WorldWideScience

Sample records for corrosion product transport

  1. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. The efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness, and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results and observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with PWRs. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of lay-up and various start-up conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on corrosion-product transport on the primary side of steam generators are also discussed. (author)

  2. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. Efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results of observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with pressurized-water reactors. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of layup and various startup conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on CPT on the primary side of SGs are also discussed. (author)

  3. Chemical and mechanical control of corrosion product transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O; Blum, R [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Daucik, K [I/S Skaerbaekvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The corrosion products formed in the condensate and feedwater system of once-through boilers are precipitated and deposited inside the evaporator tubes mainly in the burner zone at the highest heat flux. Depositions lead to increased oxidation rate and increased metal temperature of the evaporator tubes, hereby decreasing tube lifetime. This effect is more important in the new high efficiency USC boilers due to increased feedwater temperature and hence higher thermal load on the evaporator tubes. The only way to reduce the load on the evaporator tubes is to minimise corrosion product transport to the boiler. Two general methods for minimising corrosion product transport to the boiler have been evaluated through measurement campaigns for Fe in the water/steam cycle in supercritical boilers within the ELSAM area. One method is to reduce corrosion in the low temperature condensate system by changing conditioning mode from alkaline volatile treatment (AVT) to oxygenated treatment (OT). The other method is to filtrate part of the condensate with a mechanical filter at the deaerator. The results show, that both methods are effective at minimising Fe-transport to the boiler, but changing to OT has the highest effect and should always be used, whenever high purity condensate is maintained. Whether mechanical filtration also is required, depends on the boiler, specifically the load on the evaporator. A simplified calculation model for lifetime evaluation of evaporator tubes has been developed. This model has been used for evaluating the effect of corrosion product transport to the boiler on evaporator tube lifetime. Conventional supercritical boilers generally can achieve sufficient lifetime by AVT and even better by OT, whereas all measures to reduce Fe-content of feedwater, including OT and mechanical filtration, should be taken, to ensure sufficient lifetime for the new boilers with advanced steam data - 290 bar/580 deg. C and above. (au)

  4. The effects of corrosion product colloids on actinide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1991-11-01

    This report assesses the possible effects of colloidal corrosion products on the transport of actinides from the near field of radioactive waste repositories. The desorption of plutonium and americium from colloidal corrosion products of iron and zirconium was studied under conditions simulating a transition from near-field to far-field environmental conditions. Desorption of actinides occurred slowly from the colloids under far-field conditions. Measurements of particle stability showed all the colloids to be unstable in the near field. Stability increased under far-field conditions or as a result of the evolution of the near field. Migration of colloids from the near field is unlikely except in the presence of organic materials. (Author)

  5. Corrosion in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products and biofuels identification, monitoring and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2014-01-01

    This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, mat...

  6. The effect of corrosion product colloids on actinide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The near field of the proposed UK repository for ILW/LLW will contain containers of conditioned waste in contact with a cementious backfill. It will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Colloids deriving from their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. If the colloids are mobile in the groundwater flow, they could act as a significant vector for activity transport into the far field. The desorption of plutonium and americium from colloidal corrosion products of iron and zirconium has been studied under chemical conditions representing the transition from the near field to the far field. Desorption R d values of ≥ 5 x 10 6 ml g -1 were measured for both actinides on these oxides and hydroxides when actinide sorption took place under the near-field conditions and desorption took place under the far-field conditions. Desorption of the actinides occurred slowly from the colloids under far-field conditions when the colloids had low loadings of actinide and more quickly at high loadings of actinide. Desorbed actinide was lost to the walls of the experimental vessel. (author)

  7. Properties of Douglas Point Generating Station heat transport corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, B.; Rummery, T.E.

    1975-09-01

    Chemical, radiochemical and structural properties of circulating and fixed corrosion products from the Douglas Point Generating Station are documented. Interaction of Monel-400 and carbon steel corrosion products is described, and the mechanisms of Monel-400 surface deposit release, and activity buildup in the coolant system, are briefly discussed. Efficiencies of filters and ion-exchangers for the removal of released radionuclides are given. (author)

  8. Some in-reactor loop experiments on corrosion product transport and water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Allison, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the transport of activated corrosion products in the heat transport circuit of pressurized water-cooled nuclear reactors using an in-reactor loop showed that the concentration of particulate and dissolved corrosion products in the high-temperature water depends on such chemical parameters as pH and dissolved hydrogen concentration. Transients in these parameters, as well as in temperature, generally increase the concentration of suspended corrosion products. The maximum concentration of particles observed is much reduced when high-flow, high-temperature filtration is used. Filtration also reduces the steady-state concentration of particles. Dissolved corrosion products are mainly responsible for activity accumulation on surfaces. The data obtained from this study were used to estimate the rate constants for some of the transfer processes involved in the contamination of the primary heat transport circuit in water-cooled nuclear power reactors

  9. Analysis of corrosion product transport in PWR primary system under non-convective condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1992-02-01

    The increase of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) due to the increase of the operational period at existing nuclear power plant and also the publication of the new version of ICRP recommendation (ICRP publication No. 60) for radiological protection require much more strict reduction of radiation buildup in the nuclear power plant. The major sources of the radiation, i.e. the radioactive corrosion-products, are generated by the neutron activation of the corrosion products at the reactor core, and then the radioactive corrosion products are transported to the outside of the core, and accumulated near the steam generator side at PWR. Major radioactive corrosion-products of interest in PWR are Cr 51 ,: Mn 54 ,: Co 58 ,: Fe 59 and Co 60 . Among them Co 58 and Co 60 are known to contribute approximately more than 70% of the total ORE. Thus our main concerns are focused on predicting the transport and deposition of the Co radionuclides and suggesting the optimizing method which can minimize and control the ORE of the nuclear power plant. It is well known that Co-source is most effectively controlled by pH-solubility radiation control, and also some complex computer codes such as CORA and PACTOLE have been developed and revised to predict the corrosion product behavior. However these codes still imply some intrisic problems in simulating the real behavior of corrosion products in the reactor because of 1) the lack of important experimental data, coefficients and parameters of the transport and reactions under actual high temperature and pressure conditions, 2) no general theoretical modelling which can describe such many different mechanisms involved in the corrosion product movements, 3) the newly developed and measured behavior of the corrosion product transport mechanism. Since no sufficient and detailed information is available from the above-mentioned codes (also due to propriority problems), we concentrate on developing a new computer code, CP-TRAN (Corrosion

  10. Modelling and numerical simulation of the corrosion product transport in the pressurised water reactor primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetto, C.

    2002-05-01

    During operation of pressurised water reactor, corrosion of the primary circuit alloys leads to the release of metallic species such as iron, nickel and cobalt in the primary fluid. These corrosion products are implicated in different transport phenomena and are activated in the reactor core where they are submitted to neutron flux. The radioactive corrosion products are afterwards present in the out of flux parts of primary circuit where they generate a radiation field. The first part of this study deals with the modelling of the corrosion: product transport phenomena. In particular, considering the current state of the art, corrosion and release mechanisms are described empirically, which allows to take into account the material surface properties. New mass balance equations describing the corrosion product behaviour are thus obtained. The numerical resolution of these equations is implemented in the second part of this work. In order to obtain large time steps, we choose an implicit time scheme. The associated system is linearized from the Newton method and is solved by a preconditioned GMRES method. Moreover, a time step auto-adaptive management based on Newton iterations is performed. Consequently, an efficient resolution has been implemented, allowing to describe not only the quasi-steady evolutions but also the fast transients. In a last step, numerical simulations are carried out in order to validate the new corrosion product transport modelling and to illustrate the capabilities of this modelling. Notably, the numerical results obtained indicate that the code allows to restore the on-site observations underlining the influence of material surface properties on reactor contamination. (author)

  11. Corrosion products, activity transport and deposition in boiling water reactor recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, H.P.; Buckley, D.; Grauer, R.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of activated corrosion products in the recirculation loops of Boiling Water Reactors produces increased radiation levels which lead to a corresponding increase in personnel radiation dose during shut down and maintenance. The major part of this dose rate is due to cobalt-60. Based on a comprehensive literature study concerning this theme, it has been attempted to identify the individual stages of the activity build-up and to classify their importance. The following areas are discussed in detail: The origins of the corrosion products and of cobalt-59 in the reactor feedwaters; the consolidation of the cobalt in the fuel pins deposits (activation); the release and transport of cobalt-60; the build-up of cobalt-60 in the corrosion products in the recirculation loops. Existing models of the build-up of circuit radioactivity are discussed and the operating experiences from selected reactors are summarized. 90 refs, figs and tabs

  12. A computer code PACTOLE to predict activation and transport of corrosion products in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslu, P.; Frejaville, G.; Lalet, A.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical studies on activation and transport of corrosion products in a PWR primary circuit have been concentrated, at CEA on the development of a computer code : PACTOLE. This code takes into account the major phenomena which govern corrosion products transport: 1. Ion solubility is obtained by usual thermodynamics laws in function of water chemistry: pH at operating temperature is calculated by the code. 2. Release rates of base metals, dissolution rates of deposits, precipitation rates of soluble products are derived from solubility variations. 3. Deposition of solid particles is treated by a model taking into account particle size, brownian and turbulent diffusion and inertial effect. Erosion of deposits is accounted for by a semi-empirical model. After a review of calculational models, an application of PACTOLE is presented in view of analyzing the distribution of in core. (author)

  13. Corrosion products, activity transport and deposition in boiling water reactor recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, H.P.; Buckley, D.; Grauer, R.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1989-09-01

    The deposition of activated corrosion products in the recirculation loops of Boiling Water Reactors produces increased radiation levels which lead to a corresponding increase in personnel radiation dose during shut down and maintenance. The major part of this dose rate is due to cobalt-60. The following areas are discussed in detail: - the origins of the corrosion products and of cobalt-59 in the reactor feedwaters, - the consolidation of the cobalt in the fuel pin deposits (activation), - the release and transport of cobalt-60, - the build-up of cobalt-60 in the corrosion products in the recirculation loops. Existing models of the build-up of circuit radioactivity are discussed and the operating experiences from selected reactors are summarised. Corrosion chemistry aspects of the cobalt build-up in the primary circuit have already been studied on a broad basis and are continuing to be researched in a number of centers. The crystal chemistry of chromium-nickel steel corrosion products poses a number of yet unanswered questions. There are major loopholes associated with the understanding of activation processes of cobalt deposited on the fuel pins and in the mass transfer of cobalt-60. For these processes, the most important influence stems from factors associated with colloid chemistry. Accumulation of data from different BWRs contributes little to the understanding of the activity build-up. However, there are examples that the problem of activity build-up can be kept under control. Although many details for a quantitative understanding are still missing, the most important correlations are visible. The activity build-up in the BWR recirculation systems cannot be kept low by a single measure. Rather a whole series of measures is necessary, which influences not only cobalt-60 deposition but also plant and operation costs. (author) 26 figs., 13 tabs., 90 refs

  14. Analysis of corrosion-product transport using nondestructive XRF and MS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Sawicki, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the application of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) techniques to monitor corrosion-product transport (CPT) in water circuits of nuclear reactors. The combination of XRF and MS techniques was applied in studies of CPT crud filters from both primary- and secondary-side water circuits (i.e., radioactive and nonradioactive specimens) of CANDU reactors. The XRF-MS method allows nondestructive analysis of species collected on filters and provides more complete information about corrosion products than commonly used digestive methods of chemical analysis. Recent analyses of CPT specimens from the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) primary side and the Bruce B NGS feedwater system are shown as examples. Some characteristics of primary and secondary water circuits are discussed using these new data. (author)

  15. Thermodynamics and the transport of corrosion products in PWR primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that practically useful models for the activation, transport and deposition of corrosion products in PWR primary circuits can only be produced on the basis of an improved understanding of the chemical processes which control them. In particular, if a model is to make reliable predictions it is essential that its thermodynamic basis be sound. This is not the case with most current models which employ the erroneous concept of a corrosion product 'solubility'. In addition to the misuse of this term, other complications are discussed. These include the need to take account of the consequences of Gibbs' phase rule and the fact that, for mixed spinels, neither the concept of a thermodynamic solubility nor of a solubility product is valid. There is no reason to believe that measured apparent solubilities of nickel ferrites or spinel mixtures containing cobalt can give any direct guidance on the direction of transport of Ni or Co in PWR primary circuits. This is more likely to be determined by the distribution of stable and unstable ferrites and chromites than by any temperature coefficient of apparent solubility. Most of the transport of Ni and Co into and out of the core probably occurs as a consequence of either chemical or mechanical transients. Most important is likely to be the oxidative destruction and subsequent re-precipitation of chromites which occurs as a consequence of the oxygenated conditions employed during plant shutdown. (author)

  16. Predicting corrosion product transport in nuclear power stations using a solubility-based model for flow-accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.; Cheluget, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A general model of solubility-driven flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel was derived based on the assumption that the solubilities of ferric oxyhydroxide and magnetite control the rate of film dissolution. This process involves the dissolution of an oxide film due to fast-flowing coolant unsaturated in iron. The soluble iron is produced by (i) the corrosion of base metal under a porous oxide film and (ii) the dissolution of the oxide film at the fluid-oxide film interface. The iron released at the pipe wall is transferred into the bulk flow by turbulent mass transfer. The model is suitable for calculating concentrations of dissolved iron in feedtrain lines. These iron levels were used to calculate sludge transport rates around the feedtrain. The model was used to predict sludge transport rates due to flow accelerated corrosion of major feedtrain piping in a CANDU reactor. The predictions of the model compare well with plant measurements

  17. Magnesium microelectrode corrosion product transport modelling in relation to chloride induced pitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, R.; Cook, A.; Stevens, N.P.C.

    2012-09-01

    The high magnesium alloy Magnox is used as a fuel clad for the UK gas cooled, graphite moderated reactors of the same name. The fuel is metallic uranium (typically natural enrichment), so a low neutron absorption cross-section clad is required. Following discharge from reactor, spent fuel is stored in water, which acts as an effective heat transfer medium and biological shield. The chemistry of these ponds is carefully controlled to ensure that the Magnox clad remains in a passive state. This is primarily through the maintenance of a high pH and very low anion concentration. Of particular concern is the presence of chloride ions as even very low levels may allow localised corrosion to initiate. Although extensive work has been undertaken historically considering the behaviour of Magnox clad and the acceptable storage envelopes, the challenges of ageing plant and aspirations for accelerated decommissioning give value to further understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of this material. Recently, electrochemical techniques have been employed to characterise performance in a variety of chemistries and microelectrodes have been produced which have shown characteristics of salt film corrosion at moderate chloride concentrations under polarisation. A characteristic of the electrochemical response observed during the mass transport limited (potential independent) salt film regime has been periodic transients which correspond to emission of microscopic hydrogen bubbles from the microelectrode cavity. A simple finite element multi-physics model has been employed to assist in understanding the dominant processes of corrosion product transport away from a magnesium electrode surface which is dissolving under a salt film and this shows that characteristic transients observed in electrochemical tests may be simulated with reasonable agreement by consideration of convection from laminar flow around hydrogen micro-bubbles in the pit cavity combined with aqueous diffusion in the

  18. X-rays diffraction characterization of corrosion products transported by secondary side of a CANDU NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.

    2016-01-01

    To verify the chemistry of secondary side of CANDU steam generators, Millipore filters are used to sampling from condensing extraction pump, from feed water header and blow down of steam generator. These filters retain the corrosion products as very fine particles and are used as samples in chemistry water control. X-Ray diffraction technique is the able to distinguish the different crystallographic compounds present in oxide films deposited on the Millipore filters and gives information referring to the nature of corrosion products transported in secondary side. The XRD analysis has identified the following substance in deposited layer: magnetite (Fe_3O_4), hematite (Fe_2O_3), and iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH). By optical microscopy it was observed a brown-reddish background specific to hematite and iron oxide hydroxide, especially for filters extracted from condensing extraction pump. The black colour of crud present on filters extracted from feed water header and blow down of steam generator shows the presence of magnetite. (authors)

  19. Theoretical approach to description of some corrosion product transport processes in PWRs primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.

    1990-10-01

    The behavior and mass transport of corrosion products in primary circuits of PWR type reactors are described assuming that the products occur in ionic form, in colloidal form (about 0.01-0.6 μm in size) and in particulate form. The transport of the soluble form is treated as a diffusion process. For the colloidal form, allowance is made for its Van der Waals attraction and repulsion interaction with the surfaces. For particles and their agglomerates, the hydrodynamical effects of the flowing liquid on the agglomerate breakdown and re-formation of the particle suspension are taken into account. Efforts were made to employ theoretical relations rather than particular experimental data, for the conclusions to be applicable to different facilities. It is believed that the complex approach to the problem can contribute to gaining insight into the role of the individual factors and processes involved, particularly as regards colloidal particles whose effect on the formation of radiation fields is not yet fully understood. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  20. Evaluation of CRUDTRAN code to predict transport of corrosion products and radioactivity in the PWR primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    CRUDTRAN code is to predict transport of the corrosion products and their radio-activated nuclides such as cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 in the PWR primary coolant system. In CRUDTRAN code the PWR primary circuit is divided into three principal sections such as the core, the coolant and the steam generator. The main driving force for corrosion product transport in the PWR primary coolant comes from coolant temperature change throughout the system and a subsequent change in corrosion product solubility. As the coolant temperature changes around the PWR primary circuit, saturation status of the corrosion products in the coolant also changes such that under-saturation in steam generator and super-saturation in the core. CRUDTRAN code was evaluated by comparison with the results of the in-reactor loop tests simulating the PWR primary coolant system and PWR plant data. It showed that CRUDTRAN could predict variations of cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 radioactivity with time, plant cycle and coolant chemistry in the PWR plant. (author)

  1. Study of the formation and transport of corrosion products in PWR primary circuit simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Frejaville, G.; Camp, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The formation, migration and deposition of corrosion products in PWR primary circuits are studied in out-of-reactor loops. The aim of these studies is to limit the build-up of the radiation fields impinging on out-of-flux walls and to reduce the danger of rapid corrosion of fuel cans, taking into account the tougher conditions imposed on current trends in the operation of such industrial plants. Four simulator loops and their respective possibilities and research methods are described. (author)

  2. Review of available data on the release, transport and deposition of corrosion products in PWR, BWR and SGHWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1976-03-01

    A survey has been carried out of data which are relevant to the theoretical and experimental aspects of corrosion product release, transport, activation and deposition and which were available from operational experience of water reactors and associated experiments. The data have been assessed in connection with commercial SGHWR systems with regard to construction, commissioning and operational procedures. A few areas of work where the existing evidence is inconclusive or incomplete are listed. (author)

  3. IN DRIFT CORROSION PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley

    1999-12-02

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  4. Reduction transport of corrosion products through the secondary circuit by increasing the dosage of ammonia; Reduccion del transporte de productos de corrosion a traves del circuito secundario mediante el aumento de la dosificacion de amoniaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espanol, J.; Boronat, M.

    2015-07-01

    Reduce transport of corrosion products through the Secondary Circuit, mainly magnetite, by increasing the dosage of ammonia in order to reduce oxides accumulation in the Steam Generators top of tube sheet where become hard sludge, as one of the TTS denting mitigation actions. (Author)

  5. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Study of MHD Corrosion and Transport of Corrosion Products of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels in the Flowing PbLi and its Application to Fusion Blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Sheida

    Two important components of a liquid breeder blanket of a fusion power reactor are the liquid breeder/coolant and the steel structure that the liquid is enclosed in. One candidate combination for such components is Lead-Lithium (PbLi) eutectic alloy and advanced Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel. The research performed here is aimed at: (1) better understanding of corrosion processes in the system including RAFM steel and flowing PbLi in the presence of a strong magnetic field and (2) prediction of corrosion losses in conditions of a Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) blanket, which is at present the key liquid metal blanket concept in the US. To do this, numerical and analytical tools have been developed and then applied to the analysis of corrosion processes. First, efforts were taken to develop a computational suite called TRANSMAG (Transport phenomena in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows) as an analysis tool for corrosion processes in the PbLi/RAFM system, including transport of corrosion products in MHD laminar and turbulent flows. The computational approach in TRANSMAG is based on simultaneous solution of flow, energy and mass transfer equations with or without a magnetic field, assuming mass transfer controlled corrosion and uniform dissolution of iron in the flowing PbLi. Then, the new computational tool was used to solve an inverse mass transfer problem where the saturation concentration of iron in PbLi was reconstructed from the experimental data resulting in the following correlation: CS = e 13.604--12975/T, where T is the temperature of PbLi in K and CS is in wppm. The new correlation for saturation concentration was then used in the analysis of corrosion processes in laminar flows in a rectangular duct in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field. As shown in this study, the mass loss increases with the magnetic field such that the corrosion rate in the presence of a magnetic field can be a few times higher compared to purely

  7. Transport of radioactive corrosion products in primary system of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor 'MONJU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Hasegawa, Masanori; Maegawa, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CP) are primary cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance work at FBR plants with no breached fuel. The PSYCHE code has been developed based on the Solution-Precipitation model for analysis of CP transfer behavior. We predicted and analyzed the CP solution and precipitation behavior of MONJU to evaluate the applicability of the PSYCHE code to MONJU, using the parameters verified in the calculations for JOYO. From the calculation result pertaining to the MONJU system, distribution of 54 Mn deposited in the primary cooling system over 20 years of operation is predicted to be approximately 7 times larger than that of 60 Co. In particular, predictions show a notable tendency for 54 Mn precipitation to be distributed in the primary pump and cold-leg. The calculated distribution of 54 Mn and 60 Co in the primary cooling system of MONJU agreed with tendencies of measured distribution of JOYO. (author)

  8. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  9. Passive, wireless corrosion sensors for transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Many industrial segments including utilities, manufacturing, government and infrastructure have an urgent need for a means to detect corrosion before significant damage occurs. Transportation infrastructure, such as bridges and roads, rely on reinfor...

  10. Corrosion-product inventory: the Bruce-B secondary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Price, J.; Brett, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion inspection and corrosion-product characterization in water and steam systems are important for component and systems maintenance in nuclear power stations. Corrosion products are produced, released and redeposited at various sites in the secondary system. Depending on the alloys used in the condenser and feedwater heaters, particulate iron oxides and hydroxides can account for about 95-99% of the total corrosion-product transport. Where brass or cupro-nickel alloys are present, copper and zinc contribute significantly to the total transport and deposition. Particulates are transported by the feedwater to the steam generators, where they accumulate and can cause a variety of problems, such as loss of heat transfer capability through deposition on boiler tubes, blockage of flow through boiler-tube support plates and accelerated corrosion in crevices, either in deep sludge piles or at blocked tube supports. The influx of oxidized corrosion products may have a particularly adverse effect on the redox environment of steam generator tubing, thereby increasing the probability of localized corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. In this paper, there is a description of a survey of general corrosion deposits in Bruce-B, Units 5-8, which helps to identify the origin, evolution and inventory of corrosion products along the secondary system of Candu reactors

  11. Mitigation of corrosion product ingress into SG's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    Design and operation experiences to mitigate corrosion product ingress into SGs in Korea nuclear power plants are briefly reviewed. Maintaining the feedwater pH above 9.6 with morpholine seems to contribute significantly to reduction of iron transport to SGs. Measured iron transport rates were 4.8 g/hr/100 MWe at pH 9.8 and 2.8 g/hr/100 MWe at 9.3, respectively. Removal of corrosion products through SG blowdown is very limited. Its removal efficiency at the higher pH plant was in the neighborhood of 10 %. In one of the Korea Nuclear Units, a large amount of sludge piles were found in the middle of tube bundles especially on the cold leg side. Damaged tubes were identified by the multi-frequency eddy current tests and plugged later during the refueling period. Intermittent blowdown-rate increase was tried to enhance ionic impurity removal through SG blowdown. Even though it was not effective against Na, removal other impurity was improved, resulting in prolonged condensate polisher operation periods by 1 - 2 days. Two-bed polisher design, a cation bed followed by a mixed bed, was chosen for future PWR plants to enhance corrosion product filtering capability of the polishers. Condensate pump discharge polishing and divided hot well polishing methods are currently in consideration. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  13. Corrosion and Wear Analysis in Marine Transport Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Urbahs, A; Savkovs, K; Rijkuris, G; Andrejeva, D

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the most common naturally occurring processes studied by thermodynamics, which includes oxidation process, metal disruption, and its chemical and electrochemical effects under environmental influence. Corrosion of metal and equipment accounts for a considerable proportion of total corrosion losses, thus providing the impetus for further investigation and developments related to corrosion protection in order to provide transport systems and industry with corrosion preventiv...

  14. SITE-94. CAMEO: A model of mass-transport limited general corrosion of copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.J.; Apted, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the technical basis for the CAMEO code, which models the general, uniform corrosion of a copper canister either by transport of corrodants to the canister, or by transport of corrosion products away from the canister. According to the current Swedish concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuels, extremely long containment times are achieved by thick (60-100 mm) copper canisters. Each canister is surrounded by a compacted bentonite buffer, located in a saturated, crystalline rock at a depth of around 500 m below ground level. Three diffusive transport-limited cases are identified for general, uniform corrosion of copper: General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of sulphide to the canister surface under reducing conditions; General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of oxygen to the canister surface under mildly oxidizing conditions; General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of copper chloride away from the canister surface under highly oxidizing conditions. The CAMEO code includes general corrosion models for each of the above three processes. CAMEO is based on the well-tested CALIBRE code previously developed as a finite-difference, mass-transfer analysis code for the SKI to evaluate long-term radionuclide release and transport in the near-field. A series of scoping calculations for the general, uniform corrosion of a reference copper canister are presented

  15. Lead corrosion and transport in simulated secondary feedwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ross, K.J.; McDougall, T.E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Turner, C.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The ubiquitous presence of lead at trace levels in secondary feedwater is a concern to all operators of steam generators and has prompted laboratory studies of its interaction with Inconel 600, Inconel 690, Monel 400 and Incoloy 800. Acute exposures of steam generator alloys to high levels of,lead in the laboratory and in the field have accelerated the degradation of these alloys. There is some disagreement over the role of lead when the exposure is to chronic levels. It has been proposed that most of the present degradation of steam generator tubes is due to low levels of lead although few if any failures have been experimentally linked to lead when sub-parts per billion levels are present in the feedwater. One reason for the difficulty in assigning the role of the lead is related to its possible immobilization on the surfaces of corrosion products or iron oxide films in the feedwater system. We have measured lead adsorption profiles on the three principal corrosion products in the secondary feedwater; magnetite, lepidocrocite and hematite. In all cases, essentially complete adsorption of the lead is achieved at pH values less than that of the feedwater (9-10). If lead is maintained in this adsorbed state, it may be more chemically benign than lead that is free to dissolve in the feedwater and subsequently adsorb on steam generator tube surfaces. In this paper, we report on lead adsorption onto simulated corrosion products under simulated feedwater conditions and propose a physical model for the transport and fate of lead under operating conditions. The nature of lead adsorption onto the surfaces of different corrosion products will be discussed. The desorption behaviour of lead from iron oxide surfaces following different treatment conditions will be used to propose a model for tile transport and probable fate of lead in the secondary feedwater system. (author)

  16. Lead corrosion and transport in simulated secondary feedwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ross, K.J.; McDougall, T.E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Turner, C.W

    1999-07-01

    The ubiquitous presence of lead at trace levels in secondary feedwater is a concern to all operators of steam generators and has prompted laboratory studies of its interaction with Inconel 600, Inconel 690, Monel 400 and Incoloy 800. Acute exposures of steam generator alloys to high levels of lead in the laboratory and in the field have accelerated the degradation of these alloys. There is some disagreement over the role of lead when the exposure is to chronic levels. It has been proposed that most of the present degradation of steam generator tubes is caused by low levels of lead although few, if any, failures have been experimentally linked to lead when it is present in sub-parts per billion in the feedwater. One reason for the difficulty in assigning the role of the lead is related to its possible immobilization on the surfaces of corrosion products or iron oxide films in the feedwater system. We have measured lead adsorption profiles on the 3 principal corrosion products in the secondary feedwater: magnetite, lepidocrocite and hematite. In all cases, essentially complete adsorption of the lead is achieved at pH values that are lower than the pH of the feedwater (9 to 10). If lead is maintained in this adsorbed state, it may be more chemically benign than lead that is free to dissolve in the feedwater and subsequently adsorb on steam generator tube surfaces. In this paper, we report on lead adsorption onto simulated corrosion products under simulated feedwater conditions and propose a physical model for the transport and fate of lead under operating conditions. The nature of lead adsorption onto the surfaces of different corrosion products will be discussed. The desorption behaviour of lead from iron oxide surfaces after different treatment conditions will be used to propose a model for the transport and probable fate of lead in the secondary feedwater system. (author)

  17. Lead corrosion and transport in simulated secondary feedwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarvey, G.B.; Ross, K.J.; McDougall, T.E.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of lead at trace levels in secondary feedwater is a concern to all operators of steam generators and has prompted laboratory studies of its interaction with Inconel 600, Inconel 690, Monel 400 and Incoloy 800. Acute exposures of steam generator alloys to high levels of,lead in the laboratory and in the field have accelerated the degradation of these alloys. There is some disagreement over the role of lead when the exposure is to chronic levels. It has been proposed that most of the present degradation of steam generator tubes is due to low levels of lead although few if any failures have been experimentally linked to lead when sub-parts per billion levels are present in the feedwater. One reason for the difficulty in assigning the role of the lead is related to its possible immobilization on the surfaces of corrosion products or iron oxide films in the feedwater system. We have measured lead adsorption profiles on the three principal corrosion products in the secondary feedwater; magnetite, lepidocrocite and hematite. In all cases, essentially complete adsorption of the lead is achieved at pH values less than that of the feedwater (9-10). If lead is maintained in this adsorbed state, it may be more chemically benign than lead that is free to dissolve in the feedwater and subsequently adsorb on steam generator tube surfaces. In this paper, we report on lead adsorption onto simulated corrosion products under simulated feedwater conditions and propose a physical model for the transport and fate of lead under operating conditions. The nature of lead adsorption onto the surfaces of different corrosion products will be discussed. The desorption behaviour of lead from iron oxide surfaces following different treatment conditions will be used to propose a model for tile transport and probable fate of lead in the secondary feedwater system. (author)

  18. Device of capturing for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the area of contact between the capturing materials for the radioactive corrosion products contained in the coolants and the coolants by producing stirred turbulent flows in the coolant flow channel of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Constituent materials for the nuclear fuel elements or the reactor core structures are activated under the neutron irradiation, corroded and transferred into the coolants. While capturing devices made of pure metal nickel are used for the elimination of the corrosion products, since the coolants form laminar flows due to the viscosity thereof near the surface of the capturing materials, the probability that the corrosion products in the coolants flowing through the middle portion of the channel contact the capturing materials is reduced. In this invention, rotating rolls and flow channels in which the balls are rotated are disposed at the upstream of the capturing device to forcively disturb the flow of the liquid sodium, whereby the radioactive corrosion products can effectively be captured. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Techniques for the identification of corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.

    1988-12-01

    This paper presents the different techniques that can be used to identify corrosion/oxidation products through determination of either their composition or their structure, chemical analysis and spectrochemical analysis are commonly used to determine the composition of gross corrosion products. Surface anaLysis techniques such as electron microprobe, AES, ESCA, SIMS, ISS, neutron activation analysis, etc., can be used not only to detect the concentration of the various elements present, but also to obtain the concentration profiles of these elements through the corrosion products. The structure of corrosion products is normally determined with the aid of either X-ray or electron diffraction techniques. This paper describes the basic principles, typical characteristics, limitations and the types of information that can be obtained from each of the techniques along with some typical examples. (author) [pt

  20. Deposition of corrosion products in-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1994-11-01

    Data on corrosion product deposits on fuel sheaths are presented for a variety of operating conditions and water chemistries: boiling and non-boiling water; surface heat flux; pH, dissolved hydrogen concentration. Corrosion product behaviour in-core may be interpreted in terms of the solubility of magnetite and how it changes with water chemistry and temperature. A hypothesis of the deposition and release mechanisms was proposed in the 1970s in which particles deposited onto the sheath and subsequently dissolved in the heated water while being irradiated. Some of the deposition data may be interpreted using a model of these mechanisms. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Capturing device for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To render the flow channel area uniform for each of coolants over the entire capturing device and reduce the corrosion of capturing materials due to coolants. Constitution: Most of radioactivity caused by radioactive corrosion products are due to Mn-54 radioactive nuclides and it has been known that the nuclides are readily deposited to the surface of nickel material in sodium at high temperature. It is difficult in a conventional capturing device constituted by winding a nickel plate fabricated with protrusions in a multiple-coaxial configuration, that the flow channel area is reduced in a portion of the flow channel and it is difficult to make the flow of the coolants uniform. In view of the above, by winding a nickel plate having a plurality of protrusions at the surface formed integrally by way of an electrolytic process into a multiple-coaxial or spiral shape, those having high resistance to the coolant corrosion can be obtained. (Takahashi, M.)

  2. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  3. Study on Increasing High Temperature pH(t) to Reduce Iron Corrosion Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Man; Hur, Nam Yong; Kim, Waang Bae

    2011-01-01

    The transportation and deposition of iron corrosion products are important elements that affect both the steam generator (SG) integrity and secondary system in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants. Most of iron corrosion products are generated on carbon steel materials due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The several parameters like water chemistry, temperature, hydrodynamic, and steel composition affect FAC. It is well established that the at-temperature pH of the deaerated water system has a first order effect on the FAC rate of carbon steels through nuclear industry researches. In order to reduce transportation and deposition of iron corrosion products, increasing pH(t) tests were applied on secondary system of A, B units. Increasing pH(t) successfully reduced flow accelerated corrosion. The effect of increasing pH(t) to inhibit FAC was identified through the experiment and pH(t) evaluation in this paper

  4. Quantitative assessment of the effect of corrosion product buildup on occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The program was developed to provide a method for predicting occupational exposures caused by the deposition of radioactive corrosion products outside the core of the primary system of an operating power reactor. This predictive capability will be useful in forecasting total occupational doses during maintenance, inspection, decontamination, waste treatment, and disposal. In developing a reliable predictive model, a better understanding of the parameters important to corrosion product film formation, corrosion product transport, and corrosion product film removal will be developed. This understanding can lead to new concepts in reactor design to minimize the buildup and transport of radioactive corrosion products or to improve methods of operation. To achieve this goal, three objectives were established to provide: (1) criteria for acceptable coolant sampling procedures and sampling equipment that will provide data which will be used in the model development; (2) a quantitative assessment of the effect of corrosion product deposits on occupational exposure; and (3) a model which describes the influence of flow, temperature, coolant chemistry, construction materials, radiation, and other operating parameters on the transport and buildup of corrosion products

  5. The effect of zinc addition on PWR corrosion product deposition on zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.S.; Page, J.D.; Gaffka, A.P.; Kingsbury, A.F.; Foster, J.; Anderson, A.; Wickenden, D.; Henshaw, J.; Zmitko, M.; Masarik, V.; Svarc, V.

    2002-01-01

    During the period 1995 to 2001 a programme of loop irradiation tests have been performed to confirm the effectiveness of zinc additions on PWR circuit chemistry and corrosion. The programme included two loop irradiation experiments, and subsequent PIE; the experiments were a baseline test (no added zinc) and a test with added zinc (10 ppb). This paper addresses the findings regarding corrosion product deposition and activation on irradiated Zircaloy-4 surfaces. The findings are relevant to overall corrosion of the reactor primary circuit, the use of zinc as a corrosion inhibitor, and activation and transport of corrosion products. The irradiation experience provides information on the equilibration of the loop chemistry, with deliberate injection of zinc. The PIE used novel and innovative techniques (described below) to obtain samples of the oxide from the irradiated Zircaloy. The results of the PIE, under normal chemistry and zinc chemistry, indicate the effect of zinc on the deposition and activation of corrosion products on Zircaloy. It was found that corrosion product deposition on Zircaloy is enhanced by the addition of zinc (but corrosion product deposition on other materials was reduced in the presence of zinc). Chemical analysis and radioisotope gamma counting results are presented, to interpret the findings. A computer model has also been used to simulate the corrosion product deposition and activation, to assist in the interpretation of the results. (authors)

  6. High Temperature Corrosion under Laboratory Conditions Simulating Biomass-Firing: A Comprehensive Characterization of Corrosion Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    characterization of the corrosion products. The corrosion products consisted of three layers: i) the outermost layer consisting of a mixed layer of K2SO4 and FexOy on a partly molten layer of the initial deposit, ii) the middle layer consists of spinel (FeCr2O4) and Fe2O3, and iii) the innermost layer is a sponge......-like Ni3S2 containing layer. At the corrosion front, Cl-rich protrusions were observed. Results indicate that selective corrosion of Fe and Cr by Cl, active oxidation and sulphidation attack of Ni are possible corrosion mechanisms....

  7. Study on corrosion products from ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyse elemental composition of commercial gold coated ear piercing substrate and metals present in their corrosion products. The cytotoxic effect was also verified in these corrosion product extracts, probably, due to the lixiviation of Ni present in high quantity in their substrates. The analysis of gold coated ear piercing surfaces by scanning electron microscopy before and after the corrosion test showed coating defects and the occurrence of corrosion process. (author)

  8. Drying characteristics of thorium fuel corrosion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.-E. E-mail: rzl@inel.gov

    2004-07-01

    The open literature and accessible US Department of Energy-sponsored reports were reviewed for the dehydration and rehydration characteristics of potential corrosion products from thorium metal and thorium oxide nuclear fuels. Mixed oxides were not specifically examined unless data were given for performance of mixed thorium-uranium fuels. Thorium metal generally corrodes to thorium oxide. Physisorbed water is readily removed by heating to approximately 200 deg. C. Complete removal of chemisorbed water requires heating above 1000 deg. C. Thorium oxide adsorbs water well in excess of the amount needed to cover the oxide surface by chemisorption. The adsorption of water appears to be a surface phenomenon; it does not lead to bulk conversion of the solid oxide to the hydroxide. Adsorptive capacity depends on both the specific surface area and the porosity of the thorium oxide. Heat treatment by calcination or sintering reduces the adsorption capacity substantially from the thorium oxide produced by metal corrosion.

  9. Characterization of Corrosion Products on Carbon Steel Exposed to Natural Weathering and to Accelerated Corrosion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Altobelli Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the corrosion products formed on carbon steel plates submitted to atmospheric corrosion in urban and industrial atmospheres with those formed after accelerated corrosion tests. The corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were exposed to natural weathering in both atmospheres for nine months. The morphologies of the corrosion products were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The main product found was lepidocrocite. Goethite and magnetite were also found on the corroded specimens but in lower concentrations. The results showed that the accelerated test based on the ASTM B117 procedure presented poor correlation with the atmospheric corrosion tests whereas an alternated fog/dry cycle combined with UV radiation exposure provided better correlation.

  10. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood: Gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Samuel L., E-mail: szelinka@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Sichel, Rebecca J. [College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Stone, Donald S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The composition of the corrosion products was similar for the nail head and shank. {yields} Reduced copper was not detected on any of the fasteners. {yields} Measured corrosion rates were between 1 and 35 {mu}m year{sup -1}. - Abstract: Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27 {sup o}C at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The corrosion rate was determined gravimetrically and the corrosion products were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Although the accepted mechanism of corrosion in treated wood involves the reduction of cupric ions from the wood preservative, no reduced copper was found on the corrosion surfaces. The galvanized corrosion products contained sulfates, whereas the steel corrosion products consisted of iron oxides and hydroxides. The possible implications and limitations of this research on fasteners used in building applications are discussed.

  11. Regularities of transition of steel corrosion products into aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, V.I.; Gvozd', A.M.; Karpova, T.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of different factors on a degree of steel corrosion product transition to a water medium has been studied. Ratio of a specific masm qsub(c) of the corrosion products transferring to the water and a specific masm q of all the steel corrosion products produced under the given conditions was used as a criterium characterizing a degree of corrosion product transition from steel surfaces to water. The transition degree to water at a high temperature of different kind steel corrosion products differs relatively few (qsub(c)/q=0.5-0.7) in the water containing oxygen and different salts on increasing temperature, the corrosion process is characterized with continuous decrease of a relative amount of the corrosion products transferring to the medium. On the contrary, in the deaerated water the transition degree of perlite steel corrosion products to water remains constant in a wide temperature range (100-320 deg C). Besides chromium, nickel being a part of austenitic steel composition affects positively decrease of the transition degree of the corrosion products to water as well as q and qsub(c) reduction. The most difference in corrosion characteristics and the transition degree to water is observed when affecting colant steels in the low-temperature zone of the steam generator [ru

  12. Removal of corrosion products of construction materials in heat carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A review of reported data has been made on the removal of structural material corrosion products into the heat-carrying agent of power reactors. The corrosion rate, and at the same time, removal of corrosion products into the heat-carrying agent (water) decreases with time. Thus, for example, the corrosion rate of carbon steel in boiling water at 250 deg C and O 2 concentration of 0.1 mg/1 after 3000 hr is 0.083 g/m 2 . day; after 9000 hr the corrosion rate has been reduced 2.5 times. Under static conditions the transfer rate of corrosion products into water has been smaller than in the stream and also depends on time. The corrosion rate of carbon steel under nuclear plant operating conditions is almost an order higher over that of steel Kh18N10T

  13. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tru, Nguyen Nhi; Yoshino, Tsujino; Yasuki, Maeda

    2008-01-01

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time

  14. Effect of high temperature filtration on out-core corrosion product activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G.L.; Bogancs, J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of high temperature filtration on corrosion product transport and out-core corrosion product activity has been carried out for VVER-440 plants. In the physico-chemical model applied particulate and dissolved corrosion products were taken into account. We supposed 100% effectivity for the particulate filter. It was found that about 0,5% 160 t/h/ of the main flow would result in an approx.50% reduction of the out-core corrosion product activity. Investigation of the details of the physico-chemical model in Nuclear Power Plant Paks showed a particle deposition rate measured during power transients fairly agreeing with other measurements and data used in the calculations. (author)

  15. Study on influence of native oxide and corrosion products on atmospheric corrosion of pure Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Zhenyao; Ke, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion products layer is only formed in coastal atmosphere. •In coastal atmosphere, rate controlling step is diffusion process. •In rural atmosphere, rate controlling step is charge transfer process. •Pitting area increases greatly in coastal site, but slightly in rural site. -- Abstract: Effects of native oxide and corrosion products on atmospheric corrosion of aluminium in rural and coastal sites were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open-circuit potential (OCP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques after outdoor exposure. In the rural atmosphere, only the compact, adhesive native oxide layer exists, and the rate controlling step is diffusion process, while in the coastal atmosphere, another loose, inadhesive corrosion products layer exists, and a charge transfer process controls the corrosion process. The pitting area in the coastal atmosphere increases over time more obviously than that in the rural atmosphere

  16. High temperature corrosion during biomass firing: improved understanding by depth resolved characterisation of corrosion products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    changes within the near surface region (covering both the deposit and the steel surface). Such cross-section analysis was further complemented by plan view investigations (additionally involving X-ray diffraction) combined with removal of the corrosion products. Improved insights into the nature......The high temperature corrosion of an austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG), widely utilised as a superheater tube material in Danish power stations, was investigated to verify the corrosion mechanisms related to biomass firing. KCl coated samples were exposed isothermally to 560 degrees C...... of the corrosion products as a function of distance from the deposit surface were revealed through this comprehensive characterisation. Corrosion attack during simulated straw-firing conditions was observed to occur through both active oxidation and sulphidation mechanisms....

