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Sample records for corrosion fatigue strength

  1. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plate...

  2. Corrosion Fatigue of High-Strength Titanium Alloys Under Different Stress Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragetti, Sergio; Villa, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    Ti-6Al-4V is the most widely used high strength-to-mass ratio titanium alloy for advanced engineering components. Its adoption in the aerospace, maritime, automotive, and biomedical sectors is encouraged when highly stressed components with severe fatigue loading are designed. The extents of its applications expose the alloy to several aggressive environments, which can compromise its brilliant mechanical characteristics, leading to potentially catastrophic failures. Ti-6Al-4V stress-corrosion cracking and corrosion-fatigue sensitivity has been known since the material testing for pressurized tanks for Apollo missions, although detailed investigations on the effects of harsh environment in terms of maximum stress reduction have been not carried out until recent times. In the current work, recent experimental results from the authors' research group are presented, quantifying the effects of aggressive environments on Ti-6Al-4V under fatigue loading in terms of maximum stress reduction. R = 0.1 axial fatigue results in laboratory air, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, and CH3OH methanol solution at different concentrations are obtained for mild notched specimens ( K t = 1.18) at 2e5 cycles. R = 0.1 tests are also conducted in laboratory air, inert environment, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution for smooth, mild and sharp notched specimens, with K t ranging from 1 to 18.65, highlighting the environmental effects for the different load conditions induced by the specimen geometry.

  3. Variable amplitude corrosion fatigue and fracture mechanics of weldable high strength jack-up steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etube, Linus Sone

    The tubular welded joints used in the construction of Offshore structures can experience millions of variable amplitude wave induced stress cycles during their operational life. Fatigue has been identified as the main cause of degradation of structural integrity in these structures. As a result, fatigue is an important consideration in their design. Jack-up legs are made from a range of high strength steels with yield strengths up to TOOMPa. These steels are thought to exhibit fatigue resistance properties which are different when compared with conventional fixed platform steels such as BS 4360 50D and BS 7191 355D. The difference in their behaviour was heightened by the discovery, in the late 80s and early 90s, of extensive cracking around the spud can regions of several Jack-ups operating in the North Sea. It was thought that these steels may be more susceptible to hydrogen cracking and embrittlement. There was the additional requirement to study their behaviour under realistic loading conditions typical of the North Sea environment. This thesis contains results of an investigation undertaken to assess the performance of a typical high strength weldable Jack-up steel under realistic loading and environmental conditions. Details of the methodology employed to develop a typical Jack-up Offshore Standard load History (JOSH) are presented. The factors which influence fatigue resistance of structural steels used in the construction of Jack-up structures are highlighted. The methods used to model the relevant factors for inclusion in JOSH are presented with particular emphasis on loading and structural response interaction. Results and details of experimental variable amplitude corrosion fatigue (VACF) tests conducted using JOSH are reported and discussed with respect to crack growth mechanisms in high strength weldable Jack-up steels. Different fracture mechanics models for VACF crack growth prediction are compared and an improved generalised methodology for fast

  4. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  5. Corrosion Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    the applied protection systems, (2) crevices for moisture entrapment, (3) galvanic couples when steel or titanium fasteners are used, and (4) fatigue...Activ Material Structure Exposed Normal Environment* Unexposed Atmosphere Aluminum alloys Steel 1.25 2.0 4.0 Titanium " Magnesium " (4.0) (8.0) (10.0...APPRNDIX - Chromic Acid Anodizing The surface treatment consists in the following process : D egreasing with trichlorethylene vapor, * Pickling , Composition

  6. Variable amplitude corrosion fatigue and fracture mechanics of weldable high strength jack-up steels

    OpenAIRE

    Etube, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    The tubular welded joints used in the construction of Offshore structures can experience millions of variable amplitude wave induced stress cycles during their operational life. Fatigue has been identified as the main cause of degradation of structural integrity in these structures. As a result, fatigue is an important consideration in their design. Jack-up legs are made from a range of high strength steels with yield strengths up to 70OMPa. These steels are thought to exhib...

  7. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Fatigue - corrosion of endoprosthesis titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, A; Muster, D; Jaeger, J H

    1979-01-01

    Commercial total hip prostheses often show certain metallurgical faults (porosities, coarse grains, growth dendrites, carbide networks). In order to investigate more accurately the role played by these different parameters in prostheses failure we performed a large number of systematic corrosion, fatigue and fatigue - corrosion tests on these materials and on commercial total hip prostheses. Ultimate strengthes seem to be reached for cast cobalt alloys, whereas titanium alloys, such as Ta 6 V, present very high fatigue limit under corrosion. Thus, rotative bending fatigue - corrosion tests in biological environment provide values about 50 DaN/mm2. This value, is nevertheless appreciably higher than those obtained with stellites and stainless steel. Titanium alloys, because of their mechanical performances, their weak Young's modulus (11000 DaN/mm2) and their relative lightness (4.5. g/cm3), which are associated with a good biocompatibility, seem very promising for permanent implants realisation.

  9. Fatigue and Corrosion in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Milella, Pietro Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This textbook, suitable for students, researchers and engineers, gathers the experience of more than 20 years of teaching fracture mechanics, fatigue and corrosion to professional engineers and running experimental tests and verifications to solve practical problems in engineering applications. As such, it is a comprehensive blend of fundamental knowledge and technical tools to address the issues of fatigue and corrosion. The book initiates with a systematic description of fatigue from a phenomenological point of view, since the early signs of submicroscopic damage in few surface grains and continues describing, step by step, how these precursors develop to become mechanically small cracks and, eventually, macrocracks whose growth is governed by fracture mechanics. But fracture mechanics is also introduced to analyze stress corrosion and corrosion assisted fatigue in a rather advanced fashion. The author dedicates a particular attention to corrosion starting with an electrochemical treatment that mechanical e...

  10. Application of the method of thermo-power in diagnosing fatigue strength and intergrain corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominjuk T.I

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In area of flat defect, predefined a gradient tireless - corrosive tensions, a double electric layer, conditioned the spatial redistribution of electronic closeness, is formed. It shows up a local rejection mikro-thermo-power at use of heating edge of tungsten thermocouple. Test approbation of method is conducted on the deformed chromel.

  11. Benefits of thread rolling process to the stress corrosion cracking and fatigue resistance of high strength fasteners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, A.R.; Hayden, S.Z.

    1993-05-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of cut (machined) vice thread rolled Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625 fasteners in a simulated high temperature primary water environment has been evaluated. SCC testing at 360 and 338C included 157 small and 40 large 60{degree} Vee thread studs. Thread rolled fasteners had improved resistance relative to cut fasteners. Tests of fatigue resistance in air at room temperature and both air and primary water at 315C were conducted on smaller studs with both cut and rolled threads. Results showed rolled threads can have significantly improved fatigue lives over those of cut threads in both air and primary water. Fasteners produced by two different thread rolling methods, in-feed (radial) and through-feed (axial), revealed similar SCC initiation test results. Testing of thread rolled fasteners revealed no significant SCC or fatigue growth of rolling induced thread crest laps typical of the thread rolling process. While fatigue resistance differed between the two rolled thread supplier`s studs, neither of the suppliers studs showed SCC initiation at exposure times beyond that of cut threads with SCC. In contrast to rolling at room temperature, warm rolled (427C) threads showed no improvement over cut threads in terms of fatigue resistance. The observed improved SCC and fatigue performance of rolled threads is postulated to be due to interactive factors, including beneficial residual stresses in critically stressed thread root region, reduction of plastic strains during loading and formation of favorable microstructure.

  12. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík KUNZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behaviour of Atmofix 52 steel (comparable to COR-TENâ steel exposed to atmospheric corrosion for 20 years was investigated. S-N curves for load symmetrical cycling and cycling with stress ratio R = 0 were determined on specimens detracted from a failed transmission tower. The data were compared with those on material without a rust layer. The fracture surfaces and, in particular, the sites of fatigue crack initiation were analyzed. Substantial decrease of fatigue life and fatigue limit due to corrosion exposition was found. Based on observation of surface layer with corrosion products and on fractographic analysis of failed specimens conclusions on fatigue damage mechanism were drawn. No grain boundary corrosion, which can be responsible for fatigue crack initiation, was observed. Initiation of fatigue cracks was related to surface roughness and took place exclusively on corrosion dimples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1335

  13. Strain Measurement Technology for Corrosion Fatigue Specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wei-hua; NING; Guang-sheng; ZHANG; Chang-yi; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Main pipeline is the key component of nuclear power plants(NPPs).Under the first loop water and low-cyclic load condition,the main pipeline may be induced to corrosion fatigue failure.Thus,it’s necessary to test and get the corrosion fatigue property of main pipeline material.During the corrosion fatigue test,the strain

  14. Corrosion damage evolution and residual strength of corroded aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhong Zhang; Guozhi Lv; Hui Wang; Bomei Si; Yueliang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The LY12CZ aluminum alloy specimens were eurroded under the conditions of different test temperatures and exposure durations. After corrosion exposure, fatigue tests were performed. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope analyses on corrosion damage were carried out. The definition of surface corrosion damage ratio was provided to describe the extent of surface corrosion damage. On the basis of the measured data sets of the corrosion damage ratio, the probabilistic model of corrosion damage evolution was built. The corrosion damage decreased the fatigue life by a factor of about 1.25 to 2.38 and the prediction method of residual strength of the corroded structure was presented.

  15. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  16. Corrosion fatigue of Inconel 718 and Incoloy 903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, D. B.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue tests were conducted on Inconel 718 and Incoloy 903 in distilled water, 500 ppm NaCl, and 3.5% NaCl. Results were compared to the endurance limit in air. For Inconel 718, the corrosion fatigue strength (CFS) IN 3.5% NaCl WAS 328 MPa or 75 percent of the endurance limit. For Incoloy 903, the CFS ranged from 234 MPa in distilled water (68 percent of the endurance limit) to 103 MPa in 3.5% NaCl (30 percent of the endurance limit). Results indicate that, for components which have limited fatigue life, an evaluation of the combined effects of fatigue and the corrosive atmosphere must be considered in projecting useful lifetimes.

  17. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL,

    Science.gov (United States)

    coldhardened by deforming to 83%. It was found that it has low static notch sensitivity (lower than that of heat-treated steels), that static strength ...is raised appreciably by increased cold plastic deformation, and that its fatigue strength is raised substantially by mechanical polishing. (Author)

  18. The Corrosion Fatigue Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shuanfa; ZHENG Mulian; LIAO Weidong; WANG Binggang

    2005-01-01

    With the loading test equipment of corrosion fatigue specially designed, the corrosion fatigue characteristics of high performance concrete (HPC) withstanding the interaction of third point fatigue loading and Na2SO4 solution were investigated and analyzed. The experimental results indicate that water-binder ratio evidently influences the corrosion fatigue characteristics of HPC, and a moderate quantitative fine mineral admixture enhances the corrosion fatigue resistance of HPC. The effect is more significant when fly ash and silica fume are added.

  19. Fatigue Properties of Galvanized Higher-Strength Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buršák, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the fatigues properties of galvanized microalloyed steel sheets H220LAD and H380LAD. Under flat bending conditions and the symmetrical cycle, the fatigue limit of the H220LAD sheet is σCo = ± 152 MPa and that of the H380LAD sheet is σCo = ±188 MPa, and the fatigue limit to tensile strength ratio is 0,41 and 0,37, respectively. During fatigue tests with an increasing number of cycles or an increasing stress value, the degradation of the zinc coating increases (relief formation, damage of integrity. As a result, local corrosion, but also continuation of fatigue damage after 107 cycles, and hence corrosion fatigue, can take place during operation.

  20. Non-local high cycle fatigue criterion for metallic materials with corrosion defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Mohamed El

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing structures against corrosion fatigue has become a key problem for many engineering structures evolving in complex environmental conditions of humidity (aeronautics, civil engineering …. In this study, we investigate the effect of corrosion defects on the high cycle fatigue (HCF strength of a martensitic stainless steel with high specific mechanical strength, used in aeronautic applications. A volumetric approach based on Crossland equivalent stress is proposed. This can be applied to any real defects.

  1. Review on Stress Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Failure of Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiao; CHEN Songying; QU Yanpeng; LI Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion failure, especially stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, is the main cause of centrifugal compressor impeller failure. And it is concealed and destructive. This paper summarizes the main theories of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue and its latest developments, and it also points out that existing stress corrosion cracking theories can be reduced to the anodic dissolution (AD), the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), and the combined AD and HIC mechanisms. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of corrosion fatigue in the crack propagation stage are similar to stress corrosion cracking. The effects of stress ratio, loading frequency, and corrosive medium on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate are analyzed and summarized. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in corrosive environments, which contain sulfide, chlorides, and carbonate, are analyzed. The working environments of the centrifugal compressor impeller show the behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in different corrosive environments. The current research methods for centrifugal compressor impeller corrosion failure are analyzed. Physical analysis, numerical simulation, and the fluid-structure interaction method play an increasingly important role in the research on impeller deformation and stress distribution caused by the joint action of aerodynamic load and centrifugal load.

  2. Frequency dependence of fatigue and corrosion fatigue crack growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvasti, Mohammad Hassan; Chen, Weixing [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kania, Richard; Worthingham, Robert [TransCanada Pipelines Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Boven, Gregory [Spectra Energy Transmission Limited, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    It was in the mid-1980s that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was first found in near-neutral pH conditions on the TransCanada pipeline system. Since then, there have been many reports of pipeline cracking in Canada in these conditions. The huge quantity of pipelines in Canada and the number of failures have brought great interest in investigation of this cracking. A study was conducted on one X52 pipeline steel. It used compact tension specimens for corrosion fatigue and fatigue tests in air. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) crack growth in near-neutral pH conditions can be explained by a factor, which reflects the combined action of the mechanical driving force and the hydrogen effects; 2) mechanical dormancy can be common when oil and gas pipelines are in operation; 3) hydrogen is a determining factor of crack growth when pipeline steels are exposed to near-neutral pH conditions.

  3. Corrosion-Fatigue Cracking in Al 7075 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6355--14-9582 Corrosion -Fatigue Cracking in Al 7075 Alloys December 9, 2014 P.S. Pao...PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Corrosion -Fatigue Cracking in Al...Memorandum Report Corrosion -fatigue Aluminum alloys Environmental effect October 2011 – September 2014 63-2634-A4 Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified

  4. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of...

  5. The Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Nickel Based Alloy Weld Overlay and Coextruded Claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Andrew

    The use of low NOx boilers in coal fired power plants has resulted in sulfidizing corrosive conditions within the boilers and a reduction in the service lifetime of the waterwall tubes. As a solution to this problem, Ni-based weld overlays are used to provide the necessary corrosion resistance however; they are susceptible to corrosion fatigue. There are several metallurgical factors which give rise to corrosion fatigue that are associated with the localized melting and solidification of the weld overlay process. Coextruded coatings offer the potential for improved corrosion fatigue resistance since coextrusion is a solid state coating process. The corrosion and corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy 622 weld overlays and coextruded claddings was investigated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator retrofitted with a retort. The experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 600°C using a simulated combustion gas of N2-10%CO-5%CO2-0.12%H 2S. An alternating stress profile was used with a minimum tensile stress of 0 MPa and a maximum tensile stress of 300 MPa (ten minute fatigue cycles). The results have demonstrated that the Gleeble can be used to successfully simulate the known corrosion fatigue cracking mechanism of Ni-based weld overlays in service. Multilayer corrosion scales developed on each of the claddings that consisted of inner and outer corrosion layers. The scales formed by the outward diffusion of cations and the inward diffusion of sulfur and oxygen anions. The corrosion fatigue behavior was influenced by the surface finish and the crack interactions. The initiation of a large number of corrosion fatigue cracks was not necessarily detrimental to the corrosion fatigue resistance. Finally, the as-received coextruded cladding exhibited the best corrosion fatigue resistance.

  6. Nitrocarburizing for wear, corrosion, and fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, G. [Durferrit GmbH Thermotechnik, Hanau (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Demands for higher strength and corrosion resistance at higher temperatures cannot always be met by advanced materials and designs alone. In many cases, surface engineering can provide required properties and extend service life. A thermochemical surface engineering treatment has been developed that improves the dynamic strength of parts and overcomes many corrosion and wear problems. Known as Melonite, the process was developed by Durferrite GmbH Thermotechnik, and is used to enhance the surface properties of steel and iron parts. The quench, quench-polish, and quench-polish-quench salt bath nitrocarburizing system can provide surface layers with a range of beneficial properties. This article will discuss details of the Melonite process, component properties after treatment, the effects of raising or lowering treatment temperatures, and environmental impact.

  7. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue with Different Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT NOTCHED HOLE IN 7075-T6 UNDER BIAXIAL AND UNIAXIAL FATIGUE WITH DIFFERENT PHASES... CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT NOTCHED HOLE IN 7075-T6 UNDER BIAXIAL AND UNIAXIAL FATIGUE WITH DIFFERENT PHASES THESIS...UNLIMITED AFIT-ENY-MS-15-S-065 CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT NOTCHED HOLE IN 7075-T6 UNDER BIAXIAL AND UNIAXIAL FATIGUE WITH

  8. Corrosion Protection Systems and Fatigue Corrosion in Offshore Wind Structures: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth J. Price

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over reducing CO2 emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels in combination with an increase in worldwide energy demands is leading to increased development of renewable energies such as wind. The installation of offshore wind power structures (OWS is one of the most promising approaches for the production of renewable energy. However, corrosion and fatigue damage in marine and offshore environments are major causes of primary steel strength degradation in OWS. Corrosion can reduce the thickness of structural components which may lead towards fatigue crack initiation and buckling. These failure mechanisms affect tower service life and may result in catastrophic structural failure. Additionally, environmental pollution stemming from corrosion’s by-products is possible. As a result, large financial investments are made yearly for both the prevention and recovery of these drawbacks. The corrosion rate of an OWS is dependent on different characteristics of attack which are influenced by access to oxygen and humidity. Structural degradation can occur due to chemical attack, abrasive action of waves, and microorganism attacks. Inspired by technological and scientific advances in recent years, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the current protective coating system technologies used to protect OWS as well as future perspectives.

  9. 当量加速腐蚀条件下7 B04-T6高强度铝合金疲劳裂纹扩展规律研究%The fatigue crack growth rule of 7B04-T6 high strength aluminum alloy under equivalently accelerated corrosion environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓明; 王海东; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    Based on an accelerated corrosion testing spectrum complicated for the servicing field environment, the equivalently accelerated corrosion testing of high strength aluminum alloy 7B04-T6 specimens for critical structure were carried out. Corrosion damage under the field environment was successfully simulated and reappeared, and corrosion damage evolvement rule was obtained. By prior⁃corrosion fatigue testing and fractography quantitative analysis, the fatigue crack length (a) and fatigue cycles (N) were gotten, and relationship between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and stress intensify factors rang (ΔK) was analyzed. Moreover the effect of different corrosion damage on fatigue crack growth behavior was quantitatively characterized. The result shows that there is obvious short crack growth behavior during early corrosion stage, the fatigue crack growth rate increases when the corrosion damage is more serious, and the fatigue performance is greatly degraded.%基于编制的机场环境加速试验谱,针对关键结构高强度铝合金件进行当量腐蚀试验,在实验室条件下成功地模拟和再现了服役环境条件的腐蚀损伤,借助复型法观测得到了腐蚀损伤的演化规律;通过预腐蚀疲劳试验和疲劳断口扫描电镜定量分析,得到了裂纹长度a与循环次数N数据集,分析了裂纹扩展速率da/dN与应力强度因子幅值ΔK的对应关系,定量表征了不同程度腐蚀损伤对疲劳裂纹扩展行为的影响规律。结果表明,在腐蚀初期,疲劳裂纹扩展过程中有经典的小裂纹扩展阶段;随着腐蚀损伤的加重,小裂纹行为不明显;腐蚀损伤越严重,疲劳裂纹扩展速率越快,结构抗疲劳性能显著退化。

  10. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  11. Fatigue behaviour of high strength AA 7012 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Russo, E.; Ragazzini, R.; Buratti, M.; Ferrarin, C. (Aluminia-ISML, Novara (Italy) Caproni Vizzola costruzioni aeronautiche, Somma Lombarda (Italy))

    1990-02-01

    The alloy 7012 (Al, 6.2% Zn, 2% Mg, 1% Cn, 0.13% Mn, 0.14% Zn, 0.04% Ti) belongs to the 7XXX family of high mechanical resistance alloys containing Zr as the principal additive. Produced in the form of extrusions, sheets and forgings, the alloy finds application in the defense, transportation and power industry fields. This paper presents the results of experimental fatigue tests (10/sup 7/ cycles) on 7020 in the T6 and T73 temper conditions and draws comparisons with corresponding test results on 7075 and 2024 type alloys. A comparative analysis of S-N curves obtained from plane bending and axial fatigue tests on smooth and notched specimens evidences the superior performance of 7020 in terms of higher strength and corrosion cracking resistance.

  12. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  13. Fatigue strength tests of layered steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with original measurement of fatigue properties of formed layered steel material – damask steel. This is a material that exhibits a fine micro-structure as well as a regular composition of many material layers with complementary properties. The article experimentally verifies high-cycle fatigue properties of layered steel and evaluates them from the point of view of fatigue tests of conventional steel materials and a parallel application of a non-destructive – acoustic emission – testing. Finally, it discusses the influence of production on fatigue strength and the possibilities of using multi-layered steel materials in technological practice. A serious result of this pilot experiment is the fact documented no only by the fractographic observation, but mainly by the AE records that the fatigue service life of this material is high if it its not stressed by tension approximating the yield point Re. However, such stress is not common in practical use of tools made of damask steel and thus under common bending stress an exceptionally long service life of tools made of this type of material is demonstrable. The fact that damask steel behaves like a homogeneous material is mainly confirmed by the records of the AE signal at lower values of stress σa. When stressed by higher amplitudes of tension σa damask responds in AE records similarly to a laminate material that is stressed by bending.

  14. Notch Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baragetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and the role of different inert or corrosive environments. This alloy is widely used in naval-structures and aero-engine communities and the outcomes of the work will have direct relevance to industrial service operations. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1; 2 × 105 cycles; f = 10 Hz were carried out on smooth and high notched (Ktmax = 18.65 flat specimens in laboratory air, paraffin oil, laboratory air + beeswax coating, recirculated 3.5% NaCl solution. The step loading procedure was used to perform the fatigue tests and the surface replica method and crack propagation gages were used to check crack nucleation and propagation until failure. Log-Log plots of σmax vs. Kt showed a bilinear behavior and enabled the demonstration of the presence of a threshold stress intensity factor (Kt = 8–9, after which the environment has no effect on the fatigue damage for all the tested environments.

  15. Notch Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragetti, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and the role of different inert or corrosive environments. This alloy is widely used in naval-structures and aero-engine communities and the outcomes of the work will have direct relevance to industrial service operations. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1; 2 × 10⁵ cycles; f = 10 Hz) were carried out on smooth and high notched (Ktmax = 18.65) flat specimens in laboratory air, paraffin oil, laboratory air + beeswax coating, recirculated 3.5% NaCl solution. The step loading procedure was used to perform the fatigue tests and the surface replica method and crack propagation gages were used to check crack nucleation and propagation until failure. Log-Log plots of σmaxvs.Kt showed a bilinear behavior and enabled the demonstration of the presence of a threshold stress intensity factor (Kt = 8-9), after which the environment has no effect on the fatigue damage for all the tested environments.

  16. Evaluation of corrosion fatigue and life prediction of lower arm for automotive suspension component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sang; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-01-01

    Lower arm is one of the suspension components of automobile. It is suffered from driving vibration and corrosive environment, namely corrosion fatigue. In this study, corrosion fatigue property of lower arm was investigated, and a modified model based on Palmgren-Miner rule was developed to predict the lifetimes of corrosion fatigue. The corrosion fatigue life of lower arm was about 1/6 times shorter than fatigue life. Based on the results of corrosion fatigue tests and meteorological data in Seoul and Halifax, the corrosion fatigue life of lower arm was predicted. The satisfaction of 10-year and 300,000 km warranty was dominated by the climate of automobile driving. This prediction indicates that the weather condition or driving condition influences the life of automotive parts. Therefore, to determine the warranty of automotive parts, the driving condition has to be carefully considered.

  17. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Chen Guang; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2014-09-01

    In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR), Common Structural Rules (CSR), and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH) are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS), and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM). To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  18. Corrosion-fatigue study of a Zr-based bulk-metallic glass in a physiologically relevant environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lu [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, XueYuan Road No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Wang, Gongyao; Qiao, Dongchun; Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Pang, Shujie; Wang, Jianfeng [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, XueYuan Road No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Tao, E-mail: zhangtao@buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, XueYuan Road No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Four-point-bend corrosion-fatigue experiments were conducted in a physiologically relevant environment to study the environmental effects on the fatigue behavior of (Zr{sub 0.55}Al{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.30}){sub 99}Y{sub 1} (at.%) bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs), and the results were compared with those obtained in air at room temperature. At high stress ranges, the corrosive environment did not significantly affect the fatigue lifetime; while at low stress ranges, the corrosive environment exhibited a detrimental effect on the fatigue resistance. The fatigue strength was decreased by 40% in the physiologically relevant environment. Fracture morphologies after fatigue tests were studied by the scanning electron microscopy. The mechanism for the environmental effects on the fatigue life of the (Zr{sub 0.55}Al{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.30}){sub 99}Y{sub 1} BMG was determined to be anodic dissolution.

  19. Residual Tensile Strength of Plain Concrete Under Tensile Fatigue Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The functional relation between the residual tensile strength of plain concrete and number of cycles was determined. 99 tappered prism specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial tensile fatigue loading. Based on the probability distribution of the residual tensile strength, the empirical expressions of the residual tensile strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. The residual tensile strength attenuating curves can be used to predict the residual fatigue life of the specimen under variable-amplitude fatigue loading. There is a good correlation between residual tensile strength and residual secant elastic modulus.The relationship between the residual secant elastic modulus and number of cycles was also established.

  20. In Situ X-ray Microtomography of Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Stannard, Tyler J.; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2017-08-01

    Structural materials are subjected to combinations of stress and corrosive environments that work synergistically to cause premature failure. Therefore, studies on the combined effect of stress and corrosive environments on material behavior are required. Existing studies have been performed in two dimensions that are inadequate for full comprehension of the three-dimensional (3D) processes related to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion-fatigue (CF) behavior. Recently, x-ray synchrotron tomography has evolved as an excellent technique to obtain the microstructure in 3D. Moreover, being nondestructive in nature, x-ray synchrotron tomography is well suited to study the evolution of microstructure with time (4D, or fourth dimension in time). This article presents our recent 4D studies on SCC and CF of Al 7075 alloys using x-ray synchrotron tomography.

  1. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength...... steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... amplitude fatigue test results showed shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, the fatigue tests on high-strength steel tubular joints showed slightly longer fatigue lives than those obtained...

  2. Indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    significantly (P muscle strength during the entire study period. Longitudinal analyses indicated slightly slower decline in muscle strength among participants with fatigue compared to those without; however, observed selective dropout of participants with fatigue and poor performance at baseline...... needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Accordingly, participants without fatigue had significantly higher chances of being alive and having muscle strength above gender-specific median at first (RR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07-1.58), second (RR 1.51, 1.06-1.96) and third (RR 1.39, 1......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mobility-related fatigue is an important indicator of functional decline in old age, however, very little is known about fatigue in the oldest old population segment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle...

  3. Effect of corrosion on flexural bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Shetty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes affecting durability of structures. Corrosion effects on structures cannot be ignored and replaced. To understand the performance of structures there is a need to study the rate at which different corrosion levels occur. Hence the present investigation has been taken up to study the behaviour of NBS (National Bureau of Standard beam specimens made up of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC and Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC concrete matrix were subjected to accelerated corrosion for different corrosion levels of 2.5 % to 10 % at 2.5 % interval. Results are compared with those for control beam specimen. It is observed that bond stress value decreases with the increase in corrosion levels. Also corrosion leads to the decline of load carrying capacity.

  4. Effects of microbially produced hydrogen sulphide on the corrosion fatigue of offshore structural steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.J.; Edyvean, R.G.J.; Brook, R.; Austen, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of microbially produced hydrogen sulphide (H/sub 2/S) in concentrations up to 450 ppm in natural sea-water on the corrosion fatigue of two high strength micro-alloyed steels has been determined. The crack growth rate increases with increasing H/sub 2/S content but comparisons with environments containing synthetic, added, H/sub 2/S show that the higher levels of biologically generated H/sub 2/S appear less potent than a biological H/sub 2/S. The results are discussed in the light of the possible effects of marine fouling on offshore structures.

  5. Arterial Elasticity, Strength, Fatigue, and Endurance in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation. Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P<0.01 and treadmill endurance (P<0.02 after adjusting for VO2 max and knee extension strength. Subjective fatigue at rest was related to large artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (<0.02. Strength was significantly related to small artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  6. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of 317LN austenitic stainless steel in phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: javier.onoro@upm.es

    2009-10-15

    The corrosion fatigue crack-growth behaviour of AISI 317LN stainless steel was evaluated in air and in 85% phosphoric acid at 20 deg. C. Austenitic stainless steels with high molybdenum content have high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. However, this increase in the molybdenum content and other elements such as nitrogen can also modify the microstructure. This leads to a modification of its mechanical properties. The corrosion fatigue crack-growth rate was higher in phosphoric acid immersion than in air. Austenitic stainless steels with a fully austenitic microstructure were more ductile, tough, and behave better against corrosion fatigue. The higher resistance to corrosion fatigue was directly associated to its higher resistance to corrosion.

  7. Consideration on corrosion fatigue crack life assessment; Fushoku hiro kiretsu hassei jumyo hyoka ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Saito, T. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Morita, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Discussions were given on corrosion fatigue crack life by using corrosion fatigue crack initiation test and analysis. The test used 13Cr-based stainless steel as a test material, and aquamarine at 60{degree}C as a corrosion environment. The fatigue test was performed under a tension loading condition with a stress ratio of 0.1 and an iterative velocity of 1.7 Hz by using a 10-tonf fatigue testing machine. In the corrosion fatigue crack initiation test, a pit has been generated on a boundary of an exposed part and a painted part for masking, hence direct observation was impossible on pit growth behavior. Therefore, an intrinsic crack model was introduced from pit dimensions as observed from a fracture face, and analysis was made on corrosion fatigue crack growth by using the linear fracture dynamics, wherein clarification was made on a phenomenon occurring after the crack growth passes the pit growth until the test piece is fractured. A proposal was made to define the time when fatigue crack initiates and grows from the bottom of a pit as a result of surpassing the growth of corrosion pit as the corrosion fatigue crack life. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Fatigue Properties and Fracture Mechanism of Aluminum Alloy with Orifice Chamfer and Pre-corrosion Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue fracture often occurs because of the corrosion damage to aerospace structural aluminum alloy with holes. Fatigue tests of 7075 aluminum alloy of both unchamfered and chamfered double-hole specimens under uncorrosion and 24h pre-corrosion were carried out. The influence of both pre-corrosion damage and orifice chamferer on fatigue properties and the differences of fatigue fracture characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the effect on fatigue life of pre-corrosion damage is significant. Median fatigue lives of both unchamfered and chamfered double-hole specimens under 24h pre-corrosion decrease about 31.74% and 26.92% compared with uncorrosion specimens. The orifice chamferer have a certain effect on fatigue life of both uncorrosion and 24h pre-corrosion specimens, with median fatigue lives decreased about 28.02% and 15.36% compared with unchamfered specimens, the main reason is due to the stress concentration after orifice chamfered, on the other hand, cutting marks lead to pre-damage during the orifice chamfering process which will result in an increase of the fatigue crack initiation sites and the fracture probability.

  9. [Corrosion resistance and bond strength of dental alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwickerath, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigated Ni-alloys, which showed extensive solubility of Ni particles in corrosion bathes due to DIN 13927, also revealed pronounced lost of bond strength to ceramic veneers when immersed into corrosion bathes of equal constitution. Noble metal alloys with a gold concentration more than 50 percent, however, showed no such large lost of bond strength. Pd alloys showed a lost of bond strength which increased with their Ga concentration. Co alloys revealed a behavior similar to the Ni alloys but with no obvious correlation between solubility and lost of bond strength.

  10. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...

  11. Fatigue life of high strength steel for cold forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ulewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fatigue tests carried out on STRENX-type high-strength cold forming steel. For high-cycle fatigue tests carried out using low cycle loading frequencies of around 30 Hz, a ROTOFLEX machine was used. For ultra high-cycle tests, a KAUP-ZU testing machine was employed, which enables fatigue tests to be performed with symetric specimen loading (R = -1 and at a frequency of f ≈ 20 kHz. The relationships σa = f(N were determined experimentally in the high and ultra high-cycle region for STRENX high-strength steel. To determine the fatigue crack initiation mechanism, the fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures was made.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingyuan (王清远); N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials are known to have a considerable scatter due to the random nature of materials,loading,and environmental conditions.A probabilistic approach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effect of the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigue process (i.e.the pit nucleation and growth,pit-crack transition,short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size,corrosion pitting current,and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data.Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the failure probability distribution.Predicted cumulative distribution functions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  13. Nickel multilayers and their effects on bend fatigue strength of leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feihua; WANG Zhanhua; SHEN Zhuoshen

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is commonly coated on the outer leads for T8 metal package. The leads electrodeposited by conventional dull or bright nickel over 5 μm at direct current from Watt bath are hard to pass the bend fatigue test for three times. Nickel electrodeposited at multi waveform current including direct current, single and double pulse from sulfamate bath can improve the bend fatigue strength of leads. Such nickel plating has a multilayer structure, its morphology of sublayers can be clearly seen in its cross section with SEM. The electrochemical study shows that these sublayers have different corrosion potentials. The bend fatigue test of leads with such plating for T8 metal package shows that the number of bend increases with the decrease of average current density of multi waveform, which can be attributed to the reduction of every sublayer thickness and the increase of layer numbers under the same condition of total thickness.

  14. IIW guidelines on weld quality in relationship to fatigue strength

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Bertil; Hobbacher, A F; Kassner, M; Marquis, G

    2016-01-01

    This book presents guidelines on quantitative and qualitative measures of the geometric features and imperfections of welds to ensure that it meets the fatigue strength requirements laid out in the recommendations of the IIW (International Institute of Welding). Welds that satisfy these quality criteria can be assessed in accordance with existing IIW recommendations based on nominal stress, structural stress, notch stress or linear fracture mechanics. Further, the book defines more restrictive acceptance criteria based on weld geometry features and imperfections with increased fatigue strength. Fatigue strength for these welds is defined as S-N curves expressed in terms of nominal applied stress or hot spot stress. Where appropriate, reference is made to existing quality systems for welds.In addition to the acceptance criteria and fatigue assessment curves, the book also provides guidance on their inspection and quality control. The successful implementation of these methods depends on adequate training for o...

  15. Advances in research of stress-assisted corrosion fatigue problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-bo; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic materials are notable for their rigidity, insulation and resistance to hostile environment. Nevertheless, if a stressed ceramic component is exposed to chemical attack, it may suffer from a form of delayed fracture known as static fatigue.From the point of view of a designer, it is clearly desirable to determine the behavior of sub-critical crack growth; the crack path and crack growth rate, as a function of material properties and loading conditions are of particular interest. This paper presents a review of advances in stress assisted corrosion problem in history and its corresponding numerical approaches in the last decades,and finally, comes up with consideration and crucial suggestions for future work.

  16. Evaluation of shot peening on the fatigue strength of anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Midori Yoshikawa Pitanga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly design requirements for modern engineering applications resulted in the development of new materials with improved mechanical properties. Low density, combined with excellent weight/strength ratio as well as corrosion resistance, make the titanium attractive for application in landing gears. Fatigue control is a fundamental parameter to be considered in the development of mechanical components. The aim of this research is to analyze the fatigue behavior of anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the influence of shot peening pre treatment on the experimental data. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1 were performed, and a significant reduction in the fatigue strength of anodized Ti-6Al-4V was observed. The shot peening superficial treatment, which objective is to create a compressive residual stress field in the surface layers, showed efficiency to increase the fatigue life of anodized material. Experimental data were represented by S-N curves. Scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM was used to observe crack origin sites.

  17. Fatigue strength of hybrid VHSS-Cast steel welded plates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Very high strength steels (VHSS) have been made available by the steel industry for many years. In a fatigue loaded VHSS structure absolute and relative stress variation will be higher compared to stresses in structures made of lower grade steels. Cast steel, also available up to yield strength of 1

  18. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  19. Notch Fatigue Strength of a PM Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack

    2007-01-01

    New powder metallurgy (PM) disk superalloys, such as ME3, LSHR, and Alloy 10, have been developed in recent years which enable rim temperatures in turbine disk applications to approach 1300 F. Before these alloys can be utilized at 1300 F their long term durability must be ensured. One of the key requirements for disk rims is notch fatigue strength. This issue is extremely important and is a direct result of the blade attachment geometry employed at the disk rim. Further, the imposition of a dwell at maximum load, associated with take off and landing, can also affect notch fatigue strength. For these reasons a study has been undertaken to assess the notch dwell fatigue strength of a modern PM disk alloy through spin pit evaluation of a prototypical disk. The first element of this program involves screening potential heat treatments with respect to notch fatigue strength at 1300 F utilizing a conventional notch fatigue specimen with a stress concentration factor (K(sub t)) of 2 and a 90 sec dwell at peak load. The results of this effort are reported in this paper including the downselect of an optimal heat treatment, from a notch fatigue standpoint.

  20. A CUMULATIVE FATIGUE DAMAGE RULE UNDER THE ALTERNATIVE OF CORROSION OR CYCLIC LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.X.Yao

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue damage increases with the applied loading cycles in a cumulative manner and the material deteriorates with the corrosion time. A cumulative fatigue damage rule under the alternative of corrosion or cyclic loading was proposed. The specimens of aluminum alloy LY12-CZ soaked in corrosive liquid for different times were tested under the constant amplitude cyclic loading to obtain S-N curves. The test was carried out to verify the proposed cumulative fatigue damage rule under the different combinations among corrosion time,loading level, and the cycle numbers. It was shown that the predicted residual fatigue lives showed a good agreement with the experimental results and the proposed rule was simple and can be easily adopted.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清远; N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials axe known to have a considerablescatter due to the random nature of materials, loading, and environmental conditions. A probabilisticapproach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effectof the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigueprocess (i.e. the pit nucleation and growth, pit-crack transition, short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size, corrosion pittingcurrent, and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data. Monte Carlo simu-lations were performed to define the failure probability distribution. Predicted cumulative distributionfunctions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  2. Fatigue Strength and Residual Stress Analysis of Deep Rolled Crankshafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran M Quraishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The endurance life of an engine crankshaft is closely related to its fatigue strength, in addition to other material properties and shape parameters. Deep rolling, moreover, enhances the fatigue limit by applying compressive residual stress within the fillet radius area as a major surface hardening technique. The objective of this paper isto maximize fatigue life of engine through crankshaft design optimization by quantifying fatigue strength for microalloyed steels versus Cr-Mo alloy steel, and to examine the effects of deep rolling load and rolled fillet geometry. Fatigue tests have been made with standard rotary bending test samples from both bar and forged blanks. Rig tests for actual crankshafts have been made to show how the fatigue strength correlates with different sample types. A correlation of stress distribution with bending moment was demonstrated by applying a strain gauging technique on crankshaft specimens. Therefore, an analysis of combined stresses could be made by considering the effect of static residual stress in addition to the applied dynamic bending stress. Optimum conditions for rolling load, fillet geometry and material were identified. Consequently, these results will be adapted to CAE analysis database to enable an optimization of safety factors.

  3. Fatigue strength of welded connections made of very high strength cast and rolled steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa have been available on the market for many years, the use of these steels in the civil engineering industry is still uncommon. The main objective of the research is the determination of the fatigue strength of welded con

  4. Notch sensitivity jeopardizes titanium locking plate fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wo-Jan; Chao, Ching-Kong; Wang, Chun-Chin; Lin, Jinn

    2016-12-01

    Notch sensitivity may compromise titanium-alloy plate fatigue strength. However, no studies providing head-to-head comparisons of stainless-steel or titanium-alloy locking plates exist. Custom-designed identically structured locking plates were made from stainless steel (F138 and F1314) or titanium alloy. Three screw-hole designs were compared: threaded screw-holes with angle edges (type I); threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type II); and non-threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type III). The plates' bending stiffness, bending strength, and fatigue life, were investigated. The stress concentration at the screw threads was assessed using finite element analyses (FEA). The titanium plates had higher bending strength than the F1314 and F138 plates (2.95:1.56:1) in static loading tests. For all metals, the type-III plate fatigue life was highest, followed by type-II and type-I. The type-III titanium plates had longer fatigue lives than their F138 counterparts, but the type-I and type-II titanium plates had significantly shorter fatigue lives. All F1314 plate types had longer fatigue lives than the type-III titanium plates. The FEA showed minimal stress difference (0.4%) between types II and III, but the stress for types II and III was lower (11.9% and 12.4%) than that for type I. The screw threads did not cause stress concentration in the locking plates in FEA, but may have jeopardized the fatigue strength, especially in the notch-sensitive titanium plates. Improvement to the locking plate design is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exfoliation Corrosion and Pitting Corrosion and Their Role in Fatigue Predictive Modeling: State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Hoeppner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergranular attack (IG and exfoliation corrosion (EC have a detrimental impact on the structural integrity of aircraft structures of all types. Understanding the mechanisms and methods for dealing with these processes and with corrosion in general has been and is critical to the safety of critical components of aircraft. Discussion of cases where IG attack and exfoliation caused issues in structural integrity in aircraft in operational fleets is presented herein along with a much more detailed presentation of the issues involved in dealing with corrosion of aircraft. Issues of corrosion and fatigue related to the structural integrity of aging aircraft are introduced herein. Mechanisms of pitting nucleation are discussed which include adsorption-induced, ion migration-penetration, and chemicomechanical film breakdown theories. In addition, pitting corrosion (PC fatigue models are presented as well as a critical assessment of their application to aircraft structures and materials. Finally environmental effects on short crack behavior of materials are discussed, and a compilation of definitions related to corrosion and fatigue are presented.

  6. The research of axial corrosion fatigue on 10Ni3CrMoV steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Yi, Hong; Xu, Jian; Xie, Kun

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue life had been studied with 10CrNi3MoV steel at different load ratios and in different environmental medias. The microstructure and micro-topography had been observed and analyzed by means of SEM, EDS and TEM. Our findings indicated that, the fatigue life of 10Ni3CrMoV steel in seawater was shorter than in air, the difference in longevity was larger with the decreasing of axis stress. Corrosion pits had a great influence on corrosion fatigue life.

  7. Fatigue strength testing of LTCC and alumina ceramics bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, A.; Matkowski, P.; Golonka, L.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the results of fatigue strength tests of ceramic joints are presented. These tests have been performed on the samples subjected to thermal and vibration fatigue as well as on the reference samples without any additional loads. The main goal of the investigation was to determine the strength of hybrid ceramics joints using tensile testing machine. The experiment enabled evaluation of fatigue effects in the mentioned joints. Geometry of test samples has been designed according to FEM simulations, performed in ANSYS FEM environment. Thermal stress as well as the stress induced by vibrations have been analyzed in the designed model. In the experiments two types of ceramics have been used — LTCC green tape DP951 (DuPont) and alumina ceramic tape. The samples have been prepared by joining two sintered ceramic beams made of different types of material. The bonds have been realized utilizing low temperature glass or a layer of LTCC green tape.

