inactivation. Above all, it was indicated that the permeable crystalline materialis very effective to protect the steel reinforcement of concrete from corrosion.

  3. Assessment of Corrosion, Fretting, and Material Loss of Retrieved Modular Total Knee Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey J; Seagers, Kirsten A; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-07-01

    Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasties have been associated with fretting, corrosion, and debris release. The purpose of this study is to analyze damage severity in total knee arthroplasties of a single design by qualitative visual assessment and quantitative material loss measurements to evaluate implant performance and patient impact via material loss. Twenty-two modular knee retrievals of the same manufacturer were identified from an institutional review board-approved database. Junction designs included tapers with an axial screw and tapers with a radial screw. Constructs consisted of 2 metal alloys: CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Components were qualitatively scored and quantitatively measured for corrosion and fretting. Negative values represent adhered material. Statistical differences were analyzed using sign tests. Correlations were tested with a Spearman rank order test (P material loss and the maximum linear depth for the total population were -0.23 mm(3) and 5.84 μm, respectively. CoCr components in mixed metal junctions had higher maximum linear depth (P = .007) than corresponding Ti components. Fretting scores of Ti6Al4V alloy components in mixed metal junctions were statistically higher than the remaining groups. Taper angle did not correlate with material loss. Results suggest that CoCr components in mixed metal junctions are more vulnerable to corrosion than other components, suggesting preferential corrosion when interfacing with Ti6Al4V. Overall, although corrosion was noted in this series, material loss was low, and none were revised for clinical metal-related reaction. This suggests the clinical impact from corrosion in total knee arthroplasty is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of synergy between wear and corrosion in degradation of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Marwan

    Tribocorrosion is a term used to describe the material degradation due to the combination of electrochemical and tribological processes. Due to a synergetic effect, the material loss can be larger than the sum of the losses due to wear and corrosion acting separately. In this thesis, the synergy of wear and corrosion was investigated for different types of material, namely the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the SS316L stainless steel coated with a thin film of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC), and the SS301 stainless steel coated with a thin film of chromium silicon nitride (CrSiN). A tribocorrosion apparatus was designed and constructed to conduct wear experiments in corrosive media. Sliding ball-on-plate configuration was used in this design, where the contact between the ball and the specimen is totally immersed in the test electrolyte. The specimen was connected to a potentiostat to control its electrochemical parameters, namely the potential and the current. Electrochemical techniques were used to control the kinetics of corrosion reactions, and therefore it was possible to assess separately the role of corrosion and wear in the total degradation of material, and to evaluate the synergy between them. For Ti-6Al-4V, it was found that the corrosion and tribocorrosion depend strongly on the structure of the material. The alpha-equiaxed microstructure with fine dispersed beta-phase exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance was found to decrease when the basal plane was preferentially aligned parallel to the surface, which is attributed to a low resistance to charge transfer in the oxide films formed on this plane. On the other hand, when wear and corrosion were involved simultaneously, the oxide layer protecting the substrate against dissolution was mechanically destroyed leading to a high corrosion rate. It was found that the hardness was the most important factor determining the tribocorrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy; samples with high hardness

  5. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  6. Evaluation on mechanical and corrosion properties of steam generator tubing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sup; Lee, Byong Whi; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jun Whan; Lee, Ju Seok; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Su Jung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear reactor pressure boundary. It's main function os transferring heat which generated in the reactor to turbine generator through steam generator tube. In these days, steam generator tubing materials of operating plant are used Inconel 600 alloys. But according to the operation time, there are many degradation phenomena which included mechanical damage due to flow induced vibration and corrosion damage due to PWSCC, IGA/SCC and pitting etc. Recently Inconel 690 alloys are selected as new and replacement steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plant. But there are few study about mechanical and corrosion properties of Inconel 600 and 690. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare mechanical and corrosion propertied of steam generator tube materials.

  7. Corrosion behavior of magnetic refrigeration material La-Fe-Co-Si in distilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Min, E-mail: zhmn9459@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 XueYuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Long Yi; Ye Rongchang; Chang Yongqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 XueYuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-02-24

    Research highlights: > In this paper, we study the corrosion behavior of La(Fe{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.06}){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3} compound in distilled water and report an unexpected discovery that corrosion occurs at matrix phase rather than rare earth rich phase, which is different from other rare earth materials. The corrosion has decreased the maximum magnetic entropy change of the compound. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior of magnetic refrigeration material La(Fe{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.06}){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3} in distilled water has been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, weight loss method, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results show that La(Fe{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.06}){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3} compound suffers electrochemical preferential corrosion in distilled water. La(Fe{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.06}){sub 11.7}Si{sub 1.3} compound contains three phases which are matrix phase, a small amount of {alpha}-Fe phase and La-rich phase. The matrix phase with NaZn{sub 13} structure works as anode to be corroded. The final corrosion products on sample surface are La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gamma}-Fe(OOH), Co(OH){sub 2} and H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, respectively. Corrosion has decreased the maximum magnetic entropy change of the compound.

  8. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot-gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, M.F.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of the 3M material to a combustion environment for as little as 25 hours at 800{degrees}C. The study of heat exchanger materials has focused on enhancing the corrosion resistance of DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} composite tubes by adding chromium to its surfaces by (1) heat treatments in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed, or (2) infiltrating surface porosity with molten chromium nitrate. Each process is followed by a surface homogenization at 1500{degrees}C. The powder bed method has been most successful, producing continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. As-received and Cr-modified DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} samples will be reacted with commonly encountered coal-ash slags to determine the Cr effects on corrosion resistance.

  9. Natural analogues for expansion due to the anaerobic corrosion of ferrous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, N.R.; Adams, R. [Serco Assurance, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    In Sweden, spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, consisting of a cast iron insert and a copper outer container. The canisters will be placed in a deep geologic repository and surrounded by bentonite. If a breach of the outer copper container were to occur the cast iron insert would undergo anaerobic corrosion, forming a magnetite film whose volume would be greater than that of the base metal. In principle there is a possibility that accumulation of iron corrosion product could cause expansion of the copper canister. Anaerobic corrosion rates are very slow, so in the work described in this report reference was made to analogous materials that had been corroding for long periods in natural anoxic aqueous environments. The report considers the types of naturally occurring environments that may give rise to anoxic environments similar to deep geological groundwater and where ferrous materials may be found. Literature information regarding the corrosion of iron archaeological artefacts is summarised and a number of specific archaeological artefacts containing iron and copper corroding in constrained geometries in anoxic natural waters are discussed in detail. No evidence was obtained from natural analogues which would suggest that severe damage is likely to occur to the SKB waste canister design as a result of expansive corrosion of cast iron under repository conditions.

  10. Determination of Aquifer Protective Capacity and Corrosivity of Near Surface Materials in Yenagoa City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Okiongbo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoelectrical sounding method was adopted in the evaluation of aquifer protective capacity and corrosivity of near surface materials in Yenagoa city, South South, Nigeria. A total of eleven Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES stations were occupied using the Schlumberger configuration. Five geoelectric layers were identified. Layers four and five are the likely aquiferous horizons with resistivities >280 Sm. The depth to the aquiferous horizon varied between 6.0-52.0 m, and has a rather irregular distribution and thickness. Corrosivity, isopach and longitudinal unit conductance (S maps were generated from the combination of first and second order geoelectric parameters. The results indicate that the INC and Opolo areas of the city are characterized by weak protective capacity (0.1-0.2 mhos while other locations investigated are underlain by materials which could be regarded as moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos to good (0.7-4.9 mhos protective capacity. Resistivity values within the second layer (11.0-53.0 Sm indicate that this layer is moderately aggressive and may likely form corrosion cells which may lead to significant corrosion failures of shallow subsurface piping facilities. The results of this study highlight a set of environmental factors (corrosivity and protective capacity that should not be ignored at the planning stages of residential and industrial estates.

  11. Influence of Gas Composition on the Resisting Ability of Gunning Material for Blast Furnace to Carbon Monoxide Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lihong; LIU Liu; GUO Yanling; CAO Feng; MENG Qingmin; LONG Shigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the resisting ability of gunning material for blast furnace to carbon monoxide corrosion under the mixed gas condition through inletting hydrogen into pure CO.A standard for testing the resisting ability of refractory to Co corrosion with mixed gas instead of pure CO has also been discussed. The results show:the addition of hydrogen accelerates the CO corrosion on gunning material;the same results has been reached with the CO,200 hours to test the resisting ability of refractory to carbon monoxide corrosion.

  12. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals:The High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials(HPCRM) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2007-07-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  13. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D' Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  14. Corrosion resistance of the composite materials: nanocrystalline powder – polymer type in acid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ziębowicz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents corrosion resistance of composite materials Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 – PEHD type in sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid environments.Design/methodology/approach: Composite materials Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 – PEHD type were manufactured by one-sided uniaxal pressing. The amount of polymer matrix was 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, wt. Powder of the Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 was made by the high-energy grinding in the shaker type 8000SPEX CertiPrep Mixer/Mill for 1 h, 3 h, 5 h. Composite materials were placed in a corrosive environment and two tests were carried out as specified below: test at the temperature of 25°C, 0.1 M solution of hydrochloric acid HCl, time 348 h; test temperature 25°C, 0.1 M solution of sulphuric acid H2SO4, time 348 h, test temperature 25°C.Findings: Obtained results of corrosion resistance allow to evaluate corrosion wear of composite materials FINEMET (Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 – PEHD in acidic solutions of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M H2SO4. It was found that the composite materials with 7.5% wt. of polyethylene portion show the best corrosion resistance.Research limitations/implications: Composite materials Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9– PEHD type manufacturing greatly expand the application possibilities of soft magnetic materials nanocrystalline powders however further examination to obtain improved properties of magnetic composite materials and investigations of new machines and devices constructions with these materials elements are still needed.Originality/value: Results allow to complete data concerning composite materials nanocrystalline powder – polymer type which are an attractive alternative for traditional materials with specific magnetic properties. Results are the base for further investigations of the impact of corrosion environment on the magnetic properties such composite materials.

  15. PRODUCTION OF POROUS POWDER MATERIALS OF SPHERICAL POWDERS OF CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevskij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of porous powder materials from spherical powders of corrosion-resistant steel 12Х18н10Т with formation at low pressures 120–140 mpa in the mold with the subsequent activated sintering became possible due to increase of duration of process of spattering and formation of condensate particles (Si–C or (Mo–Si on surface.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Materials Fabricated by Melting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Hitoshi; Yagasaki, Takayoshi

    2016-11-01

    Bi2Te3-based compounds are used practically as thermoelectric cooling materials. Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 or Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 pseudobinary system compounds are usually applied as p- or n-type material, respectively. Atmospheric water may condense on the surface of thermoelectric materials constituting Peltier modules, depending on their operating environment. Very few studies on the corrosion resistance of Bi2Te3-based compounds have been reported in literature. Moreover, the detailed corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds remains unclear. In this study, the corrosion behavior of cleavage planes of Bi2Te3-based compounds fabricated by a melting method has been investigated. Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and Bi2Se3 were prepared by the vertical Bridgman method, respectively. Their electrochemical properties evaluated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry in a standard three-electrode cell with naturally aerated 0.6 mass% or 3.0 mass% NaCl solution as working electrolyte. The c-planes of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 exhibited similar corrosion potential. The corrosion potential of c-plane of Bi2Se3 was more cathodic compared with that of the telluride. The passive current density of the Bi2Te3-based compounds was single or double digit lower than that of stainless steel. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results for the electrolyte after testing indicated the possibility that a corrosion product diffuses to the environment including NaCl for Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3.

  17. Corrosion in Supercritical carbon Dioxide: Materials, Environmental Purity, Surface Treatments, and Flow Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2013-12-10

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is gaining importance for power conversion in the Generation IV fast reactor system because of its high conversion efficiencies. When used in conjunction with a sodium fast reactor, the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle offers additional safety advantages by eliminating potential sodium-water interactions that may occur in a steam cycle. In power conversion systems for Generation IV fast reactors, supercritical CO{sub 2} temperatures could be in the range of 30°C to 650°C, depending on the specific component in the system. Materials corrosion primarily at high temperatures will be an important issue. Therefore, the corrosion performance limits for materials at various temperatures must be established. The proposed research will have four objectives centered on addressing corrosion issues in a high-temperature supercritical CO{sub 2} environment: Task 1: Evaluation of corrosion performance of candidate alloys in high-purity supercritical CO{sub 2}: The following alloys will be tested: Ferritic-martensitic Steels NF616 and HCM12A, austenitic alloys Incoloy 800H and 347 stainless steel, and two advanced concept alloys, AFA (alumina forming austenitic) steel and MA754. Supercritical CO{sub 2} testing will be performed at 450°C, 550°C, and 650°C at a pressure of 20 MPa, in a test facility that is already in place at the proposing university. High purity CO{sub 2} (99.9998%) will be used for these tests. Task 2: Investigation of the effects of CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} impurities in supercritical CO{sub 2} on corrosion: Impurities that will inevitably present in the CO{sub 2} will play a critical role in dictating the extent of corrosion and corrosion mechanisms. These effects must be understood to identify the level of CO{sub 2} chemistry control needed to maintain sufficient levels of purity to manage corrosion. The individual effects of important impurities CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} will be investigated by adding them

  18. Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-13

    The supercritical carbon-dioxide (referred to as SC-CO2 hereon) Brayton cycle is being considered for power conversion systems for a number of nuclear reactor concepts, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR), fluoride saltcooled high temperature reactor (FHR), and high temperature gas reactor (HTGR), and several types of small modular reactors (SMR). The SC-CO2 direct cycle gas fast reactor has also been recently proposed. The SC-CO2 Brayton cycle (discussed in Chapter 1) provides higher efficiencies compared to the Rankine steam cycle due to less compression work stemming from higher SC-CO2 densities, and allows for smaller components size, fewer components, and simpler cycle layout. For example, in the case of a SFR using a SC-CO2 Brayton cycle instead of a steam cycle would also eliminate the possibility of sodium-water interactions. The SC-CO2 cycle has a higher efficiency than the helium Brayton cycle, with the additional advantage of being able to operate at lower temperatures and higher pressures. In general, the SC-CO2 Brayton cycle is well-suited for any type of nuclear reactor (including SMR) with core outlet temperature above ~ 500°C in either direct or indirect versions. In all the above applications, materials corrosion in high temperature SC-CO2 is an important consideration, given their expected lifetimes of 20 years or longer. Our discussions with National Laboratories and private industry early on in this project indicated materials corrosion to be one of the significant gaps in the implementation of SC-CO2 Brayton cycle. Corrosion can lead to a loss of effective load-bearing wall thickness of a component and can potentially lead to the generation of oxide particulate debris which can lead to three-body wear in turbomachinery components. Another environmental degradation effect that is rather unique to CO2 environment is the possibility

  19. Workshop session on pros and cons for different target materials/corrosion and corrosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Mansur, L.K.; Dai, Y.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    Two of the originally planned workshop sessions, indicated by the titles on each side of the {open_quotes}/{close_quotes} in the above title were combined. The session was structured into four areas in which target material attributes were considered: nuclear properties; physical properties; compatibility; and liquid metal engineering/safety. Short presentations were either volunteered by participants or requested by the session organizers to help establish a background and stimulate discussion. G. Bauer, J. Takeda, T. Gabriel and S. Wender covered the first two areas; J. DiStefano, Y. Dai and Y. Orlov made presentations in the third area. O. Lielausis and R. Dressler spoke on the fourth area. L.K. Mansur served as moderator for the combined session. Although there was much discussion and some differences of opinion, the overall recommendations, considering all available factors, as distilled by this session`s organizers, are as follows. Choose Hg as the prime candidate target material to which most resources should be devoted. A strong alternate candidate is considered to exist in Pb-Bi eutectic. Other candidate materials such as Pb, Pb-Mg eutectic and Bi are weaker choices for various reasons, with Bi being the weakest.

  20. Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings: Smart and Green Materials for Corrosion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion degradation of materials and metallic structures is one of the major issues that give rise to depreciation of assets, causing great financial outlays in their recovery and or prevention. Therefore, the development of active corrosion protection systems for metallic substrates is an issue of prime importance. The promising properties and wide application range of hybrid sol-gel-derived polymers have attracted significant attention over recent decades. The combination of organic polymers and inorganic materials in a single phase provides exceptional possibilities to tailor electrical, optical, anticorrosive, and mechanical properties for diverse applications. This unlimited design concept has led to the development of hybrid coatings for several applications, such as transparent plastics, glasses, and metals to prevent these substrates from permeation, mechanical abrasion, and corrosion, or even for decorative functions. Nevertheless, the development of new hybrid products requires a basic understanding of the fundamental chemistry, as well as of the parameters that influence the processing techniques, which will briefly be discussed. Additionally, this review will also summarize and discuss the most promising sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of steel, aluminium, and their alloys conducted at an academic level.

  1. Corrosion behavior of Ni-based structural materials for electrolytic reduction in lithium molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Haeng, E-mail: nshcho1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyeon, E-mail: jonglee@cnu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of new Ni-based structural materials was studied for electrolytic reduction after exposure to LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt at 650 deg. C for 24-216 h under an oxidizing atmosphere. The new alloys with Ni, Cr, Al, Si, and Nb as the major components were melted at 1700 deg. C under an inert atmosphere. The melt was poured into a preheated metallic mold to prepare an as-cast alloy. The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion products of as cast and heat treated low Si/high Ti alloys were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Ni, NiO, and (Al,Nb,Ti)O{sub 2}; those of as cast and heat treated high Si/low Ti alloys were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Ni, and NiO. The corrosion layers of as cast and heat treated low Si/high Ti alloys were continuous and dense. However, those of as cast and heat treated high Si/low Ti alloys were discontinuous and cracked. Heat treated low Si/high Ti alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined alloys. The superior corrosion resistance of the heat treated low Si/high Ti alloy was attributed to the addition of an appropriate amount of Si, and the metallurgical evaluations were performed systematically.

  2. Some problems on the aqueous corrosion of structural materials in nuclear engineering; Problemes de corrosion aqueuse de materiaux de structure dans les constructions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Grall, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to give a comprehensive view of some aqueous corrosion studies which have been carried out with various materials for utilization either in nuclear reactors or in irradiated fuel treatment plants. The various subjects are listed below. Austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys: the behaviour of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in nitric medium and in the presence of hexavalent chromium; the stress corrosion of austenitic alloys in alkaline media at high temperatures; the stress corrosion of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in 650 C steam. Ferritic steels: corrosion of low alloy steels in water at 25 and 360 C; zirconium alloys; the behaviour of ultrapure zirconium in water and steam at high temperature. (authors) [French] On presente un ensemble d'etudes de corrosion en milieu aqueux effectuees sur des materiaux utilises, soit dans la construction des reacteurs soit pour la realisation des usines de traitement des combustibles irradies. Les differents sujets etudies sont les suivants. Les alliages austenitiques Fer-Nickel-Chrome: comportement d'alliages austenitiques fer-nickel-chrome en milieu nitrique en presence de chrome hexavalent; Corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages austenitiques dans les milieux alcalins a haute temperature; Corrosion sous contrainte dans la vapeur a 650 C d'alliages austenitiques fer-nickel-chrome. Les aciers ferritiques; Corrosion d'aciers faiblement allies dans l'eau a 25 et 360 C; le zirconium et ses alliages; Comportement du zirconium tres pur dans l'eau et la vapeur a haute temperature. (auteurs)

  3. The effects of microstructural changes caused by welding on microbiologically influenced corrosion: Material and process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.W.; Willis, E.R.; Van Diepen, T. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Materials Engineering Dept.

    1995-10-01

    The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) susceptibility of a material is inextricably linked to its microstructure. The thermomechanical cycle associated with welding produces extensive microstructural change in the vicinity of the weld. This work tested the hypothesis that fabrication procedure would alter MIC susceptibility. This study examined the effect of systematic variation in the amounts of cerium, sulfur and silicon on the corrosion susceptibility of welded AISI 8630 material in aqueous, anaerobic solutions. Samples were exposed to both sterile and biologically solutions. Biologically active solutions were invariably more aggressive. The changes in corrosion susceptibility were correlated to the changes in the microstructure of the weld fusion zone, the partially melted zone (PMZ) and the base material, as affected by minor element content. Significant correlations between total numbers of pits/maximum pit depth and minor element content/location of attack were found in this study. The creation of extensive subgrain boundary coupled with solute redistribution in the fusion zone as well as extensive continuous grain boundary films in the partially melted zone foster MIC in these locations. Mitigation strategies treating material selection and weld process/procedure selection are discussed.

  4. Engineered Materials Characterization Report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, Volume 3, Revision 1, Corrosion Data and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCright, R D

    1998-04-01

    The Engineered Materials Characterization Report (EMCR) serves as a source of information on the properties of materials proposed as elements in the engineered barrier system (EBS) for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Volume 3 covered the corrosion data and modeling efforts. The present report is a revision to Volume 3 and updates information on the corrosion (and other degradation modes) behavior of candidate materials for the various components of the EBS. It also includes work on the performance modeling of these materials. Work is reported on metallic barriers, basket materials, packing/backfill/invert materials, and non-metallic materials.

  5. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  6. The corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture of ear piercing studs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, O. V.; Saiki, M.; Rogero, S. O.; Costa, I.

    2003-07-01

    Nickel containing alloy shave been widely used as substrates for the manufacture of studs used for ear piercing. Unfortunately, nickel has also been related to the development of allergic contact dermatitis caused by skin sensitization due to Ni''2+ ions. Nickel ions can be leached out into the body fluids due to corrosion reactions. Defect free coatings are very difficult to produce, and therefore nickel free materials should be used as substrates of ear piercing studs, although the commercial alloys used usually contain this element. In this study, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of commercial studs prepared with nickel containing substrates and a titanium laboratory made stud was determined in a culture medium. The corrosion resistance of the studs was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a function of immersion time in the culture medium. The elements that leached out into the medium due to corrosion reactions were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The surfaces of the commercial gold-coated studs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, both before and after exposure to the culture medium. The cytotoxicity of the tested studs was also determined in the culture medium. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Revealing Nanoscale Passivation and Corrosion Mechanisms of Reactive Battery Materials in Gas Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhang; Li, Yanbin; Sun, Yongming; Butz, Benjamin; Yan, Kai; Koh, Ai Leen; Zhao, Jie; Pei, Allen; Cui, Yi

    2017-08-09

    Lithium (Li) metal is a high-capacity anode material (3860 mAh g(-1)) that can enable high-energy batteries for electric vehicles and grid-storage applications. However, Li metal is highly reactive and repeatedly consumed when exposed to liquid electrolyte (during battery operation) or the ambient environment (throughout battery manufacturing). Studying these corrosion reactions on the nanoscale is especially difficult due to the high chemical reactivity of both Li metal and its surface corrosion films. Here, we directly generate pure Li metal inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM), revealing the nanoscale passivation and corrosion process of Li metal in oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and water vapor (H2O). We find that while dry O2 and N2 (99.9999 vol %) form uniform passivation layers on Li, trace water vapor (∼1 mol %) disrupts this passivation and forms a porous film on Li metal that allows gas to penetrate and continuously react with Li. To exploit the self-passivating behavior of Li in dry conditions, we introduce a simple dry-N2 pretreatment of Li metal to form a protective layer of Li nitride prior to battery assembly. The fast ionic conductivity and stable interface of Li nitride results in improved battery performance with dendrite-free cycling and low voltage hysteresis. Our work reveals the detailed process of Li metal passivation/corrosion and demonstrates how this mechanistic insight can guide engineering solutions for Li metal batteries.

  8. Prediction of corrosion depth of selected materials for the container of high-level wastes under a repository condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung; Choi, Jong Won; Han, Kyung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The corrosion depth of selected materials for container of high-level wastes in an underground disposal condition was predicted by analyzing the corrosion behaviors and corrosion rates of copper/copper alloys, carbon steel, titanium/titanium alloys, stainless steel and nickel alloys. Their corrosion rates depend on the amount of oxygen and microbes in bentonite at the bore hole, and local corrosion in addition to general corrosion. However, the effect of radiation and the oxygen dissolved in groundwater would be insignificant. To calculate the corrosion depth, it is assumed that the total amount of oxygen contained in the pore and surface of a bentonite block, and in the gaps among container, rock and bentonite block at a borehole is 300 moles. Assuming that all organic compounds in a bentonite block are presumed as lactate, they would produce 2,100 moles of HS-. The corrosion depths were calculated based on the above assumptions and the wall thickness of copper, carbon steel, titanium, stainless steel and nickel alloys of at least 2.6, 25, 1.3, 5 and 0.3 mm would be required for their corrosion allowances that guarantee their desired service life of 1,000 years. 94 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  9. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  10. Electrochemical synthesis and characterisation of hybrid materials polypyrrole/dodecatungstophosphate as protective agents against steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastre Cano, Jose Antonio

    The losses caused by the effect of the corrosion are of the order of 2-3,5% of the GDP of the developed countries or developing only in direct costs, losses in structures or products. This figure doubles by the indirect costs, losses of productivity or demands for delays. Beside the possible losses of human lives, any intent leaded to the decrease of the corrosion in rusty metals is a commendable objective from the point of view of the protection of the environment. Building industry employing reinforced concrete is able to project some structural elements (pillars, wrought, beam, etc.) in principle free of corrosion, assuring during many years the useful life of the work in service. However, the reinforced concrete would be' a perfect solution if the indefinite permanency of the passive state of the steel could be guaranteed. Indeed, although the steel is protected against corrosion due to basic pH which provides the cement, the severe action of saline media or the effect of CO2 can diminish this protection conditions beginning the corrosion in steel elements. Type-p doped conducting polymers, as polypyrrole, are firm candidates to protect carbon steel providing galvanic protection by stabilising the passive layer of Fe oxides initially grown. Doping the polymeric matrix with polioxometalates, concretely phosphotungstate PW12O403-, is a very interesting hypothesis due to their oxidising effect, improving the anodic protection by the hybrid material electrosynthesised on carbon steel substrate. First in the present work, a new method was developed by cyclic voltammetry in LiClO4 + acetonitrile medium in order to diminish the unavoidable oxidation of carbon steel when the electrosyntesis of the hybrid material polypyrrole/PW12O403- is carrying out. The beginning potential of polypyrrole polymerisation is about 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a positive potential where oxidation of Fe substrate is high, not allowing the electrodeposition of the hybrid material. On the other

  11. Anti -corrosion Effect of ETA on Materials in Secondary Loop of PWR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the world, over sixty percent of nuclear power plant have used advanced amunes ETA(Ethanolamine) as pH control agent in secondary loop of PWR. There are eighty percent of nuclear powerplants using ETA in USA. The corrosion of materials in steam generator (SG) tube and secondary looppower water reactor have been inhibited, the life of SG and the economics of the plant are increasedbecause of using ETA.

  12. Corrosion performance of materials for advanced combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-12-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operating at more elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. This report characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over the wide temperature range that is of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials (alumina, Hexoloy, SiC/SiC, SiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, ZIRCONIA, INCONEL 677 and 617) with potential for application in these systems.

  13. Effect of supplementary cementing materials on the concrete corrosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia de Gutierrez, R.

    2003-07-01

    Failure of concrete after a period of years, less than the life expected for which it was designed, may be caused by the environment to which it has been exposed or by a variety of internal causes. The incorporation of supplementary materials has at the Portland cement the purpose of improving the concrete microstructure and also of influence the resistance of concrete to environmental attacks. Different mineral by-products as ground granulated blast furnaces slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF), meta kaolin (MK), fly ash (FA) and other products have been used as supplementary cementing materials. This paper is about the behavior of concrete in the presence of mineral additions. Compared to Portland cements, blended cements show lower heat of hydration, lower permeability, greater resistance to sulphates and sea water. These blended cements find the best application when requirements of durability are regarded as a priority specially on high performance concrete: (Author) 11 refs.

  14. An electrochemical evaluation of new materials and methods for corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Esra

    An electrochemical evaluation of various electrode/electrolyte systems was performed by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and other techniques. Each chapter in this thesis presents an individual project with a specific objective which serves an ultimate goal of finding better materials and methods of corrosion protection. An overview of new environmentally friendly and cost effective materials and corrosion protection methods is given in Chapter 1. The protective properties of non-toxic, environmentally friendly polymer coatings, which were developed in the purpose of minimizing biofouling and providing corrosion protection on steel, were investigated and discussed in Chapter 2. The corrosion resistance of steel panels coated with crosslinked siloxanes was evaluated using EIS. Differences in protective properties of the coatings were observed due to differences in the degree of fluorination, the way the films were cured and also the degree of crosslinking. In Chapter 3, a comparison of the corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline (NC) Al 5083 with that of the conventional alloy was made in order to determine what differences if any could be attributed to the NC microstructure. Pit growth rates decreased with time for both materials based on the analysis of the impedance spectra as a function of time. NC samples were resistant to intergranular corrosion whereas conventional Al 5083 was not. The concept of the bacterial battery is presented in Chapter 4. A galvanic cell with Cu and Al 2024 and an electrolyte containing Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in a growth medium was prepared. A control cell, which did not contain the bacteria, was also tested. For the cell with MR-1 the maximum power values increased continuously with time, whereas in the control cell the maximum power output was obtained in the first day of exposure. The objective of the study presented in Chapter 5 was to examine the interaction of MR-1 with different metal surfaces in order to

  15. General corrosion of metallic materials in boric acid environments; La corrosion generalisee des materiaux metalliques en milieu acide borique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    Certain low-alloy steel components in PWR primary circuit were corroded by leaking water containing boric acid. A number of studies have been performed by manufacturers in the USA and by EDF in France to determine the rate of general corrosion for low-alloy steels in media containing varying concentrations of boric acid. The first part of this paper summarizes the studies performed and indicates how far work has advanced to date in establishing the resistance of stainless steels to general corrosion in concentrated boric acid solutions. The second part of the paper discusses the mechanism of corrosion and proposes a model. Carbon steels and low-alloy steels - carbon steels and low-alloy steels in deaerated diluted boric acid solutions (pH > 4) corrode very slowly (<20{mu}m/year). The corrosion rate is approximately 1 {mu}m/year in the nominal primary water in static conditions; - in non-deaerated solutions, the corrosion rate is determined by the solubility of iron. Important factors are the pH, the temperature and the operating conditions, which determine the iron solubility in the medium: the rate of renewal of the medium or the S/V ratio of the metal surface exposed to the volume of solution. The steel composition is not a determinant factor. Stainless steels. General corrosion of stainless steels in concentrated boric acid solutions depends primarily on their chromium content. Steels containing less than 15% chromium offer excellent resistance to corrosion regardless of their structure or nickel content. The corrosion rate is less than 10 {mu}m/year at 250 deg C and approximately 40 {mu}m/year at 300 deg C. Steels containing 13% chromium corrode in hot concentrated media. The apparent activation energy of general corrosion is approximately 25 kJ.mol{sup -1}. (author). 31 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Effect of supplementary cementing materials on the concrete corrosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure of concrete after a period of years, less than the life expected for which it was designed, may be caused by the environment to which it has been exposed or by a variety of internal causes. The incorporation of supplementary materials has at the Portland cement the purpose of improving the concrete microstructure and also of influence the resistance of concrete to environmental attacks. Different mineral by-products as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS, silica fume (SF, metakaolin (MK, fly ash (FA and other products have been used as supplementary cementing materials. This paper is about the behavior of concrete in the presence of mineral additions. Compared to Portland cements, blended cements show lower heat of hydration, lower permeability, greater resistance to sulphates and sea water. These blended cements find the best application when requirements of durability are regarded as a priority specially on high performance concrete.

    La falla del concreto en un tiempo inferior a la vida útil para la cual se diseñó puede ser consecuencia del medio ambiente al cual ha estado expuesto o de algunas otras causas de tipo interno. La incorporación de materiales suplementarios al cemento Portland tiene el propósito de mejorar la microestructura del concreto y también de contribuir a la resistencia del concreto a los ataques del medio ambiente. Diferentes minerales y subproductos tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno, humo de sílice, metacaolín, ceniza volante y otros productos han sido usados como materiales suplementarios cementantes. Este documento presenta el comportamiento del hormigón en presencia de diferentes adiciones. Los cementos adicionados, comparados con los cementos Portland muestran bajos calores de hidratación, baja permeabilidad, mayor resistencia a sulfatos y a agua de mar. Estos cementos adicionados encuentran un campo de aplicación importante cuando los requerimientos de durabilidad son

  17. A modified method for evaluation of materials containing volatile corrosion inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Hong-jing; HUANG Hong-jun; ZHANG Min; LI Zhi-guang

    2005-01-01

    A systematic research on a modified method that was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of volatile corrosion inhibitor(VCI) materials was carried out. The metal specimen in size of 50 mm×25 mm×2 mm was level mounted on the top of a beaker by transparent adhesive tape and the assembly was placed in a constant temperature water bath and kept at approximately 40 ℃ to accelerate the vaporization of VCI and distilled water, which was placed at the bottom of the beaker at the same time. The experimental results show that the reproducibility of rust appearance and corrosion rate calculated by specimen's mass loss is perfect. The outstanding characteristic of the rust appearance based on different VCI formula is discovered that is very important in studying the mechanism of VCI and the synergism of chemical reagent. The accelerated ratio is increased greatly as compared with the traditional method and the value is approximately 15 as compared with Shijiazhuang atmospheric environment corrosion test. The modified method is suitable for formula screening test and quick effectiveness evaluation of VCI materials.

  18. EFFECT OF LDPE RAW MATERIAL ON STRENGTH, CORROSION AND SORPTIVITY OF CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MANIKANDRAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers focused on effect of Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE on bituminous pavements or concrete to modify the strength and ductility in view of reusing the abundant quantity of non-degradable LDPE material available. It also reduces the use of bituminous materials and disposal problems of such waste material. Developing countries are moving towards construction concrete pavement or converting bituminous pavements into concrete pavements. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to study the feasibility of using LDPE raw material itself as a modifier in cement concrete with a characteristic compressive strength of 20 MPa. Present study focuses on effect of addition of LDPE raw material (3, 4 and 5% under different temperatures (70°C, 80°C and 90°C and duration of thermal curing (4, 8 and 16 hours on compressive strength, corrosion resistance and sorptivity. It was inferred from the results that, addition of LDPE raw material considerably increases the compressive strength, resistance against corrosion and permeability. Results also revealed that concrete with 3% LDPE modifier for 80°C with 4 hours of thermal curing was found to be optimum.

  19. Illustration of alkali corrosion mechanisms in high temperature thermal insulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneziris, C.G.; Fischer, U.; Schlegel, E. [Technical Univ. of Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Alkali attack is a chronic problem in the most popular high temperature applications such as blast furnaces, gasifiers, glass furnaces and cement kilns. Especially in the last years the problem of alkali corrosion is dramatically increased due to the waste burning and the combustion of the so called secondary fuels in kilns at high temperature processes. The German cement industry uses up to 100 percent of secondary fuels - a little or no coal, oil or gas- but mainly burnable waste. According to the literature destruction of the refractory can occur by the formation of low-melting low-viscosity liquids, or, more usually by the formation of dry expansive alkali-aluminosilicate compounds that result to chemical spalling. This work explores due to laboratory experiments supported partially by post mortem industrial trials the chemical interactions between alkali species and established refractory materials and illustrates four main alkali corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. Diffusion-Coupled Cohesive Interface Simulations of Stress Corrosion Intergranular Cracking in Polycrystalline Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Chao; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Yanli; Sham, T.-L.