  17. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates

  18. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  19. Corrosion products study of alcohol by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, R.; Gil de Larre, M.

    1995-01-01

    Simulated corrosion essays in alcohol is presented and corrosion products of storage tanks (CAPASA) were analyzed. The analysis by Mossbauer absortion and transmission spectroscopy shows the formation of hematite substratum in the rust of the storage tanks of carburetant and burning alcohol. In the sample of corrosion with strong rum shows the formation of lepidocrocite and with destilled water besides of lepidocrocite, magnetite (Fe3 O4) is detected

  20. Activation product transport in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products will enter the coolant and/or tritium breeding material of fusion reactor power plants and experiments and cause personnel access problems. Radiation levels around plant components due to these products will cause difficulties with maintenance and repair operations throughout the plant. Similar problems are experienced around fission reactor systems. The determination of the transport of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products through the system is achieved using the computer code RAPTOR. This code calculates the mass transfer of a number of activation products based on the corrosion and sputtering rates through the system, the deposition and release characteristics of various plant components, the neturon flux spectrum, as well as other plant parameters. RAPTOR assembles a system of first order linear differential equations into a matrix equation based upon the reactor system parameters. Included in the transfer matrix are the deposition and erosion coefficients, and the decay and activation data for the various plant nodes and radioactive isotopes. A source vector supplies the corrosion and neutron sputtering source rates. This matrix equation is then solved using a matrix operator technique to give the specific activity distribution of each radioactive species throughout the plant. Once the amount of mass transfer is determined, the photon transport due to the radioactive corrosion and sputtering product sources can be evaluated, and dose rates around the plant components of interest as a function of time can be determined. This method has been used to estimate the radiation hazards around a number of fusion reactor system designs

  1. Activation of the IFMIF Lithium Loop Corrosion Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambi, G [Department of Physics, Bologna University, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Cepraga, D G [ENEA FIS-MET, Via Don Fiammelli 2, 40128 Bologna (Italy); Frisoni, M [Athena s.a.s., Via del Battiferro 3, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pinna, T [Associazione EURATOM- ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM), (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the activation of steel corrosion products generated in one year of IFMIF lithium loop operation due to the interaction between lithium and Stainless Steel SS-304 has been performed. This paper is mainly focused on the neutron activation and it describes the approach used for and present the results obtained. A preliminary estimate of the accelerator deuteron beam contribute to the activation is also presented. The study was accomplished through the following phases: 1) neutron spectrum calculation in the lithium target via MCNP-4C2 with McEnea neutron source model based on the measurements of neutron emission spectra produced in Li(d,n) reactions for a thick lithium target performed at the '' Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) '', Tohoku University, Japan; 2) inventories calculations and decay gamma sources production via ANITA-IEAF activation code package; the calculations were performed by considering a lithium mix composition containing lithium impurities and corrosion products referred to 200 wppm of Steel SS-304 corresponding to a corrosion rate of 0.2 {mu}m/y and a SS-304 wetted surface of 572 m{sup 2} ; an irradiation scenario reproducing the integrated (in eleven months of operation) neutron flux responsible for the activation of the circulating corrosion products facing the deuteron beam was considered; 3) decay gamma transport analysis for dose rate evaluations via both VITENEA-IEF/SCALENEA-1 and MCNP-4C2 systems for the Longest Pipe of the Lithium loop. The following conclusions can be drawn by the results analysis: {center_dot} dose rates at 50 cm from the Longest Pipe are 198 {mu}Sv/h and 85{mu}Sv/h at 1 day and 1 week from the plant shutdown, respectively {center_dot} considering the average 20 mSv/a regulatory limit in Europe for '' Radiation Worker '' and the four-week period of annual maintenance activities in Li loop, the zone around the piping, exceeding 125 mSv/h, has to be declared '' Restricted Access Area '' {center

  2. Activation of the IFMIF Lithium Loop Corrosion Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambi, G.; Cepraga, D.G.; Frisoni, M.; Pinna, T.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of the activation of steel corrosion products generated in one year of IFMIF lithium loop operation due to the interaction between lithium and Stainless Steel SS-304 has been performed. This paper is mainly focused on the neutron activation and it describes the approach used for and present the results obtained. A preliminary estimate of the accelerator deuteron beam contribute to the activation is also presented. The study was accomplished through the following phases: 1) neutron spectrum calculation in the lithium target via MCNP-4C2 with McEnea neutron source model based on the measurements of neutron emission spectra produced in Li(d,n) reactions for a thick lithium target performed at the '' Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) '', Tohoku University, Japan; 2) inventories calculations and decay gamma sources production via ANITA-IEAF activation code package; the calculations were performed by considering a lithium mix composition containing lithium impurities and corrosion products referred to 200 wppm of Steel SS-304 corresponding to a corrosion rate of 0.2 μm/y and a SS-304 wetted surface of 572 m 2 ; an irradiation scenario reproducing the integrated (in eleven months of operation) neutron flux responsible for the activation of the circulating corrosion products facing the deuteron beam was considered; 3) decay gamma transport analysis for dose rate evaluations via both VITENEA-IEF/SCALENEA-1 and MCNP-4C2 systems for the Longest Pipe of the Lithium loop. The following conclusions can be drawn by the results analysis: · dose rates at 50 cm from the Longest Pipe are 198 μSv/h and 85μSv/h at 1 day and 1 week from the plant shutdown, respectively · considering the average 20 mSv/a regulatory limit in Europe for '' Radiation Worker '' and the four-week period of annual maintenance activities in Li loop, the zone around the piping, exceeding 125 mSv/h, has to be declared '' Restricted Access Area '' · the worker radiation protection

  3. Penetration of corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Brad J.; Peterova, Adela

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experimental investigations on corrosion-induced deterioration in reinforced cementitious materials and the subsequent development and implementation of a novel conceptual model. Rejnforced mortar specimens of varying water-to-cement ratios were subjected to current-induced c......This paper describes experimental investigations on corrosion-induced deterioration in reinforced cementitious materials and the subsequent development and implementation of a novel conceptual model. Rejnforced mortar specimens of varying water-to-cement ratios were subjected to current......-dependent concentrations of corrosion products averaged through the specimen thickness. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure corrosion-induced deformations including deformations between steel and cementitious matrix as well as formation and propagation of corrosion-induced cracks. Based on experimental...... observations, a conceptual model was developed to describe the penetration of solid corrosion products into capillary pores of the cementitious matrix. Only capillary pores within a corrosion accommodating region (CAR), i.e. in close proximity of the steel reinforcement, were considered accessible...

  4. A non-destructive test method to monitor corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Peterova, Adela

    2011-01-01

    ) was conducted to describe the impact of water-to-cement ratio and corrosion current density (i.e., corrosion rate) on the reinforcement corrosion process. Focus was placed, in particular on the determination of the corrosion accommodating region (CAR) and time to corrosion-induced cracking. Experimental results...... showed that x-ray attenuation measurements allow determination of the actual concentrations of corrosion products averaged through the specimen thickness. The total mass loss of steel measured by x-ray attenuation was found to be in very good agreement with the calculated mass loss obtained by Faraday......’s law. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrated that the depth of penetration of corrosion products as well as time to corrosion-induced cracking is varying for the different water-to-cement ratios and applied corrosion current densities....

  5. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar, Marijana [Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Meral, Cagla [Middle East Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ankara (Turkey); Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bjegovic, Dubravka [Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Wenk, Hans-Rudolf [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide–hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel. - Highlights: • Synchrotron micro-diffraction used to map the distribution of crystalline phases. • Goethite and akaganeite are the main corrosion products during chloride induced corrosion in mortar. • Layers of goethite and akaganeite are negatively correlated. • EDS showed Cr present in corrosion products identified by SEM.

  6. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Kunz, Martin; Bjegovic, Dubravka; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide–hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel. - Highlights: • Synchrotron micro-diffraction used to map the distribution of crystalline phases. • Goethite and akaganeite are the main corrosion products during chloride induced corrosion in mortar. • Layers of goethite and akaganeite are negatively correlated. • EDS showed Cr present in corrosion products identified by SEM

  7. Activation product transport in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    Activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products will enter the coolant and/or tritium breeding material of fusion reactor power plants and experiments and cause personnel access problems. Radiation levels around plant components due to these products will cause difficulties with maintenance and repair operations throughout the plant. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to determine the transport of these products in fusion reactor coolant/tritium breeding materials. Without special treatment, it is likely that fusion reactor power plant operators could experience dose rates as high as 8 rem per hour around a number of plant components after only a few years of operation. (orig.)

  8. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  9. Modelling the behaviour of corrosion products in the primary heat transfer circuits of pressurised water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodliffe, R.S.; Polley, M.V.; Thornton, E.W.

    1985-05-01

    The redistribution of corrosion products from the primary circuit surfaces of a water reactor can result in increased flow resistance, poorer heat transfer performance, fuel failure and radioactive contamination of circuit surfaces. The environment is generally sufficiently well controlled to ensure that the first three effects are not limiting. The last effect is of particular importance since radioactive corrosion products are major contributors to shutdown fields and since it is necessary to ensure that the radiation exposure of personnel is as low as reasonably achievable. This review focusses attention on the principles which must form the basis for any mechanistic model describing the formation, transport and deposition of radioactive corrosion products. It is relevant to all water reactors in which the primary heat transfer medium is predominantly single-phase water and in which steam is generated in a secondary circuit, i.e. including CANDU pressurised heavy water reactors, Sovient VVERs, etc. (author)

  10. Corrosion mechanisms of containment glasses for fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    After a review of nuclear energy production and waste vitrification principles, the aqueous corrosion mechanisms of the containment glasses and the various parameters affecting the corrosion are studied: effects of glass composition, temperature, lixiviation agent pH, lixiviation duration and mode. Conventional mass loss measurement and solution analyses are coupled to sophisticated surface analysis techniques. The hydrolyzed layer formation and the solubility limits are discussed. 87 figs., 30 tabs., 144 refs

  11. Analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in wet bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Kazuo; Nagano, Tetsushi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Muraoka, Susumu

    1992-02-01

    As a part of evaluation of the long-term durability for the overpack containers for high-level radioactive waste, we have conducted corrosion tests for carbon steel in wet bentonite, a candidate buffer material. The corrosion rates were evaluated by weight difference of carbon steel and corrosion products were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and colorimetry. At 40degC, the corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was smaller than that in pure water. At 95degC, however, the corrosion rate in wet bentonite was much higher than that in pure water. This high corrosion rate in wet bentonite at 95degC was considered to result from evaporation of moisture in bentonite in contact with the metal. This evaporation led to dryness and then to shrinkage of the bentonite, which generated ununiform contact of the metal with bentonite. Probably, this ununiform contact promoted the local corrosion. The locally corroded parts of specimen in wet bentonite at 95degC were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), and lepidocrocite γ-FeO(OH) was found as well as goethite α-FeO(OH). In wet bentonite at 95degC, hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 was identified by means of colorimetry. (author)

  12. The formation, composition and structure of corrosion products in CANDU nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the formation and transport of corrosion products in CANDU-PHW power reactors, and the role played by these products in the generation and subsequent fixation of radioactive species, we have examined in detail several surfaces removed from the Douglas Point Generating Station (Douglas Point, Ontario). Results are given for the surface of the primary-side of a Monel-400 boiler tube, and surfaces of carbon steel piping at the inlet and outlet of the boiler. The experimental techniques that were used included sequential acid stripping, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The corrosion products on the Monel-400 were mainly nickel, copper, nickel oxide and nickel-deficient nickel ferrite and varied in composition and quantity as a function of both distance from the boiler inlet, and depth in the corrosion layer. The radioactive cobalt ( 60 Co) content was localized in 'streaks' deposited in the straight sections of the boiler tube, but distributed uniformly over the whole surface in the downstream bend section. The material covering the carbon steel surface comprised three phases: magnetite, aluminosilicate particles at the outermost surface, and a mixed cation spinel phase uniformly distributed over the surface at the corrosion film-water interface. The formation, composition and structure of the corrosion products are discussed. (author)

  13. Characterisation of corrosion products on pipeline steel under cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanarde, Lise [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)]|[UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Campaignolle, Xavier; Karcher, Sebastien; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France); Joiret, Suzanne [UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-07-01

    Onshore gas transmission lines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by cathodic protection (CP) and organic coatings. If both protection systems are simultaneously faulty, the pipe may be subjected to local loss of protection criteria. Consequently, the development of a corrosion due to the ground intrinsic corrosiveness may occur. To guarantee an optimal and safe use of its 31000 km buried gas transmission network, Gaz de France regularly inspects its pipelines. When indications of metal damage are suspected, excavations are realized to carry out a finer diagnosis and, if necessary, to repair. Whenever, corrosions are encountered, although it occurs very scarcely, it is necessary to evaluate its degree of gravity: activity, mechanism, and kinetics. Among corrosion defects, it is indeed essential to differentiate those active, from those older inactive at the time of excavation, since those last ones may possibly have been annihilated, by a PC reinforcement for instance. Eventually, the identification of the corrosion mechanism and its associated rate will provide an assessment of the risks encountered by other sections of the pipeline similar to that excavated. This study investigates to what extent the degree of gravity (activity, kinetics) of a corrosion can be determined by the characterization and identification of its associated corrosion products. Moreover, it will attempt to relate it to the close environment features as well as to the operating conditions of the pipe. The preliminary results presented in this paper consist in a laboratory study of the time evolution of corrosion products formed on the surface of ordinary low carbon steel samples. The specimens have been previously subjected to various polarization conditions in various aqueous media. The selected solutions are characteristic of ground waters. The main parameters considered for the definition of the media were its initial chemical composition, pH and dissolved gas composition

  14. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  15. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  16. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: DejiuShen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  17. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Serdar, Marijana

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide-hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel.

  18. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Kunz, Martin; Bjegovic, Dubravka; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide-hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel.

  19. Influence of temperature on corrosion rate and porosity of corrosion products of carbon steel in anoxic bentonite environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoulil, J.; Kaňok, J.; Kouřil, M.; Parschová, H.; Novák, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The corrosion rate is not significantly dependent on temperature. •Corrosion products at higher temperatures have different color. •Corrosion products at higher temperatures are more compact. •The change in corrosion products nature is reversible. -- Abstract: The study focuses on the porosity of layers of corrosion products and its impact on corrosion rate of carbon steel in moist bentonite. Measurements were performed in an aggressive Czech type of bentonite – Rokle B75 at temperatures of 90 and 40 °C. Aggressiveness of B75 bentonite consists in low content of chlorides. Presence of chlorides in pore solution allows formation of more protective magnetite. The evaluation was made by electrochemical techniques (red/ox potential, open circuit potential, linear polarization resistance, impedance spectroscopy) and resistometric sensor measurements. The result imply that the higher the temperature the more compact is the layer of corrosion products that slightly decelerates corrosion rate compared to the state at 40 °C. The state of corrosion products at both temperatures is reversible

  20. Influence of temperature on corrosion rate and porosity of corrosion products of carbon steel in anoxic bentonite environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoulil, J., E-mail: jan.stoulil@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Kaňok, J.; Kouřil, M. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Parschová, H. [Department of Power Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Novák, P. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The corrosion rate is not significantly dependent on temperature. •Corrosion products at higher temperatures have different color. •Corrosion products at higher temperatures are more compact. •The change in corrosion products nature is reversible. -- Abstract: The study focuses on the porosity of layers of corrosion products and its impact on corrosion rate of carbon steel in moist bentonite. Measurements were performed in an aggressive Czech type of bentonite – Rokle B75 at temperatures of 90 and 40 °C. Aggressiveness of B75 bentonite consists in low content of chlorides. Presence of chlorides in pore solution allows formation of more protective magnetite. The evaluation was made by electrochemical techniques (red/ox potential, open circuit potential, linear polarization resistance, impedance spectroscopy) and resistometric sensor measurements. The result imply that the higher the temperature the more compact is the layer of corrosion products that slightly decelerates corrosion rate compared to the state at 40 °C. The state of corrosion products at both temperatures is reversible.

  1. Sulphide production and corrosion in seawaters during exposure to FAME diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J; Duncan, Kathleen E; Oldham, Athenia L; Davidova, Irene A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the corrosion-related consequences of storing/transporting fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) alternative diesel fuel in contact with natural seawater. Coastal Key West, FL (KW), and Persian Gulf (PG) seawaters, representing an oligotrophic and a more organic- and inorganic mineral-rich environment, respectively, were used in 60 day incubations with unprotected carbon steel. The original microflora of the two seawaters were similar with respect to major taxonomic groups but with markedly different species. After exposure to FAME diesel, the microflora of the waters changed substantially, with Clostridiales (Firmicutes) becoming dominant in both. Despite low numbers of sulphate-reducing bacteria in the original waters and after FAME diesel exposure, sulphide levels and corrosion increased markedly due to microbial sulphide production. Corrosion morphology was in the form of isolated pits surrounded by an intact, passive surface with the deepest pits associated with the fuel/seawater interface in the KW exposure. In the presence of FAME diesel, the highest corrosion rates measured by linear polarization occurred in the KW exposure correlating with significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and chlorine (presumed sulphide and chloride, respectively) in the corrosion products.

  2. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy on corrosion products of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekan, J., E-mail: julius.dekan@stuba.sk; Lipka, J.; Slugen, V. [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, SUT (Slovakia)

    2013-04-15

    Steam generator (SG) is generally one of the most important components at all nuclear power plants (NPP) with close impact to safe and long-term operation. Material degradation and corrosion/erosion processes are serious risks for long-term reliable operation. Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original 'Bohunice' design in period 1994-1998, in order to improve corrosion resistance of SGs. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Moessbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filters deposits. Newest results in our long-term corrosion study confirm good operational experiences and suitable chemical regimes (reduction environment) which results mostly in creation of magnetite (on the level 70 % or higher) and small portions of hematite, goethite or hydrooxides. Regular observation of corrosion/erosion processes is essential for keeping NPP operation on high safety level. The output from performed material analyses influences the optimisation of operating chemical regimes and it can be used in optimisation of regimes at decontamination and passivation of pipelines or secondary circuit components. It can be concluded that a longer passivation time leads more to magnetite fraction in the corrosion products composition.

  3. The Moessbauer spectroscopy in the characterization of atmospheric corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Torres, D.; Leiva Ronda, P.; Gomez, J.; Ronda, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study of corrosion products on mild steel formed after 1 and 5 years exposure in two industrial coastal weathering stations in the Bay from Matanzas City, Cuba, has been carried out. Structural analysis was conducted using mainly transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction as complementary technique. The main phases found in the specimen exposed to high chloride containing environment were: lepidocrocite (γ- FeOOH), goethite (α- FeOOH) and magnetite concentration was the lowest, the phases found were γ- FeOOH and α- FeOOH, and the phase transformation proposed was γ- FeOOh -> α- Fe-OOH. In this station were found also amorphous corrosion products. There amorphous phases could be responsible for the lowest levels of corrosion on steel in this station

  4. Iron Drinking Water Pipe Corrosion Products: Concentrators of Toxic Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    health risk. In addition Pb corrosion products may be sinks for other metals such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). These...Vanadium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Interpretation: Application to the Speciation of Vanadium in Oxide Phases from Steel Slag ’, Journal

  5. Material selection and corrosion control practices in petroleum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to review briefly the current state of the art and to discuss some of the anticipated future oil and gas drilling and production activities which may challenge the materials selection and corrosion technologies. The current state of art discussions in this paper have been augmented by providing a list of references so that interested engineers may delve into each subject in more detail as desired. The technological areas which appear to require additional input to meet future needs include high strength tubular goods for sour gas service, corrosion resistant high strength alloys, definition of the effects of pressure, temperature, and fluid composition on corrosion behavior, and fatigue properties of various steels in seawater

  6. Rhenium Uptake as Analogue 96Tc by Steel Corrosion Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Krupka; C.F. Brown; H. Todd Schaef; S. M. Heald; M. M. Valenta; B. W. Arey

    2006-01-01

    Static batch experiments were used to examine the sorption of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)], as a surrogate for pertechnetate [Tc(VII)], on corrosion products of A-516 carbon steel coupons contacted with synthetic groundwater or dilute water. After 109 days of contact time, the concentration of dissolved Re(VII) in the synthetic groundwater matrix decreased by approximately 26%; the dilute water matrix experienced a 99% decrease in dissolved Re(VII) over the same time period. Bulk x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for the corroded steel coupons showed that the corrosion products consisted primarily of maghemite, lepidocrocite, and goethite. Analyses of the coupons by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) indicated that Re was present with the morphologically complex assemblages of Fe oxide/hydroxide corrosion products for samples spiked with the highest dissolved Re(VII) concentration (1.0 mmol/L) used for these experiments. Analyses of corroded steel coupons contacted with solutions containing 1.0 mmol/L Re(VII) by synchrotron-based methods confirmed the presence of Re sorbed with the corrosion product on the steel coupons. Analyses showed that the Re sorbed on these corroded coupons was in the +7 oxidation state, suggesting that the Re(VII) uptake mechanism did not involve reduction of Re to a lower oxidation state, such as +4. The results of our studies using Re(VII) as an analogue for 99 Tc(VII) suggest that 99 Tc(VII) would also be sorbed with steel corrosion products and that the inventory of 99 Tc(VII) released from breached waste packages would be lower than what is now conservatively estimated

  7. Corrosion products in the primary circuits of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of PWR primary circuits are recalled, particularly the chemical specifications of the medium and the various materials used (austenitic steel, nickel alloys, cobalt-based alloys and zirconium alloys). The behaviour of these materials as regards general corrosion in nominal and transient conditions is then outlined briefly, special emphasis being laid on the effect of the determining parameters on the quantity of corrosion products formed. The release of the latter into the primary coolant is caused by two main processes: solubilization and erosion. Particular attention was given therefore to the laws governing the solubility of the oxides involved, especially as a function of temperature and pH. Erosion, or release in the form of solid particles, is relatively severe during transient events. As these corrosion products are then carried through all circuits, they cause deposits to form in favourable places on the walls as a result either of precipitation of soluble species or of sedimentation followed by consolidation of suspended particles. The presence of corrosion products in the primary circuits creates a particular impact since they become radioactive as they pass through the core and especially when they remain in it in the form of deposits; as a result, the products are capable of contaminating the entire system. Finally, although long-term reliability is obviously an essential condition for materials developed, attention must also be given to problems associated with a build-up of corrosion products in the cooling circuits and efforts made to minimize them. To that end, a number of precautions are recommended, and various remedies can be applied: selecting materials which are not readily activated, keeping structures clean, purifying fluids properly, restricting solubilization and precipitation, and perhaps, periodic decontamination. (author)

  8. Nuclear reactor structural material forming less radioactive corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide nuclear reactor structural materials forming less radioactive corrosion products. Constitution: Ni-based alloys such as inconel alloy 718, 600 or inconel alloy 750 and 690 having excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical property even in coolants at high temperature and high pressure have generally been used as nuclear reactor structural materials. However, even such materials yield corrosion products being attacked by coolants circulating in the nuclear reactor, which produce by neutron irradiation radioactive corrosion products, that are deposited in primary circuit pipeways to constitute exposure sources. The present invention dissolves dissolves this problems by providing less activating nuclear reactor structural materials. That is, taking notice on the fact that Ni-58 contained generally by 68 % in Ni changes into Co-58 under irradiation of neutron thereby causing activation, the surface of nuclear reactor structural materials is applied with Ni plating by using Ni with a reduced content of Ni-58 isotopes. Accordingly, increase in the radiation level of the nuclear reactor structural materials can be inhibited. (K.M.)

  9. Initial study and verification of a distributed fiber optic corrosion monitoring system for transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For this study, a novel optical fiber sensing system was developed and tested for the monitoring of corrosion in : transportation systems. The optical fiber sensing system consists of a reference long period fiber gratings (LPFG) sensor : for corrosi...

  10. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  11. Understanding corrosion via corrosion product characterization: II. Role of alloying elements in improving the corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovitch, P.; Vu, T.N.; Allely, C.; Abdel Aal, A.; Ogle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Origins of better corrosion resistance of ZnAlMg coatings than galvanized steel. → Comparative study of corrosion products formed on ZnAlMg, ZnMg and Zn coatings. → Modeling of dissolution and precipitation stages of corrosion. → At early stages Mg stabilizes protective zinc basic salts during dry-wet cycling. → At later stages Al dissolves at high pH forming protective layered double hydroxides. - Abstract: Corrosion products are identified on Zn, ZnMg and ZnAlMg coatings in cyclic corrosion tests with NaCl or Na 2 SO 4 containing atmospheres. For Mg-containing alloys the improved corrosion resistance is achieved by stabilization of protective simonkolleite and zinc hydroxysulfate. At later stages, the formation of layered double hydroxides (LDH) is observed for ZnAlMg. According to thermodynamic modeling, Mg 2+ ions bind the excess of carbonate or sulfate anions preventing the formation of soluble or less-protective products. A preferential dissolution of Zn and Mg at initial stages of corrosion is confirmed by in situ dissolution measurement. The physicochemical properties of different corrosion products are compared.

  12. Characterization of corrosion products formed on steels in the first months of atmospheric exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes Renato Altobelli; Costa Isolda; Faria Dalva Lúcia Araújo de

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion products of carbon steel and weathering steel exposed to three different types of atmospheres, at times ranging from one to three months, have been identified. The steels were exposed in an industrial site, an urban site (São Paulo City, Brazil), and a humid site. The effect of the steel type on the corrosion products formed in the early stages of atmospheric corrosion has been evaluated. The corrosion products formed at the various exposure locations were characterized by Raman...

  13. Evaluation of corrosion products formed by sulfidation as inhibitors of the naphthenic corrosion of AISI-316 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Cala, J. A.; Montañez, N. D.; Laverde Cataño, D.; Y Peña Ballesteros, D.; Mejía, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Naphthenic acids present in oil from most regions worldwide currently stand as the main responsible for the naphthenic corrosion problems, affecting the oil-refining industry. The phenomenon of sulfidation, accompanying corrosion processes brought about by naphthenic acids in high-temperature refining plant applications, takes place when the combination of sulfidic acid (H2S) with Fe forms layers of iron sulphide (FeS) on the material surface, layers with the potential to protect the material from attack by other corrosive species like naphthenic acids. This work assessed corrosion products formed by sulfidation as inhibitors of naphthenic corrosion rate in AISI-316 steel exposed to processing conditions of simulated crude oil in a dynamic autoclave. Calculation of the sulfidation and naphthenic corrosion rates were determined by gravimetry. The surfaces of the AISI-316 gravimetric coupons exposed to acid systems; were characterized morphologically by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). One of the results obtained was the determination of an inhibiting effect of corrosion products at 250 and 300°C, where lower corrosion rate levels were detected. For the temperature of 350°C, naphthenic corrosion rates increased due to deposition of naphthenic acids on the areas where corrosion products formed by sulfidation have lower homogeneity and stability on the surface, thus accelerating the destruction of AISI-316 steel. The above provides an initial contribution to oil industry in search of new alternatives to corrosion control by the attack of naphthenic acids, from the formation of FeS layers on exposed materials in the processing of heavy crude oils with high sulphur content.

  14. Behaviour of steel corrosion products under neutral-oxidizing water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Petrova, T.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of laboratory experiments on studying the solubility of iron and cobalt corrosion products are given. It is established that oxygen dosage doesn't influence practically on the iron corrosion product solubility but cobalt corrosion product solubility decreases, the presence of hydrogen peroxide in an initial solution leads to increase of the iron corrosion product solubility especially at 125 deg C. It is shown that hydrogen peroxide affects unambiguously the cobalt corrosion product solubility: at hydrogen peroxide concentration of about 400 μg/l at 50-275 deg C temperature their solubility is minimum

  15. An X-ray diffraction study of corrosion products from low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    It was found in earlier work a decrease in the corrosion rate from low carbon steel when it was subjected to the action of a combined pollutant concentration (SO 4 ''2-=10''-4 M+Cl=1.5x 10''-3 M). It was also found that large magnetic content of the rust was related to higher corrosion rates. In the present study corrosion products are further analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction to account for composition changes during the corrosion process. it is found that lepidocrocite and goethite are the dominant components for the short-term corrosion in all batches considered while for log-term corrosion lepidocrite and goethite dominates if the corrosion rates is low and magnetite dominates if the corrosion rate is high. The mechanism for decreasing the corrosion rate is related to the inhibition of magnetite production at this particular concentration. (Author) 15 refs

  16. Analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in wet bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, K.; Nagano, T.; Kozai, N.; Nakashima, S.; Nakayama, S.; Muraoka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following conclusions were obtained; (1) At 40degC, the average corrosion rate of SS41 carbon steel in wet bentonite was 0.025 mm/y. This is smaller than the value of 0.042 mm/y obtained in pure water at 40degC. However, at 95degC, the corrosion rate of SS41 carbon steel in wet bentonite was 0.27 mm/y, which is much larger than that in pure water at 95degC. (2) At 95degC, γ-FeO(OH) (lepidocrocite) was formed only in wet bentonite, and it was absent in pure water. Evaporation of moisture resulted in the formation of partial covering of bentonite, which promoted local corrosion. Consequently, γ-FeO(OH) was considered to be formed. (3) In wet bentonite at 95degC, α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) can be identified by means of colorimetry. The color of corrosion products is orangish, indicating the contribution of α-Fe 2 O 3 in iron hydroxides. (author)

  17. Solubility of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A short review of solubility of corrosion products at high temperature in either neutral or alkaline water as encountered in BWR, PHWR and PWR primary coolant reactor circuits is presented in this report. Based on the available literature, various experimental techniques involved in the study of the solubility, theory for fitting the solubility data to the thermodynamic model and discussion of the published results with a scope for future work have been brought out. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs

  18. Biodegradation and corrosion behavior of manganese oxidizer Bacillus cereus ACE4 in diesel transporting pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, A.; Ganesh Babu, T.; Karutha Pandian, S.; Maruthamuthu, S.; Palaniswamy, N.; Rajendran, A.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation problem of petroleum products arises since hydrocarbon acts as an excellent food source for a wide variety of microorganisms. Microbial activity leads to unacceptable level of turbidity, corrosion of pipeline and souring of stored product. The present study emphasizes the role of Bacillus cereus ACE4 on degradation of diesel and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX steel. A demonstrating bacterial strain ACE4 was isolated from corrosion products and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that it has more than 99% similarity with B. cereus. The biodegradation and corrosion studies revealed that B. cereus degraded the aliphatic protons and aromatic protons in diesel and is capable of oxidizing ferrous/manganese into oxides. This is the first report that discloses the involvement of manganese oxidizer B. cereus ACE4 on biodegradation of diesel and its influence on corrosion in a tropical country pipeline

  19. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxen, C.

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases

  20. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  1. Transport of fission products in matrix and graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoinkis, E.

    1983-06-01

    In the past years new experimental methods were applied to or developed for the investigation of fission product transport in graphitic materials and to characterization of the materials. Models for fission product transport and computer codes for the calculation of core release rates were improved. Many data became available from analysis of concentration profiles in HTR-fuel elements. New work on the effect on diffusion of graphite corrosion, fast neutron flux and fluence, heat treatment, chemical interactions and helium pressure was reported on recently or was in progress in several laboratories. It seemed to be the right time to discuss the status of transport of metallic fission products in general, and in particular the relationship between structural and transport properties. Following a suggestion a Colloquium was organized at the HMI Berlin. Interdisciplinary discussions were stimulated by only inviting a limited number of participants who work in different fields of graphite and fission product transport research. (orig./RW)

  2. Phase Analysis of Corrosion Products from Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.; Toth, I.; Hascik, J.; Lehota, M.

    2002-01-01

    The variability of the properties and the composition of the corrosion products of the stainless CrNi and mild steels in dependence on the conditions (temperature, acidity, etc.) is of such a range that, in practice, it is impossible to determine the properties of the corrosion products for an actual case from the theoretical data only. Since the decontamination processes for the materials of the water-cooled reactor (VVER-440) secondary circuits are in a process of development, it is necessary to draw the needed information by the measurement and analysis of the real specimens. The corrosion layer was separated by scraping the rust off the surface and the powder samples were studied by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy. It should be noted that the gamma spectroscopic measurements give no evidence of the presence of low-energy gamma radiation emitted from the samples. The scrapped specimen powder was homogenised (using the 50 μm sieve) and fixed into the special holder. The 57 Co in Rh matrix was used as the radioactive Moessbauer source. Measured spectra were fitted using program NORMOS SITE. According to the results obtained from Moessbauer spectra, it is possible to establish that the main component of secondary circuit's corrosion products is magnetite Fe 3 O 4 . Next components are hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 and hydroxide akagenite β-FeOOH, which is characterised by a significant paramagnetic doublet in the middle of the spectra. The sextets corresponding to base materials (martensite and austenite steels) were identified in all measured spectra.

  3. Quantifying movements of corrosion products in reinforced concrete using x-ray attenuation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement, embedded in concrete, may substantially degrade concrete structures due to the expansive nature of corrosion products. Expansion of corrosion products cause tensile stresses to develop and cracks to form in concrete. Extensive research has focused on corrosion...... of corrosion products move into the concrete without generating tensile stresses and cracks in the concrete. Typically, corrosion products are thought to occupy pores, interfacial defects, and/or air voids located near the concrete-steel interface and stresses develop only after filling of these pores. Further....... X-ray attenuation measurements are also capable of detecting cracks. Therefore, this approach provides a direct measurement of the amount and location of reinforcement corrosion products required to induce cracking. Results of a parametric investigation on the impact of water-to-cement ratio (0...

  4. Effects of amalgam corrosion products on human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, P R; Cogen, R B; Taubman, S B [Departments of Periodontics and Pathology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Using three independent criteria, we have found that 10/sup -4/,10/sup -6/M concentrations of ions presumably liberated from the corrosion of dental amalgam produce injurious effects on either human gingival fibroblasts or HeLa cells when the cells are grown in culture. Release of /sup 51/Cr and uptake of trypan blue dye were seen with 10/sup -5/M Hg/sup + +/ and Ag/sup +/. Inhibition of amino acid incorporation into protein-like material was seen with eluates of amalgam and with ionic solutions of most metals comprising dental amalgam. Stannous ion showed little if any cytotoxic potential. These results suggest that corrosion products of amalgam are capable of causing cellular injury or destruction.

  5. Corrosion products behaviour under VVER primary coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygar, T.; Zmitko, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to collect data on thermodynamic stability of Cr, Fe, and Ni oxides, mechanisms of hydrothermal corrosion of stainless steels and to compare the real observation with the theory. We found that the electrochemical potential and pH in PWR and VVER are close to the thermodynamic boundary between two fields of stable spinel type oxides. The ways of degradation of the passivating layers due to changes in water chemistry were considered and PWR and VVER systems were found to be potentially endangered by reductive attack. In certain VVER systems the characteristics of the passivating layer on steels and also concentration of soluble corrosion products seem to be in contradiction with the theoretical expectations. (author)

  6. Fission and corrosion products behavior in primary circuits of LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, H.; Thorley, A.W.

    1987-08-01

    Most of the 20 presented papers report items belonging to more than one session. The equipment results of primary circuits of LMFBR's relative to corrosion and fission products, release and chemistry of fuel, measurement techniques and analytical procedures of sodium sampling, difficulties with radionuclides and particles, reactor experiences with EBR-II, FFTF, BR10, BOR60, BN350, BN600, JOYO, and KNK-II, DFR, PFR, RAPSODIE, PHENIX, and SUPERPHENIX, and at least the verification of codes for calculation models of radioactive products accumulation and distribution are described. All 20 papers presented at the meeting are separately indexed in the database. (DG)

  7. Reactive-transport model for the prediction of the uniform corrosion behaviour of copper used fuel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Kolar, M.; Maak, P.

    2008-01-01

    Used fuel containers in a deep geological repository will be subject to various forms of corrosion. For containers made from oxygen-free, phosphorus-doped copper, the most likely corrosion processes are uniform corrosion, underdeposit corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. The environmental conditions within the repository are expected to evolve with time, changing from warm and oxidizing initially to cool and anoxic in the long-term. In response, the corrosion behaviour of the containers will also change with time as the repository environment evolve. A reactive-transport model has been developed to predict the time-dependent uniform corrosion behaviour of the container. The model is based on an experimentally-based reaction scheme that accounts for the various chemical, microbiological, electrochemical, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption/desorption, redox, and mass-transport processes at the container surface and in the compacted bentonite-based sealing materials within the repository. Coupling of the electrochemical interfacial reactions with processes in the bentonite buffer material allows the effect of the evolution of the repository environment on the corrosion behaviour of the container to be taken into account. The Copper Corrosion Model for Uniform Corrosion predicts the time-dependent corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the container, as well as the evolution of the near-field environment

  8. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C

    1996-11-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits on copper is described. The model is used to predict the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The criteria used for immunity against pitting is that the volume of the cuprous oxide formed at the site of the metal oxidation at the bottom of a corrosion pit must be smaller than the volume of the oxidised metal. Equal volumes would give a complete coverage of the metal in a pit by adherent cuprous oxide and propagation would not be possible. For potentials where copper is not immune to pitting an estimate of the maximum growth rate is given. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution at the bottom a corrosion pit. Precipitation of oxides as well as of basic salts of copper is considered. A total of 26 aqueous species are considered in waters with compositions ranging from those of tap waters to that of sea water. Calculations are made for the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. 38 refs, 60 figs, 17 tabs

  9. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO 2 and U 3 O 7 . The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated

  10. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-04-26

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated.

  11. Atomistic studies of cation transport in tetragonal ZrO2 during zirconium corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are the major fuel cladding materials in current reactors. The water-side corrosion is a significant degradation mechanism of these alloys. During corrosion, the transport of oxidizing species in zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ) determines the corrosion kinetics. Previously, it has been argued that the outward diffusion of cations is important for forming protective oxides. In this work, the migration of Zr defects in tetragonal ZrO 2 is studied with temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that Zr interstitials have anisotropic diffusion and migrate preferentially along the [001] or c direction in tetragonal ZrO 2 . The compressive stresses can increase the Zr interstitial migration barrier significantly. The migration of Zr interstitials at a grain boundary is much slower than in a bulk oxide. The implications of these atomistic simulation results in the Zr corrosion are discussed. (authors)

  12. Fighting corrosion in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, K S; Rangaswamy, N S

    1979-03-01

    A survey covers the cost of corrosion in India; methods of preventing corrosion in industrial plants; some case histories, including the prevention of corrosion in pipes through which fuels are pumped to storage and the stress-corrosion cracking of evaporators in fertilizer plants; estimates of the increase in demand in 1979-89 for anticorrosion products and processes developed by the Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI) at Karaikudi, India; industries that may face corrosion problems requiring assistance from CECRI, including the light and heavy engineering structural, and transport industries and the chemical industry; and some areas identified for major efforts, including the establishment of a Corrosion Advisory Board with regional centers and the expansion of the Tropical Corrosion Testing Station at Mandapam Camp, Tamil Nadu.

  13. Properties of colloidal corrosion products and their effects on nuclear plants. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, E.

    1982-10-01

    The properties of aqueous dispersions of finely divided oxides of iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, and copper are described in overview fashion. More detailed aspects of this work will be found in a separate, larger report, NP-2606, Volume 2. The properties of these oxide corrosion products of importance to nuclear reactor water system technology are emphasized: adhesion, desorption, dissolution, transformation, and adsorption of dissolved species such as Co 60 ions. The work is fundamental to many LWR problems - radiation transport to piping surfaces, avoidance of crud buildup on nuclear fuel rods, decontamination and chemical cleaning of heat exchangers, and control of corrosion of piping

  14. Technical investigation of a pyrophoric event involving corrosion products from HEU ZPPR fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    A pyrophoric event recently occurred which involved corrosion products collected from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel plates used in the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). This paper summarizes the event and its background, and presents the results of an investigation into its source and mechanism. The investigation focused on characterization of corrosion product samples similar to those involved in the event using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Burning curve TGA tests were performed to measure the ignition temperature and hydride fractions of corrosion products in several different conditions to assess the effects of passivation treatment and long-term storage on chemical reactivity. The hydride fraction and ignition temperature of the corrosion products were found to be strongly dependent on the corrosion extent of the source metal. The results indicate that the energy source for the event was a considerable quantity of uranium hydride present in the corrosion products, but the specific ignition mechanism could not be identified

  15. Experimental Study of Removing Surface Corrosion Products from Archaeological Iron Objects and Alternating Iron Corrosion Products by Nd:YAG Laser Cleaning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Youn; Cho, Nam Chul [Kongju National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Myoung [IMT co. Ltd, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Eun [National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The corrosion product of archaeological iron objects is supposed to be removed because it causes re-corrosion. So far it is removed by scapel and sand blaster but they depend on the skill and experience of a conservator and the glass-dust of the sand blaster is harmful to humans. Therefore this study applies a laser cleaning system which is used in various industrial cleaning processes, to remove corrosion product from archaeological iron objects. In addition, this work studies the alternation of corrosion product after laser irradiation, which evaluates the reliability of the laser cleaning system. Optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, XRD, Raman have been used to observe and analyse the surface of the objects. The results show the capacity of laser cleaning some corrosion product, but blackening appears with increasing pulses and laser energy, and some corrosion products, goethite and hematite, are partially altered to magnetite. These problems, blackening and alternation of corrosion product, should be solved by further studies which find the optimal laser irradiation condition and use a wetting agent.

  16. Corrosion-product filtration in PWRs: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-04-01

    As part of a programme on the optimization of pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary side water treatment, laboratory-scale studies on filtration of the feedwater using materials having chemically active adsorbing surfaces were carried out. Graphite, zirconia and titania were identified, from a review of existing literature, as suitable filtration media, the last two because of their ion-exchange capability. The efficiency of filters packed with granular graphite for filtration of simulated feed train corrosion products and the pressure drop across the filters were determined as functions of filter dimensions and operating parameters at room temperature. A rough sizing of a full-flow feedwater filter using granular graphite was done on the basis of observations from the room temperature tests. Further studies are suggested at low concentrations of the corrosion product and at high temperature typical of steam generator feedwater after the high pressure heaters to derive realistic design parameters for a filter for installation in the PWR secondary circuit. Zirconia was produced in the form of spherical particles using a sol-gel process. The zirconia behaved as an anion exchanger at low pH and as a cation exchanger at high pH. Its suitability for purification of water at high temperature should be determined by futher studies. 30 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Oxidation kinetics of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totemeier, Terry C.; Pahl, Robert G.; Frank, Steven M.