  8. Consideration on fatigue strength of corroded steel plates; Fushoku suimo koban no hiro kyodo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M.; Yajima, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Saito, T. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Discussions were given on fatigue strength of corroded steel plates taken from a hull of a ship seventeen years old after construction. The steel plates have had their original thickness of 13 mm reduced to 5.3 to 8.3 mm. After having been cut by a machine, the steel plates were used for tests as ground plates after going through grinding and as corroded plates with rust remaining on them. The fatigue test was performed in artificially made sea water at a temperature of 25{degree}C and in air with axial power pulsating tensile load and at iterative loading velocities of 3 to 5 Hz. The corroded material test verified that corrosion pits exist innumerably on the test piece surface and fatigue cracks have been developed and grown from bottoms of the pits. The stress concentration coefficient of the corrosion pits was about 1.9. Good agreement with the test result was found in the S-N chart in which the number of iteration of fracture was regarded as the number of iteratively generated cracks, and notch coefficient was estimated as 1.9. These results proved that the fatigue strength assessing method for virgin materials can be applied also to steel plates which have been exposed to corrosive environment for extended periods of time. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2002-01-01

    value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...

  10. Fatigue Strength Prediction of Drilling Materials Based on the Maximum Non-metallic Inclusion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dezhi; Tian, Gang; Liu, Fei; Shi, Taihe; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Junying; Liu, Wanying; Ouyang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the statistics of the size distribution of non-metallic inclusions in five drilling materials were performed. Based on the maximum non-metallic inclusion size, the fatigue strength of the drilling material was predicted. The sizes of non-metallic inclusions in drilling materials were observed to follow the inclusion size distribution rule. Then the maximum inclusion size in the fatigue specimens was deduced. According to the prediction equation of the maximum inclusion size and fatigue strength proposed by Murakami, fatigue strength of drilling materials was obtained. Moreover, fatigue strength was also measured through rotating bending tests. The predicted fatigue strength was significantly lower than the measured one. Therefore, according to the comparison results, the coefficients in the prediction equation were revised. The revised equation allowed the satisfactory prediction results of fatigue strength of drilling materials at the fatigue life of 107 rotations and could be used in the fast prediction of fatigue strength of drilling materials.

  11. Modal characteristics and fatigue strength of compressor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Kook [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    High-cycle fatigue (HCF) has been identified as one of the primary causes of gas turbine engine failure. The modal characteristics and endurance strength of a 5 MW gas turbine engine blade developed by Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd. in HCF fracture were verified through analysis and tests to determine the reliability of the compressor blade. A compressor blade design procedure that considers HCF life was performed in the following order: airfoil and blade profile design, modal analysis, stress distribution test, stress endurance limit test, and fatigue life verification. This study analyzed the Campbell diagram and estimated resonance risk on the basis of the natural frequency analysis and modal test of the compressor blade to guarantee safe and operational reliability. In addition, the maximum stress point of the compressor blade was determined through stress distribution analysis and test. The bonding point of the strain gage was determined by using fatigue test. Stress endurance limit test was performed based on the results of these tests. This research compared and verified the modal characteristics and endurance strengths of the compressor blades to prevent HCF fracture, which is among the major causes of gas turbine engine damage. A fatigue life design procedure of compressor blades was established. The 5 MW class gas turbine compressor blade is well designed in terms of resonance stability and fatigue endurance limit.

  12. Fatigue and corrosion fatigue behavior of 13Cr and duplex stainless steel and a welded nickel alloy employed in oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R.M. [Department of Metallurgy Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Juca Batista, Ipanema, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul CEP (Brazil); Mueller, I.L. [Department of Metallurgy Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Aneron Correia de Oliveira, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2009-05-15

    The materials used in off-shore oil and gas production, e.g. in risers, are often exposed to cyclic loads from the water movement because of their contact with seawater. These factors acting together can develop a corrosion fatigue (CF) process. A duplex and a 13% chromium (13Cr) wrought stainless steel (SS) and a welded nickel base alloy Inconel 625 were tested at different cyclic load magnitudes in an eccentric fatigue machine type. The specimens were tested in the presence of a corrosive environment at low loading frequencies (0.3 Hz). The medium used was an aqueous solution with 115.000 ppm of chloride, pH adjusted to 4, and CO{sub 2} bubbling inside the solution during the test. The end of the test was determined in maximum 500.000 cycles (23 days for frequency of 0.3 Hz) if no fracture occurred before. In the 13Cr steel the fissure seems to propagate in a uniform unique path, while in the duplex steel the crack changes the direction when passing from the ferritic to austenitic grains. The propagation speed seems to be different in the ferrite and in the austenitic structures. Among the materials tested the Inconel 625 alloy, even being in the welded condition, showed higher CF strength than the SSs; 13Cr shows better results when compared with the duplex steel, even though the last one would be more corrosion resistant. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Effects of Core-Musculature Fatigue on Maximal Shoulder Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemeyer, James R; Hayes, Bradley T; Switzler, Craig L; Hicks-Little, Charlie A

    2015-11-01

    Core stability has been shown to affect lower-extremity motion, but activation of the core has also been observed just before movements of the upper extremity. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effects that core musculature has on upper-extremity strength. To determine the effects of core fatigue on maximal shoulder strength. Crossover study. Sports-medicine research laboratory. 23 participants (15 male and 8 female, age 21.3 ± 2.5 y, height 174.5 ± 10.3 cm, weight 71.3 ± 12.0 kg). All participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions in 3 different planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse) of shoulder-joint motion. A core-fatiguing protocol was conducted, and the same 3 shoulder-strength tests were repeated and compared with the initial measurements. Strength measures were recorded in kilograms with a dynamometer. Results showed a significant decrease in strength in the frontal (-0.56 ± 1.06 kg, P = .020) and transverse (-0.89 ± 1.49 kg, P = .012) planes but not in the sagittal plane (-0.20 ± 0.98 kg, P > .05). Furthermore, regardless of the specific strength test measured, results revealed that the 1st (-7.05% ± 11.65%, P = .012) and 2nd (-5.71% ± 12.03%, P = .042) strength-test measurements after the fatiguing protocol were significantly decreased, while the 3rd strength-test measurement (-4.19% ± 12.48%, P = .140) did not show statistical significance. These results indicate that decrease in core stability may have an influence on shoulder strength. The literature suggests that the core is designed for endurance, and this study helps validate its recovery properties. Further research is needed to determine the significance of this effect and how injury rates coincide.

  14. Prediction for multiaxial fatigue strength with small defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanase Keiji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of previous studies, this paper further examine the applicability and characteristics of the predictive method, in particular, for the case of proportional loading. The predictive method is based on the \\vec{area} See Formula in PDF -parameter model and Endo’s biaxial fatigue failure criterion. The present study manifests that the critical plane is normal to the direction of maximum principal stress, and the fatigue strength is dictated by both the maximum and minimum principal stresses.

  15. Bending Fatigue Strength of Austempered Ductile Iron Spur Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masashi; Tamura, Ryo; Inoue, Katsumi; Narita, Yukihito

    This paper deals with an experimental evaluation of bending fatigue strength for austempered ductile iron (ADI) spur gears. The module is 2.5 and the number of teeth is 26 in the test gears. The material of the test gears corresponds to Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) FCAD1100-15. Some gears are processed by one of two types of fine particle bombarding (FPB). The surface roughness is slightly increased by FPB. The obtained strengths are 623 MPa for the as-austempered gears, and 1011 and 1085 MPa for the gears after FPB. The strength is expressed by the fillet stress level, which is calculated by FEM. The strength of a gear with the same dimensions made of carburized SCr420H alloy steel is 1205 MPa, and the strength of the ADI gear is approximately half that of the carburized steel gear. The FPB process has a significant effect on the ADI gear, improving its strength by 62-74%.

  16. Effect of Microstructure on Fatigue Strength of Bovine Compact Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Heon; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Akahori, Toshikazu; Takeda, Junji; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Despite its clinical importance in developing artificial bone, limited information is available regarding the microstructure with respect to the fatigue characteristics of bones. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of the bovine humerus and femur were investigated with respect to microstructures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the bovine humerus and femur at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue strength of the plexiform bone is slightly greater than that of the haversian bone. This is because the volume fraction of voids in the haversian bone, which is the site of stress concentration, is higher than that of voids in the plexiform bone. Several microcracks are observed on the fatigue fracture surface of the haversian bone. The microcracks are short and their propagation directions are random. However, the number of the microcracks in the plexiform bone is very small. The microcracks are relatively long and their propagation directions are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the lamellar bone. Therefore, the crack requires relatively more energy to propagate across the lamella in the plexiform bone.

  17. Detection of corrosion processes and fatigue cracks by means of acoustic emission monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagenbrein, Andreas; Tscheliesnig, Peter [TUEV Austria Services GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Wachsmuth, Janne; Bohse, Juergen [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes for structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars, and ships. Within the 7{sup th} EC framework programme the aim of project CORFAT is to develop a new monitoring technology based on acoustic emission testing (AT) of the structural integrity in terms of proceeding degradation. Differentiation of acoustic emission (AE) signals of real degradation processes by fatigue crack growth or active corrosion from operational or environmental background noise requires the signal classification using also pattern recognition. Therefore, a data base of AE signals related to the different source mechanisms was built up experimentally. In this article selected results of corrosion and fatigue tests in the laboratory as well as results of monitoring background noise during moving of a road tanker are described. (orig.)

  18. Effect of prior corrosion state on the fatigue small cracking behaviour of 6151-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xudong [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Naval Aeronautical Engineering Academy Qingdao Branch, Qingdao 266000 (China); Wang Xishu, E-mail: xshwang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ren Huaihui; Chen Yinlong [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mu Zhitao [Naval Aeronautical Engineering Academy Qingdao Branch, Qingdao 266000 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship of corrosion pit and fatigue crack is established based on SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An equivalent relationship between accelerated and natural corrosion is build up. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prior corrosion damage is crucial to the subsequent fatigue cracking behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prior corrosion fatigue crack growth rate is expressed by the term of k{sigma}{sub max}{sup n}a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion states such as SC15, are defined based on corrosion spectrum. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to estimate the reliable effect of prior corrosion state on fatigue micro crack initiation and early stage propagation behaviour of aluminum alloy based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in situ observation. Results indicated that multi-cracks initiation occurred almost at the corrosion pits and the early stage of fatigue micro crack propagation behaviour can be described by K{sub I}/K{sub II}-mixed mode. The importance of crack-face interaction via crack-face corrosion pits interlocking/bridging was emphasised in the mixed mode. The fatigue crack growth rate in the corrosion states can be empirically expressed by the term of k{sigma}{sub max}{sup n}a.

  19. High-cycle Fatigue Fracture Behavior of Ultrahigh Strength Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun HUI; Yihong NIE; Han DONG; Yuqing WENG; Chunxu WANG

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue fracture behavior of four ultrahigh strength steels with different melting processes and therefore different inclusion sizes were studied by using a rotating bar two-point bending fatigue machine in the high-cycle regime up to 107 cycles of loading. The fracture surfaces were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that the size of inclusion has significant effect on the fatigue behavior.For AISI 4340 steel in which the inclusion size is smaller than 5.5 μm, all the fatigue cracks except one did not initiated from inclusion but from specimen surface and conventional S-N curve exists. For 65Si2MnWE and Aermet 100 steels in which the average inclusion sizes are 12.2 and 14.9 μm, respectively, fatigue cracks initiated from inclusions at lower stress amplitudes and stepwise S-N curves were observed. The S-N curvedisplays a continuous decline and fatigue failures originated from large oxide inclusion for 60Si2CrVA steel in which the average inclusion size is 44.4 μm. In the case of internal inclusion-induced fractures at cycles beyond about 1×106 for 65Si2MnWE and 60Si2CrVA steels, inclusion was always found inside the fish-eye and a granular bright facet (GBF) was observed in the vicinity around the inclusion. The GBF sizes increasewith increasing the number of cycles to failure Nf in the long-life regime. The values of stress intensity factor range at crack initiation site for the GBF are almost constant with Nf, and are almost equal to that for the surface inclusion and the internal inclusion at cycles lower than about 1×106. Neither fish-eye nor GBF was observed for Aermet 100 steel in the present study.

  20. Anomolous Fatigue Crack Growth Phenomena in High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott C.; James, Mark A.; Johnston, William M., Jr.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of a fatigue crack through a material is the result of a complex interaction between the applied loading, component geometry, three-dimensional constraint, load history, environment, material microstructure and several other factors. Previous studies have developed experimental and computational methods to relate the fatigue crack growth rate to many of the above conditions, with the intent of discovering some fundamental material response, i.e. crack growth rate as a function of something. Currently, the technical community uses the stress intensity factor solution as a simplistic means to relate fatigue crack growth rate to loading, geometry and all other variables. The stress intensity factor solution is a very simple linear-elastic representation of the continuum mechanics portion of crack growth. In this paper, the authors present fatigue crack growth rate data for two different high strength steel alloys generated using standard methods. The steels exhibit behaviour that appears unexplainable, compared to an aluminium alloy presented as a baseline for comparison, using the stress intensity factor solution.

  1. Fatigue strength of truss girders made of very high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    An effective application of Very High Strength Steel (VHSS) in civil engineering structures is expected in stiff, truss like structures, typically made of Circular Hollow Sections (CHS). Use of castings in combination with CHS could be promising for the design of highly fatigue resistant joints. Cas

  2. Evaluation of Fatigue Strength Improvement by CFRP Laminates and Shot Peening onto the Tension Flanges Joining Corrugated SteelWebs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrugated steel web with inherent high out-of-plane stiffness has a promising application in configuring large span highway bridge girders. Due to the irregularity of the configuration details, the local stress concentration poses a major fatigue problem for the welded flange plates of high strength low alloy structural steels. In this work, the methods of applying CFRP laminate and shot peening onto the surfaces of the tension flanges were employed with the purpose of improving the fatigue strength of such configuration details. The effectiveness of this method in the improvement of fatigue strength has been examined experimentally. Test results show that the shot peening significantly increases hardness and roughness in contrast to these without treatment. Also, it has beneficial effects on the fatigue strength enhancement when compared against the test data of the joints with CFRP strengthening. The stiffness degradation during the loading progress is compared with each treatment. Incorporating the stress acting on the constituent parts of the CFRP laminates, a discussion is made regarding the mechanism of the retrofit and related influencing factors such as corrosion and economic cost. This work could enhance the understanding of the CFRP and shot peening in repairing such welded details and shed light on the reinforcement design of welded joints between corrugated steel webs and flange plates.

  3. Corrosion fatigue behavior of fastening hole structure and virtual crack propagation tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhong Zhang; Xinlong Chang; Guozhi Lv; Hui Wang; Zhong Li; Yueliang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy fastener involving a central hole in air or in 3.5wt% NaC1 solution was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate decreased with the increasing loading frequency, and in a corrosive environment, the crack growth rate was slightly larger than that in air.Based on the experimental results, the virtual corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were investigated and the stochastic process method and the AFGROW simulation method were presented. The normal process and lognormal process were considered for the stochastic process method based on the numerically fitted Paris equation. The distribution of crack size and the corresponding prob-abilistic model of crack length distribution for a given number of cycles can be found by integrating the stochastic process over time.Using the AFGROW software, the virtual simulation was carried out to analyze the corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior and the predicted crack growth curve was in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. The Effect of Corrosive Environment on Geopolymer Concrete Tensile Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayuaji Ridho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose to explore the potential of geopolymer concrete tensile strength in particular on the effects of corrosive environments. Geopolymer concrete, concrete technology used no OPC that has advantages, one of which is durability, especially for corrosive seawater environment. In addition, geopolymer concrete with polymerization mechanism does not require large energy consumption or an environmentally friendly concept. Geopolymer concrete in this study is using a type C fly ash from PT. International Power Mitsui Operation & Maintenence Indonesia (IPMOMI Paiton. The type of alkaline activator used NaOH (14 molar and Na2SiO3. Coarse and fine aggregate used are local aggregate. Geopolymer concrete molded test specimen with dimensions of (10 × 20 cm cylinder, further heating and without heating, then maintained at room temperature and seawater up to 28 days. Then to determine the mechanical properties, the tensile strength testing is done with reference. This result of study indicates the curing of geopolymer concrete at 60 ° C for 24 hours to raise the tensile strength of geopolymer concrete.

  5. Shape influence of the load spectra in corrosion fatigue; Einfluss der Kollektivform bei der Korrosionsermuedung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salber, Stephan [Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany). Bereich Werkstofftechnik; Ertelt, Hans-Juergen [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen

    2011-07-01

    Computational lifetime predictions on the basis of linear cumulative damage calculations, e.g. Miner and the according modifications are frequently realised in the design of components. The common lifetime reducing influence of corrosive media on metallic materials is largely being disregarded for these damage models but is normally allowed for by general safety factors. The example of a forging alloy AIMg1SiCu shows that, depending on the respective load collective, corrosion fatigue leads to quantifiable specific lifetime reductions. For this a damage computation modified with regard to corrosion fatigue is introduced. With this modified damage computation the general safety factors are no longer needed and new lightweight construction potentials can be developed. (orig.)

  6. [A long term accelerating corrosion fatigue texting of coronary stents in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Jiage; Tang, Jinglong; Lu, Songfang; Xi, Tingfei

    2008-04-01

    According to the related standards, an in vitro corrosion fatigue testing of coronary stents was designed. The stents were fixed in the latex tubes, which were full of 0.9% saline solution, and radial stress was produced for simulating natural vessel. The accelerated fatigue test was performed with 4 x 10(8) cycles at a frequency of 60 Hz, which was equal to 10 years in vivo implantation. Twelve coronary stents made from stainless steel were adopted in the experiment. The bulk structure and surface morphology before and after testing were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The structure damage and surface change caused by corrosion fatigue were identified and the probable reasons were proposed.

  7. Modeling time-dependent corrosion fatigue crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark E.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted with the susceptible S-L orientation of AA7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution, to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO. This environment enhances da/dN by five to ten-fold compared to fatigue in moist air. Time-based crack growth rates from quasi-static load experiments are an order of magnitude too small for accurate linear superposition prediction of da/dN for loading frequencies above 0.001 Hz. Alternate methods of establishing da/dt, based on rising-load or ripple-load-enhanced crack tip strain rate, do not increase da/dt and do not improve linear superposition. Corrosion fatigue is characterized by two regimes of frequency dependence; da/dN is proportional to f(exp -1) below 0.001 Hz and to F(exp 0) to F(exp -0.1) for higher frequencies. Da/dN increases mildly both with increasing hold-time at K(sub max) and with increasing rise-time for a range of loading waveforms. The mild time-dependence is due to cycle-time-dependent corrosion fatigue growth. This behavior is identical for S-L nd L-T crack orientations. The frequency response of environmental fatigue in several 7000 series alloys is variable and depends on undefined compositional or microstructural variables. Speculative explanations are based on the effect of Mg on occluded crack chemistry and embritting hydrogen uptake, or on variable hydrogen diffusion in the crack tip process zone. Cracking in the 7075/NaCl system is adequately described for life prediction by linear superposition for prolonged load-cycle periods, and by a time-dependent upper bound relationship between da/dN and delta K for moderate loading times.

  8. The fatigue strength of base material and butt welds made of S690 and S1100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Modern steel manufacturing techniques make it possible to produce steel with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa (very high strength steels, VHSS). For the design of cyclic loaded slender VHSS structures, the fatigue strength of both base material and welded components should be known. In a VHSS fatigu

  9. The effect of yield strength and ductility to fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The cumulative damage of aluminium alloys with different yield strength and various ductility due to seismic loads was studied. The responses of an idealized beam with a centered mass at one end and fixed at the other end to El Centro's and Taft's earthquakes are computed by assuming that the alloys are perfectly elastoplastic materials and by using numerical technique. Consequently, the corresponding residual plastic strain can be obtained from the stress-strain relationship. The revised Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage theorem is utilized to calculate the fatigue damage. The numerical results show that in certain cases, the high ductility materials are more resistant to seismic loads than the high yield strength materials. The results also show that if a structure collapse during the earthquake, the collapse always occurs in the very early stage.

  10. Neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic resistance loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Davis, Lisa; Avela, Janne; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic loadings, known to cause different adaptations underlying strength gain during training. Thirteen healthy, untrained males performed two leg press loadings, one week apart, consisting of 15 sets of 1 repetition maximum (MAX) and 5 sets of 10 repetition maximums (HYP). Concentric load and muscle activity, electromyography (EMG) amplitude and median frequency, was assessed throughout each set. Additionally, maximal bilateral isometric force and muscle activity was assessed pre-, mid-, and up to 30 min post-loading. Concentric load during MAX was decreased after set 10 (Pmuscle activity during HYP loading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrosion Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Different Hot Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A.; Mori, G.; Panzenboeck, M. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben (Austria); Pippan, R. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Science, Leoben (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel was investigated under cyclic loading in electrolytes with different chloride contents and pH and at different temperatures. The testing solutions were 13.2 % NaCl (80,000 ppm Cl-) at 80 °C and 43 % CaCl{sub 2} (275,000 ppm Cl-) at 120 °C. In addition to S-N curves in inert and corrosive media, the fracture surfaces were investigated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyse the type of attack. The experimental results showed that a sharp decrease in corrosion fatigue properties can be correlated with the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking. The correlation of occurring types of damage in different corrosion systems is described.

  12. Low cycle fatigue behavior of high strength gun steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maoqiu Wang; Han Dong; Qi Wang; Changgang Fan

    2004-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of two high strength steels, with nominal chemical compositions (mass fraction, %)of 0.40C-1.5Cr-3Ni-0.4Mo-0.2V (PCrNi3MoV) and 0.25C-3Cr-3Mo-0.8Ni-0.1Nb (25Cr3Mo3NiNb), was investigated by using the smooth bar specimens subjected to strained-controlled push-pull loading. It is found that both steels show cyclic softening, but 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel has a lower tendency to cyclic softening. 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel has higher fatigue ductility, and its transition fatigue life is almost three times that of PCrNi3MoV. 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel also shows higher LCF life either at a given total strain amplitude above 0.5% or at any given plastic strain amplitude, despite its lower monotonic tensile strength than that of PCrNi3MoV.It also means that 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel can endure higher total strain amplitude and plastic strain amplitude at a given number of reversals to failure within 104. 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel is expected to be a good gun steel with high LCF properties because only several thousand firings are required for gun barrel in most cases.

  13. Effect of corrosion and sandblasting on the high cycle fatigue behavior of reinforcing B500C steel bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. Vasco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available . In a series of applications, steel reinforced concrete structures are subjected to fatigue loads during their service life, what in most cases happens in corrosive environments. Surface treatments have been proved to represent proper processes in order to improve both fatigue and corrosion resistances. In this work, the effect of corrosion and sandblasting on the high cycle fatigue behavior reinforcing steel bars is investigated. The investigated material is the reinforcing steel bar of technical class B500C, of nominal diameter of 12 mm. Steel bars specimens were first exposed to corrosion in alternate salt spray environment for 30 and 60 days and subjected to both tensile and fatigue tests. Then, a series of specimens were subjected to common sandblasting, corroded and mechanically tested. Metallographic investigation and corrosion damage evaluation regarding mass loss and martensitic area reduction were performed. Tensile tests were conducted after each corrosion exposure period prior to the fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were performed at a stress ratio, R, of 0.1 and loading frequency of 20 Hz. All fatigue tests series as well as tensile test were also performed for as received steel bars to obtain the reference behavior. The results have shown that sandblasting hardly affects the tensile behavior of the uncorroded material. The effect of sandblasting on the tensile behavior of pre-corroded specimens seems to be also limited. On the other hand, fatigue results indicate an improved fatigue behavior for the sandblasted material after 60 days of corrosion exposure. Martensitic area reductions, mass loss and depth of the pits were significantly smaller for the case of sandblasted materials, which confirms an increased corrosion resistance

  14. Sensitization to Corrosion as Initiator of Fatigue Fracture in Compressor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír CIHAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain failures of stainless steels interpreted purely in terms of fracture mechanisms may in fact be closely associated with previous damage caused by localized corrosion. The closeness of the link between fatigue and corrosion is documented by the case history of compressor blades made of grade 14Cr17Ni2 (X14CrNi17-2 stainless steel. Fatigue fracturing observed in areas near the blade root tended to follow intergranular pathways, indicating that some additional mechanism other than fatigue might be involved. This suspicion was confirmed by electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR measurements in situ, which revealed sensitization to intergranular corrosion. It has been found that at the transition between the blade root and the blade proper the surfaces had been ground and polished too vigorously, heating the subcutaneous layers to within the danger zone of 400-600°C. Preferential integranular attack in these locations was the initiation mechanism that provoked a subsequent failure of the blades by fatigue fracture.

  15. Long-Term Corrosion Fatigue of Welded Marine Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Selected Seawater Parameters Measured Over a One-Year Period at the Marine Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, Florida Atlantic University at Boca Raton...ar no ralyknw btloldb exceptC AND C AS FUNCION OFa Re0 AND posCbl lctoaPrcecudbaSeD I D THE ITERTUREFOR MOOT, VETICA, SUaACE 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~PECN

  16. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Callie Corinne Scheidt

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents the on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes four effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for four variables, namely, high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

  17. Reliability of the ultimate strength of ship stiffened panel subjected to random corrosion degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-qing; Hu, Bing-nan; Ren, Hui-long

    2017-03-01

    Attentions have been increasingly paid to the influence of the corrosion on the ultimate strength of ship structures. In consideration of the random characteristics of the corrosion of ship structures, the method for the ultimate strength analysis of the ship stiffened panel structure subjected to random corrosion degradation is presented. According to the measured corrosion data of the bulk carriers, the distribution characteristics of the corrosion data for the stiffened panel on the midship deck are analyzed, and a random corrosion model is established. The ultimate strength of the corroded stiffened panel is calculated by the nonlinear finite element analysis. The statistical descriptions of the ultimate strength of the corroded stiffened panel are defined through the Monte Carlo simulations. A formula is proposed on the ultimate strength reduction of the stiffened panel as a function of the corrosion volume. The reliability analysis of the ultimate strength of the corroded deck stiffened panel is performed. It shows that both the corrosion data of the deck stiffened panel and the ultimate strength of the random corroded deck stiffened panel follow the log-normal distribution. The ultimate stress ratio of the stiffened panel is inversely proportional to the corrosion volume ratio.

  18. Fatigue performance of blade steel T552 in a corrosive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušek, J.; Hřeben, S.; Špirit, Z.; Strejcius, J.; Kasl, J.

    2017-02-01

    This contribution is based on an experimental programme which deals with the issue of blade steel T552 corrosion fatigue damage. The specimens were taken from a reference material delivered for blade production and tested in a corrosion cell under pre-stress of 300 MPa. A chloride solution of 35 ppm was chosen as the environment at a temperature of 80 °C. Such an environment can be considered as the limit state that should not occur during the operating regime. The results are summarized and compared with experiments conducted at another workplace.

  19. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  20. Fracture strength of all-ceramic restorations after fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha

    Fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered LAVA and e. max lower molar crowns after load cycling was measured and compared. The study included three groups (n = 8) from LAVA zirconia and three groups from e. max lithium disilicate to compare influences of different layers, thicknesses and manufacturing techniques. Prefabricated anatomically designed crowns were cemented to dies made from Z 100 composite resin using Rely X Luting Plus resin modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37° C for 24 hours then cyclic loaded to test fatigue properties. The crowns were loaded to 200,000 cycles at 25N at a rate of 40 cycles / minute to simulate oral function. Subsequently, fracture properties for each group were measured using an Instron Universal Testing machine. Microscopic evaluation of the surface of fatigued samples did not reveal micro-cracks at the end of 50,000 cycles but minor wear facets were observed at the site of contact from the steatite ball antagonist. Crowns from LAVA bilayered groups showed step by step fractures while crowns from all other groups fractured as a single event as observed by the high speed camera. Zirconia bilayered crowns showed the highest loads to fracture while lithium disilicate monolithic crowns showed the lowest, within the limitations of the study. The study also showed that monolithic zirconia crowns of 0.6mm thickness resulted in relatively high magnitude for forces at fracture.

  1. Multiaxial fatigue strength of severely notched titanium grade 5 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The multiaxial fatigue strength of severely notched titanium grade 5 alloy (Ti-6Al-4V is investigated. Experimental tests under combined tension and torsion loading, both in-phase and out-of-phase, have been carried out on axisymmetric V-notched specimens considering different nominal load ratios (R = -1, 0. All specimens are characterized by a notch tip radius less than 0.1 mm, a notch depth of 6 mm and a notch opening angle equal to 90 degrees. The experimental data from multiaxial tests are compared with those from pure tension and pure torsion tests on un-notched and notched specimens, carried out at load ratio ranging from R = -3 to R = 0.5. In total, more than 160 new fatigue data are examined, first in terms of nominal stress amplitudes referred to the net area and then in terms of the local strain energy density averaged over a control volume surrounding the V-notch tip. The dependence of the control radius on the loading mode is analysed showing a very different notch sensitivity for tension and torsion. For the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, the control volume is found to be strongly dependent on the loading mode

  2. EFFECT OF CORROSION ON BOND BEHAVIOR AND BENDING STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is growing concern for corrosion damage in reinforced concrete structures with several decades' service. Pullout tests and beam tests were carried out to study the effect of reinforcement corrosion on the bond behavior and bending strength of reinforced concrete beams. The bond strength of plain bars and concrete initially increases with increasing corrosion, then declines. The turning point depends on the cracking of the concrete cover. The bond strength of deformed bars and concrete increases with corrosion up to a certain amount, but with progressive increase in corrosion, the bond strength decreases, and the cracking of the concrete cover seems to have no effect on the bond strength. On the basis of test data, the bond strength coefficient recommended here, which, together with the bond strength of uncorroded steel bars and concrete, can be used to easily calculate the bond strength of corroded steel bars and concrete. The bond strength coefficient proposed in this paper can be used to study the bond stress-slip relationship of corroded steel bars and concrete. The bending strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams declines with increasing reinforcement corrosion. Decreased bending strength of corroded RC beam is due to reduction in steel bar cross section, reduction of yield strength of steel bar, and reduction of bond capacity between steel bar and concrete.

  3. Crack Tip Plasticity Associated with Corrosion Assisted Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    growing. The model presented is very similar to those previously developed by Antolovich , Saxena and I Chanani[83 and by Lanteigne and BailonE9] but...in crack tip plasticity associated with environment. The model used here is conceptually similar to those formulated by * Antolovich , et al,[ and...Lankford, J. ’Fatigue-Crack-Tip I Plastic Strains by the Stereoimaging Technique’ Exp. Mech. 1980 20, 3 134-139. 8. Antolovich , S. D., Saxena, A., and

  4. Effect of Stress Ratio and Loading Frequency on the Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Smooth Steel Wire in Different Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songquan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of loading condition and corrosion solution on the corrosion fatigue behavior of smooth steel wire were discussed. The results of polarization curves and weight loss curves showed that the corrosion of steel wire in acid solution was more severe than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. With the extension of immersion time in acid solution, the cathodic reaction of steel wire gradually changed from the reduction of hydrogen ion to the reduction of oxygen, but was always the reduction of hydrogen ion in neutral and alkaline solutions. The corrosion kinetic parameters and equivalent circuits of steel wires were also obtained by simulating the Nyquist diagrams. In corrosion fatigue test, the effect of stress ratio and loading frequency on the crack initiation mechanism was emphasized. The strong corrosivity of acid solution could accelerate the nucleation of crack tip. The initiation mechanism of crack under different conditions was summarized according to the side and fracture surface morphologies. For the crack initiation mechanism of anodic dissolution, the stronger the corrosivity of solution was, the more easily the fatigue crack source formed, while, for the crack initiation mechanism of deformation activation, the lower stress ratio and higher frequency would accelerate the generation of corrosion fatigue crack source.

  5. Effects of hydrogen water chemistry on corrosion fatigue behavior of cold-worked 304L stainless steel in simulated BWR coolant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, M.F., E-mail: mfchiang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Division of Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Lungtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Young, M.C.; Huang, J.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Division of Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Lungtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304L (SS304L) in a simulated BWR coolant with hydrogen injection was investigated. Hydrogen water chemistry slightly mitigated the corrosion fatigue degradation of the as-received SS304L specimens, but, on the contrary, it slightly increased the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates (CFCGRs) of the cold-worked specimens. All the CFCGR-tested specimens showed similar fracture features, except for the amounts of deposited corrosion debris. The results indicated that decreasing the oxygen concentration of water environment is not an effective measure to suppress the fatigue crack growth rate of cold-worked SS304L. The CFCGRs of the SS304L were determined by an interaction between corrosion, oxide-induced crack closure and cold work in corrosive environments. At a specific level of reduction, cold work could enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of SS304 both in the air-saturated and HWC coolant environments.

  6. Effects of hydrogen water chemistry on corrosion fatigue behavior of cold-worked 304L stainless steel in simulated BWR coolant environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, M. F.; Young, M. C.; Huang, J. Y.

    2011-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304L (SS304L) in a simulated BWR coolant with hydrogen injection was investigated. Hydrogen water chemistry slightly mitigated the corrosion fatigue degradation of the as-received SS304L specimens, but, on the contrary, it slightly increased the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates (CFCGRs) of the cold-worked specimens. All the CFCGR-tested specimens showed similar fracture features, except for the amounts of deposited corrosion debris. The results indicated that decreasing the oxygen concentration of water environment is not an effective measure to suppress the fatigue crack growth rate of cold-worked SS304L. The CFCGRs of the SS304L were determined by an interaction between corrosion, oxide-induced crack closure and cold work in corrosive environments. At a specific level of reduction, cold work could enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of SS304 both in the air-saturated and HWC coolant environments.

  7. Influence of fretting on the fatigue strength at the vise clamp–specimen interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdulhaqq A Hamid; Rafi K Yahya

    2003-12-01

    Fretting fatigue is one of the most important phenomena for inducing a significant reduction of fatigue strength and consequently, leading to unexpected failure accidents of the engineering structures even at very low stresses. In the present study, both plain and fretting fatigue tests with zero mean stress were carried out on two different types of steel, low-carbon steel and martensitic stainless steel, by means of a reversed bending fatigue testing machine. The drop in the fatigue strengths through fretting at vise clamp–specimen interface were significant for both tested steels. The fretting processes produced a reduction in fatigue strength of about 27% for low-carbon steel and 16% for martensitic stainless steel.

  8. Muscle Fiber Type Composition and Knee Extension Isometric Strength Fatigue Patterns in Power- and Endurance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1980-01-01

    There is a degree of uniqueness in fatigue patterns, particularly between different levels of absolute maximum strength. Caution should be used when analyzing fatigue curves among subjects with unspecified strength levels. (CJ)

  9. A Model of the Fatigue Life Distribution of Composite Laminates Based on Their Static Strength Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fuqiang; Yao Weixing

    2008-01-01

    The reasons of the static strength dispersion and the fatigue life dispersion of composite laminates are analyzed in this article.It is concluded that the inner original defects,which derived from the manufacturing process of composite laminates,are the common and major reason of causing the random distributions of the static strength and the fatigue life.And there is a correlative relation between the two distributions.With the study of statistical relationship between the fatigue loading and the fatigue life in the uniform confidence level and the same survival rate S-N curves of material,the relationship between the static strength distribution and the fatigue life distribution through a material S-N curve model has been obtained.And then the model which is used to describe the distributions of fatigue life of composites,based on their distributions of static strength,is set up.This model reasonably reflects the effects of the inner original defects on the static strength dispersion and on the fatigue life dispersion of composite laminates.The experimental data of three kinds of composite laminates are employed to verify this model,and the results show that this model can predict the random distributions of fatigue life for composites under any fatigue loads fairly well.

  10. Fatigue Induced Alteration of the Superficial Strength Properties of 2024 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.-D. Bouzakis; I. Mirisidis; Sp. G. Pantelakis; A.N. Chamos

    2011-01-01

    aluminum alloy 2024 T3 specimens have been subjected to constant amplitude fatigue loading at R=0.1. During fatigue, an appreciable increase of the surface hardness of the material at the meso-scale can be observed and captured by means of nanoindentations. Surface hardness increases with increasing fatigue stress amplitude and advancing number of applied fatigue cycles. Observed increase of specimen surface hardening degree during fatigue causes an evolution of superficial mechanical strength properties of the alloy. Stress-strain curves associated with the evoluting superficial mechanical properties are derived, employing a developed finite element method (FEM)-supported evaluation procedure of nanoindentation experimental results.

  11. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    -rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P ... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267....

  12. Surface characteristics and mechanical properties of high-strength steel wires in corrosive conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui; Yan, Weiming

    2013-04-01

    Cables are always a critical and vulnerable type of structural components in a long-span cable-stayed bridge in normal operation conditions. This paper presents the surface characteristics and mechanical performance of high-strength steel wires in simulated corrosive conditions. Four stress level (0MPa, 300MPa, 400MPa and 500MPa) steel wires were placed under nine different corrosive exposure periods based on the Salt Spray Test Standards ISO 9227:1990. The geometric feathers of the corroded steel wire surface were illustrated by using fractal dimension analysis. The mechanical performance index including yielding strength, ultimate strength and elastic modulus at different periods and stress levels were tested. The uniform and pitting corrosion depth prediction model, strength degradation prediction model as well as the relationship between strength degradation probability distribution and corrosion crack depth would be established in this study.

  13. Influence of flexural fatigue on chloride threshold value for the corrosion of steels in Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Linhua, E-mail: hhulhjiang@gmail.com [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, 1 Xikang Rd., Nanjing, 210098 (China); Hydraulic Engineering Research Center for New Materials and Protection, Jiangsu Province, 1 Xikang Rd., Nanjing, 210098 (China); Liu, Hao; Wang, Yongliang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Zijian; Xu, Jinxia; Jin, Ming; Jiang, Peng; Xu, Yi; Gao, Hailang [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, 1 Xikang Rd., Nanjing, 210098 (China)

    2015-08-15

    The flexural fatigue was enforced on reinforced concrete beam with stress level of 0.6 and different fatigue life cycles. Steels removed from the beams were soaked in the saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution, which was used as a simulated concrete pore solution. The NaCl solution was chosen as the source of chloride ions. The Chloride Threshold Values (CTV) were detected by combining the open-circuit potentials (E{sub corr}) with the corrosion current densities (i{sub corr}), which were obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The changes of microstructure caused by the flexural fatigue were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that as the fatigue cycle times increased, the CTV decreased under a certain stress level and range of fatigue life cycles. The grains became finer and cracks appeared on the surface of the steels. While the capacitive arcs under no flexural fatigue decreased gradually with the addition of chloride ions, the ones under flexural fatigue presented no regularity. Cracks at the surface were expanded because of sustaining flexural fatigue, which degenerated the later resistance to chloride ions of the steels. - Highlights: • The influence of flexural fatigue on chloride threshold value was examined. • The chloride threshold values vary with different fatigue life cycles. • The corrosion behavior depends on the surface integrity of the steels.

  14. Fatigue life determination by damage measuring in SAE 8620 specimens steel subjected to multiaxial experiments in neutral and corrosive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz L. da; Filho, Nelson do N.A.; Gomes, Paulo de T.V.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R., E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br, E-mail: nnaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ptvg@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tencologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Fatigue is the fail phenomenon of a material subjected to cyclic loads. This phenomenon affects any component under loads (forces, temperatures, etc.) that changes in time. When there is a combined load, originating multiaxial fatigue, which is the most of the real loads, worst is the situation. Before the component fail, the fatigue phenomenon produces damages to its material and this is a cumulative process that could not be reduced. In the continuum mechanic context, material damage is defined as a parameter that reduces the component resistance and this could cause its fail. The process of damage measuring by changes in electrical resistance is used in this work, and from experimental results of SAE 8620 steel specimens subjected to multiaxial fatigue in corrosive and neutral environment, the remaining specimen time life could be determined. Each specimen has its initial electrical resistance measured and after a certain number of fatigue cycles stopping points, its electrical resistance was measured again. In order to study multiaxial fatigue in specimens, a machine that induces simultaneously bending and torsional loads in the specimen was developed. Air at the temperature range of 18 deg C and 20 deg C was considered neutral environment. The corrosive environment was a NaCl solution with a concentration of 3,5% in weigh. The experimental results showed that the measuring fatigue damage using the changes in electrical resistance is efficient and that is possible to estimate the effect of a corrosive environment in the fatigue damage. (author)

  15. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittima Sillapasa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1 = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit. It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.

  16. A New Perspective on Fatigue Performance of Advanced High- Strength Steels (AHSS) GMAW Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Chiang, Dr. John [Ford Motor Company; Kuo, Dr. Min [MIttal Steel; Jiang, Cindy [AET Integration, Inc; Sang, Yan [AET Integration, Inc

    2008-01-01

    Weld fatigue performance is a critical aspect for application of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) in automotive body structures. A comparative study has been conducted to evaluate the fatigue life of AHSS welds. The material studied included seven AHSS of various strength levels - DP 600, DP 780, DP 980, M130, M220, solution annealed boron and fully hardened boron steels. Two conventional steels, HSLA 590 and DR 210, were also included for baseline comparison. Lap fillet welds were made on 2-mm nominal thick sheets by the gas metal arc welding process (GMAW). Fatigue test was conducted under a number of stress levels to obtain the S/N curves of the weld joints. It was found that, unlike in the static and impact loading conditions, the fatigue performance of AHSS is not influenced by the HAZ softening in AHSS. There are appreciable differences in the fatigue lives among different AHSS. Changes in weld parameters can influence the fatigue life of the weld joints, particularly of these of higher strength AHSS. A model is developed to predict the fatigue performance of AHSS welds. The validity of the model is benchmarked with the experimental results. This model is capable to capture the effects of weld geometry and weld microstructure and strength on the fatigue performance experimentally observed. The theoretical basis and application of the newly developed fatigue modeling methodology will be discussed.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of thick section high strength low alloy steel.

    OpenAIRE

    Needham, William Donald

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the corrosion performance of weldments of a high strength low alloy(HSLA) steel in a simulated seawater environment. This steel, designated HSLA80, was developed by the United States Navy for use in ship structural applications. Stress corrosion CRACKING(SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement(HEM) were investigated by conducting 42 Wedge-Opening load(WOL) tests as a function of stress intensity and corrosion potential and 33 Slow Strain Rate(SSR) tests...

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  19. Bond Strength Degradation of Corrosive Reinforced Lightweight Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yueshun; LU Yiyan; LI Houxiang; ZENG Sanhai

    2007-01-01

    The influence of reinforced bar corrosion on the bond degradation in lightweight concrete was studied. Accelerated constant current corrosion tests were performed on lightweight reinforced concrete samples, and the influential factors, such as protective layer thickness, reinforced bar diameter and corrosive level were investigated. The constant current step method was used to measure the electric resistance of the concrete protective cover, which was used to characterize the corrosion level of the rebar. Experimental results indicated that the corrosive resistance increased with increasing the cover dimension and decreasing the reinforced bar diameter, and the rate of decrease in the specimen impedance after cracking depended on the cover dimension. A new medium was offered for the further research on the performance degradation of corrosion lightweight concrete.

  20. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  1. Effects of structure and defect on fatigue limit in high strength ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hak; Kim, Min Gun [Kangwon National Univ., Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, the influence of several factors such as hardness, internal defect and non-propagating crack on fatigue limits was investigated with three kinds of ductile iron specimens. From the experimental results the fatigue limits were examined in relation with hardness and tensile strength in case of high strength specimens under austempering treatment; in consequence the marked improvement of fatigue limits were not showed. The maximum defect size was an important factor to predict and to evaluate the fatigue limits of ductile irons. And, the quantitative relationship between the fatigue limits({sigma}{sub {omega}}) and the maximum defect size({radical}area{sub max}) was expressed as {sigma}{sub {omega}}{sup n} {center_dot} {radical}area{sub max}=C{sub 2}. Also, it was possible to explain the difference for the fatigue limits in three ductile irons by introduction of the non-propagating crack rates.