    2017-09-01

    To study the stress corrosion intergranular cracking mechanism, a diffusion-coupled cohesive zone model (CZM) is proposed for the simulation of the stress-assisted diffusional process along grain boundaries and the mechanical response of grain boundary sliding and separation. This simulation methodology considers the synergistic effects of impurity diffusion driven by pressure gradient and degradation of grain boundary strength by impurity concentration. The diffusion-coupled CZM is combined with crystal plasticity finite element model (CPFEM) to simulate intergranular fracture of polycrystalline material under corrosive environment. Significant heterogeneity of the stress field and extensive impurity accumulation is observed at grain boundaries and junction points. Deformation mechanism maps are constructed with respect to the grain boundary degradation factor and applied strain rate, which dictate the transition from internal to near-surface intergranular fracture modes under various strain amplitudes and grain sizes.

  1. Microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion of powder-metallurgical iron alloys for biodegradable bone replacement materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Bernd; Sievers, Birte; Utzschneider, Sandra; Mueller, Peter; Jansson, Volkmar [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Roessler, Sophie; Nies, Berthold [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Stephani, Guenter; Kieback, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, Peter, E-mail: peter.quadbeck@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Up to now biodegradable bone implants with the ability of bearing high loads for the temporary replacement of bones or as osteosynthesis material are not available. Iron and iron based alloys have been identified as appropriate materials, since they combine high strength at medium corrosion rates. Thus, the aim of the present study is the development of a degradable iron based alloy with the perspective of using them as matrix material of cellular structures with biomechanical tailored properties. A powder metallurgical approach has been used to manufacture Fe-C, Fe-0.6P, Fe-1.6P, Fe-B and Fe-Ag samples, which have been tested with respect to their microstructure, their cytotoxicity, and their degradation rate. In order to determine the cytotoxicity of the material a monolayer culture of fibroblast and a perfusion chamber system has been chosen, which was recommended by the ISO 10993-5:1999 for biological testing of medical devices. It has been found, that in particular phosphorus features beneficial properties, since density and thus the strength of the material are increased. No corrosion inhibiting effects of phosphorus on the degradation rate have been found.

  2. High temperature corrosion in chloridizing atmospheres: development of material quasi-stability diagrams and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doublet, S.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Chlorine gas is widely encountered in chemical industries, e. g. in waste incinerators and plastic/polymer decomposition mills. The presence of chlorine may significantly reduce the life-time of the components. Although metallic materials have been widely used under such conditions there is still a need for data on the role of the different alloying elements in commercial alloys. The purpose of this work is to produce a clear picture of which alloying elements play a detrimental role and which elements are beneficial. These results can be used as a tool for general assessment of metallic alloys with regard to their performance in chloridizing high temperature environments. A previous study has already been performed in oxidizing-chloridizing atmospheres and led to the elaboration of material quasi-stability diagrams. As a follow-up the present work has been performed in reducing-chloridizing atmospheres in order to validate these diagrams at low partial pressures of oxygen. The behaviour of 9 commercial materials where the content of the major alloying elements was varied in a systematic manner was investigated in reducing-chloridizing atmospheres (in Ar containing up to 2 vol.% Cl{sub 2} and down to 1 ppm O{sub 2}) at 800 deg. C. As the thermodynamical approach to corrosion in such atmospheres could not explain all the phenomena which occur, kinetics calculations i.e. diffusion calculations were carried out. Pack cementation and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) coatings were also developed from the best alloying elements previously found by the calculations and the corrosion experiments. Corrosion tests on the coated materials were then performed in the same conditions as the commercial alloys. (authors)

  3. Engineered materials characterization report, volume 3 - corrosion data and modeling update for viability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCright, R D

    1998-06-30

    This Engineered Materials Characterization Report (EMCR), Volume 3, discusses in considerable detail the work of the past 18 months on testing the candidate materials proposed for the waste-package (WP) container and on modeling the performance of those materials in the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository setting This report was prepared as an update of information and serves as one of the supporting documents to the Viability Assessment (VA) of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous versions of the EMCR have provided a history and background of container-materials selection and evaluation (Volume I), a compilation of physical and mechanical properties for the WP design effort (Volume 2), and corrosion-test data and performance-modeling activities (Volume 3). Because the information in Volumes 1 and 2 is still largely current, those volumes are not being revised. As new information becomes available in the testing and modeling efforts, Volume 3 is periodically updated to include that information.

  4. Corrosion investigation of material combinations in a mobile phone dome-key pad system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Møller, Per

    2007-01-01

    Mobile phone dome-key pad system is the device that connects the phone keys to the printed circuit board (PCB). The material combination for a typical dome-key pad system is Ag/AISI 202 steel for the dome and Au/Ni/Cu for the key pad. Under humid conditions dome-key pad system is susceptible...... microstructural studies, polarization measurements using microelectrochemical technique, salt spray testing, and corrosion morphology analysis. The immersion Au layer on pads showed pores, and rolled bonded silver layer on dome had cracks and kinks. The difference in electrochemical behaviour of the metallic...

  5. On the corrosion and soiling effects on materials by air pollution in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzanis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the European project, entitled MULTI-ASSESS, specimens of structural metals, glass, stone and concrete materials were exposed to air pollution at a station, which was installed for this purpose on a building, located in the centre of Athens. The main purpose of this project was to determine the corrosion and soiling effects of air pollution on materials. A set of the specimens was exposed in a position that was sheltered from rain and partly from wind, and another set was exposed in unsheltered positions on the roof of the above said building. In addition, other specimens were exposed at different heights on the same building, in order to investigate for the first time the corrosion and soiling effects on various materials as a function of height. For the determination of these effects, chemical analysis of the specimens was performed and basic parameters as the weight change, the layer thickness and the optical properties were calculated. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and their plausible interpretation is attempted.

  6. Benchmark Cea - AREVA NP - EDF of the corrosion facilities for VHTR material testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabet, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SCCME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Terlain, A.; Seran, J.L.; Girardin, G.; Kaczorowski, D. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DMN), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blat, M. [AREVA NP - NTC-F, Technical Center Le Creusot, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Dubiez Le Goff, S. [Electricite de France (EDF R and D), Chemistry and Corrosion group, MMC Dept., 77 - Moret sur Loing (France)

    2007-07-01

    Within the framework of the ANTARES program, the French Cea, AREVA-NP and EDF have launched a joint program on metallic materials for application in innovative Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Since corrosion is highly sensitive to environmental conditions, material studies require dedicated facilities that permit a strict control of the metallic specimen environment throughout the entire exposure. Cea, AREVA-NP and EDF have developed experimental setups respectively under the names CORALLINE and CORINTH, the Chemistry Loop and ESTEREL; these high temperature helium flow systems are fitted with hygrometers and gas analyzers. A benchmarking procedure was defined to inter-validate these lab devices. It is composed of two tests. The joint protocol has set the operating parameters. Process atmospheres are made of helium with 200 {mu}bar H{sub 2}, 20 {mu}bar CH{sub 4}; the CO content reaches 50 {mu}bar for test 1 while it is reduced to 5 {mu}bar CO in test 2. The residual water vapor concentration shall be lower than 3{mu}bar. Corrosion is assessed by mass change associated to observations and analyses of the corroded coupons considering the surface scales (nature, morphology and thickness), the internal oxidation (nature, distribution and depth) and the possible carburization/decarburization (type and depth). For benchmark test 1, Cea, AREVA-NP and EDF produced similar results in terms of operation of the tests as well as about the Inconel 617 corrosion criteria. On the other hand, benchmark test 2 showed a difference in the residual water vapor level between CORALLINE and the Chemistry Loop that was shown to strongly influence the specimen behavior.

  7. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Pripanapong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST, AZ61 (ST, AZ80 (ST and AZ91 (ST were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST, in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST dissimilar materials is discussed in this work.

  8. Corrosion resistance of plastic materials and method for improvement on quality. Plastic zairyo no taishokusei to hinshitsu kojo taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-20

    The plastic materials are described mainly in corrosiveness as follows: Definition of corrosion for the high-molecular materials. Obtainment of stress relaxation curve, by utilizing the photoelasticity, of the polyvinyl chloride resin to be evaluated in corrosiveness. Corrosion morphology (observation result by the optical microscope) in case that the PP (polypropylene resin) reformed by SBS (styrene butadiene styrene) is corroded by HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and chemical reaction to mainly cause that corrosion. Utilization of differential scanning calorimetry to set the PP and that reformed by NBR (nitrile butadiene rubber) in welding temperature. Dyeing of NBR-reformed phenol resin by OsO{sub 4} and observation on the thus dyed structure (where there exist both the contents). Observational investigation, by applying the AE (acoustic emission) technology, on the heightening in toughness due to reforming the phenol resin by NBR and degradation due to the corrosion of NBR-reformed phenol resin. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Corrosion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  10. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  11. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  12. Materials Characterization Center state-of-the-art report on corrosion data pertaining to metallic barriers for nuclear-waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, M.D.

    1982-10-01

    A compilation of published corrosion data on metals that have been suggested as canisters and overpack materials is presented. The data were categorized according to the solutions used in testing and divided into two parts: high-ionic strength solutions (such as seawater and brine) and low-ionic-strength waters (such as basalt and tuff waters). This distinction was made primarily because of the general difference in aggressiveness of these solutions with respect to general corrosion. A considerable amount of data indicated that titanium alloys have acceptably low uniform corrosion rates in anticipated repository sites; the other possible corrosion failure modes for titanium alloys, such as stress corrosion cracking and delayed failure due to hydrogen, have not been sufficiently studied to make any similar conclusions about lifetime with respect to these particular degradation processes. Other data suggested that iron-base alloys are sufficiently resistant to corrosion in basalt and tuff waters, although the effects of radiation and radiation combined with elevated temperature have not been reported in enough detail to conclusively qualify iron-base alloys for any particular barrier thickness in regard to uniform corrosion rate. The effect of overpack size on corrosion rate has been given little attention. A review of long-term underground data indicated that temperature and accessibility to oxygen were too different for deep geologic repositories to make the underground corrosion data directly applicable. However, the characteristics of corrosion attack, statistical treatment of data, and kinetics of corrosion showed that corrosion proceeds in a systematic and predictable way.

  13. Effect of Pressures on the Corrosion Behaviours of Materials at 625°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Huang, X.; Li, J.; Woo, O. T.; Sanchez, R.; Bibby, C. D.

    2017-02-01

    The corrosion behaviors of austenitic stainless steels (SS) 310, 304 and Ni- and Fe-based A-286 exposed to 0.1 MPa, 8 MPa and 29 MPa at 625°C for 1000 h were investigated. These represent exposure to superheated steam, subcritical and supercritical water (SCW) at 625°C, respectively. As SS 310 showed the smallest weight change, the oxide cross-sections made from 310 samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed a single-layer oxide at 0.1 MPa and dual-layer oxides at 8 MPa and 29 MPa, followed by a Cr-depleted region into the austenite substrate. The compositions of the inner oxides at 8 MPa and 29 MPa are Cr-rich and largely similar to those of the single-layer oxides at 0.1 MPa exposure. These results suggest that corrosion testing in superheated steam may be a suitable surrogate for scoping tests of materials under SCW conditions at >650°C.

  14. Development of anti-corrosion coating on low activation materials against fluoridation and oxidation in Flibe blanket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Takuya, E-mail: Nagasaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi 322-6, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kondo, Masatoshi; Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio; Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi 322-6, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Tatsuya; Oishi, Tatsuya [Shinto Industrial Co., Ltd., Kururi 376-10, Tokitsu, Nagasaki 851-2107 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    W coating by vacuum plasma spray process and Cr coating by chromizing process were performed on fusion low activation materials, JLF-1 ferritic steel and NIFS-HEAT-2 vanadium alloy. The present study discusses feasibility of the coatings as anti-corrosion coating against fluoridation in Flibe for fusion low activation materials. Coatings were characterized by microstructural analysis and examination on chemical stability by corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were conducted with H{sub 2}O-47% HF solution at RT and He-1% HF-0.06 H{sub 2}O gas mixture at 823 K to simulate fluoridation and oxidation in Flibe. The coatings presented suppression of fluoride formation compared with JLF-1 or NIFS-HEAT-2, however weight loss due to WF{sub 6} formation was induced, and much Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed.

  15. Characteristics of iron corrosion scales and water quality variations in drinking water distribution systems of different pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manjie; Liu, Zhaowei; Chen, Yongcan; Hai, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze micromorphology and chemical composition of corrosion scales. In bench testing, water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, color, Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+), were determined. Scale analysis and bench-scale testing results demonstrated a significant effect of pipe materials on scale characteristics and thereby water quality variations in WDS. Characteristics of corrosion scales sampled from different pipe segments show obvious differences, both in physical and chemical aspects. Corrosion scales were found highly amorphous. Thanks to the protection of zinc coatings, GIP system was identified as the best water quality stability, in spite of high zinc release potential. It is deduced that the complicated composition of corrosion scales and structural break by the weld result in the diminished water quality stability in HP system. Measurement results showed that iron is released mainly in ferric particulate form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion investigations on zircaloy-4 and titanium dissolver materials for MOX fuel dissolution in concentrated nitric acid containing fluoride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraj, J.; Krishnaveni, P.; Krishna, D. Nanda Gopala; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi, E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in

    2016-05-15

    Aqueous reprocessing of plutonium-rich mixed oxide fuels require fluoride as a dissolution catalyst in boiling nitric acid for an effective dissolution of the spent fuel. High corrosion rates were obtained for the candidate dissolver materials zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) and commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) in boiling 11.5 M HNO{sub 3} + 0.05 M NaF. Complexing the fluoride ions either with Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} or ZrO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aided in decreasing the corrosion rates of Zr-4 and CP-Ti. From the obtained corrosion rates it is concluded that CP-Ti is a better dissolver material than Zr-4 for extended service life in boiling 11.5 M HNO{sub 3} + 0.05 M NaF, when complexed with 0.15 M ZrO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} and absence of fluoride on the surface of CP-Ti samples, indicating that effective complexation had occurred in solution leading to passivation of the metal and imparting high corrosion resistance. - Highlights: • Zr-4 and CP-Ti exhibited high corrosion rate in boiling fluorinated nitric acid. • Corrosion rate decreased in fluorinated nitric acid containing ZrO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. • High inhibiting efficiency is exhibited by 0.15 M ZrO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} when compared to Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. • Corrosion rates of CP-Ti were negligible in complexed fluorinated nitric acid. • XPS analysis on CP-Ti confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} and absence of fluoride.

  17. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  18. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  19. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  20. Investigating inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion by Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Inyang, Michael Anietie; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Nwaokorie, Ikechi Thaddeus; Adidi, Emmanuel Amanogho; Owoeye, Taiwo Felicia; Nwakudu, Kelechukwu Chinedu; Akinlabu, Deborah Kehinde; Gabriel, Olanrewaju Oyewale; Taiwo, Olugbenga Samson; Awotoye, Olufisayo Adebola

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion (MIC) of metals by Tectona grandis based Fe (iron) Nanoparticle material was investigated. For this, extract was obtained from the leaf of Tectona grandis and this was employed as precursor for synthesizing the Fe-nanoparticle material. From this, the synthesized plant extract based nanoparticle material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM+EDS) instrument. The developed Fe bio-nanoparticle material was then employed for sensitivity and/or resistance study application against different strains of microbes that are known to induce microbiologically-influenced-corrosion, in metallic materials, and for this, microbial growth inhibition effect was compared with that from a commercial antibiotic employed as control. Results showed that the Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle exhibited good inhibition effects on the growth of many of the MIC inducing microbes investigated. Sensitivity measures of zone of inhibition against the growth of MIC inducing microbial strains either outperformed or compares well with that obtained from the commercial antibiotic control, in the study. These results indicate positive prospect on the suitability of Fe bio-nanoparticle for corrosion inhibition applications for the protection of metals against microbiological corrosion influencing environment.

  1. NiTi Alloys: New Materials that enable Shockproof, Corrosion Immune Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In contrast, dimensionally stable nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys, such as Nitinol 60, are intrinsically rustproof and can withstand high contact loads without damage (denting). Over the last decade, focused RD to exploit these alloys for new applications has revealed the science behind NiTi's remarkable properties. In this presentation, the state-of-the-art of nickel-rich NiTi alloys will be introduced along with a discussion of how NASA is adopting this new technology inside the space station water recycling system as a pathfinder for more down-to-earth tribological challenges.

  2. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Development Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J; Saw, C; Haslem, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D' Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2009-03-16

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal make this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of these iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  3. Effect of Nanostructure Changes on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Proton Irradiated Nuclear Energy Structural Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Lunika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless alloys are used extensively as structural materials in the internal components of light water reactor (LWR pressure vessels because of their relatively high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC is main degradation process that affects LWR internal components exposed to radiation. The existing data on proton irradiated austenitic alloys were reviewed to evaluate the effects of key parameters such as material composition, irradiation dose on IASCC susceptibility of these materials in LWR environments. The significance of deformation nanostructure and stacking fault energy (SFE changes in the material on IASCC susceptibility is also discussed. Results show that the IASCC susceptibility of the alloys increases with increasing irradiation dose and decreasing stacking fault energy. IASCC tends to initiate at locations where slip dislocation channels intersect grain boundaries. Localized deformation in the form of grain boundary sliding due to the interaction of slip channels and grain boundaries is likely the primary cause of the observed cracking initiation. It may play a key role in the underlying mechanism of IASCC in light water reactor core components.

  4. Proceedings of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling, Corrosion, and Materials Workshop, January 8-10, 1979, Rosslyn, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The 23 papers presented are entered in the data base separately. Round table sessions on measurement of R/sub f/ and analysis of heat transfer data, biology of fouling, corrosion and the application of materials, and fouling and countermeasures are included. (WHK)

  5. Development of new corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant materials for use in aggressive hydrogen medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slys, I.G.; Berezanskaya, V.I.; Kossko, I.A.; Pomytkin, A.P. [National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Problems of Materials Science

    2001-05-01

    Sulphidized chromium exceeds similar double-amorphous alloys with sulphur content up to 30% and chemical heat coatings by its corrosive, mechanical and antifrictional characteristics. It can be used individually or as a macroisotopic composite chromium sulphide coating, as corrosion-resistant and high-temperature tribotechnical material. The use of sulphidized chromium and composite isotropic chromium sulphide coatings for fraction units, end seals and other critical assemblies of equipment used for production, transportation and processing of oil and gas with increased content of aggressive components (such as hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide) can significantly improve technology and ecological safety. (Author)

  6. Coating Layer and Corrosion Protection Characteristics in Sea Water with Various Thermal Spray Coating Materials for STS304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jong; Woo, Yong-Bin

    We investigated the optimal method of application and the anticorrosive abilities of Zn, Al, and Zn + 15%Al spray coatings in protecting stainless steel 304 (STS304) in sea water. If a defect such as porosity or an oxide layer, causes STS304 to be exposed to sea water, and the thermal spray coating material will act as the cathode and anode, respectively. The Tafel experiments revealed that Al-coated specimens among applied coating methods had the lowest corrosion current densities. As the corrosion potential decreases with increasing corrosion current density, we estimated the characteristics and lifetime of the protective thermal spray coating layer in the galvanic cell formed by the thermal spray coating layer and STS304.

  7. Container assessment: corrosion study of HLW container materials. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, T M; Soo, P

    1982-01-01

    Work has been started on the corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement behavior of commercially pure titanium (ASTM Grade 2), TiCode-12 (ASTM Grade 12), and OFHC copper, which are primary candidate materials for high level waste containers. The test environment used is a simulated brine solution typical of bedded salt at 150 C or room temperature. The immersion test results for these materials are in reasonable agreement with previous screening test results of Sandia National Laboratory; electron beam welded titanium and TiCode-12 samples show higher corrosion rates than the non-welded samples. To understand the difference between titanium and TiCode-12 in uniform and crevice corrosion, electrochemical tests were performed. While the initial repassivation behavior is similar in terms of charge density transfer after scratching tests in 1 M HCl solution at 80 C, titanium shows an active peak in polarization curves in brine at room temperature while TiCode-12 does not. Also, the open circuit corrosion potential of TiCode-12 is about 300 mV more anodic than that of titanium in 0.1 M HCl plus 0.9 M KCl solution at 85 C. Slow strain rate embrittlement and impact embrittlement have been observed in cathodically hydrogen charged commercially pure titanium and TiCode-12 in tension and buckling tests. C-ring and U-bend specimens of titanium and TiCode-12 have been designed and a slow strain rate test machine is being built to study stress corrosion cracking. Alternating Current Impedance and Scanning Reference Electrode Techniques are ready for pitting studies. For the study of radiation-induced corrosion, an irradiation cell was set up in the gamma pool to estimate quantitatively the oxidants as well as hydrogen produced by the gamma radiation in the brine solutions. 35 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Cement-Based Materials for Repair of Corrosion-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rongtang; Olek, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the results of an extensive laboratory investigation conducted to evaluate the properties of concrete mixes used as patching materials to repair reinforced concrete slabs damaged by corrosion are reported. Seven special concrete mixes containing various combinations of chemical or mineral admixtures were developed and used as a patching material to improve the durability of the repaired slabs. Physical and mechanical properties of these mixes, such as compressive strength, stat...

  10. The corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture of ear piercing studs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa, O. V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel containing alloys have been widely used as substrates for the manufacture of studs used for ear piercing. Unfortunately, nickel has also been related to the development of allergic contact dermatitis caused by skin sensitization due to Ni2+ ions. Nickel ions can be leached out into the body fluids due to corrosion reactions. Defect free coatings are very difficult to produce, and therefore nickel free materials should be used as substrates of ear piercing studs, although the commercial alloys used usually contain this element. In this study, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of commercial studs prepared with nickel containing substrates and a titanium laboratory made stud was determined in a culture medium. The corrosion resistance of the studs was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a function of immersion time in the culture medium. The elements that leached out into the medium due to corrosion reactions were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The surfaces of the commercial gold-coated studs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, both before and after exposure to the culture medium. The cytotoxicity of the tested studs was also determined in the culture medium.

    Aleaciones conteniendo níquel se han utilizado como substratos para la fabricación de aretes perforantes para orejas. Desafortunadamente, el níquel ha sido relacionado con el desarrollo de una reacción alérgica conocida como dermatitis de contacto, causada por la sensibilización debido a los iones de Ni2+. Estos iones pueden ser liberados hacia los fluidos corporales debido a las reacciones de corrosión. Los aretes, habitualmente, se revisten con películas de oro. Sin embargo, es muy difícil hacer los revestimientos libres de defectos superficiales. Por lo tanto, materiales sin níquel deber

  11. Corrosion investigations on zircaloy-4 and titanium dissolver materials for MOX fuel dissolution in concentrated nitric acid containing fluoride ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, J.; Krishnaveni, P.; Krishna, D. Nanda Gopala; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous reprocessing of plutonium-rich mixed oxide fuels require fluoride as a dissolution catalyst in boiling nitric acid for an effective dissolution of the spent fuel. High corrosion rates were obtained for the candidate dissolver materials zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) and commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) in boiling 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF. Complexing the fluoride ions either with Al(NO3)3 or ZrO(NO3)2 aided in decreasing the corrosion rates of Zr-4 and CP-Ti. From the obtained corrosion rates it is concluded that CP-Ti is a better dissolver material than Zr-4 for extended service life in boiling 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF, when complexed with 0.15 M ZrO(NO3)2. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of TiO2 and absence of fluoride on the surface of CP-Ti samples, indicating that effective complexation had occurred in solution leading to passivation of the metal and imparting high corrosion resistance.

  12. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  13. The corrosion of titanium and some other construction materials during hydrogen peroxide bleaching according to the field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyoekyvirta, O.; Pohjanne, P.; Heinaevaara, A. [Oy METSA-BOTNIA Ab, Kaskinen' s mill, 64260 Kaskinen (Finland); Hirvonen, J. [VTT Automation, Industrial Automation, P.O. Box 1301, FIN-02044 (Finland); Lewenstam, A. [Center for Process Analytical Chemistry and Sensor Technology ' ProSens' Abo Akademi University, 20500 Abo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    In a Finnish pulp mill, the field measurements of different materials were performed in different stages of peroxide bleaching: P{sub 1} and P{sub 2}. The field measurements were performed with three different sensors. The sensors were designed in co-operation with Valmet Automation Kajaani Oy. Each sensor measured the corrosion potential, the redox potential and the weight losses of three different materials. Simultaneously, the data of the most important parameters of bleaching, i.e. temperature, pH, peroxide flow rate and concentration, mass flow, consistency, residuals, flow rate and concentration of alkaline, were collected in the data logger by a dedicated program. The results proved that the corrosion of different materials (stainless steel S31654, nickel-based alloy N10276 and titanium Gr. 5) could be estimated with field experiments. The uniform corrosion of titanium occurred in a certain bleaching situation. The field measurements gave a good estimation of whether the material dissolved during process operation or process disorders. Our results clearly show that the mixing of the chemicals can be reliably estimated, and thus advantageous for a pulp mill. The materials studied withstood the bleaching significantly better if the chemicals were mixed directly with a pulp. Usually the chemicals are mixed with alkaline and then added to the pulp. The field measurements could also be applied in ozone and in the peracetic acid bleaching stage. The sensors can be utilized as tools during process monitoring or diagnostics. With the aid of monitoring it is possible to clarify how the different process operation models affect the corrosion of materials. (author)

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  15. Laboratory Investigations of the High Temperature Corrosion of Various Materials in Simulated oxy-fuel and Conventional Coal Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkeson, N.; Pettersson, J.; Svensson, J.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Hjornhede, A. [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden); Montgomery, M. [Vattenfall Heat Nordic/DTU Mekanik (Denmark); Bjurman, M. [Vattenfall Research and Development AB (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Laboratory exposures in horizontal tube furnaces were conducted to test various materials for corrosion resistance in simulated oxy-fuel firing and conventional coal firing environments. Two different exposures were done at 630 C for 672 hours. The reaction atmosphere, consisting of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, was mixed to resemble that of oxy-fuel firing in the first exposure and that of conventional coal firing in the second exposure (N{sub 2} was added during the second exposure only). Four different materials were tested in the first exposure; Sanicro 63, Alloy 800HT, 304L and 304HCu. In the second exposure four different materials were tested; 304L, Alloy 800HT, Kanthal APMT and NiCrAl. Apart from cleaned sample coupons, some samples pre-exposed in a test rig under oxy-fuel conditions with lignite as fuel and some pre-exposed with bituminous coal as fuel were investigated in the first exposure. In the second exposure some samples were pre-exposed in a rig under conventional firing conditions with lignite as fuel. The corrosion attack on the investigated samples was analysed by gravimetry, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis was made on both the sample envelope and metallographic cross sections of the samples. The results show that there is small difference in the corrosion attack between the two environments. There was also little difference in oxide morphology and composition between cleaned samples and pre-exposed samples of the same material. The austenitic chromia former 304HCu suffered the most extensive corrosion attack in the oxy-fuel environment. In the conventional air firing environment 304L showed the highest mass gain. Chromia formers with higher chromium concentrations performed better, especially the super austenitic Alloy 800HT, with its high chromium concentration, formed a thin and protective corundum type oxide. The nickel based

  16. Corrosion Analysis and Material Selection for Anti-corrosion in Hydrotreating Units%加氢装置的腐蚀分析和选材防腐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of hydrotreating technology and the inferior feed oil make corrosion problems of equipments and pipelines increasingly prominent in the hydrotreating plant. Leak accidents happen from time to time, affecting the running safety of the device. New requirements to the material selection of the hydrotreating unit were put forward. Common corrosion types in hydrotreating unit were analyzed, and then preventive measures were given.%加氢技术的飞速发展和加氢原料的劣质化使得加氢装置的设备及管道腐蚀问题愈显突出,泄露等事故时有发生,合理的选材设计对加氢装置的安全长周期运行至关重要。首先分析了加氢装置里典型的腐蚀类型,然后从选材角度给出了防护措施。

  17. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  18. Indoor atmospheric corrosion of electronic materials in tropical-mountain environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, H. [Corrosion and Protection Group, University of Antioquia, Street 62 No 52-59, Medellin (Colombia)], E-mail: harveth@gmail.com; Calderon, J.A. [Corrosion and Protection Group, University of Antioquia, Street 62 No 52-59, Medellin (Colombia)], E-mail: jacalder@udea.edu.co; Buitrago, C.P.; Echavarria, A.; Echeverria, F. [Corrosion and Protection Group, University of Antioquia, Street 62 No 52-59, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-02-15

    Indoor corrosion rate during one year exposure for carbon steel, copper, nickel, and tin was determined in three different atmospheres in Colombia. In addition, pollutants deposition rates and environmental parameters were also measured during indoor-outdoor conditions. The results show higher pollutant deposition in outdoor conditions, while inside metallic boxes the pollutant deposition significantly diminishes. No difference for relative humidity values was found between inside and outside measurements. For all samples, except nickel, the corrosion rate decrease with exposure time. The nature of corrosion products was found to be related to the exposure conditions.

  19. Development of corrosion testing equipment under heat transfer and irradiation conditions to evaluate corrosion resistance of materials used in acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Numata, Masami; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    We have been evaluated the safety for corrosion of various metals applied to acid recovery evaporators by the mock-up tests using small scaled equipment and the reference tests in laboratories with small specimens. These tests have been conducted under-radioactive environment. The environment in practical reprocessing plants has many radioactive species. Therefore, the effect of irradiation on corrosion should be evaluated in detail. In this study, we have developed the corrosion testing equipment, which is employed to simulate environments in the acid recovery evaporators. This report describes the specification of corrosion testing equipment and the results of primary, reference and hot tests. Using the equipment, the corrosion test under heat transfer and irradiation conditions have been carried out for 930 hours in safety. It is expectable that useful corrosion test data in radioactive environment are accumulated with this equipment in future, and help the adequate choice of corrosion test condition in laboratories. (author)

  20. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo

    2003-02-01

    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  1. Sample environment for in situ synchrotron corrosion studies of materials in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Gill, Simerjeet K.; Motta, Arthur T.; Weidner, Randy; Anderson, Thomas; Ecker, Lynne E.

    2016-10-01

    A new in situ sample environment has been designed and developed to study the interfacial interactions of nuclear cladding alloys with high temperature steam. The sample environment is particularly optimized for synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies for in situ structural analysis. The sample environment is highly corrosion resistant and can be readily adapted for steam environments. The in situ sample environment design complies with G2 ASTM standards for studying corrosion in zirconium and its alloys and offers remote temperature and pressure monitoring during the in situ data collection. The use of the in situ sample environment is exemplified by monitoring the oxidation of metallic zirconium during exposure to steam at 350 °C. The in situ sample environment provides a powerful tool for fundamental understanding of corrosion mechanisms by elucidating the substoichiometric oxide phases formed during the early stages of corrosion, which can provide a better understanding of the oxidation process.

  2. Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for Critical Above Grade Piping in Highly Corrosive Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Prepared for Office of the Secretary of Defense (OUSD(AT&L)) Washington, DC 20301-3090 Under Project F07-AR15, “ Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Steel for...world for steel infrastruc- ture . Highly corroded carbon steel pipes at the site were replaced with two grades of stainless steel, and minor corrosion...mitigation modifications were made to pipe supports. After the rehabilitated system was commis- sioned, the pipes were inspected and tested according

  3. EVIDENCE OF CORROSIVE GAS FORMED BY RADIOLYSIS OF CHLORIDE SALTS IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion and pitting have been observed in headspace regions of stainless steel containers enclosing plutonium oxide/salt mixtures. These observations are consistent with the formation of a corrosive gas, probably HCl, and transport of that gas to the headspace regions of sealed containers. The NH{sub 4}Cl films found on the walls of the sealed containers is also indicative of the presence of HCl gas. Radiolysis of hydrated alkaline earth salts is the probable source of HCl.

  4. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Metallic Materials. Part III. Hydrogen Entry and Embrittlement in Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Strength Steels," Stress Corrosion Cracking in High-Strength Steels and in Titanium and Altuninum Alloys, Naval Rasearch Laboratory, Washington, D.C...to pickling solutions. In all of these examples, the sulfide, cyanide, etc., caused a hydrogen-related problem that would not have existed in their...desorption reaction. In studying the pickling of low-carbon steel in various strong acids, Hudson’ 4 measured the corrosion rate and amount of hydr-ogen

  5. Non-local high cycle fatigue criterion for metallic materials with corrosion defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Mohamed El

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing structures against corrosion fatigue has become a key problem for many engineering structures evolving in complex environmental conditions of humidity (aeronautics, civil engineering …. In this study, we investigate the effect of corrosion defects on the high cycle fatigue (HCF strength of a martensitic stainless steel with high specific mechanical strength, used in aeronautic applications. A volumetric approach based on Crossland equivalent stress is proposed. This can be applied to any real defects.

  6. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  7. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    Laser surfacing in the form of cladding, alloying, and modifications are gaining widespread use because of its ability to provide high deposition rates, low thermal distortion, and refined microstructure due to high solidification rates. Because of these advantages, laser surface alloying is considered a prime candidate for producing ultra-hard coatings through the establishment or in situ formation of composite structures. Therefore, a program was conducted by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the scientific and engineering basis for performing laser-based surface modifications involving the addition of hard particles, such as carbides, borides, and nitrides, within a metallic matrix for improved wear, fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This has involved the development of advanced laser processing and simulation techniques, along with the refinement and application of these techniques for predicting and selecting materials and processing parameters for the creation of new surfaces having improved properties over current coating technologies. This program has also resulted in the formulation of process and material simulation tools capable of examining the potential for the formation and retention of composite coatings and deposits produced using laser processing techniques, as well as positive laboratory demonstrations in producing these coatings. In conjunction with the process simulation techniques, the application of computational thermodynamic and kinetic models to design laser surface alloying materials was demonstrated and resulted in a vast improvement in the formulation of materials used for producing composite coatings. The methodology was used to identify materials and to selectively modify microstructures for increasing hardness of deposits produced by the laser surface alloying process. Computational thermodynamic calculations indicated that it was possible to induce the

  8. Investigation of the corrosive attitude of materials and material combination in coal washing plants to improve corrosion protection; Untersuchung des Korrosionsverhaltens von Werkstoffen und Werkstoffpaarungen in Kohlewaeschen zur Verbesserung des Korrosionsschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageboelling, V. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Bochum (Germany). Car Synergies Division

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the research activities was to adapt, test and evaluate various electrotechnical investigation methods to clarify and assess electrotechnical mechanisms in corrosive processes in coal washing systems. As a result, the research activities are expected to lead to practicable and reliable investigation methods which give the possibility to quickly and simply select the most suitable materials and constructions for an individual coal washing plant with its special parameters (surrounding conditions, composition of the washing water etc.) in order to minimize corrosion-caused damage before it starts. [German] Die Zielsetzung fuer die Forschungsarbeiten war es, verschiedene elektrochemische Untersuchungsmethoden zur Klaerung und Bewertung der elektrochemischen Mechanismen bei Korrosionsvorgaengen in Kohleaufbereitungsanlagen entsprechend anzupassen, zu erproben und zu bewerten. Als Ergebnis sollen praktikable und aussagekraeftige Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfuegung stehen, damit eine schnelle und einfache Auswahl der geeignetsten Materialien und Konstruktionen fuer jeweils eine bestimmte Kohleaufbereitungsanlage mit ihren speziellen Parametern (Umgebungsbedingungen, Zusammensetzung Waschwasser usw.) zur Minimierung von Korrosionsschaeden im Vorfeld moeglich ist. (orig.)

