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Sample records for corrosion pickling

  1. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2009-01-01

    was investigated. Sulphuric, nitric and phosphoric acids of different concentrations were used to clean the alloy for various pickling times. The surface morphology, composition and phases were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, spark discharge-optical emission spectroscopy...... the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The cleaning efficiency of the three acids used and the corrosion protection mechanisms were found to be remarkably different. Best corrosion results were obtained with nitric acid, followed closely by phosphoric acid. Only the sulphuric acid failed more or less when...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...

  2. Research on Inhibition Effect of Multi-function Pickling Corrosion Inhibitor%多功能酸洗缓蚀剂缓蚀效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓冬; 喻果; 徐飞

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid pickling, sulfuric acid pickling, nitric acid pickling corrosion experiments of multifunctional pickling corrosion inhibitor developed by our company were carried out. The experimental results show that the multifunctional pickling corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid pickling, sulfuric acid, nitric acid pickling process has very good inhibition effect for carbon steel and16 mn steel; different drug concentration has different corrosion inhibition effect. Multifunctional pickling corrosion inhibitor concentration commonly is 3‰~5‰, 10% hydrochloric acid pickling corrosion inhibition rate can reach 98.8%, 10% sulfuric acid pickling corrosion inhibition rate can reach 99.8%, 10% nitric acid pickling corrosion inhibition rate can reach 77%.%对威海翔宇环保科技股份有限公司研发的多功能酸洗缓蚀剂进行了盐酸酸洗、H2SO4 酸洗、硝酸酸洗缓蚀实验,实验结果表明,多功能酸洗缓蚀剂在盐酸酸洗、H2SO4酸洗、硝酸酸洗过程中对碳钢、16mn 钢都有很好的缓蚀效果,加药浓度不同,缓蚀效果不同.多功能酸洗缓蚀剂的加药浓度一般在 3‰~5‰,10%的盐酸酸洗的缓蚀率可达到 98.8%、10%的 H2SO4酸洗的缓蚀率可达到 99.8%、10%的硝酸酸洗的缓蚀率可达到 77%以上.

  3. Eclipta Alba as Corrosion Pickling Inhibitor on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Shyamala; A. Arulanantham

    2009-01-01

    Due to ease of application, cost effectiveness and environmentally safe, in this study, the corrosion inhibition effect of aqueous extract of Eclipta alba in 1 N hydrochloric acid has been investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance methods and the extracts of Eclipta alba were found to be effective corrosion pickling inhibitor. The effect of immersion time and temperature revealed that the extracts of Eclipta alba with an optimum concentration of 8.0% v/v showed maximum inhibition efficiency of 99.6% at 3 h immersion time and 30℃. Arrhenius plots for mild steel immersed in 1 N HCI solution in the absence and presence of optimum concentration (8.0% in v/v) of Eclipta alba extract showed the effect of temperature. Polarization studies indicate that this plant extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of Eclipta alba follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition action may be due to the presence of the Wedelactone and also the alkaloid Ecliptine present in the leaves of Eclipta alba.

  4. The influence of long term use of inhibitors in hydrochloric acid pickling baths on hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feser, R.; Friedrich, A.; Scheide, F. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Frauenstuhlweg 31, D-58644 Iserlohn (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of commercially available inhibitors on the absorption of hydrogen by steel (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) in 15% hydrochloric acid was studied. The pickling bath aged continuously due to the chemical reaction with oxidized steel sheets. The H{sup +}- and inhibitor concentration decreased with time. The influence of this ageing process on hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking was tested by in-situ tensile tests in the bath solution. With increasing ageing of the bath, the reduction in fracture area was reduced and approached the values measured for non-inhibited acid baths. Furthermore hydrogen permeation was investigated. Permeation current densities rose with increasing ageing of the pickling solution. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss von kommerziell erhaeltlichen Inhibitoren auf die Wasserstoffabsorption von Stahl (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) wurde in Salzsaeure untersucht. Die Beizbaeder wurden kontinuierlich durch die chemische Reaktion mit oxidierten Stahlblechen gealtert. Die H{sup +}- und Inhibitorkonzentration nahm mit der Zeit ab. Der Einfluss dieses Alterungsprozesses auf die wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion wurde durch in-situ Zugversuche mit Badloesung untersucht. Mit zunehmender Alterung des Bades nahm die Brucheinschnuerung ab und erreichte Werte wie sie auch in der nicht inhibierten Saeure erreicht werden. Weiterhin wurde die Wasserstoff-Permeation untersucht. Die Permeationsstromdichte steigt mit zunehmender Alterung der Beizloesung. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  6. Indole and Its Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors forC-Steel during Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion of three types of C-steel in 10% hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated in the absence and the presence of the inhibitors, indole (A), indole acetic acid (B), indole butyric acid (C), and 3-acetyl indole (D), by weight-loss measurements at different temperatures (30~70℃). The results showed that inhibiting efficiency depended upon the presence of the substituted groups in the pyrrole ring. The inhibiting efficiency of the inhibitors increased in the order: Inh. C<lnh. B<lnh. A<lnh. D. Linear Arrhenius plots were obtained in the absence and the presence of inhibitors. Results elucidated the effect of temperatures and molecular structure on the inhibition efficiency. The activation energy, Ea, of the three alloys was calculated and it was found that it depended on the type of steel and inhibitor.

  7. One-step pickling-activation before magnesium alloy plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-juan; YU Gang; OUYANG Yue-jun; HE Xiao-mei; ZHANG Jun; YE Li-yuan

    2009-01-01

    A one-step pickling-activation process was proposed as an environmental friendly pretreatment method in phosphate-permanganate solution before electroplating on magnesium alloys. The effects of pickling-activation on qualities of coating were assessed by adhesion and porosity testing of copper plating. The interfacial reactions between specimen and solution were analyzed with SEM, EDX and XRD. The results show that the developed process of pickling-activation can equalize the potentials on substrate surface. The compacted zinc film can be obtained by zinc immersion after treating magnesium alloy in the pH 4-6 phosphate-permanganate solution for 3-5 min. The adhesion and corrosion resistance of copper plating are enhanced. The one-step pickling-activation can replace the existing two-step process of acid pickling and activation which contains a great deal of chromium and fluorine. The procedure of surface pretreatment is simplified and the production environment is improved.

  8. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Protection of Hot Swaged Ti-54M Alloy in 2 M HCl Pickling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of Ti-54M titanium alloy processed by hot rotary swaging and post-annealed to yield different grain sizes, in 2 M HCl solutions is reported. Two annealing temperatures of 800 °C and 940 °C, followed by air cooling and furnace cooling were used to give homogeneous grain structures of 1.5 and 5 μm, respectively. It has been found that annealing the alloy at 800 °C decreased the corrosion of the alloy, with respect to the hot swaged condition, through increasing its corrosion resistance and decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate. Increasing the annealing temperature to 940 °C further decreased the corrosion of the alloy.

  9. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Protection of Hot Swaged Ti-54M Alloy in 2 M HCl Pickling Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed M. Sherif; Ehab A. El Danaf; Hany S. Abdo; Sherif Zein El Abedin; Hasan Al-Khazraji

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion of Ti-54M titanium alloy processed by hot rotary swaging and post-annealed to yield different grain sizes, in 2 M HCl solutions is reported. Two annealing temperatures of 800 °C and 940 °C, followed by air cooling and furnace cooling were used to give homogeneous grain structures of 1.5 and 5 μm, respectively. It has been found that annealing the alloy at 800 °C decreased the corrosion of the alloy, with respect to the hot swaged condition, through increasing its corrosion resis...

  10. 影响酱腌菜质量的因素及防腐应注意的问题探讨%Investigation on factors affecting the quality of pickles and the main issues for corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宝忠

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a variety of pickled vegetables production technology was introduced, some of the major factors that affect the quality of pickles, clear links should be noted in the production process, proposed method to stablity the quality of pickles, the insights for pickle product's antiseps.All these has some significance on pickles production processing, storage and antisepsis.%文中对酱腌菜生产的多种工艺作了介绍,提出了影响酱腌菜质量的一些主要因素,明确了生产过程中应注意的环节,提出了稳定酱腌菜质量的方法,对酱腌菜产品的防腐问题提出了见解.对酱腌菜的生产加工、储存、防腐有一定的指导意义.

  11. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  12. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  13. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing, E-mail: renytang@163.com; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  14. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  15. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  16. 酸洗对薄壁0Cr18Ni9不锈钢腐蚀的试验研究%Test Study on Corrosion of 0 Cr18 Ni9 Stainless Steel Thin-wall Product during Acid Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜利; 郭和平; 李玉生; 张新宇

    2015-01-01

    In the process of acid pickling, 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel thin-wall products are easily over-etched. The stainless steel strips with the thickness of 0. 1mm were used to study the influencing factors of acid pickling. The test results are as follows:(a) 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel in different status has different corrosion resistance. The annealed material is more likely to be over-etched. ( b) The temperature of acid fluid, acid picking time, and concentration of acid fluid have a significant influence on the corrosion degree and mechanical property of stainless steel. ( c ) In the process of acid pickling, the etchant containing hydrofluoric acid lowers on the mechanical property of 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel and causes material embrittlement during the acid pickling. (d) The higher the content of hydrofluoric acid is, the greater the influence on the mechanical property of 0Cr18Ni9 stainless steel is.%0Cr18Ni9 不锈钢薄壁产品在酸洗过程中易发生过腐蚀. 本研究采用0. 1 mm厚度0Cr18Ni9不锈钢带,对酸洗的各影响因素进行试验研究,结果表明: 材料状态不同,耐腐蚀能力不同,退火态更易出现过腐蚀; 酸液温度、浓度及酸洗的时间均对不锈钢带腐蚀程度和力学性能有较大影响;在含HF的腐蚀剂中酸洗容易使薄壁不锈钢带力学性能降低,造成材料脆化,且HF含量越高对薄壁不锈钢力学性能影响越大.

  17. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  18. Effects of Different Oxidants on HCl-based Pickling Process of 430 Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong XIE; Pei-yang SHI; Cheng-jun LIU; Mao-fa JIANG

    2016-01-01

    To shorten the time required for the pickling process and to enhance the quality of ferritic stainless steel plates,the effects of oxidants including hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ),potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ),and potas-sium chlorate (KClO3 )on the pickling behavior in HCl-based electrolyte as well as the surface quality of hot-rolled and blasted 430 stainless steel (430-SS)were studied.Experiments were conducted using mass-loss tests,micro-structure analyses,potentiodynamic polarization curves,and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results showed that the addition of oxidants substantially accelerated the pickling process of 430-SS by enhancing the cathodic reaction rate and reducing the charge transfer resistance.In electrolytes comprising 5-8 mass% HCl at a temperature of 40-60 ℃ and at the same concentration within the range from 0 to 2 mass%,H2 O2 was demon-strated to be superior to KMnO4 and KClO3 in accelerating the pickling process.The surface quality of 430-SS pick-led in the presence of H2 O2 was better than those of specimens pickled in the presence of KMnO4 and KClO3 when the removal of the oxide layer,intergranular corrosion,and surface roughness were collectively considered. When 1 mass% H2 O2 was added,the mass loss rate of 430-SS was increased by 629% and no residual oxide layer or intergranular corrosion was observed on the surface of the steel;in addition,the roughness was only 1.7μm.H2 O2 was determined to be a better oxidant than KMnO4 and KClO3 when the pickling process,surface quality,solution recycling,and environment protection were considered as a whole.

  19. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  20. National and International Factors in Pickle Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report presents global and domestic information regarding production, trade and market developments for pickled cucumbers. U.S. cucumber production and trade are commonly divided into two categories: fresh and pickling. Michigan is the largest producer of pickling cucumbers in the country, accounting for 18 percent of total U.S. production. Like many agri-food industries, this processed product sector has gone through numerous changes in the past decade which have influenced production a...

  1. The Story of Clara Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    问号

    2005-01-01

    Everyone in town knew Clara Pickle.She was asdear and sw eet as anyone could be.In fact,it wasClara Pickle's good nature that gother in trouble.O ne day a grey cat w andered into Clara’skitchen.Clara,who lived alone,took the cat in.Shewas glad for the com pany.The nextm orning she letthecat out for a breath of fresh air.W hen the cat cam eback that afternoon,he was no longer alone.H e hadbrought his entire fam ily and m ost ofhis friends.Therewere thirty-four cats in all。Clare,sweet soul that she was,adopte...

  2. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  3. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Metallic Materials. Part III. Hydrogen Entry and Embrittlement in Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Strength Steels," Stress Corrosion Cracking in High-Strength Steels and in Titanium and Altuninum Alloys, Naval Rasearch Laboratory, Washington, D.C...to pickling solutions. In all of these examples, the sulfide, cyanide, etc., caused a hydrogen-related problem that would not have existed in their...desorption reaction. In studying the pickling of low-carbon steel in various strong acids, Hudson’ 4 measured the corrosion rate and amount of hydr-ogen

  4. Listeria monocytogenes survival in refrigerator dill pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; D'Sa, Elaine M; Harrison, Mark A; Harrison, Judy A; Andress, Elizabeth L

    2005-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow in refrigerated foods with pH values of approximately 4.0 to 5.0 and salt concentrations of 3 to 4%. Home-fermented refrigerator dill pickles fit this description. Contamination of this product with L. monocytogenes could cause serious problems because these items are not heated prior to consumption. L. monocytogenes survival and growth patterns were investigated in refrigerator dill pickles at 1.3, 3.8, and 7.6% salt concentrations. Pickling cucumbers were dipped into an inoculum of L. monocytogenes, brine mixtures were added, and cucumbers were held at room temperature for 1 week and then refrigerated for up to 3 months. The pH, NaCl percentage, titratable acidity percentage, and total populations of Listeria and aerobic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria were measured at the addition of brine, after 2, 4, and 7 days of storage at room temperature, and then weekly during refrigerated storage. The initial Listeria population was 5.4 to 5.6 log CFU/cm2 on cucumber surfaces and 3.9 to 4.6 log CFU/g internally. There was an approximate 0.3- to 1-log increase during room temperature fermentation followed by a population decline during refrigerator storage, with a greater decrease in the brines with the highest NaCl concentration. Up to 49 days, the internal tissue of pickles with 1.3, 3.8, or 7.6% salt concentrations were presumptively positive for L. monocytogenes by the enrichment method, and at 91 days the surfaces of such pickles were still positive for L. monocytogenes. Populations of total aerobes and lactic acid bacteria increased during room temperature storage and decreased gradually during refrigerated storage.

  5. Corrosion leaking of preheater weldment in alumina factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; CHEN Wen-mi; GONG Zhu-qing; LIU Hong-zhao

    2005-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and anticorrosion measures of TU42C weld-joint were studied by constant load experiments and pickling experiments. The results show that in 40%(mass fraction) NaOH solution at 110 ℃, caustic SCC occurs in TU42C weld-joints at the applied potential of -1 020 mV(vs SCE) for 3 d while at the potential of -950 mV(vs SCE) for 10 d. All the cracks are intergranular. In the 10% sulfuric acid, the cracks have the most negative self-corrosion potential -432.5 mV(vs SCE) and are active to be further corroded by the acid. Because of the same corrosion behaviour as the lab weldment, preheater's cracking in alumina factories is attributed to the combining actions of previous caustic SCC in Bayer solutions and continuous acid corrosion by pickling with the addition of RD. The following measures are effective to prevent the corrosion failure of preheater, such as postweld heat treatment at 620 ℃ to relax the residual weld stress, addition of CC3 and L826 as the corrosion inhibitors to improve the pickling and cleaning by the high pressure water instead of by pickling.

  6. Behaviour of tetramine inhibitors during pickling of hot rolled steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, Marie-José, E-mail: marie-jose.cornu@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Koltsov, Alexey, E-mail: alexey.koltsov@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Nicolas, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina_nicolas@live.fr [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) – UMR 7564 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54602 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); Colom, Lydia, E-mail: Lydia.colom@sfr.fr [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Voie Romaine, 57280 Maizières-lès-Metz (France); Dossot, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.dossot@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) – UMR 7564 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54602 Villers-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-02-28

    To avoid the dissolution of steel in industrial pickling process, tetramine inhibitors are added to the pickling bath. This study is devoted to the understanding of the action mechanism of these inhibitors in hydrochloric and sulphuric baths on non-alloyed and alloyed steels. Pickling experiments and characterization with XPS, Raman and infrared spectroscopies have shown that inhibitors work only in acid media and leached out from the steel surfaces during the rinsing operation just after pickling. The effectiveness of inhibitors depends on the acid media and the temperature. Experimental data are consistent with a surface mechanism, i.e., the so-called “outer-sphere” adsorption.

  7. Recovery of zirconium from pickling solution, regeneration and its reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal10@gmail.com [Alkali Material & Metal Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Visweswara Rao, R.V.R.L.; Sairam, S.; Thakur, S. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The following compares the performance of fresh pickling solution (PS) and regenerated and used pickling solution (UPS). - Highlights: • Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages is carried out to remove oxide layer. • The pickling solution become saturated with zirconium due to reuse. • As NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases, conc. of Zr in pickling solution decreases. • Experimental results shows that, used pickling solution can be regenerated. • Regenerated solution may be reused by adding makeup quantities of HF-HNO{sub 3}. - Abstract: The pressurized heavy water reactors use natural uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) as fuel and uses cladding material made up of zircaloy, an alloy of zirconium. Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages viz., spacer and bearing pads is carried out to remove the oxide layer and surface contaminants, if present. Pickling solution, after use for many cycles i.e., used pickling solution (UPS) is sold out to vendors, basically for its zirconium value. UPS, containing a relatively small concentration of hydrofluoric acid. After repeated use, pickling solution become saturated with zirconium fluoride complex and is treated by adding sodium nitrate to precipitate sodium hexafluro-zirconate. The remaining solution can be recycled after suitable makeup for further pickling use. The revenue lost by selling UPS is very high compared to its zirconium value, which causes monetary loss to the processing unit. Experiments were conducted to regenerate and reuse UPS which will save a good amount of revenue and also protect the environment. Experimental details and results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  9. The Glowing Pickle and Other Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Burns

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon known as the glowing pickle was investigated. Voltages ranging from 80-140 Volts AC were placed across a variety of vegetable specimens, both fresh and soaked in several salt solutions. The glowing was caused by electric arcing across a steam-filled cavity in the specimen. The emission spectra showed lines indicating the presence of potassium and sodium ions in the fresh specimens. In the specimens soaked in salt solutions, emission spectra matching the salt ions were observed.

  10. U.S. Fresh and Pickling Cucumber Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to estimate the potential impact of downy mildew to U.S. growers of cucumbers, this report reviews historical trends in production and markets for cucumbers including slicing and pickling cucumbers.

  11. A Novel Spice: Pickled Pepper Powder and Some Quality Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cankaya Harika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An alternative pepper powder with better sensory quality was produced from some pickled pepper species. The peppers pickled via traditional and quick methods were dried at 65±1°C, ground and physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the samples were compared to those of commonly consumed pepper powders (control. Capsicum species grown in Turkey including Chili, Kapia, Jordan, Biberiye, Frenk and etc. were used. The results are expected to contribute to the development of new products, to provide more alternatives for consumers in the market and to satisfy consumer expectations. Along with typical pickled aroma, hotness and colour, pickled pepper powders may be a valuable food additive especially for ready-to-eat and fast foods.

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING CUCUMBERS PICKLING

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of some chemical indices (salt content, pH and ascorbic acid content) during cucumbers pickling was the purpose of this paper. The experience materials used in this work were: cucumbers cornichon, iodized and non-iodized salt and tap water. The samples containing cucumbers in iodized and in non-iodized brine were left to ferment, and at 3-4 days were made determinations of above mentioned indices. During pickling process, non-iodized salt has accumulated in cucumber ...

  13. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  14. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  15. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  16. The pickling technology of Shaoxing folk pickles%绍兴民间腌渍菜制作技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光忠; 郑国江

    2011-01-01

    In order to inherit and promote traditional pickling technology,the choice of raw materials,technological process,and operating methods of Shaoxing folk pickles are introduced.The eating methods of short-term pickled vegetables,pickled potherb mustard,pterocladia tenuis okam and Chinese mustard green are especially explained in detail.The mechanism of flavor components in pickles is also discussed as well.%为了继承传统老法腌渍菜的制作方法,介绍了绍兴民间制作腌渍菜的原料、工艺流程和操作方法,同时介绍了暴腌菜、佩红菜、鸡毛菜和倒纛菜(冬芥菜)等的制作方法,并说明了绍兴民间腌渍菜的食用方法,论述了腌渍菜中呈味物质的形成机理。

  17. New Development of Acid Regeneration in Steel Pickling Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W F Kladnig

    2008-01-01

    For acid pickling heat treated mild steel and steel products,up to the middle of the last century,sulfuric acid was primarily in use,which has been replaced stepwise by hydrochloric acid since the sixties.During this time,the pickling of high alloyed steel with hydrofluoric acid or mixtures for hydrofluoric acid together with nitric acid has also been applied on industrial scale.The technologies used by several plant contractors hereby show considerable differences in their engineering.The study provides a survey of the progress in the state of art of regeneration technology as well as the use of different pickling media in the form of a review on existing technologies as well as improvements done within the recent years in the area.

  18. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  19. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  20. 钢铁材料表面酸洗清洁生产展望%Prospect of the Cleaner Production of Steel Surface Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰伟; 汤兵

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry, the demand of steel products is increasing. Due to the active nature of steel surface, the formation of rust layers is inevitable during surface treatment, transportation and storage. However, the cor-rosion of steel had negative effects on the performance and service lifetime for the steel materials, and caused huge waste of re-sources. In order to enhance the performance of steel products and prolong their service lifetime, surface treatment and protec-tion should be considered. However, before surface treatment and protection, the rust layer should be cleaned out. Industrial pickling is one of the common methods for rust removing. Due to the corrosive characteristic of the used pickling liquors, the phenomenon of over-pickling is inevitable, which may cause the waste of metallic matrix and generate pollutants, including acid mist and pickling waste liquor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the origin of pollution, the methods to enhance cleaner pickling level in industry were discussed and summarized, from three aspects of addition of corrosion inhibitors, selection of the suitable technological parameters and improvement of pickling facilities. Additionally, the factors influencing the above three aspects were also discussed. Aiming at enhancing the effect of whole process of pickling industry, the concept of cleaner pick-ling was proposed, furthermore, the problems which needed to be considered in the future were indicated.%随着现代工业的发展,钢铁构件的需求日益增大。钢铁构件由于自身表面性质活跃,在加工、运输及储存过程中不可避免地形成锈蚀层。钢铁材料的锈蚀既对材料的使用性能及寿命造成不良影响,又导致材料的巨大浪费。为了提高钢铁构件的使用性能及寿命,需要进行表面处理及防护,但处理之前必须清除表面锈蚀层。工业酸洗是清除锈蚀层的重要方法之

  1. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  2. 304 Cu抗菌不锈钢盐酸基酸洗工艺的研究%Research on hydrochloric acid-based pickling process of 304Cu antibacterial stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 邹德宁; 韩英; 薛清连

    2016-01-01

    为了明确盐酸基酸洗液对含Cu抗菌不锈钢表面氧化层的酸洗行为,采用正交试验法研究以盐酸为基础,Fe3+、H2 O2和HNO3为氧化剂的304Cu抗菌不锈钢酸洗工艺.并运用扫描电镜、透射电镜及电化学等手段分析经最佳配方酸洗后试样的表面形貌、成分及酸洗机理.结果表明:最佳酸洗工艺配方为HCl (36%~38%)120 ml/L、H2O2(30%)80 ml/L、FeCl3·6H2 O 20g/L、HNO310 ml/L,酸洗温度30℃,酸洗时间15 min.经该配方酸洗后材料表面平整度和光亮度较好,具有抗菌性能的点状ε-Cu相在基体上弥散分布.材料经酸洗去除氧化层后,仍具有足够含量的抗菌元素Cu存在.酸洗脱除氧化层过程由电荷传递过程控制,该酸洗液对不锈钢具有孔蚀诱导性,酸洗时间不宜过长.%In order to clarify pickling process of hydrochloric acid lotion against Cu⁃contained surface oxide layer of antibacterial stainless steel, the pickling process of 304Cu antibacterial stainless steel by using Fe3+, H2 O2 and HNO3 as the oxidants and taking hydrochloric acid as basis was studied by orthogonal experiment. And the surface morphology, composition and pickling mechanism of samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical after the best recipe pickling. The results show that the best pickling recipe is HCl (36%~38%) 120 ml/L, H2O2(30%) 80 ml/L, FeCl3· 6H2 O 20 g/L , HNO3 10 ml/L, pickling temperature is 30 ℃ and pickling for 15 min. The flatness and brightness of material surface are better after pickling, and antimicrobial properties of dot ε-Cu phase is dispersed on the substrate. After pickling to remove oxide layer of material, it still has enough content of antibacterial element Cu. Pickling process of removing oxide layer is controlled by the charge transfer process, the pickling solution of stainless steel with pitting corrosion

  3. Effects of chemical blanching and salt content on quality of pickled chilli

    OpenAIRE

    Prachaiyo, P.; Kongbangkerd, T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of blanching agents (citric acid and alum) and the salt concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% (w/w)) on the quality of pickled chilli was studied. The results showed that both citric acid and alum hadno effect on pH, titratable acidity and moisture content of pickled chilli. However, the pickled chilli blanched in alum solution had lower counts of total microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria than those of pickled chilli blanched in citric acid solution indicating that alum had greater ...

  4. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  5. A new acid pickling process for copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cleaning process of removing oxides on the surface of copper alloy sheets was investigated systematically. Through optimizing, a perfect process was selected that is fit for removing oxides on the surface. By acid pickling, all kinds of copper oxides are removed completely, furthermore, no poisonous gases are given out and a smooth and clean surface of copper alloys is obtained. At present, the process is applied successfully in the copper-processing industry.

  6. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucumber pickling were also studied. The disruption extent of the middle lamella in SF cucumber displayed more obviously than that in LABIF cucumber, implying that LABIF contributed to keep the cucumber original structure intact. Based on the organic acid accumulation pattern, in SF LAB and Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB fermented simultaneously, while in LABIF LAB fermented beforehand thus being in dominant position, then AAB fermented vigorously in a acidic condition created by LAB. The acetic acid accumulaton pattern could be regarded as the distinctive feature between SF and LABIF. The orgnic acids produced in LABIF were higher than that in SF. The final score of sensory evaluation combining texture analysis demonstrated that LABIF overmatched SF. It was concluded that LABIF could obviously enhance the quality of pickled cucumber and overwhelming SF, due to LABIF more beneficial to keep the cucumber original structure intact and organic acids accumulation.

  7. The Comparison of Chinese Pickle, Japanese Pickle and Kimchi Processing Technology%中、日、韩三国泡菜加工工艺的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢沿钢; 董全

    2011-01-01

    This paper researched comparatively on the sort, the processing technology, the operation points, the production feature of Chinese pickle, kimchi and Japanese pickle. According to comparison, this paper also made some suggestions for the development of Chinese pickle.%对目前中、日、韩三国泡菜的加工工艺、操作要点和产品特色进行了对比研究,并由此对中国泡菜的发展提出了一些建议.

  8. Effect of pickling processes on the microstructure and properties of electroless Ni–P coating on Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electroless plating Ni–P is prepared on the surface of Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloys with different pickling processes. The microstructure and properties of Ni–P coating are investigated. The results show that the Ni–P coatings deposited using the different pickling processes have a different high phosphorus content amorphous Ni–P solid solution structure, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit higher hardness. There is higher phosphorus content of Ni–P amorphous coating using 125 g/L CrO3 and 110 ml/L HNO3 (w=68% than using 180 g/L CrO3 and 1 g/L KF during pre-treatment, and the coating structure is more compact, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit more excellent adhesion with substrate (Fc up to 22 N. The corrosion potential of Ni–P coating is improved and exhibits good corrosion resistance. As a result, Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy is remarkably protected by the Ni–P coating.

  9. Effect of pickling processes on the microstructure and properties of electroless Ni-P coating on Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjie Xu; Liping Chen; Ling Yu; Jinxiao Zhang; Zhongming Zhang; Jincheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The electroless plating Ni–P is prepared on the surface of Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloys with different pickling processes. The microstructure and properties of Ni–P coating are investigated. The results show that the Ni–P coatings deposited using the different pickling processes have a different high phosphorus content amorphous Ni–P solid solution structure, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit higher hardness. There is higher phosphorus content of Ni–P amorphous coating using 125 g/L CrO3 and 110 ml/L HNO3 (w=68%) than using 180 g/L CrO3 and 1 g/L KF during pre-treatment, and the coating structure is more compact, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit more excellent adhesion with substrate (Fc up to 22 N). The corrosion potential of Ni–P coating is improved and exhibits good corrosion resistance. As a result, Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy is remarkably protected by the Ni–P coating.

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  11. Corrosion Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    the applied protection systems, (2) crevices for moisture entrapment, (3) galvanic couples when steel or titanium fasteners are used, and (4) fatigue...Activ Material Structure Exposed Normal Environment* Unexposed Atmosphere Aluminum alloys Steel 1.25 2.0 4.0 Titanium " Magnesium " (4.0) (8.0) (10.0...APPRNDIX - Chromic Acid Anodizing The surface treatment consists in the following process : D egreasing with trichlorethylene vapor, * Pickling , Composition

  12. Influence of the post-weld surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel 1.4062

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, P.; Müller, C.; Baumann, O.; Modersohn, W.; Halle, T.

    2017-03-01

    The duplex stainless steel 1.4062 (X2CrNiN22-2) is used as alternative material to austenitic stainless steels in the construction industry. The corrosion resistance of welded seams is influenced by the base material, the weld filler material, the welding process and also by the final surface treatment. The scale layer next to the weld seam can be removed by grinding, pickling, electro-polished or blasting depending on the application and the requested corrosion resistance. Blasted surfaces are often used in industrial practice due to the easier and cheaper manufacturing process compared to pickled or electro-polished surfaces. Furthermore blasting with corundum-grain is more effective than blasting with glass-beads which also lower the process costs. In recent years, stainless steel surfaces showed an unusually high susceptibility to pitting corrosion after grinding with corundum. For this reason, it is now also questioned critically whether the corrosion resistance is influenced by the applied blasting agent. This question was specifically investigated by comparing grinded, pickled, corundum-grain- and glass-bead-blasted welding seams. Results of the SEM analyses of the blasting agents and the blasted surfaces will be presented and correlated with the different performed corrosion tests (potential measurement, KorroPad-test and pitting potential) on welding seams with different surface treatments.

  13. Effects of chemical blanching and salt content on quality of pickled chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachaiyo, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blanching agents (citric acid and alum and the salt concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% (w/w on the quality of pickled chilli was studied. The results showed that both citric acid and alum hadno effect on pH, titratable acidity and moisture content of pickled chilli. However, the pickled chilli blanched in alum solution had lower counts of total microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria than those of pickled chilli blanched in citric acid solution indicating that alum had greater inhibitory effect on microbial growth than citric acid. On the other hand, the salt concentration affected the moisture content of pickled chilli.The moisture content of the pickled chilli increased as the salt concentration increased. In addition, the salt concentration also affected the microbial growth in pickled chilli. The data indicated that the growth oftotal microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria decreased as the salt concentration increased. This study showed that the combination of using alum solution as blanching agent and 20% salt exhibited greatest inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  14. Fate of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Production of Pickled Sausage by Using a Cold Fill Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Nelson J; Cutter, Catherine N; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2016-10-01

    Preservation by pickling has been used for many years to extend the shelf life of various types of food products. By storing meat products in a brine solution containing an organic acid, salt, spices, as well as other preservatives, the pH of the product is reduced, thus increasing the safety and shelf life of the product. Pickling may involve the use of heated brines to further add to the safety of the food product. When precooked, ready-to-eat (RTE) sausages are pickled with a heated brine solution, the process is referred to as hot filling. However, hot filling has been shown to affect the clarity of the brine, making the product cloudy and unappealing to consumers. Because of the potential quality defects caused by higher temperatures associated with hot fill pickling, cold fill pickling, which uses room temperature brine, is preferred by some pickled sausage manufacturers. Because little information exists on the safety of cold fill, pickled sausages, a challenge study was designed using a brine solution (5% acetic acid and 5% salt at 25°C) to pickle precooked, RTE sausages inoculated with a pathogen cocktail consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Montevideo, Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphylococcus aureus . All pathogens were reduced ~6.80 log CFU/g in 72 h when enumerated on nonselective media. On selective media, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes decreased 6.33 and 6.35 log CFU/g in 12 h, respectively whereas S. aureus was reduced 6.80 log CFU/g in 24 h. Sausages experienced significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in pH over the 28 days of storage, whereas no significant differences were observed in water activity (P =0.1291) or salt concentration of the sausages (P =0.1445) or brine (P =0.3180). The results of this experiment demonstrate that cold fill pickling can effectively reduce and inhibit bacterial pathogens.

  15. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized pickling cucumbers but not only fresh ones. More precise information about visual and gustatory properties of new created lines and hybrids will be obtained by performing of sensory analysis at different harvest times.

  16. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  17. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance.

  18. Improving the Surface Roughness of Pickled Steel Strip by Control of Rolling Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Szu-Ning; Liou, Horng-Yih; Chang, Chu-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Wang, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is to analyze the surface roughness problem of low carbon pickled steel strips from the view points of prior hot rolling conditions and the hot-rolled scales. The results showed that, compared with other parameters, the most important factor in hot rolling to affect the surface roughness was the rolling temperature. As the temperature was increased, the amount of the outer brittle α-Fe2O3 increased, leading to rough scale/substrate interface and rough surface after pickling. However, the effect of coiling temperature was almost negligible because no further rolling existed after that stage. Quantitative estimation showed that decrease in rolling temperature in this investigation reduced the surface roughness, Ra, from 1.06-1.78 μm to 0.88-1.10 μm after pickling in laboratory. Similar degree of improvement in roughness was also observed after pickling in mill.

  19. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized p...

  20. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The surface integrity of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance. No significant changes of the equiaxe microstructure were detected between sample core and surface, or after the pickling and anodization steps. Surface hydrogen and oxygen superficial contents were found to remain unchanged. Roughness characteristi...

  1. Analysis of Potato Pickles Pickling Process and the Main Physicochemical Index%土豆咸菜的腌制工艺及主要理化指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宗玄; 董艳; 杨庆丽

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了土豆腌制的工艺程序,提出在土豆腌制过程中对龙葵素的控制方法,并对土豆腌制成品的理化质量指标进行了分析。%This paper introduces the potatoes pickled process, put forward to potatoes pickled and control methods of solanine and of potatoes pickled physiochemical quality index were analyzed.

  2. AZ31变形镁合金化学镀前无铬酸洗工艺研究%An Investigation of Chromium-Free Pickling Process for Electroless Nickel Plating on AZ 31 Wrought Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦铁男; 马立群; 贺忠臣; 姚妍; 丁毅

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了AZ 31变形镁合金化学镀前的磷酸-硝酸-氢氟酸混合酸洗工艺及各组分对镁合金基体的腐蚀失重表面形貌、镀层与基体的截面形貌和结合力的影响.结果表明:氢氟酸的加入可以有效降低酸洗反应速率并防止新鲜的镁合金基体表面的再次氧化;硝酸的体积分数对镁合金表面形貌的改变有较大影响;当磷酸-硝酸-氢氟酸的体积分数分别为300 mL/L,60 mL/L和100 mL/L时,镀层与基体的结合力最好.%A phosphoric acid-nitric acid-hydrofuoric acid mixed acid pickling process was studied for electroless nickel plating on AZ 31 wrought magnesium alloy sheet. The effects of pickle components on corrosion weight loss, surface morphology, cross section morphology and adhesion strength between the substrate and coating were investigated. The results show that addition of hydrofluoric acid can effectively reduce the rate of pickling reaction and protect the fresh substrate from being Oxidized again. The volume fraction of nitric acid has a great impact on changes of the surface morphology of magnesium substrate. The best adhesion strength between the substrate and the coating is achieved when the pickle solution contains 300 mL/L phosphoric acid, 60 mL/L nitric acid and 100 mL/L hydrofluoric acid.

  3. Antioxidant Compounds in Traditional Indian Pickles May Prevent the Process-Induced Formation of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Mahesh M; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2016-01-01

    Pickles in the Indian market contain ascorbic acid from the raw material used and benzoate as an added preservative that are involved in the formation of benzene in soft drinks. In this work, 24 market pickle samples were surveyed for benzene content, as well as its precursors and other constituents that influence its formation. The analysis showed that pickle samples were high in acid content (low pH) and showed significant amount of ascorbic acid, minerals (Cu and Fe), and benzoic acid present in them. Also, most samples exhibited high antioxidant activity that might be attributed to the ingredients used, such as fruits and spices. The solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed in-house for benzene analysis. Eleven of 24 samples had benzene, with the highest concentration of 4.36 ± 0.82 μg of benzene per kg of pickle for a lime pickle that was also reported to have highest benzoic acid and considerably less hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging activity. However, benzene levels for all 11 samples were considerably below the World Health Organization regulatory limit of 10 μg/kg for benzene in mineral water. Studies on model systems revealed that the high antioxidant activity of Indian pickles may have had a strong inhibitory effect on benzene formation.