  2. Structural strength analysis and fatigue life prediction of traction converter box in high-speed EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The method of building the FEA model of traction converter box in high-speed EMU and analyzing the static strength and fatigue strength of traction converter box based on IEC 61373-2010 and EN 12663 standards is presented in this paper. The load-stress correlation coefficients of weak points is obtained by FEA model, applied to transfer the load history of traction converter box to stress history of each point. The fatigue damage is calculated based on Miner's rule and the fatigue life of traction converter box is predicted. According to study, the structural strength of traction converter box meets design requirements.

  3. Exceptional high fatigue strength in Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Tian, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhenjun; An, Xianghai; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhefeng

    2016-06-01

    It is commonly proposed that the fatigue strength can be enhanced by increasing the tensile strength, but this conclusion needs to be reconsidered according to our study. Here a recrystallized α-Cu-15at.%Al alloy with moderate grain size of 0.62 μm was fabricated by cold rolling and annealing, and this alloy achieved exceptional high fatigue strength of 280 MPa at 107 cycles. This value is much higher than the fatigue strength of 200 MPa for the nano-crystalline counterpart (0.04 μm in grain size) despite its higher tensile strength. The remarkable improvement of fatigue strength should be mainly attributed to the microstructure optimization, which helps achieve the reduction of initial damage and the dispersion of accumulated damage. A new strategy of “damage reduction” was then proposed for fatigue strength improvement, to supplement the former strengthening principle. The methods and strategies summarized in this work offer a general pathway for further improvement of fatigue strength, in order to ensure the long-term safety of structural materials.

  4. Fatigue Strength Improvement of Welded Joint by Ultrasonic Peening in Ultra-Fine Grain Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhi-ling; ZOU Gang; HE Chang-hong; ZHANG Xiao-mu

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic peening of weld toes in ultra-fine grain steel was applied to enhance the fatigue behavior. The test results show that the ultrasonic treatment remarkably shifts the S-N curve to the right. The FAT (fatigue strength at 106 cycles) is increased by 66 %. The fatigue life at Δσ=200 MPa is extended by 58 times. The mechanism of fatigue strength improvement by ultrasonic treatment was studied. It is shown that two mechanisms improve the fatigue strength of welded joint by ultrasonic treatment: one is the decrease of the stress concentration ratio at weld toes, and the other is the building-up of a compressive residual stress at the weld.

  5. Analytical assessment for stress corrosion fatigue of CANDU fuel elements under load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Drags; Pauna, Eduard [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Nuclear Fuel Engineering Lab.

    2012-03-15

    When nuclear power reactors are operated in a load following (LF) mode, the nuclear fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. Two load following tests performed in TRIGA Research Reactor of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti were simulated with finite elements computer codes in order to evaluate Stress Corrosion Fatigue (SCF) of the sheath arising from expansion and contraction of the pellets in the corrosive environment. The 3D finite element analyses show that the cyclic strains give highly multiaxial stresses in the sheath at ridge region. This paper summarizes the results of the analytical assessment for SCF and their relation to CANDU fuel performance in LF tests conditions. (orig.)

  6. Fatigue properties of high-strength materials used in cold-forging tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, P.; Skov-Hansen, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work classical analytical models are used to describe the static stress–strain curves, low-cycle fatigue properties and fatigue crack growth behaviour of high-strength materials for use in tools for metal-forming processes such as cold forging and extrusion. The paper describes...

  7. Assessment of Fatigue Strength of An Offshore Floating Production and Storage Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建成; 顾永宁

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of assessment of structural fatigue strength of an offshore floating production and storage and offloadingunit(FPSO) in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the long-term prediction of wave induced loading, the refined finite el-ement model for hot spot stress calculation, the combination of stress components, and fatigue damage assessment based onS-N curve.

  8. The fatigue strength of base material and butt welds made of S690 and S1100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Modern steel manufacturing techniques make it possible to produce steel with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa (very high strength steels, VHSS). For the design of cyclic loaded slender VHSS structures, the fatigue strength of both base material and welded components should be known. In a VHSS

  9. Effects of thermal fatigue on shear punch strength of tooth-colored restoratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fam Mei Shi Melody

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The effect of thermocycling on shear strength was material dependent. Thermal fatigue, however, did not significantly influence the shear strength of most materials assessed. The “sculptable” composite and giomer were significantly stronger than the other materials evaluated. Shear strength of the “flowable” injectable hybrid giomer was intermediate between the composite and GICs.

  10. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of aluminium 5083-H111 welded using gas metal arc welding method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available . Alloy Al Mg Mn Fe Si Cr Cu Zn Ti 5083 Balance 4.0-4.9 0.4-1.0 0.4 0.4 0.25 0.1 0.25 0.15 Table 1. Typical chemical compositions of aluminium alloy 5083 (percentage by mass). Corrosion Fatigue Behaviour of Aluminium 5083-H111 Welded Using Gas Metal... to 120 per second. As a result, spray transfer can take place at lower average current levels than would normally be the case. Due to the lower average heat input, thinner plates can be welded, distortion is minimized and spatter is greatly reduced...

  11. Corrosion-Fatigue Cracking in HY-80 and HY-130 Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    on HY80 steel and HY-130 steel are shown in Fig. A-13 through A-16 for various specimens tested at different load ratios and environments. Because...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6355--15-9584 Corrosion-Fatigue Cracking in HY-80 and HY-130 Steels January 22, 2015 P.S...Cracking in HY-80 and HY-130 Steels P.S. Pao and R.L. Holtz Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20375-5328 Office of Naval

  12. Corrosion fatigue studies on F82H mod. martensitic steel in reducing water coolant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maday, M.F.; Masci, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia

    1998-03-01

    Load-controlled low cycle fatigue tests have been carried out on F82H martensitic steel in 240degC oxygen-free water with and without dissolved hydrogen, in order to simulate realistic coolant boundary conditions to be approached in DEMO. It was found that water independently of its hydrogen content, determined the same fatigue life reduction compared to the base-line air results. Water cracks exhibited in their first propagation stages similar fracture morphologies which were completely missing on the air cracks, and were attributed to the action of an environment related component. Lowering frequency gave rise to an increase in F82H fatigue lifetimes without any change in cracking mode in air, and to fatigue life reduction by microvoid coalescence alone in water. The data were discussed in terms of (i) frequency dependent concurrent processes for crack initiation and (ii) frequency-dependent competitive mechanisms for crack propagation induced by cathodic hydrogen from F82H corrosion. (author)

  13. A high-specific-strength and corrosion-resistant magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanqiang; Birbilis, Nick; Sha, Gang; Wang, Yu; Daniels, John E.; Xiao, Yang; Ferry, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ultra-lightweight alloys with high strength, ductility and corrosion resistance are desirable for applications in the automotive, aerospace, defence, biomedical, sporting and electronic goods sectors. Ductility and corrosion resistance are generally inversely correlated with strength, making it difficult to optimize all three simultaneously. Here we design an ultralow density (1.4 g cm-3) Mg-Li-based alloy that is strong, ductile, and more corrosion resistant than Mg-based alloys reported so far. The alloy is Li-rich and a solute nanostructure within a body-centred cubic matrix is achieved by a series of extrusion, heat-treatment and rolling processes. Corrosion resistance from the environment is believed to occur by a uniform lithium carbonate film in which surface coverage is much greater than in traditional hexagonal close-packed Mg-based alloys, explaining the superior corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  14. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, A. B.; Matthewson, M. J.; Castelino, K. T.; Wojcik, J.; Walewski, A.

    2006-04-01

    Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments are typically exposed to high temperatures and elevated humidity. This calls for better performing protective coatings. Recently developed sol-gel derived inorganicorganic hybrid materials called hybrid glass offered improved protective performance as compared to standard dual polymer coated fibers [1]. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of online UV curing for the protective ability of hybrid glass coatings. For this purpose two types of UV-curable hybrid glass candidates representing two different concentrations of acrylate groups were applied online to silica fibers as single and dual coats. Samples of fibers were collected and subjected to dynamic fatigue testing by two-point bending. The stress corrosion parameter, n, as well as the strength of the fibers were determined. Both the strength and n were higher for fibers with two layers of coating as compared to single coatings even when the thickness of both one and two layer coatings was the same. This may be caused by the greater degree of cross linking of the inorganic component when the coating is exposed twice to the heat generated in the UV chamber. Coating materials with reduced acrylate group content had higher values of the fatigue parameter n but at the same time reduced strength.

  15. Experimental and theoretical research on residual strength of plain concrete under compressive fatigue loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-hong; SONG Yu-pu

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the residual strength of concrete under fatigue loading, experiments were conducted to determine the functional relation between residual strength and the number of cycles. 80 100mm×100mm×100ram specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial compressive fatigue loading. Based on probabili-ty distribution of the residual strength of concrete under fatigue loading, the empirical expressions of the residual strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. There is a good correlation between residual strength and residual secant elastic modulus. Thus the relationship between residual secant elastic modulus and the number of cycles is established. A damage variable based on the longitudinal maximum strain is defined, and a good linearity relationship between residual strength and damage is found out.

  16. Corrosion Effects on the Strength Properties of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Containing Slag and Corrosion Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar Anandan; Sounthararajan Vallarasu Manoharan; Thirumurugan Sengottian

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion in steel can be detrimental in any steel rebar reinforced concrete as well as in the case of steel fibre reinforced concrete. The process of corrosion occurring in steel fibre incorporated concrete subjected to corrosive environment was systematically evaluated in this study. Concrete specimens were prepared with steel fibre inclusions at 1.5% Vf (volume fraction) of concrete and were added in slag based concrete (containing manufactured sand) and replaced with cement at 20%, 40%, ...

  17. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS OF FATIGUE STRENGTH IN ROLLING BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł ROMANOWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to create an algorithm of fatigue life prediction for typical rolling bearings. The proposed approach makes use of various, well established hypothesis for multiaxial fatigue applied in engineering calculations. In the first part of the work the theoretical solutions for different contact problems are compared with the numerical ones. The respective numerical results are obtained with the use of finite element modelling (ANSYS software. Then, an algorithm for fatigue life prediction is demonstrated. The results of the proposed analysis are compared with those given in rolling bearings catalogue

  18. Fatigue failure of hydrogen embrittled high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Aleszka, J.

    1975-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation are presented concerning the fracture behavior of cathodically charged, quenched and tempered martensitic steels under cyclic load conditions. Introduction of H2 by cathodic charging reduced fatigue life by as much as 60%. It is proposed that subsurface transverse fatigue cracks nucleate simultaneously at multiple sites, such as at microcracks, voids, or inclusions. Fatigue crack growth then occurs on planes perpendicular to the major applied stress axis in the presence of the critical combination of applied external stress and hydrogen.

  19. Fatigue of Austempered Ductile Iron with Two Strength Grades in Very High Cycle Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwang; Li, Wei; Song, Qingpeng; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Liantao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, Austempered ductile irons (ADIs) with two different strength grades were produced and the fatigue properties were measured at 109 cycles. The results show that the S-N curves give a typical step-wise shape and there is no fatigue limit in the very high cycle fatigue regime. The two grades ADI have the similar fracture behaviors and fatigue failure can initiate from defects at specimen surface and subsurface zone. On the fracture surfaces of some specimens, the `granular-bright-facet' area with rich carbon distribution is observed in the vicinity of the defect. The microstructure affects the crack behaviors at the early propagation stage. The ADI with upper and lower bainite shows higher fatigue strength compared with the ADI with coarse upper bainite.

  20. Effect of Water on Ductility and Fatigue Strength of Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (adi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Terutoshi; Ferguson, W. George; Goto, Masahiro

    In order to study the mechanism of decreasing tensile strength and elongation of Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) in the wet condition, various tension tests and impact tests were carried out. Three point bending fatigue tests were carried out on ADI and annealed 0.55% carbon steel to clarify the influence of water on fatigue strength. The main conclusions are as follow. Embrittlement by water begins when plastic deformation starts in a tension test. The fatigue limit of ADI in water showed a lower value than that in air. The influence of a water environment on fatigue behaviour was similar to that of annealed 0.55% carbon steel. Embrittlement such as that in a tension test was not observed in a fatigue test.

  1. Evaluation of taper joints with combined fatigue and crevice corrosion testing: Comparison to human explanted modular prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reclaru, L., E-mail: lucien.reclaru@pxgroup.com [PX Group S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Brooks, R.A. [Orthopaedic Research, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Box 180 Hills Road, CB2 0QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zuberbühler, M. [Smith and Nephew Orthopaedics AG, Schachenalle 29, 5001 Aarau (Switzerland); Eschler, P.-Y.; Constantin, F. [PX Group S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Tomoaia, G. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hateganu of Cluj-Napoca, Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for revision surgery of total joint replacements is increasing and modular joint replacement implants have been developed to provide adjustable prosthetic revision systems with improved intra-operative flexibility. An electrochemical study of the corrosion resistance of the interface between the distal and proximal modules of a modular prosthesis was performed in combination with a cyclic fatigue test. The complexity resides in the existence of interfaces between the distal part, the proximal part, and the dynamometric screw. A new technique for evaluating the resistance to cyclic dynamic corrosion with crevice stimulation was used and the method is presented. In addition, two components of the proximal module of explanted Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb prostheses were investigated by optical and electron microscopy. Our results reveal that: The electrolyte penetrates into the interface between the distal and proximal modules during cyclic dynamic fatigue tests, the distal module undergoes cracking and corrosion was generated at the interface between the two models; The comparison of the explanted proximal parts with the similar prostheses evaluated following cyclic dynamic crevice corrosion testing showed that there were significant similarities indicating that this method is suitable for evaluating materials used in the fabrication of modular prostheses. - Highlights: • Electrochemical crevice corrosion testing combined with fatigue test conducted on Ti6Al7Nb and Ti6Al4V modular prostheses • Cations released from integral prostheses • Comparison of human explanted modular prostheses with the similar prostheses evaluated in cyclic dynamic crevice corrosion.

  2. Obtaining and analysis of results of fatigue and corrosion-fatigue in steel API 5L X60; Obtencao e analise de resultados de fadiga e corrosao-fadiga em aco API 5L X60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Bruno Allison [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Silva, Antonio Almeida; Santos, Fabio Gualberto Chagas [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The corrosion process allied to the fatigue, due to repetitive efforts of several natures, is the main responsible for the damages in pipeline and offshore structures that results in the appears of located faults, and by the way can results in leaks and financial and environmental loss. This phenomenon calls corrosion-fatigue, however, it is very complex, and mainly, in what it concerns the form as this it develops in the structure. The objective of this work is to present some results of experimental fatigue tests and corrosion-fatigue accomplished with specimen that the material originated a pipeline steel API 5L X60. The tests developed in a machine which could test until 12 specimens per time. For test of corrosion-fatigue was used a cell-of-corrosion especially projected, in this way simulated an aggressive environmental condition in a corrosion conditions. With the results of tests, was possible estimate the fatigue limits of the specimen when submitted to the repeated flexing, and compare it with evaluate corrosion-fatigue graphs, that as the literature comes moved down of the curve, in relation to the fatigue curve. (author)

  3. Notch fatigue behavior: Metallic glass versus ultra-high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. D.; Qu, R. T.; Wu, S. J.; Duan, Q. Q.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effect of notch on the fatigue behavior of structural materials is of significance for the reliability and safety designing of engineering structural components. In this work, we conducted notch fatigue experiments of two high-strength materials, i.e. a Ti32.8Zr30.2Ni5.3Cu9Be22.7 metallic glass (MG) and a 00Ni18Co15Mo8Ti ultra-high strength steel (CM400 UHSS), and compared their notch fatigue behavior. Experimental results showed that although both the strength and plasticity of the MG were much lower than those of the UHSS, the fatigue endurance limit of the notched MG approached to that of the notched UHSS, and the fatigue ratio of the notched MG was even higher. This interesting finding can be attributed to the unique shear banding mechanism of MG. It was found that during fatigue process abundant shear bands formed ahead of the notch root and in the vicinity of the crack in the notched MG, while limited plastic deformation was observed in the notched UHSS. The present results may improve the understanding on the fatigue mechanisms of high-strength materials and offer new strategies for structural design and engineering application of MG components with geometrical discontinuities. PMID:27752136

  4. Notch fatigue behavior: Metallic glass versus ultra-high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. D.; Qu, R. T.; Wu, S. J.; Duan, Q. Q.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2016-10-01

    Studying the effect of notch on the fatigue behavior of structural materials is of significance for the reliability and safety designing of engineering structural components. In this work, we conducted notch fatigue experiments of two high-strength materials, i.e. a Ti32.8Zr30.2Ni5.3Cu9Be22.7 metallic glass (MG) and a 00Ni18Co15Mo8Ti ultra-high strength steel (CM400 UHSS), and compared their notch fatigue behavior. Experimental results showed that although both the strength and plasticity of the MG were much lower than those of the UHSS, the fatigue endurance limit of the notched MG approached to that of the notched UHSS, and the fatigue ratio of the notched MG was even higher. This interesting finding can be attributed to the unique shear banding mechanism of MG. It was found that during fatigue process abundant shear bands formed ahead of the notch root and in the vicinity of the crack in the notched MG, while limited plastic deformation was observed in the notched UHSS. The present results may improve the understanding on the fatigue mechanisms of high-strength materials and offer new strategies for structural design and engineering application of MG components with geometrical discontinuities.

  5. Assessment of concrete damage and strength degradation caused by reinforcement corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Jaya; Chen, Hua-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Structural performance deterioration of reinforced concrete structures has been extensively investigated, but very limited studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of reinforcement corrosion on time-dependent reliability with consideration of the influence of mechanical characteristics of the bond interface due to corrosion. This paper deals with how corrosion in reinforcement creates different types of defects in concrete structure and how they are responsible for the structural capacity deterioration of corrosion affected reinforced concrete structures during their service life. Cracking in cover concrete due to reinforcement corrosion is investigated by using rebar-concrete model and realistic concrete properties. The flexural strength deterioration is analytically predicted on the basis of bond strength evolution due to reinforcement corrosion, which is examined by the experimental data available. The time-dependent reliability analysis is undertaken to calculate the life time structural reliability of corrosion damaged concrete structures by stochastic deterioration modelling of reinforced concrete. The results from the numerical example show that the proposed approach is capable of evaluating the damage caused by reinforcement corrosion and also predicting the structural reliability of concrete structures during their lifecycle.

  6. An Investigation on Fatigue in High-Strength Steel Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Lopez Martinez, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of offshore steel structures in high-strength steel is studied. The material used has a yield stress of 800-1000 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Of special interest is the fatigue life under a realistic stochastic loading....... In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on both full-scale tubular joints and smaller welded plate test specimens, in high-strength steel as well as in conventional offshore structural steel. The present document gives a summary of the main results presented in two......, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those obtained in corresponding tests on joints in conventional offshore structural steel....

  7. The fatigue strength of graphite and carbon materials for HTTR core components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Motokuni [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Arai, Taketoshi; Konishi, Takashi

    1998-03-01

    Room temperature fatigue tests were carried out on graphite and carbon materials, which are used for the components in the core region of the HTTR, in the applied stress condition that R (={sigma} min / {sigma} max)=-3, -1, 0 (PGX graphite), =-1, 0 (ASR-ORB carbon) and =-1 (IG-11 graphite). The data were analyzed by Price`s method, homologous stress method and P-T-S diagram method to investigate which is the most appropriate to derive design S-N curves. Fatigue tests were also carried out at 980degC in vacuo on IG-11 graphite to clarify the effect of temperature on its fatigue strength. The results indicated: (1) Price`s method was the most appropriate to analyze the data for a design S-N curve. (2) Fatigue strength decreased with decreasing R-value, with the less pronounced tendency for ASR-ORB. (3) Design S-N curves were obtained on PGX and ASR-ORB on the basis of the data analyzed by Price`s method. (4) Fatigue strength of IG-11 at 980degC appeared to be almost the same as that for the room temperature fatigue strength, if the applied stress was normalized to the mean tensile strength at room temperature in vacuo. (author)

  8. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  9. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan from Compressive Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Swaidani, A. M.; Ismat, R.; Diyab, M. E.; Aliyan, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    A lot of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures in Syria have suffered from reinforcement corrosion which shortened significantly their service lives. Probably, one of the most effective approaches to make concrete structures more durable and concrete industry on the whole - more sustainable is to substitute pozzolan for a portion of Portland cement (PC). Syria is relatively rich in natural pozzolan. In the study, in order to predict the corrosion resistance from compressive strength, concrete specimens were produced with seven cement types: one plain Portland cement (control) and six natural pozzolan-based cements with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. The development of the compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens with curing time has been investigated. Chloride penetrability has also been evaluated for all concrete mixes after three curing times of 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect on resistance of concrete against damage caused by corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel has been investigated using an accelerated corrosion test by impressing a constant anodic potential for 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Test results have been statistically analysed and correlation equations relating compressive strength and corrosion performance have been developed. Significant correlations have been noted between the compressive strength and both rapid chloride penetrability and corrosion initiation times. So, this prediction could be reliable in concrete mix design when using natural pozzolan as cement replacement.

  10. Degradation in the Fatigue Strength of Dentin by Cutting, Etching and Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.-H.; Majd, H.; Orrego, S.; Majd, B.; Romberg, E.; Mutluay, M.M.; Arola, D.

    2014-01-01

    The processes involved in placing resin composite restorations may degrade the fatigue strength of dentin and increase the likelihood of fractures in restored teeth. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative changes in strength and fatigue behavior of dentin caused by bur preparation, etching and resin bonding procedures using a 3-step system. Methods Specimens of dentin were prepared from the crowns of unrestored 3rd molars and subjected to either quasi-static or cyclic flexural loading to failure. Four treated groups were prepared including dentin beams subjected to a burr treatment only with a conventional straight-sided bur, or etching treatment only. An additional treated group received both bur and etching treatments, and the last was treated by bur treatment and etching, followed by application of a commercial resin adhesive. The control group consisted of “as sectioned” dentin specimens. Results Under quasi-static loading to failure there was no significant difference between the strength of the control group and treated groups. Dentin beams receiving only etching or bur cutting treatments exhibited fatigue strengths that were significantly lower (p≤0.0001) than the control; there was no significant difference in the fatigue resistance of these two groups. Similarly, the dentin receiving bur and etching treatments exhibited significantly lower (p≤0.0001) fatigue strength than that of the control, regardless of whether an adhesive was applied. Significance The individual steps involved in the placement of bonded resin composite restorations significantly decrease the fatigue strength of dentin, and application of a bonding agent does not increase the fatigue strength of dentin. PMID:24985539

  11. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    general conical , hemispherical, and roughly saucer-shaped for steel and many alloys [41], as shown in Figure 2.2. Pits usually nucleate at chemical or...performed in a piezoelectric resonance system. Their results indicated that the presence of corrosion pits notably reduces the fatigue life of the

  12. Fatigue of concrete under compression: Database and proposal for high strength concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.

    2014-01-01

    The compressive strength of concrete decreases as an element is subjected to cycles of loading. In a typical fatigue test for the concrete compressive strength, a concrete specimen (typically a cylinder) is loaded between a lower and upper stress limit. These limits are expressed as a fraction of th

  13. Fatigue of concrete under compression: Database and proposal for high strength concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.

    2014-01-01

    The compressive strength of concrete decreases as an element is subjected to cycles of loading. In a typical fatigue test for the concrete compressive strength, a concrete specimen (typically a cylinder) is loaded between a lower and upper stress limit. These limits are expressed as a fraction of

  14. The Effect of Steel Corrosion on Bond Strength in Concrete Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Cong-qi; KOU Xin-jian

    2005-01-01

    The effect of steel corrosion on the behavior of bond between steel and the surrounding concrete was in vestigated. Pullout tests were carried out to demonstrate bond stress-slip response for reinforcing steel bars of a series of corrosion level. Specimens either confined or unconfined were investigated for evaluation of the effect of confinement on bond strength and failure mode. Also, the tests were analyzed using nonlinear finite element analysis. It was shown that for both confined and unconfined steel bars, bond strength generally decreases as the corrosion level increases when corrosion level is relatively high. Confinement was demonstrated to provide excellent means to conteract bond loss for corroded reinforcing steel bars. It was shown that unconfined specimens generally split at a small slip with a large crack width and result in splitting failure while confined specimens contribute to a small crack width and generally cause a pullout failure. The analysis results agree reasonably well with the experiments.

  15. Strength and corrosion behavior of SiC - based ceramics in hot coal combustion environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breder, K.; Parten, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate the use of advanced ceramics in a new generation of coal-fired power plants, four SiC-based ceramics have been exposed to corrosive coal slag in a laboratory furnace and two pilot scale combustors. Initial results indicate that the laboratory experiments are valuable additions to more expensive pilot plant experiments. The results show increased corrosive attack with increased temperature, and that only slight changes in temperature may significantly alter the degree of strength degradation due to corrosive attack. The present results are part of a larger experimental matrix evaluating the behavior of ceramics in the coal combustion environment.

  16. Mechanical strength, fatigue life, and failure analysis of two prototypes and five conventional tibial locking screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sheng-Mou; Wang, Jaw-Lin; Lin, Jinn

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the design and microstructure on the mechanical strength of tibial locking devices. The mechanical strength of two prototypes of specially developed locking devices (a both-ends-threaded screw and an unthreaded bolt) was tested and compared with that of five types of commercially available tibial locking screws (Synthes, Howmedica, Richards, Osteo AG, and Zimmer) with similar dimensions. The devices were inserted into a polyethylene tube and loaded at their midpoint by a materials testing machine to simulate a three-point bending test. Single-loading yielding strength and cyclic-loading fatigue life were then measured. Failure analysis of the fractured screws was performed to investigate the microstructure and potential causes of the fatigue fracture. Test results showed that both yielding strength and fatigue life were closely related to the section modulus of the inner diameter of screws. Among the threaded screws, the both-ends-threaded screws had a higher yielding strength and longer fatigue life than the Osteo AG, Howmedica, Richards, and Zimmer screws. The unthreaded bolts had a lower yielding strength than Synthes screws, but they demonstrated the longest fatigue life among all. In failure analysis of broken screws, no metallurgical or manufacturing defects were found except for surface microimperfections. The implants investigated in this study are manufactured with high-quality materials and manufacturing processes. The main cause of hardware failure was mechanical overloading. The five commercially used tibial locking screws had a relatively short fatigue life under high loading. Removing the screw threads might substantially increase the fatigue life of the locking devices. In unthreaded bolts, this increase might be tenfold to a hundredfold.

  17. Some considerations about improvement for fatigue strength of structures; Shatai kozobutsu no hiro kyodo kojo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, H.; Toyama, K.; Maruyama, H.; Magara, S. [Press Kogyo Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce weight, higher tensile strength and/or thinner plate are used or considered in vehicle structures. In general, welded or notch sections, fatigue strength decreases because of increasing concentrated stress or effect of notch sensitivity and so on. In this paper, some methods are studied to improve fatigue strength and obtain a long life. 2 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Effect of Phosphate-Buffered Solution Corrosion on the Ratcheting Fatigue Behavior of a Duplex Mg-Li-Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Yu, Dunji; Gao, Li-Lan; Gao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the uniaxial ratcheting and fatigue behavior of a duplex Mg-Li-Al alloy under the influence of phosphate-buffered solution corrosion. Microstructural observations reveal pitting and filament corrosion defects, which impair the load-bearing capacity of the alloy and cause stress concentration, thus leading to an accelerated accumulation of ratcheting strain and shortened fatigue life under the same nominal loading conditions. Comparing Smith model, Smith-Watson-Topper model, and Paul-Sivaprasad-Dhar model, a ratcheting fatigue life prediction model based on the Broberg damage rule and the Paul-Sivaprasad-Dhar model was proposed, and the model yielded a superior prediction for the studied magnesium alloy.

  19. Corrosion Resistance of High Strength Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    F. Mat Yahaya; Muthusamy, K.; Sulaiman, N.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work investigates the influence of POFA as partial cement replacement towards corrosion resistance of high strength concrete. Plain high strength concrete (P0) with 100% ordinary Portland cement (control specimen) and POFA high strength concrete containing POFA as partial cement replacement material were used. At the first stage, mix with 20% POFA (P20) has been identified as the best performing mix after cubes (150×150×150 mm) containing various content of POFA as partial c...

  20. Fatigue behavior of press hardened Al-Si coated high strength steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zijian; Gui Zhongxiang; Zhang Yisheng

    2014-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of press hardened Al-Si coated high strength steel has been investigated,and the fatigue strength turns out to be about 1 000 MPa. Surface morphology of fractured and non-fractured speci-men has been observed,and the coating shows significant influence on the fatigue behavior. The difference of elastic modulus between coating and substrate led to the main cracks perpendicular to the loading direction. The coating close to fracture exfoliated thinly,while the coating far away from the fracture kept integrated. Though the specimen was polished to obtain high surface quality,3 types of cracks occurred during the fatigue test. What’s more,inclusion particles were proved to play a crucial role in causing these cracks.

  1. The Effect of Shot Peening on the Fatigue Strength of Pure Titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-bin; FAN Ding; YU Shu-rong

    2004-01-01

    The changes of the substructure, the residual stress and the surface roughness of shot peened pure titanium were analyzed by means of SEM, TEM, XRD and surface roughness measurements in this paper. The results show that shot peening increased the fatigue strength of pure titanium. The substructures of shot peened pure titanium consist of dislocations, deformation twins and deformation bands. Fatigue loading will relax the compressive residual stress and decrease the strengthening effect. The increased surface roughness has negative effects.

  2. Simple Predicting Method for Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Based on Tensile Strength of Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three types of fatigue tests for an annealed carbon steel containing carbon of 0.42 % were carried out on smooth specimens and specimens with a small blind hole in order to investigate the fatigue crack growth law. A simple predicting method for crack growth rates has been proposed involving strength σb and the relation between cyclic stress and strain. The validity of proposed method has been confirmed by experiments on several carbon steels with different loadings.

  3. Mobility-Related Fatigue, Walking Speed, and Muscle Strength in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fatigue is an important early marker of functional decline among older people, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between mobility-related fatigue and walking speed and to test...... the degree to which muscle strength accounts for this association. Methods. The study is based on baseline (n = 523) and 5-year follow-up data (n = 292) from a cohort of 75-year-old persons. Standardized assessments include self-report measures of mobility-related fatigue (score range 0–6) and medical...

  4. Fatigue reliability based on residual strength model with hybrid uncertain parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Zhi-Ping Qiu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue reliability with hybrid uncertain parameters based on a residual strength model.By solving the non-probabilistic setbased reliability problem and analyzing the reliability with randomness,the fatigue reliability with hybrid parameters can be obtained.The presented hybrid model can adequately consider all uncertainties affecting the fatigue reliability with hybrid uncertain parameters.A comparison among the presented hybrid model,non-probabilistic set-theoretic model and the conventional random model is made through two typical numerical examples.The results show that the presented hybrid model,which can ensure structural security,is effective and practical.

  5. Fatigue strength of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerov, M. V.; Vladislavskaya, E. Yu.; Terent'ev, V. F.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Antonova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The fatigue properties and the fracture mechanisms of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) from a powder of an CL41TiELI titanium alloy have been studied. Cylindrical blanks were grown at angles of 90° and 45° to a platform. The best fatigue strength is observed in the samples the blanks of which were grown at an angle of 45°. It is found that the structure of the SLM material can contain portions with unmelted powder particles, which are the places of initiation of fatigue cracks.

  6. Fretting fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands under bending load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Georgakis, Christos T.; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the fretting fatigue behavior of pretensioned high-strength steel monostrands is investigated. To measure the local deformations on the strands, a novel method based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique was used to quantify the relative movement between individual wires...... along the length of the monostrand. Information about the monostrand bending stiffness and the extent of relative displacement between core and outer wires of a monostrand undergoing flexural deformations is provided. From the series of dynamic fatigue tests, a fretting fatigue spectrum is derived...

  7. Reliability analysis of stochastic structural system considering static strength, stiffness and fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN WeiGuang; ZHAO WeiTao; AN Hai

    2007-01-01

    Multi-failures are possible to appear in the process of using the structural system,such as dead load failure, fatigue failure and stiffness failure. The expression of residual resistance is given based on the impact of random crack propagation induced by the fatigue load on the critical limit stress and section modulus in this paper. The failure modes of every element of the structural system are analyzed under dead and fatigue loads, and the influence of the correlation of failure modes on reliability of the element is considered. Failure mechanism and the correlation of failure modes under dead and fatigue loads are discussed, and the method of reliability analysis considering static strength, fatigue and stiffness is given. A numerical example is analyzed, which indicates that the failure probability is different for different use life and the influence of dead and fatigue loads on reliability of the structural system is different as well. This method of reliability analysis, in the paper, is better than the method only considering a single factor (or static strength, or fatigue, or stiffness, etc.) in the case of practical engineering.

  8. Reliability analysis of stochastic structural system considering static strength, stiffness and fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multi-failures are possible to appear in the process of using the structural system, such as dead load failure, fatigue failure and stiffness failure. The expression of residual resistance is given based on the impact of random crack propagation in- duced by the fatigue load on the critical limit stress and section modulus in this paper. The failure modes of every element of the structural system are analyzed under dead and fatigue loads, and the influence of the correlation of failure modes on reliability of the element is considered. Failure mechanism and the correlation of failure modes under dead and fatigue loads are discussed, and the method of reli- ability analysis considering static strength, fatigue and stiffness is given. A nu- merical example is analyzed, which indicates that the failure probability is different for different use life and the influence of dead and fatigue loads on reliability of the structural system is different as well. This method of reliability analysis, in the pa- per, is better than the method only considering a single factor (or static strength, or fatigue, or stiffness, etc.) in the case of practical engineering.

  9. Fatigue Performance of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) GMAW Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Sang, Yan [AET Integration, Inc; Jiang, Cindy [AET Integration, Inc; Chiang, Dr. John [Ford Motor Company; Kuo, Dr. Min [MIttal Steel

    2009-01-01

    The fatigue performance of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joints of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are compared and analyzed. The steel studied included a number of different grades of AHSS and baseline mild steels: DP600, DP780, DP980, M130, M220, solution annealed boron steel, fully hardened boron steels, HSLA690 and DR210 (a mild steel). Fatigue testing was conducted under a number of nominal stress ranges to obtain the S/N curves of the weld joints. A two-phase analytical model is developed to predict the fatigue performance of AHSS welds. It was found that there are appreciable differences in the fatigue S/N curves among different AHSS joints made using the same welding practices, suggesting that the local microstructure in the weld toe and root region plays non-negligible role in the fatigue performance of AHSS welds. Changes in weld parameters can influence the joint characteristics which in turn influence fatigue life of the weld joints, particularly of those of higher strength AHSS. The analytical model is capable of reasonably predicting the fatigue performance of welds made with various steel grades in this study.

  10. A Thermodynamic Entropy Approach to Reliability Assessment with Applications to Corrosion Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Imanian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a science-based explanation of damage and reliability of critical components and structures within the second law of thermodynamics. The approach relies on the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics, specifically the concept of entropy generation as an index of degradation and damage in materials. All damage mechanisms share a common feature, namely energy dissipation. Dissipation, a fundamental measure for irreversibility in a thermodynamic treatment of non-equilibrium processes, is quantified by entropy generation. An entropic-based damage approach to reliability and integrity characterization is presented and supported by experimental validation. Using this theorem, which relates entropy generation to dissipative phenomena, the corrosion fatigue entropy generation function is derived, evaluated, and employed for structural integrity and reliability assessment of aluminum 7075-T651 specimens.

  11. Corrosion resistance of high strength modified 13Cr steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Mitsuo; Miyata, Yukio; Yamane, Yasuyoshi; Toyooka, Takaaki; Nakano, Yoshifumi [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Handa, Aichi (Japan). Technical Research Labs.; Murase, Fumio [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Handa, Aichi (Japan). Chita Works

    1997-08-01

    A new 13Cr martensitic stainless steel (0.025C-13Cr-Ni-Mo) with excellent resistance to CO{sub 2} corrosion and good resistance to SSC is developed and its application limit in oil and gas environments is clarified. The CO{sub 2} corrosion rate of the 13Cr steels with Ni and Mo is less than 0.3 mm/yr at 180 C (356 F) in 20% NaCl. It is less than that of the conventional 13Cr steel (0.2C-13Cr). The corrosion rate of the steel slightly decreases with the increase in Mo and Ni content. The SSC resistance improves with the increase in Mo content. The critical partial pressure of H{sub 2}S for the 2% Mo steel is greater than 0.005 MPa at the pH value of 3.5. The effects of Ni and Cu on SSC are not distinctive for this kind of steel. These results depends on the hydrogen permeability. The critical H{sub 2}S partial pressure for the 110 grade steel is the same as that of the 95 grade steel at the pH values of 4.5 and 3.0, and is slightly lower at the pH values between 3.0 and 4.5. The new 13Cr steel proves to have excellent properties in the sweet and slightly sour environment.

  12. Comparison of Post Weld Treatment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints in Medium Cycle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    the stress range can exceed the yield-strength of ordinary structural steel, especially when considering positive stress ratios (R > 0). Fatigue experiments and qualitative evaluation of the different post-weld treatments leads to the selection of TIG dressing. The process of implementing TIG dressing......This paper presents a comparison of three post-weld treatments for fatigue life improvement of welded joints. The objective is to determine the most suitable post-weld treatment for implementation in mass production of certain crane components manufactured from very high-strength steel....... The processes investigated are: burr grinding, TIG dressing and ultrasonic impact treatment. The focus of this investigation is on the so-called medium cycle area, i.e. 10 000-500 000 cycles and very high stress ranges. In this area of fatigue design, the use of very high strength steel becomes necessary, since...

  13. An investigation on fatigue in high-strength steel offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1998-01-01

    The fatigue life of offshore steel structures in high-strength steel is studied. The material used has a yield stress of 800-1000 MPa and high weldability and toughness properties. Of special interest is the fatigue life under a realistic stochastic loading. In the experimental part...... of the investigation, fatigue test series were carried out on both full scale tubular joints and smaller welded plate test specimens in high-strength steel as well as in conventional offshore structural steel. This paper gives a summary of the main results presented in two recent research reports [15, 16], from...... specimens in high-strength steel than those obtained in corresponding tests on joints in conventional offshore structural steel....

  14. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    objective measures: grip strength, standing balance, chair rising, and timed get-up-and-go (TUG) tests. RESULTS: There were associations between reports of frequent fatigue at both ages and poorer grip strength, chair rise, and TUG performance at 60 to 64 years. Furthermore, individuals reporting frequent...... fatigue at both ages had weaker grip strength (β = -4.09 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -6.71 to -1.48) and slower chair rise (β = -4.65 repetitions/min, 95% CI = -6.65 to -2.64) and TUG (β = -4.22 cm/s, 95% CI = -12.16 to -2.28) speeds when compared with those who reported no fatigue at both time...

  15. Residual fatigue strength of 48MnV crankshaft based on safety factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; CHEN Ming; PU Geng-qiang; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Residual fatigue strength of 48MnV crankshaft was studied and analyzed based on safety factor. Three different status crankshafts were used to the hop-up tests, which maintain new after 500 h hop-up tests and after 1 000 h hop-up tests. Then, crankshafts were cut into unit cranks. The unit cranks were used to do endurance bending tests to get the residual fatigue strength. Finally, the results were analyzed based on safety factor. The results show that safety factor of crankshaft descends a little with the increase of the running time, and the residual safety factor is still much bigger than the endurable safety factor. Furthermore, after the crankshaft accomplishes a full life cycle, the residual fatigue strength of the crankshaft is enough to remanufacture and fulfill the next life cycle.

  16. Proof of fatigue strength of ferritic and austenitic nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Weissenberg, T. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide material data, detailed stress analysis procedures and a design philosophy which guarantees a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. For the fatigue design curves used as limiting criteria the influence of different factors like e.g., environment, surface finish and temperature must be taken into consideration in an appropriate way. Fatigue tests were performed with low alloy steels as well as with Nb- and Ti-stabilized German austenitic stainless steels in air and simulated high temperature boiling water reactor environment. The experimental results are compared and valuated with the mean data curves in air as well as with mean data curves under high temperature water environment published in the international literature. (orig.)

  17. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT EXPOSED TO ICE LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Tat'yana Erikovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic nature of effects of ice loading contributes to the formation of non-reversible deformations and defects of structural elements that may cause loss of the bearing capacity of the structure due to the accumulation of fatigue damages in dangerous sections. The damages in question are caused by moderate loads of multiple repeatability. In order to assess the number of cycles of ice loading that the structure may be exposed to without any substantial damages, the authors have developed a simulation model of ice load formation that serves as the basis for the analysis of the loading pattern that the structure is exposed to. This loading pattern is the initial one for the purposes of calculation of the fatigue resistance of structural elements to ice load effects. In the research, the authors provide for the joint application of the simulation model of ice load formation and the model of accumulation of fatigue damages to assess the ice resistance of a platform and its reliability from the viewpoint of its failure.

  18. Comparison of Bending Fatigue Strength among Spur Gears Manufactured by Various Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masashi; Matsushima, Yu; Miwa, Shinji; Narita, Yukihito; Inoue, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Yoshiki

    This paper deals with an experimental evaluation of bending fatigue strengths for hobbed, forged, sintered and austempered ductile iron (ADI) spur gears. The module is 2.5 and the number of teeth is 26 in the test gears. The materials of the test gears are SCr420H for hobbed and forged gears, prealloyed powder metal with 1.5 wt.% Mo for sintered gears, and FCAD 1100-15 for ADI gears. All gears except ADI gears were carburized. The pulsator bending fatigue tests were carried out for the test gears. Then the relationship between the strength and the manufacturing cost is obtained. The forged gear has the high strength of 3% and low cost compared with the hobbed gear. It is the best among the four gears. The sintered and ADI gears have approximately half the strength and cost of the hobbed gear. These gears are effective when cost is a high priority. In the progress of the fatigue tests, comparisons of strength among gears having different tooth-root forms were needed. The nominal stress obtained from actual measured profile data using a noncontact-type measuring machine is suitable for comparing the fatigue strength in gears having different root forms.

  19. Fatigue strength of MAR-M509 alloy with structure refined by rapid crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mróz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents test results of high-cycle (N>2⋅107 fatigue bending strength of MAR-M-509 cobalt alloy samples, as cast and aftersurface refining with a concentrated stream of heat. Tests were conducted on samples of MAR-M59 alloy casts, obtained using the lostwax method. Cast structure refining was performed with the GTAW method in argon atmosphere, using the current I = 200 A andelectrical arc scanning velocity vs = 250 mm/min. The effect of rapid crystallization occurring after the fusion process is refinement of the MAR-M509 alloy cast microstructure and significant improvement in bending fatigue strength.

  20. STUDY ON THE METHOD OF FATIGUE STRENGTH DESIGN FOR DYNAMICALLY LOADED JOURNAL BEARING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FanXun; MengHuirong

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design method, which is different from the traditional and empirical one (i. e. , taking p and pv as the basic checking parameters) is presented for the fatigue strength design of dynamically loaded journal bearings. The method makes it possible that dynamically loaded bearings can be designed as same as other machine elements hy stress-strength criterion. The practical design results show that the method has high accuracy and reliability, and may open a new vista in bearing fatigue designs.