  9. Comparative study on structure, corrosion and hardness of Zn-Ni alloy deposition on AISI 347 steel aircraft material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanamuthu, RM. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Gihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mohan, S., E-mail: sanjnamohan@yahoo.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, (CSIR), Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India); Saravanan, G. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, (CSIR), Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Chang Woo, E-mail: cwlee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Gihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloy on AISI 347 steel as an aircraft material has been carried out from various baths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of pulse duty cycle on thickness, current efficiency and hardness reached maximum values at 40% duty cycle and for 50 Hz frequencies average current density of 4 A dm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRF characterizations of 88:12% Zn-Ni alloy provided excellent corrosion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that Zn-Ni alloy on AISI 347 aircraft material has better structure and corrosion resistance by pulse electrodeposits from electrolyte-4. - Abstract: Zn-Ni alloys were electrodeposited on AISI 347 steel aircraft materials from various electrolytes under direct current (DCD) and pulsed electrodepositing (PED) techniques. The effects of pulse duty cycle on thickness, current efficiency and hardness of electrodeposits were studied. Alloy phases of the Zn-Ni were indexed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Microstructural morphology, topography and elemental compositions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The corrosion resistance properties of electrodeposited Zn-Ni alloy in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution obtained by DCD and PED were compared using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Elemental analysis showed that 88% of Zn and 12% of Ni obtained from electrolyte-4 by PED technique at 40% duty cycle for 50 Hz frequencies having better corrosion resistance than that of deposits obtained from other electrolytes.

  10. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  11. Corrosion Failures in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnan

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of typical marine environments and the most common form of corrosion of materials used in this environment. Some typical case histories of failures pertaining to pitting, bimetallic corrosion, dealloying, cavitation and stress corrosion cracking are illustrated as typical examples of corrosion failures.

  12. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600ÀC with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  13. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Materials Degradation: Preliminary Results of Corrosion Tests on Ceramatec Electrolysis Cell Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Demkowicz; Prateek Sachdev; Kevin DeWall; Pavel Medvedev

    2007-06-01

    Corrosion tests were performed on stainless steel and nickel alloy coupons in H2O/H2 mixtures and dry air to simulate conditions experienced in high temperature steam electrolysis systems. The stainless steel coupons were tested bare and with one of three different proprietary coatings applied. Specimens were corroded at 850°C for 500 h with weight gain data recorded at periodic intervals. Post-test characterization of the samples included surface and cross-section scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and area-specific resistance measurements. The uncoated nickel alloy outperformed the ferritic stainless steel under all test conditions based on weight gain data. Parabolic rate constants for corrosion of these two uncoated alloys were consistent with values presented in the literature under similar conditions. The steel coatings reduced corrosion rates in H2O/H2 mixtures by as much as 50% compared to the untreated steel, but in most cases showed negligible corrosion improvement in air. The use of a rare-earth-based coating on stainless steel did not result in a significantly different area specific resistance values after corrosion compared to the untreated alloy. Characterization of the samples is still in progress and the findings will be revised when the complete data set is available.

  14. Pretreatment applied engineering, corrosion assessment for tank materials: 1995 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclean, G.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-09

    For sludge washing to be conducted in existing Hanford carbon steel tanks, there must be an assurance that the tanks will be safe from failure by pitting, stress-corrosion cracking or other failure processes when the corrosion inhibitors present in the waste are diluted during the sludge washing operation. Testing has been conducted previously to define safe operating regimes in concentrated waste environments and moderately dilute waste environments. Due to identification of unsafe operating regimes for moderately dilute waste environments, testing was conducted in more dilute environments to adequately capture the range of possible chemistries during sludge washing operations.Additionally, a small scoping study was performed to identify the corrosion effects of high levels of chloride in the waste environments. Six month exposure coupon tests, slow strain rate tests, and potentiodynamic scans have been completed on a statistically designed test matrix of twenty-four tests.Stress- corrosion cracking was not found for the specimens in the static tests or the slow strain rate tests. Pitting and crevice corrosion was found for many of the solutions, but primarily in the vapor phase. Water line attack at the vapor space/solution interface was common for the range of solutions tested. Gross general attack was found for the specimens exposed to the vapor space of the high chloride solutions.

  15. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Flame Deflector Protection System Life Cycle Cost Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Trejo, David; Reinschmidt, Ken; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2009-01-01

    A 20-year life cycle cost analysis was performed to compare the operational life cycle cost, processing/turnaround timelines, and operations manpower inspection/repair/refurbishment requirements for corrosion protection of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad flame deflector associated with the existing cast-in-place materials and a newer advanced refractory ceramic material. The analysis compared the estimated costs of(1) continuing to use of the current refractory material without any changes; (2) completely reconstructing the flame trench using the current refractory material; and (3) completely reconstructing the flame trench with a new high-performance refractory material. Cost estimates were based on an analysis of the amount of damage that occurs after each launch and an estimate of the average repair cost. Alternative 3 was found to save $32M compared to alternative 1 and $17M compared to alternative 2 over a 20-year life cycle.

  16. A New Approach of Studying Correlation between Outdoor Exposure and Indoor Accelerated Corrosion Test for High Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lixia; LI Xiaogang; ZHANG Sanping

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between outdoor exposure and indoor accelerated corrosion test for high polymer materials was investigated according to the variation of the functional group of exposure models aged. Environment aging intensities at different zones ( Wuhan and Lasa with the same latitude ) and the influences of indoor accelerating factors including water and ultraviolet on weathering performance of high polymer materials were also studied by comparing different indoor accelerated corrosion testing results. The experimental results show that: by testing variations of carbonyl exponent of polythene ( which represented the degradation behavior of highpolymer materials due to ultraviolet oxidation of double bond) and ultraviolet absorbance of polycarbonate ( which represented the degradation behavior of high polymer materials due to abevacuation of branched chain), the degradation behavior of high polymer materials could be studied. Carbonyl exponent of polythene exposed in Wuhan and Lasa for 1 year was equal to that exposed in indoor cycle ultraviolet for 128 h and 170 h, respectively, the ultraviolet absorbance of polycarbonate exposed in Wuhan for 1 year was equal to that exposed in indoor cycle ultraviolet for 240 h. The ratio of environment aging intensity of Lasa to Wuhan was around 1.2. With the prolongation of cycle accelerated ultraviolet exposure time, the variations of carbonyl exponent of polythene and the ultraviolet absorbance of polycarbonate were in the same shape of first order exponential decay curve. Accompanied with ultraviolet, the effect of water condensated on the sample on weathering performance of polythene was more significant than that of polycarbonate.

  17. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  18. QUANTUM-CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF SURFACE:NEW METHODS FOR PROTECTING MATERIALS FROM CORROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. T. Malkhasyan

    2001-01-01

    A new method of corrosion-resistant coating of technical iron is presented. Processingby vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules of the iron surface covered with oxide filmof a-Fe2O3 results in modification of surface by creating a film of amorphous ironon it. The presence of iron films with crystalline and amorphous phases, having thedifferent Fermi levels, leads tO formation of potential differences between them. Thispotential difference is opposite to the external electric field, resulting in decrease ofanode current and increase of corrosion resistance.

  19. ECLSS Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) Metal Materials Compatibility Study- Electrochemical and Crevice Corrosion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical and crevice corrosion laboratory test results are presented for three noble metal candidates with possible application on the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The three metal candidates, which included Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276 and Titanium 6Al-4V, were evaluated in two solutions representative of the acidic pretreatment formulations utilized during processing of waste liquids within the ECLSS. Final test results and data analysis indicated that the passive layer on all three metals provides excellent corrosion protection in both solutions under standard test conditions.

  20. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    A stress corrosion evaluation was performed on Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276, titanium commercially pure (TiCP), Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V extra low interstitial, and Cronidur 30 steel as a consequence of a change in formulation of the pretreatment for processing the urine in the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Urine Processing Assembly from a sulfuric acid-based to a phosphoric acid-based solution. The first five listed were found resistant to stress corrosion in the pretreatment and brine. However, some of the Cronidur 30 specimens experienced reduction in load-carrying ability.

  1. Electrical Conductivity and Corrosion Resistance of ZnFe2O4-Based Materials Used as Inert Anode for Aluminum Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4-based materials were tested to obtain the electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance in melting bath for aluminum electrolysis. The results proved that adequate additives, such as Ni2O3 CuO,Cu, ZnO and CeO2 would increase the electrical conductivity, and the ZnFe2O4-based anodes with these additives were of good corrosion resistance. The current density on anode, the mole ratio of NaF/AlF3 (MR) and the content of alumina in the bath effect the anode corrosion rate in different way.

  2. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Xuming Zhang; Guosong Wu; Xiang Peng; Limin Li; Hongqing Feng; Biao Gao; Kaifu Huo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface c...

  3. Al-MoSi2 Composite Materials: Analysis of Microstructure, Sliding Wear, Solid Particle Erosion, and Aqueous Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousia, V.; Tsioukis, A.; Lekatou, A.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    In this effort, AMCs reinforced with new intermetallic phases, were produced through casting and compared as far as their microstructure, sliding wear, solid particle erosion, and aqueous corrosion response. Casting was selected as a production method based on the concept: (a) ease-to-handle and low cost production route and (b) optimum homogeneity of the reinforcing phase distribution. The MoSi2 phase was produced through vacuum arc melting and the resulting drops were milled for 30 h to produce fine powder, the characteristics of which were ascertained through SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. MoSi2 was used as precursor source for the final reinforcing phase. The powder material was incorporated in molten Al1050 alloy to additions of 2, 5 and 10 vol.% respectively. Extensive reactivity between the molten Al and the MoSi2 particles was observed, leading to the formation of new reinforcing phases mainly of the Al-Mo system. In all cases, a uniform particle distribution was observed, mainly characterized by isolated intermetallic phases and few intermetallic phase clusters. Sliding wear showed a beneficial action of the reinforcing phase on the wear of the composites. Surface oxidation, plastic deformation, crack formation, and debris abrasive action were the main degradation features. The results of solid particle erosion showed that the mechanism is different as the impact angle and the vol.% change. Regarding the corrosion, the analysis revealed localized corrosion effects. The composite behavior was not altered significantly compared to that of the monolithic matrix.

  4. Research into processes of production of hydrides of materials containing rare-earth metals and their corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, V. L.; Kartashov, E. Y.; Molokov, P. B.; Zhiganov, A. N.; Kalaev, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Production of permanent magnets on basis of rare earth elements (REE) is implemented by means of powder metallurgy, therefore a technologically important operation is the multistage mechanical crushing of materials to the extent of domains. The promising technique of crushing of magnetic materials is their consistent hydrogenation-dehydrogenation that allows obtaining nano-dispersed powders which are stable enough in air. Hydrogenation apparatuses, as opposed to conventional grinding machines, do not comprise motion works and their producing capacity is much higher. Hydrogenation process does not require any additional preparation of materials and it excludes undermilling and overmilling as well as material oxidation. The paper presents the results of investigation on the temperature effect on the hydrogenation process of Nd-Fe alloys. The study results on the corrosion stability of ligature hydrides under various conditions are also given. Kinetic parameters of the hydrogenation process of ligatures are determined. The phase composition of corrosion products is detected. Guidelines on hydride powder storage are given.

  5. Comparative corrosive characteristics of petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel for automotive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Corrosive characteristics of biodiesel are important for long term durability of engine parts. The present study aims to compare the corrosion behavior of aluminum, copper and stainless steel in both petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel. Immersion tests in biodiesel (B100) and diesel (B0) were carried out at 80 C for 1200 h. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes on the exposed metal surface. Surface morphology was examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS). Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, GCMS and ICP in order to investigate the acid concentration, oxidation level with water content, compositional characteristics and presence of metal species respectively. Results show that the extent of corrosion and change in fuel properties upon exposure to metals are more in biodiesel than that in diesel. Copper and aluminum were susceptible to attack by biodiesel whereas stainless steel was not. (author)

  6. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe81Ga19, (Fe81Ga19)98B2 and (Fe81Ga19)99.5(TaC)0.5, and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D03 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe2B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe81Ga19)98B2 and (Fe81Ga19)99.5(TaC)0.5 alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe81Ga19 alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4h and 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure and mechanical properties of the three-layer material based on a vanadium alloy and corrosion-resistant steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, S. A.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Nechaikina, T. A.; Rogachev, S. O.; Zavodchikov, S. Yu.; Khatkevich, V. M.

    2014-10-01

    The quality of three-layer pipes has been studied; they are manufactured by hot pressing of a three-layer assembly of tubular billets followed by forging and cold rolling. The operating core is made from a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy. The protective claddings are made from corrosion-resistant steels of two grades, 08Kh17T and 20Kh13. The results of investigation into the structure and microhardness of the junction zone of steel and the vanadium alloy, which includes a contact zone and a transition diffusion layer, are reported. The 08Kh17T steel is shown to be a preferred cladding material.

  8. Wear and corrosion performances of new friction materials for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after a NiCr bond layer was deposited on a pearlitic, grey cast iron rotor disc of the kind used in a production passenger car (Toyota Corolla 1600 cc, Cr3C2-NiCr and Al2O3-TiO2powders were sprayed using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel(HVOF and plasma spray processes, respectively. The discs were subjected to cosmetic corrosion test according to SAE J2334 test standard. Additionally, wear tests were carried out using a reciprocating wear tester by rubbing a 10 mm diameter Al2O3 ball on the specimens machined from rotor discs in salt solution. It was found that the Cr3C2-NiCr coating (HSCN sprayed using HVOF method exhibited highest hardness and highest corrosion and wear resistances.

  9. Retardation of surface corrosion of biodegradable magnesium-based materials by aluminum ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guosong; Xu, Ruizhen; Feng, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Wu, Zhengwei; Sun, Guangyong; Zheng, Gang; Li, Guangyao; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-07-01

    Aluminum ion implantation is employed to modify pure Mg as well as AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys and their surface degradation behavior in simulated body fluids is studied. Polarization tests performed in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the surface corrosion resistance after Al ion implantation is improved appreciably. This enhancement can be attributed to the formation of a gradient surface structure with a gradual transition from an Al-rich oxide layer to Al-rich metal layer. Compared to the high Al-content magnesium alloy (AZ91), a larger reduction in the degradation rate is achieved from pure magnesium and AZ31. Our results reveal that the surface corrosion resistance of Mg alloys with no or low Al content can be improved by Al ion implantation.

  10. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  11. Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zones Welded with 1.25Cr-0.5 Mo Filler Metal to Forged Steel for Piston Crown Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man [Korea Maritime University, Dong Sam-Dong,Yong Do-ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Tae-Sil [Pohang College, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A heavy oil of low quality has been mainly used in the diesel engine of the merchant ship as the oil price has been significantly jumped for several years. Thus, a combustion chamber of the engine has been often exposed to severely corrosive environment more and more because temperature of the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber has been getting higher and higher with increasing of using the heavy oil of low quality. As a result, wear and corrosion of the engine parts such as exhaust valve, piston crown and cylinder head surrounded with combustion chamber are more serious compared to the other parts of the engine. Therefore, an optimum repair welding for these engine parts is very important to prolong their lifetime in a economical point of view. In this study, 1.25Cr-0.5Mo filler metal was welded with SMAW method in the forged steel which would be generally used with piston crown material. And the corrosion properties of weld metal, heat affected and base metal zones were investigated using electrochemical methods such as measurement of corrosion potential, anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammogram and impedance etc. in 35% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The weld metal and base metal zones exhibited the highest and lowest values of hardness respectively. And, the corrosion resistance of the heat affected and weld metal zones was also increased than that of the base metal zone. Furthermore, it appeared that the corrosive products with red color and local corrosion like as a pitting corrosion were more frequently observed on the surface of the base metal zone compared to the heat affected and weld metal zones. Consequently, it is suggested that the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of the piston crown can be predominantly improved by repair welding method using the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo electrode.

  12. Development of Improved Accelerated Corrosion Qualification Test Methodology for Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    polyurethane topcoat observed ( FTIR analysis) • UV and ozone under constant salt fog on coated panels in laboratory was much more damaging than 2 years...irradiation and ozone gas • Cumulative damage model for predicting atmospheric corrosion rates of 1010 steel was developed using inputs from weather...data: – Temperature, – Relative humidity (%RH) – Atmospheric contaminants (chloride, SO2, and ozone ) levels Silver Al Alloy 7075 Al Alloy

  13. Surface Chemistry and Structural Effects in the Stress Corrosion of Glass and Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-15

    the strength and fatigue characteristics of ZBLAN (zirconium barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride) optical glass fiber obtained from British...Surface Chemistry and Structural Effects in the Stress Corrosion of Glass and Ceramic Materlals 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Carlo G. Pantano 13a. TYPE OF...fluorozirconate glasses . °. DTICS ELEC T E DEC 09 I 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21.-A% RACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION [BUNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED

  14. Influence of Ga and Hg on microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg alloy anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Hg and Ga on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg-5%Hg (molar fraction) alloys were investigated by the measurement of polarization curves and galvanostatic test. The microstructure of the alloys and the corroded surface of the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and emission spectrum analysis. It can be concluded that the addition of 1%Ga (molar fraction) reduces corrosion current density from 26.98 mA/cm2 to 2.34 mA/cm2;while the addition of 1%Hg (molar fraction) increases corrosion current density. The addition of Ga and Hg both promotes the electrochemical activity of the alloys and the influence of Ga is more effective than Hg. Mg-5%Hg-1%Ga alloy has the best electrochemical activity, showing mean potential of-1.992 V. The activation mechanism of the magnesium alloy produced by Hg and Ga was put forward. Magnesium atoms are dissolved in liquid Hg and Ga to form amalgam and undergo severe oxidation at the amalgam/electrolyte interface.

  15. Laccase Immobilized on Mesoporous Silica Materials and Its Corrosion Inhibition Performance in Circulating Cooling Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fang; Lü Yucui; Zhong Huiyun; Zhang Shuang; Fan Fengtao; Zhao Chaocheng

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous SiO2 microspheres were synthesized using the sol-gel method and were characterized byTEM, FT-IR and BET techniques. The diameter of the microspheres is about 100—150 nm, and the average mesopore di-ameter is 2.55 nm, while the speciifc surface area is 1 088.9 m2/g. Mesoporous SiO2 microspheres adsorb glutaraldehyde and immobilize laccase by means of the aldehyde group in glutaral which can react with the amidogen of laccase. The im-mobilization conditions were optimized at a glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.75%, a crosslinking time of 8 h, a laccase concentration of 0.04 L/L and an immobilization time of 10 h. When diesel leakage concentration was 80 mg/L, the highest corrosion inhibition efifciency of immobilized laccase reached 49.23%, which was slightly lower than the corrosion inhibi-tion efifciency of free laccase (59%). The diesel degradation ratio could reach up to 45%. It has been proved that the immo-bilized laccase could degrade diesel to inhibit corrosion.

  16. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  17. Severe Environmental Corrosion Erosion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Severe Environment Corrosion Erosion Facility in Albany, OR, allows researchers to safely examine the performance of materials in highly corrosive or erosive...

  18. Characterization of the Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 Regarding its Lifetime Performance as a Potential Nuclear Waste Container Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; McCright, D

    2002-06-04

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) was proposed for the corrosion resistant outer barrier of a two-layer waste package container for nuclear waste at the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada (USA). A testing program is underway to characterize and quantify three main modes of corrosion that may occur at the site. Current results show that the containers would perform well under general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). For example, the general corrosion rate is expected to be below 100 nm/year and the container is predicted to be outside the range of potential for localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  19. An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2015-11-01

    For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials.

  20. Oxidation behavior of nuclear graphite and the improvement of corrosion resistance and thermal shock resistance of graphite materials by compositionally graded SiC coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kimio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-08-01

    Since nuclear grade graphite is a porous solid, its oxidation is a good example of a heterogeneous reaction between gases and a porous solid. Changes in properties of graphite and carbon materials caused by corrosion reactions with water vapor or air cannot be evaluated simply on the basis of weight loss only, because the manner in which the corrosion proceeds into the interior of the materials is quite different from one grade to another. In the reaction at higher temperatures, oxygen reacts with carbon at the surface of graphite and the grains are removed gradually, leading to what is called decrease in thickness'. In this case, although specimen or component made of graphite becomes thinner or decreases its dimensions, its properties such as mechanical strength and thermal conductivity are unaltered. On the other hand, at lower temperatures there are little dimensional changes found in graphite, but corrosion reaction proceeds into the interior of the material because of the relatively low corrosion rate at the surface. Besides, the binder region is preferentially corroded so that the binding force between the grains decreases, causing the separation of grains to lead to significant losses of strength and thermal conductivity. For this reason, it is essential to pay attention to the corrosion in the interior of the material as well as temperature and atmosphere, when it is used for structural components. This report summarizes the results obtained in the experiments in which several nuclear-grade graphites are corroded with water vapor or air in the chemical reaction control and in-pore diffusion control regimes. (1) Difference in the corrosion behavior among the graphite grades is clarified and the relationship between the total weight loss and penetration depth was examined by introducing a parameter common to all the graphite grades, characteristic corrosion length, L{sub B}. (2) Measurements of the surface area of corroded specimens led us find the

  1. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  2. Passivation and corrosion of the high performance materials alloy 33, alloy 31 and nickel in LiBr solution at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igual Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Guinon, J.L.; Perez Herranz, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. E.T.S. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of Lithium Bromide are employed as absorbent solutions for almost all types of heating and refrigerating absorption systems that use natural gas or steam as energy sources. LiBr solutions can cause serious corrosion problems in common metallic components. The objective of the present work was to study the corrosion resistance of new high alloyed materials in commercial LiBr heavy brine solution (which contains chromate as inhibitor), at different temperatures (25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 deg. C). The materials tested were stainless steels Alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new corrosion resistant austenitic material alloyed with nominally (wt%) 33 Cr, 32 Fe, 31 Ni; Nicrofer 3127 hMo-alloy 31 (UNS N08031), an iron-nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with nitrogen; and pure Nickel. Corrosion resistance was estimated from the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves, comparing OCP values, calculating corrosion potentials and current rates from Tafel analysis; in order to characterize the passivating behaviour of the alloys the study was completed with the analysis of the pitting potentials, passivating current and re-passivating properties at the temperatures under study. Passivating properties are well observed in all the samples in commercial LiBr solution at all temperatures. In these cases, passivation properties decrease with temperature. (authors)

  3. New conservation materials on the base of colza oil for the steel protection against atmospheric corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    V.I. VIGDOROVICH; TSYGANKOVA L.E.; TANYGINA E.D.; TANYGIN A.YU.; SHEL N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Protective efficiency of the composition on the base of low erucic colza oil has been studied against the carbon steel corrosion in the salt solution (3 % NaCl), thermo-moisture chamber and the natural conditions. The following compositions have been used: 1. Colza oil (CO) and its components without the inhibiting additives; 2. CO with the synthetic fat acids bottoms (SFAB) additive (1-10 wt.%); 3. CO with the anticorrosion additive IFHAN 29-A (20 wt.%); 4. CO with zinc micro powder filler (...

  4. Galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718 and graphite-epoxy composite material: Corrosion occurrence and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Higgins, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718, and graphite-epoxy composite material (G/E) in 3.5% NaCl were studied. Measurements of corrosion potentials, galvanic currents and corrosion rates of the bare metals using weight-loss methods served to establish the need for corrosion protection in cases where D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum are galvanically coupled to G/E in salt water while Inconel 718 was shown to be compatible with G/E. Six tests were made to study corrosion protective methods for eliminating galvanic corrosion in the cases of D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum coupled to G/E. These results indicate that, when the G/E is completely coated with paint or a paint/polyurethane resin combination, satisfactory protection of the D6AC steel is achieved with either a coat of zinc-rich primer or a primer/topcoat combination. Likewise, satisfactory corrosion protection of the aluminum is achieved by coating it with an epoxy coating system.

  5. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings Evaluation of Corrosion Reistance FY05 HPCRM Annual Report # Rev. 1DOE-DARPA Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J J; Day, S D

    2007-09-19

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  6. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  7. Aircraft Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    allowed to dry. The area is then checked for the golden brown color which is produced by the chemical conversion material. If the work area requires...Materials, pp. 258-3074 1968. 41. W. IH. Ailor, "Seven-year exposure at Point leyes , California," "Corrosion in Natural Environments, ASTM STP 558," American... Color Units 3 Turbidity Units 0.7 pH Units 7.6 Temperature OF 76 Sp. Conductivity MMhos 425 B.O.D. (5 days at 206C) 0.2 SjV i;~-- 1201 A .9 8 ~ 8 kl

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation on cladding of corrosion-erosion resistant materials by a high power direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa

    In oil and gas industry, soil particles, crude oil, natural gas, particle-laden liquids, and seawater can carry various highly aggressive elements, which accelerate the material degradation of component surfaces by combination of slurry erosion, corrosion, and wear mechanisms. This material degradation results into the loss of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and impact strength; leading to detachment, delamination, cracking, and ultimately premature failure of components. Since the failure of high valued equipment needs considerable cost and time to be repaired or replaced, minimizing the tribological failure of equipment under aggressive environment has been gaining increased interest. It is widely recognized that effective management of degradation mechanisms will contribute towards the optimization of maintenance, monitoring, and inspection costs. The hardfacing techniques have been widely used to enhance the resistance of surfaces against degradation mechanisms. Applying a surface coating improves wear and corrosion resistance and ensures reliability and long-term performance of coated parts. A protective layer or barrier on the components avoids the direct mechanical and chemical contacts of tool surfaces with process media and will reduce the material loss and ultimately its failure. Laser cladding as an advanced hardfacing technique has been widely used for industrial applications in order to develop a protective coating with desired material properties. During the laser cladding, coating material is fused into the base material by means of a laser beam in order to rebuild a damaged part's surface or to enhance its surface function. In the hardfacing techniques such as atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF), and laser cladding, mixing of coating materials with underneath surface has to be minimized in order to utilize the properties of the coating material most effectively. In this regard, laser cladding offers

  9. Corrosion Environments and Corrosion-resistant Materials for Iodine-sulfur Thermochemical Cycle%热化学碘硫循环的腐蚀环境与耐蚀材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增华; 张平; 陈崧哲; 王来军; 徐景明

    2013-01-01

    利用核能经热化学碘硫循环制氢被认为是最有希望大规模应用的核能制氢技术.碘硫循环工艺简单、效率高,但由于反应体系为强腐蚀过程,设备材料的腐蚀问题是碘硫循环发展的一个难题.总结了碘硫循环中涉及的Bunsen反应、硫酸分解和氢碘酸分解部分的腐蚀环境;综述了金属材料、无机陶瓷材料和高分子材料在碘硫循环腐蚀环境中的耐腐蚀性能及可能的应用;并讨论了防腐蚀衬里技术应用的可能性;比较了陶瓷材料在硫酸分解设备中的应用.这些工作可为碘硫循环工程材料的选择与研发提供依据和理论参考.%The iodine-sulfur (IS) thermochemical cycle is one of the most promising,efficient,massive and CO2-free approaches for nuclear hydrogen production.One of the crucial issues for IS process is the corrosion-resistant performance of the construction materials since the strong corrosive environments are involved.The corrosion environments of Bunsen reaction,sulfuric acid decomposition and hydriodic acid decomposition reaction are discussed.The corrosion-resistant performance of the construction materials such as metals,ceramics and organic polymers used in IS process is reviewed.The potential of the anti-corrosion lining techniques in the process is discussed.The application of ceramic and polymer materials to sulfuric acid decomposition equipment manufacturers is compared.The results may offer basis and theoretical reference for the selection and development of corrosion-resistant materials for IS process.

  10. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  11. The influence of modified water chemistries on metal oxide films, activity build-up and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of actuated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for {sup 60}Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (orig.) 127 refs.

  12. 几种金属材料在乳酸中的腐蚀性能研究%Corrosion properties of several metal materials in the lactic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张粉艳; 李恒欣; 田忠

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion properties of 316L stainless steel, Ti, and Ni in lactic acid were studied by the weight loss method. The effects of reaction time and reaction temperature on corrosion of 316L stainless steel were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the corrosion rates of 316L in lactic acid were increased with increasing reaction temperature. When reaction time was 36 h, the corrosion rates of 316L stainless steel were 0. 382 mm/a and 0. 801 3 mm/a at 90 ℃ and 120 ℃ respectively and it had corrosion resistance. The corrosion rates were 3. 85 mm/a and 6. 01 mm/a at 150 ℃ and 180℃ respectively and it had low corrosion resistance. The metallurgical microscope photographs showed the corrosion of 316L stainless steel in lactic acid was pitting corrosion at low temperature. The results of coupon corrosion test were that 316L stainless steel might be used as materials for the production equipments of lactic acid when the temperature was lower than 120 ℃ .%采用失重法对316L不锈钢、Ti、Ni 3种材料在不同条件下的耐乳酸腐蚀行为进行了研究,详细考察了反应温度和反应时间对316L腐蚀的影响.结果表明,316L在L-乳酸中腐蚀速率随反应温度的升高而增大,在反应时间36 h,反应温度90℃和120℃下,腐蚀速率分别为0.382 mm/a和0.801 3 mm/a,属尚耐腐蚀;150℃和180℃下腐蚀速率分别为3.85 mm/a和6.01 mm/a,属不耐腐蚀.金相显微镜分析表明,316L不锈钢表面在较低温度的乳酸中以点蚀为主.现场挂片腐蚀实验结果表明,当温度低于120℃,316L可以作为乳酸生产设备的选材.

  13. Effects of X-rays Radiation on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldings with AISI 316L Filler Material: A Study of Resistance and Pitting Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cárcel-Carrasco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of low-level ionizing radiation, namely X-rays, on the micro structural characteristics, resistance, and corrosion resistance of TIG-welded joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel made using AISI 316L filler rods. The welds were made in two different environments: natural atmospheric conditions and a closed chamber filled with inert argon gas. The influence of different doses of radiation on the resistance and corrosion characteristics of the welds is analyzed. Welded material from inert Ar gas chamber TIG showed better characteristics and lesser irradiation damage effects.

  14. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Song; Liangliang Wang; Andre Zibart; Christian Koch

    2012-01-01

    The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is...

  15. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K.; Uhlemann, M.; Engelmann, H.J. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The susceptiblity of high alloyed austenitic steels and nickel base alloys to hydrogen-induced cracking is particularly determined by 1. the distribution of hydrogen in the material, and 2. the microstructural deformation behaviour, which last process is determined by the effects of hydrogen with respect to the formation of dislocations and the stacking fault energy. The hydrogen has an influence on the process of slip localization in slip bands, which in turn affects the microstructural deformation behaviour. Slip localization increases with growing Ni contents of the alloys and clearly reduces the ductility of the Ni-base alloy. Although there is a local hydrogen source involved in stress corrosion cracking, emanating from the corrosion process at the cathode, crack growth is observed only in those cases when the hydrogen concentration in a small zone ahead of the crack tip reaches a critical value with respect to the stress conditions. Probability of onset of this process gets lower with growing Ni content of the alloy, due to increasing diffusion velocity of the hydrogen in the austenitic lattice. This is why particularly austenitic steels with low Ni contents are susceptible to transcrystalline stress corrosion cracking. In this case, the microstructural deformation process at the crack tip is also influenced by analogous processes, as could be observed in hydrogen-loaded specimens. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Empfindlichkeit von hochlegierten austentischen Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen gegen wasserstoffinduziertes Risswachstum wird im wesentlichen bestimmt durch 1. die Verteilung von Wasserstoff im Werkstoff und 2. das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten. Das mikrostrukturelle Deformationsverhalten ist wiederum durch den Einfluss von Wasserstoff auf die Versetzungsbildung und die Stapelfehlerenergie charakterisiert. Das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten wird durch wasserstoffbeeinflusste Gleitlokalisierung in Gleitbaendern bestimmt. Diese nimmt mit

  16. Corrosion rate of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA steels under LBE flow with active oxygen control at 450 and 500 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi.kenji21@jaea.go.jp; Kamata, Kinya; Ono, Mikinori; Kitano, Teruaki; Hayashi, Kenichi [Mitsui Engineering and Ship-building Co., Ltd., 5-6-4 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-8439 (Japan); Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-06-30

    Corrosion behavior of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA was studied in the circulating LBE loop under impinging flow. These are candidate materials for Japanese Accelerator Driven System (ADS) beam windows. Maximum temperatures were kept to 450 and 500 deg. C with 100 deg. C constant temperature difference. Main flow velocity was 0.4-0.6 m/s in every case. Oxygen concentration was controlled to 2-4 x 10{sup -5} mass% although there was one exception. Testing time durations were 500-3000 h. Round bar type specimens were put in the circular tube of the loop. An electron beam weld in the middle of specimens was also studied. Optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray element analyses and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate corrosion in these materials. Consequently corrosion depth and stability of those oxide layers were characterized based on the analyses. For a long-term behavior a linear law is recommended to predict corrosion in the ADS target design.

  17. Influence of chemical and materials in the rate of erosion corrosion. Modelling the cycle chemistry and materials characterization measurements on CN Cofrentes; Influencia de la quimica y materiales en la tasa de erosion corrosion. Modelizacion de la quimica del ciclo y medidas de caracterizacion de materiales en C. N. Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paule Ramos, A.; Sanchez-Zapata, J. D.

    2012-07-01

    The chemical cycle and the type of material are some of the factors that have great influence on the phenomenon of erosion-corrosion. The paper present the modeling of chemistry through the software cycle strategies COMSY and materials characterization measures undertaken in order to more effectively control this phenomenon in CN Cofrentes.

  18. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  19. ESTIMATION OF BIODEGRADATION AND BIO-CORROSION OF MATERIALS IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varchenko E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems that arise when evaluating biodegradation of materials, items, structures and products in natural environments.. The causes of biodegradations are revealed

  20. Nuclear corrosion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Understanding corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods necessary for accurately measuring their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry for the safe, economic and competitive running of its plants. This book reviews the fundamentals of nuclear corrosion. Corrosion of nuclear materials, i.e. the interaction between these materials and their environments, is a major issue for plant safety as well as for operation and economic competitiveness. Understanding these corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods to accurately measure their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry. Combining assessment techniques and analytical models into this understanding allows operators to predict the service life of corrosion-affected nuclear plant materials, and to apply the most appropriate maintenance and mitigation options to ensure safe long term operation. This book critically reviews the fundamental corrosion mechani...

  1. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, The Waste Package Outer Barrier and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stephen

    2000-04-17

    One of the potential failure modes of the drip shield (DS), the waste package (WP) outer barrier, and the stainless structural material is the initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by the WP environment and various types of stresses that can develop in the DSs or the WPs. For the current design of the DS and WP, however, the DS will be excluded from the SCC evaluation because stresses that are relevant to SCC are insignificant in the DS. The major sources of stresses in the DS are loadings due to backfill and earthquakes. These stresses will not induce SCC because the stress caused by backfill is generally compressive stress and the stress caused by earthquakes is temporary in nature. The 316NG stainless steel inner barrier of the WP will also be excluded from the SCC evaluation because the SCC performance assessment will not take credit from the inner barrier. Therefore, the purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of the material (i.e., Alloy 22) used for the WP outer barrier subjected to the effects of SCC. As already mentioned in the development plan for the WP PMR (CRWMS M and O 1999e), this Analyses and Models Report (AMR) is to serve as a feed to the Waste Package Degradation (WPD) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) and Process Model Report (PMR).