  4. Pickle Vulnerability Exploitation and Defense%Pickle漏洞利用与防御

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺琪茗; 周安民; 方勇; 刘亮

    2012-01-01

    Pickle vulnerabilities are resulted from unsafe use of pickle---a python module. Due to the crossplatform ability of python and simplicity of shellcode writing, pickle vulnerabilities are even more harmful. This paper principally describes the utilization environment and mode of pickle vulnerabilities, including the process of shellcode writing, and sums up a variety of effective defense strategies for pickle vulnerabilitiesFinally through the survey of software, this paper tells of the universality of these vulnerabilities and the necessity for safe use of pickle module.%Pickle漏洞是由于没有安全使用Python模块Pickle漏洞而产生的。由于Python语言的跨平台性,shcllcode制作的简易性,使得漏洞的危害性很大。整篇文章细致阐述了Pickle漏洞的利用环境、利用方式以及shellcode的编写过程,向读者剖析了漏洞的产生原因,然后总结了各种有效针对Pickle漏洞的防御策略。最后通过软件调查结果,表明了该漏洞的广泛性和安全使用Pickle模块的必要性。

  5. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  6. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  7. Corrosion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  8. Application of Pickling Auxiliary%浸酸助剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易杰; 陈慧; 单志华

    2011-01-01

    Mixed aromatic sulfoacid was made as pickling auxiliary, which was used as low salt pickling for cattle. The condition of pickled pelt and the pelt tanned by Cr2O3 was tested.The results show that, the pelt condition pickled by 3% salt and 2% pickling auxiliary or SELLATAN P is the same as the pelt pickled by conventional processes. All of the pickled pelt are tanned by 5% chromium powder(about 1.05% Cr2O3), the pickled pelt made by pickling auxiliary could absorb 90.97% Cr2O3, and the distribution of Cr2O3 in leather is similiar to that of leather made in conventional processes. The Ts of the leather is 114.34℃, the tendencies of drying and conditioning are the same.%将混和芳香族磺酸作为浸酸助剂,用于黄牛软化裸皮低盐浸酸,考察酸皮状态及其铬鞣后的基本特征。结果表明:浸酸过程(液比为0.8)中加3%的盐、2%自制浸酸助剂;或者浸酸过程(液比为0.8)中加3%的盐、2%浸酸助剂塞拉坦P,浸酸后的皮坯与常规工艺浸酸皮坯状态相似;使用5%的铬粉(约为1.05%Cr2O3)将浸酸皮坯鞣制,测得由自制浸酸助剂制备的皮坯对Cr2O3吸收率为90.97%;坯革中Cr2O3分布与常规工艺制备的坯革相似;无过鞣、色花现象;坯革收缩温度为114.34℃;坯革的干燥及回湿趋势与常规工艺制备的坯革相似。

  9. 锆管酸洗工艺研究%Study on Pickling Process of Zirconium Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登超; 南莉; 杨亚社; 杨永福

    2011-01-01

    In the matter of pickling the oxide - skin of zirconium tubes, it is complex to operate and easy to excessive pickling.According to this situation, the contrast tests were devised by selecting different acid proportions and adjusting different pickling time.The results show that when the temperature is 32 ℃, the mass ratio of HF : HNO3 : H2O is 3:45:52, pickling time is 120 s, the clean and bright surfaces can be obtained and can avoid excessive pickling effectively.%针对锆管的去氧化皮酸洗中操作困难、易出现过酸洗的现象,进行了酸液配比和酸洗时间对锆管酸洗效果影响的对比试验.研究结果表明,酸洗液以氢氟酸、硝酸和水按质量比3∶45∶52配制,在温度32℃下酸洗锆管,酸洗时间为120 s时,能够获得干净光洁的酸洗表面,而且能较好的避免过酸洗.

  10. Effect of Inoculating Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter in Low-Salt Pickle Process of Zhacai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional pickle process of Zhacai was thought unsafely and unstable, because of the high salt and nitrite contents. The study has shown a method to solve these problems. One Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strain, Lactobacillus plantarum was used as starter in the low salt pickle process of Chinese Zhacai. The LAB inoculation amounts were 2, 5, 8%, respectively and the group without LAB inoculation was set as the control. The inoculation groups were added with 8% salt, while the control group 10%. The dynamic changes of physical and chemical parameters of two groups were detected during the pickle process. The results showed that: pH value of the inoculated groups declined rapidly, the lowest pH value was 3.61; the LAB became the predominant bacteria strains during the pickle and the colony amounts of the inoculated groups could be up to 6.32 log10 cfu/mL; the nitrite content of each group kept rising and the nitrite peaks of the inoculated groups appeared 3 days in advance, but the peak values were nearly half of the control group; amino nitrogen contents were lower but finally higher than control group and the highest value could reach 0.46 g/100 mL finally. Therefore, the inoculated groups with the lower salt could be more safety and better flavor. This study provided important reference to optimize the pickle fermentation process of Chinese Zhacai.

  11. Electrodeposition of high corrosion resistance Cu/Ni-P coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Cao, Fahe; Chang, Linrong; Zheng, JunJun; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chunan

    2011-08-01

    High corrosion resistance Cu/Ni-P coatings were electrodeposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy via suitable pretreatments, such as one-step acid pickling-activation, once zinc immersion and environment-friendly electroplated copper as the protective under-layer, which made Ni-P deposit on AZ91D Mg alloy in acid plating baths successfully. The pH value and current density for Ni-P electrodeposition were optimized to obtain high corrosion resistance. With increasing the phosphorous content of the Ni-P coatings, the deposits were found to gradually transform to amorphous structure and the corrosion resistance increased synchronously. The anticorrosion ability of AZ91D Mg alloy was greatly improved by the amorphous Ni-P deposits, which was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion current density ( Icorr) of the coated Mg alloy substrate is about two orders of magnitude less than that of the uncoated.

  12. Chemical conversion coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy and its corrosion tendency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualan JIN; Xiangjie YANG; Ming WANG

    2009-01-01

    The morphology change of the magnesium matrix after pre-treatment and the mor-phology as well as the phase composition of chemical conversion coating formed by phosphate were studied using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by salt spray and damp test, and the corrosion tendency during salt immersion test was analyzed. The results show that the phase composition before and after pre-treatment is almost change- less, and the deep microflaw appears between α and β phases during acidic pickling. The phosphate conversion coating is mainly composed of Mg, MgO, and some amor-phous phase, and it can provide a good protection for the AZ31B alloy. Results from corrosive morphology indicate that the growth and the corrosion resistance of the phosphate conversion coating are related to the forming process of the AZ31B matrix.

  13. PICKLE acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chun; Chuang, King; Henderson, James T.; Rider, Stanley Dean; Bai, Yinglin; Zhang, Heng; Fountain, Matthew; Gerber, Jacob; Ogas, Joe

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor that plays multiple roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. Previous analysis of the expression of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation suggested that PKL acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits. In this study, we examined the expression of PKL protein to investigate when and where PKL acts to regulate development. A PKL:eGFP translational fusion is preferentially localized in the nucleus of cells, consistent with the proposed role for PKL as a chromatin remodeling factor. A steroid-inducible version of PKL - a fusion of PKL to the glucocorticoid receptor (PKL:GR) - was used to examine when PKL acts to repress expression of embryonic traits. We found that activation of PKL:GR during germination was sufficient to repress expression of embryonic traits in the primary roots of pkl seedlings whereas activation of PKL:GR after germination had little effect. In contrast, we observed that PKL is required continuously after germination to repress expression of PHERES1, a type I MADS box gene that is normally expressed during early embryogenesis in wild-type plants. Thus PKL acts at multiple points during development to regulate patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:16359393

  14. The Feminist Thoughts of Vera in A Dill Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xi; Ma Wen-ying

    2014-01-01

    Katherine Mansfield, the most famous writer in New Zealand, was closely associated with D. H. Lawrence and something of a rival of Virginia Woolf. Like the Russian writer Anton Chekhov, Mansfield depicted trivial events and subtle changes in human behavior. A Dill Pickle, one of her short stories, describes the reunion between the former lovers in a caf6 after six-year separation. Mansfield introduced suspense into the story while knitting the plot and adopted stream of consciousness as the narrative device to reveal the inner feelings and thoughts of the heroine--Vera. The present paper, first of all, gives a brief introduction of the story. Then, it explores Vera's feminist thoughts from three aspects: (a) causes to bring about her thought of feminism; (b) manifestation of her feminist thoughts in what she behaved; and (c) the influence of her thought to other women of her time and inspiration to other female writers. The paper concludes that Vera well presented the image of a woman full of feminist thoughts which were really ahead of her time.

  15. Preparation of Potassium Ferrate from Spent Steel Pickling Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 is a multi-functional green reagent for water treatment with considerable combined effectiveness in oxidization, disinfection, coagulation, sterilization, adsorption, and deodorization, producing environment friendly Fe(III end-products during the reactions. This study uses a simple method to lower Fe(VI preparation cost by recycling iron from a spent steel pickling liquid as an iron source for preparing potassium ferrate with a wet oxidation method. The recycled iron is in powder form of ferrous (93% and ferric chlorides (7%, as determined by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectrum (XANES simulation. The synthesis method involves three steps, namely, oxidation of ferrous/ferric ions to form ferrate with NaOCl under alkaline conditions, substitution of sodium with potassium to form potassium ferrate, and continuously washing impurities with various organic solvents off the in-house ferrate. Characterization of the in-house product with various instruments, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, proves that product quality and purity are comparative to a commercialized one. Methylene blue (MB de-colorization tests with in-house potassium ferrate shows that, within 30 min, almost all MB molecules are de-colorized at a Fe/carbon mole ratio of 2/1.

  16. Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese pickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

    2013-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, S4-3(T), was isolated from traditional pickle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, pheS gene sequence analysis, rpoA gene sequence analysis, dnaK gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain S4-3(T) showed 97.9-98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 84.4-94.1 % pheS gene sequence similarities and 94.4-96.9 % rpoA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lactobacillus nantensis, Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus crustorum, Lactobacillus futsaii, Lactobacillus farciminis and Lactobacillus kimchiensis. dnaK gene sequence similarities between S4-3(T) and Lactobacillus nantensis LMG 23510(T), Lactobacillus mindensis LMG 21932(T), Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699(T), Lactobacillus futsaii JCM 17355(T) and Lactobacillus farciminis LMG 9200(T) were 95.4, 91.5, 90.4, 91.7 and 93.1 %, respectively. Based upon the data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is S4-3(T) ( = LMG 26166(T) = NCIMB 14701(T)).

  17. Technological aspects of keeping and pickling qualities of cucumbers as influenced by fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Gawish, R A

    1993-07-01

    The effect of the interactions between K (potassium) and Ca (calcium) applications (preharvest treatment), packaging method and storage conditions on the keeping and pickling qualities of cucumber were investigated. Spraying with 100 ppm K and 5000 ppm Ca prolonged the shelf-life of cucumber, especially when packaged in perforated polyethylene and stored at refrigeration conditions. Packaging and refrigeration both reduced weight loss and decay percentages. Decay was greater in packaged fruits stored at high temperature. Packaging had only a slight effect on chemical composition. Packaged fruits from plants sprayed with 100 ppm K maintained their fresh appearance and firmness > or = 3 times longer than a control sample at ambient conditions and over 20 days under refrigeration. Sensory evaluation of pickled cucumbers revealed that both K and Ca applications on plants during growth improved substantially the pickling quality of cucumber.

  18. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  19. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine), yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main s...

  20. Studies on the diversity and growth of moulds in the cucumber pickle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study about the growth and diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle and the influences of acetic acid concentration and long storage as well as additional of onion on the growth of moulds. Cucumber pickle was treated in different acetic acid concentrations (0,8%, 1,4%, 2,0%, long storage and with or without additional of onion. The used method to isolate of mould was dilution planting. For enumerating moulds, 0,1 ml samples were blended and diluted after that inoculated on to potato sucrose agar (PSA medium and then incubated at 270C for 7 days. To identify the moulds, the colony was transferred on to CDA and PSA media, and then incubated at 270C for 7 days. The moulds were identified according to their macroscopic and microscopic characters. To know the degrees of taste, the cucumber pickle was tested to 25 people with hedonic scale method. The results showed that, there was 12 different kinds of moulds can be found in cucumber pickle without additional of onion. There were Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii Kita, Cochliobolus sp, Botrytis, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. expansum, P. citrinum, Rhizopus oligosporus, Trichoderma sp, and Monilia. On the other hand, experiment with onion, P. expansum and A. niger could not be observed. The highest varieties of moulds can be found in cucumber pickle with acetic acid concentration 1,4%. In experiment without onion, on nil (0 day, with acetic acid concentration of 1,4%, the amount of moulds is lower than in the pickle with acetic acid concentration 0,8%. The diversity of moulds in the cucumber pickle with additional of onion is lower than that of without onion. The additional of onion showed decreasing the diversity and growth of moulds in cucumber pickle with acetic acid concentration of 0,8% on nil (0 day. In experiment with acetic acid concentration 2,0% in 10-1 dilution on nil (0 day until 6th day, the moulds could not be observed.

  1. Corrosion in airframes

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  2. CORROSION IN AIRFRAMES

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  3. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  4. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  5. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  6. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  7. A new speed optimization algorithm with application in pickling and rolling line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce equipment wear and operator pressure, as well as to improve the production efficiency of combined continuous pickling line and tandem cold rolling mill units, four sections’ speeds should be automatically optimized to control the three loopers’ abundance, which include the entry loopers’ entry speed, pickling speed, trimming speed, and tandem cold rolling mill entry speed. According to the optimal speed principle, a new optimization algorithm was proposed based on objective function. In this work, Nelder–Mead simplex method is applied to find the optimal solution by minimizing the objective function. In addition, the calculation of four initial speeds is specified, especially the initial tandem cold rolling mill entry speed. The proposed speed optimization algorithm was successfully applied to a 1450 mm continuous pickling line and tandem cold rolling mill. The acceleration and deceleration are smooth and steady when welding, trimming, or roll changing takes place in practice, the three loopers’ abundance are controlled in suitable range. Results show that the continuous pickling line unit could provide the material in maximum capacity to ensure that the tandem cold rolling mill unit’s production is efficient, and the rolling yield is greatly improved due to the decrease in the number of stops.

  8. Studies on certain quality attributes of meat pickle prepared from spent chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Ranjan Nath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to develop a desirable meat pickle from the less tender and low demand spent chicken meat with the prime objective of its better marketability and wider acceptability amongst the non-vegetarian masses. Materials and Methods: Lean of culled spent meat was marinated for overnight and then pressure cooked and fried with spices and condiments to prepare a shelf stable meat pickle. Proximate composition, pH, TBA Values, Total viable plate count, Counts for yeast and moulds and sensory quality of the pickles were studied as per standard procedure. Results: The mean per cent moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash contents were 61.89±0.12, 17.28±0.56, 14.65±0.16 and 3.35±0.17 respectively. The product pH and the yeast and mould counts though did not differ significantly amongst the storage periods, yet there were significant differences (p<0.01 in TBA and total viable plate count amongst the storage periods. Organoleptic studies with score card method recorded a progressive decrease in the mean panel scores along with the increased storage periods. Conclusion: The spent chicken meat pickle was found to be acceptable for consumption up-to 90 days of storage at room temperature. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 156-158

  9. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  10. Elongation distribution between tension leveler and temper mill for pickling line 2030 in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiancui; SU Lanhai; LI Zhongfu; FU Zhilin; ZHANG Qingdong; HE Chun

    2007-01-01

    Research into plate elongation distribution between the tension leveler and temper mill for pickling line 2030 at Baosteel is conducted.The study,which involved performance testing of mechanics,is designed at different elongation distributions and analyzed from many aspects.Finally,the optimal elongation of the tension leveler and temper mill is given.

  11. Characterization of Iron Oxide Generated in Ruthner Plant of Pickling Unit in Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C.Amiri

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the chloride content in regenerated iron oxides (RIO) from steel-pickling acid waste economically treated by Ruthner process is the most critical issue for the development of RIO as a useful raw material resource. In this paper, the results of a new method for characterization and modification of RIO produced in Mobarakeh Steel Complex were reported.

  12. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  13. Maternal periconceptional consumption of pickled vegetables and risk of neural tube defects in offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-wen; ZHANG Le; YE Rong-wei; LIU Jian-meng; PEI Li-jun; ZHENG Xiao-ying; REN Ai-guo

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal exposure to nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds from drinking water or diet has been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in some studies. Pickled vegetables contain relatively large amounts of nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. We examined the association between maternal periconceptional consumption of pickled vegetables and NTDs in Shanxi Province of northern China.Methods Data were derived from a population based case-control study of major external birth defects in four counties of Shanxi Province. Participants included 519 NTDs cases identified between 2003 and 2007 and 694 healthy controls.Exposure information was collected within 1 week after delivery. Multivariable non-conditioanal Logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) controlling for potentialconfounding variables.Results The risk of NTDs was positively associated with the frequency of the consumptionof pickled vegetables by the mother. Compared with pickled vegetables consumption at <1 meal/week, the adjusted Off for consumption at 1-3, 4-6,and >6 meals/week were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.8), 1.9 (1.1, 3.2), and 3.6 (1.9, 6.9), respectively. A protective effect was found for maternal meat consumption at ≥1 meal/week (adjusted OR: 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4, 0.7) and egg or milk consumption at ≥1 meal/week (adjusted OR: 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4, 0.8).Conclusion Maternal periconceptional consumption of pickled vegetables may increase the risk for NTDs in Shanxi Province.

  14. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  15. Study on Breeding of Pickled Pepper in Henan Province%河南省泡椒育种研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申爱民; 赵香梅; 梁新安

    2013-01-01

    This article summarized the research process of pickled pepper breeding in Henan in the past twenty years, and analyzed the breeding method of pickled pepper. In addition, the paper discussed the five problems existing in pickled pepper breeding, and looked forward the prospects of pickled pepper breeding in Henan.%通过概述河南省20多a泡椒育种研究进程,分析了泡椒育种方法,提出了河南省泡椒育种工作中存在的5个方面的问题及解决措施,展望了今后河南省泡椒育种前景。

  16. Study on Pickled Sour Plants in Guangxi%广西酸食植物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉华; 曹书阁; 隆卫革

    2016-01-01

    Pickled sour food is a common catering culture in Guangxi.Various edible fruits and vegetables can be taken as raw materials for making pickled sour food.Plant resources of pickled sour food are studied in Guangxi through field investigation, key informant interviews, specimen identification and literature analysis.The results show that there are 72 species of main plants, belonging to 29 families and 55 genera in Guangxi.The edible value and efficacy of pickled sour plants,the geographical and climatic factors of pickled sour food and the problems of nitrite production in pickled sour food are analyzed in this study.The development prospects of pickled sour food industry are discussed,which has provided the reference for the development and utilization of pickled sour food.%酸食指腌制的酸的食物,食酸食是广西人普遍的一种饮食文化,各种蔬菜水果均可成为腌制酸食的原料。本研究通过实地调查、关键人物访谈、标本鉴定和文献研究,共记录了腌制酸食的主要植物72种,隶属于29科55属。对酸食植物的食用价值与功效、酸食形成的地理和气候因素、酸食中产生的亚硝酸盐问题等进行了分析,探讨了酸食产业发展中出现的问题并提出建议,为酸食植物的开发利用提供参考。

  17. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermesse, Eric [Institut Clément Ader (ICA), Université de Toulouse, ISAE, Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Mabru, Catherine [Institut Clément Ader (ICA), Université de Toulouse, ISAE, Toulouse (France); Arurault, Laurent, E-mail: arurault@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2013-11-15

    The surface integrity of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance. No significant changes of the equiaxe microstructure were detected between sample core and surface, or after the pickling and anodization steps. Surface hydrogen and oxygen superficial contents were found to remain unchanged. Roughness characteristics (i.e. R{sub a}, R{sub z} but also local K{sub t} factor) similarly showed only slight modifications, although SPM and SEM revealed certain random local surface defaults, i.e. pits about 400 nm in depth. Finally internal stresses, evaluated using X-ray diffraction, highlighted a significant decrease of the compressive internal stresses, potentially detrimental for fatigue resistance.

  18. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  19. Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

  20. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  1. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  2. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar con...

  3. Effect of seed pickling without pesticides on the growth of Penicillium expansum and patulin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Florianowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed pickling without pesticides recommended by the Research Institute of Vegetable Crops in Skierniewice in the method of intensive environment-friendly cultivation on the growth and patulin biosynthesis of patulinogenous microfungus Penicillim expansum, was investigated. A complete inhibition of patulin biosynthesis at 6% and no growth at 8% concentration of the dressing in in vitro conditions was revealed.

  4. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  5. Contribution of electrochemical dissolution during pickling of low carbon steel in acidic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; An electrochemical cell coupled with ICP-OES chemical analysis was used to explore the role of chemical and electrochemical reactions in pickling of low carbon steel in acidic media. Impedance spectroscopy was used to highlight scale properties. Dissolution of hematite is shown to be mainly of chemical nature, whereas the dissolution of magnetite and wüstite is both chemical and electrochemical. Initially, chemical dissolution of the scale dominated. The electrochemica...

  6. Galvanic corrosion of Cu coupled to Au on a print circuit board; Effects of pretreatment solution and etchant concentration in organic solderability preservatives soft etching solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, SeKwon; Kim, YoungJun; Shon, MinYoung; Kwon, HyukSang

    2016-09-01

    In present study, we quantitatively define the galvanic corrosion phenomenon of Cu electrically coupled to Au on Print Circuit Board in Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP) pretreatment (pickling and soft etching) solutions. As a result of polarization and ZRA test, galvanic corrosion rate of Cu in soft etching solution was about 3000 times higher than that of pickling solution. The oxone in OSP soft etching solution was acted as strong oxidant for Cu on PCB substrate. And the galvanic corrosion of Cu in OSP soft etching solution was examined with the change of etchants (oxone (KHSO5), sulfuric acid (H2SO4)) concentration. The galvanic corrosion rate of Cu was increased by the increase of the oxone and sulfuric acid concentrations, which lead to the increase of cathodic reactant such as HSO 5 - and H+ ions. And the degree of galvanic corrosion rate of Cu (Δisoft etching = icouple, (Cu-Au) - icorr, Cu) decreased with the decrease of the oxone and sulfuric acid concentrations.

  7. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  8. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillusplantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei LIU; Sheng-rong SHEN; Hui RUAN; Qian ZHOU; Liu-liu MA; Guo-qing HE

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB).Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines.Of these isolates,Ip15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 μg/ml of linoleic acid (LA).Compared to other strains,L.plantarum strain Ip15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium,I.e.,up to 600 pg/ml.This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9,trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)],of which 75% was 9-CLA.Interestingly,though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by Ip15 remained stable between 100 to 600 μg/ml LA levels in the medium,it dropped sharply at 1000 μg/ml.Taken together,the Ip15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate,which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles.

  9. Selection of refractory materials for acid tanks at the CSN continuous pickling line; Selecao de materiais refratarios para tanques de acido das linhas de decapagem continua da CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sidiney Nascimento; Marques, Oscar Rosa; Bueno, Mauricio Chaves [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Longo, Elson; Silva Pinheiro, Adriano da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-12-31

    Aiming at the revamping of the CSN continuous pickling line 4 acid tanks, a Post Mortem study of the refractory lining was carried out. The collected samples were characterized through techniques such as chemical analysis, mercury porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Trying to reproduce the operational conditions closely, laboratorial simulations were carried out. Such simulations lead to the addition of some alterations on the test method proposed by ABNT. Primarily, the sulfuric acid was substituted by hydrochloric acid (30%), containing iron in solution (130g/l). As result, it was concluded that acid resistant refractories containing a smaller alumina and /or corundum and mullite concentrations, presenting a smaller open porosity and average pore diameter, have a better performance face to corrosion due to hydrochloric acid solution. In addition, abrasion wear resistance tests, according to the ASTM-G65-85 standard were carried out in order to select different materials to the acid tanks cells. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Aircraft Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    allowed to dry. The area is then checked for the golden brown color which is produced by the chemical conversion material. If the work area requires...Materials, pp. 258-3074 1968. 41. W. IH. Ailor, "Seven-year exposure at Point leyes , California," "Corrosion in Natural Environments, ASTM STP 558," American... Color Units 3 Turbidity Units 0.7 pH Units 7.6 Temperature OF 76 Sp. Conductivity MMhos 425 B.O.D. (5 days at 206C) 0.2 SjV i;~-- 1201 A .9 8 ~ 8 kl

  11. Macroscopic, thermodynamic, kinetic and microscopic study of nitric acid pickling of Elektron 21 (EV31A magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mouls

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of pickling of the EL21T6 substrate in a nitric acid bath firstly provided knowledge of the influence of the different experimental parameters (concentration of acid, temperature and stirring of the solution in relation to the etching rate. This experimental part led to the choice of standard pickling (Tbath = 25 °C, moderate stirring (250 rpm, [HNO3] = 1.20 mol/L, duration of 2 min so as to obtain constant removal of material, even after several uses of the pickling bath. SEM observations also confirmed that in these operating conditions, pickling concerns both the grains of the matrix and the precipitates of type Mg3(Nd, Gd, leading to uniform removal of material from the surface. Working from a number of assumptions, thermodynamic and chemical kinetic studies then allowed a pickling mechanism to be proposed and led to obtaining values for the corresponding kinetic parameters (order of reaction, constant of mean rate, activation energy to be obtained.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Wet Hydrofluoric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Hydrofluoric acid is a water solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF). Hydrofluoric acid is used widely in diverse types of industrial applications; traditionally, it is used in pickling solutions in the metal industry, in the fabrication of chlorofluorocarbon compounds, as an alkylation agent for gasoline and as an etching agent in the industry of glass. In recent years, hydrofluoric acid has extensively been used in the manufacture of semiconductors and microelectronics during the wet chemical cleaning of silicon wafers. Hydrofluoric acid can be considered a reducing acid and although it is chemically classified as weaker than, for example, sulfuric or hydrochloric acids, it is extremely corrosive. This acid is also particularly toxic and poses greater health hazard than most other acids. The corrosion behavior of metals in hydrofluoric acid has not been as systematic studied in the laboratory as for other common inorganic acids. This is largely because tests using hydrofluoric acid cannot be run in standard equipment and because of the toxic nature of this acid. Moreover, short-term weight loss laboratory corrosion tests in hydrofluoric acid can be frustrating since the results are not as highly reproducible as in the case of other acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric. One of the reasons is because hydrofluoric acid commonly attacks the coupons used for testing in a non-uniform manner. That is, the corrosive power of this acid is not aimed to uniform thinning but mostly to localized penetration below the skin of the metal in the form of thin cracks, voids, pits, trenches and sometimes intergranular attack. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a coupon of Alloy 600 (N06600) exposed for 336 h to the vapor phase of a solution of 20% HF at 93 C. In cases where internal penetration occurs such as in Figure 1, it may not be recommended to use corrosion rates based on weight loss for material selection.

  13. Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogas, J.; Somerville, C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States); Cheng, Jin-Chen; Sung, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The plant growth regulator gibberellin (GA) has a profound effect on shoot development and promotes developmental transitions such as flowering. Little is known about any analogous effect GA might have on root development. In a screen for mutants, Arabi-dopsis plants carrying a mutation designated pickle (pkl) were isolated in which the primary root meristem retained characteristics of embryonic tissue. Expression of this aberrant differentiation state was suppressed by GA. Root tissue from plants carrying the pkl mutation spontaneously regenerated new embryos and plants. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela NEAȚĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine, yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main stem, average weight of fruit and fruits weight per plant and fruits quality components (nitrate, phosphate and potassium mg kg-1. The results showed significant differences (P12 cm, revealed a declining value with increase in the cucumber length. The study findings suggest that irrespective of the cultivar, the amount of nitrate was higher in shorter cucumbers (6-9 cm length although all recorded values (between 192.7 and 364.3 mg kg-1 fresh matter being under maximum accepted limit concentrations. The amount of phosphate was higher in medium to long cucumbers, while the amount of potassium was higher in shorter cucumbers.

  15. GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FRESH WATER FISH AND FISH PICKLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Jain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the genotypes of Clostridium perfringens in fish and fish based products from Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. A total of 301 samples consisting intestinal contents of freshwater fish (234 from various dams, freshwater lakes, ponds, retail shops and markets and fish pickles (67 obtained from randomly selected retail shops and supermarkets were investigated. Bacterial isolations, identifications and phenotypic characterization of virulence factors were carried out as per standard microbiological procedures. Genotyping of the C. perfringens isolates were done by amplifying four major lethal toxin genes namely- alpha toxin gene (cpa, beta toxin gene (cpb, epsilon toxin gene (etx, iota toxin gene (iA in a Thermal Cycler. Isolates were also screened for the presence of enterotoxin gene (cpe and beta2 toxin gene (cpb2 by single step PCR. Biochemical tests and phenotypic determination of virulence factors tentatively identified 82 (27.24% isolates of C. perfringens. In PCR assay, all 82 (100% isolates harbored cpa toxin genes of C. perfringens, however, 65 (79.26% isolates also carried additional cpb2 toxin genes. None of the isolates were found positive for beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes. Genotyping of the 82 isolates by PCR revealed that all the isolated bacteria were belonged to C. perfringens type A and both cpa and cpb2 toxin genes were prevalent among the isolates of C. perfringens type A, impending the risk of pathogenicity to human via freshwater fish and fish pickles.

  16. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  17. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 1. Development of a prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for real-time evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a line-...

  18. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 2. Performance of a prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development and evaluation of methods and algorithms for detecting both external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers using the hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance images acquired by an online prototype described in a previous paper. Experiments were performed...

  19. On Technique of Expressing the Consciousness and the Detail Description in Katherine Mansfield’s A Dill Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper analyzes A Dill Pickle writing style especially from the perspective of the technique of expressing the consciousness and the detail description to discuss Mansfield’s artistic characteristics. It focused on the theme of the sense of loneliness and disillusion of women,and distinctive Modernist tendency.

  20. 我国糟渍食品浅谈∗%A Discussion on Zao-pickled foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 李臣; 周珠法

    2014-01-01

    Zao-pickled foods have a long history and rich cultural heritage in China. It got started in Zhou Dynasty, began to flourish in the Song Dynasty, became popular in Qing Dynasty. With the unique flavor, Zao-pickled foods are preferred by people in Southern Yangtze. Today, Zao-pickled foods have been declining for a long time. The development of Zao-pickled foods faces many difficulties. This paper will elaborate on three aspects of history, current situation and expectation, analyze the reasons for the de-cline, and put forward suggestions for their future development.%我国糟渍食品历史悠久,文化底蕴深厚。糟渍食品始于周,兴于宋,盛于清。其独特的风味,深受老百姓喜爱,特别是江南地区的人们对其更是青睐有加。然而,时至今日,糟渍食品却早已没落,发展面临桎梏。本文对糟渍食品的发展历史、现状进行阐述,分析其衰败的原因,并对其未来发展进行展望。

  1. Design Points of Push-pull Pickling Process Section%推拉式酸洗机组工艺段的设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程化; 郭振英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了推拉式酸洗机组的特点、相关参数,以及酸洗循环系统、清洗循环系统、废气处理系统的设计要点.%The characteristics and related parameters of push-pull pickling process were introduced . The design key points about pickling circulation system, washing circulation system and waste gas treating system were described in detail. At last, the suggestion of pickling line designing was conclusively given.

  2. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  3. Corrosion inhibitors; Los inhibidores de corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez, L. A.; Meas, Y.; Ortega-Borges, R.; Corona, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe the characteristics, cost and electrochemical nature of the corrosion phenomena as well as some of the technologies that are currently employed to minimize its effect. The main subject of the paper however, deals with the description, classification and mechanism of protection of the so-called corrosion inhibitors. Examples of the use of these substances in different aggressive environments are also presented as means to show that these compounds, or their combination, can in fact be used as excellent and relatively cheap technologies to control the corrosion of some metals. In the last part of the paper, the most commonly used techniques to evaluate the efficiency and performance of corrosion inhibitors are presented as well as some criteria to make a careful and proper selection of a corrosion inhibitor technology in a given situation. (Author) 151 refs.

  4. Study on Coloring Process of Pickled Pork%腌制猪肉发色工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明伟

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the optimization of coloring process of pickled pork. [ Methods] Using double factors no repetition test and single test, the optimized coloring process of pickled pork was obtained. [ Result ] The optimized test process parameters for pickled pork test were; when refrigeration temperature (0 - 4 ℃) , added 1% lactose, thereby, the additions of sodium nitrite and sodium erythor-bate were 0.010% and 0. 300% , respectively, after preserving for 48 h, the color and texture of products were better, and their craft quality were also better. [Conclusion ] In the process of pickled pork, nitrate was added appropriately, all those can made the cooked meat products maintain the bright red, which would help to improve the quality of pickled pork.%[目的]腌制猪肉的发色工艺优化研究.[方法]应用双因素无重复试验和单因素试验得到优化腌制猪肉发色工艺.[结果]腌制试验的优化工艺参数为:冷藏温度(0 ~4℃)时,添加1%的乳糖,亚硝酸钠和异抗坏血酸钠的添加量分别为0.010%、0.300%时,腌制48h后所得的产品色泽和质地为佳,其工艺品质较好.[结论]在腌制猪肉加工过程中,适当加入亚硝酸盐,可使熟肉制品保持鲜艳的红色,有利于提高腌制猪肉的质量.

  5. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  6. Discuss of the flavor chemistry and flavor generation mechanism of pickle%泡菜的风味化学及呈味机理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏扬; 陈云川

    2001-01-01

    本文论述了制作泡菜的各种原料的化学成分,对泡菜风味形成的原理、泡制过程中蔬菜化学成分的变化、泡菜盐水能长期保存的原因以及影响泡菜风味的主要因素进行了重点探讨。%In this paper we discussed the chemical ingredient of the raw materials of pickle.We focus on the mechanism of pickle flavor,the chemical change of vegetables during pickle producing,the reason that brine can be preserved for a long time,and the main factors which can influence the flavor of pickle.

  7. Novel process to recover by-products from the pickling baths of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frias, C.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; Van Erkel, J.; Maas, W.; Kemppainen, J.; Mancia, F. [Tecnicas Reunidas, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Development of an integrated process (the PIBARE process) which is able to recover and recycle free and complex acids back to the pickling tank is described. The recovery of these by-products proceeds while the metals are recovered in the form of electrodeposited metal alloy and are internally recycled to the stainless steel manufacturing process. Virtually no solid residue or liquid is produced in the process. Results after three years of investigation are very promising, having achieved all stated objectives at least on the laboratory scale. The new technology promises significant economic and environmental benefits over other existing technologies for the treatment of spent baths. However, since the benefits have not been confirmed at the pilot scale, commercial application would require additional research, including finding more efficient and more selective anionic membranes. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Improvement Measures of Continuous Pickling Quality of Stainless Steel Strip%不锈带钢连续酸洗质量的改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李缠民; 陈昌龙; 武文斌

    2014-01-01

    不锈钢冷带在冷轧加工过程中要经过坯料酸洗和多次中间退火后酸洗。酸洗的质量直接决定着冷带产品的表面质量。通过对连续酸洗过程中的酸液配方、酸液温度、带钢运行速度及酸洗设备等方面进行优化、改进,解决了不锈带钢酸洗过程中存在的质量问题,为冷轧生产的正常进行提供了基础条件。%Stainless steel cold strip will go through the blank pickling and repeatedly pickling after intermediate annealing in the cold rolling process. Pickling quality directly determines the surface quality of cold strip products. Through the optimization, improvement of acidizing fluid formula, acid temperature, strip operating speed and pickling equipment during the continuous pickling process, the quality problems existed in the pickling process of stainless steel strip were solved so as to provide fundamental condition for normal operation of cold rolling.

  9. Design of Cycling System for Strip Pickling Line%带钢酸洗循环系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆斌; 卢鹏

    2013-01-01

    Strip pickling circulation system is the core of the acid abrasion workshop,directly affecting the quality of strip steel.Pickling system is the craft process to use chemical method to remove the surface oxide of the strip.The design concept and process flow of strip pickling line hove been introduced.lnfluent factors of pickling time have been discussed,and also the effect of scale,turbulent strength,temperature.Concentration on pickling time has been analyzea.The heating power,hydrochloric acid consumption,hydrochloric acid mist and fan have been calculated.The design method has been used in pickling lines,and the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection have achieved.%带钢酸洗循环系统是冷轧厂酸洗车间的核心,直接影响带钢的品质.酸洗系统是用化学方法去除带钢表面氧化物的工艺过程.介绍带钢酸洗系统组成、设计理念及工艺流程.阐述了带钢酸洗时间选择时需要考虑的因素,分析了氧化铁皮、紊流强度、酸液温度及浓度对酸洗时间的影响规律.提出带钢加热功率计算方法,分析了带钢厚度及速度对温度计算的影响.以节能环保为出发点,讨论了新酸消耗量和风机设计时需要考虑的因素,并提出相应计算方法.设计理念及方法用于国内多条酸洗机组,应用效果良好.