  1. Fatigue-induced damage of high-strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetulov, D. I.; Myl'nikov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The issues on the estimation of the surface damage of the products produced from high-strength alloys are considered. Mathematical relationships for a numerical calculation of the surface damage are given. The peculiarities of the evaluation of the surface damage are investigated, as applied to high-strength alloys.

  2. Evaluation of the stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength low alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance was studied for high strength alloy steels 4130, 4340, for H-11 at selected strength levels, and for D6AC and HY140 at a single strength. Round tensile and C-ring type specimens were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, salt spray, the atmosphere at Marshall Space Flight Center, and the seacoast at Kennedy Space Center. Under the test conditions, 4130 and 4340 steels heat treated to a tensile strength of 1240 MPa (180 ksi), H-11 and D6AC heat treated to a tensile strength of 1450 MPa (210 ksi), and HY140 (1020 MPa, 148 ksi) are resistant to stress corrosion cracking because failures were not encountered at stress levels up to 75 percent of their yield strengths. A maximum exposure period of one month for alternate immersion in salt water or salt spray and three months for seacoast is indicated for alloy steel to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking because of failure resulting from severe pitting.

  3. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO{sub 2}-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozulin, A. A., E-mail: kozulyn@ftf.tsu.ru; Kulkov, S. S. [Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Narikovich, A. S.; Leitsin, V. N. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, 236041 (Russian Federation); Kulkov, S. N., E-mail: kulkov@ispms.ru [Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO{sub 2}-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91–0.98, 0.8–0.83, and 0.73–0.77 MPa of the static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 10{sup 5} stress cycles is in the range 33–34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.

  4. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO2-based ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, A. A.; Narikovich, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.; Leitsin, V. N.; Kulkov, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO2-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91-0.98, 0.8-0.83, and 0.73-0.77 MPa of the static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 105 stress cycles is in the range 33-34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.

  5. Fatigue Performance of Microalloyed High-strength Rebar and Analysis of Fracture Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-yan LU; Yu LIU; Hua-jie WU; Gang LIU; Xiang MENG; Yang XU

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue performance of hot-rolled ribbed-steel bar with the yield strength of 500 MPa (HRB500)was stud-ied with bend-rotating fatigue test at a stress ratio of R=-1 .It is determined by staircase method that its fatigue strength for 107 cycles is 451 MPa,which is higher than that of common carbon structural steel.This should be at-tributed to the fine-grain strengthening resulting from the high content of alloy element V and Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP).The S-N curve function is also obtained by nonlinear regression with three parameters power function.The fatigue fractures of the specimen were further analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)and Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDS)to study the fracture mechanism.Taking into account microstruc-ture,hardness and cleanliness of the material,it implies that the fatigue fractures of HRB500 rebar all arise from surface substrates in which many brittle inclusions are contained,and that the fatigue crack propagation is principally based on the mechanism of quasi-cleavage fracture,because of the intracrystalline hard spots leading to stress con-centration and thus to the cracks.Moreover,the transient breaking area exhibits microvoid coalescence of ductile fracture due to the existing abundant inclusions.

  6. Fabrication, lattice strain, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of nanocrystalline nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel films of 17-40 nm grain sizes were prepared using pulsejet electrodeposition. Structure, corrosion and lattice strain were analysed by transmission electron microscope, electrochemical workstation and X-ray diffraction, revealing that with decreasing of grain size, the lattice strain, corrosion rate of the films are enhanced. The observations can be consistently understood in terms of the bond-order-length-strength correlation mechanism indicating that the shortened and strengthened bonds between the under-coordinated atoms modify the energy density and the atomic cohesive energy in the surface skins of the grains.The surface energy density gain is responsible for the residual atomic cohesive energy for the activation energy of corrosion.Additionally, a novel algorithm was proposed to extract the elastic-plastic properties of nickel films and results that the nickel film has much higher yield strength than bulk nickel.

  7. Threshold Stress Intensity of Hydrogen-Induced Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking of High Strength Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The threshold stress intensity of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for 40CrMo steel in 3.5 % NaCl solution decreased exponentially with the increase of yield strength. The threshold stress intensity of hydrogen-induced cracking during dynamical charging for 40CrMo steel decreased linearly with the logarithm of the concentration of diffusible hydrogen. This equation was also applicable to SCC of high strength steel in aqueous solution. The critical hydrogen enrichment concentration necessary for SCC of high strength steel in water decreased exponentially with the increase of yield strength. Based on the results, the relationship between KISCC and σys could be deduced.

  8. Tensile strength and corrosion resistance of brazed and laser-welded cobalt-chromium alloy joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Rok; Legat, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad

    2006-10-01

    The longevity of prosthodontic restorations is often limited due to the mechanical or corrosive failure occurring at the sites where segments of a metal framework are joined together. The purpose of this study was to determine which joining method offers the best properties to cobalt-chromium alloy frameworks. Brazed and 2 types of laser-welded joints were compared for their mechanical and corrosion characteristics. Sixty-eight cylindrical cobalt-chromium dental alloy specimens, 35 mm long and 2 mm in diameter, were cast. Sixteen specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in an artificial saliva solution and divided into 4 groups (n=4). In the intact group, the specimens were left as cast. The specimens of the remaining 3 groups were sectioned at the center, perpendicular to the long-axis, and were subsequently rejoined by brazing (brazing group) or laser welding using an X- or I-shaped joint design (X laser and I laser groups, respectively). Another 16 specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in a more acidic artificial saliva solution. These specimens were also divided into 4 groups (n=4) as described above. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were used to assess corrosion potentials, breakdown potentials, corrosion current densities, total impedances at lowest frequency, and polarization charge-transfer resistances. The remaining 36 specimens were used for tensile testing. They were divided into 3 groups in which specimen pairs (n=6) were joined by brazing or laser welding to form 70-mm-long cylindrical rods. The tensile strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. Differences between groups were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (alpha=.05). The fracture surfaces and corrosion defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The average tensile strength of brazed joints was 792 MPa and was significantly greater (P<.05) than the tensile strength of both types of

  9. Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading - experiences, causes and appropriate measures; Korrosionsutmattning i aangturbinskovlar - Erfarenheter, inverkande faktorer och moejliga aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, J. [ABB STAL AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue in LP steam turbine blading was reviewed together with result of tests performed in order to find blade materials with improved resistance against this. According to international experience, corrosion fatigue of 12Cr steam turbine blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam, is one of the major causes, if not the major cause, for unavailability of steam turbines. Corrosion fatigue in LP blading is a frequent problem also in Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants, especially in turbines of type D54 in BWR-plants. Corrosion fatigue has also been discovered in at least one type of nuclear turbine. Initiation times have been very long and the varying experiences in different types of turbines may simply reflect differing initiation times. Corrosion fatigue may therefore become more frequent in other types of turbines in the future. The type of water treatment (BWR/PWR) and possibly temperature after reheating seem to influence the risk for corrosion fatigue. Influence of inleakage of cooling water is less clear for these nuclear plants. The long initiation times together with the fact that very few of the cracked blades have actually failed, indicate that the cracks initiate and/or propagate during transients. Extensive laboratory tests show that there are alternative blade materials available with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue, with the most promising being 15/5 PH and A905, together with Ti6Al4V. The Ti alloy shows the best resistance against corrosion fatigue in most environments and is already used in some turbines. Disadvantage is a higher cost and possible need for redesign of the blades. The alternative materials are recommended for use for blades in the transition zone between dry and wet steam in LP turbines. The main disadvantage is a lack of references, even if 15%5 PH has been used to a very limited extent. 40 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs, 9 appendices

  10. Analysis of Fretting Fatigue Strength of Integral Shroud Blade for Steam Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Yasutomo; Tomii, Masayuki; Ohyama, Hiroharu; Kurimura, Takayuki

    To improve the reliability and the thermal efficiency of LP (Low Pressure) end blades of steam turbine, new standard series of LP end blades have been developed. The new LP end blades are characterized by the ISB (Integral Shroud Blade) structure. In the ISB structure, blades are continuously coupled by blade untwist due to centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed. One of the probable failure modes of the ISB structure seems to be fretting fatigue, because the ISB utilizes friction damping between adjacent shrouds and stubs. Therefore, in order to design a blade with high reliability, the design procedure for evaluating the fretting fatigue strength was established by the model test and the nonlinear contact analysis. This paper presents the practical design method for predicting the fretting fatigue strength of the ISB structure, and the some applications are explained.

  11. Strength training improves fatigue resistance and self-rated health in workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    care ergonomic training (control). At baseline and follow-up, participants performed a handgrip muscular fatigue test (time above 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force) with simultaneous recording of electromyography. Additionally, participants replied to a questionnaire regarding self......Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis...... of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...

  12. Fatigue and Muscle Strength Involving Walking Speed in Parkinson’s Disease: Insights for Developing Rehabilitation Strategy for PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Zu Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Problems with gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD are a challenge in neurorehabilitation, partly because the mechanisms causing the walking disability are unclear. Weakness and fatigue, which may significantly influence gait, are commonly reported by patients with PD. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between weakness and fatigue and walking ability in patients with PD. Methods. We recruited 25 patients with idiopathic PD and 25 age-matched healthy adults. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC, twitch force, and voluntary activation levels were measured before and after a knee fatigue exercise. General fatigue, central fatigue, and peripheral fatigue were quantified by exercise-induced changes in MVC, twitch force, and activation level. In addition, subjective fatigue was measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results. The patients with PD had lower activation levels, more central fatigue, and more subjective fatigue than the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in twitch force or peripheral fatigue index between the two groups. The reduction in walking speed was related to the loss of peripheral strength and PD itself. Conclusion. Fatigue and weakness of central origin were related to PD, while peripheral strength was important for walking ability. The results suggest that rehabilitation programs for PD should focus on improving both central and peripheral components of force.

  13. Fatigue and Muscle Strength Involving Walking Speed in Parkinson's Disease: Insights for Developing Rehabilitation Strategy for PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Yu; Liu, Wei-Chia; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Chuang, Li-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background. Problems with gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) are a challenge in neurorehabilitation, partly because the mechanisms causing the walking disability are unclear. Weakness and fatigue, which may significantly influence gait, are commonly reported by patients with PD. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between weakness and fatigue and walking ability in patients with PD. Methods. We recruited 25 patients with idiopathic PD and 25 age-matched healthy adults. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), twitch force, and voluntary activation levels were measured before and after a knee fatigue exercise. General fatigue, central fatigue, and peripheral fatigue were quantified by exercise-induced changes in MVC, twitch force, and activation level. In addition, subjective fatigue was measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Results. The patients with PD had lower activation levels, more central fatigue, and more subjective fatigue than the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in twitch force or peripheral fatigue index between the two groups. The reduction in walking speed was related to the loss of peripheral strength and PD itself. Conclusion. Fatigue and weakness of central origin were related to PD, while peripheral strength was important for walking ability. The results suggest that rehabilitation programs for PD should focus on improving both central and peripheral components of force. PMID:28321339

  14. INFLUENCE OF LASER CUTTING ON THE FATIGUE LIMIT OF TWO HIGH STRENGTH STEELS

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo García, Antonio Manuel; Fargas Ribas, Gemma; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Roa Rovira, Joan Josep

    2013-01-01

    Laser cutting is widely used in the metal industry, particularly when components of high strength steels sheets are produced. On the other hand, the roughness of cut - edges produced by laser differs from that obt ained by other methods, such as mechanical blank ing, and this fact influence s the fatigue performance. Moreover, thermal effects are another factor to consider. In the present investigation, specimens of two grades of high strength ...

  15. Concepts for estimating the fatigue strength of sintered steel components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Sebastian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue notch effect can be estimated using fracture mechanics-based support factors. Stress intensity factors for cracks in notches must therefore be calculated. There is a problem of transferability when 2D reference geometries are used for this. This can be avoided when modelling 3D cracks in the notch of the actual part to be assessed. This is more laborious, but leads to better results, which will be shown in this presentation. The questions of aspect ratio and to point on the crack front, where stresses are evaluated, will be discussed. The approach is validated using a broad database of different sintered steels. The statistical evaluation shows an almost exact prediction of the mean value with a relatively small scatter.

  16. Fatigue strength of Co-Cr-Mo alloy clasps prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajima, Yuka; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Takahiro; Yogo, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Maki; Doi, Hisashi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hanawa, Takao; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the fatigue strength of Co-Cr-Mo clasps for removable partial dentures prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). The Co-Cr-Mo alloy specimens for tensile tests (dumbbell specimens) and fatigue tests (clasp specimens) were prepared by SLM with varying angles between the building and longitudinal directions (i.e., 0° (TL0, FL0), 45° (TL45, FL45), and 90° (TL90, FL90)). The clasp specimens were subjected to cyclic deformations of 0.25mm and 0.50mm for 10(6) cycles. The SLM specimens showed no obvious mechanical anisotropy in tensile tests and exhibited significantly higher yield strength and ultimate tensile strength than the cast specimens under all conditions. In contrast, a high degree of anisotropy in fatigue performance associated with the build orientation was found. For specimens under the 0.50mm deflection, FL90 exhibited significantly longer fatigue life (205,418 cycles) than the cast specimens (112,770 cycles). In contrast, the fatigue lives of FL0 (28,484 cycles) and FL45 (43,465 cycles) were significantly shorter. The surface roughnesses of FL0 and FL45 were considerably higher than those of the cast specimens, whereas there were no significant differences between FL90 and the cast specimens. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis indicated the grains of FL0 showed preferential close to orientation of the γ phase along the normal direction to the fracture surface. In contrast, the FL45 and FL90 grains showed no significant preferential orientation. Fatigue strength may therefore be affected by a number of factors, including surface roughness and crystal orientation. The SLM process is a promising candidate for preparing tough removable partial denture frameworks, as long as the appropriate build direction is adopted.

  17. Fatigue experiments on hybrid welded connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2009-01-01

    In a fatigue loaded structure made of Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) absolute and relative stress variations will be higher compared to those in structures made of lower grade steels. Stress concentrations in joints reduce the advantage of VHSS under cyclic loading. A hybrid connection, consisting

  18. Fracture strength and fatigue resistance of dental resin-based composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Keulemans; P. Palav; M.M.N. Aboushelib; A. van Dalen; C.J. Kleverlaan; A.J. Feilzer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of fiber-reinforcement on the fracture strength and fatigue resistance of resin-based composites. Methods: One hundred rectangular bar-shaped specimens (2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) made of resin-based composite were prepared in a stai

  19. High-strength stainless steels for corrosion mitigation in prestressed concrete: Development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Robert D.

    Corrosion of prestressing reinforcement in concrete structures exposed to marine environments and/or deicing chemicals is a problem of critical concern. While many corrosion mitigation technologies are available for reinforced concrete (RC), those available for use in prestressed concrete (PSC) are limited and in many cases cannot provide the 100+ year service life needed in new construction, particularly when exposed to severe marine environments. The use of stainless steel alloys in RC structures has shown great success in mitigating corrosion in even the most severe of exposures. However, the use of high-strength stainless steels (HSSSs) for corrosion mitigation in PSC structures has received limited attention. To address these deficiencies in knowledge, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using HSSSs for corrosion mitigation in PSC. The study examined mechanical behavior, corrosion resistance, and techniques for the production of HSSS prestressing strands. Stainless steel grades 304, 316, 2101, 2205, 2304, and 17-7 were produced as cold drawn wires with diameters of approximately 4 mm (0.16 in). A 1080 prestressing steel was also included to serve as a control. Tensile strengths of 1250 to 1550 MPa (181 to 225 ksi) were achieved in the cold-drawn candidate HSSSs. Non-ductile failure modes with no post-yield strain hardening were observed in all candidate HSSSs. 1000 hr stress relaxation of all candidate HSSSs was predicted to be between 6 and 8 % based on the results of 200 hr tests conducted at 70 % of the ultimate tensile strength. Residual stresses due to the cold drawing had a significant influence on stress vs. strain behavior and stress relaxation. Electrochemical corrosion testing found that in solutions simulating alkaline concrete, all candidate HSSSs showed exceptional corrosion resistance at chloride (Cl-) concentrations from zero to 0.25 M. However, when exposed to solutions simulating carbonated concrete, corrosion

  20. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  1. Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  2. Material fatigue in high pressure piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunne, W.C. [Pro Novum, Research and Technological Services, Ltd, Katowice, (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The present paper describes a type of damage to four-way cross pieces on live steam and reheated steam pipelines. The results of metallographic examination and strength tests are presented. The occurring mechanisms of material degradation, i.e. low-cycle fatigue and hydrogen corrosion are discussed. The both mechanisms result in the corrosion fatigue of the material causing the failure of cross pieces. A new design of cross piece was proposed. (orig.) 5 refs.

  3. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, High-Cycle and Low-Cycle Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

    1995-01-01

    The development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation is described. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing predictions of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects with experiments are presented. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported that material degradation can be represented by randomized multifactor interaction models.

  4. Fatigue experiments on connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.; Kolstein, H.; Bijlaard, F.

    2013-01-01

    An effective application of Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) can be expected in truss-like structures, typically made of hollow sections. Improved design of VHSS truss structures could incorporate the application of cast joints, since an appropriate design of cast joints limits the stress concentrat

  5. Corrosion Resistance of High Strength Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mat Yahaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work investigates the influence of POFA as partial cement replacement towards corrosion resistance of high strength concrete. Plain high strength concrete (P0 with 100% ordinary Portland cement (control specimen and POFA high strength concrete containing POFA as partial cement replacement material were used. At the first stage, mix with 20% POFA (P20 has been identified as the best performing mix after cubes (150×150×150 mm containing various content of POFA as partial cement replacement were prepared, continuously water cured and subjected to compressive strength test at 28 days. At the second stage of study, control specimen (P0 and high strength concrete mix containing 20% POFA (P20 were prepared in form of cylinders with reinforcement bar buried in the middle for corrosion resistance test. Specimens were subjected to half cell potential technique following the procedures outlined in ASTM C876 (1994. Incorporation of POFA as partial cement replacement has contributed to densification of microstructure making the concrete denser thus exhibit higher resistance towards corrosion as compared to plain concrete.

  6. Effect of Notch Location on Fatigue Life Prediction of Strength Mismatched HSLA Steel Weldments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Ravi; V. Balasubramanian; S. Nemat Nasser

    2004-01-01

    Welding of high strength low alloy steels (HSLA) involves usage of Iow, even and high strength filler materials (electrodes) than the parent material depending on the application of the welded structures and the availability of the filler material. In the present investigation, the fatigue crack growth behaviour of weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) regions of under matched (UM), equal matched (EM) and over matched (OM)joints has been studied. The base material used in this investigation is HSLA-80 steel of weldable grade. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process has been used to fabricate the butt joints. Centre cracked tension (CCT) specimen has been used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behaviour of the welded joints. Fatigue crack growth experiments have been conducted using servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine at constant amplitude loading (R=0). A method has been proposed to predict the fatigue life of HSLA steel welds using fracture mechanics approach by incorporating influences of mismatch ratio (MMR) and notch location.

  7. Analysis of methods for determining high cycle fatigue strength of a material with investigation of titanium-aluminum-vanadium gigacycle fatigue behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Randall D.

    Today, aerospace engineers still grapple with the qualitative and quantitative understanding of fatigue behavior in the design and testing of turbine-driven jet engines. The Department of Defense has taken a very active role in addressing this problem with the formation of the National High Cycle Fatigue Science & Technology Program in 1994. The primary goal of this program is to further the understanding of high cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior and develop methods in order to mitigate the negative impact of HCF on aerospace operations. This research supports this program by addressing the fatigue strength testing guidance currently provided by the DoD to engine manufacturers, with the primary goal to investigate current methods and recommend a test strategy to characterize the fatigue strength of a material at a specified number of cycles, such as the 109 design goal specified by MIL-HDBK-1783B, or range of cycles. The research utilized the benefits of numerical simulation to initially investigate the staircase method for use in fatigue strength testing. The staircase method is a commonly used fatigue strength test, but its ability to characterize fatigue strength variability is extremely suspect. A modified staircase approach was developed and shown to significantly reduce bias and scatter in estimates for fatigue strength variance. Experimental validation of this proposed test strategy was accomplished using a dual-phase Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The HCF behavior of a second material with a very different microstructure (beta annealed Ti-6Al-4V) was also investigated. The random fatigue limit (RFL) model, a recently developed analysis tool, was investigated to characterize stress-life behavior but found to have difficulty representing fatigue life curves with sharp transitions. Two alternative models (bilinear and hyperbolic) were developed based on maximum likelihood methods to better characterize the Ti-6Al-4V fatigue life behavior. These models provided a good fit to the

  8. Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components under fatigue loading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Rama Chandra Murthy; G S Palani; Nagesh R Iyer; Smitha Gopinath; B K Raghu Prasad

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents methodologies for residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components using linear elastic and nonlinear fracture mechanics principles. The effect of cohesive forces due to aggregate bridging has been represented mathematically by employing tension softening models. Various tension softening models such as linear, bilinear, trilinear, exponential and power curve have been described with appropriate expressions. These models have been validated by predicting the remaining life of concrete structural components and comparing with the corresponding experimental values available in the literature. It is observed that the predicted remaining life by using power model and modified bi-linear model is in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. Residual strength has also been predicted using these tension softening models and observed that the predicted residual strength is in good agreement with the corresponding analytical values in the literature. In general, it is observed that the variation of predicted residual moment with the chosen tension softening model follows the similar trend as in the case of remaining life. Linear model predicts large residual moments followed by trilinear, bilinear and power models.

  9. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a fourth year effort of a research program, conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subject to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 has been analyzed using the developed methodology.

  10. CALCULATION OF FUZZY RELIABILITYIN THE CASE OF RANDOM STRESSAND FUZZY FATIGUE STRENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fuzzy sets theory is introduced into the fatigue reliability analysis.The concepts of maximizing set and minimizing set are developed to decide the ordering value of each fuzzy number,and these values can be used to determine the order of the fuzzy numbers.On the basis of the works mentioned above,the membership function defining the fuzzy safety event can be calculated,and then the fuzzy reliability in the case of random stress and fuzzy fatigue strength is deduced.An example is given to illustrate the method.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the fretting fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2013-01-01

    . Moreover, the paper provides relevant information about the monostrand bending stiffness and the extent of relative displacement between core and outer wires of the monostrand undergoing flexural deformations. The results presented herein are of special interest for the fatigue analysis of modern stay......In this paper, the fretting fatigue behavior of pretensioned high-strength steel monostrands is investigated. A method based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique was used to quantify the relative movement between individual wires along the length of the monostrand. The experimental data...

  12. Cracking process of Fe-26Cr-1Mo during low cycle corrosion fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.Q.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.F.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Ke, W. (Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). Corrosion Science Lab.); Zang, Q.S.; Wang, Z.G. (Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)

    1994-12-01

    The corrosion fatigue (CF) life has been divided classically into the initiation'' and propagation'' periods. Usually, the crack initiation process dominates the component lifetime under the low cycle CF condition because the crack propagates rapidly one initiated. Despite much work done on the research of the CF crack initiation mechanisms, however, a full understanding of crack initiation is still lacking. There are some limitations in explaining the CF crack initiation in an aqueous solution using the above four mechanisms individually. And, it is difficult to conduct experiments in which one mechanism along can be examined. Although CF is complicated, it is possible to reproduce a specific experiment condition which will have the dominant factor affecting the CF crack initiation. Once the cracks initiate on the smooth metal surface, their coalescence, micropropagation and macropropagation will take place successively. The initiated cracks propagate first in the range of several grains, and the behavior of the microcrack propagation is different from that of macrocrack propagation. For Fe-26Cr-1Mo ferritic stainless steel, the fundamental research work of straining electrode has been done by many investigators, but the observation of the material surface at different deformation processes has not been reported. In the present study, the detailed observation of the cracking process of the material has been carried out in low cycle CF.

  13. New Low-Sn Zr Cladding Alloys with Excellent Autoclave Corrosion Resistance and High Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqian Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that low-Sn Zr alloys are a good candidate to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding alloys in nuclear reactors, presenting excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The present work developed a new alloy series of Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-xNb (x = 0.4~1.2 wt % to investigate the effect of Nb on autoclave corrosion resistance. Alloy ingots were prepared by non-consumable arc-melting, solid-solutioned, and then rolled into thin plates with a thickness of 0.7 mm. It was found that the designed low-Sn Zr alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistances in three out of pile autoclave environments (distilled water at 633 K/18.6 MPa, 70 ppm LiOH solution at 633 K/18.6 MPa, and superheated water steam at 673 K/10.3 MPa, as demonstrated by the fact of the Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-0.6Nb alloy shows a corrosion weight gain ΔG = 46.3 mg/dm2 and a tensile strength of σUTS = 461 MPa following 100 days of exposure in water steam. The strength of the low-Sn Zr alloy with a higher Nb content (x = 1.2 wt % is enhanced up to 499 MPa, comparable to that of the reference high-Sn N36 alloy (Zr-1.0Sn-1.0Nb-0.25Fe, wt %. Although the strength improvement is at a slight expense of corrosion resistance with the increase of Nb, the corrosion resistance of the high-Nb alloy with x = 1.2 (ΔG = 90.4 mg/dm2 for 100-day exposure in the water steam is still better than that of N36 (ΔG = 103.4 mg/dm2.

  14. Fatigue Technology Assessment and Strategies for Fatigue Avoidance in Marine Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Endurance, cycles Figure 9-4 Comparison of Fatigue Strength Improvement Techniques (From Reference 9.7) I- CA a :, ., a , a MS M w a us 4-4 4. 4.1 4- M...1991 SSC-365 Marine Structural Integrity Programs ( MSIP ) by Robert G. Bea 1992 SSC-366 Threshold Corrosion Fatigue of Welded Shipbuilding Steels by G

  15. IIW recommendations for the HFMI treatment for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints

    CERN Document Server

    Marquis, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    This book of recommendations presents an overview of High Frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) techniques existing today in the market and their proper procedures, quality assurance measures and documentation. Due to differences in HFMI tools and the wide variety of potential applications, certain details of proper treatments and quantitative quality control measures are presented generally. An example of procedure specification as a quality assurance measure is given in the Appendix. Moreover, the book presents procedures for the fatigue life assessment of HFMI-improved welded joints based on nominal stress, structural hot spot stress and effective notch stress. It also considers the extra benefit that has been experimentally observed for HFMI-treated high-strength steels. The recommendations offer proposals on the effect of loading conditions like high mean stress fatigue cycles, variable amplitude loading and large amplitude/low cycle fatigue cycles. Special considerations for low stress concentration welded...

  16. Corrosion inhibition in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions of high strength maraging steel by aminophenyl tetrazole as a corrosion inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2014-02-01

    The corrosion of high strength maraging steel after varied immersion times in concentrated solution, 2.0 M, of sulfuric acid has been investigated. The work was also extended to study the effect of 5-(3-aminophenyl)-tetrazole (APTA) on the inhibition of the steel corrosion. The study has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. EIS spectra showed that the corrosion and polarization resistances decrease with increasing the immersion time of the steel before measurement and increase in the presence of APTA and the increase of its concentration. Polarization data agreed with the EIS measurements and indicated that the increase of immersion time increases the corrosion of steel by increasing its corrosion current and corrosion rate and lowering its polarization resistance. On the other hand, the addition of APTA and the increase of its concentration minimized the corrosion of steel through decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance at all exposure test periods. SEM and EDX investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the maraging steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the APTA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  17. Strength distribution of fatigue crack initiation sites in an Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, T.

    2006-10-01

    The stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) curves were measured along the short-transverse (S) and rolling (L) directions of a hot-cross-rolled AA 8090 Al-Li alloy plate (45-mm thick). The alloy was solution heat treated, quenched in water, strained by 6 pct, and peak aged. Fatigue tests were carried out in four-point bend at room temperature, 20 Hz, R=0.1, in air. It was found that the fatigue limits in the S and L directions were 147 and 197 MPa, respectively. The crack population on the surface of a sample at failure increased with the applied stress level and was found to be a Weibull function of the applied maximum stress in this alloy. The strength distribution of fatigue weakest links, where cracks were initiated, was derived from the Weibull function determined by the experimental data. The fatigue weakest-link density was defined as the crack population per unit area at a stress level close to the ultimate tensile stress and can be regarded as a materials property. The density and strength distribution of fatigue weakest links were found to be markedly different between the L and S directions, accounting for the difference in fatigue limit between the directions in this alloy. They were also found to be different between S-L and S-T samples, and between L-T and L-S samples of this alloy, which could not be revealed by the corresponding S-N curves measured. These differences were due to the anisotropy of the microstructures in different directions in this alloy.

  18. Investigation of Contact Fatigue of High Strength Steel Gears Subjected to Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, L.; Michalopoulos, D.; Apostolopoulos, Ch. Alk.; Neshkov, T. D.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the contact fatigue resistance of gearwheel teeth, subjected to shot-peening treatment, was investigated experimentally and analytically. The main objective was the evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack initiation, propagation, direction, and rate. A specially designed experimental rig was used to test a number of spur gears with the following characteristics: (a) unhardened, thermally untreated unpeened surfaces, (b) thermally treated unpeened surfaces, (c) unhardened peened surfaces, and (d) thermally treated peened surfaces. The theoretical model assumed initiation and propagation of surface cracks of gears operating in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime while loading was due to simultaneous rolling and sliding. Finite element modeling was used for the calculation of the stress field at the gear teeth. Comparison of the experimental and analytical results showed considerable improvement in the contact fatigue strength of thermally treated gear teeth and especially those that underwent shot peening, which increased surface durability. The residual stresses induced by shot peening are mainly effective in stopping microcrack propagation. When shot peening is applied on thermally untreated gear teeth surface, it increases the contact fatigue life of the material by 17% at 7 × 105 loading cycles. If shot peening is applied on carburized gear teeth surfaces, it increases the surface fatigue life by approximately 8% at 106 cycles. Contact fatigue and eventual pitting are treated as a normal consequence of the operation of machine elements. To study this failure process different types of testing machines have been designed. The purpose of this paper is the presentation and evaluation of a new design experimental rig for studying contact fatigue damage of gear teeth subjected to different load patterns.

  19. Local strain energy density to assess the multiaxial fatigue strength of titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Berto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the multiaxial fatigue strength of sharp V-notched components made of titanium grade 5 alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Axisymmetric notched specimens have been tested under combined tension and torsion fatigue loadings, both proportional and non-proportional, taking into account different nominal load ratios (R = -1 and 0. All tested samples have a notch root radius about equal to 0.1 mm, a notch depth of 6 mm and an opening angle of 90 degrees. The fatigue results obtained by applying multiaxial loadings are discussed together with those related to pure tension and pure torsion experimental fatigue tests, carried out on both smooth and notched specimens at load ratios R ranging between -3 and 0.5. Altogether, more than 250 fatigue results (19 S-N curves are examined, first on the basis of nominal stress amplitudes referred to the net area and secondly by means of the strain energy density averaged over a control volume embracing the V-notch tip. The effect of the loading mode on the control volume size has been analysed, highlighting a wide difference in the notch sensitivity of the considered material under tension and torsion loadings. Accordingly, the control radius of the considered titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V is found to be strongly affected by the loading mode.

  20. Clarification of strain limits considering the ratcheting fatigue strength of 316FR steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, Nobuhiro [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan)], E-mail: nobuhiro.isobe.jk@hitachi.com; Sukekawa, Masayuki [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan); Nakayama, Yasunari [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Date, Shingo; Ohtani, Tomomi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Takahashi, Yukio [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Kasahara, Naoto [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Shibamoto, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Hideaki; Inoue, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    The effect of ratcheting on fatigue strength was investigated in order to rationalize the strain limit as a design criterion of commercialized fast reactor systems. Ratcheting fatigue tests were conducted at 550 deg. Duration of the ratchet straining was set for a certain number of strain cycles taking the loading condition of fast reactors into account, and the number of cycles for strain accumulation was defined as the ratchet-expired cycle. Fatigue lives decrease as the accumulated strain by ratcheting increases. Mean stress increased during the ratcheting cycle and its maximum value depended on the accumulated strain and the ratchet-expired cycle. Fatigue life reduction was negligible when the maximum mean stress was less than 25 MPa, corresponding to an accumulated strain of 2.2%. Accumulated strain is limited to 2% in the present design guidelines and this strain limit is considered effective to avoid reducing fatigue life by ratcheting. Microcrack growth behaviors were also investigated in these tests in order to discuss the life reduction mechanisms in ratcheting conditions.

  1. Effect of steam corrosion on core post strength loss: I. Low, chronic steam ingress rates. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.

    1976-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of chronic, low levels of steam ingress into the primary system of the HTGR on the corrosion, and consequent strength loss of the core support posts. The assessment proceeded through the following three steps: (1) The impurity composition in the primary system was estimated as a function of a range of steady ingress rates of from 0.001 to 1.0 g/sec, both by means of an analysis of the Dragon steam ingress experiment and a computer code, TIMOX, which treats the primary system as a well-mixed pot. (2) The core post burnoffs which result from 40-year exposures to these determined impurity atmospheres were then estimated using a corrosion rate expression derived from published ATJ-graphite corrosion rate data. Burnoffs were determined for both the core posts at the nominal and the maximum sustained temperature, estimated to be 90/sup 0/C above nominal. (3) The final step involved assessment of the degree of strength loss resulting from the estimated burnoffs. An empirical equation was developed for this purpose which compares reasonably well with strength loss data for a number of different graphites and specimen geometries.

  2. Bonding strength of graded anti-corrosive coatings of fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP)/polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Bian; Weiqiang Wang; Congsheng Guan; Yonghui Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Fluororesin-based anti-corrosive coatings including graded FEP/PPS were prepared on carbon steel by melt powder coating, the bonding strength of all coating systems was determined by the pull-off test. It is found that the poor adhesion of fluororesin coatings to metallic substrates is improved obviously by the graded coating structure of FEP/PPS, and the bonding strength reaches up to 11.8 MPa for the five-layer system. Examination by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) verifies that the distribution of main components is graded in the five-layer system, which is responsible for the enhancement of the interfacial bonding.

  3. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behavior of high strength AA7075 aluminium alloy friction stir welds – Effect of post weld heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    It was observed that the hardness and strength of weld were observed to be comparatively high in peak aged (T6 condition but the welds showed poor corrosion resistance. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved and the mechanical properties were maintained by RRA treatment. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved in RRA condition with the minimum loss of weld strength.

  4. Effect of shot peening and grain refinement on the fatigue life and strength of commercially pure Al and two of its alloys: Al-2024-T3 and Al-7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qandil, A.; Zaid, Adnan I. O.

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used materials in automobile, aircraft and space craft industries due to their high strength- to- weight ratio and corrosion resistance beside their other useful properties. They are the second materials in use after steel alloys. Most of the failures in parts of aircrafts and space vehicles are mainly caused by fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. In this paper, the effect of shot peening on the fatigue life of commercially pure aluminumand two of its alloys namely:Al-2024 and Al-7075-T6 is presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of addition of vanadium to Al and Al grain refined by Ti and Ti+Bon Its fatigue life and strengthis also presented and discussed using scanning electron microscope, SEM. It was that shot peening and the addition of V toAl and Al onAl grain refined by Ti and Ti+B have resulted in enhancement of the fatigue life and strength. Ffinally, the effect of shot peening on the surface quality of the peened parts is also presented and discussed.

  5. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Ravisankar, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Kanchanbag (P.O), Hyderabad 560 058 (India)

    2008-07-01

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit.

  6. Identification of low cycle fatigue parameters of high strength low-alloy (HSLA steel at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bulatović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Low cycle fatigue test was performed in ambient atmosphere at room temperature. Cycle loading of material, in case of High strength low-alloy steel, entails modifications of its properties and in this paper is therefore shown behavior of fatigue life using low cycle fatigue parameters. More precisely, crack initiation life of tested specimens was computed using theory of Coffin-Manson relation during the fatigue loading. The geometry of the stabilized hysteresis loop of welded joint HSLA steel, marked as Nionikral 70, is also analyzed. This stabilized hysteresis loop is very important for determination of materials properties.

  7. EFFECT OF LDPE RAW MATERIAL ON STRENGTH, CORROSION AND SORPTIVITY OF CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MANIKANDRAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers focused on effect of Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE on bituminous pavements or concrete to modify the strength and ductility in view of reusing the abundant quantity of non-degradable LDPE material available. It also reduces the use of bituminous materials and disposal problems of such waste material. Developing countries are moving towards construction concrete pavement or converting bituminous pavements into concrete pavements. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to study the feasibility of using LDPE raw material itself as a modifier in cement concrete with a characteristic compressive strength of 20 MPa. Present study focuses on effect of addition of LDPE raw material (3, 4 and 5% under different temperatures (70°C, 80°C and 90°C and duration of thermal curing (4, 8 and 16 hours on compressive strength, corrosion resistance and sorptivity. It was inferred from the results that, addition of LDPE raw material considerably increases the compressive strength, resistance against corrosion and permeability. Results also revealed that concrete with 3% LDPE modifier for 80°C with 4 hours of thermal curing was found to be optimum.

  8. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual care ergonomic training (control. At baseline and follow-up, participants performed a handgrip muscular fatigue test (time above 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force with simultaneous recording of electromyography. Additionally, participants replied to a questionnaire regarding self-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P<0.05. Time to fatigue increased by 97% following strength training and this change was correlated to the reduction in fear avoidance (Spearman’s rho =-0.40; P=0.01. In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.

  9. Electrochemical investigation of crack initiation during corrosion fatigue of stainless steels in the passive state. Elektrochemische Untersuchung der Rissbildung bei Schwingungsrisskorrosion im stabil-passiven Werkstoffzustand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaehn, R. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-03-01

    The corrosion fatigue behaviour of three stainless steels - ferritic (12% Cr), austenitic (type 316 Ti) and austenitic-ferritic (type 31803; Duplex stainless steel) - was studied under rotating bending moments in aqueous sulphuric acid of 30deg C. An instrumental set-up for recording the transient currents of specimens during potentiostatically controlled corrosion fatigue is described. Based on this transient current signal technique, three stages on the corrosion fatigue process can be discerned. In the incubation period, small stochastic current transients are caused by the response of the passive layer to alternating stresses and environmental conditions. The appearance of sinusoidal current signals indicates crack initiation whereas the phase angle between a fixed marker - i.e. a light barrier signal -, and the anodic amplitude represents the site of initiating cracks. Finally, the crack growth period is characterized by an increasing cell current and steadily growing sinusoidal current signals caused by the interplay of microplastic and repassivation processes at the crack tip. (orig.).

  10. New Developed Welding Electrode for Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new welding electrode, low transformation temperatur e electrode (LTTE), was introduced in this paper. It was described in design principle, mechanics, chemical compositions of their deposited metal and manufacturing methods.It was proved that the best transformation starting temperature from austenite to martensite of the deposited metal of LTTE was at about 191℃ and it was obtained by adding alloying elements such as Cr, Ni, Mn and Mo. The microstructure of the weld metal of the LTTE was low carbon martensite and residual austenite. The compressive residual stress was induced around the weld of the LTTE and the -145 MPa in compression could be obtained in middle of weld metal. The fatigue tests showed that the fatigue strength of the longitudinal welded joints welded with the LTTE at 2×106 cycles was improved by 59% compared with that of the same type of welded joints welded with conventional E5015 and the fatigue life was increased by 47 times at 162 MPa. It is a very valuable method to improve the fatigue performance of welded joints.

  11. Ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of high strength steel with carbide-free bainite/martensite complex microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-xia Xu; Yang Yu; Wen-long Cui; Bing-zhe Bai; Jia-lin Gu

    2009-01-01

    The ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of a novel high strength steel with carbide-free bainite/martensite (CFB/M) complex microstructure was studied. The ultra-high cycle fatigue properties were measured by ultrasonic fatigue testing equipment at a fre-quency of 20 kHz. It is found that there is no horizontal part in the S-N curve and fatigue fracture occurs when the life of specimens exceeds 107 cycles. In addition, the origination of fatigue cracks tends to transfer from the surface to interior of specimens as the fa-tigue cycle exceeds 107 , and the fatigue crack originations of many specimens are not induced by inclusions, but by some kind of "soft structure". It is shown that the studied high strength steel performs good ultra-high cycle fatigue properties. The ultra-high fa-tigue mechanism was discussed and it is suggested that specific CFB/M complex microstrueture of the studied steel contributes to itssuperior properties.

  12. Corrosion Fatigue and Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Aging Military Vehicles (le fatigue-corrosion et la fissuration en milieu ambiant des vehicules militaires vieillissants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    19th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, Edinburgh, Scotland , 16-20 June 1997. [7] Komorowski, J.P., Bellinger, N.C...Abdel-latif, A.M., Beaudet, J.F.P., Roth , M., Steffen, A.A., Fraser, I. and Yanishevsky, M., “Literature Survey: A Review of the Properties of

  13. Corrosion Fatigue and Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Aging Military Vehicles (La fatigue-corrosion et la fissuration en milieu ambiant des vehicules militaires vieillissants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    19th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, Edinburgh, Scotland , 16-20 June 1997. [7] Komorowski, J.P., Bellinger, N.C...Abdel-latif, A.M., Beaudet, J.F.P., Roth , M., Steffen, A.A., Fraser, I. and Yanishevsky, M., “Literature Survey: A Review of the Properties of

  14. Effect of Cold Drawing on Microstructure and Corrosion Performance of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, J.; Ovejero, E.

    1997-09-01

    This paper deals with the effect of cold drawing on a high-strength steel in wire form with pearlitic microstructure. Cold drawing produces a preferential orientation of the pearlite lamellae aligned parallel to the cold drawing direction, resulting in anisotropic properties with regard to fracture behaviour in air and aggressive environments (stress corrosion cracking). While the hot rolled bar has a randomly oriented microstructure in both transverse and longitudinal sections, the fully drawn wire presents a randomly oriented appearance in the transverse cross-section, but a marked orientation in the longitudinal cross-section. These microstructural characteristics affect the time-dependent behaviour of the steels when a crack is present in a corrosive or hydrogen environment and influences both the subcritical crack growth rate, the time to failure and the crack propagation path. It is shown that in the strongly drawn steels the crack changes its propagation path, and a micromechanical model is proposed to explain this behaviour.

  15. Residual Strength of Stiffened LY12CZ Aluminum Alloy Panels with Widespread Fatigue Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhong; Ge Sen; Lu Guozhi; Chen Li; Ding Huiliang

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations on the residual strength of the stiffened LY12CZ aluminum alloy panels with widespread fatigue damage (WFD) are conducted. Nine stiffened LY12CZ aluminum alloy panels with three different types of damage are tested for residual strength. Each specimen is pre-cracked at rivet holes by saw cuts and subjected to a monotonically increasing tensile load until failure is occurred and the failure load is recorded. The stress intensity factors at the tips of the lead crack and the adjacent WFD cracks of the stiffened aluminum alloy panels are calculated by compounding approach and finite element method (FEM) respectively. The residual strength of the stiffened panels with WFD is evaluated by the engineering method with plastic zone linkup criterion and the FEM with apparent fracture toughness criterion respectively. The predicted residual strength agrees well with the experiment results. It indicates that in engineering practice these methods can be used for residual strength evaluation with the acceptable accuracy. It can be seen from this research that WFD can significantly reduce the residual strength and the critical crack length of the stiffened panels with WFD. The effect of WFD crack length on residual strength is also studied.

  16. Effect of load ratio and saltwater corrosive environment on the initiation life of fatigue of 10Ni5CrMoV steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Yi, Hong; Xu, Jian; Gen, Liming; Chen, Luyun

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue initiation life has been studied with 10CrNi5MoV steel for use in ocean engineering at different load ratios and in different environmental media. The microstructure and micro-topography have been observed and analyzed by means of SEM, EDS and EBSD. Our findings indicate that, the initiation life of 10Ni5CrMoV steel in seawater is shorter than that in air, and the difference in longevity is larger with the increasing of load ratio. Corrosion pits had a great influence on initial corrosion fatigue life.