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products from Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in environments of Ar-4%O 2, Ar-9%O 2, and Ar-20%O 2. Ignition of corrosion product samples from two moderately corroded plates was observed between 125°C and 150°C in all environments. The rate of oxidation above the ignition temperature was found to be dependent only on the net flow rate of oxygen in the reacting gas. Due to the higher net oxygen flow rate, burning rates increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Oxidation rates below the ignition temperature were much slower and decreased with increasing test time. The hydride contents of the TGA samples from the two moderately corroded plates, determined from the total weight gain achieved during burning, were 47-61 wt% and 29-39 wt%. Samples from a lightly corroded plate were not reactive; X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that they contained little hydride.

  18. Oxidation kinetics of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Pahl, R.G.; Frank, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of hydride-bearing uranium metal corrosion products from zero power physics reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in environments of Ar-4%O 2 , Ar-9%O 2 , and Ar-20%O 2 . Ignition of corrosion product samples from two moderately corroded plates was observed between 125 C and 150 C in all environments. The rate of oxidation above the ignition temperature was found to be dependent only on the net flow rate of oxygen in the reacting gas. Due to the higher net oxygen flow rate, burning rates increased with increasing oxygen concentration. Oxidation rates below the ignition temperature were much slower and decreased with increasing test time. The hydride contents of the TGA samples from the two moderately corroded plates, determined from the total weight gain achieved during burning, were 47-61 wt% and 29-39 wt%. Samples from a lightly corroded plate were not reactive; X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that they contained little hydride. (orig.)

  19. Transport woes threaten California production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    California oil producers face a loss of production this year because of constraints on pipeline and tanker transportation to Los Angeles area refineries. The potential bottleneck is occurring at a time when Outer Continental Shelf production is near capacity from Chevron Corp.'s Point Arguello project at the same time production is increasing from Exxon Corp.'s nearby Santa Ynex Unit (SYU) expansion. Both megaprojects must compete for pipeline space with onshore crude producers, notably in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Recent development limiting transportation options include: An indefinite shutdown of Four Corners Pipe Line Co.'s 50,000 b/d Line No. 1, damaged by the Jan. 17 earthquake; Loss of a tanker permit by Chevron and partners for offshore Point Arguello production; Permanent shutdown of Exxon's offshore storage and treatment (OST) facility, which since 1981 has used tankers to transport about 20,000 b/d of SYU production from the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The OST, the first commercial floating production system in the US -- placed in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1981 after a decade of precedent setting legal and political battles -- was shut down Apr. 4. The paper discusses these production concerns, available options, the OST shutdown, and the troubled history of the OST

  20. Corrosion Product Measurements to ensure integrity of the Steam Generators in Beznau NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailand, Irene; Franz, Patrick; Venz, Hartmut

    2012-09-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Beznau comprises two identical 380 MWe PWR units with two loops each, commissioned in 1969 and 1971. Westinghouse was responsible for the primary part of the plant and BBC/ABB for the secondary circuit. The original materials used in the secondary systems were made of several copper-based alloys, such as for the Condensers, the Low Pressure Pre-heaters and the Moisture Separator Re-heater. The original Steam Generator Tubes were made of Inconel 600 MA. Regarding its age, the NPP Beznau has to be qualified as an old plant. However, in fact particularly in the last 20 years the plant has undergone an extensive modernisation programme in which about 1.5 billion Swiss Francs have been invested. Important measures were the replacements of the Steam Generators with tubes comprising Inconel 690 TT which was realized at unit 1 in 1993 and at unit 2 in 1999. Copper was completely banished from the secondary system and replaced by stainless and chromium steel. The Condensers were fitted with titanium tubes. The secondary water chemistry had to be changed by these replacements and moved step by step from Low-AVT with a pH of about 9.3 to High-AVT with a pH of 9.8 to 9.9, currently. To ensure the integrity of the new Steam Generators as well as of the whole Secondary System a corrosion product programme was introduced at the end of the Nineties. Several investigations which are performed periodically are represented by analyses of corrosion products, measurements of sludge mass and composition in the Steam Generators, Hide-Out-Return- and mass balance measurements of corrosion products in the whole circuit. Objectives of these investigations are assessments of the efficiency of the water chemistry and trend considerations regarding to the transport of corrosion products and pollutants into the Steam Generator, as well as of the potential danger of deposits and stored or absorbed pollutants. The main target of all measures is to avoid any chemical

  1. Electrochemical Characterisation of Filiform Corrosion on Aluminium Rolled Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisert, M.

    2001-01-01

    When aluminium is protected by an organic coating a special form of corrosion can occur underneath the organic coating; filiform corrosion. This form of corrosion manifests itself as threadlike filaments under the coating, it causes local delamination of the coating and the coating cannot protect

  2. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood : gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Rebecca J. Sichel; Donald S. Stone

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27oC at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The...

  3. Products - transport - storage; Produits - transports - stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-15

    9 articles are gathered in this data-sheet; they deal with LPG products, transport and storage. Blackmer offers a full line of LPG equipment for the transfer of propane, butane and anhydrous ammonia. Clesse Industries and Gas Equipment Company equip luxury hotels in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Since 1975 the company FAS Flussiggas-Anlagen Gmbh, Salzgitter - Germany is one of the leading manufacturers of LPG equipment and components for mobile and stationary bulk plants in Europe. The main products are dispensers, pumps, Auto-gas filling stations, vaporizers, loading arms, electronic cylinder filling scales, flanged valves and safety equipment. FAS is certified with 2 process orientated management systems according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 and to PED - Module H1 - Category IV. The company supplies all products and services according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with CE-mark as well according to regulations ATEX, OIML, TUV, PTB... ECII Engineered Controls International/Rego USA is well known as a worldwide leader and designer/manufacturer of LPG and anhydrous ammonia equipment. The 10. of January Per Sture Jenssen retired from Ragasco A.S. Managing Director after 6 years in the company. Oyvind Hamre who has taken over from Mr. Jenssen, is 39 years of age and he has been 10 years with Ragasco, most recently as R and D Manager. Per Sture Jenssen will still be present in the company until summer 2005 to support during the transition. Corken has put in the market two new products: a new valve and a new pump. Impco Technologies announces completion of BRC acquisition. VOC reduction is a common discussion issue in almost all sectors of the oil business and beyond. Each industry sector has a different strategy towards this issue according to its perceived impact on the business. Although largely motivated by the need to satisfy national and international emission standards, the move towards reduction has encouraged equipment manufacturers to develop advanced

  4. Drone transportation of blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A R; Boyd, Joan; Street, Jeff

    2017-03-01

    Small civilian unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) are a novel way to transport small goods. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies examining the impact of drone transport on blood products, describing approaches to maintaining temperature control, or component physical characteristics during drone transport. Six leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) and six apheresis platelet (PLT) units were split using sterile techniques. The larger parent RBC and PLT units, as well as six unthawed plasma units frozen within 24 hours of collection (FP24), were placed in a cooler, attached to the drone, and flown for up to 26.5 minutes with temperature logging. Ambient temperatures during the experimental window ranged between -1 and 18°C across 2 days. The difference between the ambient and unit temperatures was approximately 20°C for PLT and FP24 units. After flight, the RBC parent units were centrifuged and visually checked for hemolysis; the PLTs were checked for changes in mean PLT volumes (MPVs), pH, and PLT count; and the frozen air bubbles on the back of the FP24 units were examined for any changes in size or shape, as evidence of thawing. There was no evidence of RBC hemolysis; no significant changes in PLT count, pH, or MPVs; and no changes in the FP24 bubbles. The temperature of all units was maintained during transport and flight. There was no adverse impact of drone transport on RBC, PLT, or FP24 units. These findings suggest that drone transportation systems are a viable option for the transportation of blood products. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  6. Corrosion products in the coolant circuits of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of corrosion products formed in the primary and secondary circuits of pressurized light water nuclear power plants are first briefly recalled. The problem set by the pollution of coolants and metallic surfaces is then examined. Finally, the measures of precaution to take and the possible solutions to minimize the disturbing effects of this pollution by corrosion products are presented [fr

  7. The corrosion products in the coolant circuits of pressurized water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of the corrosion products formed in the primary and secondary coolant circuits of light-water pressurized reactors are reviewed. The problem induced by the pollution of coolants and metallic surface are examined. Then, the recommendations to follow to minimize the disturbing effects of this pollution by the corrosion products are indicated [fr

  8. Radiochemical studies on corrosion products of oral biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madbouly, H.A.Abdallah

    1998-01-01

    The work given in this thesis deals with a radioactive tracer study of the sorption of the corrosion products of dental amalgams and antimony on human teeth, porcelain and acrylic materials, used as dental restorative material. Sorption was investigated in presence of water and liquids commonly intaken by man; namely tea with or without sugar, soluble coffee ( Nescaffee) with or without sugar and/or milk, red tea (karkadeh or hibiscus) with or without sugar and chicken soup. The radioactive isotopes of Ag, Sn, Zn (amalgam components) and antimony were prepared by their irradiation in the nuclear reactor; 110m Ag, 113 Sn, 65 Zn and 124 Sb were thereby produced. The percent uptake of each studied element was evaluated from the depletion of radioactivity of the corresponding radioactive tracer in the given medium containing a tooth (human or artificial)

  9. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein Thein Win, Daw; Khin Aye Tint, Daw; Wai Min Than, Daw

    2003-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  10. Simulation study on insoluble granular corrosion products deposited in PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Ru Xiaolong; Lin Daping; Fang Xiaolu

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of reactor, such as fuel rods, reactor vessel internals etc. will be affected by corrosion erosion of high pressure coolant. It will produce many insoluble corrosion products. The FLUENT software is adopted to simulate insoluble granular corrosion products deposit distribution in the reactor core. The fluid phase uses the standard model to predict the flow field in the channel and forecast turbulence variation in the near-wall region. The insoluble granular corrosion products use DPM (Discrete Phase Model) to track the trajectory of the particles. The discrete phase model in FLUENT follows the Euler-Lagrange approach. The fluid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles through the calculated flow field. Through the study found, Corrosion products particles form high concentration area near the symmetry, and the entrance section of the corrosion products particles concentration is higher than export section. Corrosion products particles deposition attached on large area for the entrance of the cladding, this will change the core neutron flux distribution and the thermal conductivity of cladding material, and cause core axial offset anomaly (AOA). Corrosion products particles dot deposit in the outlet of cladding, which can lead to pitting phenomenon in a sheath. Pitting area will cause deterioration of heat transfer, destroy the cladding integrity. In view of the law of corrosion products deposition and corrosion characteristics of components in the reactor core. this paper proposes regular targeted local cleanup and other mitigation measures. (authors)

  11. 75 FR 55745 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Products covered by this order are certain corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea. These... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE...

  12. Design considerations of fission and corrosion product in primary system of MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Akagane, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawashima, K.

    1976-01-01

    General influence of fission and corrosion products in primary system on MONJU plant design is reviewed. Various research and development works are now in progress to decrease the generation rate, to remove the products more effectively and to develop the methods of evaluation the behaviour of radioactive products. The inventory and distribution of fission and corrosion products in the primary circuit of MONJU are given. The radiation levels on the primary components are estimated to be several roentgens per hour. (author)

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen production from CO2 corrosion of steel drums in SFR, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, A.; Videm, K.

    1987-06-01

    An experimental program has been carried out for the investigation of the hydrogen formation due to corrosion of steel by water containing CO 2 produced by microbiologic decomposition of paper in waste drums. The hydrogen production will be limited by a limited rate of CO 2 production, as CO 2 is consumed by corrosive reactions producing carbonate containing corrosion products. Experiments indicated that also iron oxide and hydroxides were formed together with FeCO 3 at low CO 2 partial pressures but at a rate which leads to a rather slow increase in hydrogen production. Hydrogen evaluation has been overestimated in previous reports on this subject. (authors)

  14. Corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.S.; Totlani, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion has always been associated with structures, plants, installations and equipment exposed to aggressive environments. It effects economy, safety and product reliability. Monitoring of component corrosion has thus become an essential requirement for the plant health and safety. Protection methods such as appropriate coatings, cathodic protection and use of inhibitors have become essential design parameters. High temperature corrosion, especially hot corrosion, is still a difficult concept to accommodate in corrosion allowance; there is a lack of harmonized system of performance testing of materials at high temperatures. In order to discuss and deliberate on these aspects, National Association for Corrosion Engineers International organised a National Conference on Corrosion and its Control in Bombay during November 28-30, 1995. This volume contains papers presented at the symposium. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  15. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent. PMID:28772367

  16. Chapter 23: Corrosion of Metals in Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion of metals in contact with wood has been studied for over 80 years, and in most situations wood is not corrosive [1]. Recently, however, the durability of fasteners in preservative--treated wood has become a concern. Changes in legislation and certification in the United States, the European Union, and Australasia have restricted the use of chromated...

  17. Solubility of simulated PWR primary circuit corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunig, R.H.; Sandler, Y.L.

    1986-08-01

    The solubility behavior of non-stoichiometric nickel ferrites, nickel-cobalt ferrites, and magnetite, as model substances for the corrosion products (''crud'') formed in nuclear pressurized water reactors, was studied in a flow system in aqueous solutions of lithium hydroxide, boric acid, and hydrogen with pH, temperature, and hydrogen concentrations as parameters. Below the temperature region of 300 to 330 0 C, at hydrogen concentrations of 25 to 40 cm 3 /kg H 2 O as used during reactor operation, the solubility of nickel-cobalt ferrite is the same as that of Ni and Co/sub x/Fe/sub 3-x/O 4 (x 3 /kg of hydrogen, the equilibrium iron and nickel solubilities increase congruently down to about 100 0 C, in a manner consistent with the solubility of Fe 3 O 4 , but sharply decline at lower temperatures, apparently due to formation of a borated layer. A cooldown experiment on a time scale of a typical Westinghouse reactor shutdown, as well as static experiments carried out on various ferrite samples at 60 0 C show that after addition of oxygen or peroxide evolution of nickel (and possibly cobalt) above the equilibrium solubility in hydrogen depends on the presence of dissociation products prior to oxidation. Thermodynamic calculations of various reduction and oxidative decomposition reactions for stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric nickel ferrite and cobalt ferrite are presented. Their significance to evolutions of nickel and cobalt on reactor shutdown is discussed. 30 refs., 38 figs., 34 tabs

  18. TEM characterization of corrosion products formed on a SS-15ZR alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J. S.; Abraham, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion products formed on a stainless steel-15Zr (SS-15Zr) alloy have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Examination of alloy particles that were immersed in 90 C deionized water for two years revealed that different corrosion products were formed on the stainless steel and intermetallic phases. Two corrosion products were identified on an austenite particle: trevorite (NiFe 2 O 4 ) in the layer close to the metal and maghemite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the outer layer. The corrosion layer formed on the intermetallic was uniform, adherent, and amorphous. The EDS analysis indicated that the layer was enriched in zirconium when compared with the intermetallic composition. High-resolution TEM images of the intermetallic-corrosion layer interface show an interlocking metal-oxide interface which may explain the relatively strong adherence of the corrosion layer to the intermetallic surface. These results will be used to evaluate corrosion mechanisms and predict long-term corrosion behavior of the alloy waste form

  19. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing 60 Co and 63 Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated

  20. 77 FR 31877 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Scheduling of Full Five...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-350 and 731-TA-616 and 618 (Third Review)] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews... corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on corrosion...

  1. 78 FR 19210 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    .... Scope of the Order Products covered by this order are certain corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... countervailing duty (CVD) order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from the Republic of Korea for...

  2. 78 FR 55241 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... merchandise covered by this Order \\2\\ is certain corrosion- resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... the countervailing duty (CVD) order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the...

  3. 78 FR 16832 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ...] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation of... ``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty (``AD'') orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel... (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 85 (January 3, 2012). \\2\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From...

  4. Corrosion products of reinforcement in concrete in marine and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, R.; Villarroel, M.; Carvajal, A.M.; Vera, E.; Ortiz, C.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion products formed on embedded steel in concrete under simulated marine and industrial conditions and natural marine environment were studied. A 0.50 water/cement ratio concrete was used and 3.5% NaCl and 180 g L -1 of H 2 SO 4 with 70 ppm of chloride ions solutions were used to simulate the synthetic medium. The initial electrochemical variables of the steel and pH, chlorides and sulfates profiles were measured according to the concrete depth. The morphology of the corrosive attack was determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the composition of the corrosion products was determined using an X-ray analyzer and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The protective power of the corrosion products was evaluated through anodic polarization curves in a saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution. The results from XRD and SEM show that all the resulting corrosion products correspond to lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite mixtures; moreover, akaganeite was also identified under natural and simulated marine environments. Siderite was only detected in samples exposed to a natural marine environment. Concerning the protective nature of the corrosion products, these show lower performance in a simulated industrial environment, where the corrosion rate of the steel is up to 1.48 μm year -1

  5. Corrosion products of reinforcement in concrete in marine and industrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, R. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: rvera@ucv.cl; Villarroel, M. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Carvajal, A.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Construccion Civil, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Vera, E.; Ortiz, C. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Avenida Central Norte, Km 2, Tunja (Colombia)

    2009-03-15

    The corrosion products formed on embedded steel in concrete under simulated marine and industrial conditions and natural marine environment were studied. A 0.50 water/cement ratio concrete was used and 3.5% NaCl and 180 g L{sup -1} of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with 70 ppm of chloride ions solutions were used to simulate the synthetic medium. The initial electrochemical variables of the steel and pH, chlorides and sulfates profiles were measured according to the concrete depth. The morphology of the corrosive attack was determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the composition of the corrosion products was determined using an X-ray analyzer and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The protective power of the corrosion products was evaluated through anodic polarization curves in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. The results from XRD and SEM show that all the resulting corrosion products correspond to lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite mixtures; moreover, akaganeite was also identified under natural and simulated marine environments. Siderite was only detected in samples exposed to a natural marine environment. Concerning the protective nature of the corrosion products, these show lower performance in a simulated industrial environment, where the corrosion rate of the steel is up to 1.48 {mu}m year{sup -1}.

  6. Application of electromagnetic fields to improve the removal rate of radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Tae Young; Lee, Kun Jai; Song, Min Chul

    2004-01-01

    To comply with increasingly strict regulations for protection against radiation exposure, many nuclear power plants have been working ceaselessly to reduce and control both the radiation sources within power plants and the radiation exposure experienced by operational and maintenance personnel. Many research studies have shown that deposits of irradiated corrosion products on the surfaces of coolant systems are the main cause of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. These corrosion product deposits on the fuel-clad surface are also known to be main factors in the onset of Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA). Hence, there is a great deal of ongoing research on water chemistry and corrosion processes. In this study, a magnetic filter with permanent magnets was devised to remove the corrosion products in the coolant stream by taking advantage of the magnetic properties of the corrosion particles. Experiments using permanent magnets to filter the corrosion products demonstrated a removal efficiency of over 90% for particles above 5 μm. This finding led to the construction of an electromagnetic device that causes the metallic particulates to flocculate into larger aggregates of about 5 μm in diameter by using a novel application of electromagnetic flocculation on radioactive corrosion products

  7. Phenomena of the ionic transport in the stress corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravano, S.M.

    1986-07-01

    For the study of electrochemical conditions of propagation, a model which calculates the concentrations and potential profiles inside cracks or localized corrosion cavities, was developed. Considering transport by difussion and migration it was applied to pure metals (Zn, Fe) in solutions where pitting occurs (NaCl or Na2SO4, with borate buffer), and also extended to systems where stress corrosion cracking is present, such as Cu and yellow brass in NaNO2. Physical bases of the 'constant intermediate elongation rate technique' to predict stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was analized, studying by mathematical models: 1) dissolution current, that should be the result of superposition of repassivation transients on the fresh metal, exposed to corrosive medium by strain, with the same rate of that of a static specimen; 2) ohmic drop, that in some systems could be quite important and it must be considered in the overpotential evaluation; and 3) metallic ion concentration that, instead of what happens in a crack, never attains saturation in the analized cases. For repassivation transient according to the crak propagation models proposed by Scully and Ford it was found that, at the tip of the crack, it is unlikely that the same repassivation transients occur as in the constant intermediate elongation rate experiments. (M.E.L.)

  8. Coupled Transport/Reaction Modelling of Copper Canister Corrosion Aided by Microbial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinsong Liu [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-04-15

    Copper canister corrosion is an important issue in the concept of a nuclear fuel repository. Previous studies indicate that the oxygen-free copper canister could hold its integrity for more than 100,000 years in the repository environment. Microbial processes may reduce sulphate to sulphide and considerably increase the amount of sulphides available for corrosion. In this paper, a coupled transport/reaction model is developed to account for the transport of chemical species produced by microbial processes. The corroding agents like sulphide would come not only from the groundwater flowing in a fracture that intersects the canister, but also from the reduction of sulphate near the canister. The reaction of sulphate-reducing bacteria and the transport of sulphide in the bentonite buffer are included in the model. The depth of copper canister corrosion is calculated by the model. With representative 'central values' of the concentrations of sulphate and methane at repository depth at different sites in Fennoscandian Shield the corrosion depth predicted by the model is a few millimetres during 10{sup 5} years. As the concentrations of sulphate and methane are extremely site-specific and future climate changes may significantly influence the groundwater compositions at potential repository sites, sensitivity analyses have been conducted. With a broad perspective of the measured concentrations at different sites in Sweden and in Finland, and some possible mechanisms (like the glacial meltwater intrusion and interglacial seawater intrusion) that may introduce more sulphate into the groundwater at intermediate depths during future climate changes, higher concentrations of either/both sulphate and methane than what is used as the representative 'central' values would be possible. In worst cases. locally, half of the canister thickness could possibly be corroded within 10{sup 5} years.

  9. Coupled Transport/Reaction Modelling of Copper Canister Corrosion Aided by Microbial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinsong [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-04-15

    Copper canister corrosion is an important issue in the concept of a nuclear fuel repository. Previous studies indicate that the oxygen-free copper canister could hold its integrity for more than 100,000 years in the repository environment. Microbial processes may reduce sulphate to sulphide and considerably increase the amount of sulphides available for corrosion. In this paper, a coupled transport/reaction model is developed to account for the transport of chemical species produced by microbial processes. The corroding agents like sulphide would come not only from the groundwater flowing in a fracture that intersects the canister, but also from the reduction of sulphate near the canister. The reaction of sulphate-reducing bacteria and the transport of sulphide in the bentonite buffer are included in the model. The depth of copper canister corrosion is calculated by the model. With representative 'central values' of the concentrations of sulphate and methane at repository depth at different sites in Fennoscandian Shield the corrosion depth predicted by the model is a few millimetres during 10{sup 5} years. As the concentrations of sulphate and methane are extremely site-specific and future climate changes may significantly influence the groundwater compositions at potential repository sites, sensitivity analyses have been conducted. With a broad perspective of the measured concentrations at different sites in Sweden and in Finland, and some possible mechanisms (like the glacial meltwater intrusion and interglacial seawater intrusion) that may introduce more sulphate into the groundwater at intermediate depths during future climate changes, higher concentrations of either/both sulphate and methane than what is used as the representative 'central' values would be possible. In worst cases. locally, half of the canister thickness could possibly be corroded within 10{sup 5} years.

  10. Coupled Transport/Reaction Modelling of Copper Canister Corrosion Aided by Microbial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsong Liu

    2006-04-01

    Copper canister corrosion is an important issue in the concept of a nuclear fuel repository. Previous studies indicate that the oxygen-free copper canister could hold its integrity for more than 100,000 years in the repository environment. Microbial processes may reduce sulphate to sulphide and considerably increase the amount of sulphides available for corrosion. In this paper, a coupled transport/reaction model is developed to account for the transport of chemical species produced by microbial processes. The corroding agents like sulphide would come not only from the groundwater flowing in a fracture that intersects the canister, but also from the reduction of sulphate near the canister. The reaction of sulphate-reducing bacteria and the transport of sulphide in the bentonite buffer are included in the model. The depth of copper canister corrosion is calculated by the model. With representative 'central values' of the concentrations of sulphate and methane at repository depth at different sites in Fennoscandian Shield the corrosion depth predicted by the model is a few millimetres during 10 5 years. As the concentrations of sulphate and methane are extremely site-specific and future climate changes may significantly influence the groundwater compositions at potential repository sites, sensitivity analyses have been conducted. With a broad perspective of the measured concentrations at different sites in Sweden and in Finland, and some possible mechanisms (like the glacial meltwater intrusion and interglacial seawater intrusion) that may introduce more sulphate into the groundwater at intermediate depths during future climate changes, higher concentrations of either/both sulphate and methane than what is used as the representative 'central' values would be possible. In worst cases. locally, half of the canister thickness could possibly be corroded within 10 5 years

  11. Spectral Analysis of CO2 Corrosion Product Scales on 13Cr Tubing Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan-fa, Lin; Zhen-quan, Bai; Yao-rong, Feng; Xun-yuan, Xu

    2008-01-01

    CO 2 corrosion product scales formed on 13 Cr tubing steel in autoclave and in the simulated corrosion environment of oil field are investigated in the paper. The surface and cross-section profiles of the scales were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical compositions of the scales were analyzed using energy dispersion analyzer of X-ray (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the corrosion mechanism of the 13 Cr steel in the simulated CO 2 corrosion environment. The results show that the corrosion scales are formed by the way of fashion corrosion, consist mainly of four elements, i.e. Fe, Cr, C and O, and with a double-layer structure, in which the surface layer is constituted of bulky and incompact crystals of FeCO 3 , and the inner layer is composed of compact fine FeCO 3 crystals and amorphous Cr(OH) 3 . Because of the characteristics of compactness and ionic permeating selectivity of the inner layer of the corrosion product scales, 13 Cr steel is more resistant in CO 2 corrosion environment

  12. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  13. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Brunell, G.; Lindh, U.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25 x 25 x 25)μm 3 . The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, D.; Brunell, G.; Lindh, U.

    1982-06-01

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25×25×25)μm 3. The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively.

  15. States and transport of hydrogen in the corrosion process of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Wang Jianqiu; Han Enhou; Dong Junhua; Ke Wei

    2008-01-01

    Mott-Schottky measurement and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to investigate the states and transport of hydrogen during the corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in 0.1 M sodium sulfate solution. The results showed that when samples were immersed or charged in solution, hydrogen atoms diffused into the film and reacted with vacancy to cause the increases of the carrier concentration (excess electron or hole carrier) and diffusion rate of hydrogen. Some hydrogen atoms diffused to interior of matrix and enriched in β phase while others resorted in the corrosive film. With the increase of immersion or charging time, magnesium hydride would be brittle fractured when the inner stress caused by hydrogen pressure and expansion stress of formation of magnesium hydride was above the fracture strength, which provided the direct experimental evidence of the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanism of magnesium and its alloys. After immersion in solution, the transfer of excess electrons to the interfaces of corrosion film and solution would destroy the charge equilibrium in the film and stimulate the adsorption of SO 4 2- , which resulted in the initiation of localized corrosion; after cathodic charging and then immersion, the enrichment of hydrogen atoms at interior of corrosion film would combine into hydrogen gas to form high pressure and result in the rupture of corrosion film, and localized corrosion initiated and developed at surface. Therefore, localized corrosion nucleated earlier on the charged samples than on the uncharged samples. Hydrogen invasion accelerated the corrosion of matrix

  16. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. A mini-catalogue of metal corrosion products studied by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Smith, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The extensive development of physical methods of analysis since the beginning of this century has revolutionised the classical observation techniques most frequently used by the archaeologist. Raman Microscopy (RM) appears to be one of the most promising tools due to the many advantages that it offers: e.g. non-destructive, in situ, micro-analysis. RM is being applied to many archaeological fields as well as to industrial or environmental sectors. In relation with parallel studies made on the identification of corrosion products on archaeological materials, and according to the principal condition for the RM characterisation of an unknown product being the comparison of its Raman spectrum with known standard spectra, the essential aim of this study is to build a mini-catalogue of standard corrosion products susceptible to be found on metallic objects; these could be from archaeological as well as from modern contexts. However, it is noted that the identification of a corrosion product may suggest either an urgent intervention from the restoration team (in the case of active corrosion products), or a stabilisation of the corrosion layer if this is considered to be a protective layer. All the standard samples are natural minerals coming from the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (France) and correspond to the corrosion products most frequently found on metals such copper, zinc, lead or tin. These samples have been analyzed by RM and also confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. This catalogue, including more than 30 standard species corresponding to the most common metal corrosion products, is very useful for the different studies in progress in collaboration with different archaeological metal restoration teams. The near future will probably see a mobile Raman Microprobe (MRM) equipped with many different mini-catalogues on the site of a corroded mettalic bridge, a corroded canalisation or under the sea to rapidly identify the different

  18. Mössbauer effect study of corrosion products from a Brazilian oil refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, M. I.; Kunrath, J. I.; Moro, J. T.; da Cunha, J. B. M.; Englert, G.; Comparsi, L. U.; Muller, I. L.

    1993-04-01

    Corrosion of an oil refining plant in southern Brazil is controlled by placing metallic coupons in strategic places of the unit. The amount of the corrosion products formed after two months of exposure of the coupons is then obtained by weight loss measurements. To have a better insight of these products an analysis by Conversion Electron and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopies was done on some of the coupons. This paper reports some of the findings.

  19. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Nathalie A.; Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  20. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  1. Transport and Corrosion Behavior of Cracked Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin

    Reinforced concrete, due to its inherent versatility and durability as a building material, has been implemented for use in a multitude of structural applications which are exposed to widely varying environmental conditions. Often times these structures are designed for lengthy service lives....... The exposure conditions may vary from industrial products, chemicals, and gases, to annual variations in temperature, to chloride-rich environments such as marine structures and structures exposed to deicing salts. These chloride-rich environments are of central concern in Denmark and throughout the world....... In addition, cracks develop in concrete through various physical and chemical processes, which occur at varying periods of the lifetime of a structure, resulting in varying crack parameters (i.e. width, depth, and tortuosity). These cracks provide easy access of aggressive substances from the environment...

  2. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  3. Studies on dissolution characteristics of simulated corrosion products on pressurized water reactor primary coolant loops. Pt.2: Cobalt simulated corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shan; Zhou Xianyu

    1997-01-01

    The studies on the dissolution characteristics of simulated corrosion product of cobalt on pressurized water reactor primary coolant loops in aqueous solution of citric acid, hydrogen peroxide and citric acid-hydrogen peroxide have been performed. The results show that the portion of the dissolved simulated corrosion product of cobalt in citric acid aqueous solution clearly increases with a rise in citric acid concentration and is ten times above the corresponding value of iron. The portion of the products that dissolve is the largest at pH 3.00 in the pH range of 2.33∼4.50 and at 70 degree C in the range of 60∼80 degree C. It is shown that the portion of the dissolved simulated corrosion product of cobalt in hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution is smaller than the corresponding value in citric acid, and that the portion of the dissolved simulated corrosion product of cobalt in aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide-citric acid is larger than the corresponding value in single citric acid aqueous solution

  4. Estimation of elastic modulus of reinforcement corrosion products using inverse analysis of digital image correlation measurements for input in corrosion-induced cracking model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Michel, Alexander; Thybo, Anna Emilie A.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical approach for estimating the elastic modulus of reinforcement corrosion products is presented. Deformations between steel and mortar were measured using digital image correlation during accelerated corrosion testing at 100 μA/cm2 (~1.16 mm/year). Measured defo...

  5. Corrosion '98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: Corrosion in Gas Treating; Problems and Solutions in Commercial Building Water Systems; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors; Atmospheric Corrosion; AIRPOL Update/98; Rubber Lining--Answers to Many Problems; Interference Problems; Environmental Assisted Cracking: Fundamental Research and Industrial Applications; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; New Developments in Scale and Deposit Control; Corrosion and Corrosion Protection in the Transportation Industries; What's All the Noise About--Electrochemical That Is; Refining Industry Corrosion; Corrosion Problems in Military Hardware: Case Histories, Fixes and Lessons Learned; Cathodic Protection Test Methods and Instrumentation for Underground and On-grade Pipelines and Tanks; Recent Developments in Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion in Supercritical Fluids; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Understanding and Controlling CO 2 Corrosion; Managing Corrosion with Plastics; Material Developments for Use in Exploration and Production Environments; Corrosion in Cold Regions; The Effect of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Cooling System Monitoring and Control Practices; New Developments in Mechanical and Chemical Industrial Cleaning; Mineral Scale Deposit Control in Oilfield Related Operations; Biocides in Cooling Water; Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Reinforced Concrete Structures; Materials Performance for Fossil Energy Conversion Systems; Marine corrosion; Thermal Spray--Coating and Corrosion Control; Flow Effects on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Measurement Technologies; Internal Pipeline Monitoring--Corrosion Monitoring, Intelligent Pigging and Leak Detection; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems; On-line Hydrogen Permeation Monitoring Equipment and Techniques, State of the Art; Water Reuse and Recovery; Performance of Materials in High Temperature Environments; Advances in Motor

  6. Activity of corrosion products in pool type reactors with ascending flow in the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade e Silva, Graciete S. de; Queiroz Bogado Leite, Sergio de

    1995-01-01

    A model for the activity of corrosion products in the water of a pool type reactor with ascending flow is presented. The problem is described by a set of coupled differential equations relating the radioisotope concentrations in the core and pool circuits and taking into account two types of radioactive sources: i) those from radioactive species formed in the fuel cladding, control elements, reflector, etc, and afterwards released to the primary stream by corrosion (named reactor sources) and ii) those formed from non radioactive isotopes entering the primary stream by corrosion of the circuit components and being activated when passing through the core (named circuit sources). (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Simulations of corrosion product transfer with the OSCAR V1.2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacquait, F.; Francescatto, J.; Broutin, F.; Genin, J.B.; Benier, G.; Girard, M.; You, D.; Ranchoux, G.; Bonnefon, J.; Bachet, M.; Riot, G.

    2012-09-01

    Activated Corrosion Products (ACPs) generate a radiation field in PWRs, which is the major contributor to the dose absorbed by nuclear power plant staff working during shutdown operations and maintenance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that control the corrosion product transfer is of the highest importance. Since the 1970's, the R and D strategy in France has been based on experiments in test loops representative of PWR conditions, on in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements of the PWR primary system contamination and on simulation code development. The simulation of corrosion product transfers in PWR primary circuits is a major challenge since it involves many physical and chemical phenomena including: corrosion, dissolution, precipitation, erosion, deposition, convection, activation... In addition to the intrinsic difficulty of multi-physics modelling, the primary systems present severe operating conditions (300 deg. C, 150 bar, neutron flux, fluid velocity up to 15 m.s -1 and very low corrosion product concentrations). The purpose of the OSCAR code, developed by the CEA in cooperation with EDF and AREVA NP, is to predict the PWR primary system contamination by corrosion and fission products. The OSCAR code is considered to be not only a tool for numerical simulations and predictions (operational practices improvements and new-built PWRs design) but also one that might combine and organise all new knowledge useful to progress on contamination. The OSCAR code for Products of Corrosion, OSCAR PC, allows researchers to analyse the corrosion product behaviour and to calculate the ACP volume and surface activities of the primary and auxiliary systems. In the new version, OSCAR PC V1.2, the corrosion product transfer in the particulate form is enhanced and a new feature is the possibility to simulate cold shutdowns. In order to validate this version, the contamination transfer has been simulated in 5 French PWRs with different operating and

  8. Characterization of corrosion products from Nd-Fe-B magnets used in dental prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Dantas, Elisabeth; Oliveira, Mara C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    A special group of magnets composed mainly by Nd-Fe-B has been widely used in dental applications as retentive devices for overdentures, due to their strong force and compactness. Dental materials should present high corrosion resistance and be innocuous to human tissues, however, Nd-Fe-B magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion. This work presents results obtained in the elemental analysis of Nd-Fe-B magnets and their corrosion products. The corrosion products were analyzed in the extracts of culture medium where the magnets had been immersed for 10 days at 37 deg C. Elements B, Co, Fe, La, Nd, Dy, Pr, Sm, Ho, Yb and Lu were found in the magnet and the analysis of extract indicated that Co, Fe and Nd are released from the magnet to the extract. Toxicity was also investigated in this extract using the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. Acknowledgements: To FAPESP and CNPq for financial support. (author)

  9. Characterization of corrosion products from Nd-Fe-B magnets used in dental prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Dantas, Elisabeth; Oliveira, Mara C.L.

    2002-01-01

    A special group of magnets composed mainly by Nd-Fe-B has been widely used in dental applications as retentive devices for overdentures, due to their strong force and compactness. Dental materials should present high corrosion resistance and be innocuous to human tissues, however, Nd-Fe-B magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion. This work presents results obtained in the elemental analysis of Nd-Fe-B magnets and their corrosion products. The corrosion products were analyzed in the extracts of culture medium where the magnets had been immersed for 10 days at 37 deg C. Elements B, Co, Fe, La, Nd, Dy, Pr, Sm, Ho, Yb and Lu were found in the magnet and the analysis of extract indicated that Co, Fe and Nd are released from the magnet to the extract. Toxicity was also investigated in this extract using the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. Acknowledgements: To FAPESP and CNPq for financial support. (author)

  10. Coupling between corrosion and biphasic transport in porous media: Application to the evolution of a radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dridi, W.

    2005-04-01

    In the actual concepts of geological disposal, high level radioactive wastes are packed in metallic containers surrounded by a partially or totally saturated clay media. In contact with the interstitial water, anoxic corrosion of this container will start producing hydrogen. In the scope of safety assessment, the present study deals with two main topics: prediction of the long-term corrosion of carbon steel with respect to clay water content and evaluation of the risk of damage of the clay barrier related to gas production. Elementary processes controlling the kinetics of corrosion are limited to oxide growth and mass transfer through the porosity of this film. Thanks to a macroscopic description of theses processes, followed by an interfacial kinetic law, a mechanistic modeling of the anoxic corrosion in partially saturated porous media is proposed. This approach is validated when confronted to the long-term corrosion tests performed in saturated clay. Both modeling and laboratory experiments have confirmed that kinetics of anoxic corrosion in partially saturated clay is mainly controlled by the surrounding relative humidity as in the case of aerated or atmospheric corrosion. In the gas generation topic, some numerical simulations are performed concerning the oedometric and triaxial test dealing with gas migration in saturated clay. Finally, long-term calculations are conducted concerning hydro-mechanical impact of corrosion in deep geological repositories. Due to a more realistic prediction of the long-term corrosion, the risks of gas overpressures, local desaturation and mechanical damage are reduced. (author)

  11. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system...... with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models...... and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion...

  12. Impact of β- radiolysis and transient products on irradiation-enhanced corrosion of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, C.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis has been undertaken of the various cases of local enhancement of the corrosion rate of zirconium alloys under irradiation. It is observed that in most cases a strong emission of energetic β - is present leading to a local energy desorption rate higher than the core average. This suggests that the local transient radiolytic oxidising species produced in the coolant by the β - particles could contribute to corrosion enhancement, by increasing the local corrosion potential. This process is applicable to the local enhanced corrosion found in front of stainless steels structural parts, due to the contribution of Mn, in front of Pt inserts and Cu-rich cruds. It explains also the irradiation corrosion enhancement of Cu-rich Zr alloys. Enhanced corrosion around neutron absorbing material is explained similarly by pair production from conversion of high energy capture photons in the cladding, leading to energetic electrons. The same process was found to be active with other highly ionising species like α in Ni-rich alloys and fission products in homogeneous reactors. This mechanism, applicable for an explanation of localised irradiation-enhanced corrosion, is proposed to be extended to the reactor core, where the general enhancement of Zr-alloy corrosion under irradiation would be due to the general radiolysis. It suggests that care should be taken to avoid any source of β - emission or other ionising species in the reactor core that could give an increase of energy deposition rate for radiolysis. Also the corrosion testing conditions for the materials to be used in reactors have to be relevant to the radiolytic environments found in the reactor cores. (orig.)

  13. Coupled modelling of convergence, steel corrosion, gas production and brine flow in a rock salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Hirsekorn, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents the global simulation of the behaviour of thick-walled steel containers piled up in a borehole in a rock salt repository. The simulation takes into account: the convergence by the creeping of rock salt, the backfill and waste compaction, the porosity dependent flow resistance, the anaerobic corrosion (iron to magnetite transformation, gas production, brine consumption, water consumption and salt precipitation) and pressure development. Mechanical influence of corrosion has not yet been taken into account in the integrated code LOPOS

  14. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-02-17

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m{sup 2}/g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal.

  15. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m 2 /g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal

  16. Effect of water chemistry on corrosion of stainless steel and deposition of corrosion products in high temperature pressurised water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Jonathan; Cooper, Christopher; Ponton, Clive; Connolly, Brian; Banks, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    In any water-cooled nuclear reactor, the corrosion of the structural materials in contact with the coolant and the deposition of the resulting oxidised species has long been an operational concern within the power generation industry. Corrosion of the structural materials at all points in the reactor leads to low concentrations of oxidised metal species in the coolant water. The oxidised metal species can subsequently be deposited out as CRUD deposits at various points around the reactor's primary and secondary loops. The deposition of soluble oxidised material at any location in the reactor cooling system is undesirable due to several effects; deposits have a porous structure, capable of incorporating radiologically active material (forming out of core radiation fields) and concentrating aggressively corrosive chemicals, which exacerbate environmental degradation of structural and fuel-cladding materials. Deposits on heat transfer surfaces also limit efficiency of the system as a whole. The work in this programme is an attempt to determine and understand the fundamental corrosion and deposition behaviour under controlled, simulated reactor conditions. The rates of corrosion of structural materials within pressurised water reactors are heavily dependent on the condition of the exposed surface. The effect of mechanical grinding and of electropolishing on the corrosion rate and structure of the resultant oxide film formed on grade 316L stainless steel exposed to high purity water, modified to pH 9.5 and 10.5 at temperatures between 200 and 300 deg. C and pressures of up to 100 bar will be investigated. The corrosion of stainless steel in water via electrochemical oxidation leads to the formation of surface iron, nickel and chromium based spinels. Low concentrations of these spinels can be found dissolved in the coolant water. The solubility of magnetite, stainless steels' major corrosion product, in high purity water will be studied at pH 9.5 to 10.5 at

  17. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  18. 40 CFR 247.13 - Transportation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation products. 247.13 Section 247.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Transportation products. (a) Traffic barricades and traffic cones used in controlling or restricting vehicular...

  19. Morphology of the ash corrosion products on the P92 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernas, A.; Imosa, M.