  10. 苯并咪唑类缓蚀剂缓蚀机理以及研究趋势%Corrosion-inhibiting mechanism and research tendency of the benzimidazole corrosion inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娴

    2012-01-01

    Benzimidazole corrosion inhibitor was a kind of hydrochloride pickling inhibitor. It was possessed various inhibition efficiency because of the distinction of substitutional group. It was occupied the characteristics of high performance,low mammalian toxicity and biodegradation. It also was a kind of adsorption corrosion inhibitor, it also was involved many aspects of resistance chemical corrosion, molecular interface adsorption, the groups covering effects as well as hydrogen-bonding association effects. It was analysised and introduced the preparation method, corrosion-inhibiting mechanism and research tendency of the benzimidazole corrosion inhibitor in this article.%苯并咪唑类缓蚀剂是一类盐酸酸洗缓蚀剂,当取代基不同,其分子呈现不同的缓蚀效率。苯并咪唑类缓蚀剂具有高效、低毒和生物易降解等特点。苯并咪唑缓蚀剂是吸附型缓蚀剂,它涉及到阻化效应、分子界面吸附、基团覆盖效应和氢键缔合效应等多方面。文中介绍了苯并咪唑类缓蚀剂的制备方式、缓释机理以及发展状况。

  11. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments...... and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  12. Electrochemical corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockemus, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to gain familiarity with the Model 350 Corrosion Measurement Console, to determine if metal protection by grease coatings can be measured by the polarization-resistance method, and to compare corrosion rates of 4130 steel coated with various greases. Results show that grease protection of steel may be determined electrochemically. Studies were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain corrosion inhibitors on aluminum and steel.

  13. Erosion-corrosion; Erosionkorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili, B

    1999-05-01

    A literature study on erosion-corrosion of pipings in the nuclear industry was performed. Occurred incidents are reviewed, and the mechanism driving the erosion-corrosion is described. Factors that influence the effect in negative or positive direction are treated, as well as programs for control and inspection. Finally, examples of failures from databases on erosion-corrosion are given in an attachment 32 refs, 16 figs, tabs

  14. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  15. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  16. DNN-Based ADNMPC of an Industrial Pickling Cold-Rolled Titanium Process via Field Enhancement Heat Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic neural network based adaptive direct nonlinear model predictive control is designed to control an industrial microwave heating pickling cold-rolled titanium process. The identifier of the direct adaptive nonlinear model identification and the controller of the adaptive nonlinear model predictive control are designed based on series-parallel dynamic neural network training by RLS algorithm with variable incremental factor, gain, and forgetting factor. These identifier and controller are used to constitute intelligent controller for adjusting the temperature of microwave heating acid. The correctness of the controller structure, the convergence, and feasibility of the control algorithms is tested by system simulation. For a given point tracking, model mismatch simulation results show that the controller can be implemented on the system to track and overcome the mismatch system model. The control model can be achieved to track on pickling solution concentration and temperature of a given reference and overcome the disturbance.

  17. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  18. DNN-Based ADNMPC of an Industrial Pickling Cold-Rolled Titanium Process via Field Enhancement Heat Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Biao Yang; Jinhui Peng; Wei Li; Youling Li; Huilong Luo; Zhuming Zhang; Shenghui Guo; Shimin Zhang; Hezhou Su; Yaming Shi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic neural network based adaptive direct nonlinear model predictive control is designed to control an industrial microwave heating pickling cold-rolled titanium process. The identifier of the direct adaptive nonlinear model identification and the controller of the adaptive nonlinear model predictive control are designed based on series-parallel dynamic neural network training by RLS algorithm with variable incremental factor, gain, and forgetting factor. These identifier and controlle...

  19. Preliminary Preparation of Nutritious- strengthened Pickle%泡菜营养强化食品的研制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕文; 黄君红; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the influence of vitamin or amino acid on pickle with high- concentrated lactic acid bacteria has been studied.The results indicated that the proper amount of vitamin or amino acid could increase the amount of lactic acid bacteria and keep it unchanged for more time.It is possible to make nutritious- strengthened pickle and other lactic acid fermented food using pickle liquid.%在含高浓度乳酸菌的泡菜中添加维生素或氨基酸,检测其中乳酸菌含量的变化。结果表明,添加适量的维生素或氨基酸比用单一物料芥菜制作的泡菜汁中的乳酸菌含量高,维持高含菌量的时间也较长,因此,可根据人体需要利用泡菜制成营养强化食品。此外,文中还对利用泡菜汁生产高质量的其它乳酸发酵食品进行了讨论。

  20. Technique Characteristics of Pickling Line for Steel Wire%线材酸洗机组的技术特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施永仁

    2011-01-01

    介绍了宝钢南通线材制品有限公司迁建过程中新建的环形隧道式全自动线材酸洗处理线的工艺、设备和技术特点,该生产线所有的处理槽均实行整体封闭、统一抽风,各个酸洗槽呈串级逆流布置,采用强紊流酸洗技术和串级漂洗技术,实现了低能耗、低污染、高品质、高效率的目的,达到了该领域的国内先进水平.%The technique characteristics of process and equipment of a new built circular tunnel automatic pickling line for steel wire were introduced, which was in Baosteel Nantong Wire Production Co. , Ltd. All of the treatment slots are closed and uniform ventilated, each pickling tank was countercurrent cascade arranged. Meanwhile, the strong turbulence pickling technology and cascade rinsing techniques were applied. Therefore, low power consumption,high quality,high efficiency were realized in this line .

  1. Present Situation and Prospect of Treatment of Stainless Steel Pickling%不锈钢酸洗污泥的处理现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房金乐; 杨文涛

    2014-01-01

    不锈钢酸洗过程会产生大量的酸洗污泥,干燥后主要含CaF2,Fe2O3,CaO,Cr2O3,NiO等,并含一定量的CaSO4,SiO2,MgO等组分。主要以堆放和填埋的方式处置,目前已开展了制砖、回收金属、生产水泥等研究。总结了不锈钢酸洗污泥资源化利用中存在的问题,并着重就不锈钢酸洗污泥的资源化利用提出见解。%Pickling sludge was generated in stainless steel pickling process. The major compositions in pickling sludge were CaF2, Fe2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, NiO, CaSO4, SiO2 and MgO after dried. Pickling sludge was treated by solidified landfill. The resource utilization of pickling sludge has been studied on brickmaking, recycling metal and cement production.These treatment processes involves many problems such as pollution transfer,environmental safety of by-product, high processing cost and so on. The paper summarizes the problems existing in the stainless steel pickling sludge recycling and proposes new suggestions on stainless steel pickling sludge recycling.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system co...

  3. Corrosion evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Uh Chul; Han, Jeong Ho; Nho, Kye Ho; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo

    1997-09-01

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled which can measure very small crack. Stress corrosion cracking test system with SSRT operating high temperature was installed. Stress corrosion cracking test of newly developed alloy 600 and existing alloy 600 was carried out in steam atmosphere of 400 deg C. No crack was observed in both materials within a test period of 2,000 hrs. Corrosion fatigue test system operating at high temperature was installed in which fatigue crack was measured by CDPD. Lead enhanced the SCC of the Alloy 600 in high temperature water, had a tendency to modify a cracking morphology from intergranular to transgranular. Pit initiation preferentially occurred at Ti-rich carbide. Resistance to pit initiation decreased with increasing temperature up to 300 deg C. Test loop for erosion corrosion was designed and fabricated. Thin layer activation technique was very effective in measuring erosion corrosion. Erosion corrosion of a part of secondary side pipe was evaluated by the Check Family Codes of EPRI. Calculated values of pipe thickness by Check Family Codes coincided with the pipe thickness measured by UT with an error of {+-} 20%. Literature review on turbine failure showed that failure usually occurred in low pressure turbine rotor disc and causes of failure are stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. (author). 12 refs., 20 tabs., 77 figs.

  4. Avionics Corrosion Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    found at seacoast (harsn) environnents is the most destructive. Differences in electrolte concentration and oxygen concentration promote corrosion...against corrosion by acting as moisture and gas barriers. CMCVIT B0.4ID *COATINGS Polyurethane’s, cprxies, silicones, and polystyrenes are the most

  5. Analysis of Orthogonal Experiments of Pickling Process Parameters before Cold Drawn 45 Steel%冷拔45钢前酸洗工艺参数的正交试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣; 欧阳八生

    2013-01-01

    酸洗是冷拔前一道重要的预处理工艺,影响酸洗效果的主要因素有酸液浓度、酸洗温度和酸洗时间等.本文以传动轴常用的冷拔材料45钢为例,利用正交试验法对酸液浓度、酸洗温度和酸洗时间等工艺参数进行优化,并对酸洗后的表面质量、材料塑性性能指标等进行评价分析.试验结果表明,当酸洗工艺参数为硫酸浓度17%、酸洗温度50℃、酸洗时间5 min时,45钢酸洗后的综合效果较佳.%Pickling is an important pretreatment process before the cold drawing, and the factors which influence the effects of pickling include acid concentration, temperature, pickling time, and so on. The cold drawn 45 steel materials which are commonly used in the drive shaft were taken as an example in this paper, it used the orthogonal experiment method to optimize the pickling process parameters such as acid concentration, pickling temperature, pickling time, and so on, then evaluated and analyzed the surface quality and the plasticity performance index of the materials after the pickling experiment. The experiment results showed that the combined effects of pickling 45 steel are better when the pickling process parameters are 17% the sulphuric acid concentration, 50 ℃ the pickling temperature, 5 min the pickling time.

  6. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  7. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...... with sensitive electrical resistance technique and crevice corrosion current measurements....

  8. Analysis on quality of pickles produced by inoculated fermentation%接菌发酵泡菜品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽平; 任国平; 张学兵; 王亚峰

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacterial strains ( Mao24.1, Mao5. 1 and Tang3. 2) were isolated from homemade pickles with high nitrite degradation ability. The count of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid content, pH. nitrite content and sensory characteristics m pickles produced by inoculated fermentation and natural fermentation were compared. The results; After the pickles were fermented for one day, the number of lactic acid bacteria reached the largest, and were 5. 5 × 106 CKU/mL 1.4 × 107 CFU/mL and 2. 8 × 107 CFU/mL respectively; for the pickle incubated with Mao 5. 1 and Tang 3. 2, the contents of lactic acid were 0. 41% and 0. 53 % respectively, and the pH were 3. 23 and 3. 22 respectively. The content of the nilrite was below 0. 40 μg/ml- for the inoculated fermentation. The pickles inoculated with Mao 5. 1 and Tang 3. 2 showed good color and crispness. The aroma was rich of the pickle inoculated with Mao21. 1. The a-bove indexes of inoculated products were excellent over natural product. Antagonistic test results showed that the 3 strains of bacteria had no antagonism and can symbiotic ferment pickle.%乳酸菌菌株Mao24.1,Mao5.1和Tang3.2分离自传统发酵蔬菜中,具有强降解亚硝酸盐的作用,分别接种该3株菌发酵制作泡菜,与自然发酵泡菜比较分析乳酸菌数量、乳酸含量、pH、亚硝酸盐和感官评价.结果表明,接种发酵泡菜1d时乳酸菌数量最多,分别为5.5×106,1.4×107,2.8×107 CFU/mL;接入Mao5.1和Tang3.2的发酵泡菜在发酵2d时乳酸含量分别为0.41%和0.53%,pH为3.23和3.22;接菌发酵的泡菜亚硝酸盐含量一直在0.40 μg/mL以下;Mao5.1和Tang3.2发酵泡菜产品色泽和脆度好,Mao24.1发酵泡菜产品香气浓郁,各指标均优于自然发酵泡菜.拮抗试验结果表明该3株菌间无拮抗作用可共生发酵泡菜.

  9. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Xuming Zhang; Guosong Wu; Xiang Peng; Limin Li; Hongqing Feng; Biao Gao; Kaifu Huo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface c...

  10. Corrosion Failures in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnan

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of typical marine environments and the most common form of corrosion of materials used in this environment. Some typical case histories of failures pertaining to pitting, bimetallic corrosion, dealloying, cavitation and stress corrosion cracking are illustrated as typical examples of corrosion failures.

  11. Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures has been a major problem across the U.S. Steel-reinforced concrete structures are continually subject to attack by corrosion brought on by naturally occurring environmental conditions. FerroGard, a corrosion inhibitor, developed by Sika Corporation, penetrates hardened concrete to dramatically reduce corrosion by 65% and extend the structure's service life.

  12. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  13. The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Discusses general corrosion reactions (iron to rust), including corrosion of iron, sulfur dioxide, chlorides, immersed corrosion, and underground corrosion. Also discusses corrosion inhibition, including corrosion inhibitors (anodic, cathodic, mixed, organic); safe/dangerous inhibitors; and corrosion/inhibition in concrete/marble, showcases/boxes,…

  14. 温度对锆合金酸洗反应动力学行为影响%Effect of Temperature on Pickling Reaction Kinetics of Zirconium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云明; 李传锋; 陈建刚; 刘利剑; 杜沛南; 钱芳; 王录全

    2016-01-01

    采用浸泡酸洗法研究温度对锆合金酸洗速率影响,并分析锆合金酸洗释热系数.结果表明:温度对酸洗速率具有指数影响关系;在20~60℃温度范围内,每增加10℃,酸洗速率提高2.0 ~ 2.5倍,锆合金酸洗频率因子和反应活化能约为1.18×1012和70 kJ/mol.锆合金酸洗为放热反应,酸洗中伴随温度升高,其释热系数约为760 kJ/mol.%The effect of temperature on pickling rate of zirconium alloy and the heat release constant was studied in this paper by soaked method.The results show that temperature has exponential effect on pickling rate of zirconium alloy,the rate increases 2.0 ~ 2.5 times 10℃ at 20 ~ 60℃.The pickling frequency factor is about 1.18 × 1012 and the activation energy is about 70kJ/mol.The pickling reaction of zirconium alloy is exothermic.The reaction temperature increases with the pickling process in which the heat release constant is 760 kJ/mol.

  15. The Research Progress on Low Evapo-salinization of Pickled Vegetables%低盐化在腌渍菜中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聘; 郜海燕; 毛金林; 周拥军; 沈国华

    2011-01-01

    Low salinization is the general trend of world food development. This paper analyzed the research status, the existence question and the technical ways of low salinization of pickled vegetables, and the relationship between them and the quality of pickled vegetables. It summarized the key technologies of low salinization of pickled vegetables, discussed the necessity of the application of comprehensive technical measures (hurdle technology) in the processing of protosalt pickled vegetables, and looked forward to the developing direction of low salinization of pickled vegetables.%低盐化是世界食品发展的总趋势.分析了我国腌渍菜低盐化的研究现状、存在的问题、技术途径及与腌渍菜品质的关系,综述了腌渍菜低盐化的核心技术,阐述低盐化腌渍菜生产中实施综合技术措施(栅栏技术)的必要性,展望我国腌渍菜低盐化的发展方向.

  16. Response of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to surrounding land cover in Wisconsin pickling cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L

    2012-06-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition.

  17. Adsorption of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution using spinel ferrite prepared from steel pickling sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Binbin; Yan, Yubo; Yang, Yang; Wang, Fenglian; Chu, Zhen; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, spinel ferrite with high crystallinity and high saturation magnetization was successfully prepared from steel pickling sludge by adding iron source and precipitator in the hydrothermal condition. The obtained spinel ferrite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Zeta potential methods and investigated as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed by varying the pH values, contact time, temperature and initial metal concentration. The result of pH impact showed that the adsorption of Pb(2+) was a pH dependent process, and the pH 5.8 ± 0.2 was found to be the optimum condition. The achieved experimental data were analyzed with various kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic studies revealed that Pb(2+) adsorption onto spinel ferrite followed a pseudo-second order model, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the perfect fit to the equilibrium experimental data. At different temperatures, the maximum Pb(2+) adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir equation were in the range of 126.5-175.4 mg/g, which can be in competition with other adsorbents. The thermodynamic results showed that the spinel ferrite could spontaneously and endothermically adsorb Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The regeneration studies showed that spinel ferrite could be used five times (removal efficiency (%) >90%) by desorption with HNO3 reagent.

  18. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  19. Chemical and structural changes in preserved white egg during pickled by vacuum technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Liu, Huiping; Cao, Chunling; Liu, Pingwei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hongni

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and structural changes in preserved white egg during pickled by vacuum technology. In order to evaluate the changes of preserved egg white during its salted period, sulfhydryl group, disulfide bond contents, and surface hydrophobicity were measured. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism analysis were performed by considering changes of the secondary structural elements, the protein components of egg white was also studied in more detail by electrophoresis. Results showed that the sulfhydryl group and surface hydrophobicity were increased with increasing salting time, whereas a decrease in the disulfide bond contents was observed. Regarding the secondary structure analysis, a decrease in α-helices and β-turns were accompanied by increases in β-sheets and random coils, which indicating a decrease in non-random structure while ever increasing of unordered structure. Electrophoresis shows no significant differences in protein patterns among fresh egg white and samples salting for up to 4 days. Disappearance of most protein was at the 5th day. Single band of ovalbumin can be readily observed from the 6th day to the ripening period finished. Our findings reveal that high pH could induce duck egg white protein aggregation when salting eggs in strong alkaline solution for a long time.

  20. Pickled essence of Englishman: Thomas Lovell Beddoes--time to unearth a neglected poet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, I

    2004-06-01

    Thomas Lovell Beddoes (1803-1849) was a doctor and intermittently brilliant poet whose explorations of "the florid Gothic in poetry" (his words) offer some of the most haunting, claustrophobic, and grotesque verse in the English language. Son of the pioneering Bristol scientist Thomas Beddoes and nephew of Maria Edgeworth the novelist, he stemmed, like Mary Shelley, author of the celebrated novel Frankenstein, from a line of influential freethinkers. This article situates Beddoes's work in the transition from the confident empiricism of the eighteenth century to the nineteenth century's imaginative reaction to social and intellectual life after the Napoleonic wars. Having spent most of his adult life in Germany (where he studied anatomy with the famous biologist Blumenbach) and latterly Switzerland, Beddoes engaged in radical politics, dabbled in the occult, and may even have encountered the German doctor/playwright Georg Büchner, whose career parallels his own. Beddoes hoped that by reading the body literally, in terms of its material structure, he would be able to bring about a revival of English theatre. Inevitable defeat led him to develop his signature form of abject irony. In view of the current interest in semiotics (a development of medical semiology), and the subterranean analogies in Beddoes's writing between the corpus and the corpse, his reputation ought to be rescued from the "critical pickle".

  1. Are we in a pickle? Rethinking the world of research and user interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Patricia J

    2011-01-01

    The lion's tail and knowledge boundaries are two analogies referred to in the lead essay by Lindstrom, MacLeod and Levy. These may be helpful but require slight readjustment. Grabbing onto the lion's tail implies one reality and one intersection point, whereas the old analogy of the blind men and the elephant shows that various perspectives are required. Integrated knowledge translation refers to user involvement throughout the research process. Participatory models are one form of integrated knowledge translation, but caution is required to help maintain the knowledge boundaries. There is the real danger of one group becoming "pickled," or having unbalanced osmotic pressure from another group, resulting in destroyed "cell wall" boundaries. Neither researchers nor users should morph into each other but should, rather, fulfill unique roles within a respectful, trusted research relationship. Lessons learned at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy teach us that collaborative health services research takes time, money, mutual understanding and respect (including respect from academic institutions for this paradigm of research). This requires a dedicated centre of core group scientists willing to devote the necessary time. Diffused networks may not be stable enough to maintain the long-term relationship building required for the intersection of researchers and decision-makers.

  2. Corrosion Chemistry in Inhibited HDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-30

    Titanium and chromium have sufficiently low Flade potentials to pass- ivate in non-oxidising acids, but Iron will only exhibit self-passivity if the...inhibition e.g. involving organic and pickling inhibitors* the rest potential can actually 4.5,4.6become more negative " This is due to cathodic rather...media. 321 stainless steel, titanium stabilised, was the particular steel studied, being very similar in composition to the 347also stainless steel

  3. Corrosion control in mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telekesi, J.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of corrosion effects in mining technology and the importance of protection is presented. The most common corrosion processes and effects are summarized and the system and criteria of their avoidance are discussed in detail. Preventive measures are recommended to decrease possible corrosion effects including the selection of corrosion-resistive constructions, to use protective coatings and inhibition techniques and some other protection possibilities where applicable. The organization aspects and the economic impact of corrosion control in mining are discussed.

  4. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  5. Analysis of Several Main Nitrate and Nitrite Content in Pickles%泡菜中硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓慧; 马超; 彭莉

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the author investigated the main kinds of pickles in Guiyang market investigation, and analysed the content of nitrate and nitrite in several main pickles, revealed the difference of nitrate and nitrite content in pickles, and aiming to guide the choice.%通过对贵阳市场中主要泡菜种类的调查,及对几种泡菜中硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐含量的分析,揭示了不同泡菜中硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐的含量和分布不同,从而指导人们正确选择泡菜的种类。

  6. Determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products%泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周石洋; 陈玲

    2012-01-01

    GB distillation method was generally used for the determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products. Reflux method was adopted in this paper, and sodium thiosulfate was used for back titration of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products. This method was suitable for determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products with simple operation process, high recovery rate.%一般采用国标蒸馏法测定泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量。采用回流法,用硫代硫酸钠反滴定来测定泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量。其操作步骤简单,回收率高,适用于泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量的测定。

  7. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  8. Discussion of Pickling and Rinsing Process for Hydraulic Pipeline Construction%液压管道施工酸洗及冲洗工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师志民

    2015-01-01

    The acid wash construction and construction technology of hydraulic pipe summarize, this article construction unit testing hydraulic pipes pickling,rinse construction quality and construction unit of the hydraulic pipes pickling,rinse construction has a certain reference value.%对施工中液压管道的酸洗及冲洗施工工艺进行总结,此文对建设单位检验液压管道酸洗、冲洗施工质量及施工单位对液压管道酸洗、冲洗施工有一定参考价值。

  9. Effect of acid and salt concentration in fresh-pack pickles on the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K A; Chen, J K; Lerke, P A; Seeger, M L; Unverferth, J A

    1976-01-01

    The addition of various amounts of acetic acid to pureed cucumbers inoculated with Clostridium botulinum spores has shown that outgrowth is inhibited at pH 4.8 but not at pH 5.0. Inoculation experiments with whole cucumbers showed that as little as 0.9% acetic acid in the brine was sufficient to prevent outgrowth from spore inocula as high as 10(6)/cucumber. It was further shown that the rapid rate of acetic acid penetration into fresh-pack pickles prevents the growth of any C. botulinum spores that may be present. PMID:9898

  10. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold...... is reached causing the formation of anodic and cathodic regions along the reinforcement. Critical chloride thresholds, randomly distributed along the reinforcement sur-face, link the initiation and propagation phase of reinforcement corrosion. To demonstrate the potential use of the developed model......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  11. Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barry M.

    2013-08-01

    Serious corrosion problems have plagued the light water reactor (LWR) industry for decades. The complex corrosion mechanisms involved and the development of practical engineering solutions for their mitigation will be discussed in this article. After a brief overview of the basic designs of the boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR), emphasis will be placed on the general corrosion of LWR containments, flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel components, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWRs, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in PWRs, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in both systems. Finally, the corrosion future of both plants will be discussed as plants extend their period of operation for an additional 20 to 40 years.

  12. 热轧退火钛带酸洗工艺研究%Study on the Pickling Process for Hot Rolled Annealed Titanium Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自莲; 彭金辉; 郭胜惠; 常军; 曹占元; 史亚鸣; 陈楠

    2013-01-01

    Pickling is one of the important processes before titanium strip coil cold rolling .Pickling conditions for hot rolled annealed titanium strip coil were first studied in laboratory , including the concentration of acid , pickling time , pickling temperature and so on .The results show that the rate of weight loss will decrease while the pickling time will increase with the decreasing of the ratio of HF∶HNO3 .The best condition for pickling is that the concentration of HF acid is 3%and HNO3 acid is 27%, the pickling temperature is 40 ℃and the pickling time is 240 s.And under this treat condition, the rate of weight loss will only be 1.12%.Besides, the pickling temperature of 25 ℃and 55 ℃are both not benefit for the pickling of titanium strip coil .The industrialized experiment results show that the pickling effect is obvious based on the best treat condition , and the surface oxide layer can be removed thoroughly .%酸洗是钛带冷轧前的重要工序之一,首先从酸的浓度及配比、酸洗时间、酸洗温度等方面对热轧退火后钛带卷的酸洗条件进行了实验室探究。结果表明,随着氢氟酸与硝酸体积比的降低,钛带的酸洗失重率逐渐降低,而酸洗所需时间逐渐增加。综合考虑酸洗的效果、速度及成本认为最佳酸洗工艺条件是:酸洗温度为40℃,酸洗液中氢氟酸体积分数为3%、硝酸体积分数为27%,酸洗时间为240 s时,酸洗效果最佳,此时,钛带试样失重率为1.12%。此外,研究发现,酸洗温度为25℃和55℃皆不利于钛带酸洗。之后,工业化试验表明,按照最佳的酸洗工艺条件对工业纯钛带进行酸洗,酸洗效果较好,表面氧化皮可被彻底洗尽。

  13. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1995-12-05

    A method for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness.

  14. Severe Environmental Corrosion Erosion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Severe Environment Corrosion Erosion Facility in Albany, OR, allows researchers to safely examine the performance of materials in highly corrosive or erosive...

  15. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    F. Presuel-Moreno; M.A. Jakab; N. Tailleart; Goldman, M.; J. R. Scully

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned) to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic i...

  16. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  17. Processing technique of duck tongue with pickled pepper%泡椒鸭舌加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群和; 胡霞; 徐扬

    2012-01-01

    The processing technique of duck tongue pickled with pepper solution was introduced in this paper. The results revealed that after the process of pre -cooked at 90 -95℃ for 10 minutes, pickled at 0-5℃ for 24h, packed under vacuum, and sterilized for 20 rain at 100℃ , the finished product pos- sessed the best flavor, and its shelf life could be up to 6 months at room temperature.%介绍了采用预调制的泡椒浸渍液泡制鸭舌的加工工艺。试验结果表明,鸭舌在90~95℃水中预煮lOmin,并于0~5℃浸渍液中腌制24h,无菌真空包装,IO&C杀菌20min。所得产品品质最佳,常温下保质期可达6个月。

  18. Pengaruh sumber dan konsentrasi garam (Na Cl pada proses pengasaman (pickling terhadap mutu kulit domba untuk sarung tangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effects of source and concentration of salt (NaCl during the pickling process on the leather quality of sheep skin for glove. The kind of salt and concentration developed during pickling process of sheep skin the purified salt, Australian salt, Wedung Demak salt, Madura salt and control salt, was utilized the various concentration was 4%, 6% and 8%, respectively. The test parameter are chemist, physical and visual test. The sheep leather was products like wet blue leather and crust leather, and then they were subsequently tested for their quality such as water content, ash content and Cr2O3 content for wet blue leather and visual test for crust leather such as condition of leather, color, tear strength and resilient. The wet blue leather was water 44,98%, dust 6,90%, and Cr2O3 3,7%, performed with SNI 06-3538-1994, Standard sheep/goat wet blue leathers. Crust of that leather was bright leather condition about soft, non deflated, flexible, color was average, the tear strength moderately was powerful, the spring was elastic, tensile strength was 156,62 kg/cm2 and elongation at break 42% these quality parameter were comply with regulation standard was SNI 06-4035-1996, Standard the glove leather from sheep/goat leather.

  19. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  20. Mitogenic response and probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from indigenously pickled vegetables and fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Moushumi; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2012-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria from indigenous pickled vegetables and fermented beverages (fermented rice and Madhuca longifolia flowers) were isolated and investigated for their functional characteristics in vitro as potential new probiotic strains. Four isolates (all Lactobacillus spp.) selected on the basis of high tolerance to bile (0.2%) were identified by standard and molecular methods (16S rDNA) as L. helveticus, L. casei, L. delbrueckii and L. bulgaricus from pickled vegetables and fermented beverages respectively. These selected strains had antibiotic resistance, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and phenol (0.4%), enzymatic profile, and antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens (Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). All strains survived well in artificial gastric juice at low pH (3.0) values for 4 h, possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and were susceptible to most antibiotics including vancomycin. Additionally, the isolates exhibited high tolerance to phenol, high cell surface hydrophobicity (>60%) and induced proliferation of murine splenocytes. All the four strains of present study suppressed the Con A-stimulated proliferation of the mouse spleen cells, although L. casei had the strongest suppressive effect. The results of this study suggest a potential application of the strains (following human clinical trials), for developing probiotic foods.

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil following application of liquid hog manure for production of pickling cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Caroline; Quessy, Sylvain

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hog manure is routinely applied to farm land as a crop fertilizer. However, this practice raises food safety concerns, especially when manure is used on fruit and vegetable crops. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil after application of liquid hog manure to fields where pickling cucumbers were grown and to verify the microbiological quality of harvested cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers were replaced by liquid hog manure at various ratios in the production of pickling cucumbers in a 3-year field study. The experimental design was a randomized complete block comprising four replicates in sandy loam (years 1, 2, and 3) and loamy sand (year 3). Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm every 2 weeks after June application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Vegetable samples were also taken at harvest time. Liquid hog manure, soil, and vegetable (washed and unwashed) samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. An exponential decrease of E. coli populations was observed in surface soil after the application of manure. The estimated average time required to reach undetectable concentrations of E. coli in sandy loam varied from 56 to 70 days, whereas the absence of E. coli was estimated at 77 days in loamy sand. The maximal Salmonella persistence in soil was 54 days. E. coli and Salmonella were not detected in any vegetable samples.

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Nitrite Content in Three Pickled Vegetables%三种腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量的分析比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐建红

    2013-01-01

    通过对西安市市售三种散装腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量的测定分析,结果表明:三种腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量存在一定的差异,其平均含量依次为西安市小型市场散装白菜泡菜>西安市小型市场散装萝卜泡菜>西安市某大型超市散装白菜泡菜>西安市某大型超市散装萝卜泡菜>西安市小型市场散装酸豆角泡菜>西安市某大型超市散装酸豆角泡菜,但这三种腌制泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量均符合我国的GB 2714-2003中规定的限量标准.%The nitrite content of three kinds of bulk packed pickled vegetables in Xi'an City is determined and analyzed.The results show that the nitrite content of these three pickled vegetables has some differences,the order of average nitrite content is bulk packed Chinese pickled cabbage in small market>bulk packed pickled radish in small market>bulk packed Chinese pickled cabbage in large supermarket>bulk packed pickled radish in large supermarket> bulk packed pickled sour beans in small market>bulk packed pickled sour beans in large supermarket.But the nitrite content of three kinds of pickled vegetables is in accordance with our country's limit standard (GB 2714-2003).

  3. Exploration of Relation between the Nitrate and Vitamin C Content and Time in Pickled Green Pepper%腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐和维生素C含量随时间变化的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋崇富; 田志美; 张标; 徐华杰; 盛良全

    2014-01-01

    为了解腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐和维生素C含量随时间的变化关系,指导人们合理膳食,用分光光度法分别测定了腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐和维生素C含量随腌制时间的变化规律。腌制青椒中亚硝酸盐含量随腌制时间的增长先升高后下降,第3天出现最大值,而腌制青椒中维生素C含量随腌制时间的增长逐渐降低。要充分利用青椒中维生素C,人们应该尽量食用新鲜辣椒,减少食用腌制辣椒。食用腌制辣椒,要放置3天以上进入安全食用期再食用。%To quantitatively understand nitrate and vitamin C content in pickled green pepper and to guide people to have a rational diet, the spectrophotometric method is used to measure the change pattern of nitrate and vitamin C content in pickled green pepper as the pickled time.The nitrate content in pickled green pepper first increases as the pickled time and then decreases, the nitrite peak emerges at the third day.The content of vitamin C decreases as the pickled time gradually.In order to make full use of vitamin C, we should be better to eat fresh green pepper and reduce the intake of pickled green pepper.We should eat pickled green pepper after they are pickled at least three days when they are in food safety period .

  4. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  5. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  6. Thin film corrosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.

    1980-06-01

    Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

  7. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  8. 蔬菜腌制及其乳酸菌技术的研究进展%Pickling Process of Vegetables and its Lactic Acid Bacteria Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祖芳; 赵永威; 翁佩芳

    2012-01-01

    Pickled vegetables processing is an important part of the vegetable processing industry. With the gradual deepening developing of lactic acid bacteria research and new technologies of agricultural products processing, one of the great research interests-was focused on the study of pickled vegetables process. In this paper, the microbial diversity, metabolite of lactic bacteria and flavor compound formation, the functional properties evaluations as well as the ferment starter application of pickled vegetables were elucidated among the domestic and foreign research progress. This can provide the references for technology development and research of pickled vegetables processing.%蔬菜腌制加工是蔬菜加工产业中的重要组成部分,随着农产品加工新技术及乳酸菌研究的逐步深入和发展,腌制蔬菜也成为一个新的研究热点.作者分析了国内外有关蔬菜腌制过程中微生态、乳酸菌的代谢及其蔬菜腌制风味发生机制、腌制蔬菜功能特性评价以及发酵剂开发等方面的研究进展,为蔬菜腌制技术的发展等提供参考.

  9. Evaluación sensorial de huevos de codorniz en conserva y composición nutricional (Sensory evaluation of pickled quail eggs and nutritional composition)

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez José Fernando; Hernández Unzón Aideé

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la aceptabilidad de los huevos de codorniz en escabeche y determinar la composición nutricional de huevo de codorniz.SummaryThe aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of pickled quail eggs and determine the nutritional composition of quail egg

  10. Evaluación sensorial de huevos de codorniz en conserva y composición nutricional (Sensory evaluation of pickled quail eggs and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Sánchez José Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la aceptabilidad de los huevos de codorniz en escabeche y determinar la composición nutricional de huevo de codorniz.SummaryThe aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of pickled quail eggs and determine the nutritional composition of quail egg

  11. 带钢镀锡生产中的电解酸洗%Study on Electrolytic Pickling Process for Strip Steel in Tin Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 吴健

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of electrolytic pickling for strip steel in tin plating was analyzed, the factors of electro- lytic pickling such as electrolysis plate and electrolytic pickling process parameters were studied. The results indicated that increase of protection measures by Pb-Ca-Sn positive electrode, electrolyte temperature 40℃, sulfuric acid concentration70 g/l, and current density 10 c/dm2 conditions could gain better effects for electrolytic pickling.%在分析低碳冷轧带钢酸洗机理的基础上,研究了低碳带钢电解酸洗的影响因素(电解极板及电解工艺参数),研究表明:对Pb—Ca-Sn酸洗阳极增加保护措施及采用酸洗温度40℃、酸液浓度70g/L、电流密度10c/dm^2的电解工艺参数可得到较好的酸洗效果。

  12. PICKLE acts throughout the plant to repress expression of embryonic traits and may play a role in Giberellin-Dependent responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, J.; Li, H.C.; Mordhorst, A.P.; Romero-Severson, J.; Cheng, J.C.; Robey, J.; Sung, Z.R.; Vries, de S.C.; Ogas, J.

    2004-01-01

    A seed marks the transition between two developmental states; a plant is an embryo during seed formation, whereas it is a seedling after emergence from the seed. Two factors have been identified in Arabidopsis that play a role in establishment of repression of the embryonic state: PKL (PICKLE), whic

  13. 泡菜制作中亚硝酸盐的产生规律研究%Study on Nitrite Production of Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秋霞; 邹玉红

    2013-01-01

    Orthogonal experiments were performed to study nitrite production and the quality of laboratory-made pickles fermented under different temperatures , with different concentrations of pickled salt and inoculum amounts. Results showed that the maximum nitrite concentration was the lowest and the fermentation rate highest when pickled at 37℃;while the maximum nitrite concentration of pickles brined at 30℃was the highest. For pickles made at 28 ℃ and 33 ℃, nitrite concentrations were in the middle. In terms of quality ,the pickles soused at 33℃and 37℃were less crisp, more acidic and smelled heavier compared with the ones at 28℃, which were brittle, closer to neutral level (pH) and smelled better. Different concentrations of pickled salt were added to the materials in order to investigate the effect of salt percentage on pickle fermentation. With 4 %pickled salt, maximum nitrite concentration was the lowest and fermentation rate highest;the maximum nitrite concentration of pickles was the lowest and fermentation rate was in the middle with 6%pickled salt;the ones with 8%pickled salt fermented at the lowest speed and did not taste good. We also conducted experiments to determine the impact of inoculum amount. The maximum nitrite concentration of pickles with 4%inocula was the lowest, fermentation speed the highest and fermentation period shortest; while the ones without adding Lactobacillus were the opposite and the ones with 2%inocula in the middle, indicating that the inoculation of Lactobacillus can accelerate fermentation speed of pickles and help decrease nitrite concentration. According to the results above, the optimum condition for pickling in a lab-based environment was 28℃, with 6%pickled salt and 4%inocula.%  实验室自制泡菜,检测了不同温度、盐浓度、不同人工接种量等条件下,泡菜发酵过程中亚硝酸盐的产生规律,以及相应的产品品质。结果表明:37℃腌制的泡

  14. Advances of the Preservation Technologies of Low-salt Pickled Vegetables%低盐腌菜保藏技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹰; 白卫东; 刘晓艳; 刘巧瑜

    2013-01-01

    The salt content of traditional pickles is too high, which is harmful to human health and has caused sharp increase in demand for low-salt pickles around domestic and overseas markets in recent years. Since the long-term preservation of traditional pickles are mainly based on high osmotic pressure by high content of salt, the low-salt pickles was generally difficult to meet the preservation requirements .The preservation technologies of low-salt pickled vegetables were summarized in this paper. Physical preservation technologies include pasteurized method, high hydrostatic pressure technology, microwave sterilization methods and vacuum heat resistant packing method. For chemical preservative method, there were natural preservative method, hurdles technology of food preservation, strengthening the lactic acid fermentation method and so on. Physical preservation technology was suggested for pickles producers. By the scientific use of preservatives and the hurdle technology, the shelf life and safety of low salt pickles may be comprehensively improved.%传统腌菜含盐量太高,不利于人体健康.因此近年来国内外市场对低盐腌菜的需求急剧增加.由于腌菜主要是依据食盐的高渗透压得以长期保存.故低盐腌菜难以满足保存要求的矛盾便显得尤为突出.本文对低盐腌菜保藏技术的研究概况进行了综述.包括物理方法如巴氏杀菌法、超高压杀菌法、微波杀菌法、真空耐热包装法;化学防腐剂法;天然防腐剂法、棚栏技术、加强乳酸发酵法等.建议腌菜生产企业拓展低盐腌菜的物理保藏技术,科学使用防腐剂,利用栅栏技术等综合提高低盐腌菜的保质期和食用安全性.