  3. Contribution to the study of metallic materials bio-corrosion phenomena; Contribution a l'etude des phenomenes de biocorrosion des materiaux metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, D

    2004-05-01

    After having recalled the main electrochemical methods used for the study of metallic materials bio-deterioration phenomena, the corrosion of non or low alloy steels in anaerobic conditions is dealt with: the obtained results reveal a strong interaction between the metallic ions and the growth of sulfato reducing bacteria with inhibiting or accelerating ions of this growth. Concerning the corrosion, the chromium and molybdenum additions have a favourable effect on the resistance of low alloy steels. The sulfides impose the electrochemical behaviour of these materials, whereas the role of hydrogenases on the cathodic reaction is still to be specified to explain the observed localized corrosion, including the pure cultures of sulfato-reducing bacteria. The behaviour of stainless steels in seawater can be explained by an enzymatic catalysis of the cathodic reaction. Such a model takes into account the general behaviour of passivable alloys in natural waters in a general way and has allowed to perfect a synthetic seawater which leads to corrosion phenomena by crevice effect on stainless steels similar to those observed in natural seawater. The coupling of the aerobic conditions with the leading part of the enzymes on the cathodic reaction and of the anaerobic conditions with the presence of sulfides (which decrease the resistance of the passive layer) is the most unfavourable situation for the resistance of passivable alloys. These results lead to the concept of electrochemically activated bio-films which could be used in particular in energy production (fuel cells). (O.M.)

  4. 49 CFR 173.154 - Exceptions for Class 8 (corrosive materials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter when transported by motor vehicle or rail car in a packaging constructed of materials that will... any other requirements of this subchapter when transported by motor vehicle or rail car in a...

  5. Electrochemical characterisation speeds up prediction of corrosion behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuring, E.W.; Hooijmans, J.W. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The contents of this presentation show the following elements: Introduction; Corrosion in real life; Why Electrochemical characterisation of corrosion; Applications (corrosion resistance coatings, corrosion behaviour (brazed) joints); Available electrochemical corrosion techniques; Standards; Conclusions. In the Conclusions the corrosion screening method is summarized: ECN method fast; within 1h -1 week results depending on test method; Fast pre-selection of promising materials/combinations (cost savings); Determining of corrosion initiation; Determination of corrosion mechanisms and propagation; Life time predictions possible; Strong combination with metallographic post-investigation; Ranking materials / constructions for corrosion performance.

  6. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1995-12-05

    A method for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness.

  7. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  8. Corrosion evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Uh Chul; Han, Jeong Ho; Nho, Kye Ho; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo

    1997-09-01

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled which can measure very small crack. Stress corrosion cracking test system with SSRT operating high temperature was installed. Stress corrosion cracking test of newly developed alloy 600 and existing alloy 600 was carried out in steam atmosphere of 400 deg C. No crack was observed in both materials within a test period of 2,000 hrs. Corrosion fatigue test system operating at high temperature was installed in which fatigue crack was measured by CDPD. Lead enhanced the SCC of the Alloy 600 in high temperature water, had a tendency to modify a cracking morphology from intergranular to transgranular. Pit initiation preferentially occurred at Ti-rich carbide. Resistance to pit initiation decreased with increasing temperature up to 300 deg C. Test loop for erosion corrosion was designed and fabricated. Thin layer activation technique was very effective in measuring erosion corrosion. Erosion corrosion of a part of secondary side pipe was evaluated by the Check Family Codes of EPRI. Calculated values of pipe thickness by Check Family Codes coincided with the pipe thickness measured by UT with an error of {+-} 20%. Literature review on turbine failure showed that failure usually occurred in low pressure turbine rotor disc and causes of failure are stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. (author). 12 refs., 20 tabs., 77 figs.

  9. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  10. Utilization of coal mining wastes a filling material in reinforced earth structures: reinforcement corrosion tests; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada: pruebas de corrosion de armaduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canibano, J.; Pardo, F.; Sopena, L.; Torres, M.; Perez, J.J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzlaez, M.R. [Laboratorio Geotecnia CEDEX (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    In this article are summarized the tests carried out with different types of reinforcing elements and several coal mining wastes in order to determine the occurrence or not of corrosion processes caused by mine stones in the reinforcing elements. (Author)

  11. Computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials for improved corrosion performance: computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoba, OS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying is a material processing method which utilizes the high power density available from defocused laser beam to melt both metal coatings and a part of the underlying substrate. Since melting occur solitary at the surface, large...

  12. Vegetable-Oil-Based Hyperbranched Polyester-Styrene Copolymer Containing Silver Nanoparticle as Antimicrobial and Corrosion-Resistant Coating Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia oil (PO was converted to Pongamia oil hydroxyl (POH via epoxidation process. The esterification of POH with linolenic acid was carried out to form hyperbranched polyester (HBPE, and further styrenation was performed at the conjugated double bond in the chain of linolenic acid. After styrenation, silver nanoparticle was added in different weight percentages (0.1–0.4 wt%. The structural elucidation of POH, HBPE, and HBPE-St was carried out by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Physicochemical and physicomechanical analyses were performed by standard method. Thermal behavior of the HBPE-St was analyzed by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The coatings of HBPE-St were prepared on mild steel strips. The anticorrosive behavior of HBPE-St resin-based coatings in acid, saline, and tap water was evaluated, and the molecular weight of HBPE-St was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antibacterial activities of the HBPE-St copolymers were tested in vitro against bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The HBPE-St copolymers exhibited good antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial and corrosion-resistant coating materials.

  13. Preliminary stress corrosion cracking modeling study of a dissimilar material weld of alloy (INCONEL) 182 with Stainless Steel 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Omar F.; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: ofaly@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M., E-mail: monicas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Dissimilar welds (DW) are normally used in many components junctions in structural project of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) in Nuclear Plants. One had been departed of a DW of a nozzle located at a Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of a PWR reactor, that joins the structural vessel material with an A316 stainless steel safe end. This weld is basically done with Alloy 182 with a weld buttering of Alloy 82. It had been prepared some axial cylindrical specimens retired from the Alloy 182/A316 weld end to be tested in the slow strain rate test machine located at CDTN laboratory. Based in these stress corrosion susceptibility results, it was done a preliminary semi-empirical modeling application to study the failure initiation time evolution of these specimens. The used model is composed by a deterministic part, and a probabilistic part according to the Weibull distribution. It had been constructed a specific Microsoft Excel worksheet to do the model application of input data. The obtained results had been discussed according with literature and also the model application limits. (author)

  14. Development of experimental apparatus for evaluating corrosion resistance of cladding materials applied for advanced power reactor. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inohara, Yasuto; Ioka, Ikuo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Tachibana, Katsumi; Suzuki, Tomio; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kuroda, Yuji; Miyamoto, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    On the development of cladding materials for advanced power reactors, it is important to clarify long performance and to control the compatibility to high temperature water at heat conducting surfaces under heavy irradiation. On the present study, the high temperature water loop with an autoclave was made for examining the corrosion behavior up to the super critical water range and for developing the simulation testing technique under irradiation in the hot cell. The loop is applicable to immersion tests in the temperature and pressure ranges up to 450degC and 25 MPa that are covered the surface temperature range of fuel claddings. One of the characteristics of this apparatus is a pair of sapphire windows of autoclave for in-situ observations, and a phase transition from water to super critical water conditions was clearly verified through these windows. In this apparatus, it is possible to control the temperature, pressure and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) within a fluctuations of few % on three phases, namely, water, steam and super critical water. (author)

  15. The Effect of Powder Particle Biencapsulation with Ni-P Layer on Local Corrosion of Bonded Nd-(Fe,Co-B Magnetic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimecka-Tatar D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the Nd-(Fe,Co-B powder particle biencapsulation with Ni-P layer on bonded magnetic materials corrosion behaviour has been investigated. Bonded magnets were prepared from single-phase, nanocrystalline magnetic Nd11Fe77Co5B6 powder. Powder particles before consolidation were preliminary etched and then coated with bilayer (powder biencapsulation. The powder surface was coated as a first with autocatalytic applied Ni-P layer during 5, 15 and 30 minutes in Ni(II containing bath and the second layer was thermosetting epoxy-resin. Impact of the used biencapsulation process was rated on the basis of polarization curves recorded in phosphate environment with addition of chloric ions. It has been established that the used biencapsulation method satisfactorily isolate individual particles of the powder and consequently, significantly inhibits corrosion processes of the final material, especially in passivating environment containing Cl-.

  16. Effect of cold work on the growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in structural materials of nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Metallurgy

    1996-10-01

    The growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloy 600 exposed to simulated boiling water reactor coolant were measured by fracture mechanics testing techniques. Cold work may increase the crack growth rates up to one hundred times. In both, the annealed condition and the cold worked condition, the stress corrosion crack growth rates are independent of stress intensity over a wide K-range and crack growth rates correlate well with yield strength and hardness. In the annealed condition the fracture path is intergranular, but higher degrees of cold work introduce higher proportions of transgranular stress corrosion cracking.

  17. The addition of Si to the Ti–35Nb alloy and its effect on the corrosion resistance, when applied to biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Fernandes, B.S.; Souza, S.A.; Batista, W.W.; Cunha, F.G.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Landers, R. [Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, State University of Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Macedo, M.C.S.S., E-mail: michellecardinales@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • An investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti–Nb–Si was proposed. • The study was based on polarization curves, OCP, electrochemical impedance, XPS. • The addition of Si to 0.35% increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys. • Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for biomedical applications. -- Abstract: Alloy elements such as niobium and silicon have been added to titanium as an alternative for new materials to be used in orthopedic implants once they present biocompatibility and favor reductions in the elastic modulus. However, these new materials’ behavior, in face of corrosion is still demanding careful investigations because they will be subjected to an aggressive environ, such as the human body. The corrosion resistance of the Ti–35Nb–(0; 0.15; 0.35; 0.55)Si (% in mass) when in physiological medium was assessed by means of polarization curves, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The compositions of the passive films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Outcomes show that the alloys presented good rapid repassivation capacity after film breaking under high potentials. The high values of resistance to polarization – Rp – pinpoint that the formed oxide films are resistive. They work as a protecting barrier against aggressive ions. Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for orthopedic implant applications.

  18. Demonstration and Validation of Controlled Low-Strength Materials for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Steel Pipes: Final Report on Project F09-A17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    812 Park Drive Warner Robins , GA 31088 James B. Bushman and Bopinder S. Phull Bushman and Associates P. O. Box 425 Medina, OH 44258 Final report...Under Project F09-AR17, “Dilute Flowable Backfill Validation for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Piping at Fort Hood , TX” ERDC/CERL TR-15-33 ii...Appendix C: Fort Hood Demonstration Equipment and Materials for ROI Analysis

  19. Materials Reliability Program Resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloys 690, 52, and 152 in Pressurized Water Reactors (MRP-111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H. [Framatome ANP, Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Fyfitch, S. [Framatome ANP, Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, SAS, Paris (France); Foucault, M. [Framatome ANP, SAS, Le Creusot (France); Kilian, R. [Framatome ANP, GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Winters, M. [Framatome ANP, GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. Repairs and replacements have generally utilized wrought Alloy 690 material and its compatible weld metals (Alloy 152 and Alloy 52), which have been shown to be very highly resistant to PWSCC in laboratory experiments and have been free from cracking in operating reactors over periods already up to nearly 15 years. It is nevertheless prudent for the PWR industry to attempt to quantify the longevity of these materials with respect to aging degradation by corrosion in order to provide a sound technical basis for the development of future inspection requirements for repaired or replaced component items. This document first reviews numerous laboratory tests, conducted over the last two decades, that were performed with wrought Alloy 690 and Alloy 52 or Alloy 152 weld materials under various test conditions pertinent to corrosion resistance in PWR environments. The main focus of the present review is on PWSCC, but secondary-side conditions are also briefly considered.

  20. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Refractory Ceramics Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Stephen; Whitten, Mary C.; Trejo, David; Zidek, Jason; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramics can be defmed as a material consisting of hard brittle properties produced from inorganic and nonmetallic minerals made by firing at high temperatures. These materials are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements and are either totally ionic, or predominately ionic but having some covalent character. This definition allows for a large range of materials, not all applicable to refractory applications. As this report is focused on potential ceramic materials for high temperature, aggressive exposure applications, the ceramics reviewed as part of this report will focus on refractory ceramics specifically designed and used for these applications. Ceramic materials consist of a wide variety of products. Callister (2000) 1 characterized ceramic materials into six classifications: glasses, clay products, refractories, cements, abrasives, and advanced ceramics. Figure 1 shows this classification system. This review will focus mainly on refractory ceramics and cements as in general, the other classifications are neither applicable nor economical for use in large structures such as the flame trench. Although much work has been done in advanced ceramics over the past decade or so, these materials are likely cost prohibitive and would have to be fabricated off-site, transported to the NASA facilities, and installed, which make these even less feasible. Although the authors reviewed the literature on advanced ceramic refractories 2 center dot 3 center dot 4 center dot 5 center dot 6 center dot 7 center dot 8 center dot 9 center dot 10 center dot 11 center dot 12 after the review it was concluded that these materials should not be ' the focus of this report. A review is in progress on materials and systems for prefabricated refractory ceramic panels, but this review is focusing more on typical refractory materials for prefabricated systems, which could make the system more economically feasible. Refractory ceramics are used for a wide variety of applications

  1. Material Solutions to Mitigate the Alkali Chloride-Induced High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed

    in flowing N2(g)+5%O2(g)+15%H2O(g). Each exposed sample was a mixture of the metal oxide and KCl pressed into a tablet. Samples were examined with X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) before and after the exposure. In addition, each exposed sample was further studied with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy...... materials solution TP347HFG in the laboratory exposures. Pure Ni incurred the least amount of damage. Part 3: Performance of aluminum diffusion coatings Among the suitable oxide-forming elements identified in part 1, Al is an obvious choice for further investigations. However, the results in part 2...

  2. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D., E-mail: david.chartier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Muzeau, B. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stefan, L. [AREVA NC/D& S - France/Technical Department, 1 place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Sanchez-Canet, J. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Monguillon, C. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  3. Environmental Degradation of Materials: Surface Chemistry Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Parallel experiments have been performed in order to develop a comprehensive model for stress cracking (SCC) in structural materials. The central objective is to determine the relationship between the activity and selectivity of the microstructure of structural materials to their dissolution kinetics and experimentally measured SCC kinetics. Zinc was chosen as a prototype metal system. The SCC behavior of two oriented single-crystal disks of zinc in a chromic oxide/sodium sulfate solution (Palmerton solution) were determined. It was found that: (1) the dissolution rate is strongly (hkil)-dependent and proportional to the exposure time in the aggressive environment; and (2) a specific slip system is selectively active to dissolution under applied stress and this slip line controls crack initiation and propagation. As a precursor to potential microgrvity experiments, electrophoretic mobility measurements of zinc particles were obtained in solutions of sodium sulfate (0.0033 M) with concentrations of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 8 ppm. The equilibrium distribution of exposed oriented planes as well as their correlation will determine the particle mobility.

  4. Environmental Degradation of Materials: Surface Chemistry Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Parallel experiments have been performed in order to develop a comprehensive model for stress cracking (SCC) in structural materials. The central objective is to determine the relationship between the activity and selectivity of the microstructure of structural materials to their dissolution kinetics and experimentally measured SCC kinetics. Zinc was chosen as a prototype metal system. The SCC behavior of two oriented single-crystal disks of zinc in a chromic oxide/sodium sulfate solution (Palmerton solution) were determined. It was found that: (1) the dissolution rate is strongly (hkil)-dependent and proportional to the exposure time in the aggressive environment; and (2) a specific slip system is selectively active to dissolution under applied stress and this slip line controls crack initiation and propagation. As a precursor to potential microgrvity experiments, electrophoretic mobility measurements of zinc particles were obtained in solutions of sodium sulfate (0.0033 M) with concentrations of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 8 ppm. The equilibrium distribution of exposed oriented planes as well as their correlation will determine the particle mobility.

  5. Accelerated corrosion test and corrosion failure distribution model of aircraft structural aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-lin; MU Zhi-tao; JIN Ping

    2006-01-01

    Based on corrosion damage data of 10 years for a type of aircraft aluminum alloy, the statistical analysis was conducted by Gumbel, Normal and two parameters Weibull distribution function. The results show that aluminum alloy structural member has the corrosion history of pitting corrosion-intergranular corrosion-exfoliation corrosion, and the maximum corrosion depth is in conformity to normal distribution. The accelerated corrosion test was carried out with the complied equivalent airport accelerated environment spectrum. The corrosion damage failure modes of aluminum alloy structural member indicate that the period of validity of the former protective coating is about 2.5 to 3 years, and that of the novel protective coating is about 4.0 to 4.5 years. The corrosion kinetics law of aluminum spar flange was established by fitting corrosion damage test data. The law indicates two apparent corrosion stages of high strength aluminum alloy section material: pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion/exfoliation corrosion.The test results agree with the statistical fit result of corrosion data collected from corrosion member in service. The fractional error is 5.8% at the same calendar year. The accelerated corrosion test validates the corrosion kinetics law of aircraft aluminum alloy in service.

  6. The Effect of Material Removal on the Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Nitinol Laser-Cut and Wire-Form Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jennifer Fino; Trépanier, Christine; Vien, Lot; Pelton, Alan R.

    2011-07-01

    Laser cutting and wire forming are two of the most commonly used processes in the manufacture of Nitinol medical devices. This study explores how varying the amount of material removed during the final surface treatment steps affects the corrosion resistance of Z-type stents that have either been laser-cut from tube or shape set from wire. All parts were subjected to a typical heat treatment process necessary to achieve an Austenite finish (Af) temperature of 25 ± 5 °C, and were subsequently post-processed with an electrochemical passivation process. The total weight loss during post-processing was recorded and the process adjusted to create groups with less than 5%, less than 10%, and less than 25% amounts of weight loss. The parts were then crimped to 6 mm and allowed to expand back to their original diameter. The corrosion test results showed that on average both groups of Z-stents experienced an increase in the corrosion breakdown potential and a decrease in the standard deviation with increasing amounts of material removal. In addition, less material removal is required from the wire-form Z-stents as compared to the laser-cut Z-stents to achieve high corrosion resistance. Finally, 7 day nickel ion release tests performed on the wire-formed Z-stents showed a dramatic decrease from 0.0132 mg of nickel leached per day for the low weight loss group to approximately 0.001 mg/day for the medium and high weight loss groups.

  7. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  8. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Suess

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, material evaluation, data review and conclusion procurement. In analyzing corrosion failures, one must recognize the wide range of common corrosion mechanisms. The features of any corrosion failure give strong clues as to the most likely cause of the corrosion. This article details a proven approach to properly determining the root cause of a failure, and includes pictographic illustrations of the most common corrosion mechanisms, including general corrosion, pitting, galvanic corrosion, dealloying, crevice corrosion, microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC, intergranular corrosion, fretting, erosion corrosion and hydrogen damage.

  9. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M

    2008-06-15

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants.

  10. Considerations on the performance and fabrication of candidate materials for the Yucca Mountain repository waste packages highly corrosion resistant nickel-base and titanium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E; Goldberg, A

    1995-11-30

    Among the metallurgical factors that affect the performance of a material in a given environment are alloy composition, alloy segregation, depletion of alloying elements, non-uniform microstructures, precipitation leading to an increase in susceptibility to corrosion as well as decreases in ductility, residual plastic deformation, and residual stresses. Precipitation often occurs preferentially at grain boundaries, causing depletion of critical elements in regions adjacent to these boundaries. Continuous grain-boundary precipitates can lead to drops in ductility and toughness. The presence of non-metallic inclusions, if excessive and/or segregated, can also cause embrittlement. Segregation of alloying elements can result in localized galvanic action. Depletion of alloying elements as well as segregation can result in reductions in the concentrations of critical elements below those necessary to resist localized corrosion. Segregation and alloy depletion can also facilitate precipitation that could lead to embrittlement.

  11. Welding of a corrosion-resistant composite material based on VT14 titanium alloy obtained using an electron beam emitted into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkovski, M. G.; Samoylenko, V. V.; Polyakov, I. A.; Lenivtseva, O. G.; Chakin, I. K.; Komarov, P. N.; Ruktuev, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the possibility of inert gas arc welding of a double layer composite material on a titanium base with an anti-corrosive layer obtained by fused deposition of a powder mix containing tantalum and niobium over a titanium base using an electron beam emitted into the atmosphere. Butt welding and fillet welding options were tested with two types of edge preparation. Welds were subjected to a metallographic examination including a structural study and an analysis of the chemical and phase composition of the welds. A conclusion was made regarding the possibility of using welding for manufacturing of items from the investigated composite material.

  12. Why are metallic materials subjects to corrosion. Desinfection measures in drinking water systems; Warum metallische Werkstoffe korrosionsgefaehrdet sind. Desinfektionsmassnahmen in Trinkwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schodorf, W. [BWT Wassertechnik GmbH, Schriesheim (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    All components, devices and materials, which get in touch with drinking water according to their functionality, must be made in such a way that a risk or an inadmissible damage to the drinking water can be excluded. This requirement also applies to all measures designed for generating a desinfection capacity on the basis of free chloride and chloride oxide in accordance with paragraph 5 section 4 drinking water regulation. However, these substances can change the water composition and increase the corrosion probability for metallic materials. (orig.)

  13. Materials problems in fluidized-bed combustion systems: effect of process variables on in-bed corrosion. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; Rogers, E.A.; LaNauze, R.D.

    1980-08-01

    The influence of operating conditions in a coal fired fluidized bed combustor on the rate of fireside corrosion of air cooled heat exchanger tubes, with metal temperatures in the range 540/sup 0/C to 900/sup 0/C, has been investigated. Four 250 hour tests were carried out on a 0.3 m square atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor operating with a fluidizing velocity of 0.9 ms/sup -1/, 10 to 20% excess air and bed temperatures of 850/sup 0/C and 900/sup 0/C. The feed coal was Illinois No. 6 which was used both with and without the addition of limestones to suppress the emission of sulfur oxides. A test without the addition of limestone showed very little corrosive attack of any metal components. Tests with the addition of limestone showed a range of corrosive attack. In general, where different alloy types were exposed at the same metal temperature, the iron based austenitic steels showed a better corrosion resistance than the nickel based alloys. This result strongly supports the model for the corrosion which has been developed as a result of the earlier investigations. This model postulates that local regions of low oxygen activity exist in the system, and, in the presence of calcium sulfate, these result in the generation of high local sulfur activities. The combination of low oxygen and high sulfur activities leads to sulfidation of sensitive alloys.

  14. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, D; Muzeau, B; Stefan, L; Sanchez-Canet, J; Monguillon, C

    2017-03-15

    Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect of NiTi orthopedic materials by chitosan and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rasha A.; Fadl-allah, Sahar A.; El-Bagoury, Nader; El-Rab, Sanaa M. F. Gad

    2014-02-01

    Biocomposite consists of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a natural polymer as Chitosan (CS) was electrodeposited over NiTi alloy to improve biocompatibility, biostability, surface corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect for orthopedic implantation. The forming process and surface morphology of this biocomposite coats over NiTi alloy were studied. The results showed that the nm-scale gold particles were embedded in the composite forming compact, thick and smooth coat. Elemental analysis revealed significant less Ni ion release from the coated NiTi alloy compared with the uncoated one by 20 fold. Furthermore, the electrochemical corrosion measurements indicated that AuNPs/CS composite coat was effective for improving corrosion resistance in different immersion times and at all pH values, which suggests that the coated NiTi alloys have potential for orthopedic applications. Additionally, the efficiencies of the biocomposite coats for inhibiting bacterial growth indicate high antibacterial effect.

  16. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the study on development of corrosion-resistant ceramic materials for garbage incinerators; 1998 nendo gomi shori shisetsuyo taishoku ceramics zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1988 results of development of corrosion-resistant ceramic materials for garbage incinerators. Residue released when porcelain stocks are collected is selected as the inexpensive stock for SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based refractory materials. It is incorporated with carbon black and reduced at 1,200 to 1,500 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Synthesis of the target Si-Al-C-N-O-based compound succeeds in the presence of a solid catalyst, but it is a fine powder, and hence that of the massive compound fails. The commercial ceramic materials and new refractory materials, made on a trial basis, are evaluated for their resistance to corrosion using fry ashes collected from a commercial incinerator. These ashes are higher in melting point, more viscous, holding a larger quantity of attached slag and more corrosive than synthetic ashes. These materials are corroded acceleratedly as temperature increases to 1,200 degrees C or higher, more noted with the ceramic materials than with the refractory materials. Oxidation and melting characteristics of the molten slag affect corrosion of some materials. Use of the graphite-based material shall be limited to a section below the slag surface, where graphite is oxidized to a smaller extent. The MgO-based material is promising. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based material is more promising than any other material developed in this study. Their bending strength before and after the corrosion test is measured at normal temperature to 1,700 degrees C, to investigate their deterioration by high temperature and corrosion. (NEDO)

  18. Archaeological analogs and corrosion; Analogues archeologiques et corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, D

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  19. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  20. Solutions of corrosion Problems in advanced Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The specimens were exposed for 1400 hours at 450-600°C. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining. The corrosion products and course of corrosion for the various steel types...... were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The ferritic steels suffered from corrosion mainly via material loss. The austenitic steels suffered from predominantly selective corrosion resulting in chromium depletion from the alloy. A clear trend was observed that selective...... corrosion increased with increasing chromium content of the alloy....

  1. In vitro and in vivo corrosion, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys as implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Da-Tren; Hong, Daeho; Saha, Partha; Ferrero, Jordan; Lee, Boeun; Tan, Zongqing; Dong, Zhongyun; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-11-01

    This study introduces a class of biodegradable Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys novel to biological applications and presents evaluations for orthopedic and craniofacial implant applications. Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys were processed using conventional melting and casting techniques. The effects of increasing Y content from 1 to 4 wt.% as well as the effects of T4 solution treatment were assessed. Basic material phase characterization was conducted using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Compressive and tensile tests allowed for the comparison of mechanical properties of the as-cast and T4-treated Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys to pure Mg and as-drawn AZ31. Potentiodynamic polarization tests and mass loss immersion tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the alloys. In vitro cytocompatibility tests on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells were also conducted. Finally, alloy pellets were implanted into murine subcutaneous tissue to observe in vivo corrosion as well as local host response through H&E staining. SEM/EDS analysis showed that secondary phase intermetallics rich in yttrium were observed along the grain boundaries, with the T4 solution treatment diffusing the secondary phases into the matrix while increasing the grain size. The alloys demonstrated marked improvement in mechanical properties over pure Mg. Increasing the Y content contributed to improved corrosion resistance, while solution-treated alloys resulted in lower strength and compressive strain compared to as-cast alloys. The Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys demonstrated excellent in vitro cytocompatibility and normal in vivo host response. The mechanical, corrosion and biological evaluations performed in this study demonstrated that Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys, especially with the 4 wt.% Y content, would perform well as orthopedic and craniofacial implant biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  3. Corrosion inhibitors from expired drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaszilcsin, Nicolae; Ordodi, Valentin; Borza, Alexandra

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents a method of expired or unused drugs valorization as corrosion inhibitors for metals in various media. Cyclic voltammograms were drawn on platinum in order to assess the stability of pharmaceutically active substances from drugs at the metal-corrosive environment interface. Tafel slope method was used to determine corrosion rates of steel in the absence and presence of inhibitors. Expired Carbamazepine and Paracetamol tablets were used to obtain corrosion inhibitors. For the former, the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 0.1 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution was about 90%, whereas for the latter, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the same material in the 0.25 mol L(-1) acetic acid-0.25 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer solution was about 85%.

  4. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  5. Strain Measurement Technology for Corrosion Fatigue Specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wei-hua; NING; Guang-sheng; ZHANG; Chang-yi; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Main pipeline is the key component of nuclear power plants(NPPs).Under the first loop water and low-cyclic load condition,the main pipeline may be induced to corrosion fatigue failure.Thus,it’s necessary to test and get the corrosion fatigue property of main pipeline material.During the corrosion fatigue test,the strain

  6. XPS on corrosion products of ZnCr coated steel: on the reliability of Ar+ ion depth profiling for multi component material analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberger, Roland; Arndt, Martin; Stifter, David

    2013-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with Ar+ ion etching is a powerful concept to identify different chemical states of compounds in depth profiles, important for obtaining information underneath surfaces or at layer interfaces. The possibility of occurring sputter damage is known but insufficiently investigated for corrosion products of Zn-based steel coatings like ZnCr. Hence, in this work reference materials are studied according to stability against ion sputtering. Indeed some investigated compounds reveal a very unstable chemical nature. On the basis of these findings the reliability of depth profiles of real samples can be rated to avoid misinterpretations of observed chemical species.

  7. Effect of ZrSiO{sub 4} on the corrosion behavior of MgO-FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite refractory materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtli, Tuba [Necmettin Erbakan Univ., Konya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture; Aksel, Cemail [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kavas, Taner [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Turkish Ceramic Society, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of refractory materials that were produced by incorporating ZrSiO{sub 4} (zircon) at different ratios into MgO-FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (hercynite) were investigated. The values of density and open porosity of those samples were also measured, and the corrosion behaviors of those materials produced were examined. After performing corrosion tests, the corrosion resistance of composite refractory materials were determined by measuring the penetration distances and spreading areas. The incorporation of ZrSiO{sub 4} into MgO-FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} generally decreased the porosity of composite refractory materials, and consequently reduced the penetration distances and spreading area values of the corroded regions of refractories as well. In addition, the formation of new phases and the microstructural changes which occurred were determined by XRD measurements and SEM analyses. On the basis of microstructural characterization carried out in the interface of clinker-refractory, the following observations had been determined: (i) Ca{sup 2+} and Y{sup 3+} elements forming CaZrO{sub 3} were located together in the same regions, (ii) forsterite phase was formed due to the reaction between SiO{sub 2}, which is released after dissociation of zircon as ZrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} during sintering, and MgO, (iii) the formation of new CaZrO{sub 3} and forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) phases made a barrier effect against clinker, and (iv) the amount of CaO decreased based on the EDX analysis made from clinker to refractory in a corroded region. The penetration of clinker to refractory showed a minimum level for the composition of MgO-5 wt.-% FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-5 wt.-% ZrSiO{sub 4} and an improvement by about 38 % as compared to MgO-5 wt.-% FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This improvement is associated with a long service life of MgO-FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZrSiO{sub 4} refractories for industrial applications.

  8. Corrosion-resistant sulfur concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur concretes have been developed by the Bureau of Mines as construction materials with physical and mechanical properties that suit them for use in acid and salt corrosive environments where conventional concretes fail. Mixture design methods were established for preparing sulfur concretes using different types of aggregates and recently developed mixed-modified sulfur cements. Bench-scale testing of the sulfur concretes has shown their potential value. Corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of sulfur concrete are superior to those of conventional materials. Field in situ evaluation tests of the sulfur concretes as replacement for conventional concrete materials are in progress in corrosive areas of 24 commercial chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical plants.

  9. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  10. Standard Practices for Simulated Service Testing for Corrosion of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Heat-Transfer Fluids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover test procedures simulating field service for evaluating the performance under corrosive conditions of metallic containment materials in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. 1.2 These practices describe test procedures used to evaluate the resistance to deterioration of metallic containment materials in the several conditions that may occur in operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These conditions include: (1) operating full flow; (2) stagnant empty vented; (3) stagnant, closed to atmosphere, non-draindown; and (4) stagnant, closed to atmosphere, draindown. 1.3 The recommended practices cover the following three te...

  11. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  12. Corrosivity and leaching behavior of controlled low-strength material (CLSM) made using bottom ash and quarry dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the corrosivity and leaching behavior of CLSM made using two different industrial wastes i.e. bottom ash from an incineration facility and quarry dust. The leachate samples were derived from fresh and hardened CLSM mixtures, and studied for leaching and electrical resistivity. The release of various contaminants and the consequent environmental impact caused by the contaminants were studied by the measurement of contaminants in the bleed, in the leachate at 28 days, and on the leachate derived from crushed block and whole block leaching done over a period of 126 days. Results indicated that the CLSM mixtures are non corrosive; diffusion was the leaching mechanism; and the contaminants were found to be moderate to low mobility.

  13. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of laser surface-treated AZ31B Mg bio-implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tso-Chang; Ho, Yee-Hsien; Joshi, Sameehan S; Rajamure, Ravi S; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2017-05-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, they suffer from poor corrosion performance in the human body environment. In light of this, surface modification via rapid surface melting of AZ31B Mg alloy using a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser was conducted. Laser processing was performed with laser energy ranging from 1.06 to 3.18 J/mm(2). The corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of laser surface-treated and untreated AZ31B Mg alloy samples was evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructure examination revealed grain refinement as well as formation and uniform distribution of Mg17Al12 phase along the grain boundary for laser surface-treated samples. Evolution of such unique microstructure during laser surface treatment indicated enhancement in the corrosion resistance of laser surface-treated samples compared to untreated alloy.

  14. Corrosion and Wear Properties of Cold Rolled 0.087% Gd Lean Duplex Stainless Steels for Neutron Absorbing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean duplex stainless steels with 0.087 wt.% gadolinium (Gd were inert arc-melted and cast in molds of size 10 mm × 10 mm × 20 mm. The micro-hardnesses of the rolling direction (RD, transverse direction (TD and short transverse (ST direction were 258.5 HV, 292.3 HV, and 314.7 HV, respectively. A 33% cold rolled specimen had the crystallographic texture that (100 pole was mainly concentrated to the normal direction (ND and (110 pole was concentrated in the center of ND and RD. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate in artificial seawater and 0.1M H2SO4 solution were in the range of 105.6–221.6 mVSHE, 0.59–1.06 mA/cm2, and 4.75–8.25 mVSHE, 0.69–1.68 mA/cm2, respectively. The friction coefficient and wear loss of the 0.087 w/o Gd-lean duplex stainless steels in artificial seawater were about 67% and 65% lower than in air, whereas the wear efficiency was 22% higher. The corrosion and wear behaviors of the 0.087 w/o Gd-lean duplex stainless steels significantly depended on the Gd phases.

  15. Evolutionary Computation Techniques for Predicting Atmospheric Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Marref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion occurs in many engineering structures such as bridges, pipelines, and refineries and leads to the destruction of materials in a gradual manner and thus shortening their lifespan. It is therefore crucial to assess the structural integrity of engineering structures which are approaching or exceeding their designed lifespan in order to ensure their correct functioning, for example, carrying ability and safety. An understanding of corrosion and an ability to predict corrosion rate of a material in a particular environment plays a vital role in evaluating the residual life of the material. In this paper we investigate the use of genetic programming and genetic algorithms in the derivation of corrosion-rate expressions for steel and zinc. Genetic programming is used to automatically evolve corrosion-rate expressions while a genetic algorithm is used to evolve the parameters of an already engineered corrosion-rate expression. We show that both evolutionary techniques yield corrosion-rate expressions that have good accuracy.

  16. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2627 - Atmospheric corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atmospheric corrosion control. 193.2627 Section... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2627 Atmospheric corrosion... atmospheric corrosion by— (a) Material that has been designed and selected to resist the corrosive...