    2004-01-01

    The P92 steel, owing to its high mechanical strength at an elevated temperature, is one of the new steel types intended for the components of modern boilers in the power engineering industry. Currently, attempts are being undertaken to use the P92 steel for the components of boiler units in municipal waste incineration plants. Therefore, it is important that an analysis be made of the P92 steel resistance to the high-temperature chlorine - sulfur corrosion impact, the latter being the main factor which limits durability of boilers in waste incineration plants. The present article presents the investigation of P92 steel corrosion resistance under the conditions of high-temperature chlorine- sulfur corrosion in an atmosphere of flue gas with ashes. The analyses were conducted by means of laboratory tests in an atmosphere containing sulfur and chlorine compounds. The morphology of corrosion products was determined by scanning microscopy and X-ray analysis methods. (author)

  20. Guidelines for prediction of CO{sub 2} corrosion in oil and gas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyborg, Rolf

    2009-09-15

    A group of corrosion experts from different oil companies has prepared guidelines for use of CO{sub 2} corrosion prediction tools. The guidelines are intended for use in design and engineering practice applied by companies operating oil and gas production facilities. This document attempts to set minimum guidelines that should be common to most companies. The document is sufficiently flexible to allow individual companies to adapt the information set forth in this document to their own environment and requirements. A methodology for defining the Iikelihood of corrosion and the impact on CO{sub 2} prediction is developed. The CO{sub 2} prediction is based on existing tools. An overview of available CO{sub 2} corrosion prediction models evaluated by the participants is given. It is the responsibility of the operator to select which model to use. (Author)

  1. Transport properties of fission product vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1983-07-01

    Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors

  2. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  3. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  4. Method of separation of fission and corrosion products and of corresponding isotopes from liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, H.; Stamberg, K.; Jilek, R.; Hulak, P.; Katzer, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method of separating fission and corrosion products and corresponding stable isotopes from liquid waste is described. Mycelia of fungi are used as sorbents for retaining these products on their surface and within their pores. Methods of activation or regeneration of the sorbent are outlined. 11 claims

  5. Corrosion of aluminum and zinc in containment following a LOCA and potential for precipitation of corrosion products in the sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyogi, K.K.; Lunt, R.R.; Mackenzie, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a LWR containment, certain materials in the containment come in contact with alkaline emergency cooling and containment spray solutions and may corrode yielding hydrogen gas. The problems associated with the production of hydrogen gas and the control of combustible gas concentration have been extensively explored in recent years. However, the phenomenon of corrosion and its consequences in the long term cooling of the reactor and the containment have drawn very little attention. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. has made an extensive effort to study through literature survey the solubility of the corrosion products from aluminum and zinc in order to assess the potential for precipitation in the containment sump. The analysis presented in this article is based on parameters for a typical large dry reactor containment with caustic/boric acid buffered spray solution. Parameters used in this study may vary from one plant to another. However, they are not expected to affect the overall conclusions

  6. Corrosion product behaviour in the primary circuit of the KNK nuclear reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    During nuclear operation of the KNK facility from 1972 until September 1974 the composition and behaviour of radionuclides occuring in the primary circuit were investigated. Besides traces of 140 Ba/ 140 La, no fission product activity was detectable in the KNK primary circuit. The fuel element purification from sodium deposits (prior to transport to the reprocessing plant) did not yield any indication of a fuel element failure during KNK-I operation. The activity inventory of the primary loop was exclusively made up of activated corrosion products and 22 Na. The main activity was due to 65 Zn, followed by 54 Mn, 22 Na, sup(110m)Ag, 182 Ta, 60 Co and 124 Sb. It was found that the sorption of 65 Zn and 54 Mn on crucibles made from nickel was condiserably higher than on vessels made from other materials. This observation was confirmed both in tests with material samples from the primary circuit and for disks of gate valves of the primary circuit. sup(110m)Ag did hardly exhibit any sorption effects and had been dissolved largely homogeneously in the hot primary coolant. In the first primary cold trap which was removed from the circuit after some 20,000 hours of operation, only 65 Zn and 54 Mn were detected in addition to traces of 60 Co and 182 Ta. (author)

  7. The effect of organic matter associated with the corrosion products on the corrosion of mild steel in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    The corrosion of mild steel immersed at various depths (0-100 m) from three stations of the Arabian Sea was investigated. The corrosion of mild steel decreased with increasing immersion depth. Significant positive relationships were observed between...

  8. An integrated model of tritium transport and corrosion in Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) – Part I: Theory and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John D., E-mail: john.stempien@inl.gov; Ballinger, Ronald G., E-mail: hvymet@mit.edu; Forsberg, Charles W., E-mail: cforsber@mit.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A model was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. • Model results match results of tritium diffusion experiments. • Corrosion simulations show reasonable agreement with molten salt loop experiments. • This is the only existing model of tritium transport and corrosion in FHRs. • Model enables proposing and evaluating tritium control options in FHRs. - Abstract: The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) is a pebble bed nuclear reactor concept cooled by a liquid fluoride salt known as “flibe” ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}). A model of TRITium Diffusion EvolutioN and Transport (TRIDENT) was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. TRIDENT is the first model to integrate the effects of tritium production in the salt via neutron transmutation, with the effects of the chemical redox potential, tritium mass transfer, tritium diffusion through pipe walls, tritium uptake by graphite, selective chromium attack by tritium fluoride, and corrosion product mass transfer. While data from a forced-convection polythermal loop of molten salt containing tritium did not exist for comparison, TRIDENT calculations were compared to data from static salt diffusion tests in flibe and flinak (0.465LiF-0.115NaF-0.42KF) salts. In each case, TRIDENT matched the transient and steady-state behavior of these tritium diffusion experiments. The corrosion model in TRIDENT was compared against the natural convection flow-loop experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from the 1960s and early 1970s which used Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel-salt containing UF{sub 4}. Despite the lack of data required by TRIDENT for modeling the loops, some reasonable results were obtained. The TRIDENT corrosion rates follow the experimentally observed dependence on the square root of the product of the chromium solid-state diffusion coefficient with time. Additionally the TRIDENT model predicts mass

  9. The Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Corrosion Products of Archaeological Tin-Bronze Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiara, G.; Grande, C.; Ferrando, S.; Piccardo, P.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, tin-bronze analogues of archaeological objects were investigated in the presence of an aerobic Pseudomonas fluorescens strain in a solution, containing chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and nitrates according to a previous archaeological characterization. Classical fixation protocols were employed in order to verify the attachment capacity of such bacteria. In addition, classical metallurgical analytical techniques were used to detect the effect of bacteria on the formation of uncommon corrosion products in such an environment. Results indicate quite a good attachment capacity of the bacteria to the metallic surface and the formation of the uncommon corrosion products sulfates and sulfides is probably connected to the bacterial metabolism.

  10. XPS response in the corrosion products analysis for copper exposed at clean air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariaca, L.; Morcillo, M.; Feliu Jr, S.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work is presented the obtained response for superficial analysis technique by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA), to determine the corrosion products formed during the copper exposure at environment without pollutants (clean air) at 50, 70 and 90 % of relative humidity at 35 Centigrade. One of the copper corrosion products most knew is Cu 2 O. This oxide is formed instantly to be exposed the copper at air. However in function of the exposure time and the relative humidity at it is exposed, the Cu 2 O oxide is transformed at Cu O and Cu(OH) 2 (Author)

  11. Investigations of the diverse corrosion products on steel in a hydrogen sulfide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Pengpeng; Zheng, Shuqi; Zhao, Hui; Ding, Yu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Diverse corrosion products on steel are investigated in H 2 S environment. • The sequence of the main corrosion products is mackinawite + cubic FeS → troilite. • The large single beam-shaped troilite has a growth pattern along the c axis. • The flower-like troilite develops from beam- or hexagonal wire-shaped grains. • The corresponding crystal structure and morphology of the products are provided. - Abstract: The corrosion products of carbon steel in aqueous H 2 S environment are investigated. The products, which include mackinawite, cubic FeS, troilite, and pyrite, are characterized through their shapes, chemical compositions and crystal structures. Mackinawite appears with a flake shape. Cubic FeS has a perfect/truncated octahedral shape, and pyrite is framboid-shaped. Flower-shaped troilite is developed from beam- or hexagonal wire-shaped grains by electrostatic interactions along a certain lattice plane. The large single beam-shaped troilite has a growth pattern along the c axis. The corresponding crystal structure and micro-morphology of the corrosion products are provided, and the three-dimensional models of them are generated

  12. In situ Raman identification of corrosion products on galvanized steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.C.; Hugot le Goff, A.; Massinon, D.; Phillips, N.; Thierry, D.

    1992-01-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was used to identify corrosion products on zinc immersed in chloride solutions. In aerated 0,03 M NaCl solution, zinc carbonate was identified as the main corrosion product. Even with higher chloride concentrations, for which zinc hydroxychloride was also detected, the carbon dioxide concentration is likely to be the rate controlling factor of the corrosion process. In a confinement experiment, Raman analysis revealed that the upper face of the sample was covered with zinc carbonate, whereas hydroxychlorides were identified on the confined face. This result confirmed the hypothesis of a differential aeration mechanism responsible for the formation of zinc hydroxychloride. This is in good agreement with Raman spectroscopy results obtained in the case of painted galvanized steel

  13. Simulation of corrosion product activity in ion- exchanger of PWR under acceleration of corrosion and flow rate perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, N.M.; Mirza, S.M.; Rafique, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper computer code developed earlier by the authors (CPAIR-P) has been employed to compute corrosion product activity in PWRs for flow rate perturbations. The values of radioactivity in ion exchanger of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) under normal and flow rate perturbation conditions have been calculated. For linearly accelerating corrosion rates, activity saturates for removal rate of 600 cm/sup 3// s in primary coolant of PWR. A higher removal rate of 750 cm/sup 3// s was selected for which the saturation value is sufficiently low (0. 28 micro Ci/cm/sup 3/). Simulation results shows that the Fe/sup 59/ Na/sup 24/, Mo/sup 99/, Mn/sup 56/ reaches saturation values with in about 700 hours of reactor operation. However, Co/sup 58/ and Co/sup 60/ keep on accumulating and do not saturate with in 2000 hours of these simulation time. When flow rate is decreased by 10% of rated flow rate after 500 hours of reactor operation, a dip in activity is seen, which reaches to the value of 0.00138 micro Ci cm/sup -3/ then again it begins to rise and reaches saturation value of 0.00147 cm/sup 3//s. (author)

  14. 75 FR 18153 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from Korea. See Countervailing...

  15. 77 FR 16810 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... Register the countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from Korea...

  16. 76 FR 20954 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... Register the countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from Korea...

  17. 77 FR 25405 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from the Republic of Korea, covering... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...

  18. 76 FR 21332 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from the Republic of Korea, covering... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of...

  19. 75 FR 25841 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from the Republic of Korea, covering... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of...

  20. 77 FR 27438 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Certain Corrosion-Resistant... order on certain corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (``CORE'') from the Republic of Korea.... Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by the order includes flat-rolled carbon steel products, of...

  1. Positive aspects issued from bio corrosion studies: from hydrogen production to biofuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Munoz, L. de

    2007-12-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion or bio corrosion is a problem that generates heavy global economic losses (several billion euros per year). In spite of the progress made on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the complexity of the phenomenon has prevented finding definitive solutions to the problem and continues to inspire many research works. The participation in bio corrosion of catalytic mechanisms induced by weak acids was studied in this work. Another objective of the thesis has been to take advantage from catalytic phenomena found in bio corrosion research to apply them in other areas: energy production with biofuel cells or electrochemical hydrogen production in mild conditions. This work has shown that the presence of weak acids and amino acids inside bio-films could play a major role in steel bio corrosion accelerating the phenomenon through the catalysis of the water reduction reaction. The reversibility of this mechanism, discerned and proved here, could explain the corrosion increase when hydrogen is removed (bacterial consumption, agitation...). In addition, phosphates allow the production of hydrogen by electrolysis in mild pH conditions (pH 4.0 - 8.0) with an equal or better performance than those found in alkaline electrolysis. Finally, industrial materials like stainless steel and titanium could be used in the fabrication of enzymatic electrodes for biosensors or microsystems. The use of the glucose oxidase/glucose system in an aqueous fuel cell with a stainless steel cathode, allows the improvement of the cell performance thanks to the production of hydrogen peroxide that is easily reduced. Moreover, the use of materials with micro-structured surfaces like sandblasted steels deserve to be studied in detail to exploit the remarkable reactivity they present compared to smooth electrodes. (author)

  2. Positive aspects issued from bio-corrosion studies: from hydrogen production to biofuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva Munoz, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion or bio-corrosion is a problem that generates heavy global economic losses (several billion euros per year). In spite of the progress made on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the complexity of the phenomenon has prevented finding definitive solutions to the problem and continues to inspire many research works. The participation in bio-corrosion of catalytic mechanisms induced by weak acids was studied in this work. Another objective of the thesis has been to take advantage from catalytic phenomena found in bio corrosion research to apply them in other areas: energy production with biofuel cells or electrochemical hydrogen production in mild conditions. This work has shown that the presence of weak acids and amino acids inside bio films could play a major role in steel bio-corrosion accelerating the phenomenon through the catalysis of the water reduction reaction. The reversibility of this mechanism, discerned and proved here, could explain the corrosion increase when hydrogen is removed (bacterial consumption, agitation...). In addition, phosphates allow the production of hydrogen by electrolysis in mild ph conditions (pH 4.0 - 8.0) with an equal or better performance than those found in alkaline electrolysis. Finally, industrial materials like stainless steel and titanium could be used in the fabrication of enzymatic electrodes for biosensors or microsystems. The use of the glucose oxidase / glucose system in an aqueous fuel cell with a stainless steel cathode, allows the improvement of the cell performance thanks to the production of hydrogen peroxide that is easily reduced. Moreover, the use of materials with micro-structured surfaces like sandblasted steels deserve to be studied in detail to exploit the remarkable reactivity they present compared to smooth electrodes. (author) [fr

  3. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  4. Phenomenology and modeling of particulate corrosion product behavior in Hanford N Reactor primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The levels and composition of filterable corrosion products in the Hanford N Reactor Primary Loop are measurable by filtration. The suspended crud level has ranged from 0.0005 ppM to 6.482 ppM with a median 0.050 ppM. The composition approximates magnetite. The particle size distribution has been found in 31 cases to be uniformly a log normal distribution with a count median ranging from 1.10 to 2.31 microns with a median of 1.81 microns, and the geometric standard deviation ranging from 1.60 to 2.34 with a median of 1.84. An auto-correcting inline turbidimeter was found to respond to linearly to suspended crud levels over a range 0.05 to at least 6.5 ppM by direct comparison with filter sample weights. Cause of crud bursts in the primary loop were found to be power decreases. The crud transients associated with a reactor power drop, several reactor shutdowns, and several reactor startups could be modeled consistently with each other using a simple stirred-tank, first order exchange model of particulate between makeup, coolant, letdown, and loosely adherent crud on pipe walls. Over 3/10 of the average steady running particulate crud level could be accounted for by magnetically filterable particulate in the makeup feed. A simulation model of particulate transport has been coded in FORTRAN

  5. High temperature corrosion in the thermochemical hydrogen production from nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen-Porisini, F.; Imarisio, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the production of hydrogen by water decomposition utilizing nuclear heat, a multistep process has to be employed. Water and the intermediate chemical products reach in chemical cycles giving hydrogen and oxygen with regeneration of the primary products used. Three cycles are examined, characterized by the presence of halide compounds and particularly hydracids at temperatures up to 800 0 C. Corrosion tests were carried out in hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, ferric chloride solutions, and hydriodic acid

  6. Corrosion/95 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The papers in this conference represent the latest technological advances in corrosion control and prevention. The following subject areas are covered: cathodic protection in natural waters; materials for fossil fuel combustion and conversion systems; modern problems in atmospheric corrosion; innovative ideas for controlling the decaying infrastructure; deposits and their effects on corrosion in industry; volatile high temperature and non aqueous corrosion inhibitors; corrosion of light-weight and precoated metals for automotive application; refining industry corrosion; corrosion in pulp and paper industry; arctic/cold weather corrosion; materials selection for waste incinerators and associated equipment; corrosion measurement technology; environmental cracking of materials; advancing technology in the coating industry; corrosion in gas treating; green inhibition; recent advances in corrosion control of rail equipment; velocity effects and erosion corrosion in oil and gas production; marine corrosion; corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; underground corrosion control; corrosion in potable and industrial water systems in buildings and its impact on environmental compliance; deposit related boiler tube failures; boiler systems monitoring and control; recent developments and experiences in reactive metals; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion and corrosion control for steel reinforced concrete; international symposium on the use of 12 and 13 Cr stainless steels in oil and gas production environments; subsea corrosion /erosion monitoring in production facilities; fiberglass reinforced pipe and tubulars in oilfield service; corrosion control technology in power transmission and distribution; mechanisms and methods of scale and deposit control; closing the loop -- results oriented cooling system monitoring and control; and minimization of aqueous discharge

  7. Steel corrosion products solubility under conditions simulating various water chemistry parameters in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodov, A.A.; Kritskij, V.G.; Zarembo, V.I.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    To simulate construction material corrosion product mass transfer model in power plant circuits calculation of iron oxide and hydroxide solubility, depending on water chemistry parameters: temperature, pH-value, content of dissolved in water hydrogen and oxygen, is carried out

  8. PRODUCTION OF POROUS POWDER MATERIALS OF SPHERICAL POWDERS OF CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevskij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of porous powder materials from spherical powders of corrosion-resistant steel 12Х18н10Т with formation at low pressures 120–140 mpa in the mold with the subsequent activated sintering became possible due to increase of duration of process of spattering and formation of condensate particles (Si–C or (Mo–Si on surface.

  9. Sulfide Production and Corrosion in Seawater During Exposure to FAME Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    transporting fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ] alternative diesel fuel in contact with natural seawater under anaerobic conditions. Coastal Key West...Glycerol Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Exposure Chamber Anaerobic Chamber - bal. N2,10% H2, 0.1% C02 - maintain pH ~8 Polarization Resistance (Rp...and Corrosion in Seawater During Exposure to FAME Alternative Fuel Jason 5. Lee Richard I. Ray BrendaJ. Little Naval Research Laboratory Stennis

  10. Siderite as a Corrosion Product on Archaeological Iron from a Waterlogged Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, H.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of siderite (FeCO3) on iron artifacts excavated from the waterlogged peat and gyttja sediment of the Danish Iron Age site Nydam Mose. Siderite was identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron...... microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), which showed only minor contents of other minerals in the corrosion scales. The implications of the formation of siderite as a corrosion product are discussed in terms of its possible passivating properties and thermodynamic stability in situ...

  11. OPTIMIZATION METHODS IN TRANSPORTATION OF FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Gümüş

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has total of 21.2 million ha (27 % forest land. In this area, average 9 million m3 of logs and 5 million stere of fuel wood have been annually produced by the government forest enterprises. The total annual production is approximately 13million m3 Considering the fact that the costs of transporting forest products was about . 160 million TL in the year of 2006, the importance of optimizing the total costs in transportation can be better understood. Today, there is not common optimization method used at whole transportation problems. However, the decision makers select the most appropriate methods according to their aims.Comprehending of features and capacity of optimization methods is important for selecting of the most appropriate method. The evaluation of optimization methods that can be used at forest products transportation is aimed in this study.

  12. Corrosion of ferritic steels by molten lithium: Influence of competing thermal gradient mass transfer and surface product reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1987-10-01

    An Fe-12Cr-1MoVW steel was exposed to thermally convective lithium for 6962 h. Results showed that the weight change profile of Fe-12Cr-1MoVW steel changed substantially as the maximum loop temperature was raised from 500 to 600 0 C. Furthermore, for a particular loop experiment, changes in the structure and composition of the exposed surfaces did not reflect typical thermal gradient mass transfer effects for all elements: the surface concentration of chromium was often a maximum at intermediate temperatures, while nickel (present at low concentrations in the starting material) tended to be transported to the coldest part of the loop. Such data were interpreted in terms of a qualitative model in which there are different dominant reactions or the various constituents of the ferritic steels (surface product formation involving nitrogen and/or carbon and solubility-driven elemental transport). This competition among different reactions is important in evaluating overall corrosion behavior and the effects of temperature. The overall corrosion rate of the 12Cr-1MoVW steel was relatively low when compared to that for austenitic stainless steel exposed under similar conditions

  13. Semiquantitative analysis of corrosion products in iron channel by the X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.R.E.; Varela, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion in the us very important in the slag line region, but in others regions over and above this line there is a corrosion process still important. We have made a detailed mapping of phases present in seven different regions in the iron channel in three distinct positions. After the phases identifications, it was made a deconvolution of the diffractograms using Gaussian functions. The analysis of the relative intensity of each phase gave an idea for a semi-quantitative analysis and we have proposed a mechanism of the refractory corrosion. It was observed that the calcium oxide migrates by diffusion to different regions originating low melting point products like pseudo-wolastonite, anorthite and guelenite. (author)

  14. Radioactive corrosion products in circuit of fast reactor loop with dissociating coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, V.M.; Katanaev, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation into depositions of radionuclides of corrosion origin on the surfaces of a reactor-in-pile loop facility with a dissociating coolant are presented. It is stated that the ratio of radionuclides in fixed depositions linearly decreases with decrease of the coolant temperature at the core-condenser section. The element composition of non-fixed compositions quantitatively and qualitatively differs from the composition of structural material, and it is more vividly displayed for the core-condenser section. The main mechanism of circuit contamination with radioactive corrosion products is substantiated: material corrosion in the zones of coolant phase transfer, their remove by the coolant in the core, deposition, activation and wash-out by the coolant from the core surfaces

  15. Characterization of corrosion products of Zn and Zn–Mg–Al coated steel in a marine atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diler, E.; Rouvellou, B.; Rioual, S.; Lescop, B.; Nguyen Vien, G.; Thierry, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The corrosion behaviour of Zn–Mg–Al alloy in marine environment is characterized. • Zn–Mg–Al alloy shows a better corrosion resistance than Zn. • Strong enhancement of NaZn 4 Cl(OH) 6 SO 4 ·6H 2 O in the corrosion products is observed. • Al 3+ and Mg 2+ induced quenching effects in corrosion activity are described. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviour of pure zinc and zinc–magnesium–aluminium alloy (ZMA) has been studied during 6 months of exposure in marine environment (Brest, France). The composition of corrosion products is analysed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An improved corrosion resistance of ZMA is observed. This improvement is found to be connected to Mg 2+ and Al 3+ induced quenching of corrosion activity and to the enhancement of NaZn 4 Cl(OH) 6 SO 4 ·6H 2 O in the formed corrosion product

  16. Brief description of out-of-pile test facilities for study in corrosion and fission product behaviour in flowing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizawa, K.; Sekiguchi, N.; Atsumo, H.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental methods to perform tests for study in corrosion and fission products behaviour in flowing sodium are outlined. Flow diagrams for the activated materials and fission products behaviour test loop are given

  17. Complementary Methods for the Characterization of Corrosion Products on a Plant-Exposed Superheater Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Nießen, Frank; Villa, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    In this work, complex corrosion products on a superheater tube exposed to biomass firing were characterized by the complementary use of energy-dispersive synchrotron diffraction, electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Non-destructive synchrotron diffraction in transmission......-rich austenite phase to selective removal of Fe and Cr from the alloy, via a KCl-induced corrosion mechanism. Compositional variations were related to diffraction results and revealed a qualitative influence of the spinel cation concentration on the observed diffraction lines.......In this work, complex corrosion products on a superheater tube exposed to biomass firing were characterized by the complementary use of energy-dispersive synchrotron diffraction, electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Non-destructive synchrotron diffraction in transmission...... geometry measuring with a small gauge volume from the sample surface through the corrosion product allowed depth-resolved phase identification and revealed the presence of (Fe,Cr)2O3 and FeCr2O4. This was supplemented by microstructural and elemental analysis correlating the additional presence of a Ni...

  18. Catalysis of copper corrosion products on chlorine decay and HAA formation in simulated distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Andrews, Susan A

    2012-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of copper corrosion products, including Cu(II), Cu(2)O, CuO and Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3), on chlorine degradation, HAA formation, and HAA speciation under controlled experimental conditions. Chlorine decay and HAA formation were significantly enhanced in the presence of copper with the extent of copper catalysis being affected by the solution pH and the concentration of copper corrosion products. Accelerated chlorine decay and increased HAA formation were observed at pH 8.6 in the presence of 1.0 mg/L Cu(II) compared with that observed at pH 6.6 and pH 7.6. Further investigation of chlorine decay in the presence of both Suwannee River NOM and Cu(II) indicated that an increased reactivity of NOM with dissolved and/or solid surface-associated Cu(II), rather than chlorine auto-decomposition, was a primary reason for the observed rapid chlorine decay. Copper corrosion solids [Cu(2)O, CuO, Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3)] exhibited catalytic effects on both chlorine decay and HAA formation. Contrary to the results observed when in the absence of copper corrosion products, DCAA formation was consistently predominant over other HAA species in the presence of copper corrosion products, especially at neutral and high pH. This study improves the understanding for water utilities and households regarding chlorine residuals and HAA concentrations in distribution systems, in particular once the water reaches domestic plumbing where copper is widely used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent improvements in the filtration of corrosion products in high temperature water and application to reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.; Dolle, L.; Chenouard, J.; Laylavoix, F.

    1977-01-01

    The nature and physico-chemical behavior of corrosion products released by structural materials into high temperature water flowing in power reactor circuits have been investigated in test loops and different power plants. The results improve more particularly the knowledge of probable rate constants governing their disappearance through deposition of crud on the fuel cladding. It appears that a considerable limitation of radioactivity transportation in the primary circuit components of pressurized water reactors is in a general way only possible through extraction of the corrosion products by filtration at a rate adequate to minimize the amount of crud deposited in the core. This extraction rate has been estimated; its magnitude implicates a filtration operating on the high temperature water in the primary circuit which allows the necessary high flows. The application of magnetic and electromagnetic so as deep granular graphite bed filters has been studied. The results concerning efficiencies and limiting yields at high temperatures are given. Estimates concerning technological feasibility and corresponding investments are discussed

  20. Radiation hazards due to activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products on the surfaces of components in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding systems can cause significant personnel access problems. Remote maintenance techniques or special treatment may be required to limit the amount of radiation exposure to plant operational and maintenance personnel. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to estimate the transport of this activated material throughout a fusion heat transfer and/or tritium breeding material loop. A method is devised which treats the components of the loop individually and determines the source rates, deposition and erosion rates, decay rates, and purification rates of these radioactive materials. RAPTOR has been applied to the MARS and Starfire conceptual reactor designs to determine the degree of the possible radiation hazard due to these products. Due to the very high corrosion release rate by HT-9 when exposed to LiPb in the MARS reactor design, the radiation fields surrounding the primary system will preclude direct contact maintenance even after shutdown. Even the removal of the radioactive LiPb from the system will not decrease the radiation fields to reasonable levels. The Starfire primary system will exhibit radiation fields similar to those found in present pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  1. 75 FR 55769 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Certain Corrosion-Resistant...) is conducting the sixteenth administrative review of the antidumping order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea (Korea).\\1\\ This review covers eight...

  2. 78 FR 59652 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Certain Corrosion-Resistant... corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (``CORE'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), pursuant... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on CORE from Korea covering the period of review (``POR'') of...

  3. 78 FR 55057 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea (Korea), covering the period [[Page 55058...

  4. 78 FR 16247 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea; Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea (Korea).\\1\\ This review covers seven manufacturers...

  5. 76 FR 69703 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea, covering the period August 1, 2009, to July 31, 2010. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  6. 77 FR 14501 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Certain Corrosion-Resistant... the preliminary results of the antidumping duty administrative review for certain corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea (Korea).\\1\\ This review covers eight...

  7. 76 FR 77775 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... results of the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from the Republic of Korea covering the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009...

  8. 77 FR 54891 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Certain Corrosion-Resistant...) is conducting the 18th administrative review of the antidumping order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea \\1\\ (Korea). This review covers seven...

  9. 76 FR 4291 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-818] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on corrosion- resistant carbon steel flat products from the Republic of Korea covering the period January 1, 2009, through...

  10. 78 FR 59651 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Certain Corrosion-Resistant... duty order on certain corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (``CORE'') from the Republic of... covering the period of review (``POR'') of August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2007, with respect to the...

  11. 76 FR 55004 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Certain Corrosion-Resistant...) is conducting the seventeenth administrative review of the antidumping order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea \\1\\ (Korea). This review covers eight...

  12. 75 FR 77615 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-816] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea, covering the period August 1, 2008, to July 31, 2009. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  13. Aerosols and fission product transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaw, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    A survey is presented of current knowledge of the possible role of aerosols in the consequences of in- and out-of-core LOCAs and of end fitting failures in CANDU reactors. An extensive literature search has been made of research on the behaviour of aerosols in possible accidents in water moderated and cooled reactors and the results of various studies compared. It is recommended that further work should be undertaken on the formation of aerosols during these possible accidents and to study their subsequent behaviour. It is also recommended that the fission products behaviour computer code FISSCON II should be re-examined to determine whether it reflects the advances incorporated in other codes developed for light water reactors which have been extensively compared. 47 refs

  14. The external beam facility used to characterize corrosion products in metallic statuettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Added, N.; Barbosa, M.D.L.; Curado, J.F.; Santos, W.A.; Lima, S.C.; Melo, H.G.; Neiva, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    To open new possibilities in nuclear applied physics research, mainly for the analysis of art objects in air, an external beam facility was installed at LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos) of University of Sao Paulo. PIXE measurements were made using an XR-100CR (Si-PIN) X-ray detector pointed to the sample mounted after an approximate 11 mm air path, hence with effective beam energy of 0.9 MeV. This setup was used to characterize the corrosion products of two ethnological metallic statuettes from the African collection of the Museum of Archaeology and Etnology. PIXE analysis of the corrosion free base of one statuette showed that Cu and Zn are the main components of the alloy, while Pb is present in smaller amount. The analysis of some corrosion products showed a Zn:Cu relationship higher than that of the base, evidencing selective corrosion. The main components of the other statuette were Cu and Pb, while S and Zn were found in smaller amounts

  15. REACTION PRODUCTS AND CORROSION OF MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODE IN GLASS MELT CONTAINING ANTIMONY OXIDES AND SODIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ MATĚJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The products on the interface of a molybdenum electrode and glass melt were investigated primarily at 1400°C in three model glass melts without ingredients, with 1 % Sb2O3 and with 1 % Sb2O3 and 0.5 % SO3 (wt. %, both under and without load by alternating current. Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide. Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. The composition of sulfide layers formed at 1400°C approximates that of Mo2S3. At 1100°C, the sulfide composition approximates that of MoS4. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles. Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.

  16. Release of corrosion products from construction materials containing cobalt. Pt.2: Inconel X750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, I.

    1978-02-01

    This report describes experimental work aimed at determining the release rate for corrosion products from 18Cr8Ni steel and Inconel X750 in BWR environments. For test purposes these environments were simulated in a high pressure loop, where irradiated samples of the materials were exposed for 720 hours. The amounts of released products were determined using gamma spectrometric analysis. The results show that the release from Inconel X750 is higher than that from 18Cr8Ni steel. The release calculated from Co58 measurements is 7 times higher and from Co60 measurements it is 1.5 times higher. Both the filtered and the deposited fractions of the released corrosion products exhibit the same relative concentrations of Co58 and Co60. (author)

  17. The Moessbauer spectroscopy in the characterization of atmospheric corrosion products; La espectroscopia Moessbauer en la caracterizacion de productos de corrosion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Torres, D; Leiva Ronda, P [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana (Cuba); Gomez, J; Ronda, M [Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    A study of corrosion products on mild steel formed after 1 and 5 years exposure in two industrial coastal weathering stations in the Bay from Matanzas City, Cuba, has been carried out. Structural analysis was conducted using mainly transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction as complementary technique. The main phases found in the specimen exposed to high chloride containing environment were: lepidocrocite ({gamma}- FeOOH), goethite ({alpha}- FeOOH) and magnetite concentration was the lowest, the phases found were {gamma}- FeOOH and {alpha}- FeOOH, and the phase transformation proposed was {gamma}- FeOOh -> {alpha}- Fe-OOH. In this station were found also amorphous corrosion products. There amorphous phases could be responsible for the lowest levels of corrosion on steel in this station.

  18. Mechanical properties of layers of corrosion products at steel / concrete interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehoux, Anita

    2012-01-01

    To take account of the development of corrosion products layers in residual lifetime calculations of reinforced concrete structures requires a good knowledge of the mechanical properties of these products. Our study aims to determine the mechanical properties of layers of corrosion products. The approach consists of an identification of the microstructure properties complemented by homogenization calculations to calculate a mesoscopic behavior in linear elasticity of layers of corrosion products. The study includes a series of experimental campaigns at the microscopic scale. Vickers micro indentation tests analyzed by a Gaussian mixture model approach allowed the acquisition of hardness and elastic moduli at the microscale. An identification of the microstructure products is performed by Raman microspectrometry. The microstructure's characterization brings valuable information for homogenization calculations. The first approach has consisted of calculations of random media homogenization by self-consistent and generalized self-consistent schemes. In the second approach, effective modulus calculations were performed using numerical microstructures resulting from 2D images taken with an optical microscope. The corpus is composed of samples of different ages and origins, their microstructures were compared. (author) [fr

  19. The effect of sulphide and moisture content on steel corrosion during transport of fine wet coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Vorster, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation the influence of compaction pressure (stress) on the corrosivity of wet coal was investigated. Two coal samples, one high in sulphur content (3 %) and the other low in sulphur content (0.6 %) were used to determine the influence of compaction stress on the corrosion rates of steel samples in contact with compacted coal. It was found that the pressure exerted on finely divided wet coal is an important factor in determining its water content and corrosivity towards mild steel. Corrosion of the steel was typically in the form of pitting and the sulphur content of the coal was an important factor in determining the corrosivity of the coal. The corrosion rate of the high sulphur content coal was higher than that of the low sulphur coal. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that a FeS species developed on the steel surface.

  20. Major activated corrosion products cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingxia

    2012-01-01

    The production of the major activated corrosion products such as cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants and the impacts on the increase of the dose rates caused by these corrosion products during the shutdown are described in the paper. Investigating the corrosion product behavior during the operation and shutdown periods aims at detecting the appearance of these radiological pollutants in the early time and searching relevant solutions that may enable eventually to decrease the dose rate. The solutions may include: Replacing critical material in the primary system's equipment and components, which contact with primary coolant circuit to possibly limit the source term, Elaborating strictly the specific chemical and shutdown procedure to optimize the purification capacity and to minimize the over-contaminations; Improving purification techniques according to the real operation circumstance, and limiting the impacts of these pollutants. It is obvious in the real practices that implementing appropriate solution will be benefit to decrease or limit the pollutants species like cobalt, silver and antimony. (author)

  1. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  2. Storage of spent fuels: implementation of a research program on the risk of waste container rupture due to stress corrosion induced by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, M.; Walle, E.; Foct, J.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: research programm on stress corrosion of spent fuel casks materials due to fission products, such as iodine, chemical interactions with zirconium, chemical aspects of stress corrosion, rupture risk assessment

  3. Mass transfer of corrosion products in high temperature, high pressure water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodd, J.T.; Nicholson, F.D.

    1976-01-01

    The CWL-3 loop is used to study the mass transfer of corrosion products in water at 270 0 C for pressures up to 6.9 MPa. Two parallel Zircaloy-2 test sections are heated directly by a low voltage a.c. electrical current to give a heat flux up to 500 W cm -2 and a heat rating up to 1500 W cm -1 . Coolant flow rates can be varied up to 0.4 kg cm -2 s -1 with or without boiling. A tracer technique has been developed to monitor continuously the deposition of corrosion products in the test sections during operation of the loop. Magnetite deposits 2.6 nm thick can be readily detected. (author)

  4. The Behavior of Corrosion Products in Sampling Systems under Boiling Water Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter

    1977-08-15

    A high pressure loop has been used to simulate sampling systems employed under BWR conditions. The reliability of the sampling method was studied in a series of six test runs. A variety of parameters that are thought to influence the reliability of the sampling was investigated. These included piping geometry, water oxygen content, flow, temperature and temperature gradients. Amongst other things the results indicate that the loss by deposition of iron containing corrosion products does not exceed 50 %; this figure is only influenced to a minor extent by the above mentioned parameters. The major part of the corrosion products thus deposited is found along the first few meters of the piping and cooler coil. A moderate prolongation of a pipe which is already relatively long should thus be incapable of producing a major influence on the sampling error

  5. Corrosion of metal iron in contact with anoxic clay at 90 °C: Characterization of the corrosion products after two years of interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Michel L.; Bataillon, Christian; Brucker, Florence; Blanc, Cécile; Prêt, Dimitri; Foy, Eddy; Chorro, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Generalized, heterogeneous corrosion is observed. • The corrosion interface is made of several layers with distinct mineralogy. • Magnetite, chukanovite, Fe-phyllosilicate, ankerite are identified from metal to clay. • The estimated corrosion damage (15 μm in two years) supports surface passivation. • The corrosion products contain only half of oxidized Fe. - Abstract: Chemical and mineralogical properties of solids formed upon free corrosion of two iron probes (one massive iron rod, and one model overpack made by two pipes covering the ends of a glass rod) in saturated clay rock (Callovo-Oxfordian formation, East of Paris Basin, France) at 90 °C over two years were investigated by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (X-ray tomography, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman microspectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction, and micro-X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy). The corrosion rate of the massive rod was monitored in situ by electrochemical impedance spectrometry, and found to decrease from about 90 μm/year during the first month of reaction, to less than 1 μm/year after two years. X-ray tomography revealed the presence of several fractures suggesting the presence of preferential flow and diffusion pathways along the iron samples. Microscopic observations revealed similar corrosion interfaces for both samples. Corrosion heterogeneously affected the interface, with damaged thickness from ∼0 to 80 μm. In extensively damaged areas, an inner discontinuous layer of magnetite in contact with metal, an intermediate chukanovite (Fe 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ) layer (only when magnetite is present, and only for the overpack), and an outer layer of poorly ordered Fe phyllosilicate were observed. In areas with little damage, only the Fe-silicate solids are observed. The clay transformation layer is predominantly made of ankerite ((Fe,Ca,Mg)CO 3 ) forming a massive unit near the trace of the original

  6. Enhanced corrosion resistance of stainless steel type 316 in sulphuric acid solution using eco-friendly waste product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, O.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Fayomi, O. S. I.

    2018-06-01

    Literature has shown that different organic compounds are effective corrosion inhibitors for metal in acidic environments. Such compounds usually contain oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur and function through adsorption on the metal surface, thereby creating a barrier for corrosion attack. Unfortunately, these organic compounds are toxic, scarce and expensive. Therefore, plants, natural product and natural oils have been posed as cheap, environmentally acceptable, abundant, readily available and effective molecules having low environmental impact. The corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel Type 316 in the presence of eco-friendly waste product was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques in 0.5 M H2SO4. The corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the steel was significantly altered by the studied inhibitor. Results show that increase in concentration of the inhibitor hinders the formation of the passive film. Experimental observation shows that its pitting potential depends on the concentration of the inhibitor in the acid solution due to adsorption of anions at the metal film interface. The presence of egg shell powder had a strong influence on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel Type 316 with highest inhibition efficiency of 94.74% from weight loss analysis, this is as a result of electrochemical action and inhibition of the steel by the ionized molecules of the inhibiting compound which influenced the mechanism of the redox reactions responsible for corrosion and surface deterioration. Inhibitor adsorption fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The two methods employed for the corrosion assessment were in good agreement.

  7. Mini-review: The Morphology, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Accumulated Iron Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-11

    including the morphology, mineralogy , microbiology and the mecha- nisms for formation. Use of descriptive terms to denote specific iron corrosion product...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-03-2014 Journal Article Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of...oxides/ hydroxides with a preponderance of α-FeOOH (goethite) and accumulation of metals. Bacteria, particularly iron-oxidizing and sulfatereducing

  8. X-ray diffraction study of slags forming during corrosion resistant steel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, V.N.; Shurygina, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Using X-ray diffraction analysis slags, forming during corrosion-resistant 12Kh18N10T grade steel production by two flowsheets, are studied. Standard two-slag technology of steel production does not provide efficient disintegration of chromospinelides in slags, gives high steel contamination with respect to nonmetallic impurities, coarse structure and, as a consequence, presence of macrodefects on rolled products surface. One-slag steel melting technology with titanium alloying of the steel at vacuum causes fast removal of chromospinelides at the beginning of reduction period, promotes titanium absorption by the steel, refines nonmetallic inclusions, provides more fine structure and steel plasticity, removes surface defects

  9. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Luxton, Todd P; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

    2013-05-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) will require some U.S. drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) to monitor nonradioactive strontium (Sr(2+)) in drinking water in 2013. Iron corrosion products from four DWDS were examined to assess the potential for Sr(2+) binding and release. Average Sr(2+) concentrations in the outermost layer of the corrosion products ranged from 3 to 54 mg kg(-1) and the Sr(2+) drinking water concentrations were all ≤0.3 mg L(-1). Micro-X-ray adsorption near edge structure spectroscopy and linear combination fitting determined that Sr(2+) was principally associated with CaCO3. Sr(2+) was also detected as a surface complex associated with α-FeOOH. Iron particulates deposited on a filter inside a home had an average Sr(2+) concentration of 40.3 mg kg(-1) and the associated drinking water at a tap was 210 μg L(-1). The data suggest that elevated Sr(2+) concentrations may be associated with iron corrosion products that, if disturbed, could increase Sr(2+) concentrations above the 0.3 μg L(-1) US EPA reporting threshold. Disassociation of very small particulates could result in drinking water Sr(2+) concentrations that exceed the US EPA health reference limit (4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight).

  10. Deposition and incorporation of corrosion product to primary coolant suppressing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Naoyoshi; Fujioka, Tsunaaki.

    1992-01-01

    In a PWR type nuclear power plant, the concentration of dissolved nitrogen in primary coolants is increased by controlling the nitrogen partial pressure in a volume controlling tank gas phase portion or addition of water in a primary system water supply tank containing dissolved nitrogen to a primary system. Then ammonium is formed by a reaction with hydrogen dissolved in the primary coolants in the field of radiation rays, to control the concentration of ammonium in the coolants within a range from 0.5 to 3.5 ppm, and operate the power plant. As a result, deposition and incorporation of corrosion products to the structural materials of the primary system equipments during plant operation (pH 6.8 to 8.0) are suppressed. In other words, deposition of particulate corrosion products on the surface of fuel cladding tubes and the inner surface of pipelines in the primary system main equipments is prevented and incorporation of ionic radioactive corrosion products to the oxide membranes on the inner surface of the pipelines of the primary system main equipments is suppressed, to greatly reduce the radiation dose rate of the primary system pipelines. Thus, operator's radiation exposure can be decreased upon shut down of the plant. (N.H.)

  11. A Moessbauer and Electrochemical Characterization of the Corrosion Products Formed from Marine and Marine-Antartic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Caraballo, R.; Dalchiele, E. A.; Quagliata, E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria (Uruguay)

    2003-06-15

    Corrosion products formed on low alloy steel under two marine environments are characterised. Both environments are classified as C4 according to the ISO 9223 Standard. The corrosion products are identified and their relative proportion is determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy (transmission geometry). Free potentials of corrosion are measured to evaluate the activity of their surfaces. Structural characterisation by XRD were performed on selected samples. It is concluded that the principal phases are goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihidrite and maghemite. The relative amount of each of them changes with time and with the atmospheric dynamics of each environment.