  15. Corrosion of pre-oxidized nickel alloy X-750 in simulated BWR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzi, Silvia; Lai, Haiping; Göransson, Kenneth; Thuvander, Mattias; Stiller, Krystyna

    2017-04-01

    Samples of pre-oxidized Alloy X-750 were exposed to a simulated boiling water reactor environment in an autoclave at a temperature of 286 °C and a pressure of 80 bar for four weeks. The effect of alloy iron content on corrosion was investigated by comparing samples with 5 and 8 wt% Fe, respectively. In addition, the effect of two different surface pre-treatments was investigated. The microstructure of the formed oxide scales was studied using mainly electron microscopy. The results showed positive effects of an increased Fe content and of removing the deformed surface layer by pickling. After four weeks of exposure the oxide scale consists of oxides formed in three different ways. The oxide formed during pre-oxidization at 700 °C, mainly consisting of chromia, is partly still present. There is also an outer oxide consisting of NiFe2O4 crystals, reaching a maximum size of 3 μm, which has formed by precipitation of dissolved metal ions. Finally, there is an inner nanocrystalline and porous oxide, with a metallic content reflecting the alloy composition, which has formed by corrosion.

  16. Metal impurities removal of industrial silicon by pickling%酸洗法去除工业硅中金属杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济祥; 许金泉; 周京明; 朱勇

    2015-01-01

    Pickling is the most effective means for removing metal impurities during the preparation of solar⁃grade polysilicon by metallurgical process. Metal impurities removal of industrial silicon by pickling was studied,and the pickling process focused on the influences of crushing way,particle size,acid type,concentration,liquid⁃solid ratio and temperature etc. The results show that the optimized process for pickling is as follows:jet milling,grain size of 38 to 160μm,w(HCl)=10%of HF+HCl,picking temperature of 50℃,liquid⁃solid ratio of 4∶1,pickling time of 5 h. The removal rate of metal impurities reaches 96.2%under above process. The effect is significant.%酸洗是冶金法制备太阳能级多晶硅过程中去除金属杂质的最有效手段,针对酸洗法去除工业硅中金属杂质的行为进行研究,重点考察破碎方式、粒度、酸种类、浓度、液固比和温度等因素的影响。结果表明:酸洗的优化工艺为采用气流粉碎方式,粒径为38~160μm,用w(HCl)=10%的HF+HCl,酸洗温度为50℃,液固比为4∶1,酸洗时间为5 h;优化工艺后,工业硅中金属杂质的去除率达到96.2%,效果显著。

  17. A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, caused by low-salt pickled Napa cabbage in nursing homes, Japan, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tabuchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In August 2012, an outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157 infection was investigated by the City of Sapporo and Hokkaido Prefectural Government. The initial notification reported an illness affecting 94 residents of 10 private nursing homes distributed across multiple areas of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; at this time three cases were confirmed as EHEC O157 infection. The objectives of the investigation were to identify the source of infection and recommend control measures to prevent further illness. Methods: A suspected case was defined as a resident of one of the private nursing homes in Hokkaido who had at least one of the following gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhoea, bloody stool, abdominal pain or vomiting between 10 July and 10 September 2012. Cases were confirmed by the presence of Shiga toxin 1- and 2-producing EHEC O157 in stool samples of suspected cases. We conducted an epidemiological analysis and an environmental investigation. Results: We identified 54 confirmed and 53 suspected cases in 12 private nursing homes including five fatalities. Of the 107 cases, 102 (95% had consumed pickles, all of which had been manufactured at the same facility. EHEC O157 isolates from two pickle samples, 11 cases and two staff members of the processing company were indistinguishable. The company that produced the pickles used inadequate techniques to wash and sanitize the vegetables. Discussion: Contaminated pickles were the likely source of this outbreak. We recommended that the processing company improve their methods of washing and sanitizing raw vegetables. As a result of this outbreak, the sanitation requirements for processing pickles were revised.

  18. Corrosion protection by anaerobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Wanner; Zehnder, A J

    2001-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria can protect mild (unalloyed) steel from corrosion. Mild steel coupons incubated with Rhodoccocus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 in an aerobic phosphate-buffered medium containing benzoate as carbon and energy source, underwent a surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer [Fe3(PO4)2]. Electrochemical potential (E) measurements allowed us to follow the buildup of the vivianite cover. The presence of sufficient metabolically active bacteria at the steel surface resulted in an E decrease to -510 mV, the potential of free iron, and a continuous release of ferrous iron. Part of the dissolved iron precipitated as vivianite in a compact layer of two to three microns in thickness. This layer prevented corrosion of mild steel for over two weeks, even in a highly corrosive medium. A concentration of 20 mM phosphate in the medium was found to be a prerequisite for the formation of the vivianite layer.

  19. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  20. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  1. 冬瓜腌制生产工艺与品质特性变化研究%Processing Technique of Pickled Wax Gourd and Quality Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛燕燕; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical indicators (pH, salinity, total acid, nitrite and amino nitrogen) as well as microbiological influences (total population of bacteria and lactic acid bacteria) are investigated, and the sensory evaluation of its product is conducted during fermentation using a variety of ways such as pickling, varying ingredients and inoculated pickling using the wax gourd as raw material. The results show that the pickling period of cooked pickles requires 20 days, but needs only 90 days for raw pickles with good quality. The pH of the wax gourd added with red pepper is found to be reduced by 0.25, and nitrite concentration is reduced by 8.60×10-7 in the raw pickles processing but the total acids increases and salinity changes insignificantly. The pH with inoculation pickling of wax gourd is reduced by 0.26, and nitrite concentration is reduced by 1.38×10-5. The amino nitrogen is increased by 1.70×10-4, and the total population of bacteria is increased by 3.3×107 cfu·mL-1 and lactic acid bacteria is increased by 1.0×107 cfu·mL-1. Using the sensory evaluation for four different processing techniques, it concludes that the quality of products by raw pickling with inoculation or by addition of red pepper is found to be improved, the best quality of pickling wax gourd is obtained by inoculating the Pediococcus pertosaceus.%以冬瓜为原料,比较了腌制方式、配料及接种腌制对冬瓜腌制过程中理化指标(pH、盐度、总酸、亚硝酸盐和氨基酸态氮)和微生物指标(细菌、乳酸菌总数)的影响,并对成品进行了感官分析.结果表明:熟腌成熟时间为20 d,生腌成熟时间较长为90 d,但品质较好;在生腌中加辣椒腌制比对照组pH降低了0.25,亚硝酸盐质量分数降低了8.60×10-7,而盐度和总酸的质量分数提高,盐度变化不显著;在生腌中接种腌制冬瓜比对照组 pH 降低了0.26,亚硝峰阶段亚硝酸盐质量分数降低了1.38×10-5,而氨基

  2. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions.

  3. RESEARCH ON THE PROCESS OF THE PUSH-PULL PICKLING LINE WITH HIGH PRODUCTIVITY%高产能推拉式酸洗机组工艺路线研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军生

    2012-01-01

    从与传统推拉式酸洗机组的区别入手,介绍了推拉式酸洗机组实现高产能的工艺路线和主要设备配置。%This article introduced the process route and main equipments of push-pull pickling line with high productivity, comparing with the traditional push-pull pickling line.

  4. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M

    2008-06-15

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants.

  5. Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Croatian Fresh Soft Cheese and Serbian White Pickled Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Uroić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to gain insight into the probiotic potential of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses. Eleven out of 86 LAB isolates from traditionally produced artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses which survived the most rigorous simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and did not show resistance to antibiotics were subjected to further evaluation for functional probiotic properties. The ability of the examined strains to assimilate cholesterol in the presence of bile salts was strain dependent, with the highest percentage of cholesterol assimilated by strain Lactobacillus brevis BGGO7-28 possessing S-layer proteins on its cell surface. The growth of strains with mannitol or lactulose as the only carbon source was better than with fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin as prebiotic substrates, which should be considered in the production of synbiotics. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the strains were highly adhesive to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and to a lesser extent to HT29-MTX cells, with the exception of strain Lb. brevis BGGO7-28, which showed similar percentage of adhesion to both cell lines. This strain was the only one with the acidic cell surface, while other examined strains have the cell surfaces with electron donor and basic properties. In addition, all selected strains decreased the proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT cells, suggesting possible immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Finally, the number of viable cells in dry active preparations after lyophilisation depended on the lyoprotectant used (inulin, FOS or skimmed milk, as well as on the strain subjected to lyophilisation. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that particular dairy LAB isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties. Thus, they could be further examined as part of mixed autochthonous starter cultures for

  6. 不同发酵方式下泡青菜的品质分析%Quality analysis of mustard pickles in different fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秋思; 何芝菲; 罗佩文; 何利; 周康; 胡欣洁; 韩新锋; 颜正财; 刘书亮

    2015-01-01

    以卷心芥笋壳青菜Q123为原料,分别采用自然发酵、直投式乳酸菌发酵、老盐水发酵制作泡青菜,分析其感官、理化、微生物指标和风味物质的品质差异.结果表明,3种不同发酵方式下,泡青菜的各项指标变化趋势基本一致,直投式乳酸菌发酵泡青菜成熟后酸度适宜,色泽金黄,咀嚼脆性好,且亚硝酸盐含量低,Vc含量相对较高,风味物质成分较多,优于自然发酵和老盐水发酵泡青菜,并能缩短发酵周期,乳酸菌含量较高,能有效抑制杂菌生长.%Mustard Q123 (Brassica juncea) was used as raw material to make pickles by natural,direct vat set and aged brine fermentation.The quality differences on sensory,chemical,microbiological indicators and volatile flavor compounds among the three kinds of pickles were analyzed.Results showed that the change tendency of these indicators in the three kinds of pickles during fermentation process always kept consistent.The ripe pickle produced with direct vat set fermentation possessed suitable acidity,golden yellow color,crisp taste,low nitrite content,relatively high content of vitamin C,abundant volatile flavor compounds and short fermentation period,so its quality was better than that of the other two pickles produced with natural and aged brine fermentation.Furthermore,the content of lactic acid bacteria of the pickle with direct vat set fermentation was high,which could restrain growth of other organisms.

  7. Investigation on Lactobacillus Germplasm Resources of Chinese Pickle%中国泡菜乳杆菌种质资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代富英; 戴雨珂; 王海娟; 苏森森; 杜昕; 潘渠

    2016-01-01

    For investigation on Lactobacillus germplasm resources of Chinese pickle, 81 samples of Chinese pickle from 14 provinces were collected , and Lactobacillus strains from these samples were isolated using 16 s RNA gene sequencing and rapid-detection PCR technology for Lactobacillus which was designed by our selves. The isolating rate of Lactobacillus strains was 45.7 %, which showed there had rich Lactobacillus germplasm resources in Chinese pickle. 7 Lactobacillus sp. and 44 Lactobacillus strains were detected. 79.5%of isolated Lactobacillus strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains which indicated the dominance Lactobacil-lus sp. in Chinese pickle was Lactobacillus plantarum.3 Lactobacillus futsaii strains were isolated in Chongqing, which was first found at Taiwan in 2012. There are regional differences in the germplasm resources of Lactobacil-lus in Chinese pickle. The isolation rate of Lactobacillus strains is more prominent in Yunnan (200 %), Chongqing(125 %), Jiangsu (133 %) and Northeast region (100 %). Hunan pickles may be lack of Lactobacillus germplasm resources.%为了进一步探索中国泡菜中乳杆菌种质资源,使用自主研发的乳杆菌快速检出方法和16s RNA基因测序鉴定技术,对采自14个省级行政区的81份泡菜样品进行了检测。乳杆菌分离率为45.7%,证明中国泡菜中有丰富的乳杆菌种质资源。共分离到7种44株乳杆菌。其中植物乳杆菌菌株占分离乳杆菌菌株总数的79.5%,表明泡菜中乳杆菌的种类以植物乳杆菌为主。在重庆分离到了2012年在台湾发现的福菜乳杆菌,再次证明了该菌种在自然界中的存在。中国泡菜中的乳杆菌种质资源存在地区差异,乳杆菌分离率较突出的地区分别是云南(200%),重庆(125%),江苏(133%)和东北(100%)。湖南泡菜中可能较为缺乏乳杆菌种质资源。

  8. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Presuel-Moreno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic inhibitors to protect defects in the coating, by formation of an optimized barrier to local corrosion in Cl− containing environments, as well as by sacrificial cathodic prevention. Further progress in this field could lead to the design of the next generation of adaptive or tunable coatings that inhibit corrosion of underlying substrates.

  9. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  10. Corrosion inhibitors from expired drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaszilcsin, Nicolae; Ordodi, Valentin; Borza, Alexandra

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents a method of expired or unused drugs valorization as corrosion inhibitors for metals in various media. Cyclic voltammograms were drawn on platinum in order to assess the stability of pharmaceutically active substances from drugs at the metal-corrosive environment interface. Tafel slope method was used to determine corrosion rates of steel in the absence and presence of inhibitors. Expired Carbamazepine and Paracetamol tablets were used to obtain corrosion inhibitors. For the former, the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 0.1 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution was about 90%, whereas for the latter, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the same material in the 0.25 mol L(-1) acetic acid-0.25 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer solution was about 85%.

  11. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  12. Nuclear corrosion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Understanding corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods necessary for accurately measuring their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry for the safe, economic and competitive running of its plants. This book reviews the fundamentals of nuclear corrosion. Corrosion of nuclear materials, i.e. the interaction between these materials and their environments, is a major issue for plant safety as well as for operation and economic competitiveness. Understanding these corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods to accurately measure their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry. Combining assessment techniques and analytical models into this understanding allows operators to predict the service life of corrosion-affected nuclear plant materials, and to apply the most appropriate maintenance and mitigation options to ensure safe long term operation. This book critically reviews the fundamental corrosion mechani...

  13. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    in each dimen- sion than bacteria and archaea. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. Yeasts , molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi. The majority of...occurs widely in natural waters and can be carried out by a variety of organisms including bacteria, yeast , and fungi (42). Ghiorse (43) prepared a...and its alloys is due to an aluminum oxide passive film. Anodizing produces thicker insulating films and better corrosion resistance. The natural

  14. Corrosion resistant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  15. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  16. Corrosion of bio implants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Kamachi Mudali; T M Sridhar; Baldev Raj

    2003-06-01

    Chemical stability, mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility in body fluids and tissues are the basic requirements for successful application of implant materials in bone fractures and replacements. Corrosion is one of the major processes affecting the life and service of orthopaedic devices made of metals and alloys used as implants in the body. Among the metals and alloys known, stainless steels (SS), Co–Cr alloys and titanium and its alloys are the most widely used for the making of biodevices for extended life in human body. Incidences of failure of stainless steel implant devices reveal the occurrence of significant localised corroding viz., pitting and crevice corrosion. Titanium forms a stable TiO2 film which can release titanium particles under wear into the body environment. To reduce corrosion and achieve better biocompatibility, bulk alloying of stainless steels with titanium and nitrogen, surface alloying by ion implantation of stainless steels and titanium and its alloys, and surface modification of stainless steel with bioceramic coatings are considered potential methods for improving the performance of orthopaedic devices. This review discusses these issues in depth and examines emerging directions.

  17. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  18. Corrosion detection by induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddenberry, Joshua L.

    Bridges in Florida are exposed to high amounts of humidity due to the state's geography. This excess moisture results in a high incidence of corrosion on the bridge's steel support cables. Also, the inclusion of ineffective waterproofing has resulted in additional corrosion. As this corrosion increases, the steel cables, responsible for maintaining bridge integrity, deteriorate and eventually break. If enough of these cables break, the bridge will experience a catastrophic failure resulting in collapse. Repairing and replacing these cables is very expensive and only increases with further damage. As each of the cables is steel, they have strong conductive properties. By inducing a current along each group of cables and measuring its dissipation over distance, a picture of structural integrity can be determined. The purpose of this thesis is to prove the effectiveness of using electromagnetic techniques to determine cable integrity. By comparing known conductive values (determined in a lab setting) to actual bridge values, the tester will be able to determine the location and severity of any damage, if present.

  19. Corrosion Monitors for Embedded Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Kent B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casias, Adrian L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We have developed and characterized novel in-situ corrosion sensors to monitor and quantify the corrosive potential and history of localized environments. Embedded corrosion sensors can provide information to aid health assessments of internal electrical components including connectors, microelectronics, wires, and other susceptible parts. When combined with other data (e.g. temperature and humidity), theory, and computational simulation, the reliability of monitored systems can be predicted with higher fidelity.

  20. Automated Methods of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    electrochemical measurements as well as elemental analysis look very promising for elucidating corrosion reaction mechanisms. The study of initial surface reactions at the atomic or submicron level is becoming an important field of research in the understanding of corrosion processes. At present, mainly two...... scanning microscope techniques are employed investigating corrosion processes, and usually in situ: in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM) and in situ scanning force microscopy (in situ AFM). It is these techniques to which attention is directed here....

  1. Panel report on corrosion in energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    Corrosion problems in high-temperature (non aqueous) energy systems, corrosion in aqueous energy systems and institutional problems inhibiting the development of corrosion science and engineering are discussed. (FS)

  2. Panel report on corrosion in energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    Corrosion problems in high-temperature (non aqueous) energy systems, corrosion in aqueous energy systems and institutional problems inhibiting the development of corrosion science and engineering are discussed. (FS)

  3. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  4. Evaluation of steel corrosion by numerical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    Recently, various non-destructive and numerical methods have been used and many cases of steel corrosion are examined. For example, methods of evaluating corrosion through various numerical methods and evaluating macrocell corrosion and micro-cell corrosion using measurements have been proposed. However, there are few reports on estimating of corrosion loss with distinguishing the macro-cell and micro-cell corrosion and with resembling an actuality phenomenon. In this study, for distinguishin...

  5. ISO22000 Application on Chinese Tradital Pickle Sausage Production%ISO22000在传统腌渍腊肠生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅; 张滨

    2009-01-01

    利用ISO22000质量安全管理体系中的HACCP基本原理,通过对其加工流程中可能产生的危害(HA)进行分析,找出控制的关键点(CCP),并制定相应的解决措施,从而确保腌渍腊肠品质的安全性.%Chinese traditional pickle sausage Hazard (HA) were analyzed and Critical Control Point (CCP) were found out during processing in order to improve the sausage product quality by way of application of the rationale of ISO22000 quality safety manage system in this paper. Then establishes relevant measure to resolve the likely hazard, thereby Chinese traditional pickle sausage quality security were insured.

  6. 管道工程酸洗方法及应用范围研究%Research on Acid Pickling Method of Pipeline Engineering and Its Application Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯静

    2015-01-01

    管道的清扫环节对整个工程非常重要,主要是酸洗的过程要做好。以实际工程为背景,对酸洗的方法、适用范围做了详细的论述,为设计和施工提供了参考。%Pipeline cleaning is very important for the whole project, acid pickling process should be done well in the pipeline cleaning. In this paper, according to a practical project, the acid pickling method of pipeline and its applicable scope were introduced, which could provide reference for the design and construction of pipeline engineering in further.

  7. Archaeological analogs and corrosion; Analogues archeologiques et corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, D

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  8. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  9. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  10. Two-step process of regeneration of acid(s) from ZrF4 containing spent pickle liquor and recovery of zirconium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hayk; Han, Seul Ki; Choi, Jeong Hun; Lee, Young-Jun; Yoo, Bung Uk; Ri, Vladislav E.; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we describe a progressive two-step process that allows zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) contained in spent baths for etched zirconium alloys to be effectively recycled on a pilot scale and produce a high purity regenerated pickling acid. In the first step, a spent pickling liquor is treated by a BaF2 suspension to produce water insoluble Ba2ZrF8. After filtration of Ba2ZrF8 more than 99.9 wt % purity pickling acid is regenerated. The precipitation mechanism of Ba2ZrF8 is discussed and the role of BaF2 particles size on the precipitation process is demonstrated. In the second step the as-precipitated Ba2ZrF8 is mixed with Mg and Cu metal powders and heat-treated at 1200 °C (or above) to produce CuZr alloy ingot. The characteristics of the ingot are discussed in regard to Cu concentration and the heating temperature.

  11. Research and Development of Chinese Traditional Pickles Lactic Acid Bacteria Resources%我国传统泡菜乳酸菌资源研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 夏珊

    2016-01-01

    分析了中国传统泡菜乳酸菌的开发与应用现状,总结了泡菜乳酸菌资源的种类、乳酸菌分离的技术与方法,对分离筛选的乳酸菌资源进行梳理,并将菌剂生产的工艺做以总结,提出目前在泡菜乳酸菌资源研究过程中存在的问题并做以展望。%Analyze the current situations of the development and application of Chinese traditional pickles lactic acid bacteria.Summarize the types of pickles lactobacillus resources,the techniques and methods of lactic acid bacteria separation,and sum up the focus resources and the production process of lactic acid bacteria.At the same time,point out the problems currently exist in pickles lactobacillus resources and prospect their development.

  12. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai, E-mail: caiqinghai@yahoo.com

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG–DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g. - Graphical abstract: A facile method for the preparation of single-phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle from acid pickling waste by chemical precipitation was explored. The results characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, TG–DSC, ICP-MS and magnetic measurement showed that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was well-crystallized magnetite and stronger superparamagnetic with single phase. - Highlights: • Reclamation of acid pickling waste. • An alternative route for preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Nanocrystals with single phase. • Stronger superparamagnetic nature.

  13. Analysis on Oxide Defect at Surface of Hot-rolled and Pickled Plate%热轧酸洗板表面氧化缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程广萍; 陈宇杰

    2013-01-01

    采用体视显微镜、扫描电镜和能谱仪等分析研究了热轧酸洗板表面的氧化物缺陷。结果表明,缺陷区为酸洗后暴露出的基体铁和沿轧向分布的在高温下形成的破碎氧化铁皮。由于氧化铁皮被压入钢板中,在后续除鳞和酸洗中均难以去除,最终成为表面缺陷。%An oxide defect at surface of hot-rolled and pickled plate was investigated by using stereo-microscope , SEM and EDS .The results show that the defective regions are iron substrate exposed owing to pickling and longitudinally distributed broken iron scale formed at high temperature .The iron oxide scale is hard to be removed by subsequently descaling and pickling because of being pressed into the plate , thus becoming a surface defect .

  14. About stainless steel pickling waste water treatment technical analysis%关于不锈钢酸洗废水处理的技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳玲

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of social economy , stainless steel pickling waste water treatment technology as the current one of the most important technical parameters .This paper aims at the analysis of the current stainless steel pickling waste water related processing technology, the application of comprehensive from a variety of technology , based on the current industrial development around the actual need, multi-angle analysis stainless steel pickling waste water technology , to realize the overall technology comprehensive use .%  随着社会经济的快速发展,不锈钢酸洗废水处理技术成为了当前的一项重要技术参数。本文旨在分析当前不锈钢酸洗废水的相关处理技术,从多种技术综合的应用出发,围绕当前工业发展的实际需要,多角度的分析不锈钢酸洗废水的技术,实现整体技术的全面运用。

  15. DPC materials and corrosion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Bryan, Charles R.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    After an exposition of the materials used in DPCs and the factors controlling material corrosion in disposal environments, a survey is given of the corrosion rates, mechanisms, and products for commonly used stainless steels. Research needs are then identified for predicting stability of DPC materials in disposal environments. Stainless steel corrosion rates may be low enough to sustain DPC basket structural integrity for performance periods of as long as 10,000 years, especially in reducing conditions. Uncertainties include basket component design, disposal environment conditions, and the in-package chemical environment including any localized effects from radiolysis. Prospective disposal overpack materials exist for most disposal environments, including both corrosion allowance and corrosion resistant materials. Whereas the behavior of corrosion allowance materials is understood for a wide range of corrosion environments, demonstrating corrosion resistance could be more technically challenging and require environment-specific testing. A preliminary screening of the existing inventory of DPCs and other types of canisters is described, according to the type of closure, whether they can be readily transported, and what types of materials are used in basket construction.

  16. Agricultural Polymers as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural polymers were composed of extra-cellular polysaccharides secreted by Leuconostoc mesenteroides have been shown to inhibit corrosion on corrosion-sensitive metals. The substantially pure exopolysaccharide has a general structure consisting of alpha(1-6)-linked D-glucose backbone and appr...

  17. INHIBITION OF CORROSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, J.E. Jr.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-06-24

    A method is described for preventing corrosion of metallic container materials by a high-temperature liquid bismuth flowing therein. The method comprises fabricating the containment means from a steel which contains between 2 and 12% chromium, between 0.5 and 1.5% of either molybdenum and silicon, and a minimum of nickel and manganese, and maintaining zirconium dissolved in the liquid bismuth at a concentration between 50 parts per million and its saturation value at the lowest temperature in the system.

  18. Process Optimization for Production of Nutritional Seasoning Juice from Leftover Pickle Juice from Making Low Salt Pickled Mustard Tuber%榨菜低盐腌制卤汁生产营养调味汁的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷兰兰; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳

    2012-01-01

    为了解决榨菜腌制产生的含盐废水对环境的污染,采用低盐腌制榨菜新工艺,并将其中的卤汁通过膜分离、真空浓缩及巴氏杀菌等工艺优化过程,将榨菜废水卤汁制成了一种新型的营养调味汁。结果表明:优化的处理条件为采用0.22μm超滤膜进行膜分离,真空浓缩条件为65℃/0.090MPa,水浴杀菌条件90℃/10min;最后制成一种榨菜低盐腌制营养调味汁产品,其体态澄清、鲜亮,咸甜适口,滋味醇厚,具有浓郁的榨菜香味及少许的酱香味,是凉拌菜、面条等的良好调味品。%In order to avoid the problem of environmental pollution caused by the salty wastewater left over from the production of pickled mustard tuber, a novel nutritional seasoning juice was developed based on its membrane separation, vacuum concentration and pasteurization. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions were determined as follows: ultrafiltration separation using a 0.22 μm membrane, vacuum concenlration at 65 ℃ and 0.090 MPa and water-bath sterilization at 90 ℃ for 10 min. The nutritional seasoning juice obtained was clear and bright in color and had a strong aroma of pickled mustard tuber with a light sauce fragrance and a good sweet/salty balance of flavor, thus providing an excellent seasoning for cold dishes and noodles.

  19. Fatigue and Corrosion in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Milella, Pietro Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This textbook, suitable for students, researchers and engineers, gathers the experience of more than 20 years of teaching fracture mechanics, fatigue and corrosion to professional engineers and running experimental tests and verifications to solve practical problems in engineering applications. As such, it is a comprehensive blend of fundamental knowledge and technical tools to address the issues of fatigue and corrosion. The book initiates with a systematic description of fatigue from a phenomenological point of view, since the early signs of submicroscopic damage in few surface grains and continues describing, step by step, how these precursors develop to become mechanically small cracks and, eventually, macrocracks whose growth is governed by fracture mechanics. But fracture mechanics is also introduced to analyze stress corrosion and corrosion assisted fatigue in a rather advanced fashion. The author dedicates a particular attention to corrosion starting with an electrochemical treatment that mechanical e...

  20. IN DRIFT CORROSION PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley

    1999-12-02

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  1. 耐腐蚀软质镀锡板性能分析%Analysis of corrosion resisting soft electrolytic tinplate properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂元强; 柳长福; 白会平; 蔡捷; 郭玉华

    2012-01-01

    By means of SEM, pickling lag test, alloy-tin couple test, physical performance of corrosion resisting soft electrolytic tinplate MR T-2. 5 BA is analyzed. The results show that MR T-2. 5BA has good properties of corrosion resistance and pressing deformation and all indexes of tinning amount, hardness, PL, ATC, etc. can meet the requirements of《 GB/T2520-2008 》 standard. Industrial application indicated that MR T-2. 5 BA can meet the requirements of corrosion resistance canning by customers.%通过采用扫描电镜(SEM)、酸浸时滞试验、合金-锡电偶试验等仪器,对研制的MR T-2.5BA耐腐蚀软质镀锡板性能进行了检测与分析,结果表明:MR T-2.5BA镀锡板具有优良的耐蚀及冲压成形性能,各项性能(镀锡量、硬度值、PL值、ATC值等)均达到《GB/T2520-2008》规定的指标;试制产品经用户试用,其性能满足制作各种耐蚀罐要求。

  2. Corrosion Prevention and Control Applications Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-31

    Money, Manpower Called Keys to Progress, Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 6, 1980. 12. Reboul , M. C., Galvanic Corrosion of Aluminum, National...PA, April 1980. 25. Reboul , M.C., Galvanic Corrosion of Aluminum, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Corrosion, V. 35#9, September 1979. 146

  3. Investigation on Atmospheric Corrosiveness in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    According to the results of four-year exposure tests for carbon steel samples in Hainan province, the influences of meteorological factors and Cl- on atmospheric corrosion were investigated. The feature of atmospheric corrosion in this area was summarized. A corrosive map for the area was drawn. The corrosion products on carbon steel at some typical places were analyzed by XRD and XPS.

  4. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Suess

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, material evaluation, data review and conclusion procurement. In analyzing corrosion failures, one must recognize the wide range of common corrosion mechanisms. The features of any corrosion failure give strong clues as to the most likely cause of the corrosion. This article details a proven approach to properly determining the root cause of a failure, and includes pictographic illustrations of the most common corrosion mechanisms, including general corrosion, pitting, galvanic corrosion, dealloying, crevice corrosion, microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC, intergranular corrosion, fretting, erosion corrosion and hydrogen damage.

  5. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  6. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander SHRAMKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosion nucleation and their influence on corrosion depends on type of inclusion. Mechanism of corrosion of wheel steel corrosion was discussed.

  7. Application of PRO-pHx Acid Active Agent in Pickling of Electroplating Parts%PRO-pHx酸活剂在电镀零件酸洗中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦兰; 向可友; 王建华; 徐良

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究PRO-pHx 酸活剂对酸洗过程及酸洗质量的影响,达到节酸、减排、降低成本的目标.方法 通过添加PRO-pHx 酸活剂,对比分析酸洗溶液更换周期,以及不同的使用酸周期的成本. 结果PRO-pHx酸活剂体积分数在1%以下,即可长期保持钢铁零件酸洗液的活性以及零件的表面酸洗质量和电镀层质量,同时减少酸液废弃量. 其中,1200 L的硫酸酸洗槽加入体积分数为1%的PRO-pHx酸活剂,到第30个使用周期成本节约了33 . 6%,且随周期延长酸洗成本会进一步降低. 结论 PRO-pHx 酸活剂添加到酸洗溶液中,在保证钢铁零件表面酸洗质量和电镀层质量的前提下,实现了节酸、减排、降低成本.%Objective In order to study the effect of PRO-pHx acid active agent on the pickling process and pickling quality, and to reach the goals of saving acid, reducing emission and decreasing cost. Methods The PRO-pHx live agent was added, and the replacement cycle of acid pickling solutions was comparatively analyzed, as well as the costs of different acid usage cycles. Results A concentration of 1% or less of PRO-pHx acid activating agent could maintain the activity of galvanized parts pickling so-lution for a long time, as well as the surface pickling quality of steel parts and electroplating quality, meanwhile, the amount of waste acid was reduced. Adding 1% PRO-pHx acid active agent in a 1200 L sulfuric acid pickling tank could reduce the cost by 33. 6% at the 30th cycle, and the costs would be further reduced with the extension of the pickling cycle. Conclusion Adding PRO-pHx acid active agent in acid pickling solution realized acid conservation, emissions reduction and cost reduction on the prem-ise of the good quality of surface pickling of steel parts and electroplating coating.

  8. Diffusion Coatings as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Radoslav; Ignatova-Ivanova, Tsveteslava

    2016-03-01

    Corrosion is the cause of irretrievable loss of huge amounts of metals and alloys. The harmful effects of corrosion can be reduced significantly by applying appropriate methods of corrosion protection. One method to protect metals against corrosion is the formation of diffusion coatings on them. High corrosion resistance is typical for the boride diffusion layers. Aluminothermy is one of the main methods for diffusion saturation of the surface of metal products with various elements, including boron, and under certain conditions with aluminum, too. Samples of steel 45 were put to aluminothermic diffusion saturation with boron in a pressurized steel container at a temperature of 1100K, for 6 hours in powdered aluminothermic mixtures. The content of B2O3 in the starting mixtures decreased from the optimum - 20% to 0%, and the content of Al and the activator - (NH4)2.4BF3 is constant, respectively 7% and 0.5%. Al2O3 was used as filler. The borided samples were tested for corrosion resistance in 10% HCl for 72 hours. The results show that their corrosion resistance depends on the composition of the starting saturating mixture (mainly on the content of B2O3), and respectively on the composition, structure, thickness and degree of adhesion of the layer to the metal base.

  9. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  10. Diffusion Coatings as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is the cause of irretrievable loss of huge amounts of metals and alloys. The harmful effects of corrosion can be reduced significantly by applying appropriate methods of corrosion protection. One method to protect metals against corrosion is the formation of diffusion coatings on them. High corrosion resistance is typical for the boride diffusion layers. Aluminothermy is one of the main methods for diffusion saturation of the surface of metal products with various elements, including boron, and under certain conditions with aluminum, too. Samples of steel 45 were put to aluminothermic diffusion saturation with boron in a pressurized steel container at a temperature of 1100K, for 6 hours in powdered aluminothermic mixtures. The content of В2О3 in the starting mixtures decreased from the optimum - 20% to 0%, and the content of Al and the activator - (NH42.4BF3 is constant, respectively 7% and 0.5%. Al2O3 was used as filler. The borided samples were tested for corrosion resistance in 10% HCl for 72 hours. The results show that their corrosion resistance depends on the composition of the starting saturating mixture (mainly on the content of В2О3, and respectively on the composition, structure, thickness and degree of adhesion of the layer to the metal base.

  11. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  12. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Song; Liangliang Wang; Andre Zibart; Christian Koch

    2012-01-01

    The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is...

  13. Critical Study of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sallehuddin Shah Ayop; John Cairns

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete is one of the major problems with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The degradation of the structure strength due to reinforcement corrosion decreases its design life. This paper presents the literature study on the influence of the corrosion on concrete structure starting from the mechanism of the corrosion until the deterioration stage and the structural effects of corrosion on concrete structures.

  14. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    Experience has shown that corrosion occurring during geothermal energy utilization system downtime--shutdown corrosion--can pose a serious threat to successful operations. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal plants appears more severe than would be expected in their nongeothermal analogs, and its mitigation may pose a severe challenge to corrosion engineering personnel. This paper presents four case histories of geothermal shutdown corrosion problems. General methods of mitigation are explored.

  15. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  17. Corrosion-resistant sulfur concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur concretes have been developed by the Bureau of Mines as construction materials with physical and mechanical properties that suit them for use in acid and salt corrosive environments where conventional concretes fail. Mixture design methods were established for preparing sulfur concretes using different types of aggregates and recently developed mixed-modified sulfur cements. Bench-scale testing of the sulfur concretes has shown their potential value. Corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of sulfur concrete are superior to those of conventional materials. Field in situ evaluation tests of the sulfur concretes as replacement for conventional concrete materials are in progress in corrosive areas of 24 commercial chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical plants.