  17. Cryogenic Tensile Strength and Fatigue Life of Carbon Nanotube Multi-Yarn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, H E; Mall, S

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) multi-yarns, consisting of 30 yarns, were tested under monotonic tensile load and fatigue at the room temperature (298 K) and two cryogenic temperatures (232 and 123 K). Tensile stiffness increased with the decrease of temperature. The average ultimate tensile strength was higher at 123 K when compared to the higher temperatures (232 and 298 K). Failure mechanism changed from a combination of classical variant and independent fiber breakage at the two higher temperatures to mostly classical variant failure mechanism at the lower temperature. The CNT-yarn's fatigue life also increased with decreasing temperature. CNT-yarns have been shown to function well at lower temperatures making them usable for applications requiring operation at cryogenic temperatures, such as in satellites and high altitude aircraft.

  18. Modelling the Strength and Fatigue Life of a Unidirectional Fibrous Composite by Using Daniels' Sequence and Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, Yu.; Cimanis, V.; Varickis, S.; Kleinhofs, M.

    2013-11-01

    A review of the previous works of the authors dedicated to the use of Daniels' sequence (DS) for analyzing the relation between the distribution of the static strength of components of a unidirectional fibrous composite (UFC) and the distribution of its fatigue life is presented. A generalization of the DS which can be used to analyze the association of distribution of the static strength of composite components with distribution of the static strength of the UFC itself is given. In analyzing the fatigue life of a UFC, unlike in Daniels' model, the loading rate and randomness of the number of still workable components in the weak microvolume in which the destruction process takes place are taken into account. By analyzing the fatigue life, it is possible to explain the existence of the random fatigue strength and to calculate the maximum load at which the probability of absence of fatigue failure is great enough when the number of cycles of fatigue loading tends to infinity. Numerical examples of processing of experimental data are presented, and estimates for parameters of the corresponding nonlinear regression model, which can be interpreted as the strength parameters of UFC, are obtained.

  19. Effects of thermal fatigue on shear punch strength of tooth-colored restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody, Fam Mei Shi; U-Jin, Yap Adrian; Natalie, Tan Wei Min; Elizabeth, Tay Wan Ling; Chien, Jessica Yeo Siu

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the effect of thermal fatigue on the shear strength of a range of tooth-colored restorative materials including giomers, zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement (GIC), nano-particle resin-modified GIC, highly viscous GICs, and composite resin. Materials and Methods: Twenty specimens of each material were fabricated in standardized washers (17 mm outer diameter, 9 mm internal diameter, 1 mm thick). The specimens were cured, stored in 100% humidity at 37.5°C for 24 h, and randomly divided into two groups of 10. Group A specimens were nonthermocycled (NT) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 168 h. Group B specimens were thermocycled (TC) for 10,000 cycles (168 h) with baths X, Y, and Z adjusted to 35°C, 15°C, and 45°C, respectively. Each cycle had dwell times of 28 s in X, and 2s in Y/Z in the order XYXZ. Specimens then underwent shear punch testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min with a 2 kN load cell. Statistical analysis of shear strength was done using t-test and two-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post hoc test at significance level P composite resin (Filtek Z250XT) had the highest shear strength while the zirconia-reinforced (zirconomer) and a highly viscous GIC (Ketac Molar Quick) had the lowest. Conclusions: The effect of thermocycling on shear strength was material dependent. Thermal fatigue, however, did not significantly influence the shear strength of most materials assessed. The “sculptable” composite and giomer were significantly stronger than the other materials evaluated. Shear strength of the “flowable” injectable hybrid giomer was intermediate between the composite and GICs. PMID:27563182

  20. Effect of cyclic high loading rates on the fatigue strength of aluminum-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Arteaga, Hermes Eskander

    The study of fatigue under high loading rates is of great interest in the complete characterization of a new series of composites with Al-Cu-Mg matrix reinforced with AlB2 dispersoids. Homogeneous and functionally graded composites were prepared via gravity and centrifugal casting, respectively. Through centrifugal casting a gradual variation of the volume fraction of reinforcing particles along the cross section was obtained. In specific fabrication conditions, even complete segregation of the reinforcement particles was achieved. Charpy impact tests as well as hardness tests were conducted to assess the composite strength as a function of the weight percent of boron. The tensile properties of gravity cast samples were obtained. Then for both casting conditions, simple edge-notched bend SE(B) specimens were tested under fatigue conditions (three-point bending). The results from impact and hardness tests allowed identifying an interaction between the Mg dissolved in the matrix and the diborides. This interaction, which has never been reported before, was responsible for the strength reduction observed. It was assumed that a substitutional diffusion of Al by Mg atoms in the hp3 structure of diboride was causing the strength reduction, and three approaches were developed to estimate the amount of Mg depleted from the matrix by the diborides during the composite processing. Gravity cast samples were more sensitive to monotonic damage due to fatigue loads where compared with functionally-graded composites. Contrary to the centrifugal cast samples, gravity samples were also affected by the loading rate. The Mg-AlB2 interaction was also responsible for the reduction in the fatigue resistance as the weight percent of boron increased in both types of composites; regression models were obtained to predict the crack growth curve slope change as function of the boron level. The particle distribution showed to affect the crack growth behavior of the FGMs, decreasing the

  1. Asymmetric six-strand core sutures enhance tendon fatigue strength and the optimal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozono, N; Okada, T; Takeuchi, N; Hanada, M; Shimoto, T; Iwamoto, Y

    2016-10-01

    Under cyclic loading, we recorded the fatigue strength of a six-strand tendon repair with different symmetry in the lengths of suture purchase in two stumps of 120 dental rolls and in 30 porcine tendons. First, the strengths of the repairs with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm asymmetry were screened using the dental rolls. The asymmetric core suture repairs were then made with a Kessler repair of equal suture purchase (10 mm) in two tendon stumps, and shifting two other Kessler repairs by 1, 3 or 5 mm, respectively, along the longitudinal axis of the tendon in relation to the first (symmetric) Kessler repair. The core repairs with 3 mm or more asymmetry in suture purchases in two tendon ends showed significantly greater fatigue strength and significantly smaller gaps compared with 1 mm asymmetry in core suture repair. Our results support that asymmetric placement of core sutures in two tendon ends favour resisting gapping at the repair site and 3 mm or more asymmetry is needed to produce such beneficial effects. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Strength and fatigue limit of fabric base composites under combined static shear and cyclic compressive stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limonov, V.A.; Razin, A.F.; Mikel`sons, M.Ya. [Central Research Institute of Special Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-11-01

    Under real operating conditions, assemblies and products made of composites are subjected to combined static and cyclic loads. At the planning stage, an important problem is the selection of the materials to be used and an estimate of the load-bearing capacity by complex investigation of their physicomechanical properties. In the present work, the authors studied experimentally the characteristics of strength under static uniaxial and combined loading and the effect of static shear stresses on the compressive fatigue limit of glass-fabric reinforced plastic. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Effect of Fine Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Strength of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study investigating the effect of the number of fine non-metallic inclusions (up to 2 µm in size on the fatigue strength of structural steel during rotary bending. The study was performed on 21 heats produced in an industrial plant. Fourteen heats were produced in 140 ton electric furnaces, and 7 heats were performed in a 100 ton oxygen converter. All heats were desulfurized. Seven heats from electrical furnaces were refined with argon, and heats from the converter were subjected to vacuum circulation degassing.

  4. Calculation of low-cycle fatigue in accordance with the national standard and strength codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorovich, T. S.; Radin, Yu. A.

    2017-08-01

    Over the most recent 15 years, the Russian power industry has largely relied on imported equipment manufactured in compliance with foreign standards and procedures. This inevitably necessitates their harmonization with the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation, which include calculations of strength, low cycle fatigue, and assessment of the equipment service life. An important regulatory document providing the engineering foundation for cyclic strength and life assessment for high-load components of the boiler and steamline of a water/steam circuit is RD 10-249-98:2000: Standard Method of Strength Estimation in Stationary Boilers and Steam and Water Piping. In January 2015, the National Standard of the Russian Federation 12952-3:2001 was introduced regulating the issues of design and calculation of the pressure parts of water-tube boilers and auxiliary installations. Thus, there appeared to be two documents simultaneously valid in the same energy field and using different methods for calculating the low-cycle fatigue strength, which leads to different results. In this connection, the current situation can lead to incorrect ideas about the cyclic strength and the service life of high-temperature boiler parts. The article shows that the results of calculations performed in accordance with GOST R 55682.3-2013/EN 12952-3: 2001 are less conservative than the results of the standard RD 10-249-98. Since the calculation of the expected service life of boiler parts should use GOST R 55682.3-2013/EN 12952-3: 2001, it becomes necessary to establish the applicability scope of each of the above documents.

  5. Influence of High Strength Steel Microstructure on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enefola S. Ameh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of high strength steel microstructure morphology on fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR. To achieve this aim, three different heat treatment methods (normalizing, austempering quenching and tempering were considered and all the steel specimens were initially heated to 9500C austenization temperature for ninety minutes and then processed via the different heat treatment methods before viewing the resultant microstructures under light optical microscope (LOM. Fatigue crack growth rate tests were conducted on the resultant microstructures with compact tension specimens at room temperature as prescribed by American standard testing method E647. Results of FCGR tests showed normalized microstructure has the lowest FCGR (6.2698E-06, followed by quenched and tempered (7.9519E-06, asreceived (8.15E-06 and austempered (9.6667E-06 microstructure considering a low stress intensity factor range. The trend of results showed insignificant effect of microstructure over the Paris regime growth indicating fatigue crack growth rate is not a reliable parameter for correlating rate of crack propagation to microstructure

  6. Effect of Temperature on the Galvanic Corrosion of Cu-Ni Alloy/High Strength Steel in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The galvanic corrosion behavior of Cu-Ni Alloy(B10/high strength steel (921A has been studied using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA in seawater at different temperatures. As well as it was systemically investigated by weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscope.Results showed 921A acts as the anode and B10 act as the cathodes. The effect of temperature on the galvanic corrosion is important, the corrosion rate became higher with the temperature increased.

  7. The effects of pitting on fatigue crack nucleation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, LI; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    A high-strength aluminum alloy, 7075-T6, was studied to quantitatively evaluate chemical pitting effects of its corrosion fatigue life. The study focused on pit nucleation, pit growth, and fatigue crack nucleation. Pitting corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution under constant amplitude sinusoidal loading at two frequencies, 5 and 20 Hz. Smooth and unnotched specimens were used in this investigation. A video recording system was developed to allow in situ observation of the surface changes of the specimens during testing. The results indicated that pitting corrosion considerably reduces the fatigue strength by accelerating fatigue crack nucleation. A metallographic examination was conducted on the specimens to evaluate the nature of corrosion pits. First, the actual shapes of the corrosion pits were evaluated by cross-sectioning the pits. Secondly, the relation between corrosion pits and microstructure was also investigated. Finally, the possibility of another corrosion mechanism that might be involved in pitting was explored in this investigation. The fractography of the tested specimens showed that corner corrosion pits were responsible for fatigue crack nucleation in the material due to the associated stress concentration. The pits exhibited variance of morphology. Fatigue life for the experimental conditions appeared to be strongly dependent on pitting kinetics and the crack nucleation stage.

  8. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Pripanapong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST, AZ61 (ST, AZ80 (ST and AZ91 (ST were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST, in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST dissimilar materials is discussed in this work.

  9. Impact of Selected Parameters on the Fatigue Strength of Splices on Multiply Textile Conveyor Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Mirosław; Błażej, Ryszard; Hardygóra, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Splices are the weakest points in the conveyor belt loop. The strength of these joints, and thus their design as well as the method and quality of splicing, determine the strength of the whole conveyor belt loop. A special zone in a splice exists, where the stresses in the adjacent plies or cables differ considerably from each other. This results in differences in the elongation of these elements and in additional shearing stresses in the rubber layer. The strength of the joints depends on several factors, among others on the parameters of the joined belt, on the connecting layer and the technology of joining, as well as on the materials used to make the joint. The strength of the joint constitutes a criterion for the selection of a belt suitable for the operating conditions, and therefore methods of testing such joints are of great importance. This paper presents the method of testing fatigue strength of splices made on multi-ply textile conveyor belts and the results of these studies.

  10. The effects of swimming fatigue on shoulder strength, range of motion, joint control, and performance in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Martyn J; Green, Daniel; Matthews, Helen; Swanwick, Emma

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P swimming whereby a greater reduction in both external rotation range and joint position sense was observed in the dominant arm when fatigued. This has highlighted a relationship between fatigue and potential mechanism of shoulder pathology in swimmers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The fatigue and corrosion fatigue behavior of welded Inconel 625 alloy employed in off-shore platforms; Avaliacao do comportamento a fadiga e a corrosao-fadiga de juntas soldadas da liga Inconel 625 testada para uso em plaaformas off-shore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingstag, M.E.; Schroeder, R.M.; Mueller, I.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao], e-mail: maiquel10@walla.com

    2006-07-01

    The fatigue and corrosion fatigue behavior of welded Inconel 625 employed live like risers in off-shore platforms was studied. These risers may be employed integrally of this alloy, or combined with API 52 X60 steel in the form of 'Clads'. One of the most susceptible points in .these structures is the circumferential weld that joint the pipes together. In these regions, stresses and defects are generated by the welding process, and these material remind in contact with aggressive species like, chlorides and Co{sub 2} . Polarization curves, slow strain rate fatigue and corrosion fatigue tests were used to characterize the Inconel alloy behavior. In the welded deposit condition, this alloy shows an excellent resistance corrosion and a good fatigue and corrosion-fatigue behavior.(author)

  12. Fatigue strength of bilayered ceramics under cyclic loading as a function of core veneer thickness ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibner, Aurora Clark; Kelly, J Robert

    2016-03-01

    Minimal evidence is available concerning the appropriate thickness of each layer in bilayered ceramic systems. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of core-veneer thickness ratios on the fatigue strength of a bonded bilayered ceramic system. Specimens of Ivoclar Porcelain System (IPS) e.max lithium disilicate were fabricated with core/veneer thicknesses of 0.5/1.0 mm, 0.75/0.75 mm, 1.0/0.5 mm, and 1.5/0.0 mm. All specimens were cemented to bases of a dentin-like material. Each specimen was cyclically loaded by a 2-mm-diameter G10 piston in water. Loads ranging from 10 N to the target load were applied at a frequency of 20 Hertz for 500,000 cycles. If cracked, the next specimen was cycled at a lower load; if not cracked, at a higher load (step size of 25 N). Mean and standard deviations of fatigue loads for the different core thicknesses were 0.5-mm core 610.94 N ±130.11; 0.75-mm core 600.0 N ±132.80; 1.0-mm core 537.50 N ±41.67; a Nd 1.5-mm core 501.14 N ±70.12. All veneered groups were significantly stronger than the full thickness group (ANOVA, Pcore groups (χ(2) test, Pcores increases the fatigue strength of the biceramic system. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength and fatigue life evaluation of composite laminate with embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Vivek T.; Hiremath, S. R.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-04-01

    Prognosis regarding durability of composite structures using various Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques is an important and challenging topic of research. Ultrasonic SHM systems with embedded transducers have potential application here due to their instant monitoring capability, compact packaging potential toward unobtrusiveness and noninvasiveness as compared to non-contact ultrasonic and eddy current techniques which require disassembly of the structure. However, embedded sensors pose a risk to the structure by acting as a flaw thereby reducing life. The present paper focuses on the determination of strength and fatigue life of the composite laminate with embedded film sensors like CNT nanocomposite, PVDF thin films and piezoceramic films. First, the techniques of embedding these sensors in composite laminates is described followed by the determination of static strength and fatigue life at coupon level testing in Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Failure mechanisms of the composite laminate with embedded sensors are studied for static and dynamic loading cases. The coupons are monitored for loading and failure using the embedded sensors. A comparison of the performance of these three types of embedded sensors is made to study their suitability in various applications. These three types of embedded sensors cover a wide variety of applications, and prove to be viable in embedded sensor based SHM of composite structures.

  14. STRENGTH, CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY AND CORROSION OF COARSE FLY ASH CONCRETE WITH BAGASSE-RICE HUSK-WOOD ASH ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera Horsakulthai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study studied the utilization of Bagasse-Rice Husk-Wood Ash (BRWA as an additive for improving the strength and durability of coarse Fly Ash (FA concrete. The ground BRWA was used as an additive for maintaining the consistent slump of FA concrete. The strength, chloride permeability and corrosion resistance were investigated. The chloride permeability of concrete was evaluated using the measurement of coulomb charge as per ASTM C1202 and the corrosion resistance was detected using the Accelerated Corrosion test by Impressed Voltage (ACTIV. The test indicated that the incorporation of ground BRWA as an additive in FA concrete improved potentially both the strength and corrosion resistance, particularly the concrete containing up to 40% FA. While the 60% FA concrete with ground BRWA additive improved significantly in strength, the resistance to corrosion was insignificantly improved. The results showed that the use of ground BRWA as an additive was one approach for its utilization in concrete beyond use as pozzolan. The increase in the use of BRWA in concrete could reduce costs and minimize the environmental problems as well.

  15. Effect of Sensitization on Corrosion-Fatigue Cracking in Al 5083 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-21

    1% NaCl solution, the observed environmental effects on fatigue crack growth can be explained by the hydrogen embrittlement mechanism and are...using a superposition model and a two-parameter approach to environment- assisted cracking . The superposition model is essentially a summation of...Metall. Trans. A. Vol. 11A, 1980, pp. 151-158. 15. A. Bonakdar, F. Wang, J.J. Williams, and N. Chawla, “ Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack

  16. Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Hybrid Laser-MIG-Welded A7N01P-T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Hui; Qiu, Peixian; Zhu, Zongtao

    2017-02-01

    A7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy is widely used in some important welded components of high-speed trains. The hybrid laser-metal inert gas (MIG) welding process was studied to solve problems associated with the MIG welding process, such as low welding efficiency, high residual stress and deformation, and serious loss of strength. A high-speed camera, a voltage and current collection system, and NI DAQ were used to acquire arc profiles, welding voltage, and welding current simultaneously. Thermal cycle tests were carried out. Residual stresses induced by the welding process and fatigue strength of the joint were investigated. Large-size fatigue specimens were used in fatigue tests. The results show that the energy of the hybrid welding process is focused, and the power density of hybrid welding process is intense. The heat input per unit of the hybrid welding process is only half of that of the MIG welding process. Compared with the MIG welded joint, the overall residual stress level of the hybrid-welded joint is lower. The peak longitudinal stress of the hybrid-welded joint is reduced by 20 pct. The fatigue strength of hybrid joints is 14 pct higher than that of MIG-welded joints. Narrow weld and HAZ, weak softening behavior, and low residual stress level are the causes of the improvement of fatigue strength.

  17. Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Hybrid Laser-MIG-Welded A7N01P-T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Hui; Qiu, Peixian; Zhu, Zongtao

    2016-09-01

    A7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy is widely used in some important welded components of high-speed trains. The hybrid laser-metal inert gas (MIG) welding process was studied to solve problems associated with the MIG welding process, such as low welding efficiency, high residual stress and deformation, and serious loss of strength. A high-speed camera, a voltage and current collection system, and NI DAQ were used to acquire arc profiles, welding voltage, and welding current simultaneously. Thermal cycle tests were carried out. Residual stresses induced by the welding process and fatigue strength of the joint were investigated. Large-size fatigue specimens were used in fatigue tests. The results show that the energy of the hybrid welding process is focused, and the power density of hybrid welding process is intense. The heat input per unit of the hybrid welding process is only half of that of the MIG welding process. Compared with the MIG welded joint, the overall residual stress level of the hybrid-welded joint is lower. The peak longitudinal stress of the hybrid-welded joint is reduced by 20 pct. The fatigue strength of hybrid joints is 14 pct higher than that of MIG-welded joints. Narrow weld and HAZ, weak softening behavior, and low residual stress level are the causes of the improvement of fatigue strength.

  18. In vitro bond strength and fatigue stress test evaluation of different adhesive cements used for fixed space maintainer cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Cantekin, Kenan; Delikan, Ebru; Cetin, Secil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this research were to (1) compare the shear-peel bond strength (SPBS) of a band of a fixed space maintainer (SM) cemented with five different adhesive cements; and (2) compare the survival time of bands of SM with each cement type after simulating mechanical fatigue stress. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five teeth were used to assess retentive strength and another 50 teeth were used to assess the fatigue survival time. SPBS was determined with a universal testing m...

  19. The development of high strength corrosion resistant precipitation hardening cast steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Rachel A.

    Precipitation Hardened Cast Stainless Steels (PHCSS) are a corrosion resistant class of materials which derive their properties from secondary aging after a normalizing heat treatment step. While PHCSS materials are available in austenitic and semi-austenitic forms, the martensitic PHCSS are most widely used due to a combination of high strength, good toughness, and corrosion resistance. If higher strength levels can be achieved in these alloys, these materials can be used as a lower-cost alternative to titanium for high specific strength applications where corrosion resistance is a factor. Although wrought precipitation hardened materials have been in use and specified for more than half a century, the specification and use of PHCSS has only been recent. The effects of composition and processing on performance have received little attention in the cast steel literature. The work presented in these investigations is concerned with the experimental study and modeling of microstructural development in cast martensitic precipitation hardened steels at high strength levels. Particular attention is focused on improving the performance of the high strength CB7Cu alloy by control of detrimental secondary phases, notably delta ferrite and retained austenite, which is detrimental to strength, but potentially beneficial in terms of fracture and impact toughness. The relationship between age processing and mechanical properties is also investigated, and a new age hardening model based on simultaneous precipitation hardening and tempering has been modified for use with these steels. Because the CB7Cu system has limited strength even with improved processing, a higher strength prototype Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti system has been designed and adapted for use in casting. This prototype is expected to develop high strengths matching or exceed that of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Traditional multicomponent constitution phase diagrams widely used for phase estimation in conventional stainless steels

  20. Corrosion fatigue of bladed disk attachments of low-pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, K. [Material Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Sakurai, S.; Nomura, K. [Thermal Power and Hydroelectric Systems Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Saito, E.; Namura, K. [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of a disk cracking in a low-pressure steam turbine was investigated by finite-element and fracture mechanics analysis and, based on the results of the investigation, a life assessment method was derived. The disk cracking was found to be caused by growth of corrosion pits, superposition of multiple vibration modes, and an increase in the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades after long-term operation. Taking these findings into consideration, the authors then developed a life-assessment method for disk cracking composed of evaluations (1) maximum corrosion pit size at the current situation, (2) corrosion pit growth after a certain term, and (3) failure-occurrence ratio for the estimated corrosion pit depth. Maximum corrosion-pit size is evaluated by extreme value statistical analysis using the data obtained by replica inspection. The failure-occurrence ratio is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation considering two uncertainties, namely, the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades and the stimulus ratio. The values of both uncertainties were determined by the inverse problem analysis of the disk cracking. In light of these results, the authors found that replacing conventional tenon-shroud grouped blades with continuous-cover blades is effective from the view point of vibratory behavior. (orig.)

  1. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSCLE MASS, MUSCLE STRENGTH, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, AND MUSCLE FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass; grip strength to measure muscle strength and muscle fatigue resistance; habitual gait speed to measure physical performance; and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ to assess physical activity. Results: There were significant positive correlations between muscle mass (r=0,27, p=0,0019, muscle strength (r=0,26, p=0,0024, and physical performance (r=0,32, p=0,0002 with muscle fatigue resistance. Physical performance has the highest correlation based on multiple regression test (p=0,0025. In association with muscle mass, the physical activity showed a significant positive correlation (r=0,42, p=0,0000. Sarcopenia was identified in 19 (14.61% of 130 subjects. Conclusions: It is suggested that muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance influence muscle fatigue resistance.

  2. Fatigue Crack Extension Model of Aluminium Alloy with Prior Corrosion Damage Based on Localised Corrosion Damage%基于局部腐蚀损伤的铝合金预腐蚀疲劳裂纹扩展模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔光明; 李旭东; 穆志韬

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立铝合金预腐蚀疲劳裂纹扩展模型。方法采用表征局部环境腐蚀损伤影响程度的参数孔蚀率对腐蚀疲劳裂纹扩展速率进行修正。结果修正后的腐蚀铝合金试件的疲劳裂纹扩展速率与试验结果吻合程度良好。结论修正后的铝合金预腐蚀疲劳裂纹扩展速率模型合理有效,试验数据和预测模型可为海军飞机结构的损伤容限设计提供参考。%Objective To establish a modified model for pre-corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum alloy. Methods Considering that the local damage around the crack tip was more reasonable for accelerating crack growth rate in corrosive environment, the pitting rate, which was a parameter characterizing the influence of corrosion in local environ-ment, was used to correct the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate. Results The experimental results were in good agreement with predictions of the amended fatigue crack growth rate model for corroded aluminum alloy specimens. Conclusion The corrected aluminum alloy pre-corrosion fatigue crack growth rate model was reasonable and effective, and the test data and the prediction model could provide a reference for the damage tolerance design of navy aircraft structure.

  3. Strength and fatigue properties of three-step sintered dense nanocrystal hydroxyapatite bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Guang; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Cui, Han; Wang, Chang-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Lee, In-Seop; Dong, Yu-Qi; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2013-06-01

    Dense hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic is a promising material for hard tissue repair due to its unique physical properties and biologic properties. However, the brittleness and low compressive strength of traditional HA ceramics limited their applications, because previous sintering methods produced HA ceramics with crystal sizes greater than nanometer range. In this study, nano-sized HA powder was employed to fabricate dense nanocrystal HA ceramic by high pressure molding, and followed by a three-step sintering process. The phase composition, microstructure, crystal dimension and crystal shape of the sintered ceramic were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of the HA ceramic were tested, and cytocompatibility was evaluated. The phase of the sintered ceramic was pure HA, and the crystal size was about 200 nm. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of the HA ceramic were comparable to human cortical bone, especially the good fatigue strength overcame brittleness of traditional sintered HA ceramics. Cell attachment experiment also demonstrated that the ceramics had a good cytocompatibility.

  4. Influence of mean stress on fatigue strength of ferritic-pearlite ductile cast iron with small defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T.; Kim, H. J.; Ikeda, T.; Yanase, K.

    2017-05-01

    Because of their excellent mechanical properties, low cost and good workability, the application of ductile cast iron has been increased in various industries such as the automotive, construction and rail industries. For safety designing of the ductile cast iron component, it is necessary to understand the effect of stress ratio, R, on fatigue limit of ductile cast iron in the presence of small defects. Correspondingly in this study, rotating bending fatigue tests at R = -1 and tension-compression fatigue tests at R = -1 and 0.1 were performed by using a ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast iron. To study the effects of small defects, we introduced a small drilled hole at surface of a specimen. The diameter and depth of a drilled hole were 50, 200 and 500 μm, respectively. The non-propagating cracks emanating from graphite particles and holes edge were observed at fatigue limit, irrespective of the value of stress ratio. From the microscopic observation of crack propagation behavior, it can be concluded that the fatigue limit is determined by the threshold condition for propagation of a small crack. It was found that the effect of stress ratio on the fatigue limit of ductile cast iron with small defects can be successfully predicted based on \\sqrt {area} parameter model. Furthermore, a use of the tensile strength, σ B, instead of the Vickers hardness, HV, is effective for fatigue limit prediction.

  5. Effect of defect length on rolling contact fatigue crack propagation in high strength steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to clarify the effect of defect length in depth direction on rolling contact fatigue (RCF crack propagation in high strength steel. RCF test and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR micro CT imaging were conducted. In the case of the defect with the 15 m diameter, flaking life decreased with increasing defect length. In a comparison of the CT image and the SEM view, the shapes of defects and the locations of the horizontal cracks were almost the same respectively. The mechanism of RCF crack propagation was discussed by finite element (FE analysis. Defects led to higher tensile residual stress than that without defects in the region where the defect exists. The shear stress range at 0.1 mm in depth on the middle line of the defect and the range of mode II stress intensity factor at the bottom of a vertical crack increased with increasing defect length.

  6. Effect of corrosion on the fatigue service-life on steel and reinforced concrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, R.P.; van Breugel, K.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion is a point of big concern in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To monitor the actual health and to predict the remaining service-life of structures, it is important to understand the structural behaviour and the failure mechanism of structures exposed to chlorides under

  7. Effect of corrosion on the fatigue service-life on steel and reinforced concrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, R.P.; van Breugel, K.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion is a point of big concern in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To monitor the actual health and to predict the remaining service-life of structures, it is important to understand the structural behaviour and the failure mechanism of structures exposed to chlorides under

  8. Influence of rivet to sheet edge distance on fatigue strength of self-piercing riveted aluminium joints

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi; Han, Li; Thornton, M.; Shergold, M.

    2012-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is one of the main joining methods for lightweight aluminium automotive body structures due to its advantages. In order to further optimise the structure design and reduce the weight but without compromising strength, reduction of redundant materials in the joint flange area can be considered. For this reason, the influence of rivet to sheet edge distance on the fatigue strengths of self-piercing riveted joints was studied. Five edge distances, 5 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 1...

  9. Effects of alloy chemistry, cold work, and water chemistry on corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloys and welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Soppet, W. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2001-04-01

    Reactor vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare the resistance of Alloys 600 and 690 and their welds, such as Alloys 82, 182, 52, and 152, to EAC in simulated light water reactor environments. The existing crack growth rate (CGR) data for these alloys under cyclic and constant loads have been evaluated to establish the effects of alloy chemistry, cold work, and water chemistry. The experimental fatigue CGRs are compared with CGRs that would be expected in air under the same mechanical loading conditions to obtain a qualitative understanding of the degree and range of conditions for significant environmental enhancement in growth rates. The existing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data on Alloys 600 and 690 and Alloy 82, 182, and 52 welds have been compiled and analyzed to determine the influence of key parameters on growth rates in simulated PWR and BWR environments. The SCC data for these alloys have been evaluated with correlations developed by Scott and by Ford and Andresen.

  10. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Visser, B.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dieën, J.H. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were randomi

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  12. Field test of low-pressure turbine blading with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue; Faeltprovning av laagtrycksturbinskovlar med foerbaettrad haerdighet mot korrosionsutmattning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, Jueri [Alstom Power Sweden AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Corrosion fatigue of turbine blades in low-pressure turbines is one of the most common reasons for reduced availability and reliability in fossil fueled as well as in nuclear steam turbine plants. The problem is almost exclusively localized to the area where the first condensation takes place. There is therefore a need for materials with improved resistance towards corrosion fatigue for blades in stages in the transition zone between dry and wet steam. The phase hardening stainless steel 15/5 PH is such an alternative material. This material has shown a significantly better resistance towards corrosion and corrosion fatigue in laboratory tests. The lack of field experience of this material in real plants has, however, made it difficult to introduce this relatively new and untried material. Corrosion fatigue has caused problems in the some of the nuclear units in Forsmark. Forsmark 2 was therefore regarded as a suitable plant for a field test. The result of the field test is applicable to conventional as well as to nuclear units. A total of 10 blades of 15/5 PH were installed to replace blades of conventional blade material in a stage with a ar and 40 previous history of corrosion fatigue. The field test was interrupted after 5 years and 40,000 hours of operation. The main objective of the field test was to demonstrate that blades of 15/5 PH could be successfully machined, tested, installed and of course also used in a real plant. The field test also enabled a comparison of the corrosion resistance of the two alloys. It should be underlined that demonstration of the improved resistance towards corrosion fatigue has not been an objective during this field test as this has already been evidenced by various laboratory investigations. The properties of the parent material as well as of the finished blades were controlled and documented as carefully as possible before the field test to enable evaluation of the field test. The condition of the 10 blades of 15/5 PH

  13. Acute Effects of Static vs. Ballistic Stretching on Strength and Muscular Fatigue Between Ballet Dancers and Resistance-Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Camila D; Brown, Lee E; Wong, Megan A; Leyva, Whitney D; Pinto, Ronei S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Ruas, Cassio V

    2016-11-01

    Lima, CD, Brown, LE, Wong, MA, Leyva, WD, Pinto, RS, Cadore, EL, and Ruas, CV. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016-Stretching is used to increase joint range of motion, but the acute effects can decrease muscle strength. However, this may depend on the population or mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Fifteen resistance-trained women (age 23.8 ± 1.80 years, mass 67.47 ± 7.77 kg, height 168.30 ± 5.53 cm) and 12 ballet dancers (age 22.8 ± 3.04 years, mass 58.67 ± 5.65 kg, height 168.00 ± 7.69 cm) performed 5 days of testing. The first day was control (no stretching), whereas the other 4 days were static or ballistic stretching in a counterbalanced order. Range of motion, strength, and fatigue tests were also performed. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in hamstrings strength after static (102.71 ± 2.67 N·m) and ballistic stretching (99.49 ± 2.61 N·m) compared with control (113.059 ± 3.25 N·m), with no changes in quadriceps strength. For fatigue, only ballet dancers demonstrated a decrease from control (71.79 ± 4.88%) to ballistic (65.65 ± 8.19%), but no difference with static (65.01 ± 12.29%). These findings suggest that stretching decreases hamstrings strength similarly in ballet dancers and resistance-trained women, with no differences between modes of stretching. However, ballistic stretching only decreased muscular fatigue in ballet dancers, but not in resistance-trained women. Therefore, no stretching should be performed before strength performance. However, ballistic stretching may decrease acute muscular fatigue in ballet dancers.

  14. Proof of fatigue strength of nuclear components part II: Numerical fatigue analysis for transient stratification loading considering environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraetschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA) Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Herter, K.-H., E-mail: herter@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA) Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simplified as well as a general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F{sub en} are shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.

  15. Effect of Chromate and Chromate-Free Organic Coatings on Corrosion Fatigue of an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-20

    the vicinity. Bentonite is hydrated alumino silicate clay primarily composed of the smectite class mineral montmorillonite [73]. The ideal formula for...used as inhibitors. It was studied also bentonite clay , which contains 99% of montmorillonite. The reason of choosing bentonite as aluminum alloy...natural bentonite , natural zeolite and Ca-ion exchanged and Zn-ion exchanged zeolites were studied as aluminum alloy corrosion inhibitors in organic

  16. Fatigue fracture of high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Hai-gen; JIANG Feng; WEN Kang; JIANG Long; HUANG Hong-feng; WEI Li-li

    2009-01-01

    X-ray diffractometry(XRD), optical microscopy(OM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) were used to study the fatigue fracture of the T7451 Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (470 ℃, 60 min+115 ℃, 8 h+165 ℃, 16 h). The study reveals mainly the microscopic structure of the alloy in the process of crack formation and crack growth. The fatigue fracture is characterized by three zones: fatigue crack source zone, fatigue crack propagation zone and fatigue fracture zone. The fatigue damage preferably incubates at the fractured inclusion particles at or near (about 25 μm) the specimen free surfaces, and these brittle Fe-rich intermetallic inclusion particles are (7-10) μm×(11-14) μm in size. Some features such as "feather-like", "river and range" and boundary extrusions can be observed in the fatigue propagation zone, and in the fatigue fracture zone the surface is rough and uneven.

  17. Factors affecting the corrosion fatigue life in nickel based superalloys for disc applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosier Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nickel based superalloy 720Li is employed in the gas turbine due to its mechanical performance at elevated temperature. A comprehensive assessment of the materials behaviour under representative service conditions is reported to address the drive for ever increasing temperatures and more arduous environmental exposure. Fatigue experiments have been performed in an air and air/SOx environment at 700 ∘C containing a mixed salt as a contaminant. There is an intimate relationship between local salt level (flux, stress level and stress state, i.e. static or cyclic. The interaction with these variables with the work hardened layer present on the surface of all tested specimens as a result of the shot peening process directly affects the crack initiation process. If specific conditions of environment and stress are achieved, a significant reduction in fatigue life is observed.

  18. Factors affecting the corrosion fatigue life in nickel based superalloys for disc applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rosier Hollie; Perkins Karen; Girling Andrew; Leggett Jonathan; Gibson Grant

    2014-01-01

    The nickel based superalloy 720Li is employed in the gas turbine due to its mechanical performance at elevated temperature. A comprehensive assessment of the materials behaviour under representative service conditions is reported to address the drive for ever increasing temperatures and more arduous environmental exposure. Fatigue experiments have been performed in an air and air/SOx environment at 700 ∘C containing a mixed salt as a contaminant. There is an intimate relationship between loca...

  19. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; Visser, Bart; van der Beek, Allard J; Blatter, Birgitte M; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were randomized over an 8-week resistance-training group, and a control group. Isokinetic muscle strength was assessed using the Cybex dynamometer, muscle fatigue was measured using EMG, and perceived discomfort was measured using a 10-point scale. At the follow-up, we found no effect of the resistance-training program on isokinetic muscle strength of the back and shoulder muscles. Furthermore, we did not find any effect on EMG data, nor on musculoskeletal discomfort during the simulated work tasks. However, trained workers performed the lifting tasks for a longer time before reporting considerable discomfort than those in the control group.

  20. Rolling contact fatigue strength of successive austempered ductile cast iron; Chikuji austemper shori kyujo kokuen chutetsu no korogari hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawamoto, A. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1998-04-25

    The holding time of austempered spheroidal graphite cast iron material is allowed to vary in heat treatment especially at the lower bainite transformation zone during the process for the preparation of specimens different from each other in the amount of {gamma}-pool, and the specimens are tested for their rolling contact fatigue strength. The effects of the amount of {gamma}-pool, roughness of the bainite structure, and work-hardening, on the rolling fatigue strength are also studied. Findings obtained as the result of experiment are stated below. In the case of an austempered ductile cast iron specimen containing a {gamma}-pool amount that occupies a high rate of 6.52%, the rolling fatigue withstanding limit exhibits a relatively high level of 1310MPa, which becomes approximately 1245MPa when the holding time is extended in the lower bainite transformation zone. The limit rises to approximately 1320MPa at a stage where the {gamma}-pool virtually disappears. In a successive austempering treatment process that aims at improving on machinability and at allowing sufficient fatigue strength to be maintained, it is necessary to allow the holding time in the bainite zone to be long enough for the {gamma}-pool to disappear and for the lower bainite structure to grow sufficiently. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Fatigue strength evaluation of self-piercing riveted cold rolled steel joints under mixed mode loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KYUNG-MIN LEE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue strength of cross-shaped specimens of SPR joints made of SPCC was evaluated at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°. For the static strength at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, the maximum loads were determined to be 4890N, 1969N, and 1611N, respectively. Regarding for the relationship between the load amplitude and the number of cycles (Nf, the results were Pamp = 2209.3N−f 0.014 , = 8610.8 −0.199 Pamp N f , and = 3459.3 −0.149 Pamp N f for the load angle of 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. On the basis of the lifetime of 106 cycles, the load amplitudes which correspond to the fatigue limit for load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90° were 38%, 28%, and 29% of the static strength, respectively. The effective stress intensity factor was not found to be appropriate in the evaluation of the fatigue lifetime due to the different fatigue fracture behavior of these specimens.

  2. Assessment of Musculoskeletal Strength and Levels of Fatigue during Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, L C; D Souza, Urban John; Shivaprakash, G

    2017-02-01

    Some of the physiological factors and athletic performance might show variation along the phases of menstrual cycle. The alterations seen in these physiological parameters of various systems relating to oscillations in hormonal levels do affect the autonomic nervous system and metabolic functions. Former studies heave inconclusively about the influence of hormones on exercise performance, predominantly muscle strength and rate of fatigue during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Studies regarding influence of these variations during bleeding phase were not done. To evaluate the muscle strength variations and also the rate of fatigue during various phases of the menstrual cycle in young adults. This was a prospective study conducted among 100 healthy adult female volunteers aged 18-24 years, with normal regular menstrual cycles persistent between 26- 32 days (average of 28 days), for a minimum of last 6 months. Muscle strength was assessed by calculating the work done and fatigue rate using Mosso's ergograph and by handgrip dynamometer strength. Each subject was evaluated consecutively for two menstrual cycles in all three phases which were classified as Phase 1- Menstrual phase, Phase 2- Follicular phase and Phase 3- Luteal phase. The data obtained was analysed by statistical tool One-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukeys test. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The amount of work done and handgrip strength was significantly higher in phase 2 (pmenstrual cycle. In terms of fatigue rate percentage, phase 2 showed significantly lesser values (pmenstrual cycle. We conclude that the cyclical variation in endogenous reproductive hormones increases the muscle strength in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus provide support for the influence of these hormones in regulation of these parameters in the premenopausal age group.

  3. Studies of Evaluation of Hydrogen Embrittlement Property of High-Strength Steels with Consideration of the Effect of Atmospheric Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Wang, Maoqiu; Li, Songjie; Zhang, Zuogui; Kimura, Yuuji; Uno, Nobuyoshi; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength steels was investigated by using slow strain rate test (SSRT) of circumferentially notched round bar specimens after hydrogen precharging. On top of that, cyclic corrosion tests (CCT) and outdoor exposure tests were conducted prior to SSRT to take into account the effect of hydrogen uptake under atmospheric corrosion for the evaluation of the susceptibility of high-strength steels. Our studies of hydrogen embrittle properties of high-strength steels with 1100 to 1500 MPa of tensile strength and a prototype ultrahigh-strength steel with 1760 MPa containing hydrogen traps using those methods are reviewed in this article. A power law relationship between notch tensile strength of hydrogen-precharged specimens and diffusible hydrogen content has been found. It has also been found that the local stress and the local hydrogen concentration are controlling factors of fracture. The results obtained by using SSRT after CCT and outdoor exposure test were in good agreement with the hydrogen embrittlement fracture property obtained by means of long-term exposure tests of bolts made of the high-strength steels.

  4. Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Casting Skin -- Evaluation, Effect on Fatigue Strength and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmee, Sarum

    Compacted graphite (CG) iron features a good combination of tensile strength, impact resistance, thermal conductivity and damping capacity. This combination makes CG iron a material of choice for various applications, especially for the automobile industry. The mechanical properties of CG iron listed in the standards (i.e. ASTM) are for machined specimens. However, since most iron castings retain the original casting surface (a.k.a. casting skin), the actual performance of the part could be significantly different from that of the machined specimens. Recent studies have shown the negative effect of the casting skin, but little quantification of its effect on mechanical properties is available. Further, the understanding of its mechanism of formation is at best incomplete. In this research, the effect of the casting skin on mechanical properties in CG and ductile irons (DI) is explored. The differences in tensile and fatigue properties between as-cast and machined samples were quantified and correlated to the casting skin features. It was found that the presence of the casting skin was accountable for 9% reduction of tensile strength and up to 32% reduction of fatigue strength (for CG iron with 40% nodularity). Several mechanisms of the casting skin formation are proposed in this research. The formation of ferritic and pearlitic rims is explained by decarburizing/carburizing reactions at the mold/metal interface. Mg depletion and solidification kinetics effect were identified as the formation mechanisms of the graphite degradation. A 2-D thermal diffusion model was formulated based on Mg depletion theory. The model can be used to predict the casting skin thickness when Mg depletion is the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, using the asymmetric Fe-Gr phase diagram, some instances of casting skin formation were explained based on solidification kinetics theory. The experimental microstructural evidence and the theoretical progress were conducive to the development of

  5. Comparison of Fatigue Properties and Fatigue Crack Growth Rates of Various Implantable Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Okazaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue strength, effects of a notch on the fatigue strength, and fatigue crack growth rate of Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy were compared with those of other implantable metals. Zr, Nb, and Ta are important alloying elements for Ti alloys for attaining superior long-term corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The highly biocompatible Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy exhibited an excellent balance between strength and ductility. Its notched tensile strength was much higher than that of a smooth specimen. The strength of 20% cold-worked commercially pure (C.P. grade 4 Ti was close to that of Ti alloy. The tension-to-tension fatigue strength of an annealed Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta rod at 107 cycles was approximately 740 MPa. The fatigue strength of this alloy was much improved by aging treatment after solution treatment. The fatigue strengths of C.P. grade 4 Ti and stainless steel were markedly improved by 20% cold working. The fatigue strength of Co-Cr-Mo alloy was markedly increased by hot forging. The notch fatigue strengths of 20% cold-worked C.P. grade 4 Ti, and annealed and aged Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta, and annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloys were less than those of the smooth specimens. The fatigue crack growth rate of Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta was the same as that of Ti-6Al-4V. The fatigue crack growth rate in 0.9% NaCl was the same as that in air. Stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo-Ni-Fe alloy had a larger stress-intensity factor range (ΔK than Ti alloy.