  12. A Moessbauer and Electrochemical Characterization of the Corrosion Products Formed from Marine and Marine-Antartic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanian, M.; Caraballo, R.; Dalchiele, E. A.; Quagliata, E.

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion products formed on low alloy steel under two marine environments are characterised. Both environments are classified as C4 according to the ISO 9223 Standard. The corrosion products are identified and their relative proportion is determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy (transmission geometry). Free potentials of corrosion are measured to evaluate the activity of their surfaces. Structural characterisation by XRD were performed on selected samples. It is concluded that the principal phases are goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihidrite and maghemite. The relative amount of each of them changes with time and with the atmospheric dynamics of each environment.

  13. DPC materials and corrosion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Bryan, Charles R.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    After an exposition of the materials used in DPCs and the factors controlling material corrosion in disposal environments, a survey is given of the corrosion rates, mechanisms, and products for commonly used stainless steels. Research needs are then identified for predicting stability of DPC materials in disposal environments. Stainless steel corrosion rates may be low enough to sustain DPC basket structural integrity for performance periods of as long as 10,000 years, especially in reducing conditions. Uncertainties include basket component design, disposal environment conditions, and the in-package chemical environment including any localized effects from radiolysis. Prospective disposal overpack materials exist for most disposal environments, including both corrosion allowance and corrosion resistant materials. Whereas the behavior of corrosion allowance materials is understood for a wide range of corrosion environments, demonstrating corrosion resistance could be more technically challenging and require environment-specific testing. A preliminary screening of the existing inventory of DPCs and other types of canisters is described, according to the type of closure, whether they can be readily transported, and what types of materials are used in basket construction.

  14. Development of experimental method to simulate the corrosion products in the primary system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, In Sup; Jang, Chang Heui

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion products are recognized as one of the major sources of occupational radiation exposure for nuclear power plant workers. Numerous studies have been conducted on the primary water chemistry to reduce the amount of crud in the primary circuit to avoid the radioactivity build-up in the plant. However, experiments with crud are restricted in laboratory because the crud is highly radioactive material. The objective of this study is to develop the simulating method of corrosion product in nuclear power plant

  15. Testing and prediction of erosion-corrosion for corrosion resistant alloys used in the oil and gas production industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Hernan E.

    The corrosion behavior of CRAs has been thoroughly investigated and documented in the public literature by many researchers; however, little work has been done to investigate erosion-corrosion of such alloys. When sand particles are entrained in the flow, the degradation mechanism is different from that observed for sand-free corrosive environment. There is a need in the oil and gas industry to define safe service limits for utilization of such materials. The effects of flow conditions, sand rate, pH and temperature on the erosion-corrosion of CRAs were widely studied. An extensive experimental work was conducted using scratch tests and flow loop tests using several experimental techniques. At high erosivity conditions, a synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion was observed. Under the high sand rate conditions tested, erosivity is severe enough to damage the passive layer protecting the CRA thereby enhancing the corrosion rate. In most cases there is likely a competition between the rates of protective film removal due to mechanical erosion and protective film healing. Synergism occurs for each of the three alloys examined (13Cr and Super13Cr and 22Cr); however, the degree of synergism is quite different for the three alloys and may not be significant for 22Cr for field conditions where erosivities are typically much lower that those occurring in the small bore loop used in this research. Predictions of the corrosion component of erosion-corrosion based on scratch test data compared reasonably well to test results from flow loops for the three CRAs at high erosivity conditions. Second order behavior appears to be an appropriate and useful model for representing the repassivation process of CRAs. A framework for a procedure to predict penetration rates for erosion-corrosion conditions was developed based on the second order model behavior observed for the re-healing process of the passive film of CRAs and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations

  16. Corrosion products behavior and source term reduction : guidelines and feedback for EDF PWRs, concerning the B/Li coordinations and steam generators replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taunier, S.; Wintergerst, M.; De Bouvier, O.; Pokor, C.; Carrette, F.; Toivonen, A.; Ranchoux, G.; Bretelle, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The release of corrosion products by the various components of the primary system into the cooling water may induce some issues on reactor control and on radiation dose rates. Heavy crud deposits may occur on the fuel clad surface and lead to axial offset anomalies (AOA) and in extreme cases, to fuel failures. This deposition phenomenon is apparently associated with steam generator (SG) materials, water chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fuel cleaning or reactor operation history. Moreover, under intense neutron flux, these corrosion products are activated and their dissolution and deposition in the primary system may further increase the out-of-core radioactive contamination and result in radiation dose rates. Several ways are available to reduce the amount and transportation of corrosion products in the primary coolant. A first approach is related to the materials used in the primary system. As one of the main contributors to the release of corrosion products, the Ni-alloy used for the steam generators (SG) tubes has to be properly selected, manufactured and 'passivated'. The paper presents the recent feedback regarding the primary coolant chemistry and radiochemistry after Steam Generators Replacements (SGR). The modified startup procedure of the plant after SGR is also described, as well as its potential benefits on the primary coolant behavior. A second approach is to optimize the primary water chemistry to reduce the release and the transport of the corrosion products through the pH control. This kind of control is important, since higher fuel enrichments are currently used in our reactors, in order to get longer production cycles through higher burn-ups. To ensure the core reactivity control in the PWRs, the concentration of boric acid is increased in the primary water at the beginning of cycle (BOC). As a consequence, the resulting lower pH can induce a higher release of corrosion products from the steam generators. That is why, to keep an almost

  17. The study of the corrosion protection of the low-carbon steel using film-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiancului, L.; Millet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports studies on the efficiency of the film-inhibitors that covered low-carbon steel placed in a humid medium, and also, the optimization of the working conditions to improve the resistance to corrosion. The analyzes were done in the Industrial Physical - Chemical Laboratories of INSA - Lyon by electrochemical stationary techniques. The experimental device was a potentiometer of type EGG PAR (Princeton Applied Research). It was connected with a computer and three potential electrodes introduced in a cell with NaCl 30 g/l solution to acquire the data and to process the information. The film-products used were organic hydrosoluble polymers with diphosphonic 'heads' that permit a very good absorption at the metallic surface. This research is used to protect the installations of low-carbon steel against the atmospheric and high temperature corrosion. (authors)

  18. Kinetics of corrosion products release from nickel-base alloys corroding in primary water conditions. A new modeling of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, F.; Guinard, L.; Pieraggi, B.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity in the primary circuit arises mainly from the activation of corrosion products in the core of pressurised water reactors; corrosion products dissolve from the oxide scales developed on steam generator tubes of alloy 690. The controlling and modelling of this process require a detailed knowledge of the microstructure and chemical composition of oxide scales as well as the kinetics of their corrosion and dissolution. Alloy 690 was studied as tubes and sheets, with three various surface states (as-received, cold-worked, electropolished). Corrosion tests were performed at 325 C and 155 bar in primary water conditions (B/Li - 1000/2 ppm, [H 2 ] 30 cm 3 .kg -1 TPN, [O 2 ] < 5 ppb); test durations ranged between 24 and 2160 hours. Corrosion tests in the TITANE loop provided mainly corrosion and oxidation kinetics, and tests in the BOREAL loop yielded release kinetics. This study revealed asymptotic type kinetics. Characterisation of the oxide scales grown in representative conditions of the primary circuit was performed by several techniques (SEM, TEM, SIMS, XPS, GIXRD). These analyses revealed the essential role of the fine grained cold-worked scale present on as-received and cold-worked materials. This scale controls the corrosion and release phenomena. The kinetic study and the characterisation of the oxide scales contributed to the modelling of the corrosion/release process. A growth/dissolution model was proposed for corrosion product scales grown in non-saturated dynamic fluid. This model provided the temporal evolution of oxide scales and release kinetics for different species (Fe, Ni, Cr). The model was validated for several surface states and several alloys. (authors)

  19. Gas-phase transport of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.N.; Munkelwitz, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation to show the importance of nuclear aerosol formation as a mechanism for semi-volatile fission product transport under certain postulated HTGR accident conditions. Simulated fission product Sr and Ba as oxides are impregnated in H451 graphite and released at elevated temperatures into a dry helium flow. In the presence of graphite, the oxides are quantitatively reduced to metals, which subsequently vaporize at temperatures much lower than required for the oxides alone to vaporize in the absence of graphite. A substantial fraction of the released material is associated with particulate matter, which is collected on filters located downstream at ambient temperatures. Increasing carrier-gas flow rate greatly enhances the extent of particulate transport. The release and transport of simulated fission product Ag as metal are also investigated. Electron microscopic examinations of the collected Sr and Ag aerosols show large agglomerates composed of primary particles roughly 0.06 to 0.08 μm in diameter

  20. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  1. Reduction of corrosion products in water coolant - basic way of increase in efficiency and improvement of ecological safety of NPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion of oxidated steel in water with additives of inhibitors or oxygen was considered. It is shown that preliminary oxidation of steel makes possible declining concentration of inhibitors or oxygen. Experiments demonstrate possibilities of the neutral-oxygen water regime for supply of the effective protection. Corrosion resistance of steel may be increased in many times through correct aqua-chemical regimes. Also concentration of corrosion products may be decreased in many times in coolant and their activation in neutron flux of nuclear reactor, amount of radioisotopes [ru

  2. Steamgenerators corrosion monitoring and chemical cleanings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otchenashev, G.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important secondary side water chemistry objectives is optimization of chemistry conditions to reduce materials corrosion and their products transport into steam generators. Corrosion products (mainly iron and copper oxides) can form deposits on the SG's tubes and essentially decrease their operating resource. The transport of corrosion products by the constant flowrate of feed and blowdown water depends only on their content in these streams. All the internal surfaces (walls, collectors, tubes) were covered with the tough deposit firmly connected with the surface. Corrosion under this deposit was not detected. In some places sludge unconnected with the surface was detected. The lower tubes are located the more unconnected sludge was detected. On SG bottom near the hatch the sludge thickness was about 3 cm. (R.P.)

  3. Corrosion testing on crude oil tankers and other product carriers by means of acoustic emission (AE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Gerald [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria); Tscheliesnig, Peter [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades a lot of maritime disasters with crude oil tankers occurred (e.g. Exxon- Valdez, Erika, Prestige). Every accident led to extreme pollution with horrible consequences not only for the environment but also for the life of the inhabitants of the affected coasts. Although most of these accidents were caused by human errors, the material degradation of the ship hull due to corrosion played an important role. Acoustic emission (AE) is already used to detect and discriminate the stage of corrosion of structures located on land. A consortium consisting of experienced partners from the fields of ship building and classification as well as from AE testing and equipment manufacturing started to investigate the feasibility of this testing technique for its application on oil tankers. The aim of the research project funded by the European Commission is to develop an on-line corrosion monitoring technique based on a permanent installation of AE sensors as well as a spot testing technique during stops in harbors or at anchorages using mobile equipment. Since the project was started, a lot of lab tests as well as background measurements were done on different types of tankers up to a size of 35.000 dead weight tons (DWT). The gathered data were evaluated with a frequency domain based pattern recognition system and it was possible to distinguish the AE signals related to corrosion from those signals, which were emitted by the structure due to the harsh environment on sea (background noise). Together with the oncoming developments of the AE equipment and the improvement of the data base, this project will lead to an important breakthrough for the safe shipping of hazardous products like crude oil. (authors)

  4. Phase analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, J.; Yee M, H.; Maldonado M, H.; Nunez, L.; Reguera, E.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays carbon steel continues being the most widely used metallic material in marine and coastal buildings. The economic losses, due to corrosion processes, of those countries with important industrial and social activities in coastal regions are highly significant. In this sense the evaluation of the corrosion process of carbon steel and other materials in seawater or in coastal zones is a primary task for protection methods or to predict the hfe of an specific installation. In this communication we present the phases analysis, using XRD and Moessbauer techniques, of corrosion products of a carbon steel (CT3, equivalent to AISI C1020) exposed in two natural corrosion stations in the Caribbean sea (Cuba). The exposition time run from days to 36 months and the evaluated rust are characteristic of samples totally immersed in seawater, from the splash zone and form coastal zones at different distance from the shoreline. Quantitative phase analysis shown presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), maghemite (y-Fe 2 O 3 ), akaganeite (B-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (y-FeOOH) and goethite (a-FeOOH) as iron bearing phases, and CaCO 3 (Calcite and aragonite), these last ones mainly in the immersed samples. Quantitative phase analysis by XRD was implemented as a linear combination of the patterns characteristic of all the detected phases and an appropriate model for the background. The quantitative results were used in kinetic models to understand the phase transformation between the iron oxides and oxy hydroxides in the studied conditions. The XRD qualitative and quantitative results were corroborated by Moessbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range of 20 to 300 K. (Author)

  5. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF 6 and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF 6 management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF 6 transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF 6 are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF 6 is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF 6 handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF 6 operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs

  6. The impact of corrosion on oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation and refinery activities

  7. Method of inhibiting concentration of radioactive corrosion products in cooling water or nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Jun-ichi; Hishida, Mamoru; Ishikura, Takeshi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the increase in the concentration of the radioactive corrosion products in cooling water, which increase is accompanied by the transference of the corrosion products activated and accumulated in the core due to dissolution and exfoliation into the core water, and inhibit the flowing of said products out of the core and the diffusion thereof into the cooling system, thereby to prevent the accumulation of said products in the cooling system and prevent radioactive contaminations. Method: In a nuclear power plant of a BWR type light water reactor, when the temperature of the pile water is t 0 C, hydrogen is injected in cooling water in a period of time from immediately before starting of the drive stopping operation of the nuclear power plant to immediately after the termination of restarting operation, whereby the concentration of hydrogen in the reactor water through said period is maintained at a value more than 2exp (0.013 t) cm 3 N.T.P./kg H 2 O. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. Filterability of corrosion products formed between carbon steel and water. Influence of temperature and oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelen, T.; Falk, I.

    1975-09-01

    A laboratory investigation has been made for the purpose of studying the influence of temperature and oxygen content on the filterability of corrosion products formed between carbon-steel and water. The experiments were performed in a high temperature loop where the water is initially heated in a pre-heater, then cooled and finally filtered. The corrosion products were transferred to thewater from a carbon-steel surface that had previously been neutron activated and the amount of iron present was determined from measurements of the γ-radiation emitted by Fe-59. Filterability was then computed as the ratio between the total amount of iron in the water phase and the amount of iron retained on the filter. The investigation covers a series of experiments at filtering temperatures of 20, 90 and 160 dec G, pre-heater temperatures up to 300 deg C and oxygen contents of 10 and 300 ppb O 2 . In addition the extent of iron deposition in the pre-heater and heat regulator has been determined after each series of experiments. Filterability exhibited a pronounced dependence upon both the filter and pre-heater temperatures and also upon the oxygen content. Among the conclusions to which the results lead is the observation that a strict comparison of filterability values for the fraction of corrosion products in cooled water samples is impossible when these are taken from 1) different sections of a high temperature system 2) a single sampling point while the system is being run up 3) two separate systems (e.g. steam boilers) operated at different temperatures 4) two separate systems operated at different oxygen contents. It accordingly appears advizable to restrict the use of cold-filtered samples from conventional steam-raising plants to the comparison of values relating to a single sampling point under constant operating conditions. (author)

  9. Corrosion protection products as a source of bisphenol A and toxicity to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Dietschweiler, Conrad; Werner, Inge; Burkhardt, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days. Two experiments were conducted, one with a 1 day and one with a 7 day curing period. Using a suite of bioassays, we tested samples for: agonistic and antagonistic effects on various mammalian nuclear receptors; inhibition of photosynthesis and growth in algae; inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence; and inhibition of water flea reproduction. Concentrations of BPA, bisphenol F and various BPA transformation products were determined by chemical analysis (LC-MS/MS). Bioassay results were evaluated using a scheme developed by DIBt (Centre of Competence for Construction, Berlin, Germany). Three products induced responses in one or more of the measured endpoints and toxicity profiles varied markedly in intensity across products. One product released high amounts of BPA which was associated with effects on nuclear receptor transactivation, requiring a more than 700-fold dilution for effect induction to fall below 20%. The same product was also the most toxic to water flea reproduction, requiring ca. 70-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. Another product was highly toxic in terms of bacterial bioluminescence, particularly after a shorter curing time, requiring a ca. 1'300-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. The third product required a 22-fold dilution for inhibition of water flea reproduction to drop below 20%. Results show that anti-corrosion coatings based on epoxy resins can be a source of toxicity to the aquatic environment

  10. Electrochemical corrosion studies on a selected carbon steel for application in nuclear waste disposal containers: Influence of radiolytic products on corrosion in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Smailos, E.

    1994-07-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels were identified as promising materials for the manufacturing of long-lived high-level waste containers that could act as a radionuclide barrier in a rock-salt repository. In the present work, the influence of some important oxidizing radiolytic products generated in gamma irradiated brines on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of the preselected fine-grained steel TStE 355 was studied. The steel was examined by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization methods at 90 C in a disposal relevant NaCl-rich brine containing radiolytic products such as H 2 O 2 , ClO - , ClO 3 - and ClO 4 - at concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M/l. The significance of the radiolytic products to steel corrosion depends on their concentration at the metal-brine interface, which in turn, depends on many factors such as the dose rate, the amount of water present in the disposal area, the escape of gases (e.g. H 2 )

  11. Preliminary study of radionuclide corrosion products in primary cooling water at RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, D.E.; Pudjojanto, M.S.; Subiharto; Budi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of radionuclides emitting gamma rays at the primary cooling water at RSG-GAS has been carried out. The water coolant samples was performed using a low level background gamma spectrometer unit, including of high resolution of gamma detector HP-Ge Tennelec and Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) ADCAM 100 ORTEC. The result indicated Na-24 and Mn-56 radionuclides that may be as corrosion product and should studied deeply in the future. The expected activity concentration radionuclide for Mn-56 is lower than those written in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), while for Na-24 is in agreement

  12. Multi-physics and multi-scale deterioration modelling of reinforced concrete part I: Coupling transport and corrosion at the material scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    is fully coupled, i.e. information, such as temperature and moisture distribution, phase assemblage, corrosion current density, damage state of concrete cover, etc., are continuously exchanged between the models. Although not explicitly outlined in this paper, such an analysis may be further integrated...... models are sketched to describe (i) transport of heat and matter in porous media as well as phase assemblage in hardened Portland cement, (ii) corrosion of reinforcement, and (iii) material performance including corrosion-induced damages on the meso and macro scale. The presented modelling framework...

  13. Factors affecting the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewita, E.

    2000-01-01

    HTR is one of the advanced nuclear reactors which has inherent safety system, graphite moderated and helium gas cooled. In general, these reactors are designed with the TRISO coated particle consist of four coating layers that are porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC). inner dense PyC (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC), and outer dense PyC (OPyC). Among the four coating layers, the SiC plays an important role beside in retaining metallic fission products, it also provides mechanical strength to fuel particle. However, results of post irradiation examination indicate that fission product palladium can react with and corrode SiC layer, This assessment is conducted to get the comprehension about resistance of SiC layer on irradiation effects, especially in order to increase the fuel bum-up. The result of this shows that the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium is beside depend on the material characteristics of SiC, and also there are other factors that affect on the SiC layer corrosion. Fuel enrichment, bum-up, and irradiation time effect on the palladium flux in fuel kernel. While, the fuel density, vapour pressure of palladium (the degree depend on the irradiation temperature and kernel composition) effect on palladium migration in fuel particle. (author)

  14. Effect of Rare Earth on Corrosion Products and Impedance Behavior of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy Under Dry-wet Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mischmetal of lanthanum and cerium on the composition and structure of the corrosion products on the surface of AZ91 Mg alloy in deicing salt solution under dry-wet cycles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The results show that the corrosion products of AZ91 Mg alloy without mischmetal addition (La,Ce are mainly composed of Mg(OH2, MgO, CaCO3 and Mg6Al2CO3(OH16·4H2O; and (La,CeAlO3 can be found in the products of AZ91 with mischmetal addition, meanwhile dense layer occurs in the corrosion products. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements show that the charge transfer resistance of AZ91 alloy with mischmetal addition tested in the same dry-wet cycles is much higher than that of AZ91 alloy, the addition of mischmetal helps to reduce the dispersing effect of impedance spectroscopy, indicating that the corrosion resistance of AZ91 Mg alloy and the stability of corrosion product films can be improved by mischmetal of La and Ce.

  15. Analysis of Gamma Dose Rate Caused by Corrosion Products inside the Containment Building of Yonngwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 During Shutdown Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jae Cheon; Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occupational radiation exposure(ORE) of nuclear power plant(NPP) workers mainly occurs during the shutdown period. Major radioactive sources are the corrosion products released from the reactor coolant system(RCS). The corrosion products consist of circulating crud and deposited crud. Major radioactive corrosion products, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co, are known to contribute approximately more than 70% of the total ORE. In this study, the corrosion products regarding cobalt were evaluated during the shutdown period, and gamma dose rates caused by them were calculated at the main working area inside the containment building of the Yonggwang NPP Unit 3.

  16. Study of the corrosion products formed on carbon steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaén, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (in selected samples have been used to characterize corrosion products on carbon steels after atmospheric exposure to the tropical Panamanian locations of Panama and Colon, classified according to ISO 9223 as C3 and C5, respectively. Goethite (α-FeOOH of intermediate particle size (20-100 nm, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, a spinel phase consisting of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4 and/or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 and nano-sized particles were identified in the corrosion products. The spinel phase is related to short term atmospheric exposure transforms in time to other corrosion products. The corrosion resistance increased with fraction of goethite following a saturation-type behavior.

    Se caracterizaron los productos de corrosión de aceros al carbono expuestos a las atmósferas tropicales panameñas localizadas en Panamá y Colón, mediante el uso de la espectroscopia Mössbauer y difracción de rayos-X (en muestras seleccionadas. Las atmósferas se clasifican como C3 y C5, respectivamente, de acuerdo a la norma ISO 9223. Se lograron identificar los compuestos goethita (α-FeOOH de tamaño de partícula intermedio (20-100 nm, lepidocrocita (γ-FeOOH, una fase de espinela consistente en magnetita no estequiométrica (Fe3-xO4 y/o maghemita (γ-Fe2O3, y nanopartículas. La fase de espinela se puede correlacionar con exposiciones cortas a la atmósfera, transformándose en el tiempo en otros productos de corrosión. La resistencia a la corrosión se incrementa con la cantidad de goethita siguiendo una conducta de saturación.

  17. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  18. Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu 2 NO 3 (OH) 3 , forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150 degree C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150 degree C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu 2 O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); Edwards, R [Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States); Hayman, A [Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France); Hill, D [Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States); Mehta, S [Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom); Semerad, T [Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia)

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  20. The development of an adsorbent for corrosion products in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Ik; Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Kwang Rag; Kim, Yu Hwan; Koo, Jae Hyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    In order to use as adsorbent for removal of the soluble corrosion products, mainly Co{sup 60} under PWR reactor coolant conditions (300 deg C, 160 kg/cm{sup 2}), stable ZrO{sub 2} adsorbent was prepared using sol-gel process from zirconyl nitrate, AlO adsorbent was prepared by hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide, and titanium tetraisopropoxide, respectively. The prepared adsorbents were calcined at various temperature and analyzed by physical properties and the Co{sup 2+} adsorption capacity. And it was shown that the Co{sup 2+} adsorption capacity of the TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} adsorbents were found to have larger than that of ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} adsorbents in high-temperature water. ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} adsorbents were found to be suitable high-temperature adsorbents for the removal of dissolved corrosion products, mainly Co in PWR reactor coolant conditions. 15 tabs., 51 figs., 55 refs. (Author).

  1. Detection of boron in simulated corrosion products by using a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Yeon, J-W.; Jung, S-H.; Hwang, J.; Jung, E-C.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many methods for detection of coolant leakage have been developed and employed for the safe operation. However, these methods have many limitations for analyzing and dealing with the corrosion products due to the high radioactivity. LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) offer a remote and on-site elemental analysis including the boron in the corrosion products with no sample preparation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of detecting boron and analyzing an elemental composition of boron-containing iron oxides with the LIBS, in order to develop a coolant leakage detection system. First, we prepared five different boron-containing iron oxides and the element ratios were determined by using ICP-AES (inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer). After this, the laser induced emission spectra of these iron oxides were obtained by using a 266 nm Nd:YAG laser. The B/Fe ratios of the oxides were determined by comparing the intensities of the B emission peak at 249.844 nm with those of the Fe peak at 250.217 nm as an internal reference. It was confirmed that the B contents in the oxides could be analyzed over 0.1 wt% by the laser induced breakdown spectroscopic technique. (author)

  2. Factors governing particulate corrosion product adhesion to surfaces in water reactor coolant circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    Gravity, van der Waals, magnetic, electrical double layer and hydrodynamic forces are considered as potential contributors to the adhesion of particulate corrosion products to surfaces in water reactor coolant circuits. These forces are renewed and evaluated, and the following are amongst the conclusions drawn; adequate theories are available to estimate the forces governing corrosion product particle adhesion to surfaces in single phase flow in water reactor coolant circuits. Some uncertainty is introduced by the geometry of real particle-surface systems. The major uncertainties are due to inadequate data on the Hamaker constant and the zeta potential for the relevant materials, water chemistry and radiation chemistry at 300 0 C; van der Waals force is dominant over the effect of gravity for particles smaller than about 100 m; quite modest zeta potentials, approximately 50mV, are capable of inhibiting particle deposition throughout the size range relevant to water reactors; for surfaces exposed to typical water reactor flow conditions, particles smaller than approximately 1 m will be stable against resuspension in the absence of electrical double layer repulsion; and the magnitude of the electrical double layer repulsion for a given potential depends on whether the interaction is assumed to occur at constant potential or constant change. (author)

  3. High temperature filtration of radioactivable corrosion products in the primary circuit of PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1976-01-01

    A effective limitation to the deposition of radioactive corrosion products in the core of a reactor at power operation, is to be obtained by filtering the water of the primary circuit at a flow rate upper than 1% of the coolant flow rate. However, in view of accounting for more important release of corrosion products during the reactor start-up and also for some possible variations in the efficiency of the system, it is better that the flow rate to be treated by the cleaning circuit is stated at 5%. Filtration must be effected at the temperature of the primary circuit and preferably on each loop. To this end, the feasibility of electromagnetic filtration or filtration through a deep bed of granulated graphite has been studied. The on-loop tests effected on each filter gave efficiencies and yields respectively upper than 90% and 99% for magnetite and ferrite particles in suspension in water at 250 deg C. Such results confirm the interest lying in high temperature filtration and lead to envisage its application to reactors [fr

  4. The development of an adsorbent for corrosion products in high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ik; Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Kwang Rag; Kim, Yu Hwan; Koo, Jae Hyoo

    1996-08-01

    In order to use as adsorbent for removal of the soluble corrosion products, mainly Co 60 under PWR reactor coolant conditions (300 deg C, 160 kg/cm 2 ), stable ZrO 2 adsorbent was prepared using sol-gel process from zirconyl nitrate, AlO adsorbent was prepared by hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide, and titanium tetraisopropoxide, respectively. The prepared adsorbents were calcined at various temperature and analyzed by physical properties and the Co 2+ adsorption capacity. And it was shown that the Co 2+ adsorption capacity of the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 adsorbents were found to have larger than that of ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 adsorbents in high-temperature water. ZrO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 adsorbents were found to be suitable high-temperature adsorbents for the removal of dissolved corrosion products, mainly Co in PWR reactor coolant conditions. 15 tabs., 51 figs., 55 refs. (Author)

  5. 77 FR 25141 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...) orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from Germany and South Korea (Korea... from Germany and South Korea: Adequacy Redetermination Memorandum,'' (April 20, 2012). The preliminary...

  6. Surface reactivity of colloidal corrosion product and alloys in PWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Gregory; Leclercq, Stephanie; Cabanas, Bruna-Martin; Delaunay, Sophie; Mansour, Carine; Berger, Gilles

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion of metallic components of water circuits of Pressurized Water Reactors generates colloidal particles. These particles are transported in the circuits, they sorb dissolved species and they can deposit on alloys in given parts of the circuits. Sorption and deposition generate several technical drawbacks in both primary and secondary circuits. According to the DLVO theory, adhesion between two surfaces is controlled by electrostatic and Van der Waals forces. The latter are always attractive and does not depends on solution chemistry. On the contrary, electrostatic forces are connected to the surface charge and depend strongly on the chemical properties of the solids and on the chemistry of the solution. Depending on the relative charge of the surfaces, these forces are attractive or repulsive and can have a major effect on the deposition behavior of particles. According to the surface complexation theory, the surface charge of metallic oxides results from sorption or desorption of protons, leading to positive or negative surface sites, and thus, strongly depends on the solution pH. Dissolved species can sorb on the surface, depending on the ionic charge of these species and on the surface charge. Thus, the knowledge of the surface charge of corrosion particles and alloys, their affinity towards several ions as protons, nickel, cobalt, sulfate, or borate ions has been shown to be useful to predict the transport of the contamination in the primary circuit, or to understand the accumulation of impurities in the steam generator in the secondary circuit. At room temperature, these data can be easily measured, or found in literature. In PWR conditions (high temperature, high pressure), most of the usual protocols and commercial instruments cannot be used. For several years, collaboration between EDF R and D and CNRS has been developed to get information about the surface reactivity of iron oxides, ferrites, and alloys in such conditions. Some of the results

  7. Design of containment system of nuclear fuel attacked by corrosion with leaking fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete Maturana, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The following report presents the design of an innovative confinement system for the nuclear fuel attacked by corrosion, with leakage of fission products to be used in the RECH-1 nuclear experimental reactor of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, is currently within the framework of the international nuclear waste management program developed by the member countries of the IAEA, including Chile. The main objective of this project is the development of a system that is capable of containing, in the smallest possible volume, the fission products that are released to the reactor coolant medium from the nuclear fuel that are attacked by corrosion. Among the tasks carried out for the development of the project are: the compilation of the necessary bibliography for the selection of the most suitable technology for the retention of the fission products, the calculation of the most important parameters to ensure that the system will operate within ranges that do not compromise the radiological safety, and the design of the hydraulic circuit of the system. The results obtained from the calculations showed that the fuel element confinement system is stable from a thermal point of view since the refrigerant does not under any circumstances reach the saturation temperature and, in addition, from a hydraulic point of view, since the rate at which the refrigerant flows through the hydraulic circuit is low enough so that the deformation of the fuel plates forming the nuclear fuel does not occur. The most appropriate technology for the extraction of fission products according to the literature consulted is by ion exchange. The calculations developed showed that with a very small volume of resins, it is possible to capture all of the non-volatile fission products of a nuclear fuel

  8. Identification of microorganisms associated with corrosion of offshore oil production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Ketil; Grigoryan, Aleksandr; Holmkvist, Lars; Skovhus, Torben; Thomsen, Uffe; Lundgaard, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) poses a major challenge to oil producers and distributors. The annual cost associated with MIC-related pipeline failures and general maintenance and surveillance of installations amounts to several billion dollar in the oil production sector alone. Hence, large efforts are undertaken by some producers to control and monitor microbial growth in pipelines and other installations, and extensive surveillance programs are carried out in order to detect and quantify potential MIC-promoting microorganisms. Traditionally, efforts to mitigate and survey microbial growth in oil production systems have focused on sulfate-reducing Bacteria (SRB), and microorganisms have usually been enumerated by the culture-dependent MPN (most probable number) -technique. Culture-independent molecular tools yielding much more detailed information about the microbial communities have now been implemented as a reliable tool for routine surveillance of oil production systems in the North Sea. This has resulted in new and hitherto unattainable information regarding the distribution of different microorganisms in hot reservoirs and associated oil production systems. This presentation will provide a review of recent insights regarding thermophilic microbial communities and their implication for steel corrosion in offshore oil production systems. Data collected from solids and biofilms in different corroded pipelines and tubes indicate that in addition to SRB, other groups such as methanogens and sulfate-reducing Archaea (SRA) are also involved in MIC. In the hot parts of the system where the temperature approaches 80 ⁰C, SRA closely related to Archaeoglobus fulgidus outnumber SRB by several orders of magnitude. Methanogens affiliated with the genus Methanothermococcus were shown to completely dominate the microbial community at the metal surface in a sample of highly corroded piping. Thus, the microbial communities associated with MIC appear to be more

  9. Product bundling in global ocean transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Acciaro (Michele); H. Haralambides (Hercules)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThere are over 20 'components' in an international door-to-door transportation, ranging from warehousing and distribution, to forwarding, documentation, transportation, customs clearance, etc.. As tariffs in ocean transportation tend to converge due to competition and service

  10. Corrosion product balances for the Ringhals PWR plants based on extensive fuel crud and water chemistry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.; Wikmark, G.; Bengtsson, B.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion product balance in a PWR plant is of great importance for the fuel performance as well as for the radiation field buildup. This balance is of special concern in connection to steam generator replacement (SGR) and power uprate projects. The Ringhals PWRs are all of Westinghouse design. Two of the plants have performed Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) to I-690 SG tubes and such a replacement is being planned in the third and last unit in 2011. Two of the units are in different phases of power uprate projects. The plants are all on 10-14-months cycles operating with medium to high fuel duty. Water chemistry is controlled by a pH300 in the range ∼7.2 to 7.4 from beginning of cycle to end of cycle (BOC-EOC) in the units with new SGs while kept at a coordinated pH of 7.2 in the one still using I-600. The maximum Li content has recently been increased to about 4.5 to 5 ppm in all units. In order to be able to improve the assessment of corrosion product balances in the plants, comprehensive fuel crud measurements were performed in 2007. Improved integrated reactor water sampling techniques have also been introduced in order to make accurate mass balances possible. The corrosion products covered in the study are the main constituents, Ni, Fe and Cr in the primary circuit Inconel and stainless steel, together with Co. The activated corrosion products, Co-58, Co-60, Cr-51, Fe-59 and Mn-54, are all mainly produced through neutron irradiation of the covered corrosion products. The main results of the corrosion product balances are presented. Observed differences between the plants, indicating significant impact of pH control and SG tube materials, are presented and discussed. The importance of accurate sampling techniques is especially addressed in this paper. (author)

  11. Corrosion behaviour of reinforcements in a carbonaceous concrete: influence of the chemistry of the interstitial solution and of a transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, B.

    2005-10-01

    The phenomenon of steel reinforcements corrosion in a carbonaceous concrete is a many-sided process, little understood and of a great economical importance. The aim of this work is to identify, in condition of concrete carbonation, the corrosion mechanisms of reinforcements in order to anticipate the long term damage of the buildings. An analytical and experimental study has been carried out and has revealed two hypotheses. These ones consist to characterize the control of the corrosion velocity, either by the anodic reaction or by addition of an oxidant. The corrosion experiments in solution which represents the interstitial solution of a carbonaceous cement paste show that the evolution of the metal/medium interface is very sensitive to the species introduced in the medium during the carbonation process. The change of the ionic strength and of the sulfate and alkali metals concentrations are the main factors influencing the localization of the reactional areas, the nature of the phases formed at the interface as well as the corrosion velocities and their change with time. The evolution of the water saturation degree of the coating is the preponderant factor on the corrosion velocity. The analytical calculations and the experimental results show that for fixed hydrous conditions, the corrosion velocity in stationary conditions is negligible. The taking into account of transient conditions of transport as well as humidification and drying cycles is required for the long term anticipation of the damage of reinforced concrete buildings. (O.M.)

  12. Analysis of acoustic emission signals of fatigue crack growth and corrosion processes. Investigation of the possibilities for continuous condition monitoring of transport containers by acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmuth, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes of structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars and ships. To prevent those failures, preventive, time-based maintenance is performed. However, preventive inspections are costly and include the risk of not detecting a defect, which could lead to a failure within the next service period. An alternative is the idea of continuous monitoring of the whole structure by means of acoustic emission testing (AT). With AT, defects within the material shall be detected and repaired directly after their appearance. Acoustic emission testing is an online non-destructive testing method. Acoustic emission (AE) arises from changes within the material and is transported by elastic waves through the material. If the AE event generates enough energy, the elastic wave propagates to the boundaries of the component, produces a displacement in the picometre scale and can be detected by a piezoelectric sensor. The sensor produces an electrical signal. From this AE signal, AE features such as the maximum amplitude or the frequency can be extracted. Methods of signal analysis are used to investigate the time and frequency dependency of signal groups. The purpose of the signal analysis is to connect the AE signal with the originating AE source. If predefined damage mechanisms are identified, referencing the damage condition of the structure is possible. Acoustic emission from events of the actual crack propagation process can for example lead to the crack growth rate or the stress intensity factor, both specific values from fracture mechanics. A new development in the domain of acoustic emission testing is the pattern recognition of AE signals. Specific features are extracted from the AE signals to assign them to their damage mechanisms. In this thesis the AE signals from the damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue crack growth are compared and analysed. The damage mechanisms were

  13. Effect of corrosion product layer on SCC susceptibility of copper containing type 304 stainless steel in 1 M H2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asawa, M.; Devasenapathi, A.; Fujisawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of surface corrosion product layer on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of type 304 stainless steel with Cu was studied in 1 kmol/m 3 (1 M) sulfuric acid at 353 K temperature. Studies based on the intermittent removal of surface corrosion product layer indicated that the surface film governs the SCC behavior of the alloy by accelerating both the crack initiation and propagation stages. The electrochemical impedance and polarization studies showed the surface layer to be promoting SCC initiation by lowering the uniform corrosion rate and the propagation by shifting the surface corrosion potential to a more noble direction. The elemental analysis of the corrosion product both by the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis along with the thermodynamic calculations showed the layer to be constituted mainly of metallic copper (Cu) and the mono-hydrated iron sulfate which acts as cathode promoting SCC

  14. Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembo, V.I.; Kritskii, V.G.; Slobodov, A.A.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 )-water (H 2 O)-gas (H 2 , O 2 )-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu 2 O and Cu(OH) 2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10 -2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

  15. Measurement of fuel corrosion products using planar laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantuck, P.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Butt, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Characterizing the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel material in a high-temperature hydrogen environment is critical for ascertaining the operational performance of proposed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts. In this paper, we describe an experimental study undertaken to develop and test non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostics for ultimately measuring the distribution of key gas-phase corrosion products expected to evolve during the exposure of NTP fuel to hydrogen. A laser ablation technique is used to produce high temperature, vapor plumes from uranium-free zirconium carbide (ZrC) and niobium carbide (NbC) forms for probing by various optical diagnostics including planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). We discuss the laser ablation technique, results of plume emission measurements, and we describe both the actual and proposed planar LIF schemes for imaging constituents of the ablated ZrC and NbC plumes. Envisioned testing of the laser technique in rf-heated, high temperature gas streams is also discussed

  16. Modelling aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poluektov, Pavel P.; Schmidt, Olga V.; Kascheev, Vladimir A. [Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, Michael I., E-mail: m.ojovan@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    A model is presented on nuclear sodium alumina phosphate (NAP) glass aqueous corrosion accounting for dissolution of radioactive glass and formation of corrosion products surface layer on the glass contacting ground water of a disposal environment. Modelling is used to process available experimental data demonstrating the generic inhibiting role of corrosion products on the NAP glass surface. - Highlights: • The radionuclides yield is determined by the transport from the glass through the surface corrosion layer. • Formation of the surface layer is due to the dissolution of the glass network and the formation of insoluble compounds. • The model proposed accounts for glass dissolution, formation of corrosion layer, specie diffusion and chemical reactions. • Analytical solutions are found for corrosion layer growth rate and glass components component leaching rates.

  17. Contribution of the characterization of radioactive surfaces after sodium corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menken, G.; Holl, M.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1972 INTERATOM is performing sodium mass and activity transfer investigations in an SNR-corrosion mockup loop which allows to study the transport of activated corrosion products in the primary heat transfer system of a sodium cooled reactor. The loop simulates the temperature and flow conditions and the materials combination of the SNR 300. The mass transfer examinations were aimed at the determination of the following: the linear corrosion and deposition rates; the selective corrosion of the alloying elements; the transfer of activated corrosion products. The results of a number of corrosion runs will be used in the following contribution to characterize the contaminated and corroded surface layers of reactor components. The loop reached a total operation time of 12300 h while the cold trap temperature was changed between 105 deg. C and 165 deg. C in successive runs

  18. corrosion problems and their relationship with the environment in the Colombian productive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyave P, Carlos E; Herrera B, Francisco J; Delgado L, Juan; Cuervo T, Joaquin

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a broad study on the corrosion problems in the Colombian industry, it was included an assessment of the effect of the main corrosive environments (atmosphere, soil, salad and drinking water, and chemicals), on materials stability. On the other hand, the impact of the corrosion processes on the environmental constituents (live species, atmosphere, soil, materials, and water) was also assessed. Main conclusions are: Atmosphere is the more extensively corrosive environment, and, all the environmental constituents are affected by corrosion without significant differences

  19. Impact of timber production and transport costs on stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Chris B. LeDoux

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of cable logging technology, transportation network standards, and transport vehicles on stand management. Managers can use results to understand the impact of timber production costs on eastern hardwood management.

  20. Impurity production and transport at limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the description and evaluation of experiments on the DITE tokamak. These are designed to characterise the processes involved in the production and transport of neutral and ionised impurities near carbon limiters. The need for good diagnostics in the scrape-off layer is highlighted. Langmuir probes are used to provide input data for models of impurity production at limiters. Observations of the radial profiles of carbon and oxygen impurities are compared with the code predictions. Changeover experiments involving hydrogen and helium plasmas are used as a means for investigating the role of the atomic physics and chemistry. The impurity control limiter (ICL) experiment is described which shows how geometry plays an important role in determining the spatial distributions of the neutral and ionised carbon. New diagnostics are required to study the flux and charge state distribution of impurities in the boundary. Preliminary results from an in-situ plasma ion mass-spectrometer are presented. The role of oxygen and the importance of evaluating the wall sources of impurity are emphasised. (orig.)

  1. Corrosion product deposition on fuel element surfaces of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade the problem of corrosion products deposition on light water reactor fuel elements has been extensively investigated in relation to the possibility of failures caused by them. The goal of the present study is to understand in a quantitative way the formation of such kind of deposits and to analytically understand the mechanism of formation and deposition with help of the quasi-steady state concentrations of a number of 3d metals in reactor water. Recent investigations on the complex corrosion product deposits on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel cladding have shown that the observed layer locally presents unexpected magnetic properties. The buildup of magnetic corrosion product deposits (crud) on the fuel cladding of the BWR, Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt (KKL) Switzerland has hampered the Eddy-current based measurements of ZrO 2 layer thickness. The magnetic behavior of this layer and its axial variation on BWR fuel cladding is of interest with respect to non-destructive cladding characterization. Consequently, a cladding from a BWR was cut at elevations of 810 mm, where the layer was observed to be magnetic, and of 1810 mm where it was less magnetic. The samples were subsequently analyzed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), magnetic analysis and X-ray techniques (μXRF, μXRD and μXAFS). Both EPMA and μXRF have shown that the observed corrosion deposit layer which is situated on the Zircaloy corrosion layer consists mostly of 3-d elements’ oxides (Fe, Zn, Ni and Mn). The distribution of these elements within the investigated layer is rather complex and not homogeneous. The main components identified by 2D μXRD mapping inside the layer were hematite and spinel phases with the common formula (M x Fe y )[M (1-x) Fe (2-y) ]O 4 , where M = Zn, Ni, Mn. With μXRD it was clearly shown that the cell parameter of analyzed spinel is different from the one of the pure endmembers (ZnFe 2 O 4 , NiFe 2 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 ) proving the existence of

  2. Study of the corrosion products in the primary system of PWR plants as the source of radiation fields build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabant, R. van; Regge, P. de.