  18. Review on Stress Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Failure of Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiao; CHEN Songying; QU Yanpeng; LI Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion failure, especially stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, is the main cause of centrifugal compressor impeller failure. And it is concealed and destructive. This paper summarizes the main theories of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue and its latest developments, and it also points out that existing stress corrosion cracking theories can be reduced to the anodic dissolution (AD), the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), and the combined AD and HIC mechanisms. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of corrosion fatigue in the crack propagation stage are similar to stress corrosion cracking. The effects of stress ratio, loading frequency, and corrosive medium on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate are analyzed and summarized. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in corrosive environments, which contain sulfide, chlorides, and carbonate, are analyzed. The working environments of the centrifugal compressor impeller show the behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in different corrosive environments. The current research methods for centrifugal compressor impeller corrosion failure are analyzed. Physical analysis, numerical simulation, and the fluid-structure interaction method play an increasingly important role in the research on impeller deformation and stress distribution caused by the joint action of aerodynamic load and centrifugal load.

  19. Erosion--Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, B.

    1978-01-01

    The deterioration of materials by corrosion or erosion by itself presents a formidable problem and for this reason investigators have studied these two phenomena independently. In fact, there are very few systematic studies on E-C and the majority of references mention it only in passing. In most real systems, however, the two destructive processes take place simultaneously, hence the purpose of this review is to present the various interactions between the chemical and mechanical agents leading to accelerated degradation of the material. The papers cited in the review are those that lead to a better understanding of the process involved in the accelerated rate of material loss under E-C conditions.

  20. Greener Approach towards Corrosion Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion control of metals is technically, economically, environmentally, and aesthetically important. The best option is to use inhibitors for protecting metals and alloys against corrosion. As organic corrosion inhibitors are toxic in nature, so green inhibitors which are biodegradable, without any heavy metals and other toxic compounds, are promoted. Also plant products are inexpensive, renewable, and readily available. Tannins, organic amino acids, alkaloids, and organic dyes of plant origin have good corrosion-inhibiting abilities. Plant extracts contain many organic compounds, having polar atoms such as O, P, S, and N. These are adsorbed on the metal surface by these polar atoms, and protective films are formed, and various adsorption isotherms are obeyed. Various types of green inhibitors and their effect on different metals are mentioned in the paper.

  1. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  2. Accelerated corrosion test and corrosion failure distribution model of aircraft structural aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-lin; MU Zhi-tao; JIN Ping

    2006-01-01

    Based on corrosion damage data of 10 years for a type of aircraft aluminum alloy, the statistical analysis was conducted by Gumbel, Normal and two parameters Weibull distribution function. The results show that aluminum alloy structural member has the corrosion history of pitting corrosion-intergranular corrosion-exfoliation corrosion, and the maximum corrosion depth is in conformity to normal distribution. The accelerated corrosion test was carried out with the complied equivalent airport accelerated environment spectrum. The corrosion damage failure modes of aluminum alloy structural member indicate that the period of validity of the former protective coating is about 2.5 to 3 years, and that of the novel protective coating is about 4.0 to 4.5 years. The corrosion kinetics law of aluminum spar flange was established by fitting corrosion damage test data. The law indicates two apparent corrosion stages of high strength aluminum alloy section material: pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion/exfoliation corrosion.The test results agree with the statistical fit result of corrosion data collected from corrosion member in service. The fractional error is 5.8% at the same calendar year. The accelerated corrosion test validates the corrosion kinetics law of aircraft aluminum alloy in service.

  3. Electrochemical Studies of Atmospheric Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Todynamlc polarization curves using a mod ifiedatmospheric corrosion mon i tor (ACM). Norma l Tafel behavior was observed , the limiting current for oxygen...following a suggestion of Peter Serada, who is heading a task group on time-of-wetness measurements In ASTM GO1 .04, in which the author is participating...about 5 papers except for 1968 where a symposium on atmospheric corrosion was held which resulted in the publ ication of an ASTM Special Technical

  4. Corrosion Control Anniston Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    parts. • Anodize, Chrome, and Black Oxide (et.al.) • Substrate Prep and CARC paint. Stowage • Climate controlled storage (limited). • Weather...resistant (rain, uv) stowage . • Right Material – Right Time In Process Actions Bldgs 129 and 114 • Installation of new cleaning technologies for small... Rack Dehydration Prep Area CARC Application Flash-Off Oven De-mask and Anti- Corrosion App. Planned Future Actions Survey • Perform a corrosion survey

  5. Materials selection and corrosion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, I.; Greif, R.; Treseder, R.S.

    1974-06-28

    Data tabulated for chemical composition of geothermal waters are presented for four areas of interest in Nevada: Beowawe steam well and Beowawe Hot Spring, Buffalo Valley Hot Springs, Kyle Hot Springs, and Leach Hot Springs. Material recommendations were prepared for the Nevada geothermal well. A detailed field corrosion test program planned for the Nevada test well is included. A progress report is presented for a laboratory research program on velocity effects in corrosion. (MHR)

  6. Maintainability Improvement Through Corrosion Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    potential, current, pH, and chloride ion concentration were made along a simulated corrosion fatigue crack for HY80 (UNS K31820) steel in seawater...frequency range of 0.05-50 Hz, a 7075-T6 aluminium alloy and 304 and 316L stainless steels were fatigue tested in 3.0% NaCl solution. The increments...DESCRIPTORS: Conference Paper; Aluminum base alloys- Mechanical properties; Austenitic stainless steels - Mechanical properties; Corrosion fatigue

  7. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  8. A Brief Analysis of Continuous Spray Pickling Process in Austenitic Stainless Medium and Heavy Plate Production%奥氏体不锈钢中厚板连续喷淋酸洗工艺浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈继刚; 闫君

    2015-01-01

    论述了奥氏体不锈钢中厚板连续喷淋酸洗工艺的技术特征,并对典型的卧式、立式连续喷淋酸洗机组设备组成和生产工艺加以分析和对比。介绍了连续喷淋酸洗技术在国内不锈钢中厚板生产厂的实际应用情况。%The paper introduces the technical features of continuous spray pickling process,makes analysis and comparison on equipment configuration and production process of horizontal and vertical type continuous spray pickling lines,describes the actual applications of the pickling technique in domestic steel works of stainless steel medium and heavy plate.

  9. Pickling Process and Treatment of Black Film on Surface of E110 Alloy Tube%E11O合金管材酸洗工艺与表面黑膜的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓维; 王增民; 薛祥义; 袁改焕; 刘蕾; 王建国

    2011-01-01

    通过对E110合金管材酸洗过程中表面黑膜的产生与酸洗液中氢氟酸含量关系的对比实验及试样表面Fˉ残留的检测,探讨了适应于该合金材料酸洗的酸洗液配比.同时,通过酸洗后管材表面黑膜的不同处理方案,确定了去除黑膜的有效方法.实验最终确定的酸洗液配比为25%硝酸+1.5%~2%氢氟酸+73%~73.5%水(体积分数),酸洗工艺为水浸→酸洗→NH4 HC03洗涤→80~90℃热水洗→高压水洗→冷水洗→海绵吹擦.%The relationship between the surface black film and the content ratio of HF acid in acid pickling, and the F" residues on the sample surface of the El 10 alloy tube after acid pickling were analyzed. The suitable acid pickling ratio for this alloy material was also discussed. Meanwhile, the method of dealing with the black film on surface with the different processes was obtained, to provide experimental basis for the alloy pickling process of industrial production. The confirmed acid pickling ratio is 25%HNO3 + 1.5% -2% HF +73% -73.5% water, and the pickling process is water immersion→pickling→NH4HCO3 washing→80-90℃ hot water washing→high pressure water washing → cold water washing →wipe with sponge according to experiments.

  10. 雪里蕻腌菜的质构与果胶组分含量的关系%Relationship between Pectic Substance Fractions and Texture of Pickled Potherb Mustards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between the composition of pectic substancefractions and the texture of pickled potherb mustards during pickling under normal and spoiled conditions was investigated. The results obtained were as follows: (1)Under the normal pickling condition, the total amount of pectic substance in crude cell wall prepared from fresh potherb mustard and pickles was hardly changed during brining, though the ratio of hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (HXSP) in the total pectin was decreased to stable and the ratio of total water soluble pectin(Water Soluble Pectin, WSP; Hot Water Soluble Pectin, HWSP) was increased to stable.(2) During spoiling, the total amount of pectic substance was decreased significantly,while the ratio of HXSP in the total pectin was markedly decreased and the ratios of WSP and HWSP were markedly increased. Consequently, it was presumed that the assay of pectin in pickled potherb mustad might stand for the determination of the pickle's texture.%对雪里蕻腌菜中果胶组分的含量与质构变化进行了检测分析,雪里蕻腌菜在正常腌渍过程中总果胶含量趋于稳定,而水溶性果胶增加至一稳定值,六偏磷酸钠溶解性果胶下降至一稳定值.在腐烂过程中,总果胶含量显著下降,同时水溶性果胶组分增加和六偏磷酸钠溶解性果胶下降明显.研究结果表明,可用检测雪里蕻腌菜醇不溶物中果胶组分含量的变化来监测腌菜质构变化.

  11. Effect of Corrosion Resistant Coatings on the Fatigue Strength of Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    DOW 17 anodic coatings - both light and heavy applications. Pretreatments such as acid pickling, shot peening, and polystyrene impregnation were also...After 7 Days in HJjh Ituoidity Environnent ................... 74 SO Exposed and Unexposed (Upper Left Only) Speciroens With DOW 7 Coating (06...standard acid pickling pretreatment was also evaluated as well as practices not currently employed such as polystyrene impregnation and shot peening

  12. Investigations on Atmospheric Corrosion of Low carbon Steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    2008-07-17

    Jul 17, 2008 ... index which is directly related to the weight loss due to corrosion. The corrosion index ... easily observed by visual inspection, and the robust Gaussian filter was used. .... Method of removal of corrosion products from corrosion.

  13. Migrating corrosion inhibitor protection of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjegovic, D.; Miksic, B.

    1999-11-01

    Migrating corrosion inhibitors (MCI) were developed to protect steel rebar from corrosion in concrete. They were designed to be incorporated as an admixture during concrete batching or used for surface impregnation of existing concrete structures. Two investigations are summarized. One studied the effectiveness of MCIs as a corrosion inhibitor for steel rebar when used as an admixture in fresh concrete mix. The other is a long-term study of MCI concrete impregnation that chronicles corrosion rates of rebar in concrete specimens. Based on data from each study, it was concluded that migrating corrosion inhibitors are compatible with concrete and effectively delay the onset of corrosion.

  14. Solutions of corrosion Problems in advanced Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The specimens were exposed for 1400 hours at 450-600°C. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining. The corrosion products and course of corrosion for the various steel types...... were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The ferritic steels suffered from corrosion mainly via material loss. The austenitic steels suffered from predominantly selective corrosion resulting in chromium depletion from the alloy. A clear trend was observed that selective...... corrosion increased with increasing chromium content of the alloy....

  15. Corrosion behavior of corrosion resistant alloys in stimulation acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheldi, Tiziana [ENI E and P Division, 20097 San Donato Milanese Milano (Italy); Piccolo, Eugenio Lo; Scoppio, Lucrezia [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, via Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, selection of CRAs for downhole tubulars is generally based on resistance to corrosive species in the production environment containing CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, chloride and in some case elemental sulphur. However, there are non-production environments to which these materials must also be resistant for either short term or prolonged duration; these environments include stimulation acids, brine and completion fluids. This paper reports the main results of a laboratory study performed to evaluate the corrosion and stress corrosion behaviour to the acidizing treatments of the most used CRAs for production tubing and casing. Laboratory tests were performed to simulate both 'active' and 'spent' acids operative phases, selecting various environmental conditions. The selected steel pipes were a low alloyed steel, martensitic, super-martensitic, duplex 22 Cr, superduplex 25 Cr and super-austenitic stainless steels (25 Cr 35 Ni). Results obtained in the 'active' acid environments over the temperature range of 100-140 deg. C, showed that the blend acids with HCl at high concentration and HCl + HF represented too much severe conditions, where preventing high general corrosion and heavy localised corrosion by inhibition package becomes very difficult, especially for duplex steel pipe, where, in some case, the specimens were completely dissolved into the solution. On the contrary, all steels pipes were successfully protected by inhibitor when organic acid solution (HCOOH + CH{sub 3}COOH) were used. Furthermore, different effectiveness on corrosion protection was showed by the tested inhibitors packages: e.g. in the 90% HCl at 12% + 10 CH{sub 3}COOH acid blend. In 'spent' acid environments, all steel pipes showed to be less susceptible to the localised and general corrosion attack. Moreover, no Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC) was observed. Only one super-austenitic stainless steel U-bend specimen showed

  16. 榨菜腌制过程中有机酸变化%Variations in Organic Acids in Mustard during Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 贺云川; 何家林; 蒋和体

    2012-01-01

    In this study, raw mustard and pickled mustards at different pickling stages as well as pickle juice were analyzed by RP-HPLC for their variations in organic acid contents. In the RP-HPLC analysis, the chromatographic column used was an Agilent TC type C18 column. The separation of organic acids was performed by using a mobile phase made up of 3% methanol and 0.5% KHEPO4 which adjusted to pH 2.8 with H3PO4 at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set as 215 nm, and the column temperature was controlled at 17 ℃. Eight organic acids were separated effectively under these conditions. The organic acids exhibited a recovery rate varying between 95.73% and 100.55% and a relative standard deviation ranging from 2.04% to 3.12%. The RP-HPLC method had a good linear correlation and was accurate. Sonication was found to be better for extraction of organic acids than water bath heating and ethanol extraction. The contents of organic acids in pickled mustards and pickle juice increased as the pickling number increased from 1 to 3. The most predominant acid was lactic acid, which accounted for 29.94% and 38.55% of total organic acids in once pickled and twice pickled samples, respectively. The relative content of lactic acid was 73.50% during the late part of the third pickling cycle. Among all processing stages of mustard, rinsing had the largest impact on organic acids followed by manual acidity adjustment.%以青菜头、各腌制时期盐菜块以及榨菜腌制水为研究对象,采用反相高效液相色谱法对其有机酸的变化进行分析和研究。色谱柱:AgilentTC-C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),色谱条件:将体积分数3%甲醇-0.5%KH2P04,并用H3PO4调NpH2.8的溶液作为流动相,流速0.8mL/min;检测波长215nm;柱温17℃。结果表明:8种有机酸能有效地分离,回收率均在95.73%100.55%,相对标准偏差2.04%-3.12%,呈现出良好的线性相关性和较高的准确度

  17. Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 Superfine Powders with Steel Pickling Waste Water and Dust Water in the Production of Bleaching Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method of resource processing was developed by applying the material preparation technology to hazardous waste utilization. The iron oxide was synthesized by this method with steel pickling waste water and dust water in the production of bleaching powder. The effect of temperature on the synthesis was studied. X-Ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM showed that the iron oxide samples are bright red and spherical α-Fe2O3 powders, and the particle size analysis exhibited that the size of samples prepared at 70 °C and 80 °C were between 250-300nm.

  18. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  19. Corrosion of steel structures in sea-bed sediment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiutong Wang; Jizhou Duan; Yan Li; Jie Zhang; Shide Ma; Baorong Hou

    2005-04-01

    Seabed sediment (SBS) is a special soil that is covered by seawater. With the developments in marine oil exploitation and engineering, more and more steel structures have been buried in SBS. SBS corrosion has now become a serious problem in marine environment and an important issue in corrosion science. In this paper, approach in the field of SBS corrosion is reviewed. Electrochemical and microbial corrosion factors, corrosion mechanism, measurement of metal corrosion rate, corrosion evaluation and prediction of corrosion are also discussed here.

  20. Report on accelerated corrosion studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Glass, Sarah Jill; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted accelerated atmospheric corrosion testing for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help further the understanding of the development of corrosion products on conductor materials in household electrical components exposed to environmental conditions representative of homes constructed with problem drywall. The conditions of the accelerated testing were chosen to produce corrosion product growth that would be consistent with long-term exposure to environments containing humidity and parts per billion (ppb) levels of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) that are thought to have been the source of corrosion in electrical components from affected homes. This report documents the test set-up, monitoring of electrical performance of powered electrical components during the exposure, and the materials characterization conducted on wires, screws, and contact plates from selected electrical components. No degradation in electrical performance (measured via voltage drop) was measured during the course of the 8-week exposure, which was approximately equivalent to 40 years of exposure in a light industrial environment. Analyses show that corrosion products consisting of various phases of copper sulfide, copper sulfate, and copper oxide are found on exposed surfaces of the conductor materials including wires, screws, and contact plates. The morphology and the thickness of the corrosion products showed a range of character. In some of the copper wires that were observed, corrosion product had flaked or spalled off the surface, exposing fresh metal to the reaction with the contaminant gasses; however, there was no significant change in the wire cross-sectional area.

  1. Detective probe prevents corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    A black liquor recovery boiler is the main investment in a pulp mill, accounting for: about a third of the total cost of FIM 3-4 billion. Environmental aspects required that all the harmful chemicals involved in the process have to be kept within a pulp mill, rather than be released outside, and closed water circulation systems have to be introduced. These have led to the enrichment of some process and non-process chemicals causing corrosion problems and process disturbances in the boiler. The recovery boiler receives the liquor after the digestion stage, i.e. when woodchips are cooked to make cellulose, and burns it. During digestion, the wood produces out lignin, mixed with the liquor (consisting of sodium sulphide and hydroxide). The black liquor is burnt at the bottom of the boiler after the organic parts have been fired off. The rest goes into the recovery system and the chemicals are recycled producing energy, saving repurchasing chemicals and protecting the environment from toxic emissions.

  2. Study on the Processing Technology of Pickled Cucumber%糟黄瓜加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长贵; 曾文强; 张伟; 王兴华

    2013-01-01

    The study provided the quality standard,the best formula of basic flavoring and the processing technology which could maintain the color,fragrance and taste of pickled cucumber.The result shows that calcium chloride of 0.06 % as brittleness agent can obtain good effect; the best formula of basic flavoring is:umami substances of 0.9%,spices of 8%,sweeteners of 0.05%,sesame oil of 0.4%.Adding sodium benzoate of 0.3‰ or potassium sorbate of 0.3‰ in summer and autumn or without adding preservatives in spring and winter,sterilizing at 95 ℃ for 15 minutes,after these,the product could be well preserved for more than 10 months.%研究提供了一种生产色、香、味俱佳的糟黄瓜的加工工艺、产品质量标准和基本调味料的最佳配方.研究结果表明,添加0.06%氯化钙,保脆效果好;基本调味料配方为鲜味剂添加量为0.9%,香辛料添加量为8%,甜味剂添加量为0.05%,香油添加量为0.4%;春、冬季节不添加防腐剂,夏、秋季节添加0.3‰的苯甲酸钠或山梨酸钾的基础上,采用95℃杀菌15 rmin的杀菌条件,可使产品的保质期达10个月以上.

  3. Corrosion in Electronic Devices and Sensors to Prevent Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Dev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many types of metal and alloys are used in various electronic devices and components like computers, microchips, printed circuit board (PCB, integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes etc. Such components have variety of applications in the field of medical, aerospace, automotive sectors, telecommunication and defense. These components are exposed to different types of environments. The increased used of electronics has also increased the demand for reliability. The size of electronic equipment is also very significant parameter and it has been decreasing presently at a faster rate. The smaller size of equipment has undetectable failures. Though the corrosion taking place in electronic components is generally of micro level which can not be detected easily but the services of device are seized. The paper deals with the various types of corrosion in electronic components as a case study and an approach towards development of some sensor for corrosion monitoring.

  4. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  5. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  6. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  7. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  8. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  9. Microencapsulation of Corrosion Indicators for Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.; Calle, Luz M.; Hanna,Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous detection, indication, and control of corrosion is been developed based on microencapsulation technology. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed for early detection and indication of corrosion when incorporated into a smart coating. Results from experiments designed to test the ability of the microcapsules to detect and indicate corrosion, when blended into several paint systems, show that these experimental coatings generate a color change, indicative of spot specific corrosion events, that can be observed with the naked eye within hours rather than the hundreds of hours or months typical of the standard accelerated corrosion test protocols.. Key words: smart coating, corrosion detection, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH-sensitive microcapsule, corrosion indicator, corrosion sensing paint

  10. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  11. Smart Coatings for Launch Site Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.

    2014-01-01

    Smart, environmentally friendly paint system for early corrosion detection, mitigation, and healing that will enable supportability in KSC launch facilities and ground systems through their operational life cycles. KSC's Corrosion Technology Laboratory is developing a smart, self-healing coating that can detect and repair corrosion at an early stage. This coating is being developed using microcapsules specifically designed to deliver the contents of their core when corrosion starts.

  12. Multicomponent Oxide Systems for Corrosion Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-15

    and Si(OEt) 4 are somewhat lpss corrosive to aluminum than is SiCI 4 alone, although some pitting occurs for slow hydrolysis after coating by solutions...humidity (x) 86 A𔃻 determinants of corrosion resistance. The magnesium-silicon- aluminum alloy AA 6061 is generally considered to have good corrosion ... 6061 ), the corrosion resistance exceeded that of the chromate coatings. The feasibilityof the basic approach taken here has been validated. It

  13. Surface modification for corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-06-01

    The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

  14. Electrochemical corrosion of metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbaix, M

    1984-05-01

    Methods of electrochemical thermodynamics (electrode potential-pH equilibrium diagrams) and electrochemical kinetics (polarization curves) may help to understand and predict the corrosion behaviour of metals and alloys in the presence of body fluids. A short review of the literature is given concerning some applications of such methods, both in vitro and in vivo, relating to surgical implants (stainless steels, chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloys, titanium and titanium alloys) and to dental alloys (silver-tin-copper amalgams, silver-base and gold-base casting alloys, nickel-base casting alloys). Attention is drawn to the necessity of more basic research on crevice- and fretting-corrosion of surgical implant materials and dental alloys, and to the toxicity of corrosion products. A perfect understanding of the exact significance of electrode-potentials is essential for the success of such a task.

  15. Strain Measurement Technology for Corrosion Fatigue Specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wei-hua; NING; Guang-sheng; ZHANG; Chang-yi; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Main pipeline is the key component of nuclear power plants(NPPs).Under the first loop water and low-cyclic load condition,the main pipeline may be induced to corrosion fatigue failure.Thus,it’s necessary to test and get the corrosion fatigue property of main pipeline material.During the corrosion fatigue test,the strain

  16. 7 CFR 2902.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 2902.44 Section 2902.44... Items § 2902.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or...

  18. Corrosion-Induced Concrete Cracking Model Considering Corrosion-Filled Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yuxi; Wu, Yingyao; Jin, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    A TCP–TCL model is established to describe the relationship between the thickness of the corrosion-filled paste (CP) and that of the corrosion layer (CL). This model can describe the phenomenon that the corrosion filling in the concrete pores and accumulating at the steel/concrete interface occur synchronously. Based on the TCP–TCL model, a corrosion-induced concrete cracking model, which can quantitatively consider corrosion-filled paste at concrete/steel interface, is proposed. Combined wit...

  19. Corrosion-Inhibitor Efficiency Control: Comparison by Means of Different Portable Corrosion Rate Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Sierra, Isabel; Andrade Perdrix, Maria del Carmen; Rebolledo Ramos, Nuria; Luo, L; De Schutter, G

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion-inhibiting substances have been applied to suppress corrosion mainly on bare steel, but when corrosion is progressing, suppression can be achieved if anodic and cathodic reactions are avoided, which is not an easy objective, particularly if the bare metal is surrounded by concrete. In the present article, several corrosion inhibitors are studied to identify their inhibition efficiency in concrete. The percentage of reduction of the corrosion rate without and with inhibitor is named ...

  20. Electrochemical Measurement of Atmospheric Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Anna H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion of Shuttle thruster components in atmospheres containing high concentrations of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and water is an important issue in ground operations of bipropellant systems in humid locations. Measurements of the corrosivities of NTO-containing atmospheres and the responses of different materials to these atmospheres have been accomplished using an electrochemical sensor. The sensor is composed of alternating aluminum/titanium strips separated by thin insulating layers. Under high humidity conditions a thin film of water covers the surface of the sensor. Added NTO vapor reacts with the water film to form a conductive medium and establishes a galvanic cell. The current from this cell can be integrated with respect to time and related to the corrosion activity. The surface layer formed from humid air/NTO reacts in the same way as an aqueous solution of nitric acid. Nitric acid is generally considered an important agent in NTO corrosion situations. The aluminum/titanium sensor is unresponsive to dry air, responds slightly to humid air (> 75% RH), and responds strongly to the combination of humid air and NTO. The sensor response is a power function (n = 2) of the NTO concentration. The sensor does not respond to NTO in dry air. The response of other materials in this type of sensor is related to position of the material in a galvanic series in aqueous nitric acid. The concept and operation of this electrochemical corrosion measurement is being applied to other corrosive atmospheric contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, and acidic aerosols.

  1. Corrosion performance of structural alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1999-07-15

    Component reliability and long-term trouble-free performance of structural materials are essential in power-generating and gasification processes that utilize coal as a feedstock. During combustion and conversion of coal, the environments encompass a wide range of oxygen partial pressures, from excess-air conditions in conventional boilers to air-deficient conditions in 10W-NO{sub x} and gasification systems. Apart from the environmental aspects of the effluent from coal combustion and conversion, one concern from the systems standpoint is the aggressiveness of the gaseous/deposit environment toward structural components such as waterwall tubes, steam superheaters, syngas coolers, and hot-gas filters. The corrosion tests in the program described in this paper address the individual and combined effects of oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine on the corrosion response of several ASME-coded and noncoded structural alloys that were exposed to air-deficient and excess-air environments typical of coal-combustion and gasification processes. Data in this paper address the effects of preoxidation on the subsequent corrosion performance of structural materials such as 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel, Type 347 austenitic stainless steel, Alloys 800, 825, 625, 214, Hastelloy X, and iron aluminide when exposed at 650 C to various mixed-gas environments with and without HCI. Results are presented for scaling kinetics, microstructural characteristics of corrosion products, detailed evaluations of near-surface regions of the exposed specimens, gains in our mechanistic understanding of the roles of S and Cl in the corrosion process, and the effect of preoxidation on subsequent corrosion.

  2. Comprehensive Utilization of the Metals in Waste Stainless Steel Pickling Liquor%不锈钢酸洗废液中金属的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明森; 高远飞; 张晓丽

    2015-01-01

    In order to utilizate the metals in waste stainless steel pickling liquor comprehensively. The method of fractional precipitation was used. On the basis of the different pH value that fractional precipitation required, and the different acidity of ferric hydroxide, chromium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide, reasonable separation process was designed. The influences of pH for separation efficiency of different metal ions were studied. The results showed that the metals in waste stainless steel pickling liquor could be separated well if the pH and the addition were selected correctly.%为了综合利用不锈钢酸洗废液中的金属,采用分步沉淀的方法分离不锈钢酸洗废液中的铁、铬、镍.根据它们沉淀所需要的pH值不同,以及氢氧化铁、氢氧化铬、氢氧化镍的酸碱性不同等因素,设计了合理的分离工艺.研究了pH值等因素对金属离子分离效果的影响.结果表明,选择合适的pH值和辅助添加剂可以很好地分离不锈钢酸洗废液中的不同金属离子.

  3. Urban mining. Copper extraction by cementation of composite packaging with used pickling acids; Urban mining. Kupfergewinnung durch Zementation von Composite-Verpackungen und Altbeizsaeuren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egenolf, Baerbel; Mrotzek, Asja; Deerberg, Goerge [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Erich, Egon; Gruening, Frank [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The process design for resource recovery is presented, in which a waste stream of used pickling acid and of composite packaging is combined. Subsequent processing of secondary raw copper as cementation product conserves resources and saves energy. Packaging for liquid food (TetraPak etc.) and for powder is often built up of composites of paper, polyethylene and aluminium. For wet chemical treatment reject material (mostly paper fibre free, rough shredded) was used, which was examined according to its shredding behaviour. Used pickling acids are known in different compositions. The optimal conditions for the process have been identified within the wet chemical experiments. It was demonstrated that the aluminium oxide layer of the reject material could be depassivated by addition of chlorides. Regarding the reductive chemical reaction of the aluminium oxide layer it could be managed to carry out the wet chemical treatment with preservation of the valuable non-ferrous metals. For the wet chemical treatment, a newly developed combined screening stirred reactor proved particularly effective. The process happens in the reactor itself so that the product of the cementation settles and passes the sieve plate. Copper has been determined in fraction between 474 and 860 g/kg in the cementation product. From other Al-containing packaging (blisters etc.) copper has been obtained success fully in the cementation product, too. (orig.)

  4. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed.

  5. Cyclone reburning retrofit: Corrosion evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarv, H.; Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Reburning is an emerging NO{sub x} reducing technology which offers cyclone boiler owners a promising alternative to the more expensive flue gas cleanup techniques. Pilot-scale test results have shown that the corrosive H{sub 2}S gas can evolve during reburn. This can pose a potential problem and concern in retrofits burning high-sulfur Illinois coals. This research program is intended to assess tube corrosion under simulated reburning conditions (temperature, stoichiometry, and H{sub 2}S concentration). Performance of existing carbon steel as well as other alloys will be tested and compared. 1 fig.

  6. Cyclone reburning retrofit: Corrosion evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, H.; Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reburning is an emerging NO{sub x} reducing technology which offers cyclone boiler owners a promising alternative to the more expensive flue gas cleanup techniques. Pilot-scale test results have shown that the corrosive H{sub 2}S gas can evolve during reburn. This can pose a potential problem and concern in retrofits burning high-sulfur Illinois coals. This research program is intended to assess tube corrosion under simulated reburning conditions (temperature, stoichiometry, and H{sub 2}S concentration). Performance of existing carbon steel as well as other alloys will be tested and compared. 1 fig.

  7. Corrosion Reliability of Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Jensen, Stine G.; Møller, Per

    2008-01-01

    Inherently two factors namely multi-material usage and potential bias makes electronic devices susceptible to corrosion if exposed to humid conditions. The problem is compounded today due to miniaturization and contamination effects. The reduction in size of the components and close spacing...... on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for high density packing has greatly increased the risk of corrosion under humid conditions. An important issue is the failures due to electrolytic metal migration. This paper describes an investigation of the electrolytic migration of Sn-Pb solder lines on PCBs in humid...

  8. Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    low lying areas breaks down protective coating system and causes structural corrosion , • Water and organic/inorganic nutrients BUSINESS SENSITIVE...Chemical disinfection (T.O 1-1-8 and T.O 1-1-691) • Biocidal rinses and coatings • Biocidal Corrosion Preventative Compounds or CPCs BUSINESS...Type: H    Proprietary  Coating  w/ Silver  Inhibitor   Non‐Chrome Treatment + Mg‐Rich  Primer  Coupon Type: I    Prekote® (Pantheon Chemical) N/A

  9. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  10. Corrosive effects of hvdc transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, F.E.; Backstrom, T.E.

    1966-02-01

    Field tests using ac transmission lines for introduction of direct current into the earth at widely separated points are described. One test circuit was between a Tracy pumping plant and a Shasta power plant in California, and two others were in the Hoover power plant area. Evaluation of the effects of such ground currents on corrosion of buried metalwork was a primary aim of the tests. Potential gradients, pipe-to-soil potentials, and soil resistivities are discussed in detail. Estimates are made of the distances from ehv dc terminal installations within which corrosion prevention procedures may become necessary.

  11. Coatings for improved corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1992-05-01

    Several coating approaches are being developed to resist attack in coal-fired environments and thereby minimize corrosion of underlying substrate alloys and extend the time for onset of breakaway corrosion. In general, coating systems can be classified as either diffusion or overlay type, which are distinguished principally by the method of deposition and the structure of the resultant coating-substrate bond. The coating techniques examined are pack cementation, electrospark deposition, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spray, and ion implantation. In addition, ceramic coatings are used in some applications.

  12. The Determination of Nitrite from 13 Kinds of Pickled Vegetables in the Sale of Wulanchabu City%市售13种腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚丽; 金宏; 李强; 李莹; 刘艳霞

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite is a kind of food additive, but it is a toxic substance, high content would endanger human health, we want to know about the content of nitrite from pickled vegetables in the sale of Wulanchabu city.The contents of nitrite in 13 kinds of preserved szechuan pickles were determined by spectrophotometric method.The results showed that the content level of nitrite were all below the Chinese National Food Standard in the preserved szechuan pickles, but the contents of nitrite in pickled was more than that in needle mushroom.%亚硝酸盐是食品添加剂中的一种,但它是一种有毒物质,含量高会危害人的身体健康,为了解乌兰察布市售腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐的含量。利用722型分光光度计测定了不同厂家的4种金针菇与同一厂家的9种酱腌菜中亚硝酸盐的含量,实验结果表明:酱腌菜中亚硝酸盐的含量>金针菇中亚硝酸盐的含量,但所测定的13种腌制蔬菜中亚硝酸盐含量均未超标。

  13. Study on Optimal Attack Position of Anti-Submarine Helicopter in Flight Pickle%反潜直升机飞行投雷最佳阵位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏飞; 王光源; 赵轩坤

    2014-01-01

    为了获得反潜直升机飞行投雷最佳阵位,在分析直升机飞行投雷攻击过程的基础上,建立了投放参数解算模型和鱼雷捕获潜艇概率模型,利用蒙特卡罗法仿真分析了目标舷角和初始距离对鱼雷捕获概率的影响。仿真结果给出了直升机飞行投雷的最佳阵位,对直升机飞行投雷攻潜具有参考意义。%To obtain the optimal attack position of anti-helicopter in flight pickle,the attacking course of flight pickle is analysed in this paper,and a model to calculate airdrop parameters of flight pickle is built,following the model to calculate the capture probability of aerial torpedo. Then it simulated the effect of hull angle and initial distance on the capture probability of aerial torpedo. The results determine the optimal attack position,which has reference significance for flight pickle.

  14. Analysis on the production managerial mode of pickled sheet in the situation of limiting production in hot rolling%热轧限产情况下酸洗板的生产组织模式浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚筱春

    2011-01-01

    在热轧限产期间,酸洗板的生产组织模式发生变化,供料能力与热轧计划编制以及酸洗板钢种规格分布紧密相关.针对热轧酸洗板计划进行优化与拓展,同时对酸洗板订货合同的薄料比进行推荐,在热轧限产情况下确保了酸洗板机组的稳定生产.%During the period of limited the production of hot rolling, the production managerial mode of pickled sheet changed.Supply ability had a closed relationship with the rolling plan and steel grade and specification.The hot rolling plan of pickled sheet was optimized and expanded, at the same time, the thin sheet ratio of pickled sheet contract was commended, which ensured the stable production of pickled sheet in the situation of limiting production in hot rolling.

  15. 成都泡菜正成为调味品行业新的经济增长点%Chengdu pickled vegetable become the new economic growing point in the field of condiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼筠

    2000-01-01

    The pickled vegetable is a vegetable product, which has a long history and local characteristics and is loved very much by domestic. The pickled vegetable is mainly produced in Sichuan, especially in Chengdu. Chengdu pickled vegetable is famous in the world for its gross production,various kinds,special select and new craft. Chengdu pickled vegetable promotes the food products, such as vegetable plant, product package, etc. to develop greatly, and become the new economic growing point in the field of condiment.%泡菜是一种具有悠久历史和地方特色的乳酸发酵蔬菜制品,深受国人喜爱。泡菜主要产于四川,而以成都为最。成都泡菜以其产量大、品种多、选料精、酿造工艺新而著称于世。成都泡菜的新崛起,带动了种植、陶瓷、包装、餐饮等行业的发展,成为调味品行业新的经济增长点。

  16. 循环酸洗法在换热器清洗中的应用及推广%Application and Popularization of Circulation Pickling Method in Rinsing of Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      由于氮压机级间冷却器严重结垢,氮压机压缩气体的能力大大减小而且喘振现象频繁发生。通过对氮压机水路进行加装反冲洗阀的改造,并采用改进后的循环酸洗法对氮压机进行酸洗,从根本上解决了问题。阐述了氮压机的运行状况、改进后的循环酸洗方法及具体实施过程,介绍了氮压机级间冷却器清洗后的效果及循环酸洗阀的推广应用。%The compressed gas capacity of nitrogen compressor greatly reduces owing to serious scale of nitrogen compressor interstage cooler, and surge frequently occurs. A back-flushing valve is installed in water circuit of the nitrogen compressor and the improved cycle pickling method is used to pickle the nitrogen compressor. The above reconstruction ba-sically eliminates the serious scale. The operation status of the nitrogen compressor, the im-proved cycle pickling method and practical implementation process are presented. The effect of the nitrogen compressor interstage cooler and popularization and application of cycle pickling method are introduced.