  18. Investigation of corrosion and wear mechanisms in hard material-reinforced duplex steel coatings; Untersuchungen zum Korrosions- und Verschleissverhalten von hartstoffverstaerkten `Duplex`-Schutzschichten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaifi, B. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Schweisstechnik und Trennende Fertigungsverfahren; Goellner, J. [Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik und Werkstoffpruefung

    1998-09-30

    The hard-material reinforced duplex steel coatings were deposited by plasma arc two-powder surfacing. By varying the angle of the hard materials feeding process, the deposition of the carbides was optimized so that they are deposited into the matrix in the trailing zone of the welding torch under conditions of very low thermal effects near the freezing point of the weld pool. Microstructural studies revealed that the deposition of the hard materials prevents devlopment of the typical, ferritic-austenitic microstructure of duplex steels. Due to a dissolution and diffusion process, the microstructure of the matrix takes up carbon and chromium or tungsten, depending on the carbide, thus enhancing the austenitic material in the microstructure. The wear behaviour of the surface deposits was found to be very good, wear being reduced by a factor of 6, irrespective of the type of carbide. The friction-affected surfaces showed no dissolving effects or cracking. The corrosion behaviour in sulfuric acid is also good. The welded deposits exhibited the typical behaviour of a passive material. Wear mechanisms slightly reduce the resistance. The behaviour of various specimens in artificial seawater could be distinctly assessed. Small grain fractions and pre-heating temperatures of 100 C have a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance. The technique recommends itself for applications such as coatings for baffle plates used in flue gas desulfurisation, pipes, pump components, flanges or nozzles, or for recurrent coating of system components affected by abrasive corrosion. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zur Herstellung hartstoffverstaerkter Duplex-Beschichtungen wurde das Plasma-Zwei-Pulver-Auftragschweissverfahren verwendet. Hierbei wurde durch Variation des Zufuhrwinkels der Hartstoffe der Einbringungsort der Karbide optimiert, so dass diese im Nachlauf des Schweissbrenners mit sehr geringer thermischer Beeinflussung im erstarrungsnahen Schmelzbadbereich in die Matrix eingelagert

  19. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  20. Surface mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and cytocompatibility of nitrogen plasma-implanted nickel-titanium alloys: a comparative study with commonly used medical grade materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, K W K; Poon, R W Y; Chu, P K; Chung, C Y; Liu, X Y; Lu, W W; Chan, D; Chan, S C W; Luk, K D K; Cheung, K M C

    2007-08-01

    Stainless steel and titanium alloys are the most common metallic orthopedic materials. Recently, nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys have attracted much attention due to their shape memory effect and super-elasticity. However, this alloy consists of equal amounts of nickel and titanium, and nickel is a well known sensitizer to cause allergy or other deleterious effects in living tissues. Nickel ion leaching is correspondingly worse if the surface corrosion resistance deteriorates. We have therefore modified the NiTi surface by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The surface chemistry and corrosion resistance of the implanted samples were studied and compared with those of the untreated NiTi alloys, stainless steel, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy serving as controls. Immersion tests were carried out to investigate the extent of nickel leaching under simulated human body conditions and cytocompatibility tests were conducted using enhanced green fluorescent protein mice osteoblasts. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results reveal that a thin titanium nitride (TiN) layer with higher hardness is formed on the surface after nitrogen PIII. The corrosion resistance of the implanted sample is also superior to that of the untreated NiTi and stainless steel and comparable to that of titanium alloy. The release of nickel ions is significantly reduced compared with the untreated NiTi. The sample with surface TiN exhibits the highest amount of cell proliferation whereas stainless steel fares the worst. Compared with coatings, the plasma-implanted structure does not delaminate as easily and nitrogen PIII is a viable way to improve the properties of NiTi orthopedic implants.

  1. Review of studies on corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong-chang; ZHANG jin; HUANG Wei-jiu; W. DIETZEL; K. U. KAINER; C. BLAWERT; KE Wei

    2006-01-01

    This review provided some recent progress of the research on corrosion mechanisms of magnesium and its alloys and a basis for follow-on research. Galvanic corrosion,pitting corrosion,intergranular corrosion (IGC),filiform corrosion,crevice corrosion,stress corrosion cracking (SCC),and corrosion fatigue (CF) were discussed. The influence of metallurgical factors such as alloying elements,microstructure and secondary phases,processing factors such as heat treatment and weld,and environmental factors including temperature,relative humidity,solution pH values and concentration on corrosion were discussed. In particular,a mechanism of pitting corrosion caused by AlMn particles was proposed. The corrosion properties of AZ91D weld material were investigated.

  2. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  3. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  4. 崖城气田南山终端三甘醇再生系统管线腐蚀特性%Effect of Pipeline Material and Temperature to Corrosion in Yacheng Gas Field Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王和波

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion occurred on pipelines on TEG regenerator system in Yacheng gas filed terminal. In this case, corrosion resistance of A106B and 316L was studied by dynamic weight loss method, corrosion mechanism was discussed by SEM and XRD method, also corrosion rate variation of these two materials in different temperature was studied. The result showed that corrosion resistance of 316L was better than A106B, and localized corrosion was not serious; as the temperature decreasing along flare system direction, corrosion rate of A106B increased first then decreased and became maximum at 100℃ , while corrosion rate of 316L increased first and then decreased, and became maximum at 150 ℃.%崖城气田南山终端三甘醇再生系统发生管线腐蚀失效,用动态失重法研究了A106B碳钢和316L不锈钢的耐蚀性,并结合扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪分析方法探讨了腐蚀机理.同时研究了两种材质在不同温度下的腐蚀速率变化趋势.结果表明,在模拟工况下,316L比A106B具有更好的耐蚀性,且局部腐蚀不明显.沿去火炬系统方向随着温度的降低,A106B腐蚀速率先增大后减小,100℃时腐蚀速率达到最大;316L腐蚀速率先增大后减小,150℃时腐蚀速率达到最大.

  5. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of a stream generator tube material in simulated steam generator feedwater containing chlorides and sulphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinov, M.; Kinnunen, P.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Sirkiae, P.; Yliniemi, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland); Buddas, T.; Halin, M.; Tompuri, K. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Loviisa Power Plant (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the present work has been to assess the effect of relatively high concentrations of anionic impurities (Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) on the corrosion behaviour of Ti-stabilised stainless steel SG tubes in simulated steam generator feed-water. The main observations of this work can be summarised as follows: Sulphate ions seem to be more aggressive than chloride ions towards the primary passive film on 08X18H10T stainless steel. The results may indicate that it is more important to have a low concentration of sulphate ions than of chloride ions in secondary side water when the effects of chemical conditions on tube degradation are considered. The presence of chloride ions seems to weaken the detrimental effect of sulphate ions on the stability of oxide films growing on 08X18H10T stainless steel. No localised corrosion features of 08X18H10T stainless steel were detected in the voltammetric and impedance measurements in solutions containing up to 5000 ppb sulphates, chlorides or both of the anions. (authors)

  7. Effect of micrometer-scale metallic fillers on the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of alternative materials for conservative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luponio, C; Causa, F; Angelini, E; Pinasco, M R; Ambrosio, L

    2006-01-01

    In conservative dentistry, glass-ionomer cements (GICs) have been proposed as substitutes for composite resins. This is because the latter, although widely used over the last 10 yrs, exhibit inadequate physico-chemical properties. Although the performance of a typical commercial GIC is not yet optimal for restorative dentistry, the addition of metallic filler could improve this. In this study, a series of commercially available GICs were incorporated in trial dental amalgams, whose mechanical and calorimetric properties and morphologies, were examined. The metallic component of these amalgams comprised one of three metallic fillers, each including micrometer-scale metal particles of a different shape. The corrosion resistance of the amalgams, in fluids simulating the oral cavity environment, was also studied. The addition of metallic filler to GIC produced a general improvement in mechanical properties. Of particular note were increases in the elastic modulus, up to around sixfold, with the addition of Valiant metallic filler to the GIC Fuji II, and of the stress at break, up to around fourfold, for the New Gen metallic filler/GIC Fuji II amalgam. In these cases, the mechanical properties of dentine were studied. Micrographic observations showed a highly compact structure of the added GICs, thus reflecting a reduction in shrinkage. Calorimetric and dilatometric analyses further confirmed the suitability for applications in preservative dentistry. Finally, with respect to corrosion resistance, the effect of the introduction of the metallic filler was beneficial in samples with low porosity.

  8. Corrosion in airframes

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  9. CORROSION IN AIRFRAMES

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  10. The dual role of microbes in corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; van Veen, Johannes A

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced products are under increasing pressure of stringent environmental regulations. Furthermore, they are rather inefficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly and sustainable corrosion control strategies. The mechanisms of microbially influenced corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion inhibition are not completely understood, because they cannot be linked to a single biochemical reaction or specific microbial species or groups. Corrosion is influenced by the complex processes of different microorganisms performing different electrochemical reactions and secreting proteins and metabolites that can have secondary effects. Information on the identity and role of microbial communities that are related to corrosion and corrosion inhibition in different materials and in different environments is scarce. As some microorganisms are able to both cause and inhibit corrosion, we pay particular interest to their potential role as corrosion-controlling agents. We show interesting interfaces in which scientists from different disciplines such as microbiology, engineering and art conservation can collaborate to find solutions to the problems caused by corrosion.

  11. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; van Veen, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced products are under increasing pressure of stringent environmental regulations. Furthermore, they are rather inefficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly and sustainable corrosion control strategies. The mechanisms of microbially influenced corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion inhibition are not completely understood, because they cannot be linked to a single biochemical reaction or specific microbial species or groups. Corrosion is influenced by the complex processes of different microorganisms performing different electrochemical reactions and secreting proteins and metabolites that can have secondary effects. Information on the identity and role of microbial communities that are related to corrosion and corrosion inhibition in different materials and in different environments is scarce. As some microorganisms are able to both cause and inhibit corrosion, we pay particular interest to their potential role as corrosion-controlling agents. We show interesting interfaces in which scientists from different disciplines such as microbiology, engineering and art conservation can collaborate to find solutions to the problems caused by corrosion. PMID:25259571

  12. Modelling material effects on flow-accelerated corrosion in primary CANDU coolant and secondary reactor feed-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phromwong, P.; Lister, D., E-mail: c7r13@unb.ca [Univ. of New Brunswick, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada); Uchida, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The effects of chromium content on flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel have been predicted very well by including a passivating layer, which is a chromium-dependent diffusion barrier at the metal-oxide interface. By adjusting the properties of the chromium-dependent layer, described with a Passivation Parameter (PP), we can predict the FAC of carbon steel of different chromium contents in typical reactor feed-water environments (140{sup o}C and neutral or ammoniated chemistry). The model and an appropriate PP are also applied to the environment typical of carbon-steel feeders in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor (310{sup o}C and lithiated chemistry). The model predicts FAC rate very well (with a deviation of 10% or less) in both situations. (author)

  13. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  14. Current Status of Research on Corrosion of Metallic Materials Beneath Insulation Coat%保温层下金属材料腐蚀的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜莹洁; 巩建鸣; 唐建群

    2011-01-01

    综述了保温层下腐蚀(CUI)的研究状况,围绕CUI机理和影响因素展开.重点归纳和阐明了针对CUI问题开展的研究,包括目前的主要研究成果、CUI实验模拟以及检测技术.%The research on corrosion metallic materials beneath insulation(GUI) coat is summarized in this paper.The mechanism and influential factors about CUI are discussed in detail.The recent research progress of CUI is emphasized,including the main research results,experimental simulation and detection technology about CUI.

  15. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  16. High Temperature Corrosion on Biodust Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi

    The high content of alkali metals and chlorine in biomass gives rise to fouling/slagging and corrosion of heat exchange components, such as superheaters, in biomass fired power plants. Increasing the lifetime of these components, and in addition, preventing unwarranted plant shutdowns due...... to their failure, requires understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, as well as development of materials that are resistant to corrosion under biomass firing conditions, thereby motivating the current work. To understand the mechanisms of corrosion attack, comprehensive analysis of corrosion products...... was necessary. In the present work, two complementary methodologies based on analysis of cross sections and plan views were applied to achieve comprehensive characterization of corrosion products. The suitability of these methods for both laboratory scale and full scale corrosion investigations was demonstrated...

  17. Development of rock bolt grout and shotcrete for rock support and corrosion of steel in low-pH cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)); Pettersson, Stig (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    It is foreseen that cementitious products will be utilized in the construction of the final repository. The use of conventional cementitious material creates pulses in the magnitude of pH 12.13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental mainly to impairment of bentonite functioning, but also to possibly enhanced dissolution of spent fuel and alteration of fracture filling materials. It also complicates the safety analysis of the repository, as the effect of a high pH-plume should be considered in the evaluation. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. In earlier studies it was found that shotcreting, standard casting and rock bolting with low-pH cement (pH . 11 in the leachate) should be possible without any major development work. This report summarizes the results of development work done during 2008 and 2009 in the fields of low-pH rock bolt grout, low-pH shotcrete and steel corrosion in low-pH concrete. Development of low-pH rock bolt grout mixes and laboratory testing of the selected grout was followed by installation of twenty rock bolts for rock support at Aspo HRL using the chosen low-pH grout. The operation was successful and the bolts and grout are subject to follow up the next ten years. Low-pH shotcrete for rock support was initially developed within the ESDRED project, which was an Integrated Project within the European Commission sixth framework for research and technological development. ESDRED is an abbreviation for Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs. ESDRED was executed from 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2009. The development of the mix design described in this report was based on the results from ESDRED. After laboratory testing of the chosen mix, it was field tested in niche NASA 0408A at Aspo HRL. Further, some areas in the TASS-tunnel were

  18. 49 CFR 193.2304 - Corrosion control overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion control overview. 193.2304 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2304 Corrosion control overview. (a... materials specifications from a corrosion control viewpoint and determines that the materials involved...

  19. Corrosion Control Anniston Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    parts. • Anodize, Chrome, and Black Oxide (et.al.) • Substrate Prep and CARC paint. Stowage • Climate controlled storage (limited). • Weather...resistant (rain, uv) stowage . • Right Material – Right Time In Process Actions Bldgs 129 and 114 • Installation of new cleaning technologies for small... Rack Dehydration Prep Area CARC Application Flash-Off Oven De-mask and Anti- Corrosion App. Planned Future Actions Survey • Perform a corrosion survey

  20. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  1. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  2. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  3. 硼砂浴内金属材料耐蚀性及抗氧化性的研究%Study on Corrosion Resistance and Oxidation Resistance of Materials Used in Borax Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华昌; 屈鹏; 张莹

    2011-01-01

    According to the test of borax bath corrosion and oxidation resistance of many kinds of heat-resistant stainless steel, the corrosion resistance in borax bath and the oxidation resistance of heat-resistant stainless steel at high temperature were discussed. The results show that the life of material for salt-bath furnace largely depends on the element types and percentage in material, especially, Ni and Cr play a key role in the corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance. It has the best corrosion resistance while there is 20%Cr and 35%Ni in material. The oxidation resistance of material at high temperature is suitable for the requirement of borax bath while the percentage of Cr and Ni is no less than 45%. The corrosion of heat-resistant stainless steel is mainly on the interface between borax bath and air, other parts with less corrosion. Na2O and B2O3 in borax bath accelerate the corrosion of heat-resistant stainless steel. The conclusions provide a foundation for choosing the material of crucible and fixture used in borax bath .%通过对多种耐热不锈钢进行硼砂浴腐蚀及抗氧化试验,研究了各种耐热不锈钢在硼砂浴中的耐腐蚀性及高温抗氧化性.研究结果表明,材料中元素的种类及含量对硼砂浴炉用金属材料的使用寿命有较大影响,其中Ni、Cr元素对材料的耐蚀性及抗氧化性起着决定性作用.材料中Cr含量在20%左右及Ni含量在35%左右时得到最佳的耐蚀性.Cr含量与Ni含量之和不小于45%的材料的高温抗氧化性符合硼砂浴的使用要求.耐热不锈钢的腐蚀主要集中在硼砂浴与空气的交界面处,其他位置腐蚀较弱.硼砂浴中Na2O和B2O3的存在加速了耐热不锈钢的腐蚀.这些研究结果为硼砂浴用坩埚及工夹具的选材提供了依据.

  4. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  5. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Suess

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, materi...

  6. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  7. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  8. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Suess

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, materi...

  9. 粘弹体防腐材料研制及其应用%Development and application of viscoelastic anti-corrosion materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春; 李建忠; 王颖; 连艺秀; 刘艳利; 孙晶; 黄琳

    2012-01-01

    介绍了中国石油天然气管道科学研究院自主研制的粘弹体防腐材料的生产设备、技术参数以及工艺流程,并根据GB/T 4472-84、DIN 30670-91、SY/T 0414-2007、ISO21809-2008和GB/T23257-2009相关标准,对该材料70℃阴极剥离、120 d热水浸泡、23℃剥离强度、剪切强度、绝缘电阻率、密度、冲击强度、吸水率等性能进行了跟踪测试,结果表明:各项性能指标均符合相关标准要求.该材料在西气东输二线补口、阀室、站场等已广泛应用,具有良好的防腐性能,基本确保了西气东输二线管道的安全运行.%Production equipment, technical parameters and process of viscoelastic anti-corrosion materials developed independently by the Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC are described, and a tracking test is conducted for cathode disbonding at 70 °C, 120 d hot water soaking, peel strength at 23 °C, shear strength, insulation resistivity, density, impact strength, water absorption and other properties of the material in accordance with relevant standards such as GB/T4472-84, DIN30670-91, SY/T0414-2007, ISO21809-2008 and GB/T23257-2009. The results show that all performance indexes are in line with the relevant standards. The material with good corrosion resistance has been widely used in the field coating for welded joint, valve chambers and stations in the 2nd West-to-East Gas Pipeline, which basically ensure the safe operation of the Pipeline.

  10. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  11. 海洋腐蚀环境及船用不锈钢管选材备考(下)%Review on Stainless Steel Pipe Selecting Materials Used in Ocean Corrosion Environment and Ship(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何德孚; 王晶滢

    2016-01-01

    The marine corrosion environment was analyzed from the composition of water and sea water corrosion factors. According to the standard of marine stainless steel pipe,it analyzed and assessed the material selection of stainless steel pipe used for ocean petroleum and petrochemical for different use and environment,and analyzed the application case of stainless steel pipe used for marine at home and abroad,finally,it discussed the development tendency of corrosion resistance alloy. The research results showed that Cl- pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion are the root cause of the marine environment corrosion hazard,304L steel is not with the ocean corrosion resistance performance,316L steel can only be used in water after deoxidization under a certain environment and temperature;Application of stainless steel pipe in natural seawater should adopt cathodic protection measures,it should consider the composition of internal oil and gas medium and corrosion characteristics in materials selecting for all kinds of pipeline in oil recovery platform production operation ship.%从海水的成分和海水腐蚀因素对海洋腐蚀环境进行了分析,根据海洋船舶不锈钢管材的标准,分析并评估了海洋石油石化用不锈钢管在不同用途和环境下的选材思路,列举并分析了国内外海洋用不锈钢管的应用案例,最后对船舶用耐蚀合金的发展趋势进行了讨论。研究结果表明, Cl-孔蚀和缝隙腐蚀是海洋环境腐蚀危害的根本原因,304L钢不具备耐海洋腐蚀的性能,316L钢只能在一定环境和温度下在脱氧后的海水中使用;在自然海水中应用不锈钢管必须采用阴极保护措施;采油平台等油气生产作业船舶中各类管道的选材应先考虑其内部的油气介质成分及其腐蚀特征。

  12. Review on Stainless Steel Pipe Selecting Materials Used in Ocean Corrosion Environment and Ship(Ⅰ)%海洋腐蚀环境及船用不锈钢管选材备考(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何德孚; 王晶滢

    2016-01-01

    从海水的成分和海水腐蚀因素对海洋腐蚀环境进行了分析,根据海洋船舶不锈钢管材标准,分析并评估了海洋石油石化用不锈钢管在不同用途和环境下的选材思路,列举并分析了国内外海洋用不锈钢管的应用案例,最后对船舶用耐蚀合金的发展趋势进行了讨论.研究结果表明,Cl-孔蚀和缝隙腐蚀是海洋环境腐蚀危害的根本原因,304L钢不具备耐海洋腐蚀的性能,316L钢只能在一定环境和温度下在脱氧后的海水中使用;在自然海水中应用不锈钢管必须采用阴极保护措施;采油平台等油气生产作业船舶中各类管道的选材应先考虑其内部的油气介质成分及其腐蚀特征.%The marine corrosion environment was analyzed from the composition of water and sea water corrosion factors. According to the standard of marine stainless steel pipe, it analyzed and assessed the material selection of stainless steel pipe used for ocean petroleum and petrochemical for different use and environment, and analyzed the application case of stainless steel pipe used for marine at home and abroad, finally, it discussed the development tendency of corrosion resistance alloy. The research results showed that Cl- pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion are the root cause of the marine environment corrosion hazard, 304L steel is not with the ocean corrosion resistance performance, 316L steel can only be used in water after deoxidization under a certain environment and temperature; Application of stainless steel pipe in natural seawater should adopt cathodic protection measures, it should consider the composition of internal oil and gas medium and corrosion characteristics in materials selecting for all kinds of pipeline in oil recovery platform production operation ship.

  13. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications, Report on NASA-Kamatics SAA3-1288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA3-1288), NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54 kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  14. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  15. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.

  16. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  17. Recent Developments on Autonomous Corrosion Protection Through Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Gillis, M.; Blanton, M.; Hanna, J.; Rawlins, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating, based on microencapsulation, for the autonomous detection and control of corrosion. Microencapsulation has been validated and optimized to incorporate desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition, through corrosion-initiated release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release triggered by mechanical damage. While proof-of-concept results have been previously reported, more recent research and development efforts have concentrated on improving coating compatibility and synthesis procedure scalability, with a targeted goal of obtaining easily dispersible pigment-grade type microencapsulated materials. The recent progress has resulted in the development of pH-sensitive microparticles as a corrosion-triggered delivery system for corrosion indicators and inhibitors. The synthesis and early corrosion indication results obtained with coating formulations that incorporate these microparticles are reported. The early corrosion indicating results were obtained with color changing and with fluorescent indicators.

  18. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  19. Corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    Present study relates to the corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304 L, 316 L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the corrosivity of effluents. The corrosivity of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl- content while the addition of SO4- tends to inhibit corrosion. Mill effluent was found to be more corrosive as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. Corrosion performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents.

  20. Recent Corrosion Research Trends in Weld Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Woon Suk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The increasing interest in the corrosion properties of weld joints in the corrosive environment is placing stringent demands on the manufacturing techniques and performance requirements, and the manufacture employs the high quality and efficiency welding process to produce welds. Welding plays an important role in the fabrication of chemical plants, nuclear power plant, ship construction, and this has led to an increasing attention to the corrosion resistant weld joints. This paper covers recent technical trends of welding technologies for corrosion resistance properties including the COMPENDEX DB analysis of welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrications

  1. Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Corrosion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    biology of Amorphoteca resinae . Materials und Organismen, 6, (3), p. 161, (1971). 8. D. Cabral. Corrosion by microorganisms of jet aircraft integral fuel...the mycelium of the fungus Hormoconis resinae in the MIC of Al alloys. Proc. XI Int. Corrosion Congress, Houston, USA, 5B, p. 3773, (1993). 14. M

  2. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degre

  3. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, D.J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced pr

  4. Solutions of corrosion Problems in advanced Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The ferritic steels suffered from corrosion mainly via material loss. The austenitic steels suffered from predominantly selective corrosion resulting in chromium depletion from the alloy. A clear trend was observed that selective...

  5. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  6. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, D.J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced

  7. Corrosion resistance of materials for use in geothermal power plants; Korrosionsbestaendigkeit von Werkstoffen fuer den Einsatz in Geothermieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baessler, Ralph [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich ' Korrosionsschutz von Technischen Anlagen und Geraeten' ; Sarmiento Klapper, Helmuth [Baker Hughes - Celle Technology Center, Celle (Germany). Bereich ' Drilling and Evaluation' ; Burkert, Andreas [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich ' Korrosion im Bauwesen'

    2012-10-15

    Due to the extreme operation conditions, the material selection for drill technical and process technical installations is decisive for a safe and reliable operation of geothermal power plant. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the limits in the range of geothermal deep drillings for the exploration of high saline aquifer fluids of Gross Schoenebeck (Federal Republic of Germany). These limits were estimated by means of electrochemical investigations and classical outsourcing experiments within the materials qualifications for two high-alloyed steels.

  8. Report on accelerated corrosion studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Glass, Sarah Jill; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted accelerated atmospheric corrosion testing for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help further the understanding of the development of corrosion products on conductor materials in household electrical components exposed to environmental conditions representative of homes constructed with problem drywall. The conditions of the accelerated testing were chosen to produce corrosion product growth that would be consistent with long-term exposure to environments containing humidity and parts per billion (ppb) levels of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) that are thought to have been the source of corrosion in electrical components from affected homes. This report documents the test set-up, monitoring of electrical performance of powered electrical components during the exposure, and the materials characterization conducted on wires, screws, and contact plates from selected electrical components. No degradation in electrical performance (measured via voltage drop) was measured during the course of the 8-week exposure, which was approximately equivalent to 40 years of exposure in a light industrial environment. Analyses show that corrosion products consisting of various phases of copper sulfide, copper sulfate, and copper oxide are found on exposed surfaces of the conductor materials including wires, screws, and contact plates. The morphology and the thickness of the corrosion products showed a range of character. In some of the copper wires that were observed, corrosion product had flaked or spalled off the surface, exposing fresh metal to the reaction with the contaminant gasses; however, there was no significant change in the wire cross-sectional area.

  9. 基于软件模拟的固体物质氧化腐蚀过程研究%Study on Process of Solid Material Oxidation Corrosion based on Software Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衡; 郭应征; 费庆国; 刘宏月

    2014-01-01

    运用多物理场耦合有限元分析软件,对固体物质在氧气充足情况下的氧化腐蚀情况进行模拟,得到了某固体物质在某温度下清晰的氧化腐蚀过程。在模拟结果中,可提取的信息包括固体物质的体积、质量随时间的变化情况、由腐蚀引起的氧气浓度变化以及温度变化。此腐蚀模拟方法对于腐蚀环境下的材料力学性能研究有重大作用。%The simulation of solid material’s oxidation corrosion in fully oxygen condition is carried out with the multi-physical finite element analysis software.The clear process of oxidation corro-sion of a solid material in a certain temperature can be achieved.A lot of information can be ex-tracted from the simulation results,such as the change of the mass and volume of the solid mate-rial,the changes of oxygen concentration and temperature caused by the corrosion along with time variation.The corrosion simulation method has a major role in the study on mechanical properties of materials under corrosive environment.

  10. NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center: Anticipating, Managing, and Preventing Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material that results from its interaction with the environment. The marine environment at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the United States. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pads were rendered even more severe by the 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that were generated by the solid rocket boosters. Numerous failures at the launch pads are caused by corrosion.The structural integrity of ground infrastructure and flight hardware is critical to the success, safety, cost, and sustainability of space missions. As a result of fifty years of experience with launch and ground operations in a natural marine environment that is highly corrosive, NASAs Corrosion Technology Laboratory at KSC is a major source of corrosion control expertise in the launch and other environments. Throughout its history, the Laboratory has evolved from what started as an atmospheric exposure facility near NASAs launch pads into a world-wide recognized capability that provides technical innovations and engineering services in all areas of corrosion for NASA and external customers.This presentation will provide a historical overview of the role of NASAs Corrosion Technology in anticipating, managing, and preventing corrosion. One important challenge in managing and preventing corrosion involves the detrimental impact on humans and the environment of what have been very effective corrosion control strategies. This challenge has motivated the development of new corrosion control technologies that are more effective and environmentally friendly. Strategies for improved corrosion protection and durability can have a huge impact on the economic sustainability of human spaceflight operations.

  11. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  12. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Similar Industries and/or Launch Facilities Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Trejo, David; Whitten, Mary C.; Zidek, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A trade study and litera ture survey of refractory materials (fi rebrick. refractory concrete. and si licone and epoxy ablatives) were conducted to identify candidate replacement materials for Launch Complexes 39A and 398 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In addition, site vis its and in terviews with industry expens and vendors of refractory materials were conducted. As a result of the si te visits and interviews, several products were identified for launch applications. Firebrick is costly to procure and install and was not used in the si tes studied. Refractory concrete is gunnable. adheres well. and costs less 10 install. Martyte. a ceramic fi lled epoxy. can protect structural stccl but is costly. difficullto apply. and incompatible with silicone ablatives. Havanex, a phenolic ablative material, is easy to apply but is costly and requires frequent replacement. Silicone ablatives are ineJ[pensive, easy to apply. and perl'onn well outside of direct rocket impingement areas. but refractory concrete and epoxy ablatives provide better protection against direcl rocket exhaust. None of the prodUCIS in this trade study can be considered a panacea for these KSC launch complexes. but the refractory products. individually or in combination, may be considered for use provided the appropriate testing requirements and specifications are met.

  13. A review on in vitro corrosion performance test of biodegradable metallic materials%生物可降解金属材料体外腐蚀测试体系综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄珍; 奚廷斐; 郑玉峰

    2013-01-01

    Extensive in vitro corrosion test systems have been carried out to simulate the in vivo corrosion behavior of biodegradable metallic materials. Various methods have their own unique benefits and limitations. The corrosion mechanism of biodegradable alloys and in vitro corrosion test systems on biodegradable metallic materials are reviewed, to build a reasonable simulated in vitro test system for mimicking the in vivo animal test from the aspects of electrolyte solution selection, surface roughness influence, test methods and evaluation methodology of corrosion rate. Buffered simulated body fluid containing similar components to human blood plasma should be applied as electrolyte solution, such as simulated body fluid (SBF) and culture medium with serum. Surface roughness of samples and ratio of solution volume to sample surface area should be adopted based on the real implant situation, and the dynamic corrosion is preferred. As to the evaluation methodology of corrosion rate, different methods may complement one another.%随着生物可降解金属材料日益受到关注,大量的体外腐蚀测试体系被用来模拟其体内腐蚀行为。不同的测试体系具有其独特的优点和缺点。为建立一个合理的并且更接近体内真实情况的测试体系,对可降解金属材料的腐蚀机理和体外腐蚀测试体系进行总结。从电解质溶液的选择、样品表面粗糙度的影响、测试方法以及腐蚀速度的评价方法等几个方面进行阐述,得到以下初步结论:电解质溶液应该选择与体液成分接近的含有蛋白的缓冲模拟体液,样品表面粗糙度和溶液体积与样品表面积之比应该接近植入部位的实际要求,并且采用动态腐蚀测试方法,同时多种腐蚀速度评价方法应当相互参照。

  14. Corrosion studies in brines of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; McCawley, F.X.; Cramer, S.D.; Needham, P.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Toward the goal of maximizing minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, has conducted in situ corrosion studies at the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) in the Imperial Valley, Calif., to evaluate and characterize materials of construction for geothermal resources recovery plants. General-, pitting, and crevice-corrosion characteristics of 13 commercially available alloys were investigated for periods of 15 and 30 days in seven process environments expected to be found in typical geothermal resources plants. Stainless steel alloy 29-4, Inconel 625, and the Hastelloys G, S, and C-276 were the most resistant to general corrosion, did not pit, and exhibited little susceptibility to crevice corrosion. Stainless steel alloys 430, E-Brite 26-1, and 6X had low general corrosion rates, but pitted and were susceptible to crevice corrosion. Stainless steel alloy 316 L had a low corrosion rate, but corroded intergranularly, pitted, and was susceptible to crevice corrosion and to stress-corrosion cracking. Titanium--1.5 nickel and TiCode-12 had low corrosion rates, did not pit, and were not susceptible to crevice corrosion. Carbon and 4130 steels had high corrosion rates, pitted, and had high susceptibilities to crevice corrosion. The major scale-forming mineral on the corrosion samples in most of the process environments studied was galena mixed with lesser amounts of other minerals.

  15. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Corrosion Monitoring Sensors. Part 2: Application and Testing of the Coating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-22

    composition to the steel used in the vehicle being monitored (e.g. mild steel), those alloys are rarely manufactured in powder form and were...effectiveness of the painted tags is the increase of the magnetic permeability of the filler powders due to the formation of the ferrous oxides, such...and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys ”, ASM Handbook, Vol. 1, 1990, 195-199, ASM International, Materials Park, OH. [18] SAE

  16. Corrosion and wear resistant metallic layers produced by electrochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion and wear-corrosion properties of novel nickel alloy coatings with promising production characteristics have been compared with conventional bulk materials and hard platings. Corrosion properties in neutral and acidic environments have been investigated with electrochemical methods....... Determination of polarisation resistance during 100 hours followed by stepwise anodic polarisation seems to be a promising technique to obtain steady state data on slowly corroding coatings with transient kinetics. A slurry test enables determination of simultaneous corrosion and abrasive wear. Comparison...

  17. Modeling of Discontinuities in Resistance Structures due to Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boboş

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion process is a process that produces significant negative effects on the resistance structures by reducing their section and by deterioration of mechanical properties of materials. In this paper are presented some notions about the corrosion process, types of corrosion encountered and types of geometric models that can be used for analytical calculation and for numerical simulation using finite element analysis programs, of the effects produced in the corrosion process on the natural frequency of the structure elements.

  18. Engineering Performance of a New Siloxane-Based Corrosion Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Niall; O'Brien, R.; Basheer, P. A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of a new non-toxic corrosion inhibitor on selected engineering properties of concrete mixes with different cementitious materials following a corrosion and durability study on concrete samples. Corrosion inhibitors consist of powders or solutions which are added to concrete when mixed to prevent or delay corrosion of steel by their reaction with ferrous ions to form a stable and passive ferric oxide film on the steel surface. The new inhibitor functions sligh...

  19. Corrosion of bio implants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Kamachi Mudali; T M Sridhar; Baldev Raj

    2003-06-01

    Chemical stability, mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility in body fluids and tissues are the basic requirements for successful application of implant materials in bone fractures and replacements. Corrosion is one of the major processes affecting the life and service of orthopaedic devices made of metals and alloys used as implants in the body. Among the metals and alloys known, stainless steels (SS), Co–Cr alloys and titanium and its alloys are the most widely used for the making of biodevices for extended life in human body. Incidences of failure of stainless steel implant devices reveal the occurrence of significant localised corroding viz., pitting and crevice corrosion. Titanium forms a stable TiO2 film which can release titanium particles under wear into the body environment. To reduce corrosion and achieve better biocompatibility, bulk alloying of stainless steels with titanium and nitrogen, surface alloying by ion implantation of stainless steels and titanium and its alloys, and surface modification of stainless steel with bioceramic coatings are considered potential methods for improving the performance of orthopaedic devices. This review discusses these issues in depth and examines emerging directions.

  20. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  1. Workshop on Avionics Corrosion Control: Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD (62nd) Held in Hovik (Norway) on 16-17 April 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    transparent waterproof seal which, if corrosion is detected through the transparency, is easily removed with a solvent for treatment of the corrosion...This paper deals with them botk, One has only a cosmetic effect on electronic modules and, so far, no failure can be related to It. The other one...products used to build, maintain or fix must not be hazardous to the health, - the ratio cost/sePvice must be evaluated, - finally the cosmetic aspect

  2. Effect of chloride and sulfate ions in simulated AVT waters on electrochemical corrosion behavior and oxide film characteristics of LP steam turbine materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Takahiro [Shinshu Univ., Nagano City (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Sience and Technology; Goto, Teruyuki [NSK Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Niu, Li-Bin [Shinshu Univ., Nagano City (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Science and Technology; Takaku, Hiroshi [Shinshu Univ., Nagano City (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-07-15

    Electrochemical corrosion behavior and film characteristics were investigated in simulated all-volatile treatment (AVT) waters containing both sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) for 13Cr, 16Cr-4Ni, 3.5NiCrMoV and high-purity 9CrMoV steels of low-pressure (LP) steam turbines in power plants. Concerning the 13Cr, 16Cr-4Ni and high-purity 9CrMoV steels, the corrosion pit growth proceeded with an increasing content of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} up to 50 mg x kg{sup -1} in the test water with 100 mg x kg{sup -1} Cl{sup -}, although a SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration above 50 mg x kg{sup -1} in the test water suppressed the corrosion pit growth due to the combined effect of Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. No corrosion pits occurred for 3.5NiCrMoV steel, which showed predominantly general corrosion in the test waters with Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. It is concluded that both the heat-treatment-improved 16Cr-4Ni steel for blades and the newly developed high-purity 9CrMoV steel for rotors have a high resistance to pitting corrosion. (orig.)