    1982-01-01

    In the first part the behaviour of the corrosion products in the primary system of PWR plants is depicted on the basis of a literature review of the field. Water chemistry, corrosion processes and activation of corrosion products are the main topics. In the second part the results of the characterization of corrosion particles in the primary coolant circuit of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors are described, during steady state operation and transient phases. In the third part the possibilities for radiation control at nuclear power plants are outlined. The filtration possibilities for the reactor coolant are explored in detail. (author)

  3. Application of CATE 2.0 code on evaluating activated corrosion products in a PWR cooling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Lu; Chen, Yixue [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering

    2017-03-15

    In PWR plants, most Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) for personnel results from Activated Corrosion Products (ACPs) in the cooling loop. In order to evaluate the ACPs in the cooling loop, a three-region transport model is built up based on the theory of driving force from the concentration difference in CATE 2.0 code. In order to analyze the nuclide composition of ACPs, the EAF-2007 nuclear database is embedded in CATE 2.0. The case of MIT PCCL test loop is simulated to test the availability of CATE 2.0 on PWR ACPs evaluation, and the activity of Co-58 and Co-60 after operation for 42 days calculated by CATE 2.0 is consistent with that from the code CRUDSIM adopted by MIT. Then, the nuclide composition of ACPs is analyzed in detail respectively for operation of 42 days and 12 months using CATE 2.0. The results show that the short-lived nuclides contribute a majority of the activity in the regions of in-flux wall and coolant, while the long-lived nuclides contribute most of the activity in the region of out-flux wall.

  4. The effect of nickel as a nickel chromium restoration corrosion product on gingival fibroblast through analysis of BCl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Ady Soesetijo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restoration of NiCr may undergo corrosion process in artificial saliva. Corrosion product is soluble Ni substances in salivary electrolytes. Ni2+ may freely enter the cells through passive transport DMT-1. Ni2+ in the cell causes initiation of the ROS formation,which subsequently can conduct the redoxs reactions leading to DNA damage. The damage DNA affects the genetic expression, especially bcl-2, and even triggers apoptosis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanism of Ni toxicity as a corrosion product of NiCr restoration on gingival fibroblasts through expression analysis of Bcl-2. Methods: Cells with a density of 105 planted on each coverslip in 72 wells to the treatment group and 24 wells to the control group (24 hours incubation. In the treatment groups, each well exposed with 20 μL artificial saliva containing Ni concentration results immerse each restoration, whereas the control group was exposed to 20 μL artificial saliva (incubation 1, 3, and 7 days. The data collected were subsequently analyzed using two-ways ANOVA, followed by one-way ANOVA. Comparing between experimental groups after one-way ANOVA was conducted using Fisher’s LSD. Whereas, the calculation and documentation of Bcl-2 expression was performed camera of Olympus Microscope BX-50 Japan. Results: Statistical analysis of two-ways ANOVA showed the presence of interaction between the increasing Ni concentration and exposure duration on the expression of Bcl-2 gingival fibroblasts (p=0.021transport pasif DMT-1. Ni2+ di dalam sel

  5. Measurement and evaluation of radioactive corrosion product behaviour in primary sodium circuits of JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Iizawa, K.; Takahashi, K.; Zulquarnain, M.A.; Suzuki, S.; Kinjo, K.

    1992-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor JOYO, the radioactive corrosion product (CP) measurement has been conducted in the primary sodium circuits during each annual inspection. The measured data has been analyzed by the computer code 'PSYCHE', which has been developed by PNC. Main results obtained from the measurements and/or calculations are as follows; (1) The dominant CP nuclide is 54 Mn followed by 60 Co and 58 Co. (2) Average surface gamma dose rate around the primary piping system at the 8th annual inspection is 0.96 mSv/h. The increasing rate of this value is 0.25 (mSv/h)/EFPY. (3) The calculated deposition densities of 54 Mn and 60 Co agree with measured ones within factor of 0.7 ∼ 1.7. (author)

  6. Effect of fission product interactions on the corrosion and mechanical properties of HTGR alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.; Chow, J.G.Y.; Soo, P.; Friedlander, M.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary experiments have been carried out to determine how fission product interactions may influence the mechanical integrity of reference HTGR structural metals. In this work Type 304 stainless steel, Incoloy 800 and Hastelloy X were heated to 550 to 650 0 C in the presence of CsI. It was found that no corrosion of the alloys occurred unless air or oxygen was also present. A mechanism for the observed behavior is proposed. A description is also given of some long term exposures of HTGR materials to more prototypic, low concentrations of I 2 , Te 2 and CsI in the presence of low partial pressures of O 2 . These samples are scheduled for mechanical bend tests after exposure to determine the degree of embrittlement

  7. Corrosion/96 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Topics covered by this conference include: cathodic protection in natural waters; cleaning and repassivation of building HVAC systems; worldwide opportunities in flue gas desulfurization; advancements in materials technology for use in oil and gas service; fossil fuel combustion and conversion; technology of corrosion inhibitors; computers in corrosion control--modeling and information processing; recent experiences and advances of austenitic alloys; managing corrosion with plastics; corrosion measurement technology; corrosion inhibitors for concrete; refining industry; advances in corrosion control for rail and tank trailer equipment; CO 2 corrosion--mechanisms and control; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion in nuclear systems; role of corrosion in boiler failures; effects of water reuse on monitoring and control technology in cooling water applications; methods and mechanisms of scale and deposit control; corrosion detection in petroleum production lines; underground corrosion control; environmental cracking--relating laboratory results and field behavior; corrosion control in reinforced concrete structures; corrosion and its control in aerospace and military hardware; injection and process addition facilities; progress reports on the results of reinspection of deaerators inspected or repaired per RP0590 criteria; near 100% volume solids coating technology and application methods; materials performance in high temperature environments containing halides; impact of toxicity studies on use of corrosion/scale inhibitors; mineral scale deposit control in oilfield related operations; corrosion in gas treating; marine corrosion; cold climate corrosion; corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; gaseous chlorine alternatives in cooling water systems; practical applications of ozone in recirculating cooling water systems; and water reuse in industry. Over 400 papers from this conference have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. 77 FR 67395 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Revised Schedule for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-350 and 731-TA-616 and 618 (Third Review)] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date...

  9. Characterisation of the corrosion products of non-irradiated material test reactors fuel elements (MTR-FE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeina, L.; Curtius, H.; Fachinger, J. [Inst. for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a high concentrated Mg-rich brine a non-irradiated MTR-FE corroded. The formed corrosion products consists of an amorphous part and of hydrotalcites, which were identified as Mg-Al-hydrotalcites with chloride anions in the interlayer. (orig.)

  10. A process for the production of a scale-proof and corrosion-resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for the production of a corrosion resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies is described. The carbon or graphite body is coated or impregnated with titanium silicide under the addition of a metal containing wetting agent in a nitrogen free atmosphere, so that a tight coating is formed.

  11. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  12. The role of fission products (noble metal particles) in spent fuel corrosion process in a failed container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L., E-mail: lwu59@uwo.ca [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Western Ontario, Surface Science Western, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The corrosion/dissolution of simulated spent fuel has been studied electrochemically. Fission products within the UO{sub 2} matrix are found to have significant effect on the anodic dissolution behaviour of the fuel. It is observed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}oxidation is accelerated on the surfaces of doped noble metal (ε) particles existing in the fuel matrix. It is concluded that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition rather than UO{sub 2} corrosion should be the dominant reaction under high H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. (author)

  13. Wet-gas transport in the Mediterranean Sea. Selection of a combined kinetic hydrate/corrosion inhibitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettlitzer, M. [RWE Dea AG, Wietze (Germany); Rozengard, N.; Koeckritz, V. [Technical Univ. Freiberg (Germany); Malt, E. [RWE Dea AG (Egypt)

    2007-09-13

    Raw gas will be collected on a platform in the centre of the field. Due to volume and weight constraints, condensing fluids will not be separated from the gas on the platform so that the raw gas will be transported in three-phase mode (gas, water, and condensate) via a 33 km long pipeline to a gas treatment plant. Under the calculated pipeline pressure of about 100 barg, hydrate formation is - according to the outcome of thermodynamic simulations - to be expected at temperatures of 19 C and below while the pipeline may cool down to about 15 C in winter conditions. Due to logistical, environmental and economic reasons, RWE Dea decided to inhibit hydrate formation with kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHI). As the gas also contains carbon dioxide, certain corrosivity was forecasted and addition of a corrosion inhibitor turned out to be necessary. Laboratory tests were carried out to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to define the required dosage of KHI. Service companies were contacted and several kinetic hydrate and corrosion inhibitors were screened. Experiments with the different chemicals were performed at the University of Freiberg in a high-pressure cell at the pipeline pressure of 100 barg. Hydrate formation was detected by continuous pressure registration during temperature changes and by observation through a glass window. In order to preselect the chemicals, first tests were performed with pure methane. These tests also served for calibration of the equipment with literature data and especially as an indication for the minimum chemical concentration required. A second test series was performed with synthetic gas in a composition close to that of the field gas under consideration in order to verify the results obtained with methane. Finally, the optimum kinetic hydrate inhibitor was identified as well as the required dosage concentration. Compatibility of KHI and corrosion inhibitor was experimentally proven. A further set of kinetic inhibitor tests with

  14. The mechanisms underlying corrosion product formation and deposition in nuclear power plant circuits through the action of galvanic and thermal electromotive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusakov, V.P.; Sedov, V.M.; Khitrov, Yu.A.; Brusov, K.N.; Razmashkin, N.V.; Versin, V.V.; Rybalchenko, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    From a theoretical standpoint, the processes of formation of corrosion products in nuclear power plant circuits, deposition of corrosion products on the circuit surfaces, formation of an equilibrium concentration of corrosion products in the coolant, and distribution of radionuclides resulting from corrosion in different parts of the circuit are considered. It is shown that the main driving forces for the mass-transfer processes in the circuits are the thermal and galvanic electromotive forces (EMF) of the microcouples. On the basis of the theoretical concepts developed the authors have obtained analytical dependences for calculating the individual stages of the process of corrosion product transfer in the circuits. The mechanisms underlying the processes which occur as a result of thermal and galvanic EMFs are considered, together with the factors influencing these processes. The results of verification of the dependences by computational methods are given and they are compared with operational data from nuclear and conventional thermal power plants and with experimental data. (author)

  15. RAPK-7. code for calculating mass transfer and corrosion products activation in the circulation loops of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaylov, A.V.; Moryakov, A.V.; Nikitin, A.V.

    2012-09-01

    The RAPK-7 code was developed to simulate formation of non-irradiated and activated corrosion products, their transport and deposition on inner surfaces of primary components and in primary coolant of water-cooled reactors during their operation on power and after shutdown. The key feature of this code is its particular emphasis on the contamination of circulation loops by radioactive corrosion products of reactor which operates on variable modes. Such reactors typically are: research reactors and their experimental loops, naval nuclear power systems, etc. It's typical for such reactors to have repeated (over the campaign) and frequent variations in power (activating neutron fluxes), thermal-physical, hydrodynamic and other parameters of coolant, intensive water mass exchange between the circulation loop and the pressuriser, etc. The processes of mass-transfer are described by the RAPK-7 code with the use of models similar to those employed by the COTRAN and PACTOLE codes. The circulation circuit is broken down into computation areas. The user will then set the concentrations of water chemistry adjusting additives (alkali, boric acid, ammonia, hydrogen), as well as parameters in each area, such as wall temperature, coolant flow core temperature, pressure, flow rate, velocity, the radial component of coolant flowrate and activating neutron flux density. All the above parameters can be set as time-dependent step functions (bar charts), with independent time steps for each of them. The number of computation areas, the number of time dependencies and the level of detail in their description are limited by computer capabilities only. A 'brake' mode with a single-step change of the required set of parameters is provided to allow for jump-type events, such as replacement of contaminated components with clean ones during core refueling or repairs, emergency injection of boric acid, water mass exchange between the circulation circuit and the pressuriser, etc

  16. Efficiency increase of complex production and transport systems management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilov S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the reduced efficiency of management in complex production - transport systems due to the lack of co-ordination in the operation of industrial enterprises and transport carrying out their maintenance. The existing transport service schedules for auxiliary departments do not take into account possible changes in operating conditions, the probability of malfunctions and the amount of reserves, which leads to an increase in general production costs. To solve this problem, we propose to use the interval regulation of production and transport processes in all departments of the complex production and transport systems. Also, such regulation involves the determination of traffic service priority. This will allow passing on from the regulated control of production and transport processes to the situational one, adapted to specific conditions, and reducing losses from untimely transport servicing, which will lead to a stores reduction and efficiency increase of the enterprise circulating facilities use. Testing the effectiveness of interval regulation was performed on the system and dynamics simulation model of liquid iron transportation in the oxygen converter shop of the metallurgical enterprise. It was established that the use of interval regulation processes in iron production and its transportation will allow decreasing non-productive downtime by 21% and the amount of the liquid iron in anticipation of recasting in the oxygen converter shop – by 33%. Economical effect of reducing the liquid iron downtime during transportation to the oxygen converter shop will be about 30 million rubles per year.

  17. Multi-dimensional transport modelling of corrosive agents through a bentonite buffer in a Canadian deep geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Scott; McKelvie, Jennifer; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The use of a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel is an approach currently being investigated by several agencies worldwide, including Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Within the DGR, used nuclear fuel will be placed in copper-coated steel containers and surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer. While copper is generally thermodynamically stable, corrosion can occur due to the presence of sulphide under anaerobic conditions. As such, understanding transport of sulphide through the engineered barrier system to the used fuel container is an important consideration in DGR design. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of sulphide transport in a DGR was developed. The numerical model is implemented using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element software package. Previous sulphide transport models of the NWMO repository used a simplified one-dimensional system. This work illustrates the importance of 3D modelling to capture non-uniform effects, as results showed locations of maximum sulphide flux are 1.7 times higher than the average flux to the used fuel container. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Use of a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer to understand processes involving volatile corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-temperature corrosion processes generate volatile products in addition to condensed phase products. Examples of these volatile products are chlorides, oxychlorides, and certain oxides and hydroxyl species. One of the best techniques to identify high temperature vapor molecules is mass spectrometry. Most mass spectrometers operate in high vacuum and are generally used to examine processes ocurring at greatly reduced pressures. However, a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer system allows direct sampling of volatile corrosion products. This instrument is described. Several examples from our studies on chlorination/oxidation of metals and ceramics are discussed. In addition, reactions of Cr 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 with water vapor, which produce volatile hydroxyl species are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Sustainable production: transporting animals or meat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, W.H.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Lambooij, E.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2009-01-01

    For the EU the impact of a ban on international transport of pigs and horses is assessed, based on three sustainability criteria. The paper concludes that the risks of welfare problems will be reduced, the CO2 emission and transport costs will be lowered but that there will be substantial shifts in

  20. Product removal and solids transport from fluidized-bed calciners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Munger, D.H.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of removing the solid product from pilot-plant and production fluidized-bed calciners, and transporting product to underground storage vaults are reported here. Testing of dense-phase solids transport systems in test loops during development of a 15-cm-diam. and 30-cm-diam. calciner are described. A lean-phase solid transport system is used with the Waste Calcining Facility. The results of some recent tests done in a lean-phase transport system connected to the 30-cm-diam. calciner are included in this report

  1. Composition and Morphology of Product Layers in the Steel/Cement Paste Interface in Conditions of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Boshkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP). Of particular interest was to investigate if the introduced pulse CP (as

  2. Electrochemical properties of corrosion products formed on Zn-Mg, Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Mg coatings in model atmospheric conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoulil, J.; Prošek, T.; Nazarov, A.; Oswald, Jiří; Kříž, P.; Thierry, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2015), s. 777-782 ISSN 0947-5117 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : corrosion products * electrochemical properties * zinc coating Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.450, year: 2015

  3. Transport phenomena of macro and micro flows behind orifice and flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohara, Taku; Ikohagi, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes experiment and numerical simulations for macro and micro flows behind an orifice model in a square pipe, which are carried from the viewpoint of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The measurements of velocity field behind the orifice model were carried out using particle image velocimetry, and the variations of velocity field with respect to the accuracy of the orifice position were studied. It is found that the reattachment behavior of the flow is highly influenced by the orifice position, which is a critical problem for predicting the pipe thinning phenomena by FAC. The DNS simulation was also conducted for calculating the macro flow behind the orifice. The result suggests that the DNS simulation is applicable to the prediction of pipe thinning macro flow for highly aged nuclear plant. The micro flow simulation can predict the pipe thinning phenomena near the wall. (author)

  4. Dictionary corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary has 13000 entries in both languages. Keywords and extensive accompanying information simplify the choice of word for the user. The following topics are covered: Theoretical principles of corrosion; Corrosion of the metals and alloys most frequently used in engineering. Types of corrosion - (chemical-, electro-chemical, biological corrosion); forms of corrosion (superficial, pitting, selective, intercrystalline and stress corrosion; vibrational corrosion cracking); erosion and cavitation. Methods of corrosion control (material selection, temporary corrosion protection media, paint and plastics coatings, electro-chemical coatings, corrosion prevention by treatment of the corrosive media); Corrosion testing methods. (orig./HP) [de

  5. A computer analysis code of radioactive corrosion product behaviour in primary circuits of LMFBRs (PSYCHE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Seki, Seiichi; Kawasaki, Yuji; Kano, Shigeki; Nihei, Isao

    1986-01-01

    Recently it has become an important subject to reduce exposure to radiation from radioactive corrosion products (CPs) during maintenance and repair works in reactor plants. Metallic sodium is used as cooling material in fast reactor plants, leading to different CP behaviours compared to light water reactors. In the present study, a computer code for analyzing behaviours of CPs in fast reactor plants is developed. The analysis code, called PSYCHE, makes it possible to perform consistent analysis of production, migration and deposition of CPs in primary circuits together with dose rate around piping of apparatus in cooling systems. An analysis model is developed based on test results on CP behaviour in out-pile sodium. The model, called the ''dissolution-deposition model'', can reproduce atom-selective behaviour, transient phenomenon and downstream effect of CPs, which represent mass transfer phenomena in sodium. Verification of this code is carried out on the basis of CP measurements made in ''Joyo''. The calculation vs. measurement ratio is found to be 0.5 - 2 for CP deposition density in piping for cooling systems and 0.7 - 1.3 for dose rate, demonstrating that this code can give reasonable results. Analysis is also made to predict future changes in total amount of deposited CP in ''Joyo''. (Nogami, K.)

  6. WASTE PACKAGE CORROSION STUDIES USING SMALL MOCKUP EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Anderson; K.B. Helean; C.R. Bryan; P.V. Brady; R.C. Ewing

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion of spent nuclear fuel and subsequent mobilization of radionuclides is of great concern in a geologic repository, particularly if conditions are oxidizing. Corroding A516 steel may offset these transport processes within the proposed waste packages at the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) by retaining radionuclides, creating locally reducing conditions, and reducing porosity. Ferrous iron, Fe 2+ , has been shown to reduce UO 2 2+ to UO 2(s) [1], and some ferrous iron-bearing ion-exchange materials adsorb radionuclides and heavy metals [2]. Of particular interest is magnetite, a potential corrosion product that has been shown to remove TcO 4 - from solution [3]. Furthermore, if Fe 2+ minerals, rather than fully oxidized minerals such as goethite, are produced during corrosion, then locally reducing conditions may be present. High electron availability leads to the reduction and subsequent immobilization of problematic dissolved species such as TcO 4 - , NpO 2 + , and UO 2 2+ and can also inhibit corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. Finally, because the molar volume of iron material increases during corrosion due to oxygen and water incorporation, pore space may be significantly reduced over long time periods. The more water is occluded, the bulkier the corrosion products, and the less porosity is available for water and radionuclide transport. The focus of this paper is on the nature of Yucca Mountain waste package steel corrosion products and their effects on local redox state, radionuclide transport, and porosity

  7. Calculated model of radioactive fission and corrosion product accumulation and distribution in a fast reactor sodium coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizin, V.D.; Konyashov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple calculation procedure of radioactive products accumulation and distribution in a primary circuit has been developed on the basis of experimental investigations at the BOR-60 reactor. Common knowledge on the impurity products transfer at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas phase boundary is taken. Use is made of the typical in reactor physics relationships for the description of the products transition to the equipment surfaces, of fission products release, metal corrosion and others. Satisfactory agreement of the calculation data with the experimental ones has been obtained. (orig.)

  8. The growing rate and the type of corrosion products of aluminium alloy AA 5052 in deionized water at temperature up to 3000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The process of corrosion concerning the aluminum alloy AA5052 in deionized water at temperatures of 40 0 C, 80 0 C, 90 0 C, 140 0 C, 200 0 C and 280 0 C is studied. The following methods are used: periodic weighting of the test samples; analysis by neutronic activation of the corrosion products dissolved in water; thermogravimetric and thermodiferential analysis; analysis through X-ray diffraction and from metalografic observations of the crystals produced in the corrosion process; an optical microscope using polarized and normal light and a scanning electronic microscope. The activation energies are calculated for the corrosion film formation, and for the dissolution of the corrosion products in the deionized water. (ARHC) [pt

  9. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  10. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  11. Inventory of radioactive corrosion products on the primary surfaces and release during shutdown in Ringhals 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, O.

    1994-01-01

    In Ringhals 2 a retrospective study using gamma scans of system surfaces, fuel crud sampling and reactor coolant analyses during operation and shutdown has been done. The data have been used to prepare a balance of activity inventory. The inventory has been fairly stable from 1986 to 1993, expressed as a gamma source term. The steam generator replacement in 1989 removed some 40-50% of the Co-60 inventory in the reactor system. After the steam generator replacement, the gamma source term has got an increasing contribution from Co-58, absolutely as well as relatively. The reason for this is probably the switch from high pH operation to modified pH operation. Corrosion from fresh alloy 690 surfaces in the new steam generators is probably another contributing factor. The inventory and production rate of Co-60 is decreasing over the years. It has also been found that clean-up of the reactor coolant during start-up, operation, and shutdown as well as the fuel pool during refuelling removes about the same amounts of Co-60. (author). 11 figs., 15 refs

  12. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two times...

  13. Analysis on the gamma dose distribution by major corrosion products during preventive maintenance period in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Wi Ho

    2006-02-01

    The information on dose distribution inside the containment building is an essential requirement to make a reduction of radiation exposure as well as effective operation and design of nuclear power plant. After reactor shutdown, radiation exposure to workers mainly occurs during preventive maintenance period due to inspection or repair works of major components. During that period, gamma doses are induced by major corrosion products in the primary coolant system. The radiation exposure to workers has been assessed by using the measurements. The measurements are, of course, a basic and reliable assessment. But the measurement has defect such as limitation of detecting area. In order to improve the defect of the measurements, system for assessment of gamma dose distribution during preventive maintenance period by using computational code was suggested in this study. First, activity of major corrosion products was calculated by using modified CRUDSIM code. Original CRUDSIM code was modified to add evaluation of other major corrosion products besides cobalt isotopes. Modeling of containment building for YGN Unit 3 was then performed. Gamma dose distribution by major corrosion products inside the containment building was calculated by using MCNPX code. Finally, the calculations were mapped for whole space inside the containment building and were compared with the measurements. As a result of this study, the defect of the measurement are supplemented by using computational calculation system, and it is expected that workers can make an effective work plan through providing dose distribution inside the containment building in advance. In addition, this study can be applied to technology development to make an effective containment shielding design of the next generation reactor as well as an improvement of the safety for workers in nuclear power plant

  14. Corrosion inhibitors for neutral aqueous media based on the products on sugar cane processing. 1.Furfural derivatives as inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledovskikh, V.M.; Kamekho Khinnebra, Kh.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    A series of carboxy-, nitrogen- and nitroderivaties of furfural - the main product of sugar cane processing (furancasboxylic acid, 5-nitrofurancarboxylic acid and its salts, furfurine, furfurylamine) was studied as inhibitors of iron and copper, corrosion in aqueous-salt media. Nitrofuroates of sodium and ammonium, which decelerate anode process, intensity cathode one and provide the stable passive state, are considered to be the most effective

  15. High Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Materials for Power Production through Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Nielsen, Karsten agersted

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures on selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. An experimental...... facility has been established wherein the planned exposures are completed. Specimens were exposed in combined synthetic flue gas at temperatures up to 900C. The specimens could be cooled to 300C below the gas temperature. Gas flow and gas mixture can be varied according to the conditions found in a power......) on the corrosion progress has been investigated.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525C, 600C and 700C. The ashes utilised are from a straw-fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed...

  16. CORROSION AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED FOR MINCED MEAT PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    measurements. Combined sliding wear and corrosion conditions have been simulated in laboratory using a block-on-ring setup allowing for electrochemical measurements. Detailed information concerning the mechanism of possible material degradation is provided by these results, together with microstructural...

  17. A mechanism for corrosion product deposition on the carbon steel piping in the residual heat removal system of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Chiba, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ishizawa, Noboru

    2002-01-01

    The dose rate of the residual heat removal (RHR) piping has been considered to be caused by accumulation of insoluble (crud) radioactive corrosion products on carbon steel surfaces. Soft shutdown procedures (i.e., plant shutdown with moderate coolant temperature reduction rate) used to be applied to reduce crud radioactivity release from the fuel surface, but these are no longer used because of the need for shorter plant shutdown times. In order to apply other suitable countermeasures to reduce RHR dose rate, assessment of plant data, experiments on deposition of crud and ion species on carbon steel, and mass balance evaluation of radioactive corrosion products based on plant and laboratory data were carried out and the following findings were made. (1) Deposits of ion species on carbon steel surfaces of the RHR piping was much more numerous than for crud. (2) Ion species accumulation behavior on RHR piping, which is temperature dependent, can be evaluated with the calculation model used for the dehydration reaction of corrosion products generated during the wet lay-up period. (3) Deposition amounts could be reduced to 1/2.5 when the starting RHR system operation temperature was lowered from 155degC to 120degC. (author)

  18. X-ray diffraction phase analysis of crystalline copper corrosion products after treatment in different chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielova, M.; Seidlerova, J.; Weiss, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion products Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl, Cu 2 O, and CuCl 2 were identified on the surface of copper plates after their four days treating in three different sodium chloride, sodium/magnesium, and sodium/calcium chloride solutions using X-ray diffraction powder analysis. However, the quantitative proportions of individual corrosion products differ and depend on the type of chloride solution used. Treating of copper plates only in the sodium chloride solution produced the mixture of corrosion products where Cu 2 O is prevailing over the Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl and CuCl 2 was not identified. The sample developed after treating of the cooper surface in the sodium/magnesium chloride solution contains Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl and CuCl 2 prevailing over the Cu 2 O, while the sample developed after treatment of copper in sodium/calcium chloride solution contains Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl prevailing over CuCl 2 and Cu 2 O was not identified

  19. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus.

  20. Corrosion of carbon steel in contact with bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, D.; Vokal, A.; Bruha, P.

    2010-01-01

    of approximately 2-3 mm/yr in bentonite pore water solution. No significant pressure increase was observed due to generation of hydrogen. The results of surprising behaviour of carbon steels in bentonite could be explained by the different composition of solution after granitic water flow through bentonite or by hypothesis based on our modelling experiments that corrosion rate increase is caused by so called pumping effect of bentonite which is in turn caused by different solubilities of corrosion products in the corrosion layer and bentonite. Influence of corrosion products on bentonite is another important question. It was clearly visible that the transport of corrosion products into Volclay bentonite is approximately 1 mm after 30 days of corrosion at 70 deg. C. The reason why no pressure increase was observed due to hydrogen evolution could be explained by higher rate of hydrogen transport in bubbles than is its evolution rate. But these hydrogen bubbles might be also accumulated between carbon steel layer and bentonite what results in inhomogeneity of corrosion layer. The results achieved significantly affect performance assessment of concept of disposal with carbon steel and bentonite. Only rather short term (30 days) experiments were carried out. In the next period longer experiments will have to give answer if the increase of corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with bentonite is transient or will last for long time. (authors)

  1. Transport and agricultural productivity: A cross-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sike Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure plays a significant role in the development of agriculture. In this study we examine the relationship between transport and agricultural performance by employing the World Bank’s roads infrastructure indicators. Based on a cross-country sample, a classic method is employed to test the hypothesis that better transport fosters agricultural productivity. The empirical results of the method support the hypothesis. As for this method, the estimation results of the widely-used inter-country aggregate agricultural production function describe that a country with better transport can produce more agricultural outputs given the same amounts of agricultural inputs and the same education level. Our empirical work lends support to the claim of Gollin and Rogerson (2010 [19] that transport is a basic factor explaining the poor economic performance of many developing countries, apart from physical and education investments, more emphasis should be placed on improving the transport infrastructure of these countries.

  2. High temperature salt corrosion cracking of intermediate products of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyavskij, V.S.; Usova, V.V.; Lunina, S.I.; Kushakevich, S.A.; Makhmutova, E.A.; Khanina, Z.K.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature salt corrosion cracking (HTSCC) of intermediate products from titanium base alloys in the form of hot rolled plates and rods has been studied. The investigated materials are as follows: VT20 pseudo-α-alloy, VT6 and VT14 α+β alloys; the comparison has been carried out with commercial titanium and low-alloyed OT4-1 α-alloy. The experiments have been held at 400 and 500 deg C, defining different stress levels: 0.4; 0.5; 0.75 and 0.9 tausub(0.2). The test basis - not less than 100 h. Standard tensile samples of circular cross section with NaCl (approximately 0.2-0.3 mg/cm 2 ) salt coatings, cut off from hot-rolled rods along the direction of rolling and hot-rolled plates along and across the direction of rolling have been tested. It has been extablished before hand that the notch doesn't affect the resistance of titanium alloys to HTSCC. The sensitivity of titanium alloy subproducts to HTSCC is estimated as to the time until the failure of the sample with salt coatings and without them. It is shown that salt coating practically doesn't affect the behaviour of titanium, that allows to consider it to be resistant to HTSCC. Titanium alloys alloying with β-isomorphous stabilizing additions increases it's HTSCC resistance. Vanadium alloying of the alloy (VT6 alloy of Ti-Al-V system) produces a favourable effect; intermediate products of VT14 (α+β) alloy (Ti-Al-V-Mo system), containing two β-stabilizing additions-vanadium and molybdenum, have satisfactory HTSCC resistance. It is shown that by changes is mechanical properties of alloys during HTSCC one can indirectly judge about their HTSCC sensitivity

  3. Thermochromatographic investigations of fission product transport and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growcock, F.B.; Aronson, S.; Friedlander, M.; Skalyo, J. Jr.; Hosseini, A.; Taylor, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A thermochromatographic technique has been developed to investigate the chemical states of fission products from irradiated fuel as well as in fission product simulation studies. Some recent work on iodine transport and on release of fission products from irradiated fuel kernels will be discussed

  4. Basic aspects of the carbon dioxide corrosion in oil and gas production; Aspectos basicos de la corrosion por dioxido de carbono en la produccion de petroleo y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo Macias, J.

    2010-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a non-corrosive gas within the driven conditions in the oil and gas industry, but the presence of water converts it, maybe, in the most important component in the corrosive processes in this industry. Corrosion has an important impact inside the oil and gas companies, no only in economics but also in safety, environmental and social aspects. After several decades of investigation of these corrosion processes, there are still several mechanisms not fully understood. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Basic facts about the transport of packaged radioactive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The pamphlet on the ''basic facts about the transport of packaged radioactive products'' was prepared by Amersham International for the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Details of the regulations that apply to transport, the handling of radioactive materials and the precautions to be taken are all outlined, along with what should be done if a package of radioactive materials is damaged and how packages of radioactive materials can be recognised. (UK)

  6. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF{sub 6} and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF{sub 6} management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF{sub 6} transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF{sub 6} are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF{sub 6} is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF{sub 6} handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF{sub 6} operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1980 SAS Transport Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1980 SAS Transport Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains housing and population demographics from the 1980 Summary Tape File...

  8. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  9. Stochastic theory of fatigue corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyun

    1999-10-01

    A stochastic theory of corrosion has been constructed. The stochastic equations are described giving the transportation corrosion rate and fluctuation corrosion coefficient. In addition the pit diameter distribution function, the average pit diameter and the most probable pit diameter including other related empirical formula have been derived. In order to clarify the effect of stress range on the initiation and growth behaviour of pitting corrosion, round smooth specimen were tested under cyclic loading in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  10. Standard test method for determining susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of 2XXX and 7XXX Aluminum alloy products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for characterizing the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength aluminum alloy wrought products for the guidance of those who perform stress-corrosion tests, for those who prepare stress-corrosion specifications, and for materials engineers. 1.2 This test method covers method of sampling, type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility to SCC of 2XXX (with 1.8 to 7.0 % copper) and 7XXX (with 0.4 to 2.8 % copper) aluminum alloy products, particularly when stressed in the short-transverse direction relative to the grain structure. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and de...

  11. 29 CFR 788.11 - “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTransporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant... EMPLOYED § 788.11 “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation terminal.” The transportation or movement of logs or other forestry products to a “mill processing...

  12. Ab Initio investigation of chloroaqualead (II) complexes as possible corrosion products in Super Critical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzelj, D.; Pye, C.C., E-mail: diki1979@hotmail.com, E-mail: cory.pye@smu.ca [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    One of the undesirable processes hindering development of Generation IV SCWR is the possibility of corrosion of construction material. Formation of corrosion products such as metal-ligand complexes is poorly understood both experimentally and computationally. It is essential to predict and control its water chemistry to ensure sustainability of SCWR. Pressurized and heated solutions are challenging for experimental research; computational method becomes an important research tool. A series of ab initio calculations of chloroaqualead (II) complexes have been performed at HF, MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with CEP-121G, LANL2DZ, SDD basis sets for Pb and 6-31G*, 6-31+G*, 6-311+G* for water. (author)

  13. Corrosion behavior of stainless steel in bio diesel production; Comportamento quanto a corrosao de acos inoxidaveis na producao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, E.F. de [ArcelorMittal Sao Paulo Servicos, SP (Brazil); Moreira, M.C.; Lebrao, S.M.G. [Centro Universitario do Instituto Maua de Tecnologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: susana.lebrao@maua.br

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel has become more attractive due to the benefits to the environment, mainly because it is a renewable resource. However, the main barrier to biodiesel is it cost. One factor which is charged to marketing is the use of stainless steel throughout the production line, the most used is AISI 304. To evaluate more economical stainless steels, weight loss and stress corrosion tests were performed on samples of AISI 304 and 439 in methanol PS X30% sodium methylate solution, crude soybean oil, glycerol and biodiesel for about two hundred and fifty days. The mass loss was negligible, and there was complete absence of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in all media studied, showing that both alloys are suitable for the manufacture of such equipment. (author)

  14. Ab Initio investigation of chloroaqualead (II) complexes as possible corrosion products in Super Critical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzelj, D.; Pye, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    One of the undesirable processes hindering development of Generation IV SCWR is the possibility of corrosion of construction material. Formation of corrosion products such as metal-ligand complexes is poorly understood both experimentally and computationally. It is essential to predict and control its water chemistry to ensure sustainability of SCWR. Pressurized and heated solutions are challenging for experimental research; computational method becomes an important research tool. A series of ab initio calculations of chloroaqualead (II) complexes have been performed at HF, MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with CEP-121G, LANL2DZ, SDD basis sets for Pb and 6-31G*, 6-31+G*, 6-311+G* for water. (author)

  15. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S

    2004-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs{sup +} and/or Sr{sup 2+} sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  16. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  17. Electrochemical formation of carbonated corrosion products on carbon steel in deaerated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refait, Ph.; Bourdoiseau, J.A.; Jeannin, M.; Nguyen, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Green rust is electro-generated at low NaHCO 3 concentration (0.003 mol dm −3 ). ► Chukanovite and carbonated green rust are obtained in NaHCO 3 + Na 2 SO 4 deaerated electrolytes. ► The mechanisms of formation of carbonated corrosion products of carbon steel are specified. - Abstract: To investigate the nature and properties of carbonated rust layers, carbon steel electrodes were polarised anodically at a potential ∼100–200 mV higher than the open circuit potential in NaHCO 3 solutions (0.003, 0.1 and 1 mol dm −3 ) continuously deaerated by an argon flow. X-ray diffraction and μ-Raman spectroscopy were used to identify the electro-generated compounds. GR(CO 3 2− ) (=Fe II 4 Fe III 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 ·4H 2 O) is observed at 0.003 and 0.1 mol dm −3 NaHCO 3 whereas FeCO 3 is obtained at the largest concentration (1 mol dm −3 ). GR(CO 3 2− ) is accompanied by magnetite Fe 3 O 4 at the lowest NaHCO 3 concentration. The current density decreases to negligible values in each case, indicating that a passive film also forms independently of the nature of the carbonated compound. Experiments were performed similarly in solutions of NaHCO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 . Chukanovite Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 could be obtained in solutions containing 0.03 mol dm −3 of each salt. In contrast with the results obtained in the solutions free of sulphate, the current density remains important during the formation of the rust layer

  18. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  19. Corrosion and flow resistance of metal filter elements used in the cleanup of syngas from the Transport Gasifier at the Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Dahlin; E. Carl Landham; Xiaofeng Guan [Southern Research Institute, Wilsonville, AL (United States). Power Systems Development Facility

    2008-07-01

    At the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), a variety of filter elements and failsafes are being tested for the cleanup of coal-generated syngas from the Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) Transport Gasifier. Thus far, no evidence of corrosion or plugging has been found in the HR-160 failsafes or sinterned metal fiber elements. However, a progressive corrosion and increase in pressure drop has been noted in the iron aluminide elements. The corrosion was first detected as reddish-brown spots of iron oxide after about 2,000 to 3,000 hours of syngas exposure. As the corrosion progressed, the spots of iron oxide merged to form a continuous scale after about 5,000 to 5,500 hours of exposure. With additional exposure, a black scale containing iron sulfide also appeared, and localized areas of sulfidation and plugging were noted in element cross sections. These effects have not resulted in any significant reduction in tensile strength, but a gradual increase in the clean element pressure drop has been noted. Flow test results suggest that there is an interaction between the corroded filter surface and the dustcake that effectively increases the residual cake flow resistance and baseline pressure drop. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Research and development on is process components for hydrogen production. (2) Corrosion resistance of glass lining in high temperature sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Terada, Atsuhiko; Onuki, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a research and development on hydrogen production system using High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. As a part of this effort, thermochemical water-splitting cycle featuring iodine- and sulfur-compounds (IS process) is under development considering its potential of large-scale economical hydrogen production. The IS process constitutes very severe environments on the materials of construction because of the corrosive nature of process chemicals, especially of the high temperature acidic solution of sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid dissolving iodine. Therefore, selection of the corrosion-resistant materials and development of the components has been studied as a crucial subject of the process development. This paper discusses corrosion resistance of commercially available glass-lining material in high temperature sulfuric acid. Corrosion resistance of a soda glass used for glass-lining was examined by immersion tests. The experiments were performed in 47-90wt% sulfuric acids at temperatures of up to 400degC and for the maximum immersion time of 100 hours using an autoclave designed for the concerned tests. In every condition tested, no indication of localized corrosion such as defect formation or pitting corrosion was observed. Also, the corrosion rates decreased with the progress of immersion, and were low enough (≅0.1 mm/year) after 60-90 hours of immersion probably due to formation of a silica rich surface. (author)

  1. Pair production from nuclear collisions and cosmic ray transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbury, John W

    2006-01-01

    Modern cosmic ray transport codes, that are capable of use for a variety of applications, need to include all significant atomic, nuclear and particle reactions at a variety of energies. Lepton pair production from nucleus-nucleus collisions has not been included in transport codes to date. Using the methods of Baur, Bertulani and Baron, the present report provides estimates of electron-positron pair production cross sections for nuclei and energies relevant to cosmic ray transport. It is shown that the cross sections are large compared to other typical processes such as single neutron removal due to strong or electromagnetic interactions. Therefore, lepton pair production may need to be included in some transport code applications involving MeV electrons. (brief report)

  2. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

  3. The Spread of Corrosion in Cast Iron and its Effect on the Life Cycle of Transportation Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Binar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the spread of corrosion in material at different exposure times, and its effect on the measured brittle fracture and notch impact strength under different temperature conditions. To assess the degradational effect of corrosion on the material characteristics represented by the measured impact strength, we conducted a fractographic analysis of fracture surfaces, the aim of which was to evaluate the spread of corrosion in the material. In the first part of the experiment, two corrosion tests are simulated with a duration time of 432 and 648 hours, to compare the degradation effect of corrosion on the notch impact strength, depending on the duration of the corrosion tests. The following part shows the results of the impact bending test, where the experiment was conducted in an area of reduced and increased temperatures. The final part summarizes the results of the fractographic analysis of sample fracture surfaces from the impact bending tests. Based on the measured the length of the corrosion cracks, we analyzed the sample at the notch and from the material surface after the impact bending test.

  4. Visual analytics for production and transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wörner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing sector, as any major part of the economy, is facing new challenges in the increasing pace at which its business environment changes on both the local and the global scale. Globalization increases competition, but it also opens up new markets with customers that may have very different needs and expectations. Emerging markets typically offer inexpensive labour and low production costs whereas the established markets focus on technological sophistication and highly qualified w...