  17. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.; Hintze, P. E.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Jolley, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effects of corrosion on various structures at the Kennedy Space Center, and the work to discover a corrosion control coating that will be autonomous and will indicate corrosion at an early point in the process. Kennedy Space Center has many environmental conditions that are corrosive: ocean salt spray, heat, humidity, sunlight and acidic exhaust from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). Presented is a chart which shows the corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations. KSC has the highest corrosion rates with 42.0 mils/yr, leading the next highest Galeta Point Beach, in the Panama Canal Zone with 27 mils/yr corrosion. A chart shows the changes in corrosion rate with the distance from the ocean. The three types of corrosion protective coatings are described: barrier (passive), Barrier plus active corrosion inhibiting components, and smart. A smart coating will detect and respond actively to changes in its environment in a functional and predictable manner and is capable of adapting its properties dynamically. The smart coating uses microcapsules, particles or liquid drops coated in polymers, that can detect and control the corrosion caused by the environment. The mechanism for a pH sensitive microcapsule and the hydrophobic core microcapsule are demonstrated and the chemistry is reviewed. When corrosion begins, the microcapsule will release the contents of the core (indicator, inhibitor, and self healing agent) in close proximity to the corrosion. The response to a pH increase is demonstrated by a series of pictures that show the breakdown of the microcapsule and the contents release. An example of bolt corrosion is used, as an example of corrosion in places that are difficult to ascertain. A comparison of various coating systems is shown.

  18. Assessing Level and Effectiveness of Corrosion Education in the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ling Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of corrosion can be minimized by an engineering workforce well trained in corrosion fundamentals and management. Since the United Arab Emirates incurs the second highest cost of corrosion after Saudi Arabia, this paper examined the quality of corrosion education in the UAE. Surveys with academia and industry respondents showed that dedicated corrosion courses and engineering courses that integrated corrosion into the curricula were available in UAE universities, but graduates had insufficient knowledge of corrosion engineering and superficial understanding of corrosion in real-life design contexts. The effectiveness of corrosion education is determined by both competence in corrosion knowledge/skills and availability of resources (faculty and research. Though most departments would not hire new corrosion-specialist faculty, department research efforts and industry partnerships in corrosion research were present. The paper concluded with recommendations for improving knowledge and skills of future engineers in corrosion and enhancing corrosion instruction to better meet industry needs.

  19. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    2000-01-28

    Alloy 22 is an extremely Corrosion Resistant Material, with a very stable passive film. Based upon exposures in the LTCTF, the GC rates of Alloy 22 are typically below the level of detection, with four outliers having reported rates up to 0.75 #mu#m per year. In any event, over the 10,000 year life of the repository, GC of the Alloy 22 (assumed to be 2 cm thick) should not be life limiting. Because measured corrosion potentials are far below threshold potentials, localized breakdown of the passive film is unlikely under plausible conditions, even in SSW at 120 deg C. The pH in ambient-temperature crevices formed from Alloy 22 have been determined experimentally, with only modest lowering of the crevice pH observed under plausible conditions. Extreme lowering of the crevice pH was only observed under situations where the applied potential at the crevice mouth was sufficient to result in catastrophic breakdown of the passive film above the threshold potential in non-buffered conditions not characteristic of the Yucca Mountain environment. In cases where naturally ocurring buffers are present in the crevice solution, little or no lowering of the pH was observed, even with significant applied potential. With exposures of twelve months, no evidence of crevice corrosion has been observed in SDW, SCW and SAW at temperatures up to 90 deg C. An abstracted model has been presented, with parameters determined experimentally, that should enable performance assessment to account for the general and localized corrosion of this material. A feature of this model is the use of the materials specification to limit the range of corrosion and threshold potentials, thereby making sure that substandard materials prone to localized attack are avoided. Model validation will be covered in part by a companion SMR on abstraction of this model.

  20. 电梯用439不锈钢耐腐蚀性的影响因素%Influencing Factors on Corrosion Resistance of 439 Stainless Steel Used in Elevators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁龙; 张波; 徐勇军

    2011-01-01

    The influencing factors were studied that relate to the corrosion resistance of 439 stainless steel used in elevators, through surface morphology evaluation and corrosion resistance test for the samples whose alloy element contents, production process and grinding technology were adjusted. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 439 stainless steel can be improved by improving Cr content, adopting the technology of first grinding and then annealing and pickling, controlling the particle size of abrasive belt and S content of abrasive materials.%通过调整合金元素含量、生产工艺流程和研磨工艺,并对制备的产品试样进行了表面形态评定和耐腐蚀性试验,研究了影响电梯用439不锈钢耐腐蚀性的因素.结果表明:适当提高铬元素含量,采用先研磨后退火酸洗的工艺以及控制研磨过程中研磨砂带粒度和研磨介质中硫元素的含量,可提高439不锈钢的耐腐蚀性.

  1. Atmospheric corrosion sensor based on strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Hiroki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Toshirou; Kihira, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Kazumi; Kuriyama, Yukihisa; Okazaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an in situ atmospheric corrosion sensor based on strain measurement is discussed. The theoretical background for measuring the reduction in thickness of low carbon steel is also presented. Based on the theoretical considerations, a test piece and apparatus for an atmospheric corrosion sensor were designed. Furthermore, in a dry–wet cyclic accelerated exposure experiment, the measured strain indicated thinning of the test piece, although the corrosion product generated on the surface of the test piece affected the results. The atmospheric corrosion sensor would be effective for evaluating atmospheric corrosion of many types of infrastructure.

  2. Nodular Corrosion Characteristics of Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, D. J

    2003-01-15

    This study was reported the effect of the nodular corrosion on the nuclear reactor environmental along with metallurgical influence, also suggested experimental scheme related to evaluate nodular corrosion characteristics of Zr-1 Nb alloy. Remedial strategies against the nodular corrosion should firstly develop plan to assess the effect of the water quality condition (Oxygen, Hydrogen) as well as the boiling on the nodular corrosion, secondarily establish plan to control heat treatment process to keep a good resistance on nodular corrosion in Zr-1Nb alloy as former western reactor did.

  3. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  4. 不同表面处理工艺对Ti-6A1-4V钛合金漆层结合力和电偶腐蚀性能影响%Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Painting Adhesion and Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Alloy Ti-6A1-4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松林; 刘明辉; 易俊兰; 陈洁; 杨勇进; 王志申

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different surface treatments(pulse current anodizing, direct current anodizing and acid pickling passivating) on painting adhesion and galvanic corrosion behavior of titanium alloy Ti-6A1-4V coupled with aluminum alloy 2024 treated chromic acid anodizing was studied. Result of microstructure and tape adhesion tests shows porous film on the surface of titanium alloy treated by pulse current anodizing can effectively improve its painting adhesion . It was demonstrated by galvanic corrosion test that anodized films on titanium alloy can significantly reduce the susceptibility of galvanic corrosion between titanium alloy and aluminum alloy. Pulse current anodizing process shows better performance than direct current anodizing and acid pickling passivating in application by the results of these comparison.%对比研究了经不同表面处理工艺(脉冲阳极氧化、直流阳极氧化、酸洗钝化)处理后的钛合金表面的漆层结合力及其与经铬酸阳极氧化处理的2024铝合金组成的电偶对的电偶腐蚀性能.结果表明:脉冲阳极氧化处理的钛合金表面呈明显的多孔结构,有效地提升了基体与漆层的结合力,同时钛合金表面的阳极氧化膜层还可有效降低与其对接的铝合金材料的电偶腐蚀倾向.在综合性能方面这种新型的脉冲阳极氧化工艺优于传统直流阳极氧化和酸洗钝化工艺.

  5. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  6. Processing of health mixed pickle%什锦养颜泡菜的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晏昆; 李海; 赵凤; 杨振生

    2011-01-01

    随着人们生活水平日益提高,人们对各类保健食品的需求越来越大,因此研发具有时代特征的新型药膳保健食品顺应世界食品新潮流。研究把中医理论和现代食品发酵学理论结合起来,以白萝卜、胡萝卜、莴笋和红辣椒为原料,并以适当的比例混合,添加具有养颜功效的中药材枸杞、党参、桂圆、甘草和黄芪,采用正交优化试验。得出最佳的加工工艺条件为:药材量8%、盐浓度4%、糖浓度3%、发酵温度30℃、发酵时间7d。根据此条件可开发出具有养颜抗衰老功效的新型保健食品。%As the people’s living standards and increasing awareness of the various types of health food growing demand. Therefore research and development with the characteristics of the era of new medicinal health food to the world’s food trends. This study Chinese medicine theory and modern fermentation of food combining theory. This experiment take the turnip, the carrot, the asparagus lettuce and the red chilli mixed by a proper ratio as the raw material, and puts some traditional Chinese medicine materials which can make beauty effect such as the Fructus Lyeii, longans, padix codonopsis pilosulae, astragalus membranaceus into the raw materials test. The results as follow: Chinese medicinal materials 8%, salt 4%, sugar 1%, fermentation time was 7 days. According to these conditions, a new type health food of pickle with beautified and preventing senescence effects were produced.

  7. The dual role of microbes in corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; van Veen, Johannes A

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced products are under increasing pressure of stringent environmental regulations. Furthermore, they are rather inefficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly and sustainable corrosion control strategies. The mechanisms of microbially influenced corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion inhibition are not completely understood, because they cannot be linked to a single biochemical reaction or specific microbial species or groups. Corrosion is influenced by the complex processes of different microorganisms performing different electrochemical reactions and secreting proteins and metabolites that can have secondary effects. Information on the identity and role of microbial communities that are related to corrosion and corrosion inhibition in different materials and in different environments is scarce. As some microorganisms are able to both cause and inhibit corrosion, we pay particular interest to their potential role as corrosion-controlling agents. We show interesting interfaces in which scientists from different disciplines such as microbiology, engineering and art conservation can collaborate to find solutions to the problems caused by corrosion.

  8. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; van Veen, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced products are under increasing pressure of stringent environmental regulations. Furthermore, they are rather inefficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly and sustainable corrosion control strategies. The mechanisms of microbially influenced corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion inhibition are not completely understood, because they cannot be linked to a single biochemical reaction or specific microbial species or groups. Corrosion is influenced by the complex processes of different microorganisms performing different electrochemical reactions and secreting proteins and metabolites that can have secondary effects. Information on the identity and role of microbial communities that are related to corrosion and corrosion inhibition in different materials and in different environments is scarce. As some microorganisms are able to both cause and inhibit corrosion, we pay particular interest to their potential role as corrosion-controlling agents. We show interesting interfaces in which scientists from different disciplines such as microbiology, engineering and art conservation can collaborate to find solutions to the problems caused by corrosion. PMID:25259571

  9. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  10. CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR CARBON STEELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 3% ac]neon.s' NaCl solution (pH 6) ... compared to stainless steels (Buchweishaija & Hagen 1997). Organic compounds are ... resistant dust for break and clutch linings, wood binders and mould (Gedam.

  11. Encapsulated Multifunction Corrosion Inhibitive Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Tec #19 (alkaline detergent), scrubbed vigorously with cheese cloth, then perform R.I.A. drop test for cleanliness (ASTM 7.1.6.22) (Turco Air Tec...Systems, DOE/NASA TM-78180 (1978). 39. Gouda , V.K. and Shater, M.A., Corrosion Sci. 15 199 (1975). 40. Controlled release, Pesticide Symposium 41

  12. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  13. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.

  14. Evolutionary Computation Techniques for Predicting Atmospheric Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Marref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion occurs in many engineering structures such as bridges, pipelines, and refineries and leads to the destruction of materials in a gradual manner and thus shortening their lifespan. It is therefore crucial to assess the structural integrity of engineering structures which are approaching or exceeding their designed lifespan in order to ensure their correct functioning, for example, carrying ability and safety. An understanding of corrosion and an ability to predict corrosion rate of a material in a particular environment plays a vital role in evaluating the residual life of the material. In this paper we investigate the use of genetic programming and genetic algorithms in the derivation of corrosion-rate expressions for steel and zinc. Genetic programming is used to automatically evolve corrosion-rate expressions while a genetic algorithm is used to evolve the parameters of an already engineered corrosion-rate expression. We show that both evolutionary techniques yield corrosion-rate expressions that have good accuracy.

  15. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  16. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  17. Effect of corrosion on flexural bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Shetty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes affecting durability of structures. Corrosion effects on structures cannot be ignored and replaced. To understand the performance of structures there is a need to study the rate at which different corrosion levels occur. Hence the present investigation has been taken up to study the behaviour of NBS (National Bureau of Standard beam specimens made up of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC and Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC concrete matrix were subjected to accelerated corrosion for different corrosion levels of 2.5 % to 10 % at 2.5 % interval. Results are compared with those for control beam specimen. It is observed that bond stress value decreases with the increase in corrosion levels. Also corrosion leads to the decline of load carrying capacity.

  18. High Temperature Corrosion on Biodust Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi

    The high content of alkali metals and chlorine in biomass gives rise to fouling/slagging and corrosion of heat exchange components, such as superheaters, in biomass fired power plants. Increasing the lifetime of these components, and in addition, preventing unwarranted plant shutdowns due...... to their failure, requires understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, as well as development of materials that are resistant to corrosion under biomass firing conditions, thereby motivating the current work. To understand the mechanisms of corrosion attack, comprehensive analysis of corrosion products...... was necessary. In the present work, two complementary methodologies based on analysis of cross sections and plan views were applied to achieve comprehensive characterization of corrosion products. The suitability of these methods for both laboratory scale and full scale corrosion investigations was demonstrated...

  19. NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center: Anticipating, Managing, and Preventing Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in North America. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pads were rendered even more severe by the highly corrosive hydrochloric acid (HCl) generated by the solid rocket boosters (SRBs). Numerous failures at the launch pads are caused by corrosion. The structural integrity of ground infrastructure and flight hardware is critical to the success, safety, cost, and sustainability of space missions. NASA has over fifty years of experience dealing with unexpected failures caused by corrosion and has developed expertise in corrosion control in the launch and other environments. The Corrosion Technology Laboratory at KSC evolved, from what started as an atmospheric exposure test site near NASAs launch pads, into a capability that provides technical innovations and engineering services in all areas of corrosion for NASA, external partners, and customers.This paper provides a chronological overview of NASAs role in anticipating, managing, and preventing corrosion in highly corrosive environments. One important challenge in managing and preventing corrosion involves the detrimental impact on humans and the environment of what have been very effective corrosion control strategies. This challenge has motivated the development of new corrosion control technologies that are more effective and environmentally friendly. Strategies for improved corrosion protection and durability can have a huge impact on the economic sustainability of human spaceflight operations.

  20. 栅栏技术在泡椒凤爪保藏中的应用%Application of Hurdle Technology in Pickled Chicken Feet Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 李思宁; 闫志农; 卢晓黎

    2012-01-01

    应用栅栏技术,对泡椒凤爪的脂肪含量、水分活度、pH值及复合防腐剂的复配比例4个栅栏因子进行了研究,以感官评分和保藏时间为指标,确定泡椒风爪保藏的最佳栅栏条件。通过四因素三水平正交试验结果得到泡椒凤爪的最佳栅栏因子组合为:脂肪含量13.2g/100mL,水分活度0.809,pH4.0,复合防腐剂(乳酸链球菌素:双乙酸钠)添加量0.1g/100mL、复配比1:3。通过验证实验可知,在此条件下,泡椒凤爪于温度37℃、相对湿度80%、光照33%条件下可贮藏50d。%Hurdle technology was used to determine optimal conditions for preserving pickled chicken feet. Fat content, water activity, pH and nisin-to-sodium diacetate ratio were identified as hurdle factors. A four-factor, three-level orthogonal array design was used to optimize these hurdle factors based on sensory score and shelf life. The optimal hurdle conditions for preserving pickled chicken feet were established as follows: fat content 13.2 g/100 mL, water activity 0.809, pH 4.0 and a mixture of nisin of sodium diacetate at a ratio of 1:3 as a preservative. Under these conditions, the shelf life of pickled chicken feet in an environment of 37 ℃, 80% humidity and 33% light exposure was 50 day.

  1. 雪里蕻腌菜特征风味物质的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Typical Flavor Componentsof Potherb Mustard Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 汤坚; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    运用色-质(GC/MS)联用技术对雪里蕻腌菜的风味物质进行了研究,以期发现能显著影响其风味特性的关键性成分.首先,对雪里蕻腌菜卤汁的乙醚萃取浓缩液组分进行了鉴定,结果发现有机酸组分8个,醇类组分4个,腈类组分2个,酯类组分1个,芳香烃2个.经动态顶空吸附雪里蕻腌菜挥发性组分并进行组分离,在GC-MS图谱上进行组分的分离鉴定,其特征风味在碱性组分中嗅感强烈.雪里蕻腌菜挥发性成分经GC-MS检测解析为烃类、醇类、酯类、腈及杂环化合物,其中丁烯腈及苯并噻唑与雪里蕻腌菜特征风味形成密切相关.%The spectra patterns of volatile flavor components in potherb mustard pickles detected by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectometry(GC/MS) were investigated in order to identify key compounds in the pickles. The constituents from pickle brine extracted with ethyl ether and identified by GC-MS. In the result, 8 acids, 4 alcohol, 2 nitriles, 2benzines and 1 ester were identified. The application of dynamic headspace trapping using a glass column trap contained HayeSep Q as absorbent combined with GC-MS technique for the volatile flavor analyses and identification was studied. The volatile components from the trapping were collected and presented into acidic, weak acidic, neutral and basic fraction, the basic fraction contained character-impact compounds by means of olfactory evaluation. Two key compounds, butenenitrile and benzothiazole, were found.

  2. Corrosion inhibition of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longzhe Jin; Lu Wang; Dongke Chen

    2006-01-01

    Metallic corrosion is a serious problem in the application of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor. The basic characteristics of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor and its corrosivity, corrosion mechanism, as well as the principle of corrosion inhibition were analyzed. The static mass-loss test was carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior and the effect of the dustdepressor. The static corrosion rates of steel specimens were measured in six different corrosion inhibitor solutions of the dustdepressor, and the suitable corrosion inhibitors for the dust-depressor to reduce the corrosivity were found out.

  3. Microencapsulation Technology for Corrosion Mitigation by Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion is being developed based on micro-encapsulation technology. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection effectiveness. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed to be incorporated into a smart coating that will deliver corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion autonomously. Key words: smart coating, corrosion inhibition, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH sensitive microcapsule, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion protection pain

  4. Electrochemical characterisation speeds up prediction of corrosion behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuring, E.W.; Hooijmans, J.W. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The contents of this presentation show the following elements: Introduction; Corrosion in real life; Why Electrochemical characterisation of corrosion; Applications (corrosion resistance coatings, corrosion behaviour (brazed) joints); Available electrochemical corrosion techniques; Standards; Conclusions. In the Conclusions the corrosion screening method is summarized: ECN method fast; within 1h -1 week results depending on test method; Fast pre-selection of promising materials/combinations (cost savings); Determining of corrosion initiation; Determination of corrosion mechanisms and propagation; Life time predictions possible; Strong combination with metallographic post-investigation; Ranking materials / constructions for corrosion performance.

  5. INTERNAL CORROSION MONITORING IN OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Benedicto Mainier

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes of failures in equipment and pipes in off-shore oil production. These failures harm the process, slow the production operational chronogram, and generate high costs of maintenance, beyond generation risks to health and environment. Due to the fact that most of the equipment, tubing and pipes of production platforms are made of steel, in general, carbon steel, the industry of petroleum exploration will always coexist with the corrosive process. The use of a Corrosion Monitoring Plan to diagnostic, to control and to manage the evolution of corrosives process in off-shore oil platforms is the strategy proposed in this work to prevent problems as described above. The Internal Corrosion Monitoring Plan (ICMP, is based on lab analysis of the corrosively of fluids and residues showed periodically in off-shore operational platform; in the corrosion rate determined by the periodic use of test bodies installed inside off-shore oil platforms tubing systems, as mass loss coupons and electric resistance probes; and finally, in periodic operational data collect obtained during the off-shore oil platform systems operation. The ICMP will direct and manage the actions to be taken in case of aggravation of a corrosive process, quickly identifying to the corrosive mechanisms and its localization in the various systems of the platforms. The optimized use of the corrosion inhibitor and other chemical products are one of the main advantages of the ICMP.

  6. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  7. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two...

  8. 49 CFR 192.491 - Corrosion control records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion control records. 192.491 Section 192.491... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.491 Corrosion... detail to demonstrate the adequacy of corrosion control measures or that a corrosive condition does...

  9. Corrosion Behaviour of Titanium Anodized Film in Different Corrosive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sunil D. Kahar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is an electrochemical process in which thickness of the natural oxide layer is increased and converted it into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant film. Titanium is used as a biocompatible material in human implants due to its excellent corrosion and wears resistance. Stable, continuous, highly adherent, and protective oxide films can be developed on titanium using various acid or alkaline baths. Anodizing of titanium generates a spectrum of different color without use of dyes. This spectrum of color dependent on the thickness of the oxide, voltage ranges, interference of light reflecting off the oxide surface and reflecting off the underlying metal surface. The anodized film of Titanium is mainly consists of TiO2 or mixtures of TiO2 & Ti2O3 etc. In the present work, Pure Titanium plate has been anodized using bath of Chromic Acid at different voltage range. The anodized film is characterized by visual observation, SEM & EDAX analysis & A.C Impedance Spectroscopy, while the corrosion studies were performed using Potentiodynamic studies were performed in 3.5% NaCl & 0.1N H2SO4. The Results show that the anodized film of Titanium show different spectrum of colors from Brown-Violet-Tea or Peacock. SEM & EDAX analyses show that the anodized film of Titanium is mainly made up of TiO2 and Ti2O3. Potentiodynamic study implies that the film developed on Titanium using the bath of Chromic Acid exhibits good corrosion resistance. The A.C. Impedance study shows that the film is more compact, adherent and more uniform in chromic acid bath.

  10. A non-destructive test method to monitor corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Peterova, Adela;

    2011-01-01

    ) was conducted to describe the impact of water-to-cement ratio and corrosion current density (i.e., corrosion rate) on the reinforcement corrosion process. Focus was placed, in particular on the determination of the corrosion accommodating region (CAR) and time to corrosion-induced cracking. Experimental results...

  11. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  12. Study on restraining pickling pelts swelling used by several sulfoacid%几种磺酸抑制酸皮膨胀性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴幸; 张辉; 强西怀; 许伟; 王亚辉; 同晨博

    2016-01-01

    利用5‐磺基水杨酸、对甲基苯磺酸、牛磺酸、十二烷基磺酸、氨基磺酸、苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸分别单独用作少盐浸酸助剂.研究发现:在磺酸用量为灰皮重3%的情况下,5‐磺基水杨酸与苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸的抑制膨胀性能较为显著,膨胀度分别为3.1%和6.5%;当5‐磺基水杨酸与苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸用量为3.5%左右时,皮块膨胀均可以被完全抑制.当2%苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸与2.5%合成鞣剂复配用于浸酸,发现皮块不膨胀.与常规浸酸铬鞣相比,单纯利用3.5%苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸或2%苯胺‐2,5‐双磺酸与2.5%合成鞣剂复配进行浸酸鞣制完全免去了食盐的使用,蓝湿革断面纤维分散状态及成革力学性能变化不大.%5‐sulfosalicylic acid ,methyl benzene sulfonic acid ,taurine ,dodecyl sulfonic acid ,a‐mino sulfonic acid ,aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid were used as low‐salt pickling agent re‐spectively .Results showed that :restraining swelling performance of 5‐sulfosalicylic acid and aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid is significant on the dosage of sulfonic acid is 3% based on limed weight and the swelling degree were 3 .1% and 6 .5% ,respectively ;swelling of pickling pelts can be completely restrained on the both dosage of 5‐sulfosalicylic acid and aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid is 3 .5 .When 2% aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid was compound with 2 . 5% synthetic tanning agent used for pickling process ,the pelts was not swelling .Compared with the conventional pickle‐chrome tanning ,only 3 .5% aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid or 2% aniline‐2 ,5‐double sulfonic acid compound with 2 .5% synthetic tanning agent were used to pickling tanning process ,this process completely removes the use of salt ,fiber dispersion state of wet‐blue leather cross‐section and mechanical properties of had little changed .

  13. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  14. Electrochemical corrosion testing of metal waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Peterson, J. J.; Katyal, H. K.; Keiser, D. D.; Hilton, B. A.

    1999-12-14

    Electrochemical corrosion tests have been conducted on simulated stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) metal waste form (MWF) samples. The uniform aqueous corrosion behavior of the samples in various test solutions was measured by the polarization resistance technique. The data show that the MWF corrosion rates are very low in groundwaters representative of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Galvanic corrosion measurements were also conducted on MWF samples that were coupled to an alloy that has been proposed for the inner lining of the high-level nuclear waste container. The experiments show that the steady-state galvanic corrosion currents are small. Galvanic corrosion will, hence, not be an important mechanism of radionuclide release from the MWF alloys.

  15. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  16. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the material that failed was carbon steel and the electrolyte were saline waters, but the microorgan- isms, the environments and the corrosion...different salinities . Martin et al.42 demonstrated that Ecorr ennoblement was site specific, varying 100 mV versus SCE between locations, with higher...microbial consortium of the fungus Aspergillus niger and bacteria influenced the corrosion–inhibiting effectiveness of Crz6 leached from chromate (CrO{24

  17. Study on Prevention and Control Technique of Pickled Radish Soft Rot%泡菜萝卜软腐病防治技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉茂林; 彭化贤; 刘独臣; 雍晓平; 陈琳

    2012-01-01

    Through influencing factors screening of disease resistance, different varieties, chemistry agents, planting ways and soil disinfection ways prevention and control technique of pickle radish soft rot was put forward. The ways were disease resistance/tolerance variety of pickled radish selecton, such as Luluo 5, long-white Japanese radish, C9292; ridge culture adopton, and rotaton different types of same species and rotating different crop plant. Soft rot could be effectively reduced by this method: soil disinfect with lime 2.25 t/hm2 before sowing seeds, "kejia" 2 000 mg/kg or thiazole copper 1 500 mg/kg to sprinkle radish root at the early infection once a week for 3 times.%通过不同萝卜品种抗病性筛选,不同化学药剂、种植方式及土壤消毒方式对萝卜软腐病的影响研究,提出泡菜萝卜软腐病防治技术.结果表明,选用抗(耐)病萝卜品种如泸萝5号、日本长白萝卜、C9292,采用垄作,同种不同类型萝卜品种轮作或不同作物轮茬,播种前每公顷土壤用石灰2.25 t撒施消毒,发病初期用科佳2000 mL/L或噻唑铜1500 mL/L淋根,每隔7d淋灌一次,连续3次,可有效减轻萝卜软腐病的发生.

  18. 钢管酸洗液制作聚氯化铁的方法与应用%Study on Poly Ferric Chloride from Steel Pickling Acid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛胜

    2012-01-01

    利用钢管酸洗液制备了一种高效无机絮凝剂一聚合氯化铁,对制作工艺进行了研究并对实际效果进行了验证。研究结果表明:根据盐酸洗管废液中游离酸与铁的含量,采用铁屑等含铁原料调整铁的含量,加入聚合稳定剂与原料充分反应后,加入聚合氧化剂进行氧化聚合,最后用盐酸来调整盐基度。制备的高浓度聚合氯化铁具有比聚合硫酸铁更好的混凝除浊的能力,并便于贮存,适用于给水及污水处理。%The preparing method and effect of inorganic polymer flocculant poly - ferric chloride was explored from steel pickling acid waste. The results showed that the mass proportion of Fe^2 + could be controlled according to the free acidity and Fe^2+ in steel pickling acid waste. After addition of poly - stabilizer and raw materials with oxidants, the average basicity was adjusted by HCI. The product could be applied in treating low turbidity water, the waste water of synthetic detergent.

  19. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  20. Corrosion behavior in heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurak Rodbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform life testing and determine the effect of working fluid on the corrosion of a heat pipe with a sintered wick. The heat pipe was made from a copper tube. The inner heat pipe was filled with 99.97% pure copper powder as a dendritic for the sintering process. The heat pipe had an outer diameter of 6 mm with a length of 200 mm, and distilled water and ethanol were the working fluids. The operating temperature at the evaporator was 125°C. The analysis consisted of using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that the corrosion of the heat pipe was uniform. The result of the atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the concentration of the copper in the ethanol as the working fluid was greater than in the distilled water as the working fluid, and the highest concentration of copper particles in the ethanol was 22.7499 ppm or 0.0409 mg after testing for 3000 h. The concentration of copper was higher when the length of the life test increased due to corrosion of the heat pipe.

  1. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  2. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-03-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve the engineering ductility of these alloys. This paper describes results from the ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne National Laboratory involvesthermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion. Experiments were conducted at 650--1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. In addition, oxidation/sulfidation behavior of several alumina-forming Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloys was determined for comparison with the corrosion rates obtained on iron aluminides. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HC1-containing gases and in the presence of slag from a slogging gasifier. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales. Thermal cycling tests are used to examine the spalling resistance of the scales.

  3. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-03-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe[sub 3]Al-based alloys to improve the engineering ductility of these alloys. This paper describes results from the ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne National Laboratory involvesthermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion. Experiments were conducted at 650--1000[degrees]C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. In addition, oxidation/sulfidation behavior of several alumina-forming Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloys was determined for comparison with the corrosion rates obtained on iron aluminides. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HC1-containing gases and in the presence of slag from a slogging gasifier. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales. Thermal cycling tests are used to examine the spalling resistance of the scales.

  4. 产细菌素植物乳杆菌纯种半固态发酵对泡菜品质的影响%Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum producing bacteriocine on pickle quality in semi-solid-state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新锋; 刘书亮; 张艾青; 杜晓华

    2012-01-01

    以产细菌素植物乳杆菌纯种半固态发酵制作什锦泡菜,同时以其纯种液态发酵泡菜和传统自然发酵泡菜为对照,比较三种泡菜在发酵过程和贮藏期间感官、理化指标与微生物菌相变化规律,评价半固态发酵对泡菜品质的影响.结果表明,该菌株纯种发酵制作的泡菜感官品质优于自然发酵泡菜,细菌、酵母菌、霉菌、大肠菌群数量均显著低于自然发酵泡菜;其中,纯种半固态发酵泡菜发酵过程pH值下降最迅速、泡菜中乳酸菌活菌数量高(108cfu/g)、亚硝酸盐含量低且无明显“亚硝峰”出现;说明产细菌素植物乳杆菌纯种半固态发酵制作什锦泡菜品质优于纯种液态发酵和自然发酵泡菜.%Mixed pickles were prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum producing bacteriocine with semi-solid fermentation; meanwhile pickles prepared by pure liquid fermentation and traditional natural fermentation were set as controls. Oranoleptic indicator, physical and chemical indicator, microorganism changes were compared during fermentation and storage to evaluate the effect of semi-solid fermentation. The results showed that the oranoleptic indicator of the pickles with pure semi-solid fermentation was superior to those with natural fermentation; the numbers of total plate counts, yeasts, moulds, coliform group were significantly lower than those of natural fermentation, respectively. The pH value of the pickles prepared by semi-solid fermentation decreased quickly, the numbers of viable lactic acid bacteria in the pickles with semi-solid fermentation were 108cfu/g, and the nitrites contents were low which had no obvious nitrites peak. The results indicated that the mixed pickles prepared by L. plantarum producing bacteriocine with pure semi-solid fermentation had a high quality among three kinds of fermentation.

  5. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  6. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Suess

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, materi...

  7. Corrosive acid injury of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, T; Ratnatunga, C; Dharrmapala, A; Samarasinghe, T

    2015-03-01

    Ingestion of corrosives with accidental or suicidal intent is a common problem in Sri Lanka. Management options and outcomes of corrosive injuries on stomach are not well documented in our setting. The clinical presentation, complications and management outcomes of nine patients with corrosive injury to stomach are presented. Gastric outlet obstruction seen in majority, was managed with bypass procedure (n=5) or resection (n=4). The outcomes of management were successful with both methods.

  8. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  9. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  10. Corrosion of oil-fired domestic boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1989-05-01

    Depending on the surface temperature of the flue gas side the corrosion of oil fired domestic boilers proceeds either mainly by acid corrosion or by oxygen corrosion: (1) At surface temperatures of 60/sup 0/C and higher the corrosion mechanism of acid corrosion prevails and the corrosion rates amount to 0.1-0.3 mm/year (values referred to continuous burner operation). The corrosion products consist of soluble iron(II)- and iron(III)sulfates. Higher corrosion rates can be attributed to an appreciable catalytic formation of sulfur trioxide on the corrosion products formed on the convective heating surfaces. (2) At surface temperatures of 40/sup 0/C the mechanism of oxygen corrosion already dominates and the corrosion rates are about ten times higher (1.5-3 mm/year, referred to continuous burner operation). The high portion of iron oxide hydrates, especially goethit (/alpha/-FeOOH), makes the corrosion products difficult to remove. (3) Distinctly reduced service lives are also expected for the so called reduced temperature boilers ('Niedertemperaturkessel') and low temperature boilers ('Tieftemperaturkessel'): According to the manufacturers these boilers may be operated at boiler water temperatures well below 60/sup 0/C, as they are equipped with constructive measures to enhance the surface temperature on the flue gas side. However, these measures are only fully effective under stationary conditions. Some of the results were obtained from weight loss measurements on test specimen made from St 35.8 and gray cast iron, that were exposed to the flue gases of an fired experimental boiler. Other important results come from field measurements of the sulfuric acid content of about 30 boilers that are in practical use. (orig.).

  11. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  12. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Suess

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, materi...

  13. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  14. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  15. Accelerated corrosion testing results for specimens containing uncoated reinforcing steel and corrosion inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratova, I. L.; Montes, P.; Bremner, T. W. [New Brunswick Univ., Dept, of Civil Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Concrete mixtures (water-cement ratios of 0.25, 0.40. or 0.60) containing uncoated reinforcing bars with a simulated crack, formed transverse to the axis of the bar, and with three commercial corrosion inhibitors added for corrosion protection (organic corrosion inhibitor,calcium nitrate-based corrosion inhibitor, and migratory corrosion inhibitor), were tested for corrosion damage. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the different corrosion inhibitors in uncracked and cracked concrete slabs in a simulated marine environment. The specimens were placed in an accelerated exposure cabinet with four cycles of wetting and drying per day in simulated seawater, and corrosion rates measured using the linear polarization technique. Water-soluble chloride content in the rebars was analyzed at the end of the exposure period. The three corrosion inhibitors were found to show a wide variation in performance. There was a direct correlation between their effectiveness and addition rate. All three appeared to be more effective in reducing corrosion rate in a higher water-to-cement ratio concrete. Consistent performance was provided only by calcium nitrate at an addition rate of 25 litre/cu m of concrete, with water-to-cement ratios of 0.60 and 0.40. Pitting corrosion was observed in all pre-cracked high performance concrete specimens; the depth of the pit tended to be deeper when a corrosion inhibitor was used. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Fireside corrosion of nickel base alloys in future 700 C coal fired power plants; Rauchgasseitige Korrosion von Nickelbasislegierungen fuer zukuenftige 700 C-Dampfkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettschwager, Frank

    2011-09-27

    nickel base alloys in comparison to air oxidation, even when there is no gaseous sulphur oxide, like SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3}. This effect may be found by examining model systems, for example inert deposits like metal oxides, silicates or aluminosilicates and corrosive deposits like alkali sulphates. Kinetic investigations are carried out with a newly developed electrochemical pickling method, which allows to calculate the rates of hot corrosion underneath deposits. A material ranking is given for the alloys 263, 617 and 740, and it can be shown that under coal firing conditions lignite ash is much more corrosive than hard coal ash. Finally, thermodynamical calculations show possible reaction products formed during the combustion of various world market coals in power units. The coals' potential of corrosion attacks is evaluated qualitatively by using experimental and thermodynamical data. (orig.)

  17. New corrosion issues in gas sweetening plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G. (CLI International and Asperger Technologies, Houston, TX (United States))

    Gas treating plants are experiencing corrosion problems which impact on efficiency and safety. While general corrosion is not particularly hazardous in the gas processing industry, local corrosion is very dangerous since it has several different mechanisms, all of which have dangerously high rates, and it occurs at locations which are hard to find and hard to predict. A newly discovered, velocity-dependent type of corrosion is reported. It is related to yet-undefined species which cause excessively high corrosion in areas of turbulence. This accelerated corrosion is not due to erosion or cavitation, but to a diffusion-limited reaction accelerated by turbulence. A full-flow test loop was built to evaluate the corrosiveness of gas plant solutions at their normal temperature and flow rates. Test runs were conducted with Co[sub 2]-loaded amine solutions for periods of 12 days. Carbon steel specimens mounted in the test loop were examined and corrosion rates calculated. Chromium alloys were shown to be attacked by corrodents in the low-velocity part of the loop and very aggressively attacked in the high-velocity part. The tests demonstrate the need for rigorous monitoring of corrosion in areas of higher velocity such as piping elbows and other points of turbulence. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Fouling corrosion in aluminum heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jingxin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fouling deposits on aluminum heat exchanger reduce the heat transfer efficiency and cause corrosion to the apparatus. This study focuses on the corrosive behavior of aluminum coupons covered with a layer of artificial fouling in a humid atmosphere by their weight loss, Tafel plots, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM observations. The results reveal that chloride is one of the major elements found in the fouling which damages the passive film and initiates corrosion. The galvanic corrosion between the metal and the adjacent carbon particles accelerates the corrosive process. Furthermore, the black carbon favors the moisture uptake, and gives the dissolved oxygen greater chance to migrate through the fouling layer and form a continuous diffusive path. The corrosion rate decreasing over time is conformed to electrochemistry measurements and can be verified by Faraday’s law. The EIS results indicate that the mechanism of corrosion can be interpreted by the pitting corrosion evolution mechanism, and that pitting was observed on the coupons by SEM after corrosive exposure.