  6. Influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength of resin composite bonded to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-09-28

    The influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etch mode was investigated. A two-step self-etch adhesive and two universal adhesives were used to bond to enamel and dentin in self-etch mode. Initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using the adhesive in self-etch mode were determined. Fatigue testing was used with 20 Hz frequency and cycling periods of 50,000, 100,000 and 1,000,000 cycles, or until failure occurred. For each of the cycling periods, there was no significant difference in shear fatigue strength across the cycling periods for the individual adhesives. Differences in shear fatigue strength were found between the adhesives within the cycling periods. Regardless of the adhesive used in self-etch mode for bonding to enamel or dentin, shear fatigue strength was not influenced by the number of cycles used for shear fatigue strength testing.

  7. A study of the corrosion products of mild steel in high ionic strength brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Moore, R C; Felmy, A R; Mason, M J; Kukkadapu, R K

    2001-01-01

    The corrosion layer on steel surfaces that formed after exposure to waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) brines under anoxic conditions was characterized for chemical composition, thickness and phase composition. The chemical composition of the corrosion layer was determined both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by chemical analysis of acid solutions used to remove the corrosion layer. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images indicated that the brine-corroded surface layer shows extensive granulation along the contours of the steel surface that is characteristic of sharp polishing marks. The corrosion layer seemed to be porous and could be dissolved and detached in dilute hydrochloric acid. The corrosion layer appears to be composed of iron oxides with some ionic substitutions from the brines. The 77 K Mössbauer spectrum recorded for iron powder leached under similar conditions indicated the corrosion layer was comprised principally of green rust.

  8. Effect of Corrosion Resistant Coatings on the Fatigue Strength of Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    DOW 17 anodic coatings - both light and heavy applications. Pretreatments such as acid pickling, shot peening, and polystyrene impregnation were also...After 7 Days in HJjh Ituoidity Environnent ................... 74 SO Exposed and Unexposed (Upper Left Only) Speciroens With DOW 7 Coating (06...standard acid pickling pretreatment was also evaluated as well as practices not currently employed such as polystyrene impregnation and shot peening

  9. Pitting corrosion resistance and bond strength of stainless steel overlay by friction surfacing on high strength low alloy steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification is essential for improving the service properties of components. Cladding is one of the most widely employed methods of surface modification. Friction surfacing is a candidate process for depositing the corrosion resistant coatings. Being a solid state process, it offers several advantages over conventional fusion based surfacing process. The aim of this work is to identify the relationship between the input variables and the process response and develop the predictive models that can be used in the design of new friction surfacing applications. In the current work, austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was friction surfaced on high strength low alloy steel substrate. Friction surfacing parameters, such as mechtrode rotational speed, feed rate of substrate and axial force on mechtrode, play a major role in determining the pitting corrosion resistance and bond strength of friction surfaced coatings. Friction surfaced coating and base metal were tested for pitting corrosion by potentio-dynamic polarization technique. Coating microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Coatings in the as deposited condition exhibited strain-induced martensite in austenitic matrix. Pitting resistance of surfaced coatings was found to be much lower than that of mechtrode material and superior to that of substrate. A central composite design with three factors (mechtrode rotational speed, substrate traverse speed, axial load on mechtrode and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Response surface methodology was used to develop the model. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model to predict the pitting corrosion resistance and bond strength by incorporating the friction surfacing process parameters.

  10. Small Crack Growth and Fatigue Life Predictions for High-Strength Aluminium Alloys. Part 1; Experimental and Fracture Mechanics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. R.; Newman, J. C.; Zhao, W.; Swain, M. H.; Ding, C. F.; Phillips, E. P.

    1998-01-01

    The small crack effect was investigated in two high-strength aluminium alloys: 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad alloy. Both experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to study crack initiation and growth of small cracks. In the experimental program, fatigue tests, small crack and large crack tests A,ere conducted under constant amplitude and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading conditions. A pronounced small crack effect was observed in both materials, especially for the negative stress ratios. For all loading conditions, most of the fatigue life of the SENT specimens was shown to be crack propagation from initial material defects or from the cladding layer. In the analysis program, three-dimensional finite element and A weight function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors and to develop SIF equations for surface and corner cracks at the notch in the SENT specimens. A plastisity-induced crack-closure model was used to correlate small and large crack data, and to make fatigue life predictions, Predicted crack-growth rates and fatigue lives agreed well with experiments. A total fatigue life prediction method for the aluminum alloys was developed and demonstrated using the crack-closure model.

  11. Novel High Strength Ceria-Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ceramic with Superior High Temperature Corrosion and Erosion Resistance. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giulio, R.; Butcher, K.

    2004-01-13

    Composite CeTZP/A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CeZTA) foams were developed and tested to determine their suitability as particulate filters in hot gaseous conditions generated by coal combustion in electric power plants. Exposure to these extreme corrosive conditions did not cause significant degradation in strength. Superior properties of these foams suggests they could be used for a variety of applications in environment, energy and chemical fields.

  12. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Fatigue Crack Growth Studies Pertinent to Spacecraft and Booster Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated stress corrosion cracking in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI) titanium alloy plate and weld metal. Both uniform height double cantilever beam and surface flawed specimens were tested in environments normally encountered during the fabrication and operation of pressure vessels in spacecraft and booster systems. The second part studied compatibility of material-environment combinations suitable for high energy upper stage propulsion systems. Surface flawed specimens having thicknesses representative of minimum gage fuel and oxidizer tanks were tested. Titanium alloys 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI), 6Al-4V annealed, and 6Al-4V STA were tested in both liquid and gaseous methane. Aluminum alloy 2219 in the T87 and T6E46 condition was tested in fluorine, a fluorine-oxygen mixture, and methane. Results were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  13. Effects of Neuromuscular Fatigue on Quadriceps Strength and Activation and Knee Biomechanics in Individuals post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abbey C.; Lepley, Lindsey K.; Wojtys, Edward M.; McLean, Scott G.; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Laboratory based experiment using a pre/post-test design. Objectives To determine the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on quadriceps strength and activation and sagittal and frontal plane knee biomechanics during dynamic landing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). Background Impaired quadriceps central activation occurs post-ACLr, likely altering lower extremity biomechanics. Neuromuscular fatigue similarly reduces volitional muscle activation and impairs neuromuscular control. Upon return to full activity post-ACLr, individuals likely concurrently experience quadriceps central activation deficits and neuromuscular fatigue, though the effects of fatigue on muscle strength and activation and biomechanics post-ACLr are unknown. Methods Seventeen individuals 7–10 months post-ACLr and 16 controls participated. Quadriceps strength and central activation ratio were recorded pre-/post-fatigue, which was induced via sets of double-leg squats. Knee biomechanics were recorded during a dynamic landing activity pre-/post-fatigue. Results Both groups demonstrated smaller knee flexion (initial contact:P=.017; peak:P=.004) and abduction (initial contact:P=.005; peak:P=.009) angles post-fatigue. The ACLr group had smaller peak knee flexion angles (PKnee flexion moment was smaller in ACLr than controls pre- (Pknee flexion moments post-fatigue (P=.001). Knee abduction moment was smaller in both groups post-fatigue (P=.003). All participants demonstrated significantly lower strength (Pbiomechanics presented post-fatigue in both groups, confirming that neuromuscular fatigue may increase non-contact ACL injury risk. However, these changes were not exaggerated in ACLr participants, likely because they already demonstrated a stiff-legged landing strategy pre-fatigue. PMID:26471851

  14. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Songjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China); Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Zuogui [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Akiyama, Eiji [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: AKIYAMA.Eiji@nims.go.jp; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Boping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  15. Investigations of the corrosion fatigue behaviour at a super pure martensitic stainless steel (X 5 CrNiCuNb 17 4 PH) in comparison to the soft martensitic stainless steel X 4 CrNiMo 16 5 1 ESR in chloride containing aqueous media. Pt. 1. Corrosion investigations and stress corrosion tests to optimize the heat treatment according to the stress corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Thomas, K.G.; Wunderlich, R.; Happle, T.

    1989-06-01

    The stress corrosion was investigated for all heat-treatments of the 17-4 PH in 22% NaCl(pH3) solution. The precipitation hardening steel was most resistant to stress corrosion in concentrated NaCl-solution after a three-stage heat-treatment. There was no improvement of corrosion fatigue resistance after metallurgical aftertreatment of soft martensitic steel compared to the untreated material. This is due to the instable passive behaviour of the material which led to crack initiation, especially during the 150/sup 0/C experiments, at chloride-induced places of pitting. The investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of both materials showed that the pH-value hardly influences corrosion resistance. An increase of the salt content leads to higher pitting induction. At temperatures of 80/sup 0/C in a saturated NaCl-solution the material showed no corrosion resistance. In potentiokinetic investigations, a direct transition from the active area to the pitting potential was observed. In accordance with both the corrosion fatigue and the stress corrosion cracking investigations, it was found that pitting at the martensite precipitator starts primarily around Cu-containing or oxidic inclusions. (orig./MM).

  16. The Influence of Microstructure on the Strength and Toughness and the Fatigue Crack Propagation in CrWMn Steels,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-24

    strength and toughness if a mixed ’ martensite structure with 50% bainite is obtained. It also can prolong the pregnant period of nucleation of fatigue crack...has high No and low da/dN. If the bainite is more than 90%, its fracture will show the characteristic of quasicleavage and da/dN increases remarkably...toughness simultaneously is an urgent problem needing to be solved. Recently, from the studies of mixed structures of bainite and ,.. martensite, it was

  17. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Characterization of Fatigue and Crash Performance of New Generation High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda Yan; Dennis Urban

    2003-04-21

    A 2-year project (2001-2002) to generate fatigue and high strain data for a new generation of high strength steels (HSS) has been completed in December 2002. The project tested eleven steel grades, including Dual Phase (DP) steels, Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, Bake Hardenable (BH) steels, and conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels. All of these steels are of great interest in automotive industry due to the potential benefit in weight reduction, improved fuel economy, enhanced crash energy management and total system cost savings. Fatigue behavior includes strain controlled fatigue data notch sensitivity for high strength steels. High strain rate behavior includes stress-strain data for strain rates from 0.001/s to 1000/s, which are considered the important strain rate ranges for crash event. The steels were tested in two phases, seven were tested in Phase 1 and the remaining steels were tested in Phase. In a addition to the fatigue data and high st rain rate data generated for the steels studied in the project, analyses of the testing results revealed that Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) exhibit significantly higher fatigue strength and crash energy absorption capability than conventional HSS. TRIP steels exhibit exceptionally better fatigue strength than steels of similar tensile strength but different microstructure, for conditions both with or without notches present

  18. Static, Fire and Fatigue Tests of Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete and Ribbed Bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Heshe, Gert

    2001-01-01

    - Densit Joint Cast ®. Also the connections between the columns and the slabs are made of this very strong concrete material. The paper describes some of the static tests carried out as well as some fire tests. Further, 2 chapters deal with some fatigue tests of the reinforcing bars as well as some fatigue...

  19. Fatigue life prediction and strength degradation of wind turbine rotor blade composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, R.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Wind turbine rotor blades are subjected to a large number of highly variable loads, but life predictions are typically based on constant amplitude fatigue behaviour. Therefore, it is important to determine how service life under variable amplitude fatigue can be estimated from constant amplitude fat

  20. The effect of low temperatures on the fatigue of high-strength structural grade steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that for fracture, ferritic steels undergo a sudden transition from ductile behavior at higher temperatures to brittle cleavage failure at lower temperatures. However, this phenomenon has not received much attention in the literature on fatigue. The so-called Fatigue Ductile-Brittle

  1. Inhibition of Ce3+ on Stress Corrosion Crack of High Strength Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wen-ting

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The stress corrosion cracking (SCC susceptibility of 7A04 high strength aluminum alloy in 3.5% (mass fraction NaCl solution and the Ce3+ inhibition of SCC were investigated by slow stress rate test(SSRT, using constant current polarization, electrochemical noise (ECN and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The inhibition mechanism of Ce3+ ions on the initiation and propagation of cracking was also analyzed. The results indicate that both anodic and cathodic galvanostatic polarizations can accelerate the SCC of 7A04, the former increases anodic dissolution but the latter accelerates hydrogen embrittlement of crack tip. SCC susceptibility of 7A04 can be reduced effectively by the addition of cerium ions, the fracture time is delayed and slowed down, but only during the initiation other than the propagation stage of cracking. Ce3+ ions can restrain the initiation of metastable pitting on the surface of 7A04 specimen, which therefore increase the induction time of the cracking since that the micro pits are usually the source of cracking.However, once the crack begins to propagate or the specimen is notched, the addition of cerium ions can rarely inhibit the cracking process. This is possibly attributed to that the radius of Ce3+ ion is too large to diffuse into the crack tip or it is hard to form protective CeO2 layer, Ce3+ ion therefore fails to rehabilitate the active alloy at the crack tip and further reduce the SCC developing rate of 7A04. SEM also indicates that the crack initiation of smooth 7A04 specimens is mainly induced by metastable or stable pits.

  2. Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of High Strength Low Alloy Steel in 2.0 M Sulfuric Acid Solutions by 3-Amino-1,2,3-triazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion and corrosion inhibition of high strength low alloy (HSLA steel after 10 min and 60 min immersion in 2.0 M H2SO4 solution by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATA were reported. Several electrochemical techniques along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS were employed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the increase of immersion time from 10 min to 60 min significantly decreased both the solution and polarization resistance for the steel in the sulfuric acid solution. The increase of immersion time increased the anodic, cathodic, and corrosion currents, while it decreased the polarization resistance as indicated by the potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The addition of 1.0 mM ATA remarkably decreased the corrosion of the steel and this effect was found to increase with increasing its concentration to 5.0 mM. SEM and EDS investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the HSLA steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the ATA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  3. Impact of choice of stabilized hysteresis loop on the end result of investigation of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA steel on low cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bulatović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High strength low-alloy steel under low cycle fatigue at a certain level of strain controlled achieve stabilized condition. During the fatigue loading stabilized hysteresis loop is determined, which typical cycle of stabilization is calculated as half number of cycles to failure. Stabilized hysteresis loop is a representative of all hysteresis and it’s used to determine all of the parameters for the assessment of low cycle fatigue. This paper shows comparison of complete strain-life curves of low cycle fatigue for two chosen stabilized hysteresis loop cycles of base metal HSLA steel marked as Nionikral 70.

  4. Fatigue strength of Al7075 notched plates based on the local SED averaged over a control volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Filippo; Lazzarin, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    When pointed V-notches weaken structural components, local stresses are singular and their intensities are expressed in terms of the notch stress intensity factors (NSIFs). These parameters have been widely used for fatigue assessments of welded structures under high cycle fatigue and sharp notches in plates made of brittle materials subjected to static loading. Fine meshes are required to capture the asymptotic stress distributions ahead of the notch tip and evaluate the relevant NSIFs. On the other hand, when the aim is to determine the local Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged in a control volume embracing the point of stress singularity, refined meshes are, not at all, necessary. The SED can be evaluated from nodal displacements and regular coarse meshes provide accurate values for the averaged local SED. In the present contribution, the link between the SED and the NSIFs is discussed by considering some typical welded joints and sharp V-notches. The procedure based on the SED has been also proofed to be useful for determining theoretical stress concentration factors of blunt notches and holes. In the second part of this work an application of the strain energy density to the fatigue assessment of Al7075 notched plates is presented. The experimental data are taken from the recent literature and refer to notched specimens subjected to different shot peening treatments aimed to increase the notch fatigue strength with respect to the parent material.

  5. Hybrid framework with cobalt-chromium alloy and gold cylinder for implant superstructure: Bond strength and corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Masao; Uzawa, Shinobu; Komiyama, Yataro

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate tensile bond strengths and corrosion resistance of CoCr alloys joined with gold cylinder by a soldering system in comparison with the conventional cast-joining system. CoCr alloys joined with gold cylinder by a soldering system using a high-fusing gold solder (CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder), gold alloy joined with gold cylinder by a cast joining system (Gold alloy/Gold cylinder) and CoCr castings were fabricated. The tensile bond strength and corrosion resistance in 0.9% NaCl solution (pH 7.4 and pH 2.3) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surface and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the joined interfaces were also performed. The tensile bond strengths of the CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder specimens showed similar values as the Gold alloy/Gold cylinder specimens. SEM observation and EPMA analyses suggested firm bonding between the CoCr alloy and gold cylinder. The released elements from the CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder specimens were similar to ones from CoCr castings. Results showed that superstructures made of CoCr alloys joined with the gold cylinder using a high-fusing gold solder had sufficient bond strength and high corrosion resistance. These hybrid frameworks with cobalt-chromium alloy and gold cylinder are promising prosthesis for implant superstructures with the low cost and favorable mechanical properties instead of conventional high-gold alloys. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of short-time heat treatment and subsequent chemical surface treatment on the mechanical properties, low-cycle fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance of a Ni-Ti (50.9 at.% Ni) biomedical alloy wire used for the manufacture of stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Vojtech@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Voderova, M.; Kubasek, J.; Novak, P.; Seda, P.; Michalcova, A.; Fojt, J. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hanus, J. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Charles University - Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Simkova 870, 500 38 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Mestek, O. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Effect of short-time heat treatments on functional properties of a NiTi alloy. {yields} Negative effect of heat treatments on corrosion resistance. {yields} Positive effect of heat treatments on fatigue life. {yields} Positive influence of chemical treatment on both fatigue and corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Cold-drawn and straight-annealed NiTi wires (50.9% Ni) with a tensile strength of 1650 MPa were subjected to heat treatments at 450, 510 and 600 deg. C for 10 min in air to simulate the shape-setting process in the manufacture of stents. Afterwards, the wires were chemically etched in acidic baths containing HF, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O, followed by boiling in water. Variations in the internal structure, surface state and chemistry and transformation behavior of the wires due to these treatments were examined in detail by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry, glow discharge spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests, and low-cycle fatigue behavior was measured by bend-type cyclic loading tests. Corrosion behavior was assessed by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements. A high tensile strength of the wire was shown to be attributable to a very fine-grained structure and work hardening. Heat treatment at 450-510 deg. C/10 min did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the wire. At 600 deg. C/10 min, the strength decreased by about 600 MPa due to recrystallization. The transformation temperatures first slightly increased after heat treatment at 450 deg. C and then reduced after treatments at higher temperatures due to changes in the composition of the B2 phase. The fatigue life was observed to prolong with both heat treatment and chemical etching. In contrast, the corrosion resistance worsened with heat treatment, but it improved significantly upon chemical etching. The

  7. Effect of a novel three-step aging on strength, stress corrosion cracking and microstructure of AA7085

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈送义; 陈康华; 董朋轩; 叶升平; 黄兰萍; 阳代军

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a novel three-step aging on strength, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and microstructure of AA7085 was investigated by tensile testing and slow strain rate testing combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that with the increase of second-step aging time of two-step aging, the mechanical properties increase first and then decrease, while the SCC resistance increases. Compared with two-step aging, three-step aging treatment improves SCC resistance and the strength increases by about 5%. The effects of novel three-step aging on strength and SCC resistance are explained by the role of matrix precipitates and grain boundary precipitates, respectively.

  8. Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Athletes After 6 Days of Intensified Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Simola, Rauno Álvaro De Paula; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Raeder, C, Wiewelhove, T, Simola, RÁDP, Kellmann, M, Meyer, T, Pfeiffer, M, and Ferrauti, A. Assessment of fatigue and recovery in male and female athletes after 6 days of intensified strength training. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3412-3427, 2016-This study aimed to analyze changes of neuromuscular, physiological, and perceptual markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in high-resistance strength training. Fourteen male and 9 female athletes participated in a 6-day intensified strength training microcycle (STM) designed to purposefully overreach. Maximal dynamic strength (estimated 1 repetition maximum [1RMest]; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery); maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC); countermovement jump (CMJ) height; multiple rebound jump (MRJ) height; jump efficiency (reactive strength index, RSI); muscle contractile properties using tensiomyography including muscle displacement (Dm), delay time (Td), contraction time (Tc), and contraction velocity (V90); serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK); perceived muscle soreness (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS) and perceived recovery (physical performance capability, PPC); and stress (MS) were measured before and after the STM and after 3 days of recovery. After completing the STM, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) performance decreases in 1RMest (%[INCREMENT] ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; -7.5 ± 3.5, ES = -0.21), MVIC (-8.2 ± 4.9, ES = -0.24), CMJ (-6.4 ± 2.1, ES = -0.34), MRJ (-10.5 ± 3.3, ES = -0.66), and RSI (-11.2 ± 3.8, ES = -0.73), as well as significantly reduced muscle contractile properties (Dm, -14.5 ± 5.3, ES = -0.60; V90, -15.5 ± 4.9, ES = -0.62). After days of recovery, a significant return to baseline values could be observed in 1RMest (4.3 ± 2.8, ES = 0.12), CMJ (5.2 ± 2.2, ES = 0.28), and MRJ (4.9 ± 3.8, ES = 0.32), whereas RSI (-7.9 ± 4.5, ES = -0.50), Dm (-14.7 ± 4.8, ES = -0.61), and V90 (-15.3 ± 4.7, ES = -0.66) remained

  9. Investigations of the corrosion fatigue behaviour at a super pure martensitic stainless steel X5CrNiCuNb 17 4 PH in comparison to the soft martensitic stainless steel X4CrNiMo 16 5 1 ESR in chloride containing aqueous media. Pt. 2. Corrosion fatigue tests and crack initiation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Thomas, K.G.; Happle, T.; Wunderlich, R.

    1989-07-01

    The following report concerns the study of the corrosion fatigue behaviour of the soft martensitic steel X4CrNiMo 16 5 1 ESR and the precipitation hardened X5CrNiCuNb 17 4 PH in sodium solution in the temperature range between 20/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C and the determination of their general corrosion properties and the mechanism of crack propagation. Their corrosion fatigue limits were compared with each other. A comparison was also made between an electro-slag-remelted soft martensitic steel and a charge without an ESR aftertreatment. Microfractographical fracture and crack path investigation were carried out for interpretation of the experimental results. It was observed that in both super pure steels (soft martensitic and precipitation hardened) the oxidic inclusions are not responsible for the crack initiation, as it was found in the non ESR treated steels. In the 17-4 PH steel copper containing inclusions in the crack initiation areas were observed. In concentrated sodium solution pitting corrosion was found at both steels. (orig.).

  10. Strength, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of ultrafine-grained Mg alloys after different modes of severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobatkin, S. V.; Lukyanova, E. A.; Martynenko, N. S.; Anisimova, N. Yu; Kiselevskiy, M. V.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Yurchenko, N. Yu; Raab, G. I.; Yusupov, V. S.; Birbilis, N.; Salishchev, G. A.; Estrin, Y. Z.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation on the structure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of the WE43 (Mg-Y-Nd-Zr) alloy earmarked for applications as bioresorbable material has been studied. The alloy was deformed by rotary swaging (RS), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), and multiaxial deformation (MAD). The microstructure examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that all SPD modes lead to the formation of ultrafine-grained structure with a structural element size of 0.5-1 µm and the Mg12Nd phase particles 0.3 µm in size. The microstructure refinement by all three treatments resulted in strengthening of the alloy. ECAP and MAD also raised ductility to up to 12-17%, while RS increased the ultimate tensile strength to up to 415 MPa. The study of the corrosion properties showed that SPD does not affect the electrochemical corrosion of the alloy. Its biocompatibility in vitro was estimated after incubation of the samples with red blood cells (hemolysis study), white blood cells (cell viability assay), and mesenchymal stromal cells (cell proliferation analysis). The biodegradation rate in fetal bovine serum was also evaluated. ECAP and MAD were found to cause some deceleration of biodegradation by slowing down the gas formation in the biological fluid and, compared to MSC, to improve the biocompatibility of the WE43 alloy.

  11. 缓蚀剂对LY12铝合金搭接件疲劳寿命的影响%Influence of Corrosion Inhibitors on Fatigue Life of LY12 Aluminium Alloy Lap Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 卞贵学; 陈跃良; 张泰峰

    2013-01-01

    模拟飞机服役环境,对未涂抹及涂抹缓蚀剂的航空LY12铝合金搭接试验件进行了腐蚀试验和疲劳试验.通过对试验件分解检查,分析了腐蚀环境对涂抹缓蚀剂航空LY12铝合金典型螺栓搭接件的影响.对缓蚀剂对搭接件的疲劳性能的影响进行了统计和分析.结果表明,相同腐蚀时间,未涂抹缓蚀剂试验件的螺栓孔附近和搭接面腐蚀程度较涂抹缓蚀剂试验件严重,缓蚀剂可有效减缓腐蚀,且不同的缓蚀剂类型对腐蚀的减缓程度不同.一般环境下,涂抹缓蚀剂的试验件比未涂抹缓蚀剂试验件的疲劳寿命有所减少,应力水平越小影响程度越明显;腐蚀40 d后,涂抹缓蚀剂的试验件较未涂抹缓蚀剂的试验件寿命育所增加,且不同应力水平和缓蚀剂类型对疲劳寿命的影响程度不同.%Corrosion test and fatigue test were carried out for LYl2 aluminium alloy lap joints with and without corrosion inhibitors.Influence of corrosion environment on LY12 aluminium alloy typical bolt lap joints daubed with corrosion inhibitors was analysed by overhauling specimens.Influence of corrosion inhibitors on fatigue property of lap joints was collected and analysed.The results show that faying surface of specimens without corrosion inhibitors corroded more severely during the same time,corrosion inhibitors can inhibite corrosion,and the effectiveness of various corrosion inhibitors is different In general environment,the fatigue life of specimens daubed with corrosion inhibitors reduced,influence extent is increasing obviously with the decrease of stess level.After 40 d corrosion,the fatigue life of specimens daubed with corrosion inhibitors increased,and influence extent is different with various stress level and corrosion inhibitors.

  12. Fatigue and residual strength of concrete and other aging viscoelastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of non-aging viscoelastic materials (like wood) is generalized in this paper such that aging viscoelastic materials such as concrete subjected to variable load can also be considered. Lifetime...... criterion. A simple time criterion is much better. The theory is successfully compared with methods previously presented in the field of concrete fatigue. Algorithms and design graphs are developed which can be used in fatigue design of concrete products....

  13. Effect of microstructure on fatigue behavior of advanced high strength steels produced by quenching and partitioning and the role of retained austenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego-Calderón, I. de, E-mail: irenedediego.calderon@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Calvillo, P. [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaza de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lara, A. [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaza de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Molina-Aldareguia, J.M. [IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Petrov, R.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Ghent) (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); De Knijf, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Ghent) (Belgium); Sabirov, I. [IMDEA Materials Institute, Calle Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-12

    Despite the significant body of research on mechanical properties of quenched and partitioned (Q&P) steels, their fatigue behavior has not been investigated. This work focuses on the effect of microstructure on high cycle fatigue of Q&P steels and microstructural evolution during cyclic loading. It is demonstrated that increased content of retained austenite (RA) improves fatigue limit of Q&P steels that is related to delay of crack propagation due to austenite–martensite phase transformation. Increasing stress amplitude promotes austenite–martensite phase transformation during cycling loading. It is shown that size and crystallographic orientation of RA are the main factors determining its stability, whereas its shape and spatial distribution do not seem to affect it significantly. Fatigue crack initiation during fatigue testing with high stress amplitudes occurs by intergranular cracking, whereas transgranular cracking controls fatigue crack initiation during cycling loading with lower stress amplitudes. Transgranular crack propagation dominates in the second stage of fatigue at all stress amplitudes. The final stage of fatigue is also not affected by the stress amplitude. It is suggested that fatigue life of Q&P steels can be enhanced via improvement of strength of grain/interphase boundaries.

  14. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Co-Fe alloy coatings on high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodhi, Z.F.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hovestad, A.; Hoen-Velterop, L. 't; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W.de

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion properties of electrodeposited zinc-cobalt-iron (Zn-Co-Fe) alloys (up to 40 wt.% Co and 1 wt.% Fe) on steel were studied by using various electrochemical techniques and compared with zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that with an increase in Co con

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Ultra-high Strength Steel 300M in Different Simulated Marine Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qiang; LIU Jianhua; YU Mei; LI Songmei

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of 300M in neutral corrosion environments containing NaCl simulated by total immersion (TI), salt spraying (SS) and periodic immersion (PI), was investigated by surface analysis techniques, corrosion weight-loss method, and electrochemical measurements. In total immersion environment, rust on the steel consisted of a porous outer rust layer with main constituent ofγ-FeOOH, and an inner rust layer of dense Fe3O4 iflm with network broad cracks. In salt spraying environment, outer rust with main composition ofγ-FeOOH/α-FeOOH/Fe3O4 was compact, and inner rust showed dense Fe3O4 iflm. Rust formed by periodic immersion exhibited a compact outer rust layer with constituent ofα-FeOOH/γ-FeOOH/Fe3O4 and an inner rust layer with composition ofα-FeOOH/α-Fe2O3; inner rust showed a ultra-dense iflm adherent to the steel. The corrosion rate showed a rule ofvs(salt spraying)>vti(total immersion)>>vpi(periodic immersion) in 0-240 h, andvss≈vti»vpiin 240-720 h. The rust formed by periodic immersion was dense and compact, with stable electrochemical properties, and had excellent protection on the steel. Humidity and oxygen concentration in all the environments played major roles in rust formation.

  16. Effect of amalgam corrosion products in non-discolored dentin on the bond strength of replaced composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaneh Ghavamnasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of amalgam corrosion products in non-discolored dentin on the bond strength of replaced composite resin. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-one Class I cavities were prepared on extracted premolars and divided into seven groups. Group 1: Light-cured composite; Groups 2, 3, and 4: Amalgam stored in 37°C normal saline for respectively 1, 3, and 6 months and then replaced with composite leaving the cavity walls intact. Groups 5, 6, and 7: Identical to Groups 2, 3, and 4, except the cavity walls were extended 0.5 mm after amalgam removal. Eighteen specimens from each group were selected for shear bond strength testing, while on remaining five samples, elemental microanalysis was conducted. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Freidman (α = 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between Groups 1 and 4 and also between Group 1 and Groups 5, 6, and 7. However, Groups 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant difference regarding bond strength. Bond strengths of Group 4 was significantly less than Groups 2 and 3. However, Groups 5, 6, and 7 showed similar bond strength. There was no difference among all groups in terms of metal elements at any storage times.

  17. The influence of the corrosion product layer generated on the high strength low-alloy steels welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiang; Zou, Yan; Kong, Xiangfeng; Gao, Yang; Dong, Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The high strength low-alloy steels are welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes. The micro-structural and electrochemical corrosion study of base metal (BM), weld zone (WZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) are carried out to understand the influence of the corrosion product layer generated on the high strength low-alloy steels welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes, methods used including, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the WZ acts as a cathode and there is no corrosion product on it throughout the immersion period in seawater. The HAZ and BM acts as anodes. The corrosion rates of the HAZ and BM change with the immersion time increasing. In the initial immersion period, the HAZ has the highest corrosion rate because it has a coarse tempered martensite structure and the BM exhibites a microstructure with very fine grains of ferrite and pearlite. After a period of immersion, the BM has the highest corrosion rate. The reason is that the corrosion product layer on the HAZ is dense and has a better protective property while that on the BM is loose and can not inhibit the diffusion of oxygen.

  18. Cold-Drawn Bioabsorbable Ferrous and Ferrous Composite Wires: An Evaluation of Mechanical Strength and Fatigue Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Nauman, Eric A.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2012-08-01

    Yield strengths exceeding 1 GPa with elastic strains exceeding 1 pct were measured in novel bioabsorbable wire materials comprising high-purity iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mn), and zinc (Zn), which may enable the development of self-expandable, bioabsorbable, wire-based endovascular stents. The high strength of these materials is attributed to the fine microstructure and fiber textures achieved through cold drawing techniques. Bioabsorbable vascular stents comprising nutrient metal compositions may provide a means to overcome the limitations of polymer-based bioabsorbable stents such as excessive strut thickness and poor degradation rate control. Thin, 125- μm wires comprising combinations of ferrous alloys surrounding a relatively anodic nonferrous core were manufactured and tested using monotonic and cyclic techniques. The strength and durability properties are tested in air and in body temperature phosphate-buffered saline, and then they were compared with cold-drawn 316L stainless steel wire. The antiferromagnetic Fe35Mn-Mg composite wire exhibited more than 7 pct greater elasticity (1.12 pct vs 1.04 pct engineering strain), similar fatigue strength in air, an ultimate strength of more than 1.4 GPa, and a toughness exceeding 35 mJ/mm3 compared with 30 mJ/mm3 for 316L.

  19. 环境腐蚀对Q345角钢疲劳性能的影响研究%Effect of Environmental Corrosion on Fatigue Properties of Q345 Equal Angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张誉; 张春涛

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To study the effect of corrosion on the fatigue properties of Q345 equilateral angle steel, which lays foundation for the analysis of fatigue performance variation of specimens under condition of alternating cycles of "corro-sion-fatigue".Methods Firstly, based on the test results of continuous fatigue vibration and interval fatigue vibration, the effect of fatigue loading modes on the fatigue performance of the specimens was analyzed. The interval vibration of the specimens was completed in three steps, and the vibration times of each step was 1/3 of that of continuous fatigue vibration. Then, three kinds of etching methods were adopted according to the different times of "immersion-drying", and accelerated corrosion damage test was conducted in acid solution with a pH value of 2. With different corrosion, 3 groups 39 Q345 equilateral angle steel was stu-died on by the fatigue cyclic loading test. Corrosion fatigue test was carried out on 3 groups of 39 Q345 angle steel parts using "corrosion-fatigue" alternate cycling loading. Based on the phenomena and results of the corrosion fatigue tests, the changing law of fatigue performance with corrosion fatigue damage was analyzed, and the degeneration law of wind-induced vibration fa-tigue properties of Q345 angle steel with the occurrence and development of corrosion damage in atmospheric environment was investigated. ResultsWhenSmax was 221.43 MPa, the average fatigue life in corrosion modes CF2 and CF2 of the 8 specimens was decreased by 5.1% and 2.7% as compared with CF3, whereas the fatigue life was not changed significantly whenSmax was 308.39 MPa or 221.43 MPa, but whenSmax decreased to 156.22 MPa, the fatigue life of CF1 and CF2 was decreased by 6.3% and 4.5% as compared with that of CF3, respectively.ConclusionWith increasing times of “Immersion-drying” alternating cycles, the damage increased, and the fatigue life of specimens decreased, showing that the corrosion fatigue life of

  20. Pitting Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel under Low Stress below Yield Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shengjie; CHENG Xuequn; LI Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) under various stress was studied by potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results of polarization curves show that,with the increase of the stress,the pitting potentials and the passive current density markedly decrease firstly (180 MPa),and then increase greatly (200 MPa).The corresponding surface morphologies of the samples after the polarization test well correspond to the results.Mott-Schottky analysis proved the least Cl- adsorbed to the surface of passive film with more positive flat potential,indicating that a moderate stress could increase the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L SS in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  1. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 High Strength Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was not used to measure the transition from corrosion pit to long crack [25]. . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1 Composition of a typical sample of 7075 -T6...lives. 24 III. Methodology 3.1 Material Research was conducted using 7075 -T6 aluminum. This alloy is commonly used in aerospace applications and as a... material properties of this alloy. It is important to note that these properties were also used in all finite element models. Table 3.1: Composition of

  2. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in High Strength Steels and in Titanium and Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    widely throughout the technical community and is not available in collected form, the authors of the chapter on titanium have included a much higher...Elements................ 22 Derivation of KI by Specimen Compliance.............. 23 Experiental Determination of Comll-!hlncc........... 24 Theoretical...101. R. T. Ault, Republic Steel Corp., private communication . 102. S. R. Novak and S. T. Rolfe, Kt, Stress-Corrosion Tests of l2Ni-5Cr-3Mo and l8Ni

  3. Modelling of ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT of welded joints and its effect on fatigue strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT is a remarkable post-weld technique applying mechanical impacts in combination with ultrasound into the welded joints. In the present work, a 3D simulation method including welding simulation, numerical modelling of UIT-process and an evaluation of fatigue crack growth has been developed. In the FE model, the actual treatment conditions and local mechanical characteristics due to acoustic softening are set as input parameters. The plastic deformation and compressive stress layer are found to be more pronounced when acoustic softening takes place. The predicted internal residual stress distributions of welded joint before and after UIT are compared with experimental results, showing a fairly good agreement with each other. Finally, simulated results of fatigue crack growth in various residual stress fields are well compared with test results, so that the proposed model may provide an effective tool to simulate UIT-process in engineering structures.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of the residual yield strength of aluminium alloy EN AW-2024-T3 affected by artificially produced pitting corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippig, R.; Schmidl, E.; Steinert, P.; Schubert, A.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the behaviour of the residual yield strength of aluminium alloy EN AW-2024-T3 affected by the morphology and numbers of corrosion pits (defects) is presented. Since specific defect structures are not reproducible during experimental corrosion tests, metal sheets with different numbers of pits and pit shapes are produced using laser micro structuring. The defect structures are measured using laser scanning microscopy. To compare the stress states of the micro structured and real corroded metal sheets, FE-analysis is used. Afterwards, uniaxial tensile tests are carried out and critical defect parameters in terms of yield strength reduction of the investigated aluminium alloy are detected.

  5. A surface crosslinked UHMWPE stabilized by vitamin E with low wear and high fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Ebru; Ghali, Bassem W; Rowell, Shannon L; Micheli, Brad R; Lozynsky, Andrew J; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2010-09-01

    Wear particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis has been a clinical problem driving the development of wear resistant ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) for total joint replacement. Radiation crosslinking has been used to decrease wear through decreased plastic deformation; but crosslinking also reduces mechanical properties including fatigue resistance, a major factor limiting the longevity of joint implants. Reducing UHMWPE wear with minimal detriment to mechanical properties is an unaddressed need for articular bearing surface development. Here we report a novel approach to achieve this by limiting crosslinking to the articular surface. The antioxidant vitamin E reduces crosslinking efficiency in UHMWPE during irradiation with increasing concentration, thus we propose to spatially control the crosslink density distribution by controlling the vitamin E concentration profile. Surface crosslinking UHMWPE prepared using this approach had high wear resistance and decreased crosslinking in the bulk resulting in high fatigue crack propagation resistance. The interface region did not represent a weakness in the material due to the gradual change in the crosslink density. Such an implant has the potential of decreasing risk of fatigue fracture of total joint implants as well as expanding the use of UHMWPE to younger and more active patients.

  6. In-Situ Welding Carbon Nanotubes into a Porous Solid with Super-High Compressive Strength and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Gan, Qiming; Chen, Wenjun; Cheng, Xiaoping; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Yuan; Yang, Yanbing; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2015-06-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based sponges and aerogels have an isotropic porous structure and their mechanical strength and stability are relatively lower. Here, we present a junction-welding approach to fabricate porous CNT solids in which all CNTs are coated and welded in situ by an amorphous carbon layer, forming an integral three-dimensional scaffold with fixed joints. The resulting CNT solids are robust, yet still highly porous and compressible, with compressive strengths up to 72 MPa, flexural strengths up to 33 MPa, and fatigue resistance (recovery after 100,000 large-strain compression cycles at high frequency). Significant enhancement of mechanical properties is attributed to the welding-induced interconnection and reinforcement of structural units, and synergistic effects stemming from the core-shell microstructures consisting of a flexible CNT framework and a rigid amorphous carbon shell. Our results provide a simple and effective method to manufacture high-strength porous materials by nanoscale welding.

  7. FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON (ADI)IN WATER ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q.Z.Cai; B.K.Wei; Y.Tanaka

    2004-01-01

    The acicular ferrite in austempered ductile iron(ADI)matrix around graphite was corroded preferentially in wet condition,promoting crack origination and propagation and resulting in the disappearance of ADI fatigue limit.ADI fatigue strength was gradually reduced with increasing the time of test and was reduced by 50% in wet condition at 107 cycles compared with the fatigue limit in dry condition.The fatigue strength variation of ferritic ductile iron in wet condition was similar to that of ADI.The ferritic ductile iron,however,has better corrosion resistance so that the fatigue strength was lowered only by 10% in wet condition at 107 cycles compared with the fatigue limit in dry condition.On the other hand,the fatigue limits of A DI and ferritic ductile iron were dropped by 32% and 25% in tap water dipping 480h/dry condition respectively compared with those in dry condition.The reduction of fatigue limit was attributed to corrosion pits formation correlated with stress concentration,resulting in origination and propagation of fatigue crack.

  8. Evaluation of fatigue strength of WC cermet- and 13Cr steel-sprayed materials; WC cermet oyobi 13Cr ko yosha hifukuzai no hiro kyodo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T.; Tokaji, K.; Ejima, T. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Kobayashi, Y.; Harada, Y. [Tocalo Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-10-15

    Rotating bending fatigue tests have been conducted at room temperature in air using the specimens of medium carbon steel (S45C), low alloy steel (SCM435) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) with HVOF sprayed coating of a cermet (WC-12%Co) and S45C with WFS sprayed coating of a 13Cr steel (SUS420 J2). The fatigue strength and fracture mechanisms were studied. The fatigue strength evaluated by nominal stress was strongly influenced by substrate materials and the thickness of sprayed coatings. Detailed observation of crack initiation on the coating surface and fracture surface revealed that microcracks initiated at the WC grain boundary coalesced, and then the crack grew rapidly in the coating. Cracks in the substrate were initiated by the stress concentration of the crack in the coating, which was modeled by finite element analysis. For the specimens tested in this study, the fatigue strength of sprayed specimens was dominated by that of sprayed coating. Thus, the fatigue strength could be evaluated uniquely by the true stress on the coating surface. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Fatigue experiments on very high strength steel base material and transverse butt welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa have been available on the market for many years. However, the use of these steels in the civil engineering industry is still uncommon, due to lack of design and fabrication knowledge and therefore limited inclusion in codes. Mor

  10. Fatigue experiments on very high strength steel base material and transverse butt welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa have been available on the market for many years. However, the use of these steels in the civil engineering industry is still uncommon, due to lack of design and fabrication knowledge and therefore limited inclusion in codes.

  11. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%, range -1.8 - 49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. DISCUSSION: Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG...