  3. Corrosion processing technology of high-silicon aluminium alloy cylinder sleeve material%高硅铝合金缸套材料腐蚀加工技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙廷富; 洪晓露; 杨亚琛; 崔崇亮; 翟景; 郭安振; 李胜杰

    2014-01-01

    The micro-structure,particle size and alkaline corrosion depth of high-silicon aluminium alloy cylinder sleeve material were tested by three-dimensional video micro-metallographical technique;The concave-convex of particles and surface texture on the alkaline corrosion interface were observed by laser confocal microscopy technique;The tribology property of alkaline corrosion samples was evaluated by reciprocating friction-wear tester. Results show that the micro-structure of high-silicon aluminium alloy was composed of Si particles with average size 4.00μm and hard second phase particles with average size 3.05μm. With the extension of corrosion time,the corrosion depth increases and corrosion interface enlarges. The surface concave-convex is more clearer as well. Through friction-wear test,it is also revealed that the tribology property reaches the best under the condition that alkaline concentration was 5Wt%,solution temperature is 40℃and alkaline corrosion time is 30~40 s.%采用三维视频显微金相技术对高硅铝合金缸套材料的组织构成、颗粒尺寸以及碱腐蚀深度进行测试与评价;用激光共聚焦显微镜技术对碱腐蚀界面颗粒凹凸以及表面纹理进行观察与描述;用往复式摩擦磨损实验机对碱腐蚀试样进行摩擦学性能评价。结果表明:高硅铝合金组织中主要由硅颗粒及第二相硬质点颗粒构成,平均硅颗粒尺寸为4.00μm,平均第二相颗粒尺寸为3.05μm;随腐蚀时间、深度的增加,腐蚀界面区域增大,表面凸凹及纹理更加清晰,当碱的质量分数为5%,溶液温度为40℃,腐蚀时间为30~40 s,摩擦学性能最优越。

  4. INHIBITION OF CORROSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, J.E. Jr.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-06-24

    A method is described for preventing corrosion of metallic container materials by a high-temperature liquid bismuth flowing therein. The method comprises fabricating the containment means from a steel which contains between 2 and 12% chromium, between 0.5 and 1.5% of either molybdenum and silicon, and a minimum of nickel and manganese, and maintaining zirconium dissolved in the liquid bismuth at a concentration between 50 parts per million and its saturation value at the lowest temperature in the system.

  5. Investigation of the Use of Laser Shock Peening for Enhancing Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Nuclear Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay K. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jackson, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Teysseyre, Sebastien [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alexandreanu, Bogdan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Yiren [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The objective of this project, which includes close collaboration with scientists from INL and ANL, is to investigate and demonstrate the use of advanced mechanical surface treatments like laser shock peening (LSP) and ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) and establish baseline parameters for enhancing the fatigue properties and SCC resistance of nuclear materials like nickel-based alloy 600 and 304 stainless steel. The research program includes the following key elements/tasks: 1) Procurement of Alloy 600 and 304 SS, heat treatment studies; 2) LSP and UNSM processing of base metal and welds/HAZ of alloys 600 and 304; (3) measurement and mapping of surface and sub-surface residual strains/stresses and microstructural changes as a function of process parameters using novel methods; (4) determination of thermal relaxation of residual stresses (macro and micro) and microstructure evolution with time at high temperatures typical of service conditions and modeling of the kinetics of relaxation; (5) evaluation of the effects of residual stress, near surface microstructure and temperature on SCC and fatigue resistance and associated microstructural mechanisms; and (6) studies of the effects of bulk and surface grain boundary engineering on improvements in the SCC resistance and associated microstructural and cracking mechanisms

  6. Corrosion-Resistant High-Entropy Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhu Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion destroys more than three percent of the world’s gross domestic product. Therefore, the design of highly corrosion-resistant materials is urgently needed. By breaking the classical alloy-design philosophy, high-entropy alloys (HEAs possess unique microstructures, which are solid solutions with random arrangements of multiple elements. The particular locally-disordered chemical environment is expected to lead to unique corrosion-resistant properties. In this review, the studies of the corrosion-resistant HEAs during the last decade are summarized. The corrosion-resistant properties of HEAs in various aqueous environments and the corrosion behavior of HEA coatings are presented. The effects of environments, alloying elements, and processing methods on the corrosion resistance are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the possible directions of future work regarding the corrosion behavior of HEAs are suggested.

  7. Electrochemical Measurement of Atmospheric Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Anna H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion of Shuttle thruster components in atmospheres containing high concentrations of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and water is an important issue in ground operations of bipropellant systems in humid locations. Measurements of the corrosivities of NTO-containing atmospheres and the responses of different materials to these atmospheres have been accomplished using an electrochemical sensor. The sensor is composed of alternating aluminum/titanium strips separated by thin insulating layers. Under high humidity conditions a thin film of water covers the surface of the sensor. Added NTO vapor reacts with the water film to form a conductive medium and establishes a galvanic cell. The current from this cell can be integrated with respect to time and related to the corrosion activity. The surface layer formed from humid air/NTO reacts in the same way as an aqueous solution of nitric acid. Nitric acid is generally considered an important agent in NTO corrosion situations. The aluminum/titanium sensor is unresponsive to dry air, responds slightly to humid air (> 75% RH), and responds strongly to the combination of humid air and NTO. The sensor response is a power function (n = 2) of the NTO concentration. The sensor does not respond to NTO in dry air. The response of other materials in this type of sensor is related to position of the material in a galvanic series in aqueous nitric acid. The concept and operation of this electrochemical corrosion measurement is being applied to other corrosive atmospheric contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, and acidic aerosols.

  8. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  9. Study on High Temperature Corrosion of Water Wall Materials in Simulated Furnace Atmosphere%水冷壁材料在模拟烟气中的高温腐蚀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张知翔; 成丁南; 边宝; 金用强; 徐良红; 赵钦新

    2011-01-01

    以电站锅炉水冷壁候选材料T91为研究对象,以12CrlMoV为对比材料,对两种材料在450℃氧化性气氛、还原性气氛以及氧化-还原交替气氛三种工况下进行高温腐蚀实验研究,通过电镜和能谱对结果进行分析.研究发现:宏观腐蚀增重、腐蚀层厚度及迁移深度三者结合起来能表征材料的腐蚀程度;O与S相互促进的腐蚀模式比单纯H2S腐蚀更严重;Cr2O3对H2S气体的抗腐蚀效果不明显,但是其能够破坏O与S相互促进的腐蚀模式,增强材料的抗腐蚀能力;T91的抗腐蚀能力明显强于12CrlMoV.%Candidate materials of supercritical and ultra-supercritical utility boiler water wall T91 and 12Cr1MoV were chosen as the experimental samples, and exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere, a reducing atmosphere and an oxidizing/reducing alternating atmosphere respectively. The corrosion temperature was 450℃. The corroded samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. To describe the corrosion of the materials accurately, the mass gain, the macro-thickness, and the migration depth were simultaneously analyzed. The combination corrosion of oxygen and sulfur had a stronger corrodibility than that of pure H2S. Cr2O3 had little effect in resisting H2S corrosion, but it can hinder the combination corrosion model. T91 had a stronger corrosion resistance than 12Cr1MoV.

  10. Corrosion Reliability of Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Jensen, Stine G.; Møller, Per

    2008-01-01

    Inherently two factors namely multi-material usage and potential bias makes electronic devices susceptible to corrosion if exposed to humid conditions. The problem is compounded today due to miniaturization and contamination effects. The reduction in size of the components and close spacing...... on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for high density packing has greatly increased the risk of corrosion under humid conditions. An important issue is the failures due to electrolytic metal migration. This paper describes an investigation of the electrolytic migration of Sn-Pb solder lines on PCBs in humid...

  11. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Protection of Metals and Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alexandrovich Grachev; Andrei Evgenievich Rozen; Gennadii Vasilievich Kozlov; Andrei Andreievich Rozen

    2016-01-01

    In this article authors set out a principle of pitting corrosion protection, suggested a new class of multilayer materials with high corrosion resistance. They substantiated the choice of the layers for the multilayer material designed for exploitation in oxidizing and non-oxidizing environment. The sphere of application of the multilayer materials was defined.

  12. Influence of the operating parameters over the current efficiency and corrosion rate in the Hall-Heroult aluminum cell with tin oxide anode substrate material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virgil Constantin

    2015-01-01

    A systematic laboratory study was conducted on current efficiency and corrosion obtalned in cryolite–alumina melts with SnO2–Sb2O3–CuO ceramic inert anodes. The current efficiency (CE) was determined by measuring the total amount of oxygen evolved at the anode and was found to be~95%. The influence of operating parameters (inter-elec-trode distance, temperature and current density) was evaluated. The quantitative interdependencies as wel as the ranges of CE optimal values were established (2–3 cm, 940–960 °C and 0.7–0.8 A·cm−2). The corrosion process of these anodes was evaluated by the mass loss method. The evaluation also took care of the corrosion data, as the prob-lem of the anode corrosion appeared to be the maln obstacle for the use of those anodes in the commercial cel s. Low-ering of the ACD up to 2 cm did not aggravate anode corrosion.

  13. Erosion--Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, B.

    1978-01-01

    The deterioration of materials by corrosion or erosion by itself presents a formidable problem and for this reason investigators have studied these two phenomena independently. In fact, there are very few systematic studies on E-C and the majority of references mention it only in passing. In most real systems, however, the two destructive processes take place simultaneously, hence the purpose of this review is to present the various interactions between the chemical and mechanical agents leading to accelerated degradation of the material. The papers cited in the review are those that lead to a better understanding of the process involved in the accelerated rate of material loss under E-C conditions.

  14. Corrosion of High Chromium Ferritic/Martensitic Steels in High Temperature Water. a Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Available literature concerning corrosion of high-chromium ferritic/martensitic steels in high temperature water has been reviewed. The subjects considered are general corrosion, effect of irradiation on corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). In addition some investigations about radiation induced segregation (RIS) are shown in order to know the compositional changes at grain boundaries of these alloys and their influence on corrosion properties. The data on general corrosion indicate moderate corrosion rates in high temperature water up to 350 degree centigree. Considerably larger corrosion rates were observed under neutron irradiation. The works concerning to the behaviour of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking seem to conclude that in these materials is necessary to optimize the temper temperature and to carry out the post-weld heat treatments properly in order to avoid stress corrosion cracking. (Author) 40 refs.

  15. Surface modification for corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-06-01

    The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion of metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbaix, M

    1984-05-01

    Methods of electrochemical thermodynamics (electrode potential-pH equilibrium diagrams) and electrochemical kinetics (polarization curves) may help to understand and predict the corrosion behaviour of metals and alloys in the presence of body fluids. A short review of the literature is given concerning some applications of such methods, both in vitro and in vivo, relating to surgical implants (stainless steels, chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloys, titanium and titanium alloys) and to dental alloys (silver-tin-copper amalgams, silver-base and gold-base casting alloys, nickel-base casting alloys). Attention is drawn to the necessity of more basic research on crevice- and fretting-corrosion of surgical implant materials and dental alloys, and to the toxicity of corrosion products. A perfect understanding of the exact significance of electrode-potentials is essential for the success of such a task.

  17. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  18. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    2000-01-28

    Alloy 22 is an extremely Corrosion Resistant Material, with a very stable passive film. Based upon exposures in the LTCTF, the GC rates of Alloy 22 are typically below the level of detection, with four outliers having reported rates up to 0.75 #mu#m per year. In any event, over the 10,000 year life of the repository, GC of the Alloy 22 (assumed to be 2 cm thick) should not be life limiting. Because measured corrosion potentials are far below threshold potentials, localized breakdown of the passive film is unlikely under plausible conditions, even in SSW at 120 deg C. The pH in ambient-temperature crevices formed from Alloy 22 have been determined experimentally, with only modest lowering of the crevice pH observed under plausible conditions. Extreme lowering of the crevice pH was only observed under situations where the applied potential at the crevice mouth was sufficient to result in catastrophic breakdown of the passive film above the threshold potential in non-buffered conditions not characteristic of the Yucca Mountain environment. In cases where naturally ocurring buffers are present in the crevice solution, little or no lowering of the pH was observed, even with significant applied potential. With exposures of twelve months, no evidence of crevice corrosion has been observed in SDW, SCW and SAW at temperatures up to 90 deg C. An abstracted model has been presented, with parameters determined experimentally, that should enable performance assessment to account for the general and localized corrosion of this material. A feature of this model is the use of the materials specification to limit the range of corrosion and threshold potentials, thereby making sure that substandard materials prone to localized attack are avoided. Model validation will be covered in part by a companion SMR on abstraction of this model.

  19. Electrochemical Fabrication and Characterization of Corrosion-Resistant, Ternary, Lead-Based Alloys as a New Material for Steel Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, A. Sh.; Tahirli, H. M.; Elrouby, Mahmoud; Soltanova, N. Sh.; Tagiev, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the study of the synthesis of the ternary Pb-Sb-Te alloy on the stainless steel substrate via electrochemical method. The corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited alloy has been investigated via subjecting the electro-synthesized alloy to a corrosive medium containing sulfide ions; this medium is similar to the petroleum refining environment. The resulting film of the electrodeposited alloy was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphology and the phase structure of the electrodeposited film. It was found that the electrodeposited Pb-Sb-Te alloy thin film is a multiphase composition. The obtained data reveal that the most corrosion-resistant phase is the PbSb2Te4 alloy.

  20. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.

    1997-04-01

    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  1. Corrosion behavior of corrosion resistant alloys in stimulation acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheldi, Tiziana [ENI E and P Division, 20097 San Donato Milanese Milano (Italy); Piccolo, Eugenio Lo; Scoppio, Lucrezia [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, via Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, selection of CRAs for downhole tubulars is generally based on resistance to corrosive species in the production environment containing CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, chloride and in some case elemental sulphur. However, there are non-production environments to which these materials must also be resistant for either short term or prolonged duration; these environments include stimulation acids, brine and completion fluids. This paper reports the main results of a laboratory study performed to evaluate the corrosion and stress corrosion behaviour to the acidizing treatments of the most used CRAs for production tubing and casing. Laboratory tests were performed to simulate both 'active' and 'spent' acids operative phases, selecting various environmental conditions. The selected steel pipes were a low alloyed steel, martensitic, super-martensitic, duplex 22 Cr, superduplex 25 Cr and super-austenitic stainless steels (25 Cr 35 Ni). Results obtained in the 'active' acid environments over the temperature range of 100-140 deg. C, showed that the blend acids with HCl at high concentration and HCl + HF represented too much severe conditions, where preventing high general corrosion and heavy localised corrosion by inhibition package becomes very difficult, especially for duplex steel pipe, where, in some case, the specimens were completely dissolved into the solution. On the contrary, all steels pipes were successfully protected by inhibitor when organic acid solution (HCOOH + CH{sub 3}COOH) were used. Furthermore, different effectiveness on corrosion protection was showed by the tested inhibitors packages: e.g. in the 90% HCl at 12% + 10 CH{sub 3}COOH acid blend. In 'spent' acid environments, all steel pipes showed to be less susceptible to the localised and general corrosion attack. Moreover, no Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC) was observed. Only one super-austenitic stainless steel U-bend specimen showed

  2. Effect of test solution compositions on corrosion resistance of {sup 13}Cr materials in a little amount of H{sub 2}S environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, Hisashi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan). Corporate R and D Labs.; Ueda, Masakatsu [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1999-11-01

    The effect of the buffer solution composition on the corrosion resistance of super 13Cr martensitic stainless steels is studied. It is widely recognized that the SSC susceptibility of 13Cr stainless steels depends on the H{sub 2}S partial pressure and pH in the solution. To control the pH value, buffered solutions are defined in NACE TM0177-96 (solution B) and EFC publications to simulate the actual field conditions in the laboratory tests under normal pressure. However, with some modifications of the buffer agents, there were some cases that the discoloring of the specimen was observed and the pitting occurred with the larger corrosion rate in some test conditions. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of super 13Cr stainless steels are considered to be influenced by the composition of the buffer solution. That is, the corrosion resistance of the steel depend on the concentration of CH{sub 3}COONa/CH{sub 3}COOH included in the test solution as the buffer agent, even in the same pH. The super 13Cr steel was not passivated in the buffer solution including 0.4 wt% CH{sub 3}COONa adjusted pH 3.5 with CH{sub 3}COOH recommended in NACE TM0177. Cr was detected in the solution, and it is considered that the CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}} ion enhanced the dissolution of the steel since it can form the complex ion with Cr and therefore it prevents the surface of the steels from passivation. It is suggested that the buffer solution with 0.04 wt% CH{sub 3}COONa with CH{sub 3}COOH is appropriate solution for evaluating the corrosion resistance of super 13Cr steels because it has enough buffer power during the corrosion test, and has no effect on forming of the passivation film.

  3. Laser-controllable coatings for corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Skirtach, Andre G; Sviridov, Dmitry V; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2009-07-28

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach to the corrosion protection by use of "smart" laser-controllable coating. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that one could terminate the corrosion process by very intensive healing after an appearance of corrosion centers using local laser irradiation. It is also shown that by applying a polyelectrolyte shell with noble metal particles over the mesoporous titania and silica via layer-by-layer assembly it is possible to fabricate micro- and nanoscaled reservoirs, which, being incorporated into the zirconia-organosilica matrix, are responsible for the ability of laser-driven release of the loaded materials (e.g., corrosion inhibitor). Furthermore, the resultant films are highly adhesive and could be easily deposited onto different metallic substrates. Laser-mediated remote release of incorporated corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole) from engineered mesoporous containers with silver nanoparticles in the container shell is observed in real time on single and multicontainer levels.

  4. Corrosion performance of structural alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1999-07-15

    Component reliability and long-term trouble-free performance of structural materials are essential in power-generating and gasification processes that utilize coal as a feedstock. During combustion and conversion of coal, the environments encompass a wide range of oxygen partial pressures, from excess-air conditions in conventional boilers to air-deficient conditions in 10W-NO{sub x} and gasification systems. Apart from the environmental aspects of the effluent from coal combustion and conversion, one concern from the systems standpoint is the aggressiveness of the gaseous/deposit environment toward structural components such as waterwall tubes, steam superheaters, syngas coolers, and hot-gas filters. The corrosion tests in the program described in this paper address the individual and combined effects of oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine on the corrosion response of several ASME-coded and noncoded structural alloys that were exposed to air-deficient and excess-air environments typical of coal-combustion and gasification processes. Data in this paper address the effects of preoxidation on the subsequent corrosion performance of structural materials such as 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel, Type 347 austenitic stainless steel, Alloys 800, 825, 625, 214, Hastelloy X, and iron aluminide when exposed at 650 C to various mixed-gas environments with and without HCI. Results are presented for scaling kinetics, microstructural characteristics of corrosion products, detailed evaluations of near-surface regions of the exposed specimens, gains in our mechanistic understanding of the roles of S and Cl in the corrosion process, and the effect of preoxidation on subsequent corrosion.

  5. Corrosion resistance of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahvash, F.; Eissa, S.; Bordjiba, T.; Tavares, A. C.; Szkopek, T.; Siaj, M.

    2017-02-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a layered material with high thermal and chemical stability ideal for ultrathin corrosion resistant coatings. Here, we report the corrosion resistance of Cu with hBN grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that hBN layers inhibit Cu corrosion and oxygen reduction. We find that CVD grown hBN reduces the Cu corrosion rate by one order of magnitude compared to bare Cu, suggesting that this ultrathin layer can be employed as an atomically thin corrosion-inhibition coating.

  6. CORIS[sup (TM)]: Corrosion data base. CORIS trademark : Korrosionsdatenbank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervens, T. (AV-IM Angewandte Mathematik, Leverkusen - Bayerwerk (Germany)); Krohn-Huppertz, R. (AV-IM Angewandte Mathematik, Leverkusen - Bayerwerk (Germany)); Schlagner, W. (IN-ATUE Werkstofftechnik, Leverkusen - Bayerwerk (Germany))

    1993-10-01

    In this paper the main component of the CORIS system, the corrosion database, is presented. The database contains corrosion facts for metallic materials with respect to all important corrosion parameters. E/R-Models (Entity-Relationship-models) were used for structuring the corrosion knowledge, and the functionality of the system is described in detail from the conceptual and the practical point of view. The system offers the possibility to enter own corrosion data as well as to evaluate stored data. The graphical interactive user interface was designed for simple use. (orig.)

  7. The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository From A Corrosion Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Payer

    2005-03-10

    Corrosion is a primary determinant of waste package performance at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and will control the delay time for radionuclide transport from the waste package. Corrosion is the most probable and most likely degradation process that will determine when packages will be penetrated and the shape size and distribution of those penetrations. The general issues in corrosion science, materials science and electrochemistry are well defined, and the knowledge base is substantial for understanding corrosion processes. In this paper, the Yucca Mountain Repository is viewed from a corrosion perspective.

  8. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  9. Steam generator corrosion 2007; Dampferzeugerkorrosion 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Between 8th and 9th November, 2007, SAXONIA Standortentwicklungs- und -verwertungsgesellschaft GmbH (Freiberg, Federal Republic of Germany) performed the 3rd Freiberger discussion conference ''Fireside boiler corrosion''. The topics of the lectures are: (a) Steam generator corrosion - an infinite history (Franz W. Alvert); (b) CFD computations for thermal waste treatment plants - a contribution for the damage recognition and remedy (Klaus Goerner, Thomas Klasen); (c) Experiences with the use of corrosion probes (Siegfried R. Horn, Ferdinand Haider, Barbara Waldmann, Ragnar Warnecke); (d) Use of additives for the limitation of the high temperature chlorine corrosion as an option apart from other measures to the corrosion protection (Wolfgang Spiegel); (e) Current research results and aims of research with respect to chlorine corrosion (Ragnar Warnecke); (f) Systematics of the corrosion phenomena - notes for the enterprise and corrosion protection (Thomas Herzog, Wolfgang Spiegel, Werner Schmidl); (g) Corrosion protection by cladding in steam generators of waste incinerators (Joerg Metschke); (h) Corrosion protection and wear protection by means of thermal spraying in steam generators (Dietmar Bendix); (i) Review of thick film nickelized components as an effective protection against high-temperature corrosion (Johann-Wilhelm Ansey); (j) Fireproof materials for waste incinerators - characteristics and profile of requirement (Johannes Imle); (k) Service life-relevant aspects of fireproof linings in the thermal recycling of waste (Till Osthoevener and Wolfgang Kollenberg); (l) Alternatives to the fireproof material in the heating space (Heino Sinn); (m) Cladding: Inconal 625 contra 686 - Fundamentals / applications in boiler construction and plant construction (Wolfgang Hoffmeister); (n) Thin films as efficient corrosion barriers - thermal spray coating in waste incinerators and biomass firing (Ruediger W. Schuelein, Steffen Hoehne, Friedrich

  10. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Bastida, C. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Colón y Tollocan s/n, C.P. 50000, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Martínez-Miranda, V.; Vázquez-Mejía, G. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Solache-Ríos, M., E-mail: marcos.solache@inin.gob.mx [Departamento de Química, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandón, Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801 México, D.F. (Mexico); Fonseca-Montes de Oca, G. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Trujillo-Flores, E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 50130, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion problems having to do with drinking water distribution systems are related to many processes and factors and two of them are ionic acidity and carbon dioxide, which were considered in this work. The corrosion character of water is determined by the corrosion indexes of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson, and Mojmir. The results show that pipes made of different materials, such as plastics or metals, are affected by corrosion, causing manganese to be deposited on materials and dissolved in water. The deterioration of the materials, the degree of corrosion, and the deposited corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. High levels of manganese and nitrate ions in water may cause serious damage to the health of consumers of water. Three wells were examined, one of them presented a high content of manganese; the others had high levels of nitrate ions, which increased the acidity of the water and, therefore, the amount of corrosion of the materials in the distribution systems. - Highlights: ► Corrosion of distribution systems affects the quality of drinking water. ► Corrosion in water distribution systems is related to acidity and carbon dioxide. ► Pipes are corroded and manganese is deposited on pipes and dissolved in water. ► The deterioration of the pipes and the corrosion products were determined. ► Nitrate ions increase the acidity of water in the wells.

  11. On the application of thermodynamics of corrosion for service life design of concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    There are unexploited possibilities in the application of thermodynamics of corrosion for service life design (SLD) of concrete structures. Thermodynamics provides means for insightful descriptions of corrosion mechanisms and of corrosion protection mechanisms. Strategies for corrosion protection...... can be based on thermodynamically consistent corrosion mechanisms and evaluation of existing and design of new countermeasures can be performed using thermodynamics. Similarly, materials concepts for embedded electrodes can be designed using thermodynamics. The present paper provides a brief outline...... of the application of thermodynamics for SLD and gives examples of two applications: description of corrosion processes and design of countermeasures. Emphasis is set on chloride induced corrosion....

  12. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  13. Environmental and Material Influences on the Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Steel in H2O–CO–CO2 Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. van der Merwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress-corrosion cracking of A516 pressure vessel steel was investigated by the use of slow strain-rate tests. The orientation of samples to the rolling direction was investigated, and it was found that samples machined longitudinal to the rolling direction showed a slightly increased sensitivity to stress corrosion. The temperature variation showed that for different gas mixtures, the maximum sensitivity to stress corrosion was in the region of 45° to 55°C for the 25% CO gas mixture, whereas with higher CO concentrations, this temperature region of maximum sensitivity moved to higher temperatures. Surface finish showed a slight increase in sensitivity to cracking with increased surface roughness. The most significant increase was found with increased total gas pressures and when samples have been exposed to the environment for an extended period. This was as a result of the inhibition of the corrosion reaction by the passivation of the carbon monoxide, which is a time-dependent process.

  14. 含氟材料在金属防腐和表面防护方面的应用进展%Fluoride Materials for Metal Corrosion and Surface Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴凯; 郑锦华; 袁耀锋

    2015-01-01

    含氟材料具有独特的物理化学性能,如耐热性、拒水疏油性和耐腐蚀性,目前已大量应用到电子信息、化工及各类工程建筑等领域。本文简要介绍了含氟聚合物和含氟表面活性剂在金属防腐和表面防护方面的应用,并对比了几种材料在该应用领域的优缺点,提出了一些改进方法和措施,对提高含氟材料在金属表面防腐与防护性能有重要意义。%Fluoride materials possesses unique physical and chemical properties, such as heat resistance, water repellency oleophobic property and corrosion resistance, which has a large number of applications to the fields of electronic information industry, chemical industry and all kinds of engineering construction. After a brief introduction to the fluoride polymers and fluoride surfactants in the applications of metal corrosion and surface protection, some advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of fluoride materials in the field of application were compared. Some methods and measures for improvement were proposed, which had important significance to improve the performance of corrosion and protection in metal surface with containing-fluorine materials.

  15. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  16. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  17. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  18. NASA's Beachside Corrosion Test Site and Current Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.; Calle, Luz Marina; Johnston, Frederick; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    NASA began corrosion studies at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term corrosion protective coatings for carbon steel. KSC's Beachside Corrosion Test Site (BCTS), which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring, environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acid ic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous studies have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. This paper presents a historical overview of over 45 years of corrosion and coating evaluation studies and a description of the BCTS's current capabilities. Additionally, current research and testing programs involving chromium free coatings, environmentally friendly corrosion preventative compounds, and alternates to nitric acid passivation will be discussed.

  19. Corrosion inhibitors; Los inhibidores de corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez, L. A.; Meas, Y.; Ortega-Borges, R.; Corona, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe the characteristics, cost and electrochemical nature of the corrosion phenomena as well as some of the technologies that are currently employed to minimize its effect. The main subject of the paper however, deals with the description, classification and mechanism of protection of the so-called corrosion inhibitors. Examples of the use of these substances in different aggressive environments are also presented as means to show that these compounds, or their combination, can in fact be used as excellent and relatively cheap technologies to control the corrosion of some metals. In the last part of the paper, the most commonly used techniques to evaluate the efficiency and performance of corrosion inhibitors are presented as well as some criteria to make a careful and proper selection of a corrosion inhibitor technology in a given situation. (Author) 151 refs.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking in canistered waste package containers: Welds and base metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.

    1998-03-01

    The current design of waste package containers include outer barrier using corrosion allowable material (CAM) such as A516 carbon steel and inner barrier of corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as alloy 625 and C22. There is concern whether stress corrosion cracking would occur at welds or base metals. The current memo documents the results of our analysis on this topic.

  1. Corrosive wear forecasting of steel elements on the basis of mathematical modeling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Extension and resistance increase of metal materials and constructions to the corrosion destruction processes is the most important scientific and technical problem. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop complex scientific research to study the corrosion phenomena, along with practical actions against corrosion directed to selecting new corrosion resistant metal materials and methods of their protection. This research is carried out for searching mathematical model which could predict corrosive wear in metal constructions with a certain accuracy taking into account design and the type of corrosion process.

  2. Formation of Surface Corrosion-Resistant Nanocrystalline Structures on Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha; Slobodyan, Zvenomyra; Tsyrulnyk, Oleksandr

    2016-12-01

    Engineering materials with nanocrystalline structure could be exploited under simultaneous action of mechanical loading and corrosion environments; therefore, their corrosion resistance is important. Surface nanocrystalline structure was generated on middle carbon steels by severe plastic deformation using the method of mechanical pulse friction treatment. This treatment additionally includes high temperature phase transformation and alloying. Using a complex of the corrosive, electrochemical and physical investigations, it was established that nanocrystalline structures can be characterized by lower or increased corrosion resistance in comparison with the reference material. It is caused by the action of two confronting factors: arising energy level and anticorrosive alloying of the surface layer.

  3. A preliminary mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-VAR work strengthened and direct aged Inconel 718 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of double melted (vacuum induction melted (VIM), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR)), solution treated, work strengthened and direct aged Inconel 718 alloy bar (5.50 in. (13.97 cm) diameter). Two sets of tensile specimens, one direct single aged and the other direct double aged, were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 200 ksi (1378.96 MPa) and 168 ksi (1158.33 MPa), respectively, were realized at ambient temperature, for the direct double aged specimen. No failures occurred in the single or double edged longitudinal and transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test showed no mechanical property degradation.

  4. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2010-08-24

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  5. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, R.J. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Pollina, R.J. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The problems connected with gas side corrosion for the design of the lA4 (POC) channel hardware are explored and results of gas side wear rate tests in the Textron Mark VII facility are presented. It is shown that the proposed designs meet a 2000 hour lifetime criterion based upon these materials tests. Improvement in cathode lifetime is demonstrated with lower voltage intercathode gaps. The corrosion of these materials is discussed and it is shown how lifetimes are dependent upon gap voltage and average metal temperature. The importance of uniformity of slagging to the durability of the anode wall is demonstrated. The wear mechanism of the anodes in the MHD channel is analyzed. In addition to gas-side corrosion, the results of specific water corrosion tests of sidewall materials are discussed. All of the tests reported here were carried out to confirm the gas-side performance and the manufacturability of anode and sidewall designs and to address questions posed about the durability of tungsten-copper on the waterside. the results of water corrosion tests of the tungsten copper alloy sidewall material are presented to show that with proper control of waterside pH and, if necessary, dissolved oxygen, one can obtain reliable performance with no degradation of heat transfer with this material. The final choice of materials was determined primarily by the outcome of these tests and also by the question of the manufacturability of the prospective designs.

  6. Corrosion Finishing/Coating Systems for DoD Metallic Substrates Based on Non-Chromate Inhibitors and UV Curable, Zero VOC Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    After the 3000-hour exposure period get photographs taken of the test panels. Strip one of the test panels with Turco 5469 or equivalent paint stripper...test panels. Strip one of the test panels with Turco 5469 or equivalent paint stripper and photograph the stripped panels. Xenon Arc Weather...alkaline cleaning temperature on coating deposition and corrosion performance. The alkaline cleaner used, Turco 4215-NLCT from Henkel Corp., has a

  7. Advanced Zinc Phosphate Conversion and Pre-Ceramic Polymetallosiloxane Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Steel and Aluminum, and Characteristics of Polyphenyletheretherketone-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-24

    Finally, the most effective organosilane for use in the fabrica - tion of PTS coatings leading to good corrosion protection was N-[3-(tri...89. References !. T.St;OAMA. L. E KUKACKAimd N. CARC \\ELLO. Froy. Ory. Coat. 10(1990) 173. 2. H w EICH N ER and W. E. SCHOWALTER. Forest...wt % HC1 and 14-17 wt % water. 14. A method for preparing a solution for the fabrica - tion of polymetallicsiloxane coatings which comprises the

  8. Corrosion in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products and biofuels identification, monitoring and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2014-01-01

    This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, mat...

  9. Corrosion of an austenite and ferrite stainless steel weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANIMIR N. GRGUR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of steels and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that corrosion measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding process, can be in service without failures. It was found that the corrosion of the weld analyzed in this research resulted from the simultaneous activity of different types of corrosion. In this study, electrochemical techniques including polarization and metallographic analysis were used to analyze the corrosion of a weld material of ferrite and austenitic stainless steels. Based on surface, chemical and electrochemical analyses, it was concluded that corrosion occurrence was the result of the simultaneous activity of contact corrosion (ferrite and austenitic material conjuction, stress corrosion (originating from deformed ferrite structure and inter-granular corrosion (due to chromium carbide precipitation. The value of corrosion potential of –0.53 V shows that this weld, after the thermal treatment, is not able to repassivate a protective oxide film.

  10. High temperature corrosion during biomass firing: improved understanding by depth resolved characterisation of corrosion products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature corrosion of an austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG), widely utilised as a superheater tube material in Danish power stations, was investigated to verify the corrosion mechanisms related to biomass firing. KCl coated samples were exposed isothermally to 560 degrees C...... changes within the near surface region (covering both the deposit and the steel surface). Such cross-section analysis was further complemented by plan view investigations (additionally involving X-ray diffraction) combined with removal of the corrosion products. Improved insights into the nature...... of the corrosion products as a function of distance from the deposit surface were revealed through this comprehensive characterisation. Corrosion attack during simulated straw-firing conditions was observed to occur through both active oxidation and sulphidation mechanisms....