  19. Classification of corrosion risk zones using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Nikolas; Anastasiou, Constantina; Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Danezis, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the major deterioration factor of the RC infrastructures. Several factors are contributing towards increasing the corrosion risk like the exposure and environmental conditions which are a function of the geographical location of the infrastructure. Information for these conditions and their affected areas can be proved valuable at design stage and/or during maintenance planning. This study aims to relate corrosion risk of RC infrastructures with their geographical location. The corrosion risk is quantified through data from NDT methods and subsequently correlated with its location. Therefore high risk areas with structures prone to corrosion deterioration are identified. The latter is implemented via GIS tools in order to create maps that describe how corrosion risk is related to the location of each structure. Two GIS methods are suggested, the grid system and the use of classified areas. Corrosion data has been collected from labs about various constructions in Cyprus and used in conjunction with GIS tools to provide useful information on corrosion identification. The outcome is a digitized map of the Limassol area which indicates the risks levels associated with corrosion of the steel reinforcement.

  20. NOVEL CORROSION SENSOR FOR VISION 21 SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng Ban

    2004-12-01

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this proposed project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This report describes the initial results from the first-year effort of the three-year study that include laboratory development and experiment, and pilot combustor testing.

  1. Recent Corrosion Research Trends in Weld Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Woon Suk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The increasing interest in the corrosion properties of weld joints in the corrosive environment is placing stringent demands on the manufacturing techniques and performance requirements, and the manufacture employs the high quality and efficiency welding process to produce welds. Welding plays an important role in the fabrication of chemical plants, nuclear power plant, ship construction, and this has led to an increasing attention to the corrosion resistant weld joints. This paper covers recent technical trends of welding technologies for corrosion resistance properties including the COMPENDEX DB analysis of welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrications

  2. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  3. Pickles, pectin, and penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Arnold L

    2004-01-01

    My professional life has been devoted to the study of microbial products and their biosynthesis, regulation, and overproduction. These have included primary metabolites (glutamic acid, tryptophan, inosinic acid, guanylic acid, vitamin B(12), riboflavin, pantothenic acid, ethanol, and lactic acid) and secondary metabolites (penicillin, cephalosporins, streptomycin, fosfomycin, gramicidin S, rapamycin, indolmycin, microcin B17, fumagillin, mycotoxins, Monascus pigments, and tetramethylpyrazine). Other areas included microbial nutrition, strain improvement, bioconversions of statins and beta-lactams, sporulation and germination, plasmid stability, gel microdroplets, and the production of double-stranded RNA, the polymer xanthan, and enzymes (polygalacturonase, protease, cellulase). Most of the studies were carried out with me by devoted and hardworking industrial scientists for 15 years at Merck & Co. and by similarly characterized students, postdoctorals, and visiting scientists during my 32 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I owe much of my success to my mentors from academia and industry. My recent research activities with undergraduate students at the Charles A. Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti (R.I.S.E.) at Drew University have been very rewarding and are allowing me to continue my career.

  4. The effect of organic matter associated with the corrosion products on the corrosion of mild steel in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    the corrosion of mild steel and the temperature and dissolved oxygen of seawater. In contrast to this, the corrosion and mild steel was inversely related to the organic carbon and water extractable carbohydrates associated with the corrosion products of mild...

  5. NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center: Anticipating, Managing, and Preventing Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material that results from its interaction with the environment. The marine environment at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the United States. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pads were rendered even more severe by the 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that were generated by the solid rocket boosters. Numerous failures at the launch pads are caused by corrosion.The structural integrity of ground infrastructure and flight hardware is critical to the success, safety, cost, and sustainability of space missions. As a result of fifty years of experience with launch and ground operations in a natural marine environment that is highly corrosive, NASAs Corrosion Technology Laboratory at KSC is a major source of corrosion control expertise in the launch and other environments. Throughout its history, the Laboratory has evolved from what started as an atmospheric exposure facility near NASAs launch pads into a world-wide recognized capability that provides technical innovations and engineering services in all areas of corrosion for NASA and external customers.This presentation will provide a historical overview of the role of NASAs Corrosion Technology in anticipating, managing, and preventing corrosion. One important challenge in managing and preventing corrosion involves the detrimental impact on humans and the environment of what have been very effective corrosion control strategies. This challenge has motivated the development of new corrosion control technologies that are more effective and environmentally friendly. Strategies for improved corrosion protection and durability can have a huge impact on the economic sustainability of human spaceflight operations.

  6. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  7. Civil Engineering Corrosion Control. Volume 1. Corrosion Control - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    source, consisting of " artificial " anodes energized by rectified A.C. or galvanic voltage, is used. Where current leaves a metal surface, corrosion occurs...additional data. 2 Losses of weight sustained by 5.1- by 10.2- cm. (2- by 4- inc.) specimens made of open- hearth iron (0.007 percent copper) are used as a...Al(OH)3 ) that forms, tending to prevent further cor- rosion. This film can be artificially induced by anodizing, passing electric current through

  8. High Temperature Corrosion under Laboratory Conditions Simulating Biomass-Firing: A Comprehensive Characterization of Corrosion Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    characterization of the corrosion products. The corrosion products consisted of three layers: i) the outermost layer consisting of a mixed layer of K2SO4 and FexOy on a partly molten layer of the initial deposit, ii) the middle layer consists of spinel (FeCr2O4) and Fe2O3, and iii) the innermost layer is a sponge......-like Ni3S2 containing layer. At the corrosion front, Cl-rich protrusions were observed. Results indicate that selective corrosion of Fe and Cr by Cl, active oxidation and sulphidation attack of Ni are possible corrosion mechanisms....

  9. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed...... a colorimetric tin ion indicator applied as a gel. The examples provided in this paper include visualization of corrosion caused by weak organic acids found in solder fluxes, corrosion profiling on the PCBAs after climatic device level testing, and failure analysis of field returns....

  10. Screening of soil corrosivity by field testing: Results and design of an electrochemical soil corrosion probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars vendelbo; Bruun, Niels Kåre

    1996-01-01

    The corrosivity of different types of soil have been assessed by exposing carbon-steel plates at 50 different locations in Denmark for an extended period of time. The investigations included weight loss measurements and analysis of the chemical compositions of the corrosion products formed...... on the plates during exposure. An electrochemical soil corrosion probe has been designed and manufactured allowing for simultaneous measurements of several qauntities to predict corrosion. The probe consists of individual sections capable of measuring redox-potential, corrosion potential, soil resistivity...

  11. High Temperature Corrosion under Laboratory Conditions Simulating Biomass-Firing: A Comprehensive Characterization of Corrosion Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    characterization of the corrosion products. The corrosion products consisted of three layers: i) the outermost layer consisting of a mixed layer of K2SO4 and FexOy on a partly molten layer of the initial deposit, ii) the middle layer consists of spinel (FeCr2O4) and Fe2O3, and iii) the innermost layer is a sponge......-like Ni3S2 containing layer. At the corrosion front, Cl-rich protrusions were observed. Results indicate that selective corrosion of Fe and Cr by Cl, active oxidation and sulphidation attack of Ni are possible corrosion mechanisms....

  12. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng Ban; Bharat Soni

    2007-03-31

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall goal of this project is to develop a technology for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. This objective is achieved by the laboratory development of sensors and instrumentation, testing them in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. This project successfully developed two types of sensors and measurement systems, and successful tested them in a muffle furnace in the laboratory. The capacitance sensor had a high fabrication cost and might be more appropriate in other applications. The low-cost resistance sensor was tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. The results show that the fireside corrosion measurement system can be used to determine the corrosion rate at waterwall and superheater locations. Electron microscope analysis of the corroded sensor surface provided detailed picture of the corrosion process.

  13. Test of Different Flavors Blending for the Pickled Tea Food%不同风味泡制型酸茶产品调配方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 张文杰; 黄友谊

    2016-01-01

    With fermented pickled tea as raw material for deep processing, five pickled tea food with different flavors, namely original, sweet spice powder, pungent and lobster sauce, were produced preliminary, which created a new way of developing and utilizing fresh summer and autumn tea leaves and, enriched the category of deep processed tea products.%以发酵成熟的泡制型酸茶为原料进行深加工,初步开发出了原味、甜味、五香味、酱香味、辣味5种不同风味的腌制类茶食品,为夏秋茶树鲜叶的开发利用提供新途径,同时丰富了茶叶深加工产品的种类。

  14. The Influence of Functional Ol igosaccharide and Active Peptide on Nitrite Content in Fermented Pickles%功能性低聚糖、活性肽对泡菜发酵亚硝酸盐含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍玲玲; 郑琳

    2014-01-01

    以白菜、萝卜、甘蓝为原料,研究自然发酵过程中分别添加半乳甘露聚糖和酪蛋白磷酸肽对泡菜中亚硝酸盐含量的影响。结果表明:半乳甘露聚糖和酪蛋白磷酸肽对亚硝酸盐有清除作用,降低了亚硝酸盐对泡菜制品的安全性威胁。%Take Chinese cabbage,radish and cabbage as materials,study the effects of adding GMOS and CPP on nitrite content in fermented pickles during natural fermentation process.The results show that GMOS and CPP have scavenging effects on nitrite,and they could reduce the security threats of nitrite content to fermented pickles products.

  15. Impact of the Ferric Ion and Ferrous Ion Changes on Industrial Boilers Acid Pickling%铁离子、亚铁离子变化对工业锅炉酸洗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the source of ferric ion in industrial boiler acid pickling, and proposes to strengthen the chemical monitoring of ferric ion and ferrous ion(Fe3+、Fe2+)by examples, to ensure the safety of acid pickling of boiler and the judgment of end.%介绍工业锅炉酸洗中铁离子的来源,并以实例说明酸洗中应强化对铁离子、亚铁离子(Fe3+、Fe2+)的化学监测,使锅炉酸洗安全进行,及终点的判断。

  16. 马钢酸洗线活套的控制原理与应用%The Control Principle and Application of Loop in the Continuous Pickling Line of MaSteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霄

    2015-01-01

    The basic structure and control principle of loop in the continuous pickling line of MaSteel was introduced. Loop control was discussed in detail and a method to treat loop tension fluctuation was put forward combining with the actual field condition. This pro-cess control system was successfully applied in the pickling line of MaSteel.%主要介绍马钢连续酸洗生产线活套的基本结构与控制原理。重点对活套控制进行了详细的阐述,并结合现场实际情况给出了处理活套张力波动的一种方法,此过程控制系统已在马钢酸洗生产线取得了成功的应用。

  17. Research of texture of artificial inoculation and natural fermentation of pickled cowpea%人工接种与自然发酵泡豇豆的质地研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪; 车振明; 陈坤; 朱胜华

    2012-01-01

    比较人工接种和自然发酵泡豇豆质地,采用TA-XT2i质构分析仪对泡豇豆的质地进行测定,优选出测试泡豇豆质地的参数。应用最优参数对人工接种与自然发酵泡豇豆的硬度、弹性、粘聚性、胶着性、咀嚼度、回复性等质地进行测定。并结合感官评定根据测出的数据和相关曲线进行纵向、横向的对比分析。实验结果袁明,泡豇豆质地测定较优参数:测试速率为2.0mm/s、力的大小为5.0g和压缩量为30%。泡豇豆各个质地指标呈显著相关,感官评价与质地数据变化趋势基本一致,人工接种比自然发酵泡豇豆的质地变化快,成熟周期缩短,保持了与自然接种泡豇豆一致的风味.该研究为泡菜质地的变化提供一定的科学数据。%The texture of pickled cowpea between artificial inoculation and natural fermentation was compared and measured by using TA-XT2i Texture Analyzer,and optimized the test-parameters of the quality of a material of pickled cowpea. Then measured texture of the artificial inoculation and the natural fermentation of pickled cowpea from hardness,springiness,sohesiveness,gumminess, chewiness, resilience etc. According to the measured data and related regression model for longitudinal and transverse comparative analysis,combined with comprehensive analysis of sensory evaluation of pickled cowpea. The results showed that the more optimized test-parameters of pickled cowpea were:at a rate of 2.0mm/s,the force was 5.0g and compression value was 30%. The textures of pickled cowpea had significant correlation,basically sensual evaluation and texture data had same trend. The artificial inoculation changed faster and shorter than natural fermentation pickled cowpea at fermentation period,meanwhile maintained the consistent flavor with the natural pickled cowpea,this study provided some scientific data for the changes textures of kimchi.

  18. Corrosion of RoHS-Compliant Surface Finishes in Corrosive Mixed Flowing Gas Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, K.; Reid, M.; Collins, M. N.; Dalton, E.; Xu, C.; Wright, B.; Demirkan, K.; Opila, R. L.; Reents, W. D.; Franey, J. P.; Fleming, D. A.; Punch, J.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, the corrosion resistance of printed wiring board (PWB) finishes has generated considerable interest due to field failures observed in various parts of the world. This study investigates the corrosion issues associated with the different lead-free PWB surface finishes. Corrosion products on various PWB surface finishes generated in mixed flowing gas (MFG) environments were studied, and analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray, x-ray diffraction, focused ion beam, and scanning Auger microscopy were used to quantify the corrosion layer thickness and determine the composition of corrosion products. The corrosion on organic solderability preservative samples shows similar corrosion products to bare copper and is mainly due to direct attack of copper traces by corrosive gases. The corrosion on electroless nickel immersion gold occurs primarily through the porosity in the film and is accelerated by the galvanic potential between gold and copper; similar results were observed on immersion silver. Immersion tin shows excellent corrosion resistance due to its inherent corrosion resistance in the MFG environment as well as the opposite galvanic potential between tin and copper compared with gold or silver and copper.

  19. Effect of Flow Velocity on Corrosion Rate and Corrosion Protection Current of Marine Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Jong [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In spite of highly advanced paint coating techniques, corrosion damage of marine metal and alloys increase more and more due to inherent micro-cracks and porosities in coatings formed during the coating process. Furthermore, flowing seawater conditions promote the breakdown of the protective oxide of the materials introducing more oxygen into marine environments, leading to the acceleration of corrosion. Various corrosion protection methods are available to prevent steel from marine corrosion. Cathodic protection is one of the useful corrosion protection methods by which the potential of the corroded metal is intentionally lowered to an immune state having the advantage of providing additional protection barriers to steel exposed to aqueous corrosion or soil corrosion, in addition to the coating. In the present investigation, the effect of flow velocity was examined for the determination of the optimum corrosion protection current density in cathodic protection as well as the corrosion rate of the steel. It is demonstrated from the result that the material corrosion under dynamic flowing conditions seems more prone to corrosion than under static conditions.

  20. Corrosion Products and Formation Mechanism During Initial Stage of Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kui; DONG Chao-fang; LI Xiao-gang; WANG Fu-ming

    2008-01-01

    The formation and development of corrosion products on carbon steel surface during the initial stage of atmospheric corrosion in a laboratory simulated environment have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and Raman spectroscopy.The results showed that two different shapes of corrosion products,that is,ring and chain,were formed in the initial stage of corrosion.MnS clusters were found in the nuclei of corrosion products at the active local corrosion sites.The ring-shaped products were composed of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and maghemite(γ-Fe2 O3) transformed from lepidocrocite.The chain-type products were goethite (α-FeOOH).A formation mechanism of the corrosion products is proposed.

  1. Corrosion Mechanism of Corrosion-Resistant Steel Developed for Bottom Plate of Cargo Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feilong SUN; Xiaogang LI; Fan ZHANG; Xuequn CHENG; Cheng ZHOU; Nianchun WU; Yuqun YIN

    2013-01-01

    A new type of corrosion-resistant steel consisting of ferrite and bainite phases was developed for cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers.The corrosion rate of this new steel was 0.22 mm/a,which was equivalent to ca.1/5 of the criterion (≤ 1 mm/a) for corrosion-resistant steels.The composition and element distribution of the corrosion products were investigated by micro-Raman spectrometry and energy dispersive spectrometer.The results demonstrated that the corrosion product was composed of α-FeOOH,Fe3O4 and a continuous Cu enrichment layer.This kind of corrosion product was protective to the steel matrix and accounted for the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the new developed steel.

  2. Field corrosion characterization of soil corrosion of X70 pipeline steel in a red clay soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengrong Wang; Cuiwei Dun; Xiaogang Li; Zhiyong Liunn; Min Zhu; Dawei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of X70 pipeline steel buried in red soil environment has been studied. The surface morphology and elemental distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion kinetics was evaluated by weight loss measurement. The results show that in red soil, the corrosion rate of X70 steel decreases with time, and follows the exponential decay law. General corrosion with non-uniform and localized pitting occurred on the steel surface.α-FeOOH was the dominate products during corrosion in whole buried periods, and the corrosion products exhibited well protective properties. The potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that icorr decreased with time, indicating the improvement of corrosion resistance. The results of Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) are consistent with potentiodynamic polarization tests.

  3. Field corrosion characterization of soil corrosion of X70 pipeline steel in a red clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrong Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of X70 pipeline steel buried in red soil environment has been studied. The surface morphology and elemental distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM,energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The corrosion kinetics was evaluated by weight loss measurement. The results show that in red soil, the corrosion rate of X70 steel decreases with time, and follows the exponential decay law. General corrosion with non-uniform and localized pitting occurred on the steel surface. α-FeOOH was the dominate products during corrosion in whole buried periods, and the corrosion products exhibited well protective properties. The potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that icorr decreased with time, indicating the improvement of corrosion resistance. The results of Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS are consistent with potentiodynamic polarization tests.

  4. Effects of alternating magnetic field on the corrosion rate and corrosion products of copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; ZHANG Peng; JIN Yongping; CHENG Shukang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of alternating magnetic field on the corrosion morphologies, corrosion rate, and corrosion products of copper in 3.5% NaCl solution, sea water, and magnetized sea water were investigated using electrochemical test, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis system of X-ray (SEM/EDAX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the corrosion rate of copper in magnetized sea water is minimal. Moreover, the surface of the specimen in magnetized sea water is uniform and compact as compared with those in 3.5% NaCl solution and sea water. The corrosion products of copper in magnetized sea water are mainly Cu2O and CuCl2. However, the corrosion products in sea water are CuCl, Cu2Cl(OH)3, and FeCl3·6H2O. The electrochemical corrosion mechanisms of copper in the three media were also discussed.

  5. Corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    Present study relates to the corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304 L, 316 L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the corrosivity of effluents. The corrosivity of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl- content while the addition of SO4- tends to inhibit corrosion. Mill effluent was found to be more corrosive as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. Corrosion performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents.

  6. Research of the Quality and Sterilizing Effect of the Pickles by Ultrahigh Pressure Treatment%超高压处理泡菜的品质及杀菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文连奎; 路鑫; 管文荻; 董昕

    2014-01-01

    以甘蓝为原料加工泡菜。在单因素试验的基础上,选取超高压的压力、保压时间、食盐含量3个变量,进行Box-Behnken响应面设计,从而对泡菜的感官品质及杀菌效果进行优化。结果表明超高压处理泡菜的最佳工艺参数为压力350 MPa、保压时间15 min、食盐含量3.5%,泡菜的综合评分达到5.993。在保证泡菜品质的前提下,可有效杀死微生物,且大肠菌群检测均为阴性。%This experiment processed the pickles with cabbages as raw materials. Process variables such as pressure、pressure-holding time、salinity were optimized using response surface methodology on the basis of one-factor-at-a-time experiments, thus sensory quality and Sterilization process of pickles were optimized as well. The results indicated that the optimum technological parameters were pressure of 350 MPa、pressure-holding time of 15 min and salinity of 3.5 %. Under these conditions, synthetic mark of pickled vegetables by using the ultrahigh pressure was 5.993. Under the premise of ensuring quality of pickled vegetables, the ultrahigh pressure can effectively kill microorganisms,In the experiment Coliform-group bacteria detection were totally negative.

  7. 接种乳酸菌对发酵萝卜品质及亚硝酸盐含量的影响%Effects of Different Lactobacillus Strains Inoculation on Nitrite Content and Sensory Quality of Pickled Radish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 王英; 刘小莉; 周剑忠; 董明盛

    2015-01-01

    Three different lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum SD-7, Lactobacillus plantarum 9sh, and Lac-tobacillus casei L3 were singly or mixedly inoculated into the pickled radish .The hardness , sensory quality , nitrite content , and pH-value of the pickled radish in the fermentation process were analyzed .The results showed that lactobacillus inoculation could ef-fectively reduce the content of nitrite in the pickled radish , and shorten the fermentation period .Among various lactobacillus inocu-lation treatments, the mixed SD-7 +L3 (1∶1) inoculation had the best fermentation effects , and the prepared pickled radish pos-sessed the lowest nitrite content , the best sensory quality , and better hardness .%单一或混合接种植物乳杆菌SD-7(Lactobacillus plantarum SD-7)、植物乳杆菌9sh(Lactobacillus plantarum 9sh)和干酪乳杆菌L3(Lactobacillus casei L3)来发酵萝卜,对发酵过程中萝卜泡菜的硬度、感官品质、亚硝酸盐含量及pH值进行了分析。结果表明:接种乳酸菌发酵萝卜能明显降低萝卜中亚硝酸盐的含量,缩短发酵周期,其中混合接种SD-7+L3(1∶1)发酵萝卜所得泡菜的亚硝酸盐含量最低,感官品质最佳,硬度较好。

  8. Review of studies on corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong-chang; ZHANG jin; HUANG Wei-jiu; W. DIETZEL; K. U. KAINER; C. BLAWERT; KE Wei

    2006-01-01

    This review provided some recent progress of the research on corrosion mechanisms of magnesium and its alloys and a basis for follow-on research. Galvanic corrosion,pitting corrosion,intergranular corrosion (IGC),filiform corrosion,crevice corrosion,stress corrosion cracking (SCC),and corrosion fatigue (CF) were discussed. The influence of metallurgical factors such as alloying elements,microstructure and secondary phases,processing factors such as heat treatment and weld,and environmental factors including temperature,relative humidity,solution pH values and concentration on corrosion were discussed. In particular,a mechanism of pitting corrosion caused by AlMn particles was proposed. The corrosion properties of AZ91D weld material were investigated.

  9. Inhibitor treatment program for chlorine dioxide corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, J.G.; Holder, E.P.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a method of inhibiting corrosion by chlorine dioxide in oil field waterflood systems by adding a sufficient amount of a corrosion inhibiting composition. It comprises a phosphonate, a copolymer consisting of repeating units of acrylic acid/allyl hydroxy propyl sulfonate ether, and a permangante.

  10. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  11. Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Corrosion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    biology of Amorphoteca resinae . Materials und Organismen, 6, (3), p. 161, (1971). 8. D. Cabral. Corrosion by microorganisms of jet aircraft integral fuel...the mycelium of the fungus Hormoconis resinae in the MIC of Al alloys. Proc. XI Int. Corrosion Congress, Houston, USA, 5B, p. 3773, (1993). 14. M

  12. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  13. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degre

  14. Biobased polymers for corrosion protection of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticorrosive biobased polymers were developed in our lab. We isolated an exopolysaccharide produced by a microbe that, when coated on metal substrates, exhibited unique corrosion inhibition. Corrosion is a worldwide problem and impacts the economy, jeopardizes human health and safety, and impedes t...

  15. Erosion–corrosion and corrosion properties of DLC coated low temperature Erosion–corrosion and corrosion properties of DLC coated low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Christiansen, Thomas; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    of AISI 316 as substrate for DLC coatings are investigated. Corrosion and erosion–corrosion measurements were carried out on low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 and on low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 with a top layer of DLC. The combination of DLC and low temperature...

  16. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  17. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, D.J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced pr

  18. Dissolution properties of cerium dibutylphosphate corrosion inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soestbergen, M. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibitor cerium dibutylphosphate, Ce(dbp)3, prevents corrosion by cerium and dbp deposition at the alkaline cathode and acidic anode respectively. The pH dependent Ce(dbp)3 solubility seems to play an essential role in the inhibition degree. We found that Ce(dbp) 3 scarcely dissolves

  19. EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM AS CORROSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Aluminum and aluminum alloys lend themselves to many engineering ... Table 1: Elemental composition of the alloy Al-Si-Mg. Element. Si. Mg. Cu. Zn. Al. Composition (wt. ..... microstructure of the control Al- Si- Mg alloy with the lowest C.R in the ... silicate as a corrosion inhibitor for iron and zinc,. Corrosion ...

  20. Vibrational Spectroscopy in Studies of Atmospheric Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Hosseinpour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy has been successfully used for decades in studies of the atmospheric corrosion processes, mainly to identify the nature of corrosion products but also to quantify their amounts. In this review article, a summary of the main achievements is presented with focus on how the techniques infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy can be used in the field. Several different studies have been discussed where these instruments have been used to assess both the nature of corrosion products as well as the properties of corrosion inhibitors. Some of these techniques offer the valuable possibility to perform in-situ measurements in real time on ongoing corrosion processes, which allows the kinetics of formation of corrosion products to be studied, and also minimizes the risk of changing the surface properties which may occur during ex-situ experiments. Since corrosion processes often occur heterogeneously over a surface, it is of great importance to obtain a deeper knowledge about atmospheric corrosion phenomena on the nano scale, and this review also discusses novel vibrational microscopy techniques allowing spectra to be acquired with a spatial resolution of 20 nm.

  1. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  2. Solutions of corrosion Problems in advanced Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The ferritic steels suffered from corrosion mainly via material loss. The austenitic steels suffered from predominantly selective corrosion resulting in chromium depletion from the alloy. A clear trend was observed that selective...

  3. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  4. Remote computer monitors corrosion protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, A.

    Effective corrosion protection with electrochemical methods requires some method of routine monitoring that provides reliable data that is free of human error. A test installation of a remote computer control monitoring system for electrochemical corrosion protection is described. The unit can handle up to six channel inputs. Each channel comprises 3 analog signals and 1 digital. The operation of the system is discussed.

  5. Vibrational Spectroscopy in Studies of Atmospheric Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Saman; Johnson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy has been successfully used for decades in studies of the atmospheric corrosion processes, mainly to identify the nature of corrosion products but also to quantify their amounts. In this review article, a summary of the main achievements is presented with focus on how the techniques infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy can be used in the field. Several different studies have been discussed where these instruments have been used to assess both the nature of corrosion products as well as the properties of corrosion inhibitors. Some of these techniques offer the valuable possibility to perform in-situ measurements in real time on ongoing corrosion processes, which allows the kinetics of formation of corrosion products to be studied, and also minimizes the risk of changing the surface properties which may occur during ex-situ experiments. Since corrosion processes often occur heterogeneously over a surface, it is of great importance to obtain a deeper knowledge about atmospheric corrosion phenomena on the nano scale, and this review also discusses novel vibrational microscopy techniques allowing spectra to be acquired with a spatial resolution of 20 nm. PMID:28772781

  6. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, D.J.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced

  7. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion...

  8. Electrochemical corrosion measurements on noble electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1998-01-01

    Novel electrodeposits are compared with hard chrome and electroless Ni-P with respect to production, corrosion resistance and hardness.......Novel electrodeposits are compared with hard chrome and electroless Ni-P with respect to production, corrosion resistance and hardness....

  9. The Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Nickel Based Alloy Weld Overlay and Coextruded Claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Andrew

    The use of low NOx boilers in coal fired power plants has resulted in sulfidizing corrosive conditions within the boilers and a reduction in the service lifetime of the waterwall tubes. As a solution to this problem, Ni-based weld overlays are used to provide the necessary corrosion resistance however; they are susceptible to corrosion fatigue. There are several metallurgical factors which give rise to corrosion fatigue that are associated with the localized melting and solidification of the weld overlay process. Coextruded coatings offer the potential for improved corrosion fatigue resistance since coextrusion is a solid state coating process. The corrosion and corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy 622 weld overlays and coextruded claddings was investigated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator retrofitted with a retort. The experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 600°C using a simulated combustion gas of N2-10%CO-5%CO2-0.12%H 2S. An alternating stress profile was used with a minimum tensile stress of 0 MPa and a maximum tensile stress of 300 MPa (ten minute fatigue cycles). The results have demonstrated that the Gleeble can be used to successfully simulate the known corrosion fatigue cracking mechanism of Ni-based weld overlays in service. Multilayer corrosion scales developed on each of the claddings that consisted of inner and outer corrosion layers. The scales formed by the outward diffusion of cations and the inward diffusion of sulfur and oxygen anions. The corrosion fatigue behavior was influenced by the surface finish and the crack interactions. The initiation of a large number of corrosion fatigue cracks was not necessarily detrimental to the corrosion fatigue resistance. Finally, the as-received coextruded cladding exhibited the best corrosion fatigue resistance.

  10. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon

    2003-06-24

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met.

  11. Steam generator corrosion 2007; Dampferzeugerkorrosion 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Between 8th and 9th November, 2007, SAXONIA Standortentwicklungs- und -verwertungsgesellschaft GmbH (Freiberg, Federal Republic of Germany) performed the 3rd Freiberger discussion conference ''Fireside boiler corrosion''. The topics of the lectures are: (a) Steam generator corrosion - an infinite history (Franz W. Alvert); (b) CFD computations for thermal waste treatment plants - a contribution for the damage recognition and remedy (Klaus Goerner, Thomas Klasen); (c) Experiences with the use of corrosion probes (Siegfried R. Horn, Ferdinand Haider, Barbara Waldmann, Ragnar Warnecke); (d) Use of additives for the limitation of the high temperature chlorine corrosion as an option apart from other measures to the corrosion protection (Wolfgang Spiegel); (e) Current research results and aims of research with respect to chlorine corrosion (Ragnar Warnecke); (f) Systematics of the corrosion phenomena - notes for the enterprise and corrosion protection (Thomas Herzog, Wolfgang Spiegel, Werner Schmidl); (g) Corrosion protection by cladding in steam generators of waste incinerators (Joerg Metschke); (h) Corrosion protection and wear protection by means of thermal spraying in steam generators (Dietmar Bendix); (i) Review of thick film nickelized components as an effective protection against high-temperature corrosion (Johann-Wilhelm Ansey); (j) Fireproof materials for waste incinerators - characteristics and profile of requirement (Johannes Imle); (k) Service life-relevant aspects of fireproof linings in the thermal recycling of waste (Till Osthoevener and Wolfgang Kollenberg); (l) Alternatives to the fireproof material in the heating space (Heino Sinn); (m) Cladding: Inconal 625 contra 686 - Fundamentals / applications in boiler construction and plant construction (Wolfgang Hoffmeister); (n) Thin films as efficient corrosion barriers - thermal spray coating in waste incinerators and biomass firing (Ruediger W. Schuelein, Steffen Hoehne, Friedrich

  12. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  13. Study on the Production of Cucumber Pickle Fermented with DVS Lactic Acid Bacteria%直投式乳酸菌发酵黄瓜泡菜工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏举; 孙月娥; 马莉; 郑义

    2014-01-01

    The processing technology of cucumber pickle fermented with DVS lactic acid bacteria is investigated through single factor test and the orthogonal test.The results show that the optimum fermentation parameters of artificial fermented pickles are:1‰ DVS lactic acid bacteria,4% sucrose, 8% NaCl,4% ginger,4% garlic,0.3% CaCl2 ,the fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,and the fermentation period of 5 days.Under the optimal fermentation conditions,the cucumber pickle is with normal color,gentle aroma,crisp and delicate taste.%采用单因素实验和正交试验设计对直投式乳酸菌制剂生产黄瓜泡菜的加工工艺进行研究。结果表明:人工发酵生产泡菜的最佳工艺参数为直投式乳酸菌制剂添加量1‰、蔗糖4%、食盐8%、姜4%、蒜4%、氯化钙0.3%、最适发酵温度30℃、发酵周期5天。在此条件下制备的泡菜色泽正常、香气柔和、口感清脆、滋味可口。

  14. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculated on sensory quality and nitrite concentration of pickles%人工接种乳酸菌对泡菜感官品质和亚硝酸盐含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚; 池金颖; 黄丹丹; 赵山山; 张秋香; 陈卫

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同的乳酸菌菌种、添加比例、添加量和加糖量对泡菜pH和亚硝酸盐含量的动态变化。通过单因素研究和优化实验,确定了乳酸菌菌种、添加比例、添加总量和加糖量。结果表明,植物乳杆菌和干酪乳杆菌混合发酵泡菜,添加比例为2∶1时,泡菜的发酵时间明显缩短,泡菜的色、香、味较好,亚硝酸盐含量显著降低。%The study aimed to analyze the change of pH and nitrite concentration during the fermentation of pickles with different strains,proportion and amount of Lactobacillus and different amount of sugar.Through single factor and optimal experiments,type,proportion and amount of strains was determined.The results showed that the proportion of L.plantarum and L.casei was 2∶1,the fermentation cycle of pickles was shortened,pickle had better sensory state,nitrite concentration was obviously degraded.

  15. 菊芋对四川泡菜储藏期间品质变化影响的研究%Study on the Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke on the Quality Changes in the Natural Fermentation of Pickle during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莉

    2012-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke was rich in amino acid, sugar and vitamin, and used for curing pickles or pickled made. Merchant artichoke, Chinese cabbage, radish as raw materials in the salt concentration was 6% , under natural fer-mentation conditions, the comparison experiment of pickle contend Jerusalem artichoke and without was carried out. The results showed that adding the Jerusalem artichoke had little effects on the pH value and total acidity, but increased the ni-trite and ammonia nitrogen content significantly.%菊芋富含氨基酸、糖分和维生素,多用来腌制咸菜或制成泡菜。以市售菊芋、白菜、萝b为原料在食盐浓度为6%、自然发酵条件下的含菊芋的泡菜和不含菊芋的泡菜进行比较实验,实验结果表明:添加菊芋对泡菜pH值、总酸度影响不大,明显增加了亚硝酸盐和氨态氮含量。

  16. Stifling of Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, K G; Gordon, G M; Rebak, R B

    2005-06-08

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  17. STIFLING OF CREVICE CORROSION IN ALLOY 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; G.M. Gordon; R.B. Rebak

    2005-07-01

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential, crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  18. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  19. Corrosion of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sen; R Balasubramaniam; A V Ramesh Kumar

    2000-10-01

    The corrosion behaviour of two carbon-alloyed intermetallics of composition Fe–28.1Al–2.1C and Fe–27.5Al–3.7C has been studied and compared with that of binary intermetallics. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicated that the intermetallics exhibited active–passive behaviour in an acidic solution of pH = 1, whereas they exhibited stable passivity in a buffer solution of pH 8.4. Corrosion rates were also obtained by immersion testing. The variation of corrosion rate as a function of time was similar for both the intermetallics. The variation in corrosion rate as a function of time has been explained based on the observed potentiodynamic polarization behaviour. Scanning electron microscopy of corroded surfaces indicated that the carbon-alloyed intermetallics were susceptible to galvanic corrosion, due to the presence of carbides.

  20. Laser-controllable coatings for corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Skirtach, Andre G; Sviridov, Dmitry V; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2009-07-28

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach to the corrosion protection by use of "smart" laser-controllable coating. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that one could terminate the corrosion process by very intensive healing after an appearance of corrosion centers using local laser irradiation. It is also shown that by applying a polyelectrolyte shell with noble metal particles over the mesoporous titania and silica via layer-by-layer assembly it is possible to fabricate micro- and nanoscaled reservoirs, which, being incorporated into the zirconia-organosilica matrix, are responsible for the ability of laser-driven release of the loaded materials (e.g., corrosion inhibitor). Furthermore, the resultant films are highly adhesive and could be easily deposited onto different metallic substrates. Laser-mediated remote release of incorporated corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole) from engineered mesoporous containers with silver nanoparticles in the container shell is observed in real time on single and multicontainer levels.

  1. Modeling of Corrosion-induced Concrete Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie A.; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper a finite element model is introduced to simulate corrosion-induced damage in concrete. The model takes into account the penetration of corrosion products into the concrete as well as non-uniform formation of corrosion products around the reinforcement. To ac-count for the non......-uniform formation of corrosion products at the concrete/reinforcement interface, a deterministic approach is used. The model gives good estimates of both deformations in the con-crete/reinforcement interface and crack width when compared to experimental data. Further, it is shown that non-uniform deposition...... of corrosion products affects both the time-to cover cracking and the crack width at the concrete surface....

  2. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate.

  3. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Payer, J H

    2006-01-10

    Alloy 22 (N06022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nanometers per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  4. Complete corrosion inhibition through graphene defect passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Hofmann, Mario; Chang, Kai-Wen; Jhu, Jian Gang; Li, Yuan-Yao; Chen, Kuang Yao; Yang, Chang Chung; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2014-01-28

    Graphene is expected to enable superior corrosion protection due to its impermeability and chemical inertness. Previous reports, however, demonstrate limited corrosion inhibition and even corrosion enhancement of graphene on metal surfaces. To enable the reliable and complete passivation, the origin of the low inhibition efficiency of graphene was investigated. Combining electrochemical and morphological characterization techniques, nanometer-sized structural defects in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene were found to be the cause for the limited passivation effect. Extremely fast mass transport on the order of meters per second both across and parallel to graphene layers results in an inhibition efficiency of only ∼50% for Cu covered with up to three graphene layers. Through selective passivation of the defects by atomic layer deposition (ALD) an enhanced corrosion protection of more than 99% was achieved, which compares favorably with commercial corrosion protection methods.