  12. 含腐蚀缺陷X70钢剩余强度分析%Analysis of Residual Strength of X70 Pipeline Steel with Corrosion Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平伟; 王峰会; 王绍明

    2011-01-01

    采用ABAQUS有限元数值计算方法,分析了含腐蚀缺陷X70管道的剩余强度.根据相关标准的失效准则,研究了腐蚀的发展规律,并考虑到双腐蚀缺陷对管道剩余强度的影响.结果表明,对于双腐蚀缺陷,管道剩余强度随着两腐蚀轴向间距的增大而增大,最后趋于稳定;管道剩余强度随着两腐蚀缺陷径向夹角的增大而增大,最后趋于稳定.研究结果对于管道的安全运行和维护具有重要的作用.%ABAQUSUS finite element method(FEM) was employed to analyze the residual strength of X70 pipeline with corrosion defects. According to relative failure criteria, the corrosion development law was studied. The results showed that for a pipeline with two corrosion defects, the residual strength increased as the axis distance of two corrosion defects increased. The residual strength increased with the increase of radial angle of two corrosion defects.The results is important to the pipeline's safe operation and maintenance.

  13. Effect Of The Spacing Between Submicroscopic Oxide Impurities On The Fatigue Strength Of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of distance between submicroscopic oxide impurities (up to 2 μm in size on the fatigue resistance coefficient of structural steel during rotary bending. The study was performed on 21 heats produced in an industrial plant. Fourteen heats were produced in 140 ton electric furnaces, and 7 heats were performed in a 100 ton oxygen converter. All heats were desulfurized. Furthermore seven heats from electrical furnaces were refined with argon, and heats from the converter were subjected to vacuum circulation degassing.

  14. Effect of HIP temperature on microstructure and low cycle fatigue strength of CuCrZr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: nishi.hiroshi88@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the HIP cycle temperatures on the metallurgic degradation and the mechanical properties of CuCrZr alloy, assessments of the microstructure, tensile test, Charpy impact test and low cycle fatigue test are performed for various heat treated CuCrZr alloys, which were solution-annealed followed by water-quenched and aged state of CuCrZr with simulated HIP cycle at temperatures of 980 and 1045 deg. C. Grain growth occurred on 1045 deg. C HIP CuCrZr, though slightly on 980 deg. C HIP CuCrZr. Metallurgic degradation such as voids was not found by optical and SEM observations. There were coarse precipitates in all the CuCrZr and the precipitates did not easily dissolve at 980 deg. C. The low cycle fatigue strength of 1045 deg. C HIP CuCrZr was lower than that of other CuCrZr because of the metallurgic degradation caused by the heat cycle, while that of other CuCrZr was corresponding to the best fit curve of ITER MPH.

  15. Development of Eddy Current Test Procedure for Non-destructive Detection of Fatigue Cracks and Corrosion in Rivets of Air-intake Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sasi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive detection of defects in countersunk of rivets in multi-layer air-intake structures is essential for ensuring structural integrity and flight safety. This paper presents an eddy current test procedure developed for reliable detection of simulated fatigue cracks and corrosion products in rivets of air-intake structures. This procedure is capable of reliably detecting 0.25 mm deep defects in 4 mm dia rivets and 0.75 mm deep defects in 5 mm dia rivets. Further, it is not influenced by thickness of the multilayers.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(2, pp.106-112, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1497

  16. An in vitro investigation into retention strength and fatigue resistance of various designs of tooth/implant supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Du, Tianfeng; Cao, Yingguang

    2012-02-01

    Previously, the choice of prosthetic implant-retained overdentures has depended on data from previous studies about the retention-fatigue strength of the attachment system selected. Little or no data have been available on the correlation between the attachment system selected and the overdenture support configuration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retention force and fatigue resistance of three attachment systems and four support designs of overdenture prosthesis. Four lower edentulous acrylic models were prepared and eight combinations of attachments groups were investigated in the study. These included: O-Rings with mini-dental implants (MDIs), Dalbo elliptic with Dalbo Rotex and fabricated flexible acrylic attachments with both MDI and Dalbo Rotex. The study was divided into four test groups: groups A and B, controls, and groups C and D, experimental groups. Control group A contained three overdenture supports: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with Dalbo Rotex screwed in. Control group B contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with Dalbo Rotex screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Experimental group C contained three overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with MDI screwed in. Experimental group D contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with MDIs screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to attachment type used. Five samples were prepared for each group. Retention force (N) values were recorded initially (0 cycles) and after 360, 720, 1440

  17. Incubating Isolated Mouse EDL Muscles with Creatine Improves Force Production and Twitch Kinetics in Fatigue Due to Reduction in Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Stewart I.; Greenaway, Bronwen; Chan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. Methods and Results The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12–14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i) before fatigue; (ii) immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii) after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. Conclusion Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation. PMID:21850234

  18. Incubating isolated mouse EDL muscles with creatine improves force production and twitch kinetics in fatigue due to reduction in ionic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart I Head

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12-14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i before fatigue; (ii immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. CONCLUSION: Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca(2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation.

  19. Effect of ETA treatment on corrosion fatigue in rotors and blades and stress corrosion cracking in 3.5 NiCrMoV steel low-pressure turbine discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Itoh [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Takashi, Momoo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago Machinery Works (Japan); Takayuki, Shiomi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, to increase the reliability and reduce the amount of feed water iron to prevent of fouling of steam generator tubes, ethanolamine (ETA) treatment has been adopted into the secondary system. In this investigation, the authors verified that ethanolamine treatment does not adversely affect the susceptibility of either stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the turbine discs that are the principal units in the secondary system or corrosion fatigue (CF) in rotors and blades. In the first stage, a laboratory investigation was made of (1) SCC initiation and propagation in 3,5 NiCrMoV steel and (2) CF in 3,5 NiCrMoV steel and blade steels, in both cases using deaerated water to which had been added ethanolamine with few organic acids that is 10 times the estimated concentration. It was confirmed that the ethanolamine treatment had almost no effect. In the second stage, test pieces (removed from the disc steel inserted into the turbine extraction chamber before the ethanolamine treatment was started) were used to observe the initiation and propagation of SCC. Even after long-term observation, ethanolamine treatment into the secondary system was found to have almost no effect on the susceptibility of SCC in discs. (author)

  20. a Study on the Fretting Fatigue Life of Zircaloy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Do; Park, Dae-Kyu; Woo, Seung-Wan; Chai, Young-Suck

    Studies on the strength and fatigue life of machines and structures have been conducted in accordance with the development of modern industries. In particular, fine and repetitive cyclic damage occurring in contact regions has been known to have an impact on fretting fatigue fractures. The main component of zircaloy alloy is Zr, and it possesses good mechanical characteristics at high temperatures. This alloy is used in the fuel rod material of nuclear power plants because of its excellent resistance. In this paper, the effect of the fretting damage on the fatigue behavior of the zircaloy alloy is studied. Further, various types of mechanical tests such as tension and plain fatigue tests are performed. Fretting fatigue tests are performed with a flat-flat contact configuration using a bridge-type contact pad and plate-type specimen. Through these experiments, it is found that the fretting fatigue strength decreases by about 80% as compared to the plain fatigue strength. Oblique cracks are observed in the initial stage of the fretting fatigue, in which damaged areas are found. These results can be used as the basic data for the structural integrity evaluation of corrosion-resisting alloys considering the fretting damages.

  1. The effect of the production process of medium-carbon steel on fatigue strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material comprised semi-finished, high grade, medium-carbon structural steel for the production of mining chains. Steel was melted in a 140 ton electric furnace and desulfurized (E. In the second analyzed variant, steel was additionally refined with argon (EA. In the third variant, steel was melted in a 100 ton converter. Secondary treatment involved vacuum circulation degassing. Specimens with a diameter of 10 mm were prepared by hardening and tempering at 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600°C. Fatigue tests were performed with the use of a rotary bending machine at a frequency of 6000 cpm. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  2. Q345等边角钢腐蚀疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental research on the corrosion fatigue properties of Q345 equal angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春涛; 范文亮; 李正良

    2014-01-01

    针对角钢构件在输电塔线体系服役期间因环境腐蚀与风致振动耦合作用导致疲劳性能退化,而构件腐蚀疲劳试验成本高、耗时久、难度大等限制因素所致试验资料匮乏问题,基于节省成本、提高精度思路,结合单点-似然法与相关系数优化法,提出确定腐蚀疲劳S-N曲线表达式参数的改进回归分析方法,构造与之对应的实现算法,建立随腐蚀时间变化的t-P-S-N曲面表达式;通过三组不同腐蚀时间的18根足尺试件疲劳试验,研究Q345等边角钢腐蚀疲劳破坏模式,分析P-S-N曲面方程中各参数随腐蚀时间的变化规律,并结合理论分析建立Q345等边角钢构件t-P-S-N曲面模型。采用该模型探讨不同腐蚀时间内Q345等边角钢构件疲劳寿命的变化规律。结果表明,相同疲劳荷载水平作用下试件疲劳寿命随腐蚀时间急剧减小;同一腐蚀时间内疲劳寿命受腐蚀因素的影响程度随荷载的减小而增加。%Because of the coupling between environment corrosion and wind-induced vibration,the fatigue properties of angles will degenerate during service period.From the view point of cost saving and precision improving,an improved regression method for estimating S-N curves of corrosion fatigue was proposed by combining the single-point likelihood method (SPLM)with the optimization of correlation coefficient.The implementation algorithm for the improved SPLM was also proposed.According to the improved method,an expression for the t-P-S-N surface of corrosion fatigue was presented.Meanwhile,the corrosion fatigue of three types of 18 Q345 equal angles in different corrosion time duration were tested.The corrosion fatigue failure modes of specimens were observed and the variation of P-S-N curves in different corrosion time duration was investigated.Then the t-P-S-N surface model of Q345 equal angles was achieved and the variation law of Q345 equal angles' fatigue life

  3. Time-dependent reliability of corrosion-affected RC beams-Part 1: Estimation of time-dependent strengths and associated variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Kapilesh, E-mail: kapilesh_66@yahoo.co.u [Architecture and Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mori, Yasuhiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ghosh, A.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Predictive models for corrosion-induced damages in RC structures. Formulations for time-dependent flexural and shear strengths of corroded RC beams. Methodology for mean and c.o.v. for time-dependent strengths of corroded RC beams. Simple estimation of mean and c.o.v. for flexural strength with loss of bond. - Abstract: The structural deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to reinforcement corrosion is a major worldwide problem. Damages to RC structures due to reinforcement corrosion manifest in the form of expansion, cracking and eventual spalling of the cover concrete; thereby resulting in serviceability and durability degradation of such structures. In addition to loss of cover, RC structure may suffer structural damages due to loss of reinforcement cross-sectional area, and loss of bond between corroded reinforcement and surrounding cracked concrete, sometimes to the extent that the structural failure becomes inevitable. This paper forms the first part of a study which addresses time-dependent reliability analyses of RC beams affected by reinforcement corrosion. In this paper initially the predictive models are presented for the quantitative assessment of time-dependent damages in RC beams, recognized as loss of mass and cross-sectional area of reinforcing bar, loss of concrete section owing to the peeling of cover concrete, and loss of bond between corroded reinforcement and surrounding cracked concrete. Then these models have been used to present analytical formulations for evaluating time-dependent flexural and shear strengths of corroded RC beams, based on the standard composite mechanics expressions for RC sections. Further by considering variability in the identified basic variables that could affect the time-dependent strengths of corrosion-affected RC beams, the estimation of statistical descriptions for the time-dependent strengths is presented for a typical simply supported RC beam. The statistical descriptions

  4. Corrosion inhibition by inorganic cationic inhibitors on the high strength alumunium alloy, 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Anusha

    The toxicity and carcinogenic nature of chromates has led to the investigation of environmentally friendly compounds that offer good corrosion resistance to AA 2024-T3. Among the candidate inhibitors are rare earth metal cationic (REM) and zinc compounds, which have received much of attention over the past two decades. A comparative study on the corrosion inhibition caused by rare earth metal cations, Ce3+, Pr3+, La3+ and Zn2+ cations on the alloy was done. Cathodic polarization showed that these inhibitor ions suppress the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to varying extents with Zn2+ providing the best inhibition. Pr3+ exhibited windows of concentration (100-300 ppm) in which the corrosion rate is minimum; similar to the Ce3+ cation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the mechanism of inhibition of the Pr3+ ion is also similar to that of the Ce3+ ion. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments after 30 min immersion time showed greatest suppression of oxygen reduction reaction in neutral chloride solutions (pH 7), which reached a maximum at a Zn2+ ion concentration of 5 mM. Anodic polarization experiments after 30 min immersion time, showed no anodic inhibition by the inhibitor in any concentration (0.1 mM - 10 mM) and at any pH. However, anodic polarization of samples immersed after longer immersion times (upto 4 days) in mildly acidic Zn2+ (pH 4) solutions showed significant reduction in anodic kinetics indicating that zinc also acts as a “slow anodic inhibitor”. In contrast to the polarization experiments, coupons exposed to inhibited acidic solutions at pH 4 showed complete suppression of dissolution of Al2CuMg particles compared to zinc-free solutions in the SEM studies. Samples exposed in pH 4 Zn2+-bearing solution exhibited highest polarization resistance which was also observed to increase with time. In deaerated solutions, the inhibition by Zn2+ at pH 4 is not observed as strongly. The ability to make the interfacial electrolyte

  5. Analysis of the fatigue strength under two load levels of a stainless steel based on energy dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricotta M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fatigue behaviour of a stainless steel AISI 304L is analysed. In the first part of the work the results obtained under constant amplitude fatigue are presented and synthesised in terms of both stress amplitude and energy released to the surroundings as heat by a unit volume of material per cycle, Q. Then some specimens have been fatigued in variable amplitude, two different load level tests: the first level was set higher while the second was lower than the constant amplitude fatigue limit. The Q values, evaluated during the second part of the fatigue test, have been compared with those calculated under constant amplitude fatigue at the same load level. The comparison allowed us to notice that the Q parameter is sensitive to the fatigue damage accumulated by the material during the first part of the fatigue test.

  6. Analysis of the fatigue strength under two load levels of a stainless steel based on energy dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ricotta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fatigue behaviour of a stainless steel AISI 304L is analysed. In the first part of the work the results obtained under constant amplitude fatigue are presented and synthesised in terms of both stress amplitude and energy released to the surroundings as heat by a unit volume of material per cycle, Q. Then some specimens have been fatigued in variable amplitude, two different load level tests: the first level was set higher while the second was lower than the constant amplitude fatigue limit. The Q values, evaluated during the second part of the fatigue test, have been compared with those calculated under constant amplitude fatigue at the same load level. The comparison allowed us to notice that the Q parameter is sensitive to the fatigue damage accumulated by the material during the first part of the fatigue test.

  7. Corrosion fatigue performance in simulated sea water of aluminium 6061-T651 welded using ER4043 filler wire

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue life of Al6061-T651 for various applied stress amplitudes in the unwelded and welded conditions was significantly lower in 3.5% NaCl simulated sea water solution, compared to that in air. The damage ratio increased with a decrease...

  8. Hydrogen diffusion into fatigue cracks of aluminium alloy 6013 in a corrosive environment; Wasserstoffeinlagerung an Ermuedungsrissen der Aluminiumlegierung 6013 unter korrosiver Umgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Christian Alexander

    2009-08-13

    The author attempted a time-resolved detection of raised hydrogen concentrations in the plastic deformation region of fatigue cracks in an aluminium test piece deformed by cyclic stress in a corrosive environment. Mechanical material parameters like the crack propagation velocity under cyclic stress change dramatically in a corrosive environment. This is assumed to be caused by hydrogen diffusion, but so far there is no method that reliably measures additional hydrogen from the corrosive environment. For this reason, a special analytical configuration was set up which makes use of the thermal desorption method. First, chips with a thickness of about 20 micrometers are sawed out of the test specimen in high-vacuum conditions. The chips fall into a hot melting vessel in a UHV chamber, where the hydrogen contained in the chips is released. The resulting pressure increase is recorded by a mass spectrometer. A hydrogen profile of the test specimen is obtained by assigning the chip position to the signal. For the corrosive medium in which the test specimen is immersed during crack initiation, i.e. NaCl solution, heavy water was used. This makes it possible to distinguish between the hydrogen contained in a piece of technical aluminium alloy (AA6013) and the deuterium diffusing in from the corrosive fluid. The deuterium is found exclusively in the test piece volume in the strongly plastically deformed region surrounding the fatigue crack. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht im ortsaufgeloesten Nachweis einer erhoehten Wasserstoffkonzentration im plastisch deformierten Bereich von Ermuedungsrissen einer unter korrosiver Umgebung zyklisch verformten Aluminiumprobe. Mechanische Materialparameter wie z.B. die Rissausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit unter zyklischer Belastung aendern sich drastisch in korrosiver Umgebung. Als Ursache fuer dieses Verhalten wird eine Eindiffusion von Wasserstoff vermutet, jedoch gibt es bisher keine Messung die den zusaetzlichen

  9. Study on analyzing fatigue strength of welding structure based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的焊接结构疲劳强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新宇; 米彩盈

    2013-01-01

    针对焊接结构不同焊接接头具有不同的疲劳强度许用应力,根据焊接接头的形状与应力集中情况将焊缝与母材分为不同的等级,基于DIN15018-1报告给出的疲劳强度评定方法确定了不同等级的焊缝和母材的最大应力、最小应力、平均应力、应力比、应力幅和疲劳安全系数.提出了对于ANSYS平台的结果文件进行二次开发.通过FORTRAN语言编程提取出ANSYS结果二进制文件中所存储的方向应力,依据特定疲劳标准选行疲劳分析,并且将疲劳强度分析的结果数据放入ANSYS的结果文件中,实现在ANSYS平台的后处理模块中示疲劳强度的分析结果,提高疲劳强度分析结果的可视性.%In consider of the fact that different welding joints have different fatigue permissible stresses weld zone and metal base are divided into various levels depending on the shape of welding joints and the stress concentration situation.According to the method to evaluating fatigue strength which is given by DIN 15018-1 report,maximum stress,minimum stress,average stress,stress ratio,stress amplitude and factor of safety are calculated.The secondly development of the result file which is provided by ANSYS is raised.The nodal component stresses in result file are extracted and calculated by programming in FORTRAN language,according to specific fatigue design standard the results of analyzing fatigue strength are worked out,and the results of analyzing fatigue strength are written back into result file.The results of analyzing fatigue strength are displayed by post processing module of ANSYS.The second development which is described in this article has improved the visibility of the results of analyzing fatigue strength.

  10. Stress-Corrosion Interactions in Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Flaviu Gostin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress-corrosion interactions in materials may lead to early unpredictable catastrophic failure of structural parts, which can have dramatic effects. In Zr-based bulk metallic glasses, such interactions are particularly important as these have very high yield strength, limited ductility, and are relatively susceptible to localized corrosion in halide-containing aqueous environments. Relevant features of the mechanical and corrosion behavior of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are described, and an account of knowledge regarding corrosion-deformation interactions gathered from ex situ experimental procedures is provided. Subsequently the literature on key phenomena including hydrogen damage, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue is reviewed. Critical factors for such phenomena will be highlighted. The review also presents an outlook for the topic.

  11. Corrosion behavior of Ti–39Nb alloy for dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: fojtj@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Joska, Ludek [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malek, Jaroslav [UJP Praha, Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague-Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Sefl, Vaclav [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-01

    To increase an orthopedic implant's lifetime, researchers are now concerned on the development of new titanium alloys with suitable mechanical properties (low elastic modulus–high fatigue strength), corrosion resistance and good workability. Corrosion resistance of the newly developed titanium alloys should be comparable with that of pure titanium. The effect of medical preparations containing fluoride ions represents a specific problem related to the use of titanium based materials in dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behavior of β titanium alloy Ti–39Nb in physiological saline solution and in physiological solution containing fluoride ions. Corrosion behavior was studied using standard electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that corrosion properties of the studied alloy were comparable with the properties of titanium grade 2. The passive layer was based on the oxides of titanium and niobium in several oxidation states. Alloying with niobium, which was the important part of the alloy passive layer, resulted in no significant changes of corrosion behavior. In the presence of fluoride ions, the corrosion resistance was higher than the resistance of titanium. - Highlights: • Alloy Ti–39Nb shows excellent corrosion resistance in physiological solution. • Corrosion resistance of Ti–39Nb alloy is significantly higher than that of titanium in the presence of fluoride ions. • The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates a porous passive layer. • Passive layer of the alloy is enriched by niobium.

  12. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075 T6 Under Different Biaxial Stress Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    strain energy release rate I mode one (opening) K stress intensity factor (MPa*m^0.5) M molar mass R stress ratio for cyclic loading (unit less) r...Finally, 7 the third phase of the fatigue failure occurs when the resistance is exceeded, and a structure occurs, Figure 2.1 [30]. Figure 2.1...Alloy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 92 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Shankar

  13. Maintainability Improvement Through Corrosion Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    potential, current, pH, and chloride ion concentration were made along a simulated corrosion fatigue crack for HY80 (UNS K31820) steel in seawater...frequency range of 0.05-50 Hz, a 7075-T6 aluminium alloy and 304 and 316L stainless steels were fatigue tested in 3.0% NaCl solution. The increments...DESCRIPTORS: Conference Paper; Aluminum base alloys- Mechanical properties; Austenitic stainless steels - Mechanical properties; Corrosion fatigue

  14. The Effect of the Production Process and Heat Processing Parameters on the Fatigue Strength of High-Grade Medium-Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric and desulfurized (E, electric and desulfurized with argon-refined (EA and oxygen converter with vacuum degassed of steel (KP. The production process involved two melting technologies: in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulphurisation and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze: relative volume of impurities, microstructure and fatigue tests. The samples were quenched and austenitized at a temperature of 880oC for 30 minutes. They were then cooled in water and tempered by holding the sections at a temperature of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600oC for 120 minutes and air-cooled. Fatigue tests were performed with the use of a rotary bending machine at a frequency of 6000 cpm. The results were statistical processed and presented in graphic form. This paper discusses the results of microstructural analyses, the distribution of the relative volume of impurities in different size ranges, the fatigue strength characteristics of different production processes, the average number of sample- damaging cycles and the average values of the fatigue strength coefficient for various heat processing options.

  15. Ratcheting and Low-Cycle Fatigue Characteristics of AZ31B Under Corrosive Environment%AZ31B在腐蚀环境下的棘轮与低周疲劳性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 鲁灵涛; 崔云; 邢睿思; 高红; 陈旭

    2016-01-01

    开发了适用于镁合金圆棒试样的在线腐蚀疲劳系统,通过在空气和磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)中分别进行循环疲劳试验,研究了腐蚀环境对 AZ31B 棘轮和低周疲劳性能的影响。结果表明:在棘轮应变演化的3个阶段中,腐蚀环境下试样在瞬态阶段和稳态阶段的棘轮应变率与空气中的相似;镁合金的腐蚀速率和棘轮应变随应力幅值和平均应力的增大而增大,孪晶、退孪晶的出现使得试样对腐蚀环境的敏感性进一步增加;在腐蚀环境中,镁合金的疲劳寿命大幅缩减,与空气中的试验相比,寿命缩减率达到50%,~90%,;为了能够反映平均应力、应力幅值、腐蚀环境以及最大压应力对 AZ31B 的低周疲劳寿命的复杂影响,采用 FP 参数模型对 AZ31B 进行了寿命预测。基于修正的FP参数模型,较好地预测了AZ31B在腐蚀环境下的低周疲劳寿命。%An on-line corrosion fatigue testing system for Mg alloy round bar specimens was developed. Through performing cyclic fatigue tests under the environments with and without phosphate buffer solution(PBS), the ratchet-ing and low-cycle fatigue properties of an as-extruded AZ31B alloy were investigated. Results show that in the three stages of ratcheting strain evolution, the ratcheting strain rates of specimens testedin air and corrosive environment were similar at the transient and steady stages. Corrosion rate and ratcheting strain of Mg alloy increased with the stress amplitude and mean stress. The occurrence of twining and de-twining further increased the sensitivity to the corrosive environment. The fatigue life of the Mg alloy in corrosive environment was significantly shorter than that in air and its reduction ratio of fatigue life to that in air could vary from 50% to 90%. Toreflect the effects of mean stress, stress amplitude, corrosion environment and maximum compressive stress on the fatigue behavior, a FP parameter model

  16. 焊缝余高对焊接接头疲劳强度的影响%INFLUENCE OF PILE HIGH ON FATIGUE STRENGTH OF WELDING JOINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓春; 张志毅; 李爱民

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pile high on fatigue strength of AQ400NH material weldment were studied by testing fatigue property of AQ400NH material and its smooth and pile high weldment, observing fracture, determining S -N curve, calculating stress with ANSYS. The results show that the weld defect is the main reason to influence fatigue strength of smooth weldment than the pile high is the main reason to influence fatigue strength of weldment with pile high. To measure true strain and ANSYS calculation give the same result that stress concentrate area is in weld toe, there is an linear relation between the strength of stress concentrate and pile high.%通过测定AQ400NH材料的光滑焊件、余高焊件的疲劳性能、观察断口形貌、绘制S-N曲线以及用AN-SYS有限元程序计算应力分布,研究余高对焊接接头疲劳强度的影响.结果发现,对于光滑焊件,焊接缺陷是影响疲劳强度的主要原因,对于有余高焊件,余高的高度是影响疲劳强度的主要原因,实际应变测量和有限元计算都表明,焊趾部位是应力集中区,应力集中的强度和余高间有线性关系.

  17. Investigation of the Use of Laser Shock Peening for Enhancing Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Nuclear Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay K. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jackson, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Teysseyre, Sebastien [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alexandreanu, Bogdan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Yiren [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The objective of this project, which includes close collaboration with scientists from INL and ANL, is to investigate and demonstrate the use of advanced mechanical surface treatments like laser shock peening (LSP) and ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) and establish baseline parameters for enhancing the fatigue properties and SCC resistance of nuclear materials like nickel-based alloy 600 and 304 stainless steel. The research program includes the following key elements/tasks: 1) Procurement of Alloy 600 and 304 SS, heat treatment studies; 2) LSP and UNSM processing of base metal and welds/HAZ of alloys 600 and 304; (3) measurement and mapping of surface and sub-surface residual strains/stresses and microstructural changes as a function of process parameters using novel methods; (4) determination of thermal relaxation of residual stresses (macro and micro) and microstructure evolution with time at high temperatures typical of service conditions and modeling of the kinetics of relaxation; (5) evaluation of the effects of residual stress, near surface microstructure and temperature on SCC and fatigue resistance and associated microstructural mechanisms; and (6) studies of the effects of bulk and surface grain boundary engineering on improvements in the SCC resistance and associated microstructural and cracking mechanisms

  18. Influence of heat treatment on bond strength and corrosion resistance of sol-gel derived bioglass-ceramic coatings on magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sibo; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Zhao, Huan; Niu, Shuxin; Zhang, Ruiyue

    2015-05-01

    In this study, bioglass-ceramic coatings were prepared on magnesium alloy substrates through sol-gel dip-coating route followed by heat treatment at the temperature range of 350-500°C. Structure evolution, bond strength and corrosion resistance of samples were studied. It was shown that increasing heat treatment temperature resulted in denser coating structure as well as increased interfacial residual stress. A failure mode transition from cohesive to adhesive combined with a maximum on the measured bond strength together suggested that heat treatment enhanced the cohesion strength of coating on the one hand, while deteriorated the adhesion strength of coating/substrate on the other, thus leading to the highest bond strength of 27.0MPa for the sample heat-treated at 450°C. This sample also exhibited the best corrosion resistance. Electrochemical tests revealed that relative dense coating matrix and good interfacial adhesion can effectively retard the penetration of simulated body fluid through the coating, thus providing excellent protection for the underlying magnesium alloy.

  19. The significance of ultrafine film-like retained austenite in governing very high cycle fatigue behavior in an ultrahigh-strength MN–SI–Cr–C steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P., E-mail: zhaoping12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, B.; Cheng, C. [Materials Science and Engineering Research Center, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Misra, R.D K., E-mail: dmisra2@utep.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0520 (United States); Gao, G., E-mail: gaogh@bjtu.edu.cn [Materials Science and Engineering Research Center, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Bai, B.; Weng, Y. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Materials Science and Engineering Research Center, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-10-01

    We elucidate here the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior of an ultrahigh-strength medium carbon Mn–Si–Cr–C steel processed using the approach of bainite-based quenching and partitioning (BQ&P). The microstructure of BQ&P process comprised of bainite, carbon-depleted martensite, retained austenite (RA) and small amount of martensite/austenite island (M/A). The tensile strength (R{sub m}) and fatigue limit strength after 10{sup 9} cycles (σ{sub w9}) and in the non-failed condition were 1688 MPa and 875 MPa, respectively such that σ{sub w9}/R{sub m} exceeded conventional steels and was 0.52. Two types of failure modes were observed depending on the surface and microstructure, notably surface-induced failure and non-inclusion-induced failure, where the non-inclusion-induced failure was influenced by the microstructure. Inclusion-induced failure was absent. The study underscores that film-like retained austenite was the underlying reason for superior fatigue properties, hitherto not previously obtained.

  20. Effects of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the flexural strength of G40-600/PMR-15 cross-ply laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Ho, Barry Ping Hsiao; Wallace, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the flexural strength of G40-600/PMR-15 cross-ply laminates with ply orientation of (0(2),90(2))2S and (90(2),0(2))2S are examined. The relative importance of shear and tensile stresses is examined by varying the span-to-depth ratios of flexural test specimens from 8 to 45. Acoustic emission signals are measured during the flexural tests in order to monitor the initiation and growth of damage. Optical microscopy is used to examine specimens for resin cracking, delamination, and fiber breaks after testing. Transverse matrix cracks and delaminations occur in all specimens, regardless of ply orientation, span-to-depth ratio, or previous exposure of specimens to thermal and mechanical fatigue. A small amount of fiber tensile fracture occurs in the outer 0 deg ply of specimens with high span-to-depth ratios. Because of the complex failure modes, the flexural test results represent the 'apparent' strengths rather than the true flexural or shear strengths for these cross-ply laminates. Thermal cycling of specimens prior to flexural testing does not reduce the apparent flexural strength or change the mode of failure. However, fewer acoustic events are recorded at all strains during flexural testing of specimens exposed to prior thermal cycling. High temperature thermal cycling (32 to 260 C, 100 cycles) causes a greater reduction in acoustic events than low temperature thermal cycling (-85 to +85 C, 500 cycles). Mechanical cycling (0 to 50 percent of the flexural strength, 100 cycles) has a similar effect, except that acoustic events are reduced only at strains less than the maximum strain applied during flexural fatigue.

  1. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew D; McLoughlin, Terence F; Gallagher, Kieran R; Gatherer, Don; Parratt, Michael Tr; Perera, Jonathan R; Briggs, Tim Wr

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16-18-year-old male rugby players. Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in rugby training and receives the same focus of conditioning as other parts of the body.

  2. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation in steels exposed to inert and corrosive environments. Final report, May 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youseffi, K.; Finnie, I.

    1978-02-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life of AISI 1018 steel was investigated using compact tension specimens having sharp notch root radii. The data were analyzed using two methods for predicting initiation in strain cycling experiments. Also, another approach in which initiation is related to the stress intensity factor was developed. The next phase, that of propagation, was studied using AISI 1018 steel and a new high strength steel HY-180. The crack propagation data obtained for both steels tested in air can be described accurately by the power law first suggested by Paris, da/dN = C(..delta..K)/sup n/, where a is the crack length, N the number of cycles, and C and n are material constants. However, the exponent n was found to be two times larger for AISI 1018 steel than HY-180 steel.

  3. Corrosion evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Uh Chul; Han, Jeong Ho; Nho, Kye Ho; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo

    1997-09-01

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled which can measure very small crack. Stress corrosion cracking test system with SSRT operating high temperature was installed. Stress corrosion cracking test of newly developed alloy 600 and existing alloy 600 was carried out in steam atmosphere of 400 deg C. No crack was observed in both materials within a test period of 2,000 hrs. Corrosion fatigue test system operating at high temperature was installed in which fatigue crack was measured by CDPD. Lead enhanced the SCC of the Alloy 600 in high temperature water, had a tendency to modify a cracking morphology from intergranular to transgranular. Pit initiation preferentially occurred at Ti-rich carbide. Resistance to pit initiation decreased with increasing temperature up to 300 deg C. Test loop for erosion corrosion was designed and fabricated. Thin layer activation technique was very effective in measuring erosion corrosion. Erosion corrosion of a part of secondary side pipe was evaluated by the Check Family Codes of EPRI. Calculated values of pipe thickness by Check Family Codes coincided with the pipe thickness measured by UT with an error of {+-} 20%. Literature review on turbine failure showed that failure usually occurred in low pressure turbine rotor disc and causes of failure are stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. (author). 12 refs., 20 tabs., 77 figs.

  4. Development of Custom 465® Corrosion-Resisting Steel for Landing Gear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymond, Benjamin T.; Binot, Nicolas; Schmidt, Michael L.; Preston, Steve; Collins, Richard; Shepherd, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Existing high-strength low-alloy steels have been in place on landing gear for many years owing to their superior strength and cost performance. However, there have been major advances in improving the strength of high-performance corrosion-resisting steels. These materials have superior environmental robustness and remove the need for harmful protective coatings such as chromates and cadmium now on the list for removal under REACH legislation. A UK government-funded collaborative project is underway targeting a refined specification Custom 465® precipitation hardened stainless steel to replace the current material on Airbus A320 family aircraft main landing gear, a main fitting component developed by Messier-Bugatti-Dowty. This is a collaborative project between Airbus, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, and Carpenter Technology Corporation. An extensive series of coupon tests on four production Heats of the material have been conducted, to obtain a full range of mechanical, fatigue, and corrosion properties. Custom 465® is an excellent replacement to the current material, with comparable tensile strength and fracture toughness, better ductility, and very good general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Fatigue performance is the only significant area of deficit with respect to incumbent materials, fatigue initiation being often related to carbo-titanium-nitride particles and cleavage zones.

  5. Influence of multi-step heat treatments in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy: Optimization for springback, strength and exfoliation corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Zohdi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, H.R., E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bozorg, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3197, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Multi-step heat treatments comprise of high temperature forming (150 Degree-Sign C/24 h plus 190 Degree-Sign C for several minutes) and subsequent low temperature forming (120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h) is developed in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy to decrease springback and exfoliation corrosion susceptibility without reduction in tensile properties. The results show that the multi-step heat treatment gives the low springback and the best combination of exfoliation corrosion resistance and tensile strength. The lower springback is attributed to the dislocation recovery and more stress relaxation at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that corrosion resistance is improved due to the enlargement in the size and the inter-particle distance of the grain boundaries precipitates. Furthermore, the achievement of the high strength is related to the uniform distribution of ultrafine {eta} Prime precipitates within grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep age forming developed for manufacturing of aircraft wing panels by aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good combination of properties with minimal springback is required in this component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This requirement can be improved through the appropriate heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-step cycles developed in creep age forming of AA7075 for improving of springback and properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results indicate simultaneous enhancing the properties and shape accuracy (lower springback).

  6. Predicting Effects of Corrosion Erosion of High Strength Steel Pipelines Elbow on CO2-Acetic Acid (HAc) Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Ismail, M. F.; Giok Chui, L.; Halimi, Jamiludin

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneously effect of erosion combined with corrosion becomes the most concern in oil and gas industries. It is due to the fast deterioration of metal as effects of solid particles mixed with corrosive environment. There are many corrosion software to investigate possible degradation mechanisms developed by researchers. They are using many combination factors of chemical reactions and physical process. However effects of CO2 and acid on pipelines orientations are still remain uncovered in their simulation. This research will investigate combination effects of CO2 and HAc on corrosion and erosion artificial environmental containing sands particles in 45°, 90° and 180° elbow pipelines. The research used theoretical calculations combined with experiments for verification. The main concerns are to investigate the maximum erosion corrosion rate and maximum shear stress at the surface. Methodology used to calculate corrosion rate are Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and weight loss. The results showed that at 45°, erosion rate is the more significant effects in contributing degradation of the metal. The effects of CO2 and HAc gave significant effects when flow rate of the solution are high which reflect synergism effects of solid particles and those chemical compositions.

  7. Effect of Artificial Saliva and Intraoral Fluoride on the Fatigue Strength and Roughness Values of Chromium- cobalt Alloy Clasp.%人工唾液和氟化物对钴铬合金卡环疲劳强度及粗糙度影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 赵笺龄; 商维荣

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨人工唾液和氟化物对钴铬合金卡环疲劳强度及粗糙度的影响.方法:用成品卡环蜡型制作钴铬合金卡环60个,分为6组,分别在空气中、人工唾液和氟化物中进行测试,初始载荷强度和疲劳失效前的载荷循环次数被自动记录;疲劳裂纹和表面形貌进行扫描电镜分析.用精密粗糙度测量仪检测各组表面粗糙度.结果:钴铬合金卡环在不同测试条件下的疲劳强度及粗糙度有差异.统计分析表明,pH5.6NaF处理组与对照组的循环载荷次数有显著性差异(P<0.01).pH5.6NaF处理组在处理前后的粗糙度有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:人工唾液和氟化物会使钴铬合金卡环的疲劳强度下降,而表面粗糙度升高.%Objective: To study the effect of artificial saliva and intraoral fluoride on the fatigue strength and roughness values of cobalt-chromium alloy clasp. Methods: Sixty casting clasp specimens of cobalt-chromium alloys made from prefabricated wax were divided into 6 groups. Specimens were tested in air, artificial saliva and intraoral fluoride. Initial loading force and loading cycle before fracture were registered automatically. The fatigue corrosion cracks and surface corrosion situation were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface roughness values in different groups were measured by precision topographer. Results.. The fatigue strength and roughness values of chromium-cobalt alloy were not different among six test conditions. StatistiCal analysis showed that there was significant difference between pH5.6NaF group and control group in loading cycle(P<0.01) pH5,6 NaF group had significant difference before and after processing the surface roughness (P<0. 01) Conclusion: Both artificial saliva and intraoral fluoride reduced the fatigue strength of chromium-cobalt alloy, whereas, improved the roughness values.

  8. 高强度钻杆钢疲劳性能试验研究∗%Study on fatigue property of High-strength Drill Pipe Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 邓天安; 周仕明; 曾德智

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve fatigue fracture of drilling tools, fatigue property of 165ksi and S135 drill pipe steels is studied by rotary bending fatigue test�Based on Basquin model, fatigue limit distribution of middle⁃long life zone is proposed for two high⁃strength drill pipe steels�Research results show that, under confidence level of 95% and reliability of 50%, 90% and 99%, the fatigue limit of 165ksi drill pipe steel is respectively 662�54, 645�92 and 632�28 MPa and that of S135 drill pipe steel is respectively 595�83, 541�87 and 529�73 MPa�In ad⁃dition, a complete stress⁃fatigue life S⁃N curve is obtained for two high⁃strength drill pipe steels�The results can provide basic data and theoretical basis for drill pipe material selection and reliability design of deep wells and ex⁃tradeep wells.%针对钻井过程中钻具疲劳断裂问题,采用旋转弯曲疲劳试验研究了S135和165ksi 2种高强度钻杆钢的疲劳性能。基于Basquin模型得出2种高强度钻杆钢中长寿命区的疲劳极限分布。研究结果表明,取95%的置信水平,则50%、90%和99%可靠度下的165ksi钻杆钢的疲劳极限分别为662�54、645�92和632�28 MPa, S135钻杆钢的疲劳极限分别为595�83、541�87和529�73 MPa,并得出了2种高强度钻杆钢完整的应力⁃疲劳寿命S⁃N曲线。试验结果可以为深井、超深井钻杆选材及可靠性设计提供基础数据和理论依据。

  9. 海洋大气腐蚀对7475铝合金疲劳性能的影响%The Influence of Marine Atmosphere Corrosion on Fatigue Propoty of 7475 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晴晴; 上官晓峰

    2013-01-01

    To solve the corrosion problem of metal in marine atmosphere, the effects of different protection methods on corrosion fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminum alloy after one year exposure test in marine atmosphere have been investigated. Firstly, fatigue lives of 7475 aluminum alloy with different surface condition placed in Hainan province for one year were measured. Secondly, fatigue data were analyzed by T test and F test of probabilistic, method, and fatigue fracture morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope ( SEM). Finally, corrosion protection method was summarized for 7475 aluminum alloy. The results indicated that fatigue life of 7475 aluminum alloy with paint is the longest; 7475 aluminum alloy exposed in Hainan atmosphere for one year, whose surface was unpainted and unconnected with TC18 titanium alloy, appear obvious pitting points which reduce the fatigue life; 7475 aluminum alloy whose surface was unpainted and connected with TC18 titanium alloy, has serious corrosion in the joint with TC18 titanium alloy, which make 7475 aluminum alloy' s fatigue life slightly shorter. Surface painting is one of effective methods to prevent corrosion in marine atmospheric environment for 7475 aluminum alloy.%针对海洋大气环境下金属腐蚀严重的问题,研究了海洋大气腐蚀对7475铝合金疲劳性能的影响.提出了7475铝合金的腐蚀防护措施.首先对在海南暴晒1年的7475铝合金不同表面状态的疲劳寿命进行测定.其次运用概论统计中的T检验和F检验处理疲劳数据,并采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察疲劳断口形貌.分析海洋大气腐蚀对7475铝合金疲劳性能的影响.最后得出了7475铝合金腐蚀防护措施.结果表明:在海南海洋大气环境中暴晒1年后,涂漆的7475铝合金疲劳寿命最长,不涂漆的7475铝合金表面出现明显的点蚀,从而降低材料寿命.不涂漆胶结装配的7475铝合金主要在与TC18钛合金连接处发生严重腐蚀,疲

  10. Effect of Contact Load on the Fretting Fatigue of Steel Wire under Alkaline Corrosive Environment%碱性腐蚀环境下接触载荷对钢丝微动疲劳行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维建; 张德坤; 张泽锋; 王崧全; 王世博

    2012-01-01

    The fretting fatigue tests of the mine steel wires under alkaline corrosive environment are performded on a self - made fretting fatigue test machine. The fretting fatigue behaviors of steel wires with a strain ration of 0.8 are studied under different contact loads. The damage mechanisms of steel wires are analyzed by the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the evolution of friction coefficients of steel wires can be divided into four stages, i.e. , running- in period, ascending period, declining period and stable period. The fretting regime of steel wires is gross slip regime under the four different contact loads. Corrosive wear, abrasive wear, fatigue wear and plastic deformation are the main wear mechanisms. The fatigue lifetime of the fretted steel wires is inversely proportional to the wear depth. Fatigue fracture surface can be divided into three regions, i.e. ,fatigue source region, crack propagation region and transient break regions.%以矿用钢丝为研究对象,在自制的钢丝微动疲劳试验机上开展钢丝在碱性腐蚀环境下的微动疲劳试验,考察钢丝在应变比为0.8时不同接触载荷下钢丝的微动运行特性,并用光学显微镜和扫描电子显微镜观察钢丝的磨痕和断口形貌,分析其微动磨损和疲劳断裂机理.结果表明:不同接触载荷下钢丝的摩擦系数具有相同的变化趋势,均可以分为4个阶段:跑合期、上升期、下降期和稳定期;4种不同接触载荷下钢丝摩擦副均运行于滑移状态,磨损机制以腐蚀磨损、磨粒磨损、疲劳磨损和塑性变形为主;钢丝疲劳寿命与磨损量成反比,疲劳断口可分为3个区:疲劳源区、扩展区和瞬断区.

  11. Influence of non-metallic second phases on fatigue behaviour of high strength steel components; Efecto de segundas fases no metalicas sobre el comportamiento a fatiga de componentes de acero con elevadas solicitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.; Elvira, R.; Garcia de Andoin, A.; Pizarro, R.; Bertrand, C.