  5. Analysis of corrosion products in some metallic statuettes of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (MAE-USP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Lima, Silvia Cunha; Melo, Hercilio G.; Neiva, Augusto C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent acquisition of a sealed chamber with controlled humidity by the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of the University of Sao Paulo (MAE-USP) requires new methods for conservation and restoration of metallic objects in its collection. To establish new procedures for the identification of corrosion mechanisms and agents in the exhibition environment, and to set up new standards for conservation of the museum's collection, Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) elementary analysis of some metallic objects is in progress, using the external beam facility at LAMFI. The first analysis involved metallic objects from the collection of MAE, two African statuettes 'male Edans' from the Ogboni Secret Society, of the Ilobu-Ioruba ethnic group, one pectoral adornment from the Chimu culture, Peru and one anthropomorphic pendant from the Tairona culture, Colombia. The in air non destructive PIXE analysis allowed identifying major and some secondary components in the alloys and in the corrosion products on the samples, data that were used to identify the corrosion sources and to set up the exhibition environment. (author)

  6. Summary of procedures used to transport and distribute consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    A wide variety of consumer products that contain radionuclides are available to the general public. Estimation of radiation doses to man from exposures to these products requires that the entire life span of each product be defined in a manner that identifies persons who may be exposed and quantifies the conditions under which exposures may occur. This paper presents models of steps which make up the paths for transportation and distribution of consumer products. Fire probabilities and damage rates to parcels during transportation are included. Transportation steps considered include those used to move parcels via truck, air, first-class mail, and parcel delivery. Distribution steps include handling in distribution centers, warehouses, and retail stores. A hypothetical distribution scheme is presented to illustrate application of the exposure scenarios described in model

  7. Reaction products and corrosion of molybdenum electrode in glass melt containing antimony oxides and sodium sulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, J.; Langrová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 280-285 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : antimony oxides * corrosion * glass melt * Molybdenum electrode * sulfate Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_03_280.pdf

  8. Spectroscopic study of the final protective corrosion product on weathering steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M.; Misawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the structure and properties of final protective rust layer on weathering steel and its application for structural steels is shown based on the data obtained mainly by spectroscopic characterization. The main constituent of the weathering steel rust layer is changed with exposure period from γ- FeOOH (less than a few years) via, amorphous substance (several years), to α-FeOOH goethite phase (decades). The corrosion rate of the weathering steel decreased with this phase transformation. The final protective rust layer possesses the structure of α- (Fe 1 - X p Cr x)O OH, Cr substitute goethite; the crystal size decreases with its Cr-content. It is shown that the Cr content in the Cr-substituted goethite increases gradiently with reaching the rust/steel interface. This increase in the Cr content and resultant aggregation of fine crystals lead a densely packed Cr-substituted goethite rust layers which provides higher protective ability for atmospheric corrosives. It is found that the Cr-substituted goethite possesses the cation selective ability at the vicinity of the rust/steel interface where the Cr content can be estimated approximately 5-10 mass %. Thus, the final protective rust layer of the Cr-substituted goethite impedes the penetration of aggressive corrosive anions such as Cl - and SO 4 2- , besides the physically prevention effect of its densely aggregated structure for corrosive penetration. It is found that Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 is effective for obtaining the final protective rust layer in a short period. SO 4 2 accelerates rust formation and Cr 3- substitutes goethite crystal lattice point at the initial stage of corrosion; resultantly the rust layer formed suppresses dissolution of the steel even in the severe environment. (Author)

  9. Fission product transport at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; Cox, T.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three Mile Island Unit 2 radionuclide analyses are reviewed and summarized in order to determine how fission products moved to various parts of the reactor system at the time of the accident. Despite high fuel temperatures and major core damage, the core retained a very large fraction of most radionuclides. Reactor coolant, either remaining in the primary system or released to various sumps and tanks, retained significant quantities of cesium and iodine. Noble gases were effectively retained within the containment building with the exception of small releases to the environment. Long-term deposition and retention on vessel, piping, and bulding surfaces were insignificant for all isotopes examined. The measured partitioning of radionuclides within these systems is tabulated and recommendations for additional analyses are presented

  10. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)

  11. Interdependence between iron ore production and maritime transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The maritime industry plays an important role in international trade, transporting a total of 10,1 billion tons of merchandise in 2015, representing over 80% of all global trade, with dry cargo estimated to account for over two thirds of the total seaborne trade. Bulk carriers supply the raw materials needed by the steel industry and container ships transport the steel products. Demand and supply for seaborne transport is influenced by trends in global economy and worldwide demand for commodities. The paper analyzes the most important economic determinants in the supply of metallurgical raw materials, highlighting the importance of the shipping sector.

  12. Estimation of the heat generation in vitrified waste product and shield thickness of the cask for the transportation of vitrified waste product using Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, A.K.; Jakhete, A.P.; Mehta, D.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    High Level Liquid waste (HLW) generated during reprocessing of spent fuel contains most of the radioactivity present in the spent fuel resulting in the need for isolation and surveillance for extended period of time. Major components in HLW are the corrosion products, fission products such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 144 Ce, 125 Sb etc, actinides and various chemicals used during reprocessing of spent fuel. Fresh HLW having an activity concentration of around 100Ci/l is to be vitrified into borosilicate glass and packed in canisters which are placed in S.S overpacks for better confinement. These overpacks contain around 0.7 Million Curies of activity. Characterisation of activity in HLW and activity profile of radionuclides for various cooling periods sets the base for the study. For transporting the vitrified waste product (VWP), two most important parameters is the shield thickness of the transportation cask and the heat generation in the waste product. This paper describes the methodology used in the estimation of lead thickness for the transportation cask using the Monte Carlo Technique. Heat generation due to decay of fission products results in the increase in temperature of the vitrified waste product during interim storage and disposal. Glass being the material, not having very high thermal conductivity, temperature difference between the canister and surrounding bears significance in view of the possibility of temperature based devitrification of VWP. The heat generation in the canister and the overpack containing vitrified glass is also estimated using MCNP. (author)

  13. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques......Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  14. SRB seawater corrosion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  15. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  16. The study on the magnetic filter using the rotation of permanent magnets for separation of radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.C.; Lee, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the insoluble radioactive corrosion products have the characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetism. Along with the new development and production of permanent magnets which generate much stronger magnetic field than conventional permanent magnets, new type of magnetic filter that can separate radioactive corrosion products efficiently and eventually reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel at a nuclear power plant is suggested. This new type of separator with novel geometry consists of an inner and an outer magnet assembly, a coolant channel and a container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The particulates are separated from the coolant by the alternating magnetic fields that are generated by shift arrangement of permanent magnets. This study describes of experimental results performed with the different flow rates, rotation velocities of magnet assemblies, particle size and various materials. The efficiency of magnetic filter tends to increase as the flow rate is lower, and particle size is bigger. The rotating velocity of magnet assembly has also some influences on the separation efficiency. This new magnetic filter shows good performance results in filtering magnetite, cobalt ferrite and nickel ferrite except hematite, which is a kind of anti-ferromagnetic material, from aqueous coolant simulation. At the above 5 μm of particle size, the separation efficiencies are over than 90%. (author)

  17. Development of moving alternating magnetic filter using permanent magnet for removal of radioactive corrosion product from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. C.; Kim, S. I.; Lee, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive Corrosion Products (CRUD) which are generated by the neutron activation of general corrosion products at the nuclear power plant are the major source of occupational radiation exposure. Most of the CRUD has a characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetisms. Along with the new development and production of permanent magnet (rare earth magnet) which generates much stronger magnetic field than the conventional magnet, new type of magnetic filter that can separate CRUD efficiently and eventually reduce radiation exposure of personnel at nuclear power plant is suggested. This separator consists of inner and outer magnet assemblies, coolant channel and container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The rotational motion of the inner and outer permanent magnet assemblies surrounding the coolant channel by driving motor system produces moving alternating magnetic fields in the coolant channel. The CRUD can be separated from the coolant by the moving alternating magnetic field. This study describes the results of preliminary experiment performed with the different flow rates of coolant and rotation velocities of magnet assemblies. This new magnetic filter shows better performance results of filtering the magnetite at coolant (water). Flow rates, rotating velocities of magnet assemblies and particle sizes turn out to be very important design parameters

  18. Inhibitor effect on corrosion of titanium alloys in muriatic solutions of titanium-magnesium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrunov, Yu.V.; Volynskij, V.V.; Kolobov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    Corrosion tests of titanium alloys VTI-0, OT4, VT5-1 and steel Kh18N1OT in 10% and 18% HCl with additions of carnallite at 40 deg C have been carried out. It has been established that titanium alloys in 10% and 18% HCl containing 5 and 10% carnallite are sufficiently corrosion resistant in the presence of 0.1-1% FeCl or HNO 3 and can be used for manufacturing the equipment of recirculation gas scrubbers. Steel Kh18N10T is unstable in all the media tested. It is subjected to intensive pitting. Specimens of steel Kh18N10T have also revealed edge cracking

  19. Components made of corrosion-resistent zirconium alloy and method for its production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanneman, R.E.; Urquhart, A.W.; Vermilyea, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a method to increase the resistance of zirconium alloys to blister corrosion which mainly occurs in boiling-water nuclear reactors. According to the method described, the surface of the alloy body is coated with a thin film of a suitable electronically conducting material. Gold, silver, platinum, nickel, chromium, iron and niobium are suitable as coating materials. The invention is more closely explained by means of examples. (GSC) [de

  20. Corrosion and anticorrosion. Industrial practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.; Mazille, H.

    2002-01-01

    This book comprises 14 chapters written with the collaboration of about 50 French experts of corrosion. It is complementary to another volume entitled 'corrosion of metals and alloys' and published by the same editor. This volume comprises two parts: part 1 presents the basic notions of corrosion phenomena, the properties of surfaces, the electrochemical properties of corrosion etc.. Part 2 describes the most frequent forms of corrosion encountered in industrial environments and corresponding to specific problems of protection: marine environment, atmospheric corrosion, galvanic corrosion, tribo-corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The first 8 chapters (part 1) treat of the corrosion problems encountered in different industries and processes: oil and gas production, chemical industry, phosphoric acid industry, PWR-type power plants, corrosion of automobile vehicles, civil engineering and buildings, corrosion of biomaterials, non-destructive testing for the monitoring of corrosion. The other chapters (part 2) deal with anticorrosion and protective coatings and means: choice of materials, coatings and surface treatments, thick organic coatings and enamels, paints, corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection. (J.S.)

  1. Coupling between corrosion and biphasic transport in porous media: Application to the evolution of a radioactive wastes disposal; Couplage entre corrosion et comportement diphasique dans un milieu poreux: Application a l'evolution d'un stockage des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dridi, W

    2005-04-15

    In the actual concepts of geological disposal, high level radioactive wastes are packed in metallic containers surrounded by a partially or totally saturated clay media. In contact with the interstitial water, anoxic corrosion of this container will start producing hydrogen. In the scope of safety assessment, the present study deals with two main topics: prediction of the long-term corrosion of carbon steel with respect to clay water content and evaluation of the risk of damage of the clay barrier related to gas production. Elementary processes controlling the kinetics of corrosion are limited to oxide growth and mass transfer through the porosity of this film. Thanks to a macroscopic description of theses processes, followed by an interfacial kinetic law, a mechanistic modeling of the anoxic corrosion in partially saturated porous media is proposed. This approach is validated when confronted to the long-term corrosion tests performed in saturated clay. Both modeling and laboratory experiments have confirmed that kinetics of anoxic corrosion in partially saturated clay is mainly controlled by the surrounding relative humidity as in the case of aerated or atmospheric corrosion. In the gas generation topic, some numerical simulations are performed concerning the oedometric and triaxial test dealing with gas migration in saturated clay. Finally, long-term calculations are conducted concerning hydro-mechanical impact of corrosion in deep geological repositories. Due to a more realistic prediction of the long-term corrosion, the risks of gas overpressures, local desaturation and mechanical damage are reduced. (author)

  2. Non-equilibrium dilepton production in hadronic transport approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmaier, Jan; Weil, Janus; Petersen, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    In this work the non-equilibrium dilepton production from a hadronic transport approach (SMASH) is presented. The dilepton emission from the hadronic stage is of interest for current HADES results measured at GSI in the beam energy range from 1.25 - 3.5 GeV. Also at high collision energies (RHIC/LHC) the later dilute stages of the reaction are dominated by hadronic dynamics. The newly developed hadronic transport approach called SMASH (=Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-interacting Hadrons) is introduced first. After explaining the basic interaction mechanisms, a comparison of elementary cross sections for pion production to experimental data is shown. The dilepton production within SMASH is explained in detail. The main contribution to the dilepton spectra in the low energy regime of GSI/FAIR/RHIC-BES originates from resonance decays. Results of the dilepton production with SMASH such as invariant mass spectra are shown. (paper)

  3. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  4. Integrating transportation and production: an international study case

    OpenAIRE

    L Bertazzi; O Zappa

    2012-01-01

    The problem we study is inspired by the real case of Mesdan S.p.A., an Italian company worldwide leader in the textile machinery sector, which has two production units with two warehouses, one located in Italy (Brescia) and the other in China (Foshan). The critical point in this logistic system is the integration between production and transportation management, given the long distance between Brescia and Foshan. Shipments are performed by the means of different types of vehicles with differe...

  5. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  6. Investigations on the determination of corrosion kinetics and the structure of corrosion products on high-temperature alloys under low oxygen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poestges, A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1979-04-01

    On three nickel-base-alloys (NIMONIC 80A, INCONNEL 617 and ALLOY 713LC), which are planned as materials for components of the primary cooling circuit of high-temperature reactors, studies for the determination of the oxidation behaviour under reactor relevant conditions were performed. The test conditions were fixed at an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -16 bars with a total pressure of 0,2 bars and a temperature of 1080 0 C. The use of the X-ray diffraction analysis on the oxidised samples of type NIMONIC 80A showed the corrosion products Cr 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating as well as Al 2 O 3 in the inner oxide zone. The samples of the alloy type INCOEL 617 showed the oxides Cr 2 O 3 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating. Samples of the alloy ALLOY 713LC showed Cr 2 O 3 and CrNbO 4 in the outer oxide coating and Al 2 O 3 in the zone of inner oxidation. Sufficient detection certainty was only ascertained by investigating samples with plane surface. For both alloys first mentioned, it was possible to prove the validity of the paralinear relationship W = k x t -1 / 2 - a x t for the increase in weight for the explanation of the time law of the oxidation. For the non-destructive determination of the oxide coating thickness on the alloys samples, the X-ray fluorescence analysis gave reproducible results of good precision. (orig.) [de

  7. Corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600

  8. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  9. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-01-01

    A shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks may be required but requirements for protection of the irradiated rods and radioactive contamination have not been finalized. This report documents the various possibilities for the container depending on the final requirements

  10. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-04-01

    The need for a shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks is addressed in this report. It is concluded that a shipping and storage container is not required. A recommendation is made to eliminate the requirement for this container because structural support and inerting requirements can be satisfied completely by the cask with a removable basket

  11. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25% by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental well-being. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be utilized to enhance yields of staple crops, incre...

  12. Reduction of the interlocking potential of sump sieves by corrosion products as consequence of loss-of-coolant accidents; Verminderung des Verblockungspotenzials von Sumpfansaugsieben durch Korrosionsprodukte nach Kuehlmittelverluststoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kryk, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluiddynamik

    2012-11-01

    In German nuclear power plants thermal insulation fragmentation as a consequence of loss-of-coolant accidents have not been identified, but recently significant pressure increase in the sump sieves due to corrosion products have been observed. The corrosion products are released from hot-galvanized steel grids by steam jet fragmentation. It was shown that critical deposition of corrosion products can occur in the long-term process of the accident. The hazard of sieve blocking could be reduced by zinc containing chemicals or an increase of the pH value (to about 6.7). The possibility of disadvantageous consequences of resulting chemical reactions has to be investigated in the future.

  13. First multi-scale investigation of an iron corrosion products/glass interface on an archaeological analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelin, A.; Neff, D.; Dillmann, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Lab. Pierre Sue, UMR 9956 CEA/CNRS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Michelin, A.; Gin, St. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. d' Etudes du Comportement a Long Terme des Materiaux de Conditionnement 30 (France); Robinet, L. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, IPANEMA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the context of nuclear waste storage, the French approach is to cast the high-level radioactive waste into a stable form and to bury them into a deep geological repository. This conditioning is based on a multi-barrier concept (glass matrix, steel container, overpack and geological barrier) and must ensure the durable confinement of radionuclides. But laboratory experiments do not permit to predict directly the behaviour of these materials over typically a million-year timescale and the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data to long time periods remains problematic. Part of the validation of the predictive models relies on natural and archaeological analogues. For that reason, blast furnace slags originating from a 16. century iron-making site (Glinet, Normandy) are studied. This material is composed of opaque glass containing cast iron balls. Thus, it represents a good analogue for long-term prediction of glass/iron alteration behaviour. Moreover, these artefacts were buried several centuries in a fine characterized anoxic environment which is the subject of field investigations. The aim of this study is to characterize interfacial zones using microbeam techniques (EDS/WDS for elemental information, EDS/TEM microanalysis, {mu}Raman, {mu}XAS under synchrotron radiation for structural analyses). First of all, corrosion products around cast iron balls have been identified as siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) and iron hydroxycarbonate (Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) using {mu}Raman and EDS microanalysis. Then the interface glass/corrosion products has been studied with the same techniques. A signal variation on Raman spectra is observed along the interface and EDS-SEM microanalysis points out a calcium depletion. It means that mass transfer exists between glass and iron-rich phases and this leads to the development of an altered zone of glass. However, this interface seems to be too thin for the resolution of these techniques. That

  14. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any reason...

  15. Corrosion behavior of environmental assessment glass in product consistency tests of extended duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.; Tam, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We have conducted static dissolution tests to study the corrosion behavior of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, which is the benchmark glass for high-level waste glasses being produced at US Department of Energy facilities. These tests were conducted to evaluate the behavior of the EA glass under the same long-term and accelerated test conditions that are being used to evaluate the corrosion of waste glasses. Tests were conducted at 90 C in a tuff groundwater solution at glass surface area/solution volume (WV) ratios of about 2000 and 20,000 m -1 . The glass dissolved at three distinct dissolution rates in tests conducted at 2000 m -1 . Based on the release of boron, dissolution within the first seven days occurred at a rate of about 0.65 g/(m 2 · d). The rate between seven and 70 days decreased to 0.009 g/(m 2 · d). An increase in the dissolution rate occurred at longer times after the precipitation of zeolite phases analcime, gmelinite, and an aluminum silicate base. The dissolution rate after phase formation was about 0.18 g/(m 2 · d). The formation of the same zeolite alteration phases occurred after about 20 days in tests at 20,000 m - . The average dissolution rate over the first 20 days was 0.5 g/(m 2 · d) and the rate after phase formation was about 0.20 g/(m 2 · d). An intermediate stage with a lower rate was not observed in tests at 20,000 m -1 . The corrosion behavior of EA glass is similar to that observed for other high-level waste glasses reacted under the same test conditions. The dissolution rate of EA glass is higher than that of other high-level waste glasses both in 7-day tests and after alteration phases form

  16. Strontium Concentrations in Corrosion Products from Residential Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    compounds are Sr2+SO4 (celestite) and Sr 2+ CO3 (strontianite). Naturally occurring Sr2+ compounds are highly soluble in water; consequently, Sr2+ is readily...and one from Utility C (UC) were collected from single 30 cm long sections of 15 cm id unlined cast iron residential mains. Two iron corrosion...in top-up mode at 7 GeV and a ring current of 101 mA. A 0.5 mm premonochromator slit width and a Si(111) double crystal monochromator detuned by 10

  17. Proposed method of the modeling and simulation of corrosion product behavior in the primary cooling system of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CP) are main cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance without fuel failure in FBR plants. In order to establish the techniques of radiation dose estimation for worker in radiation-controlled area, Program SYstem for Corrosion Hazard Evaluation code 'PSYCHE' has been developed. The PSYCHE is based on the Solution-Precipitation model. The CP transfer calculation using the Solution-Precipitation model needs a fitting factor for the calculation of the precipitation of CP. This fitting factor must be determined based on the measured values in reactors that have operating experience. For this reason, the inability to make accurate predictions for reactor without measured values is a major issue. In this study, in addition to existing Solution-Precipitation model in PSYCHE, a transfer-model of CP species in particle form was applied to calculations of CP behavior in the primary cooling system of fast breeder reactor MONJU. Based on the calculated results, we estimated the contribution of CP deposition in the particle-form. It was suggested that the improved model including transfer-model of CP species in particle-form could be used for evaluation of CP transfer and radiation-source distribution in place of conventional Solution-Precipitation model with fitting factor in the PSYCHE. Moreover, it was predicted that CP particles would tend to be deposited in region with high-flow rate of coolant. (author)

  18. Simulation of radioactive corrosion product in primary cooling system of Japanese sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Corrosion Product (CP) is a main cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance with no breached fuel in fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The most important CP is 54 Mn and 60 Co. In order to establish techniques of radiation dose estimation for radiation workers in radiation-controlled areas of the FBR, the PSYCHE (Program SYstem for Corrosion Hazard Evaluation) code was developed. We add the Particle Model to the conventional PSYCHE analytical model. In this paper, we performed calculation of CP transfer in JOYO using an improved calculation code in which the Particle Model was added to the PSYCHE. The C/E (calculated / experimentally observed) value for CP deposition was improved through use of this improved PSYCHE incorporating the Particle Model. Moreover, among the percentage of total radioactive deposition accounted for by CP in particle form, 54 Mn was estimated to constitute approximately 20% and 60 Co approximately 40% in the cold-leg region. These calculation results are consistent with the measured results for the actual cold-leg piping in the JOYO. (author)

  19. Characterisation of the surface topography, tomography and chemistry of fretting corrosion product found on retrieved polished femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M; Ward, M; Farrar, R; Freeman, R; Brummitt, K; Nolan, J; Neville, A

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the characterisation of the surface topography, tomography and chemistry of fretting corrosion product found on retrieved polished femoral stems. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FI-IR) were utilised in order to assess the surface morphology of retrieved Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacements and surface chemistry of the films found on the surface. Gross slip, plastic deformation and directionality of the surface were extensively seen on the proximal surfaces of the retrievals. A more corrosive phenomenon was observed in the distal regions of the stem, demonstrating a seemingly intergranular attack. Tribochemical reactions were seen to occur within the stem-cement interfaces with tribofilms being observed on the femoral stem and counterpart PMMA bone cement. XPS, TEM-EDX and FT-IR analyses demonstrated that the films present in the stem surfaces were a complex mixture of chromium oxide and amorphous organic material. A comparison between current experimental and clinical literature has been conducted and findings from this study demonstrate that the formation and chemistry of films are drastically influenced by the type of wear or degradation mechanism. Films formed in the stem-cement interface are thought to further influence the biological environment outside the stem-cement interface due to the formation of Cr and O rich films within the interface whilst Co is free to migrate away. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterisation of chloride transport and reinforcement corrosion in concrete under cyclic wetting and drying by electrical resistivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Concrete prisms were made with four cement types including cements with fly ash and/or blast furnace slag and three waterto- cement (w/c) ratios. Chloride penetration and corrosion of rebars were stimulated by subjecting prisms to cyclic loading with salt solution and drying. Concrete resistivity,

  1. Effect of air humidity on microstructure and phase composition of lithium deuteride corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Liu, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium deuteride samples are corroded by air with different relative humidity. • Show the structure and composition of fracture surface of corrosion particle. • The lithium carbonate formation is related to air humidity. • The lithium carbonate only exists in the surface of lithium hydroxide layer. • There is a concentration gradient of H 2 O across the lithium hydroxide layer. - Abstract: Lithium deuteride (LiD) was exposed to air for 600 min to determine the effect of air humidity on its microstructure and phase composition. XRD and XPS results revealed that LiOH and Li 2 CO 3 formed at relative humidity values of >30%, whereas only LiOH formed at values <20%. SEM and EDS images showed a clear LiOH layer; Li 2 CO 3 was confined to the surface of this layer. The schematic illustration revealed that the concentration gradient of H 2 O across the LiOH layer resulted in little Li 2 CO 3 formed in the layer. This work will contribute to increase understanding of LiD corrosion in air.

  2. Inspection indications, stress corrosion cracks and repair of process piping in nuclear materials production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of Schedule 40 Type 304 stainless steel piping in the process water system of the Savannah River Site reactors has provided indications of discontinuities in less than 10% of the weld heat affected zones. Pipe sections containing significant indications are replaced with Type 304L components. Post removal metallurgical evaluation showed that the indications resulted from stress corrosion cracking in weld heat-affected zones and that the overall weld quality was excellent. The evaluation also revealed weld fusion zone discontinuities such as incomplete penetration, incomplete fusion, inclusions, underfill at weld roots and hot cracks. Service induced extension of these discontinuities was generally not significant although stress corrosion cracking in one weld fusion zone was noted. One set of UT indications was caused by metallurgical discontinuities at the fusion boundary of an extra weld. This extra weld, not apparent on the outer pipe surface, was slightly overlapping and approximately parallel to the weld being inspected. This extra weld was made during a pipe repair, probably associated with initial construction processes. The two nearly parallel welds made accurate assessment of the UT signal difficult. The implications of these observations to the inspection and repair of process water systems of nuclear reactors is discussed

  3. Corrosion and Deterioration Testing in the Humid Tropic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    specimens while transporting the retrieved specimens back to the laboratories for detailed analysis . Preferably, each specimen should be wrapped...VEGETATION. Some types of vegetation tend to exude tannins , sugars, and other natural plant products which may support microbial growth and corrosion

  4. Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment Detection of Water (WP #205)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-12

    Internal corrosion of natural gas pipelines is the result of interaction between the inside pipe wall and impurities in the product being transported. Such interactions can lead to an overall loss of material thereby thinning the pipe wall and thus r...

  5. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  6. Determining the production capacity of train transportation for overburden removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knahl, G; Szabados, L; Nowotny, A

    1980-02-01

    Details of two computer programs developed at the Institute of Energetics in Leipzig, GDR for use on large BESM-6 computer of the Institute are provided. One is the so-called time funds program concentrating on coal and overburden output, production time requirements and time losses. The other is a simulation program for overburden removal by train. It includes 14 pieces of heavy mining equipment, six industrial consumers and a rail network with 80 connections and 40 trains. The program was used with success in 1979 and will be further developed. Additional utilization is seen in projecting transportation in new surface mines, optimizing rail transport in existing mines for the preparation of annual train transportation plans. (In German)

  7. Optimization for routing vehicles of seafood product transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenandi, I. A.; Juan, Y.; Budi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, increasing usage of marine products is creating new challenges for businesses of marine products in terms of transportation that used to carry the marine products like seafood to the main warehouse. This can be a problem if the carrier fleet is limited, and there are time constraints in terms of the freshness of the marine product. There are many ways to solve this problem, including the optimization of routing vehicles. In this study, this strategy is to implement in the marine product business in Indonesia with such an expected arrangement of the company to optimize routing problem in transportation with time and capacity windows. Until now, the company has not used the scientific method to manage the routing of their vehicle from warehouse to the location of marine products source. This study will solve a stochastic Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) with time and capacity windows by using the comparison of six methods and looking the best results for the optimization, in this situation the company could choose the best method, in accordance with the existing condition. In this research, we compared the optimization with another method such as branch and bound, dynamic programming and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Finally, we get the best result after running ACO algorithm with existing travel time data. With ACO algorithm was able to reduce vehicle travel time by 3189.65 minutes, which is about 23% less than existing and based on consideration of the constraints of time within 2 days (including rest time for the driver) using 28 tons capacity of truck and the companies need two units of vehicles for transportation.

  8. Regularity of optimal transport maps on multiple products of spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Figalli, Alessio; Kim, Young-Heon; McCann, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses regularity of optimal transport maps for cost="squared distance" on Riemannian manifolds that are products of arbitrarily many round spheres with arbitrary sizes and dimensions. Such manifolds are known to be non-negatively cross-curved [KM2]. Under boundedness and non-vanishing assumptions on the transfered source and target densities we show that optimal maps stay away from the cut-locus (where the cost exhibits singularity), and obtain injectivity and continuity of o...

  9. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  10. The effect of corrosion product CrF3 on thermo-physical properties of FLiNaK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Huiqin; Zhang Peng; An Xuehui; Zhao Sufang; Xie Leidong; Wang Wenfeng

    2016-01-01

    FLiNaK (LiF–NaF–KF: 46.5–11.5–42 mol%) is a promising candidate as the secondary loop coolant in molten salt reactor. The thermo-physical properties of pure FLiNaK and FLiNaK containing up to 6000 ppm (equivalent to mg/kg) corrosion product CrF 3 were measured. The results indicate that the effects of CrF 3 on melting point, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, density and thermal diffusivity of FLiNaK in liquid state are negligible within the allowable error range, meanwhile the change of thermal diffusivity is significant for FLiNaK in solid state. This work provides fundamental knowledge for the thermo-physical properties of coolant in molten salt reactor. (author)

  11. 49 CFR 195.589 - What corrosion control information do I have to maintain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What corrosion control information do I have to... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.589 What corrosion control... sufficient detail to demonstrate the adequacy of corrosion control measures or that corrosion requiring...

  12. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J; Kindbom, K [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Materials and corrosion programs sponsored by the Gas Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals briefly with the Gas Research Institute and its research in materials and corrosion. As a not-for-profit organization, the Gas Research Institute plans, finances, and manages applied and basic research and technological development programs associated with gaseous fuels. These programs are in the general areas of production, transportation, storage, utilization and conservation of natural and manufactured gases and related products. Research results, whether experimental or analytical, are evaluated and publicly disseminated. Materials and corrosion research is concentrated in the SNG from Coal and Non-fossil Hydrogen subprograms

  14. Moessbauer study of corrosion products formed on Fe80B20 and Fe40Ni40 (MoB)20 amorphous alloys in an SO2-polluted atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davalos, J.; Marco, J.F.; Gracia, M.; Gancedo, J.R.; Greneche, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    ICEMS, XPS, XRD, and AES have been used to study the corrosion layers formed on two metallic glasses, Fe 80 B 20 and Fe 40 Ni 40 (MoB) 20 (2605 and 2826 MB, Allied Company), exposed to an SO 2 -polluted humid atmosphere. The iron-containing corrosion products are the same found for pure iron in the same environment, but different relative concentrations were clearly evidenced by ICEMS results. Elemental sulphur, Ni(OH) 2 , and B(OH) 3 , the latter enriched at the surface, were found by XPS, XRD and AES. (orig.)

  15. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine...

  16. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  17. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-01

    consumption of gas. The evolution of the gas generation rate and of the cumulative gas volume during the time frame for safety assessment is then calculated. The outcome is used as input to the modelling of gas transport and the resulting build-up of gas pressure and gas induced water flow, which are used as safety function indicators. Uncertainties and options are combined into specific assessment cases, which are used to specify the expected ranges of safety-relevant parameters, to highlight the potential effects of mitigating measures aiming to decrease the amount of generated gas, and to identify areas where further research could provide the most benefit. The main outcome of the performance assessment is that for pessimistic base cases, and even for the upper bounding cases, gas production in the HLW and L/ILW repositories does not compromise the post-closure safety functions of the host rock and the engineered barriers. In all the cases explored there is a safety margin with regards to the defined assessment criteria. Moreover, there are several design options available that can further mitigate the consequences of gas production in the repositories if necessary. In both repository types, gas production is dominated by hydrogen resulting mainly from the corrosion of carbon steel. As a result, alternative emplacement and building technologies, alternative disposal canister materials, or treatment of metallic waste by melting could reduce the amount of repository-generated gas during the period for safety assessment. The build-up of gas overpressure and resulting pore water displacement could also be mitigated by thriving gas-consuming microorganisms or by tailoring the engineered gas transport system. (authors)

  18. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-15

    consumption of gas. The evolution of the gas generation rate and of the cumulative gas volume during the time frame for safety assessment is then calculated. The outcome is used as input to the modelling of gas transport and the resulting build-up of gas pressure and gas induced water flow, which are used as safety function indicators. Uncertainties and options are combined into specific assessment cases, which are used to specify the expected ranges of safety-relevant parameters, to highlight the potential effects of mitigating measures aiming to decrease the amount of generated gas, and to identify areas where further research could provide the most benefit. The main outcome of the performance assessment is that for pessimistic base cases, and even for the upper bounding cases, gas production in the HLW and L/ILW repositories does not compromise the post-closure safety functions of the host rock and the engineered barriers. In all the cases explored there is a safety margin with regards to the defined assessment criteria. Moreover, there are several design options available that can further mitigate the consequences of gas production in the repositories if necessary. In both repository types, gas production is dominated by hydrogen resulting mainly from the corrosion of carbon steel. As a result, alternative emplacement and building technologies, alternative disposal canister materials, or treatment of metallic waste by melting could reduce the amount of repository-generated gas during the period for safety assessment. The build-up of gas overpressure and resulting pore water displacement could also be mitigated by thriving gas-consuming microorganisms or by tailoring the engineered gas transport system. (authors)

  19. Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.

  20. Effectivity of fluoride treatment on hydrogen and corrosion product generation in temporal implants for different magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Javier; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; Marco, Iñigo; Hurtado, Iñaki; Sáenz de Argandoña, Eneko

    2013-12-01

    The increasing interest on magnesium alloys relies on their biocompatibility, bioabsorbility and especially on their mechanical properties. Due to these characteristics, magnesium alloys are becoming a promising solution to be used, as temporary implants. However, magnesium alloys must overcome their poor corrosion resistance. This article analyses the corrosion behaviour in phosphate-buffered saline solution of three commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B, WE43 and ZM21) as well as the influence of fluoride treatment on their corrosion behaviour. It is shown that the corrosion rate of all the alloys is decreased by fluoride treatment. However, fluoride treatment affects each alloy differently.

  1. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  2. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO 3 , which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N 2 , CO 2 -sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0 2 produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the 60 Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total 60 Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of 60 Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions

  3. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons.

  4. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO/sub 3/, which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/-sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0/sub 2/ produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the /sup 60/Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total /sup 60/Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of /sup 60/Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions.

  5. Vascular Canals in Permanent Hyaline Cartilage: Development, Corrosion of Nonmineralized Cartilage Matrix, and Removal of Matrix Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabner, Simone; Häusler, Gabriele; Böck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Core areas in voluminous pieces of permanent cartilage are metabolically supplied via vascular canals (VCs). We studied cartilage corrosion and removal of matrix degradation products during the development of VCs in nose and rib cartilage of piglets. Conventional staining methods were used for glycosaminoglycans, immunohistochemistry was performed to demonstrate collagens types I and II, laminin, Ki-67, von Willebrand factor, VEGF, macrophage marker MAC387, S-100 protein, MMPs -2,-9,-13,-14, and their inhibitors TIMP1 and TIMP2. VCs derived from connective tissue buds that bulged into cartilage matrix ("perichondrial papillae", PPs). Matrix was corroded at the tips of PPs or resulting VCs. Connective tissue stromata in PPs and VCs comprised an axial afferent blood vessel, peripherally located wide capillaries, fibroblasts, newly synthesized matrix, and residues of corroded cartilage matrix (collagen type II, acidic proteoglycans). Multinucleated chondroclasts were absent, and monocytes/macrophages were not seen outside the blood vessels. Vanishing acidity characterized areas of extracellular matrix degradation ("preresorptive layers"), from where the dismantled matrix components diffused out. Leached-out material stained in an identical manner to intact cartilage matrix. It was detected in the stroma and inside capillaries and associated downstream veins. We conclude that the delicate VCs are excavated by endothelial sprouts and fibroblasts, whilst chondroclasts are specialized to remove high volumes of mineralized cartilage. VCs leading into permanent cartilage can be formed by corrosion or inclusion, but most VCs comprise segments that have developed in either of these ways. Anat Rec, 300:1067-1082, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Performance of surrogate high-level waste glass in the presence of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Pan, Y.M.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide release from a waste package (WP) is a series of processes that depend upon the composition and flux of groundwater contacting the waste-forms (WF); the corrosion rate of WP containers and internal components made of Alloy 22, 316L SS, 304L SS and carbon steel; the dissolution rate of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); the solubility of radionuclides; and the retention of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases. In this study, forward reaction rate measurements were made on a surrogate HLW glass in the presence of FeCl 3 species. Results indicate that the forward reaction rate increases with an increase in the FeCl 3 concentration. The addition of FeCl 3 causes the drop in the pH due to hydrolysis of Fe 3+ ions in the solution. Results based on the radionuclide concentrations and dissolution rates for HLW glass and SNF indicate that the contribution from glass is similar to SNF at 75 deg C. (authors)

  7. Process for dissolving the radioactive corrosion products from internal surfaces in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a process for dissolving in the coolant flowing in a reactor the radioactive substances from the corrosion of the internal surfaces of the reactor to which they cling. When a reactor is operating, the fission occurring in the fuel generates gases and fission substances, such as iodine 131 and 133, cesium 134 and 137, molybdenum 99, xenon 133 and activates the structural materials of the reactor such as nickel by giving off cobalt 58 and similar substances. Under this invention an oxygen rich solution is injected in the reactor coolant after the temperature and pressure reduction stage, during the preparation prior to refuelling and repairs. The oxygen in the solution speeds up the release of cobalt 58 and other radioactive substances from the internal surfaces of the reactor and their dissolving in the oxygenated cold coolant at the start of the cooling procedures of the installation. This allows them to be removed by an ion exchanger before the reactor is emptied. By utilising this process, about half a day may be gained in refuelling time when this has to be done once a week [fr

  8. Estimation and analysis of multifactor productivity in truck transportation : 1987 - 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The analysis has three objectives: 1) to estimate multifactor : productivity (MFP) in truck transportation during : 1987-2003; 2) to examine changes in multifactor productivity : in U.S. truck transportation, over time, and : to compare these changes...

  9. Effect of climate change on crop production patterns with implications to transport flows and inland waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This project analyzed the demand for transportation capacity and changes in transportation flows on : inland waterways due to shifts in crop production patterns induced by climate change. Shifts in the crop : production mix have been observed in rece...

  10. Analysis of corrosions-products in tissue samples near surgical implants by means of LAMMA (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhaufen, C.

    1996-08-01

    In this work corrosion products of surgical implants in tissue samples were identified. For the characterization of the corrosion products the LAMMA 500 (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) was used. Additional analysis were made with the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) to determine the concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum in the tissues. In the first part several synthetic chromium- and molybdenum compounds were investigated with LAMMA. With the anionic mass spectra of the chromium-compounds it is possible to the oxidation state of chromium. The mass spectra of the synthetic compounds were used to identify, the compounds in the corrosion products. In the second part thin sections prepared from the tissue samples from the surrounding of the implants were analyzed. Several embedding and cutting methods were tested. Histological staining methods and LAMMA spectra were used to characterize the deposits in the tissue. Three different deposits were found in the tissue. In all tissues metal splinters from the implant were found. In most of the tissues iron-rich deposits were found, that were identified as iron-phosphate. As definitive corrosion products of the implant mixtures of chromium(III)phosphate, calcium molybdate, calcium phosphate and chromium(III) molybdate were identified. The ICP-MS results show in comparison to normal values, very high concentrations for chromium, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. These results support the conclusions based on LAMMA results. The results of these investigations clearly indicate, that stainless steel implants, are not corrosion-resistant in the body. Relatively high amounts of the constituents, of the implant dissolved, and are deposited as solid compounds in the tissue next to the implant. (author)

  11. Improved PFB operations: 400-hour turbine test results. [coal combustion products and hot corrosion in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal-burning reactor was used to provide hot effluent gases for operation of a small gas turbine. Preliminary tests determined the optimum operating conditions that would result in minimum bed particle carryover in the combustion gases. Solids were removed from the gases before they could be transported into the test turbine by use of a modified two stage cyclone separator. Design changes and refined operation procedures resulted in a significant decrease in particle carryover, from 2800 to 93 ppm (1.5 to 0.05 grains/std cu ft), with minimal drop in gas temperature and pressure. The achievement of stable burn conditions and low solids loadings made possible a 400 hr test of small superalloy rotor, 15 cm (6 in.) in diameter, operating in the effluent. Blades removed and examined metallographically after 200 hr exhibited accelerated oxidation over most of the blade surface, with subsurface alumina penetration to 20 micron m. After 400 hours, average erosion loss was about 25 micron m (1 mil). Sulfide particles, indicating hot corrosion, were present in depletion zones, and their presence corresponded in general to the areas of adherent solids deposit. Sulfidation appears to be a materials problem equal in importance to erosion.

  12. Advances in aluminium alloy products for structural applications in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, J.T.; Lege, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the needs of the aviation and automotive markets for structural materials and presents examples of developments of aluminum alloy products to fill these needs. Designers of aircraft desire materials which will allow them to design lightweight, cost-effective structures which have the performance characteristics of durability and damage tolerance. Their needs are being met by new and emerging materials varying from Al-Li alloys for thick structure, high-strength plate and extrusions for wings, and new monolithic and aluminum-fiber laminates for fuselages. Increase in fuel economy because of lighter weight structure is the driving force for aluminum alloys in the automotive market, and cost is extremely important. Mechanical properties for automotive use also depend on the application, and corrosion resistance must be adequate. For ''hang-on'' components such as fenders and hoods, formability is typically the limiting mechanical property. Strength must be adequate to resist denting at a thickness which offers cost-effective weight savings over steel. Because formability often decreases with increasing yield strength, alloys which are highly formable in the T4 temper and which age harden during the paint bake operation were developed. Alloys such as 6009 and 6010 are now being challenged by 2008, 6111 and 6016. Body structure components must be made from materials which absorb energy and fail gracefully during a crash. Such components for an automotive space frame are being die cast from an Al-Si-Mg alloy. These ductile die castings are joined to thin 6XXX extrusions which must combine formability, strength, ductility and the ability to deform plastically on impact. Bumpers must combine strength and adequate formability; in the event that current alloys are inadequate for future needs, a new 7XXX alloy offers an improved combination of properties. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis of Dipeptide Benzoylalanylglycine Methyl Ester and Corrosion Inhibitor Evaluation by Tafel Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurrahman, J.; Wahyuningrum, D.; Achmad, S.; Bundjali, B.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)

  14. Organic Contaminants and Treatment Chemicals in Steam-Water Cycles : Thermal stability, decomposition products and flow-accelerated corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moed, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Boiler feedwater and steam have to be of high purity, because of the susceptibility of the steam-water cycle to corrosion. Organic contaminants break down in boilers by hydrothermolysis, leading to the formation of organic acid anions, which are suspected to cause corrosion of steam-water cycle

  15. Stability studies needed to define the handling and transport conditions of sensitive pharmaceutical or biotechnological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Claude

    2011-12-01

    Many pharmaceutical or biotechnological products require transport using temperature-controlled systems to keep their therapeutic properties. There are presently no official guidelines for testing pharmaceutical products in order to define suitable transport specifications. After reviewing the current guidance documents, this paper proposes a methodology for testing pharmaceutical products and defining appropriate transport conditions.

  16. Numerical simulation of the detection of crack in reinforced concrete structures of NPP due to expansion of reinforcing corrosive products using Impact-Echo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morávka Š.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy boom is starting nowadays. But also current nuclear power plants (NPP are duty to certify their security for regular renewal of their operating licenses. NPP security can be significantly affected by defects of large amount of ageing reinforced concrete structures. Advanced Impact-Echo method seams to be very hopeful to cooperate at performing in-service inspections such structures. Just these in-service inspections are included in the first priority group of specific technical issues according to the recommendations of OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency, Commission on Safety of Nuclear Installation in the field of ageing management.This paper continues of extensive project dealing with Impact-Echo method application. It will present method description and main results of numerical modeling of detection and localization of crack caused by corrosive product expansion. Steel reinforcing rods are subjected to corrosion due to diffusion of corrosive agents from structure surface. Corrosive products have up to 7-times larger volume than pure steel. Raised strain can cad lead up to concrete failure and crack development. We investigate whether it is possible to detect these growing cracks by Impact-Echo method in time.Experimental verification of our numerical predictions is prepared on Civil Faculty in Brno.