  5. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  6. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak; J.H. Payer

    2006-01-20

    Alloy 22 (NO6022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nano-meters per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  7. Numerical Study of Corrosion Crack Opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2008-01-01

    for the corrosion crack opening. Experiments and theoretical analysis by a numerical method, FEM, support that the relation between the reduction of the reinforcement bar diameter due to corrosion and the corresponding increase in crack width for a given time interval, measured on the surface of a concrete specimen...... is proportional. More recently, the constant of proportionality, the so-called crack-corrosion index, has been studied further with respect to its dependence on the diameter of the reinforcement and the concrete cover. In the present paper the above-mentioned work is presented and extended with more realistic 3D......-models of the cracked concrete beam. The crack-corrosion index is evaluated for a variation of different parameters, i.e. bar diameter, concrete cover, crack length and type of corrosion product. This paper is an extended version of a paper by Thoft-Christensen et al. (2005) presented at the IFIP WG 7.5 Conference...

  8. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3-2 and NO-3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10-4 M 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration.

  9. Studies on the flavor substances of pickled Brassicajuncea, Coss. ( Ⅰ )%雪里蕻腌菜风味物质的研究(Ⅰ)雪里蕻腌菜氨基酸及有机酸成分检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 丁霄霖

    2000-01-01

    The determination and analysis of organic acid and mnino acid components in two kinds of pickled Brassia juncea, Coss. was described. The results showed that the mainorganic acids in pickle brine was lactic, acetic, citric, succinic and malic acid. The total content of amino acids in pickle brine was about 1%. It was observed that the strong tasty amino acids Asp and Glu changed significantly during pickling. The longer was pickling time, the higher was the content of total Asp and Glu. The correlation coefficient with model composition of amino acids in two kinds of pickles showed that the proteins in pickled Brassica juncea, Coss. were healthful for consumers.%借助于离子色谱(IC)和氨基酸分析仪对两种市场销售的成雪菜中的有机酸和氨基酸成分进行了检测。检测结果为,成雪菜卤汁中的有机酸主要为乳酸、醋酸、柠檬酸、丁二酸和苹果酸。咸雪菜卤汁中的氨基酸含量高达1%左右,卤汁和菜体中呈鲜味的主要氨基酸Glu和Asp的总含量随着腌渍时间的延长,增加的幅度很大。咸雪菜中的蛋白质是一种符合人体需要的良好蛋白质。

  10. Microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Chen, C Y; Wei, C B; Lin, Y T

    1996-11-01

    Several microbes were isolated from the contaminated fuel-oil in Taiwan and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy A356-T6 was tested by MIL-STD-810E test method. Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and Cladosporium resinac ATCC 22712 had significant adsorption and pitting on the surface of aluminum alloy, Pseudomonas acruginosa AM-B5 had weak adsorption and some precipitation in the bottom, and Candida sp. AM-Y1 had the less adsorption and few cavities formation on the surface. pH of the aqueous phase decreased 0.3 to 0.7 unit for 4 months of incubation. The corrosion of aluminum alloy was very significant in the cultures of Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and C. resinac ATCC 22712. The major metabolites in the aqueous phase with the inoculation of C. resinac were citric acid and oxalic acid, while succinic acid and fumaric acid were the minors.

  11. Migrating corrosion inhibitor blend for reinforced concrete: Part 1 -- Prevention of corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, B.; Buechler, M.; Stalder, F.; Boehni, H.

    1999-12-01

    The efficiency of a migrating corrosion inhibitor in preventing corrosion of mild steel was investigated in saturated calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]{sub 2}) solutions and in mortar. The protective effect of the inhibitor against pitting corrosion caused by chloride attack and against uniform corrosion as a result of carbonation was determined. Results showed that high concentrations ({approx}10%) allowed the inhibition of pitting corrosion tritiation in solution containing 1 M/L sodium chloride (NaCl). However, inhibiting properties can be lost by evaporation of the volatile constituent of the inhibitor or by the precipitation of the nonvolatile fraction of the inhibitor in presence of calcium ions. Addition of the inhibitor blend to mortar yielded a retardation of the corrosion initiation in the case of chloride-induced corrosion, but o significant reduction in corrosion rate. No effect was found in carbonated samples, and no influence on the corrosion rate was detected. Additionally, the estimation of the extent of the retarding effect on corrosion initiation on real structures was difficult, as the inhibitor was found to evaporate from the mortar. This evaporation resulted in a loss of inhibiting properties. Hence, the long-term efficiency of the inhibitor could not be guaranteed.

  12. Produtividade de pepino para processamento no Vale do São Francisco Productivity of pickling cucumber in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as cultivares mais produtivas de pepino para processamento, instalaram-se dois experimentos de maio a agosto de 1997, em Petrolina, PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 18 tratamentos e três repetições. A parcela foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m de comprimento, com espaçamento de 1,0x0,30 m. Os frutos comerciais foram classificados na categoria conserva com 6 a 12 cm, e categoria cornichon, com 4,0 a 5,5 cm de comprimento. Na categoria conserva, as cultivares Eureka (34,54 t/ha e Francipak (33,72 t/ha destacaram-se em termos de produtividade. As cultivares Pioneiro, Vlaspik e Wisconsin SMR 18 apresentaram os menores desempenhos (21,43 a 23,45 t/ha. Verificou-se uma variação de 30,74 a 37,79 g/fruto e 9,01 a 14,81 frutos/planta. Na categoria cornichon, destacaram-se as cultivares Vlasset e Supremo, seguidas de Vlasstar e Prêmio, com produtividades acima de 10,0 t/ha. O pior desempenho foi da cultivar Wisconsin SMR 18, cuja produção de frutos foi 5,61 t/ha. Foram obtidas variações de 6,09 a 7,27 g/fruto e 11,48 a 24,15 frutos/planta.With the objective of indicating pickling cucumber cultivars of high productivity, two field experiments were carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from May to August of 1997. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 18 treatments and three replications. Experimental plots consisted of four rows of 3 m long, and the plants were on a 1.00x0.30 m spacing grid. The commercial fruits were classified as pickling (fruits length from 6 to 12 cm and cornichon (from 4.0 to 5.5 cm. The cultivars Eureka (34.54 t/ha and Francipak (33.72 t/ha presented the highest yield for pickling. The cultivars Pioneiro, Vlaspik and Wisconsin SMR 18 showed the lowest yield varying from 21.43 to 23.45 t/ha. There was a variation from 30.74 to 37.79 g/fruit and from 9.01 to 14.81 fruit/plant. For cornichon stood out the cultivars

  13. 提高青菜头泡菜品质初探%Initial Studies on Improving Quality of Mustard Tube Pickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡坤; 侯东军

    2011-01-01

    The multiplication of Bifidobacterium Longum in artificial inoculate pickles fermented by Lactobacillus plantamm was mainly studied in the paper. A few of growth factors were compared. The medium fermented solution formula and the best conditions were determined. The Bifidobacterium Longum number of pickle in different packages were compared finally. The results showed that: three different extraction liquid of Jerusalem artichoke, potatoes, soybean had proliferation faction to Bifidobacterium Longumr and Jerusalem artichoke was the best. 20% tomato juice and 2% extractions from Jerusalem artichoke in skim milk could accelerate to produce acid and attain higher Bifidobacterium Longum number. The best formula of fermenting liquid was 1.0% salt, 20% tomato juice, 1.0% glucose, 2.0% soybean milk and 2% Jerusalem artichoke extraction. The best mixed fermentation conditions were bacteria ratio of 2:1, pH6.8 inoculum concentration of 6% at 36 °C. Pickle had a good taste with ratio of mixed at 1:2 of Bifidobacterium Longum and lactobacillus, cultured for 18~24h and 16h individually. The vacuum-packed could be good to keep higher Bifidobacterium Longum number.%本文研究了长双歧杆菌在人工接种植物乳杆菌发酵泡菜中的增殖情况,比较了几种双歧增殖因子,确定了种子培养基、发酵液配方、最佳发酵条件及单一发酵后产品混合配比,并研究了泡菜在不同包装条件下长双歧杆菌活菌数变化情况.结果表明:菊芋、马铃薯、大豆三种抽提液均对长双歧杆菌有增殖作用,菊芋抽提液效果更好.脱脂乳+20%番茄汁+2%菊芋抽提液作为种子培养基产酸速度快,双歧杆菌活菌数高;发酵液最佳配方:1.0%食盐、20%番茄汁、1.0%葡萄糖、2.0%豆浆、2.0%菊芋抽提液;混菌发酵条件∶接种比例为2∶1、接种量为6%、发酵温度36℃、初始pH值为6.8;长双歧杆菌和植物乳杆菌分别单一培养18h~24h和16h后,按1∶2混

  14. Atmospheric Corrosivity at Australian and Overseas Airbases and Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    protective coating systems and corrosion inhibitor treatments deteriorate and become less effective. The CLIMAT environmental corrosion test has...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Atmospheric Corrosivity at Australian and Overseas Airbases and Airports J C Bitcon Maritime...Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TN-1320 ABSTRACT Atmospheric corrosivity at 25 airbases and airports in Australia

  15. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  16. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any...

  17. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2627 - Atmospheric corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atmospheric corrosion control. 193.2627 Section... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2627 Atmospheric corrosion... atmospheric corrosion by— (a) Material that has been designed and selected to resist the corrosive...

  19. Effect of different pickling salt concentration on taste, texture and volatile flavor compounds of mustard root%盐分腌制对大头菜滋味、质构和挥发性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 唐仁勇; 刘达玉; 邹强; 张坤琼; 袁婷

    2015-01-01

    为寻找适当的腌制大头菜食盐浓度,采用不同浓度食盐腌制并发酵大头菜,考察对大头菜成品的食盐含量、感官、理化、质构和挥发性物质的影响.结果发现,6%和8%低盐腌制大头菜的感官得分较高,其氨基酸态氮含量较高,pH值更低,乙醇含量也较少,芳香物质更加丰富,其中8%组的亚硝酸盐含量最低,质地感官评分最好,且TPA测试的硬度和咀嚼性较好.实验结果表明,6%~8%的食盐腌制大头菜增加乳酸菌的活力和同型发酵,提升了产品的滋味、香味和质构品质.%This study aimed to look for a proper sodium chloride concentration to pickle mustard root.The mustard root was pickled and fermented with different salt concentration.The effects on the salt concentration,sense score,chemical index,texture quality and volatile flavor compounds of pickled food were investigated.The results indicated that mustard root pickled with 6% and 8% salt concentration had better sense score,more amino acids nitrogen content,lower pH,less ethanol content,and more flavor compounds.The 8% treatment had lowest nitrite content,better texture sense score,TPA hardness and chewiness.These results suggested that using 6% ~ 8% salt concentration to pickle mustard root could not only increase lactic acid bacteria activity and homotype fermentation,but also improve taste,flavor and texture quality of the product.

  20. 非直接接触式金属热还原制备金属钛的酸洗分离%Effects of Pickling on Purification of Titanium Prepared by Metallothermic Reduction with an Indirect Contact Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海燕; 谷健; 王治卿; 沈峰满

    2012-01-01

    主要探讨酸洗条件对非直接接触式金属热还原后产物中杂质的洗除效果.研究表明,采用醋酸盐酸联合酸洗方案可去除金属热还原产物中的杂质(CaO,Ca,CaTiO3),达到提纯金属Ti的目的;Ti不与醋酸反应,但能溶于浓盐酸,故盐酸酸洗时间不能过长,否则金属Ti溶解,造成Ti损失,影响Ti收得率;酸洗过程中酸体积浓度越大,酸洗时间越长,金属Ti的纯度越高.综合考虑酸耗、酸洗效率和Ti的溶损等因素,采用体积浓度50%醋酸酸洗6 h和体积浓度20%盐酸酸洗0.5 h的联合酸洗方案效果最好.%The influences of pickling conditions on the purification effect of the titanium product from indirect-contact metallothermic reduction were investigated.The experiment results show that it is feasible to remove oxides and impurity elements from metallothermic reduction product by acid pickling for producing high-purity titanium.Titanium doesn't react with acetic acid,but dissolves in hydrochloric acid slowly,and thus the pickling time should not be too long.Otherwise the titanium loss due to dissolution will lead to decrease of its yield.With the increase of acid concentration and pickling time,the purity of metallic titanium increases.Considering the purity and the yield of titanium,the optimum pickling conditions are determined as the combination of 50% volume concentration acetic acid for 6 h and 20% volume concentration hydrochloric acid for 0.5 h.

  1. 浸酸去除SiC微粉中Fe2O3的工艺技术研究%Research on acid pickling to remove Fe2O3 from SiC micropowder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 王军

    2012-01-01

    The SiC micropowder prepared by a jet mill was used as starting material to remove Fe2O3 by acid pickling. According to condition experiment, the suitable experimental conditions are: HCI (about 35 mass%) as pickling acid,mass ratio of HCI: SiC micropowder about 4:1,pickling temperature about 70 ℃ and pickling time 4 h. Based on the above results, orthogonal tests were conducted, the final optimal technological parameters are: pickling temperature 60 ℃,mass ratio of HCI: SiC micropowder about 4:1, HCI 35 mass%. Stable experiment shows that the extraction ratio of Fe2O3 is over 80%, and the Fe2O3 removing effect is obvious.%为了去除SiC微粉制备过程中引入的含铁杂质(主要以Fe2O3的形式存在),以气流磨加工所得的SiC微粉为原料,采用浸酸法去除其中的Fe2O3.首先通过条件试验得出大致的浸出试验条件为:浸出酸选择盐酸,其HCl质量分数选择35%左右,浸出酸与微粉质量比选择4∶1左右,浸出温度选择70℃左右,浸出时间选择4h.然后通过正交试验得出用盐酸从SiC微粉中浸出Fe2O3的最佳工艺参数为:浸出温度60℃,浸出酸与微粉质量比4∶1,盐酸的w(HCl) =35%.稳定试验表明:在此工艺下的Fe2O3浸出率达80%以上,除Fe2O3效果较明显.

  2. Effect of ultra-high pressure sterilization on shelf life of chicken feet with pickled peppers%超高压灭菌对泡椒凤爪保质期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建设; 李楠; 黄训文

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ultra-high pressures on sensory quality and microorganism of chicken feet with pickled peppers was studied. The effect of treating pressure 400MPa, 500MPa and 600MPa and holding time 5 min and 10 min on sensory quality and microorganism of chicken feet with pickled peppers was analyzed. The results showed that colony count and coliform group of chicken feet with pickled pep⁃pers which were treated by ultra-high pressure treatment were obviously reduced during cold storage. The shelf life of chicken feet with pickled peppers added with preservatives or not could be prolonged to 90 days and 30 days respectively. The optimum treatment parameter was 400MPa for 5min which could prolong the shelf life of chicken feet with pickled peppers to 90 days with the addition of preservatives.%研究了超高压杀菌对泡椒凤爪感官品质和微生物的影响,分析了400MPa、500MPa、600MPa处理压力,保压时间分别为5min、10min对泡椒凤爪冷藏过程中感官品质及微生物的影响。结果表明:超高压处理显著降低冷藏过程中泡椒凤爪的菌落总数和大肠菌群,添加防腐剂可延长泡椒凤爪的货架期至90d,不添加防腐剂可延长泡椒凤爪的货架期至30d。综上本研究的最佳处理参数为:在添加防腐剂的情况下,超高压400MPa下处理5min,可延长泡椒凤爪货架期至90d。

  3. Corrosion damage evolution and residual strength of corroded aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhong Zhang; Guozhi Lv; Hui Wang; Bomei Si; Yueliang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The LY12CZ aluminum alloy specimens were eurroded under the conditions of different test temperatures and exposure durations. After corrosion exposure, fatigue tests were performed. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope analyses on corrosion damage were carried out. The definition of surface corrosion damage ratio was provided to describe the extent of surface corrosion damage. On the basis of the measured data sets of the corrosion damage ratio, the probabilistic model of corrosion damage evolution was built. The corrosion damage decreased the fatigue life by a factor of about 1.25 to 2.38 and the prediction method of residual strength of the corroded structure was presented.

  4. A Calculation Model for Corrosion Cracking in RC Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Gang; Wei Jun; Zhang Keqiang; Zhou Xiwu

    2007-01-01

    A novel calculation model is proposed aiming at the problem of concrete cover cracking induced by reinforcement corrosion. In this article, the relationship between the corrosion depth of the bar and the thickness of the rust layer is established. By deducing the radial displacement expression of concrete, the formula for corrosion depth and corrosion pressure before cracking is proposed. The crack depth of cover in accordance with the maximum corrosion pressure is deduced; furthermore, the corrosion depth and corrosion pressure at the cracking time are obtained. Finally, the theoretical model is validated by several experiments, and the calculated values agree well with the experiment results.

  5. 自然发酵酸菜汁中乳杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus Strains from Naturally Fermented Pickle Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊瑞; 李欣; 张苗; 李晓忱; 杨臣辰; 岳喜庆

    2012-01-01

    通过选择性培养和形态学观察,从分别采自辽宁省阜新、葫芦岛、兴城、营口、锦州的5份传统发酵酸菜汁中,分离纯化和筛选出4株具有耐酸特性的乳杆菌疑似菌株(HLD1-3、YK1-2、JZ6-3、XC4-4),并对其进行运动性、过氧化氢酶、石蕊牛乳、明胶液化、不同温度生长、不同NaCl质量浓度生长、糖发酵实验等传统生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA序列分析,进一步鉴定其属种。二者结果均表明:4株耐酸乳酸菌均属于乳杆菌属,其中,HLD1-3和YK1-2属于乳杆菌属的清酒乳杆菌种,而JZ6-3和XC4-4属于乳杆菌属的植物乳杆菌种。由此可以推断,东北自然发酵酸菜可作为潜在益生乳酸菌分离筛选的资源库。%Four acid-tolerant suspected Lactobacillus strains(HLD1-3,YK1-2,JZ6-3 and XC4-4) were isolated from five traditional pickle juices respectively collected from five regions of Liaoning province by selective cultivation and morphological observation.The four strains were identified based on physicochemical properties such as motility,catalase activity,litmus milk test,gelatin liquefaction test,growth under varying conditions of temperature NaCl concentration and carbohydrate fermentation tests and 16 S rDNA sequence analysis.The results indicated that all the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genus.HLD1-3 and YK1-2 strains were identified as Lactobacillus sakei,while JZ6-3 and XC4-4 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.From these results,it can be speculated that naturally fermented pickle from Northeast China is a potential source of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  6. Corrosion inhibitors for intermediate cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I.; Suhr, L.

    1985-04-01

    The selected inhibitors were tested for heat and radiation stability and corrosion protection on the bench scale. Based on the results from these tests two of the products were selected, Bycoguard 81 and Bycoguard MP4S for continuing corrosion tests in an autoclave loop at 90 degrees C and 120 degrees C. Oxygen saturated deionized water with an addition of 1 ppm chloride was recirculated in the loop. Samples of copper and carbon steel were exposed to the water in the autoclave for periods up to 10 weeks. The purpose of this project was to find a substitute for hydrazine and chromates. Besides good corrosion protection qualities the toxic and environmental effect of the inhibitors should be minimal. The investigation has shown that the copper inhibitor BTA (benzotriazole) loses its corrosion protection qualities at a water temperature of 120 degrees C. The protection effects at 90 degrees C were satisfactory for both of the materials. The corrosion rates measured were 0.01 mm/y or less for the copper and carbon steel samples. The environment in the autoclave during the testing was more corrosive than is to be found in intermediate cooling systems. Due to the low corrosion rates measured the two inhibitors are to be recommended as alternatives to hydrazine and chromates.

  7. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (∼1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d∼3 nm), and large pore volume (∼1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect.

  8. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  9. Recent Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Chigondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, reduction of corrosion has been managed by various methods including cathodic protection, process control, reduction of the metal impurity content, and application of surface treatment techniques, as well as incorporation of suitable alloys. However, the use of corrosion inhibitors has proven to be the easiest and cheapest method for corrosion protection and prevention in acidic media. These inhibitors slow down the corrosion rate and thus prevent monetary losses due to metallic corrosion on industrial vessels, equipment, or surfaces. Inorganic and organic inhibitors are toxic and costly and thus recent focus has been turned to develop environmentally benign methods for corrosion retardation. Many researchers have recently focused on corrosion prevention methods using green inhibitors for mild steel in acidic solutions to mimic industrial processes. This paper provides an overview of types of corrosion, corrosion process, and mainly recent work done on the application of natural plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel.

  10. 冬瓜生腌过程细菌种群变化及其品质相关性%Bacteria Community Changes and Its Quality Related in Raw Process of Pickled Wax Gourd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锡权; 赵永威; 吴祖芳; 翁佩芳; 卓鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    采用16S rDNA基因克隆文库的方法,对生腌冬瓜腌制体系的微生物多样性、优势种群及其相关品质变化过程进行分析.结果表明;冬瓜生腌开始时优势细菌为肠杆菌属、乳球菌属和魏斯氏茵属;早期阶段优势菌为戊糖片球菌;腌制30 d时优势茵属变成了肠杆菌属和片球菌属;在腌制中后期微生物组成基本稳定,其中片球菌属、魏斯氏茵属和枝芽孢杆菌属为优势菌属.冬瓜生腌制过程中pH值和亚硝酸盐质量分数下降,最低值分别为3.7和0.5 mg/kg,盐度稳定在7.0左右,细菌总数和乳酸茵总数由下降至最后稳定的过程,腌制中后期乳酸菌总数稳定在1.0×107 cfu/mL左右.冬瓜生腌过程检测到的乳球菌、片球菌和枝芽孢杆菌等菌属对维持腌冬瓜质量具有重要意义.%The microbial community diversity, predominant species and its related characters of the product were investigated during the fermentation process of pickled wax gourd using the 16S rDNA clone library. The results showed that in the pickling system Enterobacter, Lacto-coccus and Weissella are the predominant microbial community at earlier phase. After 15 days of fermentation, the dominant population has changed to be Pediococcus pentosaceus, on day 30 Enterobacter and Pediococcus become to be the predominant species. In the later stage of pickling, the community system is stable, and Pediococcus, Weissella and Virgibacillus are the major microbial species. At the same time, the pH value and nitrite concentration of pickled wax gourd samples had been decreasing, its minimum values reached 3. 7 and 0. 5 mg/kg, respectively. The salinity value was finally stable in 7. 0%. The total population of bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) changed from the high level to stable, the population of LAB was 1. O×07cfu/mL at the later phase of pickled. Some species including Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Virgibacillus detected in the pickled wax gourd

  11. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng Ban

    2005-12-01

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This objective is to be achieved by a laboratory development of the sensor and instrumentation, testing of the measurement system in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. The initial plan for testing at the coal-fired pilot-scale furnace was replaced by testing in a power plant, because the operation condition at the power plant is continuous and more stable. The first two-year effort was completed with the successful development sensor and measurement system, and successful testing in a muffle furnace. Because of the potential high cost in sensor fabrication, a different type of sensor was used and tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. This report summarize the experiences and results of the first two years of the three-year project, which include laboratory

  12. Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Seiichi; Sakuma, Noriyuki; Homma, Yoshio; Ohashi, Naofumi

    2000-11-01

    Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical corrosion more effectively than adding it to the slurry. On the other hand, galvanic corrosion occurs at the interface between Cu and the barrier metal, and it can be prevented by selecting appropriate barrier metals. Because the difference between the electrochemical potentials of Cu and the barrier metal is small in the slurry, refractory metals such as Ta, TaN, and TiN were found to be appropriate barrier metals. On the other hand, W, WN, and Ti have large potential differences, so galvanic corrosion was clearly observed when Cu/W damascene interconnects were fabricated.

  13. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  14. Waste of cleaning emulsion sewage as inhibitors of steel corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazullin, D. D.; Mavrin, G. V.; Shaikhiev, I. G.

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the corrosion test of steel of the brand 20 in the stratal water. To increase corrosion resistance as a corrosion inhibitor the concentrate waste emulsion of the mark "Incam- 1" was provided. The article presents studies of the corrosion rate with different dosages of corrosion inhibitor in the stratal water. Based on these research results are revealed that the degree of protection of steel is 27% at a dosage of 3.8 g / dm3.

  15. Assessment of Commercial Corrosion Inhibiting Admixtures for Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael Carey

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete exposed to chloride-laden environments is a well-known and documented phenomenon. The need for cost effective systems for protection against corrosion has become increasingly clear since the first observations of severe corrosion damage to interstate bridges in the 1960's. As one potential solution to the mounting problem of corrosion deterioration of structures, corrosion-inhibiting admixtures have been researched and introduced into service. ...

  16. A Localised Corrosion Cell for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Jansen, P.

    2003-01-01

    The LOCORR-CELL™ developed by FORCE TECHNOLOGY is an electrochemical cell for industrial applications estimating localised corrosion. The cell is constructed in a carbon steel casing for direct mounting into the system. It is based on an oxygen concentration element reflecting the interaction...... between the environment formed under a deposit or in a crevice. The essential feature of the method is that it reflects the influence of oxygen content, conductivity and temperature as well as the influence of corrosion inhibitors, MIC and other effects that have an effect on localised corrosion under...

  17. Numerical Modeling of Weld Joint Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxin; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Xu, Lianyong

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model is presented in this work that predicts the corrosion rate of weld joint. The model is able to track moving boundary of the corroding constituent of weld joint. The corrosion rates obtained from the model are compared with those estimated from mixed potential theory and two experimental techniques, namely immersion test and constant potential polarization test. The corrosion rate predicted using the model is within 10% of the estimate from the mixed potential theory, within 20% of that got from the immersion experiment and within 10% of that got from the constant potential polarization experiment for weld joint.

  18. Numerical modelling of corrosion - Theoretical backgrounds -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkus, J.; Raupach, M. [ibac, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gulikers, J. [Ministry of Transport, Rijkswaterstaat, Bouwdienst, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    During recent years research projects with different approaches have been carried out to develop models which are suitable to assess the metal removal rate in case of reinforcement corrosion. Some of them are based on empirical methods and correlate the corrosion rate to parameters like concrete resistivity, temperature and relative humidity. Another type of model is based on a quantification of the ongoing electrochemical processes. In this paper the theoretical backgrounds and mathematical descriptions of reinforcement corrosion with regard to a numerical modelling are presented and discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  20. A Localised Corrosion Cell for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Jansen, P.

    2003-01-01

    The LOCORR-CELL™ developed by FORCE TECHNOLOGY is an electrochemical cell for industrial applications estimating localised corrosion. The cell is constructed in a carbon steel casing for direct mounting into the system. It is based on an oxygen concentration element reflecting the interaction...... between the environment formed under a deposit or in a crevice. The essential feature of the method is that it reflects the influence of oxygen content, conductivity and temperature as well as the influence of corrosion inhibitors, MIC and other effects that have an effect on localised corrosion under...

  1. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.

    1997-04-01

    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  2. Corrosion Effects on the Strength Properties of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Containing Slag and Corrosion Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar Anandan; Sounthararajan Vallarasu Manoharan; Thirumurugan Sengottian

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion in steel can be detrimental in any steel rebar reinforced concrete as well as in the case of steel fibre reinforced concrete. The process of corrosion occurring in steel fibre incorporated concrete subjected to corrosive environment was systematically evaluated in this study. Concrete specimens were prepared with steel fibre inclusions at 1.5% Vf (volume fraction) of concrete and were added in slag based concrete (containing manufactured sand) and replaced with cement at 20%, 40%, ...

  3. Stainless steel pickling using ecologies friendly mixtures composed of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} - H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - F{sup -} ions; Decapado de un acero inoxidable austenitico mediante mezclas ecologicas basadas en H{sub 2}O{sub 2} - H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - iones F{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, L.; Miranda, J. M.; Ronquillo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study reports the pickling of 316L stainless steel using mixtures of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and fluoride ions as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and potassium fluoride (KF). The decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the mixtures was assessed at different temperatures 25 degree centigrade to 60 degree centigrade, with ferric ion contents from 0 to 40 g/l. According to the results obtained, were established the optimal condition pickling at 20 g/l of ferric ions, 25 degree centigrade and p-toluen sulphonic acid as stabilizer of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The HF pickling mixture was the only capable to remove totally the oxide layer from the 316L stainless steel after 300 s. The fluoride salts pickling mixtures only remove partially the oxide layer (20 to 40 % aprox.) after 300 s. When the pickling time was increased until 1200 s, the removal percentages were around to 80 %. (Author)

  4. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh [Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Tru, Nguyen Nhi [Vietnam Institute for Tropical Technology and Environmental Protection, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Yoshino, Tsujino [Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan); Yasuki, Maeda [Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time.

  5. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of steel wires in a coalmine with a corrosive medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Songquan; Zhang Dekun; Wang Dagang; Zhang Zefeng

    2011-01-01

    A 6 × 19 point-contact hoisting cable was used as our research object to examine the progress of corrosion of steel wires in a laboratory, simulating the actual working conditions in a coalmine. An electrochemical method was used to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel wires with different surface treatments of a corrosive acid solution. The results show that anode activation of steel wire mainly occurs during pre-corrosion, where the anode activation process of bare steel wires is the fastest as is their corresponding corrosion speed, while the anode activation process of oil coated steel wires and their corresponding corrosion speed are the lowest. During the intermediate and late immersion periods,a passive film is generated on the surface of steel wires, which are gradually damaged with the passage of time. Local pitting corrosion occurs easily on the surface of steel wires with a high-polarization potential.Suitable equivalent circuits were chosen to fit the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of steel wires over various corrosive times and different surface treatments, which indicate good fitting results.The double electrical layer charge-transfer resistance increases in the sequence: bare steel wire,untreated steel wire and oil coated steel wire and their corrosion resistance decreases in turn, which is consistent with their polarization curves. The oil layer provides a certain protective effect on untreated steel wires, but its effect is not entirely clear.

  6. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinpei; Kageyama, Minami; Shirota, Keiko; Shirota, Koji; Amano, Hisashi; Kashimoto, Tadahiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    Six fragrant ingredients were identified in fully-ripened Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Four of them were sulfur-containing compounds [methylthioacetic acid ethyl ester (MTAE), acetic acid 2-methylthio ethyl ester (AMTE), 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester (MTPE), and acetic acid 3-methylthio propyl ester (AMTP)]; and the others were benzyl acetate and eugenol. The newly identified MTAE and AMTP possessed antimutagenic activity as determined by their ability to inhibit the UV-induced mutation in repair-proficient E. coli B/r WP2. MTAE and MTPE (esters with thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol) induced the differentiation of human colon cancer cells (RCM-1 cells), but AMTE and AMTP (esters with carbonic acid and thioalkyl alcohol) did not. A specific thioester motif containing a thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol correlated with these compounds ability to induce differentiation. AMTE, MTPE, AMTP, and eugenol had higher oxygen radical absorbing capacity than the antioxidative vitamin, ascorbic acid. The quantity of MTPE, AMTP and eugenol increased 49-fold, >1175-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in the fully-ripened fruit as compared to the mid-ripened fruit.

  7. Separation of a Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Strain from Pickles%泡菜中产细菌素的乳酸茵分离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杨; 项松涛; 杨宇清; 郑一敏; 王琳琳; 胥秀英; 曾品涛; 李杰

    2012-01-01

    实验从泡菜中分离出一株有抑制革兰氏阳性细菌、革兰氏阴性细菌作用的菌株,经鉴定为乳酸菌中的肠膜明串殊菌,该抗菌物质对蛋白水解酶敏感,耐热并在较宽的pH值范围内保持活性。在排除是有机酸和过氧化氢后,初步认为该菌产生的抗菌物质为抗菌肽,即细菌素。%A lactic acid bacteria strain was isolated from traditional food pickles. It was identified to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The strain was found to produce an extracellular antimicrobial substance that was peptide in nature (bacteriocin) and effective against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteri- a. The antimicrobial peptide was assayed as non-organic acid and non-hydrogen peroxide and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and active over a wide range of pH.

  8. Investigation of the effect of additives on the basis of pickling solutions containing iron salts on the structure and strength of fine concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukuttsova Natal’ya Petrovna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern tendencies of construction industry development are connected with the use of new high-efficient materials with the application of resource- and energy-saving technologies of their generation. The use of industrial man-made products as the components improving the characteristics of construction products is now a promising field of research. The article presents the results of the use of waste pickling solutions of steel rolling factories, containing salts of iron as nanomodified additives for the products based on cement binder. The effectiveness of the influence of the considered additives on the structure and strength of fine-grained concrete is shown. If using this additive in the amount of 0.32 % from the mass of cement for 28 days of natural hardening, the fine concrete strength is growing by 1.8 times due to additional formation of hydrosilicates, densification of structure and reduction of the total porosity of the cement system by 2 times.

  9. STUDY ON FRESH AND COLOUR PRESERVATION FOR PICKLED LEAF MUSTARD%植酸对腌芥菜的护色保鲜研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉生

    2001-01-01

    本文探讨了在不同条件下,异抗坏血酸、植酸保鲜液及其混合液的抗褐变和防霉能力。实验结果表明,异抗坏血酸在空气中几乎没有抑霉效果,真空状态下虽有较好的抑霉作用,但未能阻止腌芥菜明显褐变,而0.2%的植酸保鲜液在有氧或无氧的情况下,均表现出比较理想的抗褐变和防霉特性.%The inhibiting effects of isoascorbic acid solution,phytic acid solution and their mixture on oxidative browning and mould for pickled leaf mustard in different conditions were investigated in this paper.Results show that in vacuum condition 2% isoascorbic solution could inhibit the growth of mould,but the oxidative browning was accelerated and in the presence of air it has no inhibitory effect on mould.However,phytic acid in both cases suggested the results for antioxidant and mould inhibitor.

  10. CORROSION INHIBITION BY CASHEW NUT SHELL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is the primary step in the action of organic corrosion inhibitors (Trabanelli. 1989). ... polarized. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements .... solutions and UV/VIS to determine the adsorption of the CNSL inhibitor on.

  11. Fighting against corrosion; Kampf dem Substanzverlust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-03-09

    Corrosion protection is not a new problem for the offshore industry, but requirements are particularly high in the wind power industry. There are hardly any international standards that could provide orientation.

  12. Fatigue - corrosion of endoprosthesis titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, A; Muster, D; Jaeger, J H

    1979-01-01

    Commercial total hip prostheses often show certain metallurgical faults (porosities, coarse grains, growth dendrites, carbide networks). In order to investigate more accurately the role played by these different parameters in prostheses failure we performed a large number of systematic corrosion, fatigue and fatigue - corrosion tests on these materials and on commercial total hip prostheses. Ultimate strengthes seem to be reached for cast cobalt alloys, whereas titanium alloys, such as Ta 6 V, present very high fatigue limit under corrosion. Thus, rotative bending fatigue - corrosion tests in biological environment provide values about 50 DaN/mm2. This value, is nevertheless appreciably higher than those obtained with stellites and stainless steel. Titanium alloys, because of their mechanical performances, their weak Young's modulus (11000 DaN/mm2) and their relative lightness (4.5. g/cm3), which are associated with a good biocompatibility, seem very promising for permanent implants realisation.

  13. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R.J.

    1984-01-10

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  14. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  15. Localized Corrosion of Chromium Coated Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beentjes, P.; Mol, A.; Terryn, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the studies of the local corrosion behaviour of chromium-coated ultra low carbon steel in NaCl solution using polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and SVET.

  16. Amplified OTDR systems for multipoint corrosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jehan F; Silva, Marcionilo J; Coêlho, Isnaldo J S; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F

    2012-01-01

    We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations.

  17. Amplified OTDR Systems for Multipoint Corrosion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim F. Martins-Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations.

  18. Electrochemical Corrosion of Carbon—Containing Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZhao-you

    1994-01-01

    The electrochemical examination on the cor-rosion of carbon or carbon containing refractiories at molten slag-liquid interface has been carried out.The electromotive force(E.M.F)of cells with different molten slags:C|molten slag | Fe at elevated temperatures has been measured by means of potentiometer and it is in the range from 250 to 450mV .It is found that the carbon electrode in these cells is anode and whn a counter E.M.F.is applied externally to the cel,the corrosion of carbon electrode will be sup-pressed entirely.Test results show that the local corrosion of carbon containing refractories at slag-metal interface is mainly caused by the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion.

  19. Controlling Corrosion in Defence Equipment - Technical Meeting,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    corrosion of Ni/Al bronze in neutral solution, (2) the inhibited corrosion of mild steel in sulphuric acid, (3) comparison and ranking of a number of... electropolish : alkaline clean: pumice scrub: anodic etch: chromium plate. It must be remembered that mild steel is not being used, but a low alloy steel ...Wolsley shows no such damage. After all they are both made - from similar steels and both have been exposed to the two essential ingredients required

  20. Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith...dominate the metal’s cathodic behavior. Within an alkaline environment, we expect the following reduction reactions to be catalyzed on the oxide