  11. Corrosion inhibitors for intermediate cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I.; Suhr, L.

    1985-04-01

    The selected inhibitors were tested for heat and radiation stability and corrosion protection on the bench scale. Based on the results from these tests two of the products were selected, Bycoguard 81 and Bycoguard MP4S for continuing corrosion tests in an autoclave loop at 90 degrees C and 120 degrees C. Oxygen saturated deionized water with an addition of 1 ppm chloride was recirculated in the loop. Samples of copper and carbon steel were exposed to the water in the autoclave for periods up to 10 weeks. The purpose of this project was to find a substitute for hydrazine and chromates. Besides good corrosion protection qualities the toxic and environmental effect of the inhibitors should be minimal. The investigation has shown that the copper inhibitor BTA (benzotriazole) loses its corrosion protection qualities at a water temperature of 120 degrees C. The protection effects at 90 degrees C were satisfactory for both of the materials. The corrosion rates measured were 0.01 mm/y or less for the copper and carbon steel samples. The environment in the autoclave during the testing was more corrosive than is to be found in intermediate cooling systems. Due to the low corrosion rates measured the two inhibitors are to be recommended as alternatives to hydrazine and chromates.

  12. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Zhang, Xuejun; Surma, Jan; Fitzpatrick, Lilly; Montgomery, Eliza; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts are under way to replace current corrosion inhibitors with more environmentally friendly alternatives. However, problems with corrosion inhibition efficiency, coating compatibility and solubility have hindered the use of many of these materials as simple pigment additives.This paper will present technical details on how the Corrosion Technology Lab at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has addressed these issues by encapsulating environmentally friendly inhibitors into organic and inorganic microparticles and microcapsules. The synthetic process for polymer particles was characterized and post-synthesis analysis was performed to determine the interactions between the inhibitors and the encapsulation material. The pH-controlled release of inhibitors from various particle formulations in aqueous base was monitored and compared to both electrochemical and salt immersion accelerated corrosion experiment. Furthermore, synergistic corrosion inhibition effects observed during the corrosion testing of several inhibitor combinations will be presented.

  13. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the corrosion inhibitor selection software (CISS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The internal pitting corrosion of oil and gas pipelines can be effectively controlled through the addition of inhibitors. However, simulation of field operating conditions is necessary because the performance of corrosion inhibitors is influenced by several interacting parameters. This paper reviewed the Corrosion Inhibitor Selection Software (CISS) program. The materials transported in production pipelines are often multiphase, containing oil, aqueous (brine), and gas phases. The corrosion rate and inhibitor performance are influenced by composition, temperature, flow and pressure. Steel composition and structure also influence both the rate and type of corrosion. Improvements in corrosion test methodologies are aimed at simulating field corrosion conditions in the laboratory in a compressed time-scale. The parameters that influence the types of corrosion must be simulated in order for laboratory methodology to be relevant. The variables controlled should be quantifiable. There should also be a correlation between the influence of variables controlled in the laboratory and of the same variables in the field. The CISS program evaluates inhibitors in the following 4 steps: (1) pipeline operating conditions, (2) selection of laboratory methodology, (3) determination of operating conditions for the laboratory methodologies, and (4) selection of corrosion inhibitors. The 7 objectives of the CISS program are to optimize the strategies of inhibitor selection for pipeline applications; determine the hydrodynamic parameters of the pipe from field operating conditions; select appropriate laboratory methodologies for evaluating inhibitors; determine flow conditions for high-shear laboratory methodologies; develop a qualitative relationship between corrosion rates of non-shear laboratory methodologies and of pipelines; evaluate corrosion inhibitors based on results from different laboratory methodologies; and design cost-effective inhibitors for future applications. 47 refs

  14. Naphthenic Acid Corrosion Resistance of Typical Refining and Chemical Materials%典型炼油化工材料耐环烷酸腐蚀性能综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许述剑; 刘小辉

    2011-01-01

    从材料热力学、冶金学角度概括分析了碳钢、Cr5Mo、304和316L奥氏体不锈钢、渗铝钢和Ni-P化学镀表面改性材料等典型炼油化工材料耐环烷酸腐蚀的机理,以及介质酸值、流速、温度等因素对环烷酸腐蚀影响的动力学基础.%The corrosion mechanisms of some typical refining and chemical materials, including carbon steel, Cr5Mo, 304 and 316L stainless steels, aluminized steel and Ni-P chemical plating surface modification materials and so on, in naphthenic acid environments are summarized by thermodynamical and metallurgical analyses. The kinetic analyses of the major factors affecting the naphthenic acid corrosion, including the acid value of oil, operation temperature, fluid velocity and flow pattern, are also discussed.

  15. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the material that failed was carbon steel and the electrolyte were saline waters, but the microorgan- isms, the environments and the corrosion...different salinities . Martin et al.42 demonstrated that Ecorr ennoblement was site specific, varying 100 mV versus SCE between locations, with higher...microbial consortium of the fungus Aspergillus niger and bacteria influenced the corrosion–inhibiting effectiveness of Crz6 leached from chromate (CrO{24

  16. CO2 Corrosion and Grooving Corrosion Behavior of the ERW Joint of the Q125 Grade Tube Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-dong WANG; Feng-lei LIU; Qing-yun ZHAO; Hui-bin WU

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the CO2 corrosion behavior and the grooving corrosion susceptibility of electric resistance welded tubes of the Q125 grade, the high temperature and high pressure autoclave was employed to conduct CO2 corrosion experiments for the welded joint. The mechanisms of grooving corrosion and the factors inlfuencing grooving corrosion susceptibility were identiifed by electrochemical measurement, microstructure observation, residual stress examination, micro-region composition and orientation analysis. The CO2 corrosion results show that the corrosion resistance of the base material is the best, followed by heat-affected zone and the welded seam is the worst. The grooving corrosion occurred in the welded seam, and the grooving corrosion susceptibility of welded seam is relativity high. The dominated reason for the grooving corrosion of the electric resistance welded jointis the notable inclusions consisting of MnS as the main content in the welded seam.The proportion of high-angle grain bound-aries in the welding zone is higher than that of base metal and the heat affected zone, which plays an important role in the corrosion behavior of the welded seam.

  17. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  18. Runoff of copper and zinc caused by atmospheric corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuenberger-Minger, A.U.; Faller, M.; Richner, P. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2002-03-01

    Runoff and total corrosion loss for copper and zinc were investigated at seven sites in Switzerland. The exposure sites were chosen near the stations of the national air pollution monitoring network (NABEL), where climatic and air pollution data are measured. Runoff and corrosion rates were investigated after 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 years of exposure. Runoff rates differ from corrosion rates depending on the material, the exposure time and the sampling site. (orig.)

  19. Corrosion Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    the applied protection systems, (2) crevices for moisture entrapment, (3) galvanic couples when steel or titanium fasteners are used, and (4) fatigue...Activ Material Structure Exposed Normal Environment* Unexposed Atmosphere Aluminum alloys Steel 1.25 2.0 4.0 Titanium " Magnesium " (4.0) (8.0) (10.0...APPRNDIX - Chromic Acid Anodizing The surface treatment consists in the following process : D egreasing with trichlorethylene vapor, * Pickling , Composition

  20. Fatigue - corrosion of endoprosthesis titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, A; Muster, D; Jaeger, J H

    1979-01-01

    Commercial total hip prostheses often show certain metallurgical faults (porosities, coarse grains, growth dendrites, carbide networks). In order to investigate more accurately the role played by these different parameters in prostheses failure we performed a large number of systematic corrosion, fatigue and fatigue - corrosion tests on these materials and on commercial total hip prostheses. Ultimate strengthes seem to be reached for cast cobalt alloys, whereas titanium alloys, such as Ta 6 V, present very high fatigue limit under corrosion. Thus, rotative bending fatigue - corrosion tests in biological environment provide values about 50 DaN/mm2. This value, is nevertheless appreciably higher than those obtained with stellites and stainless steel. Titanium alloys, because of their mechanical performances, their weak Young's modulus (11000 DaN/mm2) and their relative lightness (4.5. g/cm3), which are associated with a good biocompatibility, seem very promising for permanent implants realisation.

  1. B-Li水化学对核电金属材料腐蚀的影响%Effect of B-Li Water Chemistry on Corrosion of Metal Materials of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利君; 刘飞华; 李成涛; 李岩; 鲁俊东

    2014-01-01

    This paper represented the development trend of primary B-Li water chemistry conditions in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant,and the functions of water chemistry in the corrosion products and dose rate.The effect of B concentration,Li concentration and pH on the PWSCC sensitivity,the crack propagation rate and the corrosion product release rate of nickel-based alloys,stainless steel,and zirconium alloy had been reviewed.The advantage of enriched boric acid application in nuclear power plant was also analyzed.The higher pH value of primary water chemistry have the benefit of reducing corrosion of metal materials in nuclear power plant,and improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants.%本文阐述了压水堆核电站一回路B-Li水化学工况控制的发展趋势,及其对腐蚀产物、降低剂量率的作用;概括了B浓度、Li浓度及 pH 值对镍基合金、不锈钢、锆合金的 PWSCC敏感性、裂纹扩展速率、腐蚀产物释放速率等性能的影响;分析了核电站应用富集硼酸的积极作用。一回路水化学控制在较高pH 有利于减少核电站金属材料的腐蚀,提高核电站的安全与可靠性。

  2. An Alternative Corrosion Resistance Test Method for Solar Cells and Interconnection Materials Limiting the Number of Long-lasting and Expensive Damp-Heat Climate Chamber Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Gouwen, R.J.; Veldman, D.; Bende, E.E.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Damp-heat testing of PV modules is a time-consuming process, taking months. We present an alternative test method: electrochemical noise (EcN) measurements. Data acquisition times vary between minutes for direct exposure to several tens of hours for encapsulated samples. EcN measurements are presented for several solar cell concepts and different environments. We have found that the degradation in damp-heat testing is proportional to the electrochemical noise signal. In conclusion, the electrochemical noise measurements are a fast, versatile tool to test the corrosion resistance of solar cells, which can be tested for different environments including encapsulation.

  3. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments...... and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  4. STUDY ON THE EROSION-CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF STEELS AND THERMAL SPRAYED COATINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenHuahui; ZhaoHuiyou; ShooHesheng; ZhaoShanzhon

    1996-01-01

    16Mn steel, 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel, thermal sprayed Al2O3-TiO2 ceramic coating and nylonl010-5%Al2O3 coating were tested with an erosion-corrosion tester.The effects of pH values and slurry velocities on the erosion-corrosion behavior of the materials tested were determined. The erosion-corrosion behavior of the materials tested changes with pH values and presents different change tendencies. The erosion-corrosion rates of the materials are increased with slurry velocities. The erosion-corrosion mechanisms for the steels and the coatings are considerably different.

  5. Development of Anticorrosive Polymer Nanocomposite Coating for Corrosion Protection in Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, L.; Benea, L.

    2017-06-01

    The marine environment is considered to be a highly aggressive environment for metal materials. Steels are the most common materials being used for shipbuilding. Corrosion is a major cause of structural deterioration in marine and offshore structures. Corrosion of carbon steel in marine environment becomes serious due to the highly corrosive nature of seawater with high salinity and microorganism. To protect metallic materials particularly steel against corrosion occurrence various organic and inorganic coatings are used. The most used are the polymeric protective coatings. The nanostructured TiO2 polymer coating is able to offer higher protection to steel against corrosion, and performed relatively better than other polymer coatings.

  6. Electrochemical corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockemus, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to gain familiarity with the Model 350 Corrosion Measurement Console, to determine if metal protection by grease coatings can be measured by the polarization-resistance method, and to compare corrosion rates of 4130 steel coated with various greases. Results show that grease protection of steel may be determined electrochemically. Studies were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain corrosion inhibitors on aluminum and steel.

  7. Erosion-corrosion; Erosionkorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili, B

    1999-05-01

    A literature study on erosion-corrosion of pipings in the nuclear industry was performed. Occurred incidents are reviewed, and the mechanism driving the erosion-corrosion is described. Factors that influence the effect in negative or positive direction are treated, as well as programs for control and inspection. Finally, examples of failures from databases on erosion-corrosion are given in an attachment 32 refs, 16 figs, tabs

  8. PROGRESS IN CORROSION BEHAVIOR INVESTIGATION OF BIOMEDICAL METALLIC MATERIALS INFLUENCED BY PROTEINS%蛋白质作用下医用金属材料的腐蚀行为研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 王猛; 张春艳; 王玥霁; 曾荣昌; 黄伟九

    2011-01-01

    基于蛋白质与医用金属间的吸附与螯合作用,综合评述了蛋白质作用下医用金属材料(钛及钛合金、不锈钢、钴基合金、镁合金等)腐蚀行为的研究进展,着重讨论了白蛋白、纤维蛋白原及血清影响下医用金属材料的腐蚀行为及机理,并指出了目前研究中存在的科学问题与未来研究的发展方向.%Based on the adsorption and chelation effects between proteins and biomedical metals, this review focuses its attention mainly on the impact of proteins on the corrosion behavior of biomedical metal materials, such as titanium& titanium alloys, stainless steels, cobalt-based alloys, magnesium alloys, and so on.The paper mainly discusses the corrosion behavior and mechanism of biomedical metals affected by albumin, fibrinogen, and serum.Some scientific issues in the present studies and the future research directions are pointed out.

  9. In Situ X-ray Microtomography of Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Stannard, Tyler J.; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2017-08-01

    Structural materials are subjected to combinations of stress and corrosive environments that work synergistically to cause premature failure. Therefore, studies on the combined effect of stress and corrosive environments on material behavior are required. Existing studies have been performed in two dimensions that are inadequate for full comprehension of the three-dimensional (3D) processes related to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion-fatigue (CF) behavior. Recently, x-ray synchrotron tomography has evolved as an excellent technique to obtain the microstructure in 3D. Moreover, being nondestructive in nature, x-ray synchrotron tomography is well suited to study the evolution of microstructure with time (4D, or fourth dimension in time). This article presents our recent 4D studies on SCC and CF of Al 7075 alloys using x-ray synchrotron tomography.

  10. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-ESR-VAR work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion resistance of triple melted vacuum induction melted (VIM), electro-slag remelted (ESR), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR), solution treated, work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 alloy bars 4.00 in. (10.16) and 5.75 in. (14.60 cm) diameter. Tensile, charpy v-notched impact, and compact tension specimens were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 220 ksi (1516.85 MPa) and 200 ksi (1378.00 MPa) respectively, were realized at ambient temperature. Additional charpy impact and compact tension tests were performed at -100 F (-73 C). Longitudinal charpy impact strength equalled or exceeded 12.0 ft-lbs (16.3 Joules) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) while longitudinal compact (LC) tension fracture toughness strength remained above 79 ksi (86.80 MPa) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) temperatures. No failures occurred in the longitudinal or transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test indicated no mechanical property degradation.

  11. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)); Seeley, R.R. (Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  12. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  13. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  14. Selectable-Tip Corrosion-Testing Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomness, Janice; Hintze, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts aspects of an electrochemical cell for pitting- corrosion tests of material specimens. The cell is designed to generate a region of corrosion having a pit diameter determined by the diameter of a selectable tip. The average depth of corrosion is controlled by controlling the total electric charge passing through the cell in a test. The cell is also designed to produce minimal artifacts associated with crevice corrosion. There are three selectable tips, having diameters of 0.1 in. (0.254 cm), 0.3 in. (0.762 cm), and 0.6 in. (1.524 cm), respectively.

  15. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  16. Corrosion of separator plate constituents in molten carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Jack

    To improve the corrosion resistance of the separator plates, insight in the corrosion behavior of the materials used is necessary. Especially, a detailed knowledge of the dissolution and passivation mechanisms as a function of the electrode potential will be useful. It is very difficult to unravel the corrosion mechanism of commercially available materials because it depends on several factors. Therefore, to obtain a first insight, the corrosion mechanism of pure metals and binary model alloys has been investigated and described in this thesis. The pure metals investigated are gold, nickel and chromium. The alloys that were investigated in this thesis are nickel-chromium, nickel-iron and nickel-aluminium alloys. Some commercially available materials have been investigated as a first attempt to understand the corrosion and passivation mechanisms of more complicated alloys.

  17. Corrosion Inhibition of High Speed Steel by Biopolymer HPMC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition characteristics of the derivatives of biopolymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS film are investigated. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion inhibition performance of high speed steel coated with HPMC derivatives is evaluated. The Nyquist plot and Tafel polarization demonstrate promising anti-corrosion performance of HPMC and HPMCP. With increasing film thickness, both materials reveal improvement in corrosion inhibition. Moreover, because of a hydrophobic surface and lower moisture content, HPMCP shows better anti-corrosion performance than HPMCAS. The study is of certain importance for designing green corrosion inhibitors of high speed steel surfaces by the use of biopolymer derivatives.

  18. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  19. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  20. Corrosion Behavior of Au, Hastelloy C-276 Alloy and Monel 400 Alloy in Molten Lithium Fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chang-shui; GUO; Jun-kang

    2013-01-01

    For searching better corrosion-resistant material in high temperature,we investigated the corrosion behavior of Au,Haynes C-276 alloy and Monel 400 alloy in molten lithium fluoride at 950℃.The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),scanning electron microscope(SEM),energy dispersive

  1. 改性足金材料的耐蚀性能研究%Study on corrosion resistance of modified pure gold materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂双; 陈燕兰; 袁军平; 陈绍兴; 卢焕洵

    2015-01-01

    传统足金/Au999在黄金首饰消费中占据了最大份额,它们具有高贵的黄色和优异的耐蚀性,但硬度过低的问题制约了饰品的艺术价值,也给制造和使用带来了问题。该文采用钴、锑、钪对足金进行了多元微合金化处理,并采用人工汗液浸泡法和电化学试验法检测了合金的腐蚀倾向和抗变色性能。试验结果表明:改性足金的初始颜色与Au999之间的色差仅处于肉眼可觉察的区间,它在人工汗液中的颜色变化率与其所处状态有关,呈现“形变时效态>固溶态>冷形变态”的顺序。改性足金在人工汗液中存在钝化行为,耐点蚀性能与Au999相当,表现出优良的抗变色性能。%Traditional pure gold/Au999 jewelry has the noble yellow glows and excellent corrosion resistance and accounts for the biggest share in gold jewelry consumption,however,its low hardness restricts the artistic value and brings problems in manufacture and application.In this paper,pure gold was multi-alloyed with cobalt,antimony and scandium,and the corrosion tendency and the anti-chromism property of the modified gold were tested by artificial sweat soaking and electrochemical method.The results show that the original chromatic aberration of the modified gold from pure gold is only discernible between the range of naked eye,and the color change rate after soaking in artificial sweat is related to its state,which shows the order"cold working and aging state>solid solution state>cold working state".The modified gold presents passivation behavior in artificial sweat,its pitting corrosion resistance is close to pure gold and shows excellent discoloration resistance.

  2. Silica nanocontainers for active corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Frederico; Tedim, João; Lisenkov, Aleksey D.; Salak, Andrei N.; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

    2012-02-01

    Novel self-healing protective coatings with nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors open new opportunities for long-term anticorrosion protection of different metallic materials. In this paper a new type of functional nanoreservoir based on silica nanocapsules (SiNC) synthesized and loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in a one-stage process is reported for the first time. Unlike conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles, SiNC possess an empty core and shell with gradual mesoporosity, arising from the particular conditions of the synthetic route adopted, which confers significant loading capacity and allows prolonged and stimuli-triggered release of the inhibiting species. The kinetics of inhibitor release was studied at different pH values and concentrations of NaCl. The results show a clear dependence of the release profiles on corrosion relevant triggers such as pH and Cl- concentration. When SiNC loaded with MBT are dispersed in NaCl solution, there is a significant decrease of the corrosion activity on aluminium alloy 2024. More importantly, when SiNC-MBT is added to a conventional water-based coating formulation, the modified coating hampers corrosion activity at the metal interface, better than in the case of direct addition of corrosion inhibitor. Furthermore, self-healing is observed before and after artificially inflicting defects in the modified coatings. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in new generation of active protective coatings.

  3. Theoretical Analysis of Reinforcement Tunnel Lining Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiQiang Zhangand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of ageing damage in reinforced concrete structures is reinforcement corrosion. Damage can be detected visually as coincident cracks along the reinforcement bar, which are significant of both reduction of the re-bar, cross-section and loss of bond strength for reinforced concrete. The reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used engineering materials as final lining of tunnels. The corrosion is common durability problems that have significant effect on the tunnel performance. This study intends to analysis reinforcement concrete corrosion at the tunnel lining by applying temperature expansion theory on steel through numerical simulation process, with expansive force effect. The thickness of concrete cover and the diameter of steel bar have an impact on the stress for reinforcement concrete during propagation of corrosion process. The corrosion cracks appear at the corner of a tunnel lining then in invert and vault because the maximum stress will be in the corner then in invert and vault. The internal force in the concrete lining changes differently when the corrosion rate change.

  4. Corrosion of magnesium alloys in commercial engine coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, G.; StJohn, D.H. [CRC for Cast Metals Manufacturing (CAST), Division of Materials, School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    A number of magnesium alloys show promise as engine block materials. However, a critical issue for the automotive industry is corrosion of the engine block by the coolant and this could limit the use of magnesium engine blocks. This work assesses the corrosion performance of conventional magnesium alloy AZ91D and a recently developed engine block magnesium alloy AM-SC1 in several commercial coolants. Immersion testing, hydrogen evolution measurement, galvanic current monitoring and the standard ASTM D1384 test were employed to reveal the corrosion performance of the magnesium alloys subjected to the coolants. The results show that the tested commercial coolants are corrosive to the magnesium alloys in terms of general and galvanic corrosion. The two magnesium alloys exhibited slightly different corrosion resistance to the coolants with AZ91D being more corrosion resistant than AM-SC1. The corrosivity varied from coolant to coolant. Generally speaking, an organic-acid based long life coolant was less corrosive to the magnesium alloys than a traditional coolant. Among the studied commercial coolants, Toyota long life coolant appeared to be the most promising one. In addition, it was found that potassium fluoride effectively inhibited corrosion of the magnesium alloys in the studied commercial coolants. Both general and galvanic corrosion rates were significantly decreased by addition of KF, and there were no evident side effects on the other engine block materials, such as copper, solder, brass, steel and aluminium alloys, in terms of their corrosion performance. The ASTM D 1384 test further confirmed these results and suggested that Toyota long life coolant with 1%wt KF addition is a promising coolant for magnesium engine blocks. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Monitoring reinforcement corrosion and corrosion-induced cracking using non-destructive x-ray attenuation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2011-01-01

    To test the applicability of the x-ray attenuation method to monitor the movement of corrosion products as well as the formation and propagation of cracks in cementitious materials reinforced mortar samples were prepared and tested under accelerated corrosion conditions. It is evident from...

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement and galvanic corrosion of titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Jeong Ryong; Jeong, Y. H.; Choi, B. K.; Baek, J. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Choi, B. S.; Lee, D. J

    2000-06-01

    The material properties including the fracture behavior of titanium alloys used as a steam generator tube in SMART can be degraded de to the hydrogen embrittlement and the galvanic corrosion occurring as a result of other materials in contact with titanium alloys in a conducting corrosive environment. In this report the general concepts and trends of hydrogen embrittlement are qualitatively described to adequately understand and expect the fracture behavior from hydrogen within the bulk of materials and under hydrogen containing environments because hydrogen embrittlement may be very complicated process. And the characteristics of galvanic corrosion closely related to hydrogen embrittlement is qualitatively based on wimple electrochemical theory.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system co...

  8. Avionics Corrosion Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    found at seacoast (harsn) environnents is the most destructive. Differences in electrolte concentration and oxygen concentration promote corrosion...against corrosion by acting as moisture and gas barriers. CMCVIT B0.4ID *COATINGS Polyurethane’s, cprxies, silicones, and polystyrenes are the most

  9. Corrosion circumstance in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant and evaluation of the corrosion rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Akira [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai Reprocessing Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    In the reprocessing plant, corrosive circumstances arise, because the major equipment contains a high concentration of the metal ions that originate from the fission products. They are also equipped in the various concentrations of nitric acid and various temperatures. Based on failed experiments due to corrosion, repairing the equipment and exchanging materials, the corrosion rate of stainless steel containing Nb was measured over 1 mm/yr in the heat transfer surface of the dissolver. Pin-holes in the weld zone of the heat conduction surface of the dissolver and the acid recovery evaporator were observed. Although the corrosion rate of Ti-5Ta in the vapor zone of the plutonium solution evaporator reached 0.1 - 0.3 mm/yr, no local attacks were confirmed. On the other hand, the corrosion of Ti-5Ta was not observed in the acid recovery evaporator. This report presents the survey result of the corrosion equipment and an outline of the corrosion tests, with the wall thickness measurement result obtained as a soundness confirmation of the equipment. (author)

  10. In-line fiber Bragg grating sensors for steel corrosion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Azarmi, Fardad

    2016-04-01

    A corrosion monitoring system for steel using Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is proposed. FBG sensors were protected by hypodermic tubes and a layer of adhesive. The increase in volume caused by the presence of corrosion product introduces strain that can be monitored by FBG sensors. Experimental results showed a positive correlation between the strain and corrosion product, and the change in central wavelength has the potential to serve as an indicator for material weight loss due to corrosion.

  11. Corrosion Behaviour of Titanium Anodized Film in Different Corrosive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sunil D. Kahar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is an electrochemical process in which thickness of the natural oxide layer is increased and converted it into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant film. Titanium is used as a biocompatible material in human implants due to its excellent corrosion and wears resistance. Stable, continuous, highly adherent, and protective oxide films can be developed on titanium using various acid or alkaline baths. Anodizing of titanium generates a spectrum of different color without use of dyes. This spectrum of color dependent on the thickness of the oxide, voltage ranges, interference of light reflecting off the oxide surface and reflecting off the underlying metal surface. The anodized film of Titanium is mainly consists of TiO2 or mixtures of TiO2 & Ti2O3 etc. In the present work, Pure Titanium plate has been anodized using bath of Chromic Acid at different voltage range. The anodized film is characterized by visual observation, SEM & EDAX analysis & A.C Impedance Spectroscopy, while the corrosion studies were performed using Potentiodynamic studies were performed in 3.5% NaCl & 0.1N H2SO4. The Results show that the anodized film of Titanium show different spectrum of colors from Brown-Violet-Tea or Peacock. SEM & EDAX analyses show that the anodized film of Titanium is mainly made up of TiO2 and Ti2O3. Potentiodynamic study implies that the film developed on Titanium using the bath of Chromic Acid exhibits good corrosion resistance. The A.C. Impedance study shows that the film is more compact, adherent and more uniform in chromic acid bath.

  12. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-03-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve the engineering ductility of these alloys. This paper describes results from the ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne National Laboratory involvesthermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion. Experiments were conducted at 650--1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. In addition, oxidation/sulfidation behavior of several alumina-forming Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloys was determined for comparison with the corrosion rates obtained on iron aluminides. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HC1-containing gases and in the presence of slag from a slogging gasifier. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales. Thermal cycling tests are used to examine the spalling resistance of the scales.

  13. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-03-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe[sub 3]Al-based alloys to improve the engineering ductility of these alloys. This paper describes results from the ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne National Laboratory involvesthermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion. Experiments were conducted at 650--1000[degrees]C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. In addition, oxidation/sulfidation behavior of several alumina-forming Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloys was determined for comparison with the corrosion rates obtained on iron aluminides. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HC1-containing gases and in the presence of slag from a slogging gasifier. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales. Thermal cycling tests are used to examine the spalling resistance of the scales.

  14. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...... with sensitive electrical resistance technique and crevice corrosion current measurements....

  15. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater. Influence of the bio-film on corrosion processes; Reaction de reduction de l'oxygene sur les aciers inoxydables en eau de mer naturelle. Influence du biofilm sur les processus de corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bozec, N

    2000-01-15

    Bio-film development on stainless steels immersed in natural seawater can have prejudicial consequences on the resistance of these materials to corrosion. The goal of the present study was to get more precise information on the corrosion processes, and especially on the oxygen reduction reaction. As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic. The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and pre-reduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide). The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial sea-waters. One major bio-film effect appears to be the production of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration level which induces modifications of the oxides layers and, consequently, of the evolution of the oxygen reduction kinetics as well as of the open circuit potential. Electrochemical techniques (voltammetric analysis at rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes, coulometry) combined with a surface analytical method by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used. The characterisation of the bio-film required the use of microscopy (scanning electronic microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy) and microbiological methods (cultures). The in-situ detection of hydrogen peroxide formed inside the bio-film has been performed with a micro-electrode and the results were confirmed with enzymatic methods. (author)

  16. The reactivity of clay materials in a context of metallic corrosion: application to disposal of radioactive wastes in deep argillaceous formations; Reactivite des materiaux argileux dans un contexte de corrosion metallique: application au stockage des dechets radioactifs en site argileux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perronnet, M

    2004-10-15

    In order to confine radioactive wastes in deep settings, it is envisaged to use some natural clay materials and bentonites. Their stability when in contact with metallic iron, main component of the canisters, is studied. These studies show that the reactivity of such materials is mainly controlled by those of their di-octahedral smectites and kaolinites. On the contrary, the presence of sulfides stops the Fe(0)-clays reaction. The kind of reaction products depends on the quantity of available metallic iron. When pH is over 7, the Fe(0) is oxidized consecutive to a physical contact with the oxidant agents of the smectite (H{sup +}, OH{sup -} et Fe{sup 3+}). This reaction is favored by the heterogeneities of the lateral surfaces of the smectite, which then describes a micro-environments in which some serpentines grow up if the iron supply is sufficient. Such new-crystallization imply a decrease of the confinement properties of the clay barrier. (author)

  17. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a {open_quotes}lower bound{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}upper bound{close_quotes} failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties.

  18. Copper corrosion originated by volatile organic acid vapours; Corrosion del cobre por acidos organicos volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, E.; Polo, J. L.; Kong, D. Y.; Mora, E. M.; Lopez-Caballero, J. A.; Bastidas, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion of copper in the presence of volatile organic acids is frequent. Thus, for example, it is known that failures by corrosion of the copper tubes take place in the air conditioning equipment, caused by volatile organic acids emitted by oils used in their manufacturing. Another frequent case is the corrosion of copper objects caused by the acids emitted by the materials used in packing, wood and resins, amongst others. This communication presents the corrosion results of copper exposed to 100% relative humidity and different concentrations (10-300ppm) of formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH{sub 3}COOH), propionic (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COOH) and butyric (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}COOH) acid vapours, for short exposure times. the techniques used were gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures has been a major problem across the U.S. Steel-reinforced concrete structures are continually subject to attack by corrosion brought on by naturally occurring environmental conditions. FerroGard, a corrosion inhibitor, developed by Sika Corporation, penetrates hardened concrete to dramatically reduce corrosion by 65% and extend the structure's service life.

  20. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  1. Corrosion behavior of Ti–39Nb alloy for dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: fojtj@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Joska, Ludek [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malek, Jaroslav [UJP Praha, Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague-Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Sefl, Vaclav [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-01

    To increase an orthopedic implant's lifetime, researchers are now concerned on the development of new titanium alloys with suitable mechanical properties (low elastic modulus–high fatigue strength), corrosion resistance and good workability. Corrosion resistance of the newly developed titanium alloys should be comparable with that of pure titanium. The effect of medical preparations containing fluoride ions represents a specific problem related to the use of titanium based materials in dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behavior of β titanium alloy Ti–39Nb in physiological saline solution and in physiological solution containing fluoride ions. Corrosion behavior was studied using standard electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that corrosion properties of the studied alloy were comparable with the properties of titanium grade 2. The passive layer was based on the oxides of titanium and niobium in several oxidation states. Alloying with niobium, which was the important part of the alloy passive layer, resulted in no significant changes of corrosion behavior. In the presence of fluoride ions, the corrosion resistance was higher than the resistance of titanium. - Highlights: • Alloy Ti–39Nb shows excellent corrosion resistance in physiological solution. • Corrosion resistance of Ti–39Nb alloy is significantly higher than that of titanium in the presence of fluoride ions. • The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates a porous passive layer. • Passive layer of the alloy is enriched by niobium.

  2. The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Discusses general corrosion reactions (iron to rust), including corrosion of iron, sulfur dioxide, chlorides, immersed corrosion, and underground corrosion. Also discusses corrosion inhibition, including corrosion inhibitors (anodic, cathodic, mixed, organic); safe/dangerous inhibitors; and corrosion/inhibition in concrete/marble, showcases/boxes,…

  3. Corrosion Resistance of Galvanized Steel in the Environment of a Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Šustr Michal; Dostál Petr; Začal Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with monitoring the corrosion resistibility of welded materials in the anaerobic fermenter (bioreactor). The main goal of this research is to assess the change of hardness after degradation. The change of hardness occurs in the corrosion environment and it correlates with the corrosion resistibility of material. The purpose of this experiment is to recognize the possibilities of using the CMT welded materials in the defined environment. As an innovative technology the acoust...

  4. 油气田CO2/H2S共存条件下的腐蚀研究进展与选材原则%RESEARCH PROGRESS ON CO2/H2S CORROSION AND PRINCIPLES FOR MATERIALS SELECTION FOR OIL AND GAS FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建炜; 张雷; 路民旭

    2009-01-01

    综述了CO2/H2S共存条件下的腐蚀机理、其影响因素和国内外CO2/H2S腐蚀的研究现状与趋势,提出了CO2/H2S共存时的选材要求及原则,展望了对CO2/H2S腐蚀的研究重点和抗CO2/H2S腐蚀钢的研发方向.%The corrosion mechanism of pipelines induced by muti-phase flow under the condition of CO2 and H2S coexistence and the main factors influencing corrosion process are discussed. Present researches and developments on CO2/H2Sinduced corrosion are reviewed. The demands and principles for material selection under CO2/H2S coexistence conditions are presented. The emphases trend of researches on CO2/H2S corrosion and CO2/H2S-corrosion resisting pipeline steels are also prospected.

  5. Laju Penetrasi Korosi pada Material Alternatif Bangunan Kapal

    OpenAIRE

    Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti; Eko Panunggal; Darminto Darminto; Wibowo Harso Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is the event of a material damage due to undesired interactions between material and environment. Corrosion is a natural phenomenon that cannot be avoided, but that can be done is to control the corrosion process by pressing the corrosion penetration rate, so that the expected lifespan and quality durable material. Ship building alternative material used is a composite material with aluminum alloy matrix AlSi10Mg(b) a ship building materials based on European Nation (EN) Aluminum Ca...

  6. Quantification of corrosion resistance of a new-class of criticality control materials: thermal-spray coatings of high-boron iron-based amorphous metals - Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Shaw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

    2007-03-28

    An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was produced as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. Earlier studies have shown that ingots and melt-spun ribbons of these materials have good passive film stability in these environments. Thermal spray coatings of these materials have now been produced, and have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both atmospheric and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here.

  7. Corrosion control in mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telekesi, J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of corrosion effects in mining technology and the importance of protection is presented. The most common corrosion processes and effects are summarized and the system and criteria of their avoidance are discussed in detail. Preventive measures are recommended to decrease possible corrosion effects including the selection of corrosion-resistive constructions, to use protective coatings and inhibition techniques and some other protection possibilities where applicable. The organization aspects and the economic impact of corrosion control in mining are discussed.