  17. Transport of cholesterol autoxidation products in rabbit lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shi-Kaung; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, Guang-Zhi; Morin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled pure [4- 14 C] cholesterol was kept at 60 0 C under air to autoxidize for 5 weeks, after which approximately 12% cholesterol oxidation products were formed. The mixture, suspended in gelatin, was given to rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were killed 4, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Cholesterol and its autoxidation products were separated by thin-layer chromatography into 5 fractions and radioactivities of each fraction were measured. Percentages of each fraction of cholesterol oxidation products and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbit sera after administration were similar, suggesting that the rates of absorption of cholesterol oxidation products are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractioned by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each fraction in lipoproteins separated by thin layer chromatography showed that fractions containing cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were more selectively transported in VLDL, whereas most of the 25-hydroxycholesterol was present in LDL. HDL contained only minute amounts of cholesterol oxidation products. 22 refs

  18. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion control...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by— (a...

  20. Flow accelerated corrosion and life management of the secondary circuit of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; La Gamma, Ana M.; Fernandez, Narciso; Moyano, Ricardo; Schiersmann, Christian; Ovando, Luis E.; Sainz, Ricardo A.; Keitelman, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion is a matter of concern in secondary circuits of nuclear power plants as well as in fossil fired plants. It contributes to the piping wall thinning and to the corrosion products transport to the steam generators. Because it is a generalized corrosion phenomena, could address to extensive failures. In that sense the plants conduct extensive programs of surveillance of piping degradation. Because the problem involves many variables like alloys, water chemistry and hydrodynamics several models have been proposed in the literature. In the present paper the variables have been organized in a spreadsheet which allows the calculation of normalized risk factors. (author)

  1. Pitting corrosion of copper. Further model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxen, C.

    2002-08-01

    The work presented in this report is a continuation and expansion of a previous study. The aim of the work is to provide background information about pitting corrosion of copper for a safety analysis of copper canisters for final deposition of radioactive waste. A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is used to estimate the conditions required for stationary propagation of a localised anodic corrosion process. The model uses equilibrium data for copper and its corrosion products and parameters for the aqueous mass transport of dissolved species. In the present work we have, in the model, used a more extensive set of aqueous and solid compounds and equilibrium data from a different source. The potential dependence of pitting in waters with different compositions is studied in greater detail. More waters have been studied and single parameter variations in the composition of the water have been studied over wider ranges of concentration. The conclusions drawn in the previous study are not contradicted by the present results. However, the combined effect of potential and water composition on the possibility of pitting corrosion is more complex than was realised. In the previous study we found what seemed to be a continuous aggravation of a pitting situation by increasing potentials. The present results indicate that pitting corrosion can take place only over a certain potential range and that there is an upper potential limit for pitting as well as a lower. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the model gives meaningful predictions of the minimum pitting potential also when relatively large errors in the input parameters are allowed for

  2. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  3. Positive aspects issued from bio corrosion studies: from hydrogen production to biofuel cells; Des aspects positifs issus des recherches en biocorrosion: de la production d'hydrogene aux biopiles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Munoz, L. de

    2007-12-15

    Microbially influenced corrosion or bio corrosion is a problem that generates heavy global economic losses (several billion euros per year). In spite of the progress made on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the complexity of the phenomenon has prevented finding definitive solutions to the problem and continues to inspire many research works. The participation in bio corrosion of catalytic mechanisms induced by weak acids was studied in this work. Another objective of the thesis has been to take advantage from catalytic phenomena found in bio corrosion research to apply them in other areas: energy production with biofuel cells or electrochemical hydrogen production in mild conditions. This work has shown that the presence of weak acids and amino acids inside bio-films could play a major role in steel bio corrosion accelerating the phenomenon through the catalysis of the water reduction reaction. The reversibility of this mechanism, discerned and proved here, could explain the corrosion increase when hydrogen is removed (bacterial consumption, agitation...). In addition, phosphates allow the production of hydrogen by electrolysis in mild pH conditions (pH 4.0 - 8.0) with an equal or better performance than those found in alkaline electrolysis. Finally, industrial materials like stainless steel and titanium could be used in the fabrication of enzymatic electrodes for biosensors or microsystems. The use of the glucose oxidase/glucose system in an aqueous fuel cell with a stainless steel cathode, allows the improvement of the cell performance thanks to the production of hydrogen peroxide that is easily reduced. Moreover, the use of materials with micro-structured surfaces like sandblasted steels deserve to be studied in detail to exploit the remarkable reactivity they present compared to smooth electrodes. (author)

  4. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m -1 , 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions

  5. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wang, L.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1997-07-01

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

  6. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 2. Sequim Bay clayey silt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to clayey silt from Sequim Bay, Washington. The properties and trace metal geochemistry of the sediment and the amounts of corrosion products that were released under oxic and reduced conditions and their distribution among different chemical fractions of the sediment are discussed. The distributions of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu among different chemical forms in the Sequim Bay sediment show that DTPA removed <10% of extractable Cr, Fe and Mn, approx. 20% of extractable Ni and approx. 30% of extractable Cu. The inorganic fraction (material soluble in 2.5% acetic acid) accounted for approx. 30% of total extractable Mn and approx. 10% or less of Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu. Major portions of Cr and Cu, and a large amount of Fe were in the organic fraction. Extractable Mn, Fe and Ni were associated with hydrous oxides likely as coatings on the mineral substrate of the sediment. No Co was detectable in any of the extracts

  7. Numerical simulation of heat-transfer and insoluble corrosion product deposition in lead-bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Fang Xiaolu; Lin Daping; Ru Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    As the primary coolant of ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system), the safety of reactor will be threatened and the lifetime of the reactor will be shortened by appearing of the tiny particles in LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) alloy. To this end, numerical simulation with the code of FLUENT was used to research the deposition distribution of insoluble corrosion products in rectangular channel. The standard k-ε model was selected to predict the turbulence variation in the rectangular channel. The discrete phase model (DPM) was used to track the trajectory of the particles. It is found that the deposition efficiency is positively correlated with the temperature difference between the fluid and cold wall. The near wall region with a high concentration of particulate matter and low temperature is in favor of particulate matter deposition on the wall. At the same time, the high turbulence kinetic near wall region is not conducive to the deposition of particulate matter. A secondary flow phenomenon occurs under the influence of boundary wall, namely that there are eight symmetrical regions in the radial direction. (authors)

  8. Analysis of the corrosion products on galvanized steels by FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, J.

    1998-01-01

    FTIR reflectance spectroscopy has been used for the characterization of products formed by an accelerated wet ageing test on industrial hot-dip galvanized steel. Several aluminium contents are selected. Various products have been detected in this study. The kind and amount vary with the substrate, the type of ageing test used, the relative humidity level and the temperature. The galvanized coatings studied show a mixed zinc-aluminium compound, Zn 6 Al 2 (OH) 16 CO 3 .4H 2O. This phase is observed from the first exposure time on all coatings regardless of the amount of aluminium. Contrary to zinc, no basic aluminium compound has been detected. (orig.)

  9. Modeling of liquid-metal corrosion/deposition in a fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    A model has been developed for the investigation of the liquid-metal corrosion and the corrosion product transport in a liquid-metal-cooled fusion reactor blanket. The model describes the two-dimensional transport of wall material in the liquid-metal flow and is based on the following assumptions: (1) parallel flow in a straight circular tube; (2) transport of wall material perpendicular to the flow direction by diffusion and turbulent exchange; in flow direction by the flow motion only; (3) magnetic field causes uniform velocity profile with thin boundary layer and suppresses turbulent mass exchange; and (4) liquid metal at the interface is saturated with wall material. A computer code based on this model has been used to analyze the corrosion of ferritic steel by lithium lead and the deposition of wall material in the cooler part of a loop. Three cases have been investigated: (1) ANL forced convection corrosion experiment (without magnetic field); (2) corrosion in the MARS liquid-metal-cooled blanket (with magnetic field); and (3) deposition of wall material in the corrosion product cleanup system of the MARS blanket loop

  10. Corrosion control in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    This article looks in detail at tribology-related hazards of corrosion in irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and tries to identify and minimize problems which could contribute to disaster. First, the corrosion process is explained. Then the corrosion aspects at each of four stages in reprocessing are examined, with particular reference to oxide fuel reprocessing. The four stages are fuel receipt and storage, fuel breakdown and dissolution, solvent extraction and product concentration and waste management. Results from laboratory and plant corrosion trails are used at the plant design stage to prevent corrosion problems arising. Operational procedures which minimize corrosion if it cannot be prevented at the design stage, are used. (UK)

  11. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  12. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for medical product transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology and decreasing costs have led to an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by the military and civilian sectors. The use of UAVs in commerce is restricted by US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations, but the FAA is drafting new regulations that are expected to expand commercial applications. Currently, the transportation of medical goods in times of critical need is limited to wheeled motor vehicles and manned aircraft, options that can be costly and slow. This article explores the demand for, feasibility of, and risks associated with the use of UAVs to deliver medical products, including blood derivatives and pharmaceuticals, to hospitals, mass casualty scenes, and offshore vessels in times of critical demand. Copyright © 2015 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consequences of Ingestions of Potentially Corrosive Cleaning Products, One-Year Follow-Up

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázová, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 1734-1748 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Czech Toxicological Information Centre * cleaning products * consequences Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2011 http://www.electrochemsci.org/papers/vol7/7031734.pdf

  14. Prediction of Corrosion of Alloys in Mixed-Solvent Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderko, Andrzej [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Wang, Peiming [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Young, Robert D. [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Riemer, Douglas P. [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); McKenzie, Patrice [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Lencka, Malgorzata M. [OLI Systems Inc. Morris Plains (United States); Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-06-05

    Corrosion is much less predictable in organic or mixed-solvent environments than in aqueous process environments. As a result, US chemical companies face greater uncertainty when selecting process equipment materials to manufacture chemical products using organic or mixed solvents than when the process environments are only aqueous. Chemical companies handle this uncertainty by overdesigning the equipment (wasting money and energy), rather than by accepting increased risks of corrosion failure (personnel hazards and environmental releases). Therefore, it is important to develop simulation tools that would help the chemical process industries to understand and predict corrosion and to develop mitigation measures. To create such tools, we have developed models that predict (1) the chemical composition, speciation, phase equilibria, component activities and transport properties of the bulk (aqueous, nonaqueous or mixed) phase that is in contact with the metal; (2) the phase equilibria and component activities of the alloy phase(s) that may be subject to corrosion and (3) the interfacial phenomena that are responsible for corrosion at the metal/solution or passive film/solution interface. During the course of this project, we have completed the following: (1) Development of thermodynamic modules for calculating the activities of alloy components; (2) Development of software that generates stability diagrams for alloys in aqueous systems; these diagrams make it possible to predict the tendency of metals to corrode; (3) Development and extensive verification of a model for calculating speciation, phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of mixed-solvent electrolyte systems; (4) Integration of the software for generating stability diagrams with the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, which makes it possible to generate stability diagrams for nonaqueous or mixed-solvent systems; (5) Development of a model for predicting diffusion coefficients in mixed-solvent electrolyte

  15. EUROCORR 2007 - The European corrosion congress - Progress by corrosion control. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This book of abstracts contains lectures, workshops and posters which were held on the European Corrosion Congress 2007 in Freiburg (Germany). The main topics of the sessions and posters are: 1. Corrosion and scale inhibition; 2. Corrosion by hot gases and combustion products; 3. Nuclear corrosion; 4. Environment sensitive fracture; 5. Surface Science; 6. Physico-chemical methods of corrosion testing; 7. Marine corrosion; 8. Microbial corrosion; 9. Corrosion of steel in concrete; 10. Corrosion in oil and gas production; 11. Coatings; 12. Corrosion in the refinery industry; 13. Cathodic protection; 14. Automotive Corrosion; 15. Corrosion of polymer materials. The main topics of the workshops are: 1. High temperature corrosion in the chemical, refinery and petrochemical industries; 2. Bio-Tribocorrosion; 3. Stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plants; 4. Corrosion monitoring in nuclear systems; 5. Cathodic protection for marine and offshore environments; 6. Self-healing properties of new surface treatments; 7. Bio-Tribocorrosion - Cost 533/Eureka-ENIWEP-Meeting; 8. Drinking water systems; 9. Heat exchangers for seawater cooling

  16. Effect of fluid flow, pH and tobacco extracts concentration as organic inhibitors to corrosion characteristics of AISI 1045 steel in 3.5% NaCl environment containing CO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Budi Agung; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Ahmadi, Nafi'ul Fikri

    2018-04-01

    Corrosion become major problem in most industries. In the oil and gas company, corrosion occurs because of reaction between steel and chemical species inside crude oil. Crude oil or nature gas provide corrosive species, such as CO2, O2, H2S and so on. Fluid containing CO2 gas causes CO2 corrosion which attack steel as well as other corrosion phenomena. This CO2 corrosion commonly called as sweet environment and produce FeCO3 as corrosion products. Fluid flow factor in pipelines during the oil and gas transportation might increase the rate of corrosion itself. Inhibitor commonly use used as corrosion protection because its simplicity in usage. Nowadays, organic inhibitor become main issue in corrosion protection because of biodegradable, low cost, and environmental friendly. This research tried to use tobacco leaf extract as organic inhibitor to control corrosion in CO2 environment. The electrolyte solution used was 3.5% NaCl at pH 4 and pH 7. Weight loss test results showed that the lowest corrosion rate was reach at 132.5 ppm inhibitor, pH 7 and rotational speed of 150 rpm with corrosion rate of 0.091 mm/y. While at pH 4, the lowest corrosion rate was found at rotational speed of 150 rpm with inhibitor concentration of 265 ppm and corrosion rate of 0.327 mm/y. FTIR results indicate the presence of nicotine functional groups on the steel surface. However, based on corrosion rate, it is believed that corrosion occurs, and FeCO3 was soluble in electrolyte. Tobacco leaf extract inhibitors worked by a physisorption mechanism, where tobacco inhibitors formed thin layer on the steel surface.

  17. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.S., E-mail: yinwenfeng2010@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Yin, W.F. [College of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Sang, D.H. [Sheng Li Construction Group International Engineering Department, Shandong, Dongying, 257000 (China); Jiang, Z.Y. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion of a carbon-manganese steel and a stainless steel in sulfur and/or naphthenic acid media was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion rate of the carbon-manganese steel increased with the increase of the acid value and sulfur content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical values of the concentration of sulfur and acid for corrosion rate of the stainless steel were ascertained respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stainless steel is superior to the carbon-manganese steel in corrosion resistance because of the presence of stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases. - Abstract: The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 Degree-Sign C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  18. A time series analysis of transportation energy use per dollar of gross domestic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation energy use relative to gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining within the past decade. However, the total transportation energy consumed (see figure 1) shows only a more recent decline. To see clearly the long-term decline, the...

  19. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Transportation Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Marshall's effort to sustain space transportation solutions through product lines that include: 1) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 2) Life Support Systems; and 3) and Earth and Space Science Spacecraft Systems, and Operations.

  20. Solutions of corrosion Problems in advanced Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The specimens were exposed for 1400 hours at 450-600°C. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining. The corrosion products and course of corrosion for the various steel types...

  1. A study on the generation of radioactive corrosion product at PWR for extended fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Chul Song; Kun Jai Lee

    2001-01-01

    Current nuclear power plant operating practice is to extend the time between refueling from a 12 month operating cycle to an 18-24 month period. This current to longer fuel cycles has complicated the dilemma of finding optimum pH range for the primary coolant chemistry. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in ICRP publication No. 60 recommends optimization of operator radiation exposure (ORE) in nuclear power plants. CRUD formed in the plants is the major source of ORE and its transport mechanism is not understood. To analyze the generation of CRUD at the extended fuel cycle, the COTRAN code, which was developed at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), was used. It predicts that the activity of CRUD decreases as the pH of the coolant increases. For the same period of different fuel cycles, as the operating fuel cycle duration is increased, the generation of the CRUD increases. In this paper, enriched boric acid (40% enriched 10 B concentration) for reactivity control is adopted as the required chemical shim rather than natural boric acid. The effect of the enriched boric acid (EBA) is that the neutron absorption capability of the chemical shim is maintained while decreasing the required boron and lithium concentration in the reactor coolant system. By employing enriched boric acid, the amounts of CRUD generated are reduced, because the high pH-operating period is extended. From the waste generation point of view, more filters or ion exchangers to remove CRUD are required and the amounts of waste are increased at the extended fuel cycle. (author)

  2. Relativistic quantum transport theory approach to multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Zachariasen, F.

    1976-01-01

    The field-theoretic description of multiparticle production processes is cast in a form analogous to ordinary transport theory. Inclusive differential cross sections are shown to be given by integrals of covariant phase-space distributions. The single-particle distribution function F (p, R) is defined as the Fourier transform of a suitable correlation function in analogy with the nonrelativistic (Wigner) phase-space distribution function. Its transform F (p, q) is observed to be essentially the discontinuity of a multiparticle scattering amplitude. External-field problems are studied to exhibit the physical content of the formalism. When q = 0 one recovers the single-particle distribution exactly. The equation of motion for F (p, R) generates an infinite hierarchy of coupled equations for various distribution functions. In the Hartree approximation one obtains nonlinear integral equations analogous to the Vlasov equation in plasma physics. Such equations are convenient for exhibiting collective motions; in particular it appears that a collective mode exists in a phi 4 theory for a uniform infinite medium. It is speculated that such collective modes could provide a theoretical basis for clustering effects in multiparticle production

  3. Water chemistry and corrosion control of cladding and primary circuit components. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Corrosion is the principal life limiting degradation mechanism in nuclear steam supply systems, especially taking into account the trends to increase fuel burnup, thermal rate and cycle length. Primary circuit components of water cooled power reactors have an impact on Zr-based alloys behaviour due to crud (primary circuit corrosion products) formation, transport and deposition on heat transfer surfaces. Crud deposits influence water chemistry, radiation and thermal hydraulic conditions near cladding surface, and by this way-Zr-based alloy corrosion. During the last decade, significant improvements were achieved in the reduction of the corrosion and dose rates by changing the cladding material for one more resistant to corrosion or by the improvement of water chemistry conditions. However, taking into account the above mentioned tendency for heavier fuel duties, corrosion and water chemistry, control will remain a serious task to work with for nuclear power plant operators and scientists, as well as development of generally accepted corrosion model of Zr-based alloys in a water environment in a new millennium. Upon the recommendation of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, water chemistry and corrosion of cladding and primary circuit components are in the focus of the IAEA activities in the area of fuel technology and performance. At present the IAEA performs two co-ordinated research projects (CRPs): on On-line High Temperature Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion (WACOL) and on Activity Transport in Primary Circuits. Two CRPs deal with hydrogen and hydride degradation of the Zr-based alloys. A state-of-the-art review entitled: 'Waterside Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants' was published in 1998. Technical Committee meetings on the subject were held in 1985 (Cadarache, France), 1989 (Portland, USA), 1993 (Rez, Czech Republic). During the last few years extensive exchange of experience in

  4. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01. In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs.

  5. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01). In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28638372

  6. Validation of a chromatographic method and its use in the determination of sulphates in the products of atmospheric corrosion of zinc exposed to SO2 and NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Paula; Castano, Juan G

    2005-01-01

    The role of SO 2 and NO 2 in the atmospheric corrosion of zinc was studied by determining sulphates as the main products of corrosion when this metal is exposed to atmospheres containing SO 2 and NO 2 , scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) and Ion Exchange Chromatography (IC) were used as instrumental techniques, the former was used to establish the morphology and the elementary qualitative determination of corrosion products, and the latter to quantify sulphates, before conducting the chromatographic analyses a series of parameters such as selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification, and detection limit, were evaluated to validate the method and to have the statistical certainty of its utility in the sulphate quantification, the results showed that when the metal is exposed to an atmosphere containing SO 2 and NO 2 , the sulphate formation increases with exposure time, a synergetic effect of both polluting agents on sulphate formation was found with respect to the sulphate formation in atmospheres containing only SO 2

  7. Design to nullify activity movement in heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.; Barber, D.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which designers can reduce the adverse effects of system corrosion and the resultant activation of the corrosion products in heat transport systems. The presentation will cover: a) choice of materials; b) assessment of the need of components; c) control of system chemistry; d) factors considered in sizing HTS purification systems; i) control of activation and fission products; ii) decontamination. (author)

  8. Corrosion calculations report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This report is a compilation of the quantitative assessments of corrosion of the copper canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The calculations are part of the safety assessment SR-Site that is the long-term safety assessment to support the license application for building a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, Sweden. The safety assessment methodology gives the frame for the structured and documented approach to assess all conceivable corrosion processes. The quantitative assessments are done in different ways depending on the nature of the process and on the implications for the long-term safety. The starting point for the handling of the corrosion processes is the description of all known corrosion processes for copper with the current knowledge base and applied to the specific system and geology. Already at this stage some processes are excluded for further analysis, for example if the repository environment is not a sufficient prerequisite for the process to occur. The next step is to identify processes where the extent of corrosion could be bounded, e.g. by a mass balance approach. For processes where a mass balance is not limiting, the mass transport of corrodants (or corrosion products) is taken into account. A simple approach would be just to calculate the diffusive transport of corrodants through the bentonite, but generally the transport resistance for the interface between groundwater in a rock fracture intersecting the deposition hole and the bentonite buffer is more important. In SR-Site, the concept of equivalent flowrate, Q eq , is used. This assessment is done integrated with the evaluation of the geochemical and hydrogeological evolution of the repository. For most of the corrosion processes analysed, the corrosion depth is much smaller than the copper shell thickness, even for the assessment time of 10 6 years. Several processes give corrosion depths less than 100 μm, but no process give corrosion depths larger than a few millimetres

  9. Corrosion calculations report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report is a compilation of the quantitative assessments of corrosion of the copper canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The calculations are part of the safety assessment SR-Site that is the long-term safety assessment to support the license application for building a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, Sweden. The safety assessment methodology gives the frame for the structured and documented approach to assess all conceivable corrosion processes. The quantitative assessments are done in different ways depending on the nature of the process and on the implications for the long-term safety. The starting point for the handling of the corrosion processes is the description of all known corrosion processes for copper with the current knowledge base and applied to the specific system and geology. Already at this stage some processes are excluded for further analysis, for example if the repository environment is not a sufficient prerequisite for the process to occur. The next step is to identify processes where the extent of corrosion could be bounded, e.g. by a mass balance approach. For processes where a mass balance is not limiting, the mass transport of corrodants (or corrosion products) is taken into account. A simple approach would be just to calculate the diffusive transport of corrodants through the bentonite, but generally the transport resistance for the interface between groundwater in a rock fracture intersecting the deposition hole and the bentonite buffer is more important. In SR-Site, the concept of equivalent flowrate, Q{sub eq}, is used. This assessment is done integrated with the evaluation of the geochemical and hydrogeological evolution of the repository. For most of the corrosion processes analysed, the corrosion depth is much smaller than the copper shell thickness, even for the assessment time of 106 years. Several processes give corrosion depths less than 100 mum, but no process give corrosion depths larger than a few

  10. Role of sulphide species on the behaviour of carbon steel envisioned for high-level radioactive disposal: interaction between sulphide and corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdoiseau, Jacques-Andre

    2011-01-01

    mackinawite and greigite. Secondly, to investigate the nature and properties of carbonated rust layers, carbon steel electrodes were polarised anodically in NaHCO 3 electrolytes continuously de-aerated by an argon flow. The experiments were performed at room temperature. The carbonated green rust was observed to form at 0.003 and 0.1 mol L -1 NaHCO 3 whereas FeCO 3 was obtained at the largest concentrations (0.5 and 1 mol L -1 ). Additional experiments were performed similarly in solutions of NaHCO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 . Chukanovite, the Fe(II) hydroxycarbonate with formula Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 , could be obtained in solutions containing 0.03 mol L -1 of each salt. Finally, interactions between sulphide species and corrosion products were studied. Siderite, goethite and lepidocrocite proved to be reactive towards sulphide. So, it seems clear that sulphide species produced by SRB should interact with the rust layer before to reach the metal underneath. Tests were performed with ferrous archaeological artefacts immersed 2 months in anoxic sulphide-containing electrolytes to demonstrate it. The main effect of the immersion was the formation of iron sulphide at the interface between the dense corrosion products layer, mainly constitute of siderite, and the transformed medium, where minerals of the soil are mixed with corrosion products. Sulphide species were not detected at the vicinity of the iron surface. (author)

  11. Importance of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on rates of hydrogen production from galvanized steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyola, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the known sources of hydrogen gas within a nuclear plant containment building during a LOCA is the high temperature corrosion of galvanized steel yielding hydrogen gas. The importance of this source of hydrogen will vary depending on the severity of the accident. In an accident which resulted in core degradation, for example, the major source of hydrogen would probably be the metal-water reaction of the zircaloy cladding, and the corrosion of galvanized steel would then become a relatively minor source of hydrogen. However, in an accident in which core degradation is avoided or limited to minor damage, the corrosion of galvanized steel, and presumably of other materials as well, would then become a major contributor to the buildup of hydrogen within containment. The purpose of this paper is to present the overall effects of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on the rate of hydrogen generation over a broad range of each parameter

  12. Transport and release of fission products during nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.; Kuhlman, M.R.; Gieseke, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study represents the identification and formulation of a systematic, mechanistic approach to estimating source terms and the implementation of this approach through calculations of fission products release to the environment for a large PWR reactor under a selected set of accident conditions. The development and improvement of calculational procedures is an evolutionary process and in the long term must be verified through experimental studies. It is anticipated that as additional information is obtained the accuracy of predictions can be improved and uncertainties reduced. Transport and deposition of radionuclides were found to be quite dependent on the accident sequences and the corresponding thremal hydraulic conditions. Reduced temperatures led to increased deposition of vapor species, and reduced flow rates to increased aerosol deposition. It is to be recognized that the estimates of release fractions are subject to uncertainties in the data and computer models employed in the calculations and are expected to have been influenced by assumptions regarding plant geometry, thermal hydraulics, deposition mechanisms, and sequence events. The effects of these assumptions will be investigated as this study continues. (Author)

  13. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  14. Narrative transportation and product involvement : how narrativity factors are used to enchance transportive experience in advertising for high vs. low involvement products

    OpenAIRE

    Phusapan, Panida

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and presents how narrativity factors are used to enhance consumers‟ transportive experience when advertising for high and low involvement products. It specifically looks at processing experiences among Thai online consumers when viewing TV commercials available on a YouTube channel. The paper brings the theory of product involvement into a field of narrative transportation. Results show that narrativity factors should be used with the right balance across all narrativity l...

  15. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  16. An effective approach for restraining electrochemical corrosion of polycrystalline silicon caused by an HF-based solution and its application for mass production of MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunfei; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jinling; An, Ji; Yang, Fuhua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to effectively protect the structural material polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) from electrochemical corrosion, which often occurs when the MEMS device is released in HF-based solutions, especially when the device contains a noble metal. This corrosion seriously degrades the electrical and mechanical performance as well as the reliability of MEMS devices. In this method, a photoresist (PR) is employed to cover the noble metal, which is electrically coupled with the underlying polysilicon layer. This PR cover can effectually prevent an HF-based solution from diffusing through and arriving at the surface of the noble metal, thus cutting off the electrical current of the electrochemical corrosion reaction. The polysilicon is well protected for longer than 80 min in 49% concentrated HF solutions by a 3 µm-thick AZ 6130 PR film. This fabrication process is simple, reliable and suitable for mass production of high-end micromechanical disk resonators. Benefiting from the technology breakthrough mentioned above, a novel low-cost microfabrication method for disk resonators with high performance has been developed, and the VHF polysilicon disk resonators with resonance frequencies around 282 MHz and Q values larger than 2000 at atmosphere have been produced at wafer level. (paper)

  17. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  18. Niobium–niobium oxide multilayered coatings for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for ["1"8F] production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skliarova, Hanna; Renzelli, Marco; Azzolini, Oscar; Felicis, Daniele de; Bemporad, Edoardo; Johnson, Richard R.; Palmieri, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar"® entrance foils of the targets for ["1"8F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar"®. During current investigation, magnetron sputtered niobium and niobium oxide were chosen as the candidates for protective coatings because of their superior chemical resistance. Aluminated quartz substrates allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modeling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. As far as niobium coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering are columnar, the grain boundaries provide a fast diffusion path for active species of corrosive media to penetrate and to corrode the substrate. Amorphous niobium oxide films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering showed superior barrier properties according to the corrosion tests performed. In order to prevent degrading of brittle niobium oxide at high pressures, multilayers combining high ductility of niobium with superior diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium oxide were proposed. The intercalation of niobium oxide interlayers was proved to interrupt the columnar grain growth of niobium during sputtering, resulting in improved diffusion barrier efficiency of obtained multilayers. The thin layer multilayer coating architecture with 70 nm bi-layer thickness was found preferential because of higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium, niobium oxide and their multilayers was studied. • The intercalation of niobium oxide layers interrupted the columnar grain growth of niobium. • The bilayer architectures influenced the stability of the multilayer coatings. • The thin layer multilayer coating with 70 nm double-layer was found superior.

  19. Niobium–niobium oxide multilayered coatings for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for [{sup 18}F] production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarova, Hanna, E-mail: Hanna.Skliarova@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Renzelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.renzelli@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Azzolini, Oscar, E-mail: Oscar.Azzolini@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Felicis, Daniele de, E-mail: daniele.defelicis@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bemporad, Edoardo, E-mail: edoardo.bemporad@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Johnson, Richard R., E-mail: richard.johnson@teambest.com [BEST Cyclotron Systems Inc., 8765 Ash Street Unit 7, Vancouver BC V6P 6T3 (Canada); Palmieri, Vincenzo, E-mail: Vincenzo.Palmieri@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Padua, Padua (Italy)

    2015-09-30

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar{sup ®} entrance foils of the targets for [{sup 18}F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar{sup ®}. During current investigation, magnetron sputtered niobium and niobium oxide were chosen as the candidates for protective coatings because of their superior chemical resistance. Aluminated quartz substrates allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modeling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. As far as niobium coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering are columnar, the grain boundaries provide a fast diffusion path for active species of corrosive media to penetrate and to corrode the substrate. Amorphous niobium oxide films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering showed superior barrier properties according to the corrosion tests performed. In order to prevent degrading of brittle niobium oxide at high pressures, multilayers combining high ductility of niobium with superior diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium oxide were proposed. The intercalation of niobium oxide interlayers was proved to interrupt the columnar grain growth of niobium during sputtering, resulting in improved diffusion barrier efficiency of obtained multilayers. The thin layer multilayer coating architecture with 70 nm bi-layer thickness was found preferential because of higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium, niobium oxide and their multilayers was studied. • The intercalation of niobium oxide layers interrupted the columnar grain growth of niobium. • The bilayer architectures influenced the stability of the multilayer coatings. • The thin layer multilayer coating with 70 nm double-layer was found superior.

  20. Long-haul transportation of perishable products with transshipment and asset management issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SteadieSeifi, Maryam; Dellaert, Nico; Van Woensel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an optimization model for a transportation planning problem with multiple transportation modes, highly perishable products, demand and supply dynamics, and management of the reusable transport units (RTIs). Such a problem arises in the European horticultural chain, for

  1. ABC transporters from Aspergillus nidulans are involved in protection against cytotoxic agents and antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, A.C.; Nistelrooy, van J.G.M.; Peery, R.B.; Skatrud, P.L.; Waard, de M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of atrC and atrD (ABC transporters C and D), two novel ABC transporter-encoding genes from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and provides evidence for the involvement of atrD in multidrug transport and antibiotic production. BLAST analysis of the

  2. On-line water chemistry monitoring for corrosion prevention in ageing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Jaernstroem, R.; Kvarnstroem, R.; Chanfreau, E.

    1991-01-01

    General corrosion and consequently radiation buildup in nuclear power plants are controlled by the selection of material and the chemical environment. In power plants useful information concerning the kinetics of chemical reactions can be obtained by using high temperature, high pressure measurements for pH, conductivity and electrochemical potentials (ECP) of construction materials or redox-potential. The rates of general or uniform corrosion of materials in contact with the primary coolant are quite low and do not compromise the integrity of the primary circuit. Chemistry control should be applied in the first hand to minimize the dissolution and the transport and subsequent deposition of activated corrosion products to out-of-core regions. A computerized monitoring system for high temperature high pressure pH and electrochemical potential (ECP) has been in continuous use at the Loviisa power plant since 1988. Special emphasis has been put on learning the effect of pH and ECP control during cooldown process in order to further reduce background radiation buildup. During the shutdown for refueling outage in summer 1989 the high temperature water chemistry parameters were monitored. In addition to the high temperature water chemistry parameters concentrations of dissolved corrosion products as well as the activities of the corrosion products were measured. In this paper the results obtained through simultaneous monitoring of water chemistry parameters and concentrations of dissolved corrosion products as well as the activity measurements are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Isotope production potential at Sandia National Laboratories: Product, waste, packaging, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trennel, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy to establish a domestic source of molybdenum-99, an essential isotope used in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacology. An Environmental Impact Statement for production of 99 Mo at one of four candidate sites is being prepared. As one of the candidate sites, Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Isotope Production Project. Using federally approved processes and procedures now owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, and existing facilities that would be modified to meet the production requirements, the Sandia National Laboratories' Isotope Project would manufacture up to 30 percent of the U.S. market, with the capacity to meet 100 percent of the domestic need if necessary. This paper provides a brief overview of the facility, equipment, and processes required to produce isotopes. Packaging and transportation issues affecting both product and waste are addressed, and the storage and disposal of the four low-level radioactive waste types generated by the production program are considered. Recommendations for future development are provided

  4. Study of hydrogen migration produced during the corrosion of PWR reactors fuel cans in zircaloy 4 and zirconia; Etude du transport de l`hydrogene produit lors de la corrosion des gaines d`elements combustibles des reacteurs a eau sous pression dans la zircone et le zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufore, L

    1997-12-12

    The corrosion of Zircaloy-4-claddings by water from the primary circuit of nuclear power plant goes hand in hand with the release of hydrogen which penetrates the oxide and then the metal. This work focuses on the mechanisms of hydrogen transport in oxide and in metal. Hydrogen transport in oxide is studied on the basis of corrosion tests performed in the autoclave at 360 deg C. These tests are performed on Zircaloy-4 claddings under different chemical conditions (pure water, and pure water with lithium hydroxide). The distribution of hydrogen in oxide film is measured by SIMS. Hydrogen profiles in the oxide are dependent on the oxide microstructure and vary with oxidation time. These observations are confirmed by experiments in which some samples, previously oxidized in the autoclave, are immersed in heavy water. In the oxide layer, two zones are observed: one external porous zone and one internal dense zone. Deuterium diffusion coefficients in dense oxide are determined using SIMS profiles and Fischer diffusion model. Hydrogen transport in metal is also studied by means of gas-phase permeation experiments. These are set up at different temperature (400-500 deg. C) and under different hydrogen pressures and make it possible to determine the hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a Zircaloy-4 cladding under experimental conditions. All these results lead us to discuss of hydrogen transport evolution in cladding during oxidation. A model taking into account hydrogen transport in oxide and in metal, and the hydrides precipitations is proposed. (author) 110 refs.

  5. Transporter-mediated natural product-drug interactions for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Weibin

    2018-04-01

    The growing use of natural products in cardiovascular (CV) patients has been greatly raising the concerns about potential natural product-CV drug interactions. Some of these may lead to unexpected cardiovascular adverse effects and it is, therefore, essential to identify or predict potential natural product-CV drug interactions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Drug transporters are important determinants for the pharmacokinetics of drugs and alterations of drug transport has been recognized as one of the major causes of natural product-drug interactions. In last two decades, many CV drugs (e.g., angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers and statins) have been identified to be substrates and inhibitors of the solute carrier (SLC) transporters and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are two major transporter superfamilies. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that a growing number of natural products showed cardioprotective effects (e.g., gingko biloba, danshen and their active ingredients) are also substrates and inhibitors of drug transporters. Thus, to understand transporter-mediated natural product-CV drug interactions is important and some transporter-mediated interactions have already shown to have clinical relevance. In this review, we review the current knowledge on the role of ABC and SLC transporters in CV therapy, as well as transporter modulation by natural products used in CV diseases and their induced natural product-CV drug interactions through alterations of drug transport. We hope our review will aid in a comprehensive summary of transporter-mediated natural product-CV drug interactions and help public and physicians understand these type of interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    In comparative corrosion tests, the corrosion resistance of an Australian tungsten alloy (95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe) was found to be superior to three other tungsten alloys and, under certain conditions, even more corrosion-resistant than pure tungsten. Corrosion resistance was evaluated after immersion in both distilled water and 5% sodium chloride solutions, and in cyclic humidity and salt mist environments. For all but the Australian alloy, the rate of corrosion in sodium chloride solution was markedly less than that in distilated water. In all cases, alloys containing copper had the greatest corrosion rates. Corrosion mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope, analysis of corrosion products and galvanic corrosion studies. For the alloys, corrosion was attributed primarily to a galvanic reaction. Whether the tungsten or binder phase of the alloy became anodic, and thus was attacked preferentially, depended upon alloy composition and corrosion environment. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  7. On Production and Green Transportation Coordination in a Sustainable Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a coordination problem of production and green transportation and the effects of production and transportation coordination on supply chain sustainability in a global supply chain environment with the consideration of important realistic characteristics, including parallel machines, different order processing complexities, fixed delivery departure times, green transportation and multiple transportation modes. We formulate the measurements for carbon emissions of different transportation modes, including air, sea and land transportation. A hybrid genetic algorithm-based optimization approach is developed to handle this problem, in which a hybrid genetic algorithm and heuristic procedures are combined. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by means of various problem instances. We observe that the coordination of production and green transportation has a large effect on the overall supply chain sustainability, which can reduce the total supply chain cost by 9.60% to 21.90%.

  8. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  9. Progress in the understanding of the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Fraser; Lilja, Christina; Vähänen, Marjut

    2013-07-01

    highly compacted bentonite buffer which (i) inhibits the transport of reactants to, and of corrosion products away from, the canister surface, (ii) limits the amount of atmospheric O2 initially trapped in the repository, and (iii) suppresses microbial activity close to the canister surface [5,6,9]. The environment will evolve with time as the initially trapped atmospheric O2 is consumed and as the canister cools. This evolution can be described as a transition from an early period of warm, oxidising conditions to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. In turn, this environmental evolution will impact the corrosion behaviour of the canister. Localised corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) will only be possible for a limited period of time initially when there is sufficient oxidant available to support these forms of corrosion. This aerobic phase is only expected to last a few tens or hundreds of years [10,11]. For the vast majority of the service life of the canister, the redox conditions will be determined by the absence of O2 and the presence of sulphide. Although obvious, it is important to remember that the corrosion behaviour is determined by the environmental conditions at the canister surface. Because of the presence of the compacted bentonite, the environment at the canister surface will be quite different from that in the ground water in the rock. In particular, the interfacial concentration of HS- will be small as the rate of corrosion in the presence of sulphide is transport limited [1,2,12]. The low interfacial [HS-] has important implications for various sulphur-related corrosion mechanisms. The relatively high salinity of the ground water (and, hence, of the bentonite pore water) promotes the general dissolution of copper and inhibits localised corrosion and SCC [5,6].

  10. Corrosion in airframes

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  11. Investigation on analytical method for the transfer behavior of corrosion product (CP) in the fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Youichirou; Sasaki, Shinji

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive corrosion products (CPs) are main cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance work without fuel failure in FBR plants. The most important CP species are 54 Mn and 60 Co. The deposited radioactive CPs cause radiation fields near the piping and components, and the CPs contribute to the radiation exposure of the plant-worker. In this review, firstly, the collected knowledge about CP transfer behavior in the fast reactor are reviewed and analyzed. Secondly, the existing analytical methods to evaluate CP transfer behavior are investigated, issues of which and their solutions are extracted and discussed. Finally, examples of the calculated results by the improved analytical method are described. The provided conclusions are as follows; (1) Collected knowledge on CP transfer behavior. CP generation is mainly due to the dissolution of CP from hot reactor core constitution materials to hot sodium. On the core materials, particle-formed structure was confirmed. The evidence of CP precipitation in the low temperature part of the primary cooling system and the lower part of reactor core was provided. Similarly, the evidence of CP particle deposition in the same domain was also provided. (2) Extracted issues on analytical methods of CP transfer and proposed solutions. In the past, radioactivity caused by CP deposition on the piping and the core materials surface is confirmed. Subsequently, analytical models were developed based on the distribution of the CPs in the reactor coolant systems and the out-pile sodium loop test. The local high radiation dosage (such as elbow part) was observed by the radiation measurement. However, this behavior cannot be evaluated by the existing model, and it is considered necessary to take into account the transfer of CP particle. (3) The recent trend of the CP behavioral analysis method. Novel CP particle generation, transfer and deposition models were developed based on existing knowledge on CP behavior. The developed

  12. 78 FR 73824 - Subzones 247A and 247B, Authorization of Production Activity, GE Transportation, (Locomotives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... of Production Activity, GE Transportation, (Locomotives, Off-Highway Vehicles and Motors/Engines), Lawrence Park and Grove City, Pennsylvania On July 18, 2013, GE Transportation submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its facilities within Subzones 247A...

  13. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed c...

  14. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  15. Corrosion and corrosion fatigue of airframe aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. S.; Gao, M.; Harlow, D. G.; Wei, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    Localized corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack nucleation and growth are recognized as degradation mechanisms that effect the durability and integrity of commercial transport aircraft. Mechanically based understanding is needed to aid the development of effective methodologies for assessing durability and integrity of airframe components. As a part of the methodology development, experiments on pitting corrosion, and on corrosion fatigue crack nucleation and early growth from these pits were conducted. Pitting was found to be associated with constituent particles in the alloys and pit growth often involved coalescence of individual particle-nucleated pits, both laterally and in depth. Fatigue cracks typically nucleated from one of the larger pits that formed by a cluster of particles. The size of pit at which fatigue crack nucleates is a function of stress level and fatigue loading frequency. The experimental results are summarized, and their implications on service performance and life prediction are discussed.

  16. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  17. LongerLife products increase the sustainability. Is corrosion protection ecologically useful for steel components?; LongerLife-Produkte erhoehen die Nachhaltigkeit. Ist Korrosionsschutz von Stahlbauteilen oekologisch sinnvoll?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogall, Armin Dietmar [Fachhochschule Dortmund (Germany). Fachbereich Architektur

    2011-07-01

    The installation of hot-dip galvanized construction units means sustainable acting. Since corrosion protection by hot-dip galvanizing can be particularly named sustainable due to its longevity, its environmental careful production, its recycling ability and life extension of steel components. Particularly the reduction of the maintenance cycles and utilization costs accompanying with a slightly higher initial investment makes the hot-dip galvanizing a sustainable system. Steel components which are treated with galvanization and colour coating, have a maintenance-free life span of more than 80 years.

  18. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  19. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Claudia A; Alvarez, Florencia; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Productivity-based approach to valuation of transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Transportation infrastructure, a vital component to sustain economic prosperity, represents the largest public-owned : infrastructure asset in the U.S. With over a trillion invested dollars invested into long-lived physical assets such as : roads and...