  8. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  9. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  10. Corrosion of copper containers prior to saturation of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F.; Kolar, M

    1997-12-01

    The buffer material surrounding the containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault will partially desiccate as a result of the elevated temperature at the container surface. This will lead to a period of corrosion in a moist air atmosphere. Corrosion will either take the form of slow oxidation if the container surface remains dry or aqueous electrochemical corrosion if the surface is wetted by a thin liquid film. The relevant literature is reviewed, from which it is concluded that corrosion should be uniform in nature, except if the surface is wetted, in which case localized corrosion is a possibility. A quantitative analysis of the extent and rate of uniform corrosion during the unsaturated period is presented. Two bounding cases are considered: first, the case of slow oxidation in moist air following either logarithmic or parabolic oxide-growth kinetics and, second, the case of electrochemically based corrosion occurring in a thin liquid film uninhibited by the growth of corrosion products. (author)

  11. Study on the Synthesis and Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Mannich-Modified Imidazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Kong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel Mannich-modified imidazoline (MMI as cationic emulsifier was synthesised for corrosion harm reduction, through three steps — acylation, cyclization, and Mannich reaction. The surface activity was characterized by determination of surface tensions and critical micelle concentration (CMC. The corrosion inhibition performance of five types of steels in the simulated corrosion solution in the presence of the MMI was investigated by static weight loss tests. The results showed that the MMI had good surface activities, with CMC of 19.8 μg g−1 and surface tension of 36.4 mN m−1. The corrosion test results indicated that the corrosion rates of different materials were decreased significantly, and degrees of corrosion inhibition were always higher than 80.0 %. The main inhibition mechanism was most likely due to the adsorption of the corrosion inhibitor on the steel surface, leading to the prevention of corrosion medium from the metal surface.

  12. Investigation on the Recent Research Trend in the Corrosion Behaviour of Stainless Steel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Woon Suk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The research trend in the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel weldment has been reviewed. The welding technology plays an important role in the fabrication of structure such as chemical plant, power plant, because welding can influence various factors in the performance of plant and equipment. This has led to an increasing attention towards the corrosion behaviour of weldment which has been one of the major issues for both welding and corrosion research engineers. The aim of this paper is to give a short survey of the recent technical trends of welding and corrosion including the electrochemical corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue in connection with the welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrication. This study covers the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel weldment collected from the COMPENDEX DB analysis of published papers, research subject and research institutes.

  13. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings X: a high-throughput electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method for screening organic coatings for corrosion inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhigang; Balbyshev, Séva N; Bonitz, Verena; Bierwagen, Gordon P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a high-throughput electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (HT-EIS) method for rapid and quantitative evaluation of corrosion protective coatings. A 12-element, spatially addressable electrochemical platform was designed, fabricated, and validated. This platform was interfaced to a commercial EIS instrument through an automated electronic switching unit. The HT-EIS system enables four parallel EIS measurements to be run simultaneously, which significantly reduces characterization time compared to that of serial EIS measurements using a multiplexer. The performance of the HT-EIS system was validated using a series of model systems, including a Randles equivalent circuit, an electrochemical reaction (Ti/K4FeCN6, K3FeCN6), a highly uniform polymer film, and several polymer coatings. The results of the validation studies showed that the HT-EIS system enables a major reduction in characterization time and provides high quality data comparable to data obtained with conventional, single-cell EIS measurement systems.

  14. Treatment Prevents Corrosion in Steel and Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, to protect rebar from corrosion, NASA developed an electromigration technique that sends corrosion-inhibiting ions into rebar to prevent rust, corrosion, and separation from the surrounding concrete. Kennedy Space Center worked with Surtreat Holding LLC, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a company that had developed a chemical option to fight structural corrosion, combining Surtreat's TPS-II anti-corrosive solution and electromigration. Kennedy's materials scientists reviewed the applicability of the chemical treatment to the electromigration process and determined that it was an effective and environmentally friendly match. Ten years later, NASA is still using this approach to fight concrete corrosion, and it has also developed a new technology that will further advance these efforts-a liquid galvanic coating applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete to protect the embedded rebar from corrosion. Surtreat licensed this new coating technology and put it to use at the U.S. Army Naha Port, in Okinawa, Japan. The new coating prevents corrosion of steel in concrete in several applications, including highway and bridge infrastructures, piers and docks, concrete balconies and ceilings, parking garages, cooling towers, and pipelines. A natural compliment to the new coating, Surtreat's Total Performance System provides diagnostic testing and site analysis to identify the scope of problems for each project, manufactures and prescribes site-specific solutions, controls material application, and verifies performance through follow-up testing and analysis.

  15. Recent developments in wear- and corrosion-resistant alloys for the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, D. [Deloro Stellite Inc., Goshen, IN (United States). Stellite Coatings Div.; Wu, J.B.C. [Stoody Deloro Stellite, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Oil production and refining pose very severe wear and corrosion environments. Material designers are challenged with the need to design and develop materials that combine high corrosion resistance with good wear resistance. Coupled with that is the need for these materials to meet requirements such as fracture toughness and resistance to sulfide and chloride stress corrosion cracking. Often, increasing wear resistance compromises the corrosion and welding characteristics. This article covers a variety of material developments that address the problems of wear and corrosion, including alloy design fundamentals and pertinent wear properties and general corrosion resistance compared to traditional wear-resistant materials. Proven applications, with particular reference to petroleum and petrochemical areas, are discussed. Potential applications are also cited.

  16. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Bastida, C; Martínez-Miranda, V; Vázquez-Mejía, G; Solache-Ríos, M; Fonseca-Montes de Oca, G; Trujillo-Flores, E

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion problems having to do with drinking water distribution systems are related to many processes and factors and two of them are ionic acidity and carbon dioxide, which were considered in this work. The corrosion character of water is determined by the corrosion indexes of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson, and Mojmir. The results show that pipes made of different materials, such as plastics or metals, are affected by corrosion, causing manganese to be deposited on materials and dissolved in water. The deterioration of the materials, the degree of corrosion, and the deposited corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. High levels of manganese and nitrate ions in water may cause serious damage to the health of consumers of water. Three wells were examined, one of them presented a high content of manganese; the others had high levels of nitrate ions, which increased the acidity of the water and, therefore, the amount of corrosion of the materials in the distribution systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of corrosion in oil and gas production tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L. [Intetech Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Controlling corrosion in production tubing is essential for maintaining production and for preventing loss of well control. Materials for use downhole have to meet criteria for corrosion resistance and also mechanical requirements. The potential corrosion rate can be estimated and the risks of sulphide stress corrosion cracking assessed on the basis of the anticipated environmental conditions and flow regime. Material options for tubing can then be considered on the basis of published corrosion test data and also field experience. Candidate materials may be tested and the precise field conditions expected in order to ensure that overconservative choices are not made. Corrosion inhibitors, coated carbon steel, and fibre reinforced plastic tubing have temperature, flow regime, and mechanical limitations. Specific corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) have environmental limitations with respect to temperature, hydrogen sulphide, and chloride content. Details of field experience with all of these material options are given. There exists a large amount of experience with CRAs for downhole applications. Correctly selected CRAs have a good track record of service, even for hostile, H{sub 2}S containing conditions. There are a few limited examples of CRA clad tubing. This product may be one that needs re-evaluation as it offers potential for economic use of costly but effective CRAs. (Author)

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Ceramic Cup of Blast Furnace Hearth by Liquid Iron and Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglong; Cheng, Shusen; Wang, Zhifeng

    2016-10-01

    Three kinds of sample bricks of ceramic cups for blast furnace hearth were studied by dynamic corrosion tests based on different corrosion systems, i.e., liquid iron system, liquid slag system and liquid iron-slag system. Considering the influence of temperature and sample rotational speed, the corrosion profiles and mass loss of the samples were analyzed. In addition, the microstructure of the corroded samples was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the corrosion profiles could be divided into iron corrosion region, slag corrosion region and iron-slag corrosion region via corrosion degree after iron-slag corrosion experiment. The most serious corrosion occurred in iron-slag corrosion region. This is due to Marangoni effect, which promotes a slag film formed between liquid iron and ceramic cup and results in local corrosion. The corrosion of the samples deepened with increasing temperature of liquid iron and slag from 1,623 K to 1,823 K. The variation of slag composition had greater influence on the erosion degree than that of rotational speed in this experiment. Taking these results into account the ceramic cup composition should be close to slag composition to decrease the chemical reaction. A microporous and strong material should be applied for ceramic cup.

  19. Research needs for corrosion control and prevention in energy conservation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooman, E.W.; Hurwitch, J.W.

    1985-06-01

    A group of 28 electrochemists, materials scientists and corrosion engineers was brought together to determine if the government could have a role as a focal point for corrosion R and D, discuss opportunities in fundamental research and solving corrosion problems, and develop a research agenda. Participants from government, industry and academia assembled into four technical discussion groups: localized corrosion, general corrosion, high temperature corrosion, and corrosion control and prevention. Research needs were identified, discussed, then assigned a figure of merit. Some 44 corrosion control and prevention topics were identified as having a high priority for consideration for funding. Another 35 topics were identified as having a medium priority for funding. When classified according to corrosion phenomenon, the areas which should receive the most attention are molten salt attack, crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, erosion-corrosion, pitting attack, intergranular attack and corrosion fatigue. When classified according to the sector or system involved, those which should receive the most attention are chemical processes, transportation, buildings and structures, electric power generation, and batteries and fuel cells.

  20. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  1. Structural Composites Corrosive Management by Computational Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2006-01-01

    A simulation of corrosive management on polymer composites durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured Ph factor and is represented by voids, temperature, and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure, and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply managed degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  2. Polymer Composites Corrosive Degradation: A Computational Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation of polymer composites corrosive durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured pH factor and is represented by voids, temperature and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  3. Remote measurement of corrosion using ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K.M.; Porter, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technology has the potential of meeting the US Department of Energy`s treatment requirements for mixed radioactive waste. A major technical constraint of the SCWO process is corrosion. Safe operation of a pilot plant requires monitoring of the corrosion rate of the materials of construction. A method is needed for measurement of the corrosion rate taking place during operation. One approach is to directly measure the change in wall thickness or growth of oxide layer at critical points in the SCWO process. In FY-93, a brief survey of the industry was performed to evaluate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for remote corrosion monitoring in supercritical vessels. As a result of this survey, it was determined that ultrasonic testing (UT) methods would be the most cost-effective and suitable method of achieving this. Therefore, the objective for FY-94 was to prove the feasibility of using UT to monitor corrosion of supercritical vessels remotely during operation without removal of the insulation.

  4. Handbook of corrosion data, 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, B.; Anderson, D. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    As in the prior edition, in one convenient volume this book makes it easy to find what effect environment has on the corrosion of metals and alloys. Coverage on all the environments in the first edition has been updated and expanded and some 80 or more environments have been added, including food products (chocolate, milk, cider, beer, etc.), fruit juices (grape, pineapple, lemon, etc.), soil, blood, gasoline, fertilizers, etc. Presentation of the tabular information for all environments has been standardized throughout the book. The environments are listed alphabetically. Each listing includes a general description of the conditions, a comment on the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in such a situation, a bibliography of recent articles specific to the environment, tables consolidating and comparing corrosion rates at various temperatures and concentrations for various alloys, and graphical information. also included are summaries on the general corrosion characteristics of major metals and alloys. This separate section of the book considers each material group, such as aluminum, stainless steel, zinc and so forth. Additional tables are presented here to give the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in hundreds of environments.

  5. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  6. 有机酸对钢筋腐蚀和水泥浆体性能的影响%Influence of organic acids on the corrosion performance of reinforcement and material properties of cement paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洋洋; 吴喜涛; 胡捷

    2015-01-01

    为了揭示有机酸粪污废水对钢筋混凝土构筑物材料性能和耐久性的影响,本文采用电化学方法和扫描电镜研究了浸没在含有不同体积分数有机酸的模拟混凝土孔溶液中的钢筋的电化学行为和表面形态,并采用X射线衍射仪和体视显微镜研究了模拟有机酸溶液对水泥净浆水化产物和微观结构的影响。研究结果表明:在模拟孔溶液中,不同体积分数的有机酸均能诱发钢筋腐蚀,经有机酸侵蚀后的钢筋腐蚀电位负移、腐蚀电流升高、腐蚀速度加快;且当模拟溶液中的有机酸体积分数越大时,钢筋的腐蚀速度越快。同时,X RD和表面分析试验结果表明,经有机酸侵蚀的水泥净浆基体,其中的氢氧化钙、硅酸二钙、钙矾石等组分被有机酸溶解,表面出现裂缝、分层和剥落,抗压强度下降。%In order to elucidate the influence of organic acids on the material properties and durability of reinforced concrete ,elec‐trochemical methods and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior and surface morphol‐ogy of reinforcement immersed in simulated pore solutions containing organic acids with different volume fractions .X‐ray diffrac‐tion and stereo microscope were used to evaluate the influence of organic acids on the hydration products and microstructure of ce‐ment paste .The results indicate that the corrosion potential of the reinforcement is negatively shifted and corrosion current densi‐ty is significantly increased ,and corrosion rate is accelerated in the presence of organic acids .Further more ,a higher corrosion rate is related to a higher concentration of organic acids .Meanwhile ,the component such as Ca(OH)2 ,dicalcium silicate and en‐ttringite in cement paste is dissolved after erosion by organic acids ,leading to the cracking ,layering and spalling on the surfaces , and a decrease of compressive strength .

  7. Research on materials for advanced electronic and aerospace application. [including optical and magnetic data processing, stress corrosion and H2 interaction, and polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Development and understanding of materials most suitable for use in compact magnetic and optical memory systems are discussed. Suppression of metal deterioration by hydrogen is studied. Improvement of mechanical properties of polymers is considered, emphasizing low temperature ductility and compatibility with high modulus fiber materials.

  8. Surface treatment and history-dependent corrosion in lead alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ning [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)]. E-mail: ningli@lanl.gov; Zhang Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sencer, Bulent H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koury, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-06-23

    In oxygen-controlled lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), steel corrosion may be strongly history dependent. This is due to the competition between liquid metal dissolution corrosion and oxidation as a 'self-healing' protection barrier. Such effects can be observed from corrosion testing of a variety of surface-treated materials, such as cold working, shot peening, pre-oxidation, etc. Shot peening of austenitic steels produces surface-layer microstructural damages and grain compression, which could contribute to increased Cr migration to the surface and enhance the protection through an impervious oxide. Pre-oxidation under conditions different from operating ones may form more protective oxides, reduce oxygen and metal ion migration through the oxides, and achieve better protection for longer durations. Corrosion and oxidation modeling and analysis reveal the potential for significantly reducing long-term corrosion rates by initial and early-stage conditioning of steels for Pb/LBE services.

  9. Alternating current(AC) corrosion analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Dae Kyeong; Bae, Jeong Hyo; Lee, Hyun Goo; Lee, Sung Jin [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    So far, many research results on AC corrosion have been reported but each one is not consistent with another. In order to understand the characteristics and factors affecting on AC corrosion, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (E.I.S) was used and changes in kinetics and surface properties was analyzed. Generally, E.I.S. test has been used mainly for the diagnosis of the concrete corrosion and coating material. However, considering the outstanding functions of E.I.S. test, it can be adopted as a good method to study AC corrosion. Electrolyte resistance (R{sub sol}), double layer capacitance (C{sub dl}) and polarization resistance (R{sub p}) are the basic circuit elements. Using the model which is consist of these basic elements, various results of E.I.S. test can be interpreted. And through this method the mechanism and characteristics of AC corrosion can be explained

  10. Towards Long-Term Corrosion Resistance in FE Service Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb and P. Wang

    2010-10-01

    The push for carbon capture and sequestration for fossil fuel energy production has materials performance challenges in terms of high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such challenges will be illustrated with examples from several current technologies that are close to being realized. These include cases where existing technologies are being modified—for example fireside corrosion resulting from increased corrosivity of flue gas in coal boilers refit for oxy-fuel combustion, or steam corrosion resulting from increased temperatures in advanced ultra supercritical steam boilers. New technology concepts also push the high temperature corrosion and oxidation limits—for example the effects of multiple oxidants during the use of high CO2 and water flue gas used as turbine working fluids.

  11. Evaluation of annual corrosion tests for aggressive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubová, V.; Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.

    2011-12-01

    Internal corrosion has a significant effect on the useful life of pipes, the hydraulic conditions of a distribution system and the quality of the water transported. All water is corrosive under some conditions, and the level of this corrosion depends on the physical and chemical properties of the water and properties of the pipe material. Galvanic treatment is an innovation for protecting against corrosion, and this method is also suitable for removal of water stone too. This method consists of the electrogalvanic principle, which is generated by the flowing of water between a zinc anode and the cupro-alloy cover of a column. This article presents experimental corrosion tests at water resource Pernek (This water resource-well marked as HL-1 is close to the Pernek of village), where the device is operating based on this principle.

  12. Corrosion during gasification of biomass and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Källström, Rikard

    1993-01-01

    The gasification of biomass and waste results in severe atmospheric corrosion conditions. The problems arise because of the low oxygen content which prevents the metal forming stable and protective oxide surface layer. Consequently it is possible for the aggressive sulphur and chlorine present in the gas to attack the metal. In the Studsvik CFB gasification pilot plant, which uses RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), the performance of 20 metallic and ceramic materials has been studied. Materials teste...

  13. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  14. Aqueous corrosion behavior of uranium-molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Levi D.

    Nuclear fuel characterization requires understanding of the various conditions to which materials are exposed in-reactor. One of these important conditions is corrosion, particularly that of fuel constituents. Therefore, corrosion behavior is of special interest and an essential part of nuclear materials characterization efforts. In support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization's Reactor Conversion Program, monolithic uranium-10 wt% molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) is being investigated as a low enriched uranium alternative to highly enriched uranium dispersion fuel currently used in domestic high performance research reactors. The aqueous corrosion behavior of U-Mo is being examined at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of U-Mo fuel fabrication capability activity. No prior study adequately represents this behavior given the current state of alloy composition and thermomechanical processing methods, and research reactor water chemistry. Two main measurement techniques were employed to evaluate U-Mo corrosion behavior. Low-temperature corrosion rate values were determined by means of U-Mo immersion testing and subsequent mass-loss measurements. The electrochemical behavior of each processing condition was also qualitatively examined using the techniques of corrosion potential and anodic potentiodynamic polarization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical metallography (OM) imagery and hardness measurements provided supplemental corrosion analysis in an effort to relate material corrosion behavior to processing. The processing effects investigated as part of this were those of homogenization heat treatment (employed to mitigate the effects of coring in castings) and sub-eutectoid heat treatment, meant to represent additional steps in fabrication (such as hot isostatic pressing) performed at similar temperatures. Immersion mass loss measurements and electrochemical results both showed very little appreciable difference between

  15. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold...... is reached causing the formation of anodic and cathodic regions along the reinforcement. Critical chloride thresholds, randomly distributed along the reinforcement sur-face, link the initiation and propagation phase of reinforcement corrosion. To demonstrate the potential use of the developed model......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  16. 候选材料在650℃超临界水中的腐蚀行为研究%Study on Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Materials in 650 ℃ Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姝丽; 罗英; 张强; 王浩; 邱绍宇

    2014-01-01

    研究了3种候选材料(347、H R3C和In-718)在650℃、25 M Pa去离子水中的均匀腐蚀行为,使用场发射扫描电镜(FEG-SEM )和能谱(EDS)观察了不同腐蚀时间的表面氧化膜形貌与合金元素分布,使用掠入射X射线衍射(G IX RD )分析了氧化膜相结构。结果表明,3种材料腐蚀失重均符合抛物线规律,347的失重为 HR3C和In-718的40倍以上;3种材料氧化膜均以 Ni(Cr ,Fe)2 O4为主,In-718点蚀严重,347氧化膜明显脱落,H R3C氧化膜较均匀致密;高温超临界水中,提高合金的C r含量有助于增强均匀腐蚀性能,添加Nb有损合金的点蚀抗力。%The general corrosion behavior of three candidate materials (347 ,HR3C and In-718 ) was investigated in 650 ℃ /25 MPa deionized water . Morphology and composition of the surface oxide film with different exposure time were observed through FEG-SEM and EDS .The phase constitute was analyzed by GIXRD .For all the test materials ,the weight loss follows typical parabolic law and the weight loss of 347 shows more than 40 times higher than that of HR3C and In-718 .The oxide film of three alloys mainly consists of Ni(Cr, Fe)2O4 .In-718 shows severe pitting and the oxide film of 347 appears significant spalling ,while HR3C has compact oxide film .In the high temperature supercritical water ,the high Cr content may enhance the general corrosion property of the alloys ,while addition of Nb may be detrimental to the pitting resistance of alloys .

  17. Analysis on liquid metal corrosion-oxidation interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinsuo [International and Nuclear System Engineering, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: jszhang@lanl.gov; Li Ning [International and Nuclear System Engineering, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The interaction between growing surface oxides and flowing liquid metals is of importance in many high temperature applications such as coolant systems using liquid lead or lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) in advanced nuclear energy systems. The impact of flow can manifest through particle erosion, mass transfer corrosion, stress scrape, etc. In the present study, we consider the continuous flow-induced corrosion by dissolution of steel components or dissociation of surface oxides. In oxygen controlled liquid lead or LBE systems, steels exposed to the liquid metals are subject to both oxidation and flow-induced corrosion. It is necessary and important to understand the corrosion-oxidation interactions for selecting structural materials and optimizing operating conditions. A comprehensive theoretical analysis of the key corrosion-oxidation interactions is presented here. Possible corrosion-oxidation mechanisms are considered and the corrosion-oxidation interactions are classified into different regimes. In each regime, a theoretical model is given. Based on the analysis, corrosion-oxidation maps are developed for selecting and optimizing the operation conditions for liquid lead-alloy systems.

  18. Influence of Paper Surface Compounds on Corrosion of Printing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresimir Dragcevic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with investigation of corrosion processes on construction steel in contact with aqueous solutions of surface coatings of high gloss and standard uncoated papers for sheet-fed printing. During the period of four months, changes in the mass of steel specimens were measured (loss of material, as well as changes in pH values and conductivity of the examined solutions. Formation of corrosion products on the surface was identified by changes of spectrophotometric reemission in the visible portion of the steel spectrum and by FT-IR spectral recordings. In addition, the electrochemical potentiodynamic measurements were carried out with the direct current and the method of linear polarization and Tafel’s extrapolation, by which the corrosion parameters were determined: corrosion potential, corrosion current density, polarization resistance cathodic and anodic inclination of Tafel’s lines, as well as the corrosion rate. The results show that the dynamics of the corrosion in printing machines is directly influenced by the type of the paper used for printing. This investigation gave an insight into dynamics and mechanisms of corrosion under conditions close to those in printing production, thus facilitating better understanding of the entire process.

  19. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  20. Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barry M.

    2013-08-01

    Serious corrosion problems have plagued the light water reactor (LWR) industry for decades. The complex corrosion mechanisms involved and the development of practical engineering solutions for their mitigation will be discussed in this article. After a brief overview of the basic designs of the boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR), emphasis will be placed on the general corrosion of LWR containments, flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel components, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWRs, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in PWRs, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in both systems. Finally, the corrosion future of both plants will be discussed as plants extend their period of operation for an additional 20 to 40 years.

  1. External Corrosion of Pipes in District Heating Systems; Utvaendig korrosion paa fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, Goeran [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Corrosion damages of pipes in district heating systems can occur both external and internal. The aim with this work has been to clarify external corrosion damages of pipes, and try to correlate the damages to the corrosivity of different soils and waters. For the analysis the Swedish District Heating Association's district heating system statistics has been used. The district heating system statistics shows that the cost for corrosion damages is high, and pipes older than 20 years have increased risk for corrosion. The knowledge about corrosion concerning steel poles and water pipes in soils can not be applied to external corrosion of steel pipes in district heating systems. The corrosion rate of steel poles in soils is low. The corrosion of steel pipes in district heating systems can locally give high rates, up to 0,5 mm/year. The mechanism for this type of corrosion is different compared to the corrosion mechanism of poles in soils. The temperature is higher and aggressive water, with road-salt and chloride content, falls in drops on the steel pipe, and impurities evaporate on the steel surface. These factors increase the corrosion rate. If the material thickness is 5 mm, fracture can occur in the pipe within ten years. The number of copper pipe corrosion damage is limited. The most determining corrosion factors of copper pipes are pH-value and impurities as chloride and sulphate in the water. Stainless steel pipes of type 304 can not be used in soils due to the risk of local corrosion. Higher alloyed stainless steels, with molybdenum and higher chromium content should be used. It is concluded that failures can occur due to external corrosion of steel pipes. This failure is expensive and can lead to human damage. One way to eliminate failures of steel pipes is to carry out risk analysis.

  2. High-temperature corrosion of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cho, W.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. This paper describes results from an ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne involves thermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and coal combustion. Corrosion experiments were conducted to determine the effect of gas flow rate and different levels of HCl at a gas temperature of 650 C on three heats of aluminide material, namely, FA 61, FA 129, and FAX. In addition, specimens of Type 316 stainless steel with an overlay alloying of iron aluminide were prepared by electrospark deposition and tested for their corrosion resistance. Detailed microstructural evaluations of tested specimens were performed. Results are used to assess the corrosion resistance of various iron aluminides for service in fossil energy systems that utilize coal as a feedstock.

  3. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon

    2003-06-24

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met.

  4. Corrosion in drinking water pipes: the importance of green rusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, Urszula; Piszora, Paweł; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Complex crystallographic composition of the corrosion products is studied by diffraction methods and results obtained after different pre-treatment of samples are compared. The green rusts are found to be much more abundant in corrosion scales than it has been assumed so far. The characteristic and crystallographic composition of corrosion scales and deposits suspended in steady waters were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The necessity of the examination of corrosion products in the wet conditions is indicated. The drying of the samples before analysis is shown to substantially change the crystallographic phases originally present in corrosion products. On sample drying the unstable green rusts is converted into more stable phases such as goethite and lepidocrocite, while the content of magnetite and siderite decreases. Three types of green rusts in wet materials sampled from tubercles are identified. Unexpectedly, in almost all corrosion scale samples significant amounts of the least stable green rust in chloride form was detected. Analysis of corrosion products suspended in steady water, which remained between tubercles and possibly in their interiors, revealed complex crystallographic composition of the sampled material. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite as well as low amounts of siderite and quartz were present in all samples. Six different forms of green rusts were identified in the deposits separated from steady waters and the most abundant was carbonate green rust GR(CO(3)(2-))(I).

  5. Study of corrosion erosion behaviour of stainless alloys in industrial phosphoric acid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenbour, Abdellah; Hajji, Mohamed-Adil; Jallouli, El Miloudi; Bachir, Ali Ben

    2006-12-01

    The corrosion and corrosion-abrasion resistance of some stainless steels in industrial phosphoric acid 30% P 2O 5 has been studied using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of materials increases with the increase of temperature. Alloys which contain chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen in sufficient quantities present the best behaviour. In the abrasion-corrosion conditions, the experimental device set up allowed to follow continually samples electrochemical behaviour. Under dynamic conditions and without solid particles, the increase of acid projection speed has no effect on the alloys corrosion behaviour. The adding of abrasive leads to a general increase of corrosion rate and to a decrease of material resistance. Under these conditions, materials attack is controlled by synergistic effect between the abrasion and the impurities. The cast 30% Cr shows good resistance according to his high chromium content.

  6. Slao corrosion resistance of MaO-MaAI2O4-ZrO2 series materials%MgO-MgAl2O4-ZrO2系材料的抗渣性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰; 李友胜; 韩兵强; 李楠

    2011-01-01

    MgO-MgAl204 specimen,MgO-ZrO2 specimen,and MgO-MgAl204-ZrO2 specimen were prepared using magnesite powder (d50=6.62μm),m-ZrO2 micropowder (d50=3.99μm) and α-Al203 micropowder (d50=1.89 μm) as starting materials by semi-dry pressing and firing at 1 600 C for 3 h. The permanent linear change on heating, apparent porosity, bulk density, slag corrosion resistance, and slag penetration resistance of the specimens were determined. Slag resistance of specimens was analyzed using thermodynamic software Factsage6.1. The results show that: ( 1 ) MgO-ZrO2 material has better sintering ability than MgOMgAl2O4 material and MgO-MgAl2O4-ZrO2 material; (2) when adding ZrO2 into MgO-MgAl204 material ,the slag corrosion resistance is improved and the slag penetration resistance is poor ,which is mainly resulted from relatively loose microstructure of the specimens and the penetration of Fe3+ and Mg2+ in the slag;(3)experimental results are in good agreement with thermodynamic simulation results.%以菱镁矿粉(d=6.62 μm)、m-ZrO微粉(d=3.99μm)、α-AlO微粉(d=1.89μm)为原料,采用半干法成型,于1 600 ℃保温3 h烧成后制成MgO-MgAlO、MgO-ZrO和MgO-MgAlO-ZrO质试样,检测试样的加热永久线变化率、显气孔率、体积密度、抗渣侵蚀性、抗渣渗透性,并利用Factsage6.1热力学软件对试样的抗渣性进行了分析.结果表明:1.MgO-ZrO材料的烧结性能优于MgO-MgAlO材料及MgO-MgAlO-ZrO材料;2.在MgO-MgAIO材料中引入ZrO,有利于提高其抗渣侵蚀性,但抗渣渗透性较差,主要同试样的组织结构相对疏松及熔渣中的Fe和Mg的渗透有关;3)试验结果与热力学模拟结果吻合较好.

  7. Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: Characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Hu, Hongying; Tang, Fusheng; Li, Yuhong; Yu, Kanghua

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales. Stainless steel corrosion scale is identified as a podiform chromite deposit according to these characteristics, which is unlike deposit formed during iron corrosion. A conceptual model to explain the formation and growth of stainless steel corrosion scale is proposed based on its composition and structure. The scale growth process involves pitting corrosion on the stainless steel surface and the consecutive generation and homogeneous deposition of corrosion products, which is governed by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. This model shows the role of corrosion scales in the mechanism of iron and chromium release from pitting corroded stainless steel materials. The formation of corrosion scale is strongly related to water quality parameters. The presence of HClO results in higher ferric content inside the scales. Cl(-) and SO4(2-) ions in reclaimed water play an important role in corrosion pitting of stainless steel and promote the formation of scales. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    F. Presuel-Moreno; M.A. Jakab; N. Tailleart; Goldman, M.; J. R. Scully

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned) to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic i...

  9. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  10. MgO-SiO2-ZrO2-C系复合材料显微结构及其抗蚀性研究%The Microstructure and Corrosion Resistant of Corbon-Bonded Forsterito-zirconia Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The forsterite-zirconia material have been produced from the zircon and magnesia, adding graphite, to produce a Mg2SiOZrO2-C. The microstructure and Mineral composition have been studied by means of microscope, SFM,X-ray, diffractometer and DTA. It is a nice refractories that the brick have densed structure, thermal stability, good thermal conductivity and wear-resistance, and good resistance to the corrosion by iron-oxide slay.%以锆英砂和电熔镁砂为原料,合成ZrO2增韧的镁橄榄石材料,进而加入鳞片状石墨,得到Mg2SiO4(-ZrO2)-C复合材料。用扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪、差热、红外光谱等手段研究了该材料的显微结构和矿物组成。表明该材料具有优异的高温强度、抗侵蚀性和热震稳定性,是一种新型耐火材料。

  11. The corrosion of aluminum in dilute solutions: laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draley, J.E.; Arendt, J.W.; English, G.C.; Story, E.F.; Wainscott, M.M.; Berger, R.W.

    1945-06-19

    After it had been decided that aluminum was to be used as a corrosion-resistant material with good heat transfer properties, it was desired to determine the operating conditions to be used in the water-cooled Handford plant in order to avoid danger of corrosion penetration of thin aluminum parts. The studies here reported were undertaken with the object of determining these conditions by investigating the effects of all the known variables which might influence the corrosion behavior of aluminum in a water-coolded plant at HEW. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the testing solutions was the only effort made to simulate special conditions at the plant.

  12. The corrosion of aluminum in dilute solutions: laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draley, J.E.; Arendt, J.W.; English, G.C.; Story, E.F.; Wainscott, M.M.; Berger, R.W.

    1945-06-19

    After it had been decided that aluminum was to be used as a corrosion-resistant material with good heat transfer properties, it was desired to determine the operating conditions to be used in the water-cooled Handford plant in order to avoid danger of corrosion penetration of thin aluminum parts. The studies here reported were undertaken with the object of determining these conditions by investigating the effects of all the known variables which might influence the corrosion behavior of aluminum in a water-coolded plant at HEW. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the testing solutions was the only effort made to simulate special conditions at the plant.

  13. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  14. Thin film corrosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.

    1980-06-01

    Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

  15. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  16. Real time corrosion monitoring in atmosphere using automated battery driven corrosion loggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosek, T.; Kouril, M.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2008-01-01

    A logger enabling continuous measurement of corrosion rate of selected metals in indoor and outdoor atmospheres has been developed. Principle of the measurement method is based on the increasing electrical resistance of a measuring element made of the material concerned as its cross-sectional are...

  17. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    of microstructure, in particular the local electrochemical activities of several microstructural heterogeneities such as second phase particles and grain boundaries. The overall corrosion behaviour of the material is determined by the local interaction of several microstructural features. On the other hand......High performance demand for several engineering alloys and components, and miniaturization of electronics and development of MEMS requires better understanding of local corrosion characteristics frequently down to µm scale. This is because in metallic materials corrosion is a sensitive function...... in engineering components, structural heterogeneities of a higher scale could be produced by joining and processing techniques such as welding (eg. heat affected zone and nugget), cutting and machining operations. In all these cases understanding the corrosion properties of an individual microstructural region...

  18. Corrosion of titanium in supercritical water oxidation environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建树; 毛志远; 张九渊; 马淳安; 毛信表; 李肖华

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) can effectively destroy many kinds of civilian and military wastes. The high temperature and high pressure SCWO operation conditions generate very corrosive environment that many engineering materials fail to withstand. Preliminary test shows that titanium may be a promising material in most of SCWO conditions. Commercially pure titanium is tested in four kinds of SCWO environments. Phenol, sodium dodecyl-benzosulfonate, n-amine phenol, and chlorpyrifos were chosen as typical target pollutants. The results show that titanium is only superficially attacked in the first three SCWO environments while in chlorpyrifos SCWO medium titanium is corroded. The corrosion is temperature dependent, with heavier corrosion occurring at near critical temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the corrosion products consist of titanium oxy- phosphates and titanium oxide, in which Ti5O4(PO4)4 is the main phase.

  19. Corrosion Rate of Hydrogenation to C110 Casing in High H2S Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi; LI Changjin; ZHANG Jiyin; SHI Taihe

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of C110 bushing at high temperature and high pressure with a high H2S / CO2 was studied,and a basis for the materials selection of sour gas well bushing was provided in H2S,CO2 and saline coexisting environment.Under acidic condiction,hydrogen atoms greatly entered into the material and caused the material properties changed.Weight loss method was used to study the corrosion rate of hydrogen charging samples and original untreated samples in simulated oil field environment.PAR2273 electrochemical workstation was used to examine the electrochemical performance of samples untreated,hydrogen charging after reacting in autoclave.The corrosion product film was observed through SEM.The experimental results show that sample with hydrogen charging has a much more obvious partial corrosion and pitting corrosion than the untreated blank sample even the downhole corrosion speed of bushing is increased after being used for a period of time.Polarization curve shows the corrosion tendency is the same between sample with or without hydrogen charging and corrosion tendency is reduced by corrosion product film.A layer of dense product film formed on the surface of samples provides a certain protective effect to the matrix,but cracked holes which will accelerate partial corrosion of the sample were also observed.

  20. Corrosion Inhibition on SAE 1010 Steel by Nanoscale Exopolysaccharides Coatings Determined by Electrochemical and Surface Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plating, painting and the application of enamel are the most common anti-corrosion treatments. They are effective by providing a barrier of corrosion resistant material between the damaging environment and the structural material. Coatings start failing rapidly if scratched or damaged because a co...