    2005-07-01

    To assess the real effect of the inclusion type on fatigue life of ultra clean high strength steels mechanical components made of 100Cr6 steel were fatigue tested and fracture surfaces analysed to determine the origin of fatigue cracks.Two heats proceedings from different steelmaking routes were taken for the tests. The material were forged into ring shape components which were fatigue tested under compression-compression loads. Failures were analysed by SFEM (Scanning field Emission Microscopy), proving that most of failures at high loads were originated by manganese sulphides of small size (10-70 micros), while less than 40% of all fatigue cracks due to inclusions were caused by titanium carbonitrides and hard oxides. It has been demonstrated that once number and size of hard inclusions have been reduced, the hazardous effect of oxides and carbonitrides on the fatigue life decreases also. However, softer inclusions as manganese sulphides, currently considered as less hazardous, play a more relevant role as direct cause of fatigue failure and they should be taken into account in a deeper way in order to balance both machinability and fatigue life requirements in high strength steel components. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. Androgen signaling in myocytes contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophoff, Jill; Van Proeyen, Karen; Callewaert, Filip; De Gendt, Karel; De Bock, Katrien; Vanden Bosch, An; Verhoeven, Guido; Hespel, Peter; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2009-08-01

    Muscle frailty is considered a major cause of disability in the elderly and chronically ill. However, the exact role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in muscle remains unclear. Therefore, a postmitotic myocyte-specific AR knockout (mARKO) mouse model was created and investigated together with a mouse model with ubiquitous AR deletion. Muscles from mARKO mice displayed a marked reduction in AR protein (60-88%). Interestingly, body weights and lean body mass were lower in mARKO vs. control mice (-8%). The weight of the highly androgen-sensitive musculus levator ani was significantly reduced (-46%), whereas the weights of other peripheral skeletal muscles were not or only slightly reduced. mARKO mice had lower intra-abdominal fat but did not demonstrate a cortical or trabecular bone phenotype, indicating that selective ablation of the AR in myocytes affected male body composition but not skeletal homeostasis. Furthermore, muscle contractile performance in mARKO mice did not differ from their controls. Myocyte-specific AR ablation resulted in a conversion of fast toward slow fibers, without affecting muscle strength or fatigue. Similar results were obtained in ubiquitous AR deletion, showing lower body weight, whereas some but not all muscle weights were reduced. The percent slow fibers was increased, but no changes in muscle strength or fatigue could be detected. Together, our findings show that myocyte AR signaling contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue. The levator ani weight remains the most sensitive and specific marker of AR-mediated anabolic action on muscle.

  13. 海洋环境下钢筋混凝土结构腐蚀疲劳分析%Analysis on the corrosion and fatigue of steel reinforced concrete structure under ocean environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

    对钢筋混凝土结构的腐蚀疲劳性能进行了分析,总结了已建和在建的跨海大桥提高结构耐久性的措施,为以后避免或减缓钢筋混凝土结构的腐蚀疲劳破坏提供指导。%The article analyzes the corrosion and fatigue performance of steel reinforced concrete structure, and summarizes measures for impro- ving the structural durability of completed and being-buih sea-crossing bridge, which has provided guidance for avoiding and releasing the corro- sion and fatigue damage of steel reinforced concrete structure.

  14. A rapid estimation method of structural fatigue analysis for a 17k ton DWT oil tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tuohan; Zheng, Jianli; Bae, Dong-Myung

    2012-06-01

    Fatigue cracks and fatigue damage have been important issues for ships and offshore structures for a long time. However, in the last decade, with the introduction of higher tensile steel in hull structures and increasingly large ship dimensions, the greater attention should be paid to fatigue problems. Most research focuses on how to more easily access the fatigue strength of ships. Also, the major classification societies have already released their fatigue assessment notes. However, due to the complexity of factors influencing fatigue performances, such as wave load and pressure from cargo, the combination of different stress components, stress on concentration of local structure details, means stress, and the corrosive environments, there are different specifications with varying classification societies, leading to the different results from different fatigue assessment methods. This paper established the Det Norske Veritas(DNV) classification notes "fatigue assessment of ship structures" that explains the process of fatigue assessment and simplified methods. Finally, a fatigue analysis was performed by use data of a real ship and the reliability of the result was assessed.

  15. Corrosion behavior of Ti-39Nb alloy for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojt, Jaroslav; Joska, Ludek; Malek, Jaroslav; Sefl, Vaclav

    2015-11-01

    To increase an orthopedic implant's lifetime, researchers are now concerned on the development of new titanium alloys with suitable mechanical properties (low elastic modulus-high fatigue strength), corrosion resistance and good workability. Corrosion resistance of the newly developed titanium alloys should be comparable with that of pure titanium. The effect of medical preparations containing fluoride ions represents a specific problem related to the use of titanium based materials in dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behavior of β titanium alloy Ti-39Nb in physiological saline solution and in physiological solution containing fluoride ions. Corrosion behavior was studied using standard electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that corrosion properties of the studied alloy were comparable with the properties of titanium grade 2. The passive layer was based on the oxides of titanium and niobium in several oxidation states. Alloying with niobium, which was the important part of the alloy passive layer, resulted in no significant changes of corrosion behavior. In the presence of fluoride ions, the corrosion resistance was higher than the resistance of titanium.

  16. CORROSION FATIGUE OF NUCLEAR-GRADE STAINLESS STEEL IN HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL FATIGUE DESIGN MODEL%核级不锈钢高温水腐蚀疲劳机制及环境疲劳设计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣强; 徐松; 韩恩厚; 柯伟

    2011-01-01

    通过模拟核电高温高压循环水腐蚀疲劳实验,研究了国产核级不锈钢的环境疲劳损伤行为与失效机制;评价了影响不锈钢高温高压水疲劳寿命的环境和载荷等因素,建立了一个植入环境损伤效应的疲劳设计模型,给出了便于工程应用的核级不锈钢的环境疲劳设计曲线.%The high safety of light water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs) requires very strict design standard and service property of pressure boundary components materials. The service degradation and life assessment of the components materials primarily depend on the understanding of environmentally assisted failure mechanism, accumulation of service property data and construction of evaluation models. Currently domestic NPPs are relying on foreign design, operation and life assessment standards. However, recent experimental data indicate that even the ASME design fatigue code may be deficient in safety margin under certain conditions of loading and environment. In the present work, based on the corrosion fatigue tests in simulated NPPs' high temperature pressurized water, the corrosion fatigue behavior and environmentally assisted failure mechanism of domestic nuclear-grade stainless steel have been investigated. The factors affecting fatigue life of nuclear grade stainless steel in high temperature water were evaluated. A design fatigue model was constructed by taking environmental degradation effects into account and the corresponding design curves were given for the convenience of engineering applications.

  17. The influence of pH on the corrosion of medium strength aerospace alloy 8090, 2091 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour of two aluminium-lithium-copper-magnesium-zirconium (8090 and 2091) alloys was studied and compared with a standard aircraft alloy, 2014 (Al-4.4% Cu) and 99.9% pure Al. In constant exposure and potentiodynamic polarization studies conducted in 3.5% Na...

  18. Fractures in high-strength bolts due to hydrogen induced stress corrosion. Causes and corrective actions; Brueche hochfester Schrauben infolge wasserstoffinduzierter Spannungsrisskorrosion. Ursachen und Abhilfemassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoche, Holger; Oechsner, Matthias [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Zentrum fuer Konstruktionswerkstoffe

    2017-03-15

    Delayed brittle fractures of high-strength bolts of the strength class 10.9 are presented, taking the example of three damage cases. The respective damage mechanisms could be attributed to hydrogen induced stress corrosion which was caused, in turn, by hydrogen absorption during operation. The examples were chosen with a particular focus on the material condition's susceptibility which explains the cause for the occurrence of the damage mechanism. However, in only one of the three cases the susceptibility was evident and could be explained by violations of normative specifications and an unfavorable material choice. Whereas in the two other examples, only slight or no deviations from the standards and/or regulations could be found. The influencing parameters that caused the damage, those that further promoted the damage, as well as possible corrective actions are discussed taking into account the three exemplary damage cases.

  19. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  20. Al-Li alloy AA2198's very high cycle fatigue crack initiation mechanism and its fatigue thermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Luopeng; Cao, Xiaojian; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qingyuan

    2015-10-01

    AA2198 alloy is one of the third generation Al-Li alloys which have low density, high elastic modulus, high specific strength and specific stiffness. Compared With the previous two generation Al-Li alloys, the third generation alloys have much improved in alloys strength, corrosion resistance and weldable characteristic. For these advantages, the third generation Al-Li alloys are used as aircraft structures, such as C919 aviation airplane manufactured by China and Russia next generation aviation airplane--MS-21. As we know, the aircraft structures are usually subjected to more than 108 cycles fatigue life during 20-30 years of service, however, there is few reported paper about the third generation Al-Li alloys' very high cycle fatigue(VHCF) which is more than 108 cycles fatigue. The VHCF experiment of AA2198 have been carried out. The two different initiation mechanisms of fatigue fracture have been found in VHCF. The cracks can initiate from the interior of the testing material with lower stress amplitude and more than 108 cycles fatigue life, or from the surface or subsurface of material which is the dominant reason of fatigue failures. During the experiment, the infrared technology is used to monitor the VHCF thermal effect. With the increase of the stress, the temperature of sample is also rising up, increasing about 15 °C for every 10Mpa. The theoretical thermal analysis is also carried out.

  1. Influence of the conductivity and the Ionic strength of synthetic solutions which simulate the aquouse phase of concrete In the corrosion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goñi, S.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Polarization Resistance (Rp has been the electrochemical technique employed to study quantitatively the influence of Cl- and OH- ions on the corrosion of steel reinforcing, in a synthetic aqueous medium of similar composition to those of the concrete pore solution. Ionic strength, resistivity and their variations in function of CI- and OH- concentration have been chosen as more interesting solution parameters, together with intensity and potential corrosion measurements. The results showed the clear antagonistic role played by CI- and OH- ions on the corrosion process, which decreased as ionic strength increased.

    Este trabajo presenta el estudio cuantitativo, mediante la técnica de Resistencia de Polarización (Rp, de la influencia de los iones Cl- y OH- en la corrosión de armaduras de acero, en un medio acuoso sintético de similar composición al contenido en los poros del hormigón. Fuerza iónica, conductividad (resistividad y sus variaciones en función de la concentración de dichos iones, han sido los parámetros de interés escogidos para la evaluación del proceso, además de las medidas de intensidad y potenciales de corrosión. Los resultados muestran claramente el antagonismo de los iones Cl - y OH- , cuyo carácter agresivo o protector disminuye a medida que aumenta la fuerza iónica del medio.

  2. 船舶上层建筑端部实板厚疲劳试验研究%Real-thickness fatigue strength test of the ship superstructure end

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧龙; 崔兵兵; 冯国庆; 成兵

    2015-01-01

    In order to research the fatigue characteristics of the ship superstructure end, the real⁃thickness four⁃point bending model tests were designed and actualized. The number of cycles to failure in the fatigue tests were ob⁃tained under different stress levels. The mid⁃value S-N curve and P-S-N curve were drawn through the fixed⁃slope maximum likehood method. The fatigue strength of the position was caculated and compared by testing P-S-N curve and the E curve of CCS codes. The research showed that the S-N curve obtained from fatigue tests can offer a reference for the design and analysis of ships in practice.%为研究船体上层建筑端部的疲劳特性,设计和实施了实板厚四点弯曲疲劳模型试验。获得疲劳试验中不同应力水平下的疲劳失效循环次数,并采用定斜率极大似然法拟合应力水平-疲劳失效循环次数得到中值S-N曲线和P-S-N曲线。分别采用试验P-S-N曲线和CCS规范E曲线计算和比较研究该部位的疲劳强度。结果表明,试验得到的S-N曲线可为实船设计和分析提供参考。

  3. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett MD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Matthew D Barrett,1 Terence F McLoughlin,2 Kieran R Gallagher,1 Don Gatherer,3 Michael TR Parratt,1 Jonathan R Perera,1 Tim WR Briggs1 1Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom; 2Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, Mersey Deanery, United Kingdom; 3The Gatherer Partnership, Aylesbury, United Kingdom Purpose: To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16–18-year-old male rugby players. Materials and methods: Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. Results: There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. Conclusion: This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in

  4. Probability density evolution method of fatigue strength-life relationship%疲劳强度-寿命关系的概率密度演化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚洲; 白国良

    2013-01-01

    Taking degradation of fatigue strength with increase in loading cycles into account, the joint probability density evolution equation of fatigue strength and random factors was derived using Euler description. A probability density S-N (p-S-N) surface was obtained with a numerical method, it was used to calculate the p-S-N curve with a given survivability. The analysis based on experimental fatigue data indicated that p-S-N curves with 95% survivability predicted by p-S-N, Monte Carlo simulation and S-N relation ship having parameters with a given fractile agree well; p-S-N provides a complete probability description of S-N relationship, independent of a probability distribution assumption.%基于疲劳强度随加载循环次数增加不断劣化的物理事实,采用Euler描述推导出疲劳强度与随机参数联合概率密度函数满足的演化方程.采用数值求解方法,给出疲劳强度-寿命概率密度曲面(probability density S-N),并可据此计算给定存活率的P-S-N曲线.基于疲劳试验结果的算例分析表明,疲劳强度-寿命概率密度曲面、MonteCarlo模拟及具有给定分位数参数的S-N关系三者计算的p-S-N曲线吻合良好.疲劳强度-寿命概率密度演化方法可不依赖分布假定给出S-N关系的完备概率描述.

  5. Corrosivity and leaching behavior of controlled low-strength material (CLSM) made using bottom ash and quarry dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the corrosivity and leaching behavior of CLSM made using two different industrial wastes i.e. bottom ash from an incineration facility and quarry dust. The leachate samples were derived from fresh and hardened CLSM mixtures, and studied for leaching and electrical resistivity. The release of various contaminants and the consequent environmental impact caused by the contaminants were studied by the measurement of contaminants in the bleed, in the leachate at 28 days, and on the leachate derived from crushed block and whole block leaching done over a period of 126 days. Results indicated that the CLSM mixtures are non corrosive; diffusion was the leaching mechanism; and the contaminants were found to be moderate to low mobility.

  6. A Global Refiability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chun-yan; LI Shan-shan; CHEN Ming-lu

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue cracks are major threats to the structural integrity of aging offshore platforms.For the rational estimation of the safety levels of aging platforms,a global reliability assessment approach for aging offshore platforms with corrosion and fatigue cracks is presented in this paper.The base shear capacity is taken as the global ultimate strength of the offshore plaffoms,it is modeled as a random process that decreases with time in the presence of corrosion and fatigue crack propagation.And the corrosion and fatigue crack growth rates in the main members and key joints are modeled as random variables.A simulation method of the extreme wave loads which are applied to the structures of offshore platforms is proposed too.Furthermore,the statistics of global base shear capacity and extreme wave loads are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation method.On the basis of the limit state equation of global failure mode,the instantaneous reliability and time dependent reliability assessment methods are both presented in this paper.Finally the instantaueous reliability index and time dependent failure probability of a jacket platform are estimated with different ages in the demonstration example.

  7. The influence of pH on the corrosion of medium strength aerospace alloy 8090, 2091 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour of two aluminium-lithium-copper-magnesium-zirconium (8090 and 2091) alloys was studied and compared with a standard aircraft alloy, 2014 (Al-4.4% Cu) and 99.9% pure Al. In constant exposure and potentiodynamic polarization studies conducted in 3.5% Na......H on the passive current density was also less for aluminium-lithium alloys....

  8. Fatigue in the Presence of Corrosion (Fatigue sous corrosion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    7475"-- -’-’.--F AK=13 20 X - __A. • X - MPaVm 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 10’ f[ HzJ Fig. 7: Influence of frequency for 2024, 6013 and 7475 Flight...Rivetdia Fullriprobability of a randomly selected lap joint having a5.14. cm td Full rivets 4.9m_ .Scenario 1 lead crack was 8/13 and the probability of

  9. Reliability Model of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Evaluation of LD10CS Aluminum Alloy%LD10CS腐蚀疲劳裂纹扩展速率评价的可靠性模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明明; 李旭东; 吕航

    2014-01-01

    腐蚀损伤会加速疲劳载荷下的飞机铝合金结构裂纹的萌生和扩展,威胁结构安全性。针对腐蚀影响下的疲劳裂纹扩展的随机性本质,对预腐蚀 LD10CS 合金的预腐蚀疲劳试验进行了数据分析,提出了基于可靠性的腐蚀裂纹扩展速率表征方法,与试验结果对比表明,该方法可以给出 LD10CS 腐蚀疲劳裂纹扩展速率的上下限,进而给出该种材料铝合金构件的疲劳裂纹扩展寿命的上下限,为评估铝合金构件的寿命提供了依据。%Fatigue loadings and environmental corrosion damage can decrease the mechanical properties of LD10CS alu-minum alloy.The paper made a research on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCG)of AA LD10CS with corrosion damage, and proposed a reliability-based method to evaluate FCG.Compare of predicted FCG and experimental results indicated that the proposed method was able to give the lower and upper limit of FCG of LD10CS with corrosion damage,which provided the basis of aluminum alloy component safe life prediction.

  10. Surface Chemistry and Structural Effects in the Stress Corrosion of Glass and Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-15

    the strength and fatigue characteristics of ZBLAN (zirconium barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride) optical glass fiber obtained from British...Surface Chemistry and Structural Effects in the Stress Corrosion of Glass and Ceramic Materlals 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Carlo G. Pantano 13a. TYPE OF...fluorozirconate glasses . °. DTICS ELEC T E DEC 09 I 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21.-A% RACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION [BUNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED

  11. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    , with the application of random loads, the initial homogeneous distribution of strength changes to a two-component distribution, reflecting the two-stage fatigue damage. In the crack initiation stage, the strength increases initially and then decreases, while an abrupt decrease of strength is seen in the crack...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  12. A Rapid Estimation Method of Structural Fatigue Analysis for a 17k Ton D WT Oil Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuohan Chen; Jianli Zheng; Dong-Myung Bae

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue cracks and fatigue damage have been important issues for ships and offshore structures for a long time.However,in the last decade,with the introduction of higher tensile steel in hull structures and increasingly large ship dimensions,the greater attention should be paid to fatigue problems.Most research focuses on how to more easily access the fatigue strength of ships.Also,the major classification societies have already released their fatigue assessment notes.However,due to the complexity of factors influencing fatigue performances,such as wave load and pressure from cargo,the combination of different stress components,stress on concentration of local structure details,means stress,and the corrosive environments,there are different specifications with varying classification societies,leading to the different results from different fatigue assessment methods.This paper established the Det Norske Veritas(DNV) classification notes “fatigue assessment of ship structures” that explains the process of fatigue assessment and simplified methods.Finally,a fatigue analysis was performed by use data of a real ship and the reliability of the result was assessed.

  13. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  14. Improved Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance and Strength of a Two-Step Aged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Liu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    Multi-step heat treatment effectively enhances the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance but usually degrades the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. With the aim to enhance SCC resistance as well as strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, we have optimized the process parameters during two-step aging of Al-6.1Zn-2.8Mg-1.9Cu alloy by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. In this work, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find out the significant heat treatment parameters. The slow strain rate testing combined with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope was employed to study the SCC behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Results showed that the contour map produced by ANOVA offered a reliable reference for selection of optimum heat treatment parameters. By using this method, a desired combination of mechanical performances and SCC resistance was obtained.

  15. Improving Fatigue Performance of GFRP Composite Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeb Genedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP have become a preferable material for reinforcing or strengthening reinforced concrete structures due to their corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, and relatively low cost compared with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP. However, the limited fatigue life of GFRP hinders their use in infrastructure applications. For instance, the low fatigue life of GFRP caused design codes to impose stringent stress limits on GFRP that rendered their use non-economic under significant cyclic loads in bridges. In this paper, we demonstrate that the fatigue life of GFRP can be significantly improved by an order of magnitude by incorporating Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs during GFRP fabrication. GFRP coupons were fabricated and tested under static tension and cyclic tension with mean fatigue stress equal to 40% of the GFRP tensile strength. Microstructural investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used for further investigation of the effect of MWCNTs on the GFRP composite. The experimental results show the 0.5 wt% and the 1.0 wt% MWCNTs were able to improve the fatigue life of GFRP by 1143% and 986%, respectively, compared with neat GFRP.

  16. Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Behavior of High Strength Steel EQ70 under Cathodic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fang; Zhai, Xiaofan; Duan, Jizhou; Zhang, Meixia; Hou, Baorong

    2016-01-01

    Certain species of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) use cathodes as electron donors for metabolism, and this electron transfer process may influence the proper protection potential choice for structures. The interaction between SRB and polarized electrodes had been the focus of numerous investigations. In this paper, the impact of cathodic protection (CP) on Desulfovibrio caledoniens metabolic activity and its influence on highs trength steel EQ70 were studied by bacterial analyses and electrochemical measurements. The results showed that EQ70 under -0.85 VSCE CP had a higher corrosion rate than that without CP, while EQ70 with -1.05 VSCE had a lower corrosion rate. The enhanced SRB metabolic activity at -0.85 VSCE was most probably caused by the direct electron transfer from the electrode polarized at -0.85 VSCE. This direct electron transfer pathway was unavailable in -1.05 VSCE. In addition, the application of cathodic protection led to the transformation of sulfide rusts into carbonates rusts. These observations have been employed to provide updated recommendations for the optimum CP potential for steel structures in the presence of SRB.

  17. Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Behavior of High Strength Steel EQ70 under Cathodic Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fang; Zhai, Xiaofan; Duan, Jizhou; Zhang, Meixia; Hou, Baorong

    2016-01-01

    Certain species of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) use cathodes as electron donors for metabolism, and this electron transfer process may influence the proper protection potential choice for structures. The interaction between SRB and polarized electrodes had been the focus of numerous investigations. In this paper, the impact of cathodic protection (CP) on Desulfovibrio caledoniens metabolic activity and its influence on highs trength steel EQ70 were studied by bacterial analyses and electrochemical measurements. The results showed that EQ70 under -0.85 VSCE CP had a higher corrosion rate than that without CP, while EQ70 with -1.05 VSCE had a lower corrosion rate. The enhanced SRB metabolic activity at -0.85 VSCE was most probably caused by the direct electron transfer from the electrode polarized at -0.85 VSCE. This direct electron transfer pathway was unavailable in -1.05 VSCE. In addition, the application of cathodic protection led to the transformation of sulfide rusts into carbonates rusts. These observations have been employed to provide updated recommendations for the optimum CP potential for steel structures in the presence of SRB. PMID:27603928

  18. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Vol. II: Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-12-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particular it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel`s test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  19. Finite Element Analysis of the Remnant Strength of the Water -cooled Wall Tubes with Different Corrosion Pit Shapes%有限元分析不同形状腐蚀坑水冷壁管的剩余强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳; 张轶桀; 顾天宏; 陈忠兵; 杨海松; 刘川

    2016-01-01

    ANSYS software is applied to analyze the remnant strength of the water -cooled wall tube with different corrosion pit shapes .The research results show that with cylinder corrosion pits ,when the corrosion diameter and corrosion depth reaches Ø5 mm-80% wall thickness ,Ø8 mm-70% wall thickness and Ø12 mm-60% wall thickness ,the tube can be thought of failure ;with sphere corrosion pits ,when the corrosion diameter and corrosion depth reaches 10 H-70% wall thickness ( H is the corrosion depth ) ,the tube can be thought of failure ;with rectangle corrosion pits ,when the corrosion diameter and corrosion depth reaches 6 H-60% wall thickness ,the tube can be considered as failure ;under the same size and corrosion depths of cylinder ,sphere and rectangle corrosion pits ,the tube with sphere pits is the safest and that with cylinder pits is most likely to fail .%基于ANSYS有限元软件,对含不同形状腐蚀坑水冷壁管剩余强度进行了研究。研究表明,将管壁上腐蚀坑简化为柱状,当腐蚀坑直径和腐蚀深度组合达到Ø5 mm-80%壁厚、Ø8 mm-70%壁厚、Ø12 mm-60%壁厚3种情况时,腐蚀坑直径和腐蚀深度增加则可认为腐蚀区失效;将腐蚀坑简化为球形,当腐蚀坑直径和腐蚀深度达到10 H-70%壁厚( H为腐蚀深度)时,腐蚀坑直径或深度增加则可认为腐蚀区域失效;将腐蚀坑简化为矩形,当腐蚀坑尺寸和腐蚀深度达到6 H-60%壁厚时,腐蚀深度和尺寸增加会造成腐蚀区域失效。相同尺寸和腐蚀深度的柱形坑、球形坑和矩形坑,球形坑最安全,柱形腐蚀坑最容易失效。

  20. In-Situ Welding Carbon Nanotubes into a Porous Solid with Super-High Compressive Strength and Fatigue Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based sponges and aerogels have an isotropic porous structure and their mechanical strength and stability are relatively lower. Here, we present a junction-welding approach to fabricate porous CNT solids in which all CNTs are coated and welded in situ by an amorphous carbon layer, forming an integral three-dimensional scaffold with fixed joints. The resulting CNT solids are robust, yet still highly porous and compressible, with compressive strengths up to 72...

  1. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  2. Polymer concrete composites for the production of high strength pipe and linings in high temperature corrosive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.

    High temperature corrosive resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites are described. They comprise about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder polymerized in situ from a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of about 40 to 70% by weight of styrene, about 25 to 45% by weight acrylonitrile and about 2.5 to 7.5% by weight acrylamide or methacrylamide and about 1 to 10% by weight of a crosslinking agent. This agent is selected from the group consisting of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene; and about 80 to 88% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, and optionally Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or carbon black or mica. A free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other organic peroxides and combinations thereof to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of said inorganic filler.

  3. The influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer and retention strength of carbon fiber post-resin composite core restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Peter; de Gee, Anton; Feilzer, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that endodontically treated teeth restored with short posts or deficient ferrules show a high failure risk. This study. evaluated the influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer between prefabricated quartz coated carbon fiber posts with restricted length and the root canal wall in maxillary pre-molars. Two adhesive resin composite cements, chemical-cured Panavia 21 (Group 1) and dual-cured RelyX-ARC (Group 2), and one resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, chemical-cured RelyX (Group 3), delta were selected for this study. Post- and-core restorations were made on single-rooted human maxillary premolars from which the coronal sections were removed at the level of the proximal cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Following endodontic treatment, a post-and-core restoration with 6-mm post length was prepared for each tooth. The posts were directly cemented into the root canal and, after applying an adhesive (Clearfil Photo Bond), they were built up with a core build-up composite (Clearfil Photo Core). For each group (n=8), half of the specimens were exposed to fatigue loading (10(6) load cycles) almost perpendicular to the axial axis (85 degrees), while the other half were used as the control. Three parallel, transverse root sections, 1.5-mm thick, were cut from each specimen at the apical, medial and coronal location. These sections were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the integrity of the cement layer, while the retention strength of the cemented post sections was determined with the push-out test. The multivariate results of MANOVA showed that the condition main effect (fatigue or control) was not significant (p=0.059); the two other main effects, type of cement and section location, were significant (p=0.001 and p=0.008). For both the push-out strength and SEM evaluation of the cement layer integrity, the results significantly improved from RelyX to RelyX-ARC to Panavia 21 and also from apical to

  4. 基于弹性模量的再生混凝土疲劳强度分析%On Fatigue Strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Based on Its Elastic Modulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 肖建庄

    2012-01-01

    通过试验与分析,建立了再生混凝土弹性模量与其疲劳强度的回归公式,结果表明:由该回归公式计算出的再生混凝土受压疲劳强度与试验结果接近,可用来预测再生混凝土的受压疲劳强度,并指导工程实践;初步验证了GB 50010-2002《混凝土结构设计规范》中普通混凝土受压疲劳强度的取值方法对再生混凝土同样适用.%Based on the experiments and analysis, the relationship between the elastic modulus and the fatigue strength of recycled aggregate concrete(RAC) was established. The compressive fatigue strength calculated according to the formula suggested by this investigation is close to the experimental results, a reliable prediction for the compressive fatigue strength of RAC can be used to guide the engineering practice. And it is confirmed from this study that the method in code for GB 50010-2002 (Design of Concrete Structures> is suitable for the calculation of the compressive fatigue strength of RAC.

  5. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of a high strength Mg-7%Gd-5%Y-1%Nd-0.5%Zr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through performing the tensile tests with different strain rates in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior and the effect of strain rate on the SCC susceptibility of an extruded Mg-7%Gd-5%Y-1%Nd-0.5%Zr (EW75 alloy have been investigated. Results demonstrate that the alloy is susceptible to SCC when the strain rate is lower than 5 × 10−6 s−1. At the strain rate of 1 × 10−6 s−1, the SCC susceptibility index (ISCC is 0.96 and the elongation-to-failure (εf is only 0.11%. Fractography indicates that the brittle quasi-cleavage feature is very obvious and become more pronounced with decreasing the strain rate. Further analysis confirms that the cracking mode is predominantly transgranular, but the partial intergranular cracking at some localized area can also occur. Meanwhile, it seems that the crack propagation path is unrelated to the existing phase particles.

  6. Recognition and Analysis of Corrosion Failure Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Suess

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion has a vast impact on the global and domestic economy, and currently incurs losses of nearly $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy alone. Because of the huge impact of corrosion, it is imperative to have a systematic approach to recognizing and mitigating corrosion problems as soon as possible after they become apparent. A proper failure analysis includes collection of pertinent background data and service history, followed by visual inspection, photographic documentation, material evaluation, data review and conclusion procurement. In analyzing corrosion failures, one must recognize the wide range of common corrosion mechanisms. The features of any corrosion failure give strong clues as to the most likely cause of the corrosion. This article details a proven approach to properly determining the root cause of a failure, and includes pictographic illustrations of the most common corrosion mechanisms, including general corrosion, pitting, galvanic corrosion, dealloying, crevice corrosion, microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC, intergranular corrosion, fretting, erosion corrosion and hydrogen damage.

  7. A mathematical approach regarding a better geometry of the root fillet of symmetric and asymmetric gears with the main scope of increasing the fatigue strength of gear teeth and avoiding the occurrence of cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazan, S.; Plesu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The main topic of the present paper consists of two main ideas: on one side, there is presented a mathematical approach on fatigue strength of a gear tooth and, on the other side, there is applied this mathematical approach on a particular case regarding a better fillet geometry of symmetric and asymmetric gears. In this mathematical approach, there is illustrated the planar curves theory and their planar contact. Then, there will be presented some theory regarding the gear failure and the appearance of cracks that generates tooth base fatigue. In the end, there will be presented some graphical results using Matlab programming language.

  8. Experimental Study of Gear Bending Fatigue Strength under Random Load with Gaussian Normal Distribution%服从正态分布随机载荷作用下齿轮弯曲疲劳试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 许洪斌; 祖世华; 高孝旺

    2013-01-01

    For the bending fatigue under the random load conditions with normal distribution,an equivalent load was analyzed and limiting value of gear bending fatigue strength was computed based on equivalent fatigue damage.The effect of load spectrum distributed parameter on equivalent load was analyzed,and load spectrum was compiled for luffing amplitude fatigue experiments.Then experiments of gear bending fatigue strength were achieved under random load according to normal distribution on MTS electro-hydraulic servo material fatigue tester,where the group method was used.The R-S-N curve was acquired in a concrete coefficient of variation.The tests prove that bending fatigue strength of gear under random load is less than that under constant load.By contrasting with the bending fatigue strength computed based on constant load,the theoretical results can agree with experimental ones.%根据齿轮传动过程中普遍承受的高斯分布载荷谱,编制了试验用随机变幅疲劳载荷谱,在MTS电液伺服疲劳试验机上利用成组试验方法完成了该随机载荷作用下全寿命齿轮弯曲疲劳试验,得到了特定变差系数高斯分布载荷谱下齿轮弯曲强度的R-S-N曲线.试验结果证明,随机变幅疲劳试验得出的轮齿疲劳寿命低于由疲劳载荷上限值取为载荷谱均值的恒载荷疲劳试验得出的疲劳寿命,因此,如果采用后者的试验结果去估算实际服役中的齿轮的弯曲疲劳寿命是非常危险的.对随机载荷下的齿轮设计的疲劳极限的理论值进行了预测,并与试验结果进行了比较.结果表明,理论分析结果与试验结果基本相符.

  9. Fatigue Strength of (Fe)-C-N Alloys After Precipitation Hardening%(Fe)-C-N合金经沉淀硬化后的疲劳强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksander Nakonieczny; Jan Tacikowski; Jerzy Michalski; Tomasz Babul

    2004-01-01

    为了寻求新的方法促进渗氮工艺在重型机械零件中的应用,渗氮层的硬化及通过对基体和心部进行进一步奥氏体化并快冷使其硬化的可能性引起了注意.本文给出了渗氮后的45钢(C-0.45%; Mn-0.65%)经沉淀硬化处理后的疲劳强度试验结果.试验结果表明经沉淀硬化后其近表层获得了不同的组织,可发现形态上与不同沉淀分散程度的贝氏体组织相似的纯马氏体区.渗氮后沉淀硬化有利于碳钢及其抗疲劳强度.本文还讨论了渗氮后沉淀硬化处理可替代渗碳或感应淬火.%In search for new solutions promoting expansion of nitriding application to heavy duty machine parts there has been drawn attention to a possibility of hardening of a nitrided layer, of hardening of its substrate and its core through further austenitizing connected with fast cooling. In the paper, there were given results of fatigue strength tests carried out on nitrided 45 carbon steel (C-0.45%; Mn-0.65%) after precipitation hardening. It was found that the near-surface zone obtained different structure after precipitation hardening. There could be found pure martensitic areas, morphologically similar to bainitic structure of various levels of precipitate dispersion. Research showed that nitriding followed by precipitation hardening beneficially affect carbon steel and fatigue strength. Discussed here nitriding process followed by precipitation hardening could create an alternative for carburising or induction hardening.

  10. Effects of chloride ion concentration and pH values on the corrosion behavior of Cr12Ni3Co12Mo4W ultra-high-strength martensitic stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-yan Li; Chao-fang Dong; Kui Xiao; Xiao-gang Li; Ping Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Cl− ion concentration and pH values on the corrosion behavior of Cr12Ni3Co12Mo4W ultra-high-strength marten-sitic stainless steel (UHSMSS) were investigated by a series of electrochemical tests combined with observations by stereology microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A critical Cl− ion concentration was found to exist (approximately 0.1wt%), above which pitting occurred. The pitting potential decreased with increasing Cl− ion concentration. A UHSMSS specimen tempered at 600°C exhibited a better pitting cor-rosion resistance than the one tempered at 400°C. The corrosion current density and passive current density of the UHSMSS tempered at 600°C decreased with increasing pH values of the corrosion solution. The pits developed a shallower dish geometry with increasing polariza-tion potential. A lacy cover on the pits of the UHSMSS tempered at 400°C accelerated pitting, whereas corrosion products deposited in the pits of the UHSMSS tempered at 600°C hindered pitting.

  11. Effects of chloride ion concentration and pH values on the corrosion behavior of Cr12Ni3Co12Mo4W ultra-high-strength martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-yan; Dong, Chao-fang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiao-gang; Zhong, Ping

    2016-11-01

    The effects of Cl- ion concentration and pH values on the corrosion behavior of Cr12Ni3Co12Mo4W ultra-high-strength martensitic stainless steel (UHSMSS) were investigated by a series of electrochemical tests combined with observations by stereology microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A critical Cl- ion concentration was found to exist (approximately 0.1wt%), above which pitting occurred. The pitting potential decreased with increasing Cl- ion concentration. A UHSMSS specimen tempered at 600°C exhibited a better pitting corrosion resistance than the one tempered at 400°C. The corrosion current density and passive current density of the UHSMSS tempered at 600°C decreased with increasing pH values of the corrosion solution. The pits developed a shallower dish geometry with increasing polarization potential. A lacy cover on the pits of the UHSMSS tempered at 400°C accelerated pitting, whereas corrosion products deposited in the pits of the UHSMSS tempered at 600°C hindered pitting.

  12. 活性粉末混凝土疲劳后剩余抗压强度试验研究%Experimental study on residual compressive strength of RPC under fatigue loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余自若; 安明喆; 郑帅泉

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the evolution law of residual compressive strength for reactive powder concrete ( RPC) under fatigue loading, the fatigue tests were carried out.24 cylinders were cast for testing and divided into 3 groups.By measuring the compressive strength of some RPC specimens, the relationship between initial compressive strength and resonance frequency was established firstly.On that basis, the constant amplitude and two-stage amplitude fatigue tests were carried and the residual compressive strength of RPC specimens were measured after fatigue.Experimental results show that the attenuation of post-fatigue residual compressive strength of RPC decreased with increase of recycle ratio.On the other hand, the attenuation rate increased with increase of recycle ratio.An fitting formula about the attenuation of post-fatigue residual compressive strength and recycle ratio was deduced.The calculated values which come from fitting formula are in good agreement with measured values.%为研究经受疲劳荷载作用后活性粉末混凝土(RPC)的剩余抗压强度变化规律,对3组共24个RPC圆柱体试件,进行疲劳试验研究.通过静载试验建立RPC抗压强度和谐振频率之间的关系,推算出各疲劳试件的初始抗压强度;在此基础上,对RPC试件进行轴压单级和两级疲劳加载试验,并实测试件在疲劳荷载作用一定次数后的剩余抗压强度.实测结果表明:RPC在单级疲劳后剩余抗压强度的衰减率随循环寿命比的增大而减小,而衰减速率则随着循环寿命比的增大而增大.根据实测值得到RPC单级和两级疲劳加载后剩余抗压强度衰减率与循环寿命比之间关系的拟合公式,计算结果与实测结果吻合良好.

  13. Critical Study of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sallehuddin Shah Ayop; John Cairns

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete is one of the major problems with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The degradation of the structure strength due to reinforcement corrosion decreases its design life. This paper presents the literature study on the influence of the corrosion on concrete structure starting from the mechanism of the corrosion until the deterioration stage and the structural effects of corrosion on concrete structures.

  14. Fatigue strength assessment of ship structures based on the crack propagation theory%基于裂纹扩展理论的船体结构疲劳评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛松; 任慧龙; 冯国庆

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue damage is one of main forms of ship structures destroyed. Every classification society and shipyard take fatigue assessment rules of ship structures as an instruction to assure fatigue strength of ship structures. Although these rules are based on the method of S-N curve, different fatigue lives of the same node are obtained with the help of different rules, because the disadvantages of S-N curve could not be avoided, such as neglect of initial objection of material. In this paper, fatigue strength assessment methods of ship structures are studied based on the facture propagation theory, and a detailed fatigue assessment method of ship structures is proposed, which is supposed to reference to predict fatigue life and preparation to perfect fatigue strength assessment of ship structures.%疲劳破坏是船舶结构的主要破坏形式之一。为了保证船舶结构有足够的疲劳强度,各国船级社、船厂等均建立了船舶结构疲劳强度校核规范作为船舶疲劳评估的指导性文件,尽管这些规范均是建立在S-N曲线方法基础上的,但由于S-N曲线方法存在自身无法克服的缺陷(如忽略材料的初始缺陷等),对同一节点进行计算得到的疲劳寿命大相径庭。该文作者在基于裂纹扩展理论的基础之上,给出了一套详细的船体结构疲劳评估方法,并应用此方法对大型船舶结构典型节点的疲劳寿命进行评估,以期能为完善船舶结构疲劳寿命的评估提供参考。

  15. Exploring the effects of SiC reinforcement incorporation on mechanical properties of friction stir welded 7075 aluminum alloy: Fatigue life, impact energy, tensile strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Mohsen, E-mail: Mohsen.bahrami@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Helmi, Nader [Faculty of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, Kamran [Faculty of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Centre of Excellence in Smart Structures and Dynamical Systems (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Givi, Mohammad Kazem Besharati [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-10

    In the current research, the role of SiC nano-particles in improving the mechanical properties of friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075 aluminum alloy is investigated. To this end, friction stir welding (FSW) was conducted at 1250 rpm and 40 mm/min. The experiment carried out with and without incorporating SiC nano-particles along the joint line. Cross-sectional microstructures of the joints were characterized employing optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results achieved through X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of SiC powders. Moreover, it was discovered that the volume fraction of the reinforcement particles was 20%. Along with an excellent bonding between SiC nano-particles and aluminum matrix, SEM photograph demonstrated a good dispersion of SiC reinforcements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results were also in tight agreement with the recent SEM microstructure. Thanks to the presence of SiC nano-particles, tensile strength, percent elongation, fatigue life, and toughness of the joint improved tremendously. The fracture morphologies were in good agreement with corresponding ductility results.

  16. Effect of formoterol, a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, on muscle strength and power output, metabolism, and fatigue during maximal sprinting in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Backer, Vibeke; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist formoterol on muscle strength and power output, muscle metabolism, and phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr(287) and FXYD1 during maximal sprinting. In a double-blind crossover study, 13 males [V̇o2 max: 45.0 ± 0.2 (means ± SE) ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)] performed a 30-s cycle ergometer sprint after inhalation of either 54 μg of formoterol (FOR) or placebo (PLA). Before and after the sprint, muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and contractile properties of quadriceps were measured. Oxygen uptake was measured during the sprint. During the sprint, peak power, mean power, and end power were 4.6 ± 0.8, 3.9 ± 1.1, and 9.5 ± 3.2% higher (P power output during maximal sprinting is associated with increased rates of glycogenolysis and glycolysis that may counteract development of fatigue. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Early detection of micro-structural changes due to fatigue of non-corrosive austenitic stainless steels; Frueherkennung von mikrostrukturellen Aenderungen bei Ermuedung in nichtrostenden austenitischen Staehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkhof, D.; Niffenegger, M.; Grosse, M

    2003-03-01

    In view of life extension efforts of nuclear power plants, many investigations are in progress in order to assess the structural integrity of different components. In many cases, this involves unexpected loads, which were not taken into account during design of components, e.g. temperature cycling arising from unforeseen stratification flow conditions. Under certain power plant transients (start-up/shut-down, hot stand-by, thermal stratification) at critical locations of piping and nozzles, material degradation caused by accumulated cyclic plastic strain takes place. However, materials subjected to cyclic loading exhibit changes in microstructure already before macroscopic crack initiation begins, this period covers a considerable part of fatigue life. Existing methods for in-service inspection are mainly specialised for crack detection. Advanced non-destructive testing methods for monitoring of material degradation are sensitive to any micro-structural changes in the material leading to a degradation of the mechanical properties. Therefore, these indirect methods require a careful interpretation of the measured signal in terms of micro-structural evolutions due to ageing. During cyclic loading of austenitic stainless steel, microstructural changes occur, which affect both the mechanical and the physical properties. Typical features are the rearrangement of dislocations and, in some cases, a deformation-induced martensitic phase transformation. In our investigation martensite formation was used as an indication for material degradation due to fatigue. Knowledge about mechanisms and influencing parameters of the martensitic transformation process is essential for the application in a lifetime monitoring system. The investigations showed that for a given austenitic stainless steel the deformation-induced martensite depends on the applied strain amplitude, the cycle number (usage factor, lifetime) and the temperature. It was demonstrated that the volume fraction of

  18. Fatigue Strength of Portal Frame Beam in High-grade Dynamic Consolidation Construction%高能级强夯施工时门架横梁的疲劳强度验算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞

    2014-01-01

    为避免高能级强夯施工时横梁断裂的事故发生,在此根据试验数据对横梁疲劳强度进行分析研究,以供参考。%To avoid the beam fracture in high-grade dynamic compaction ,this paper analyzed the fatigue strength of cross beam of portal frame according to the test data ,to provide reference for practice .

  19. High frequency fatigue test of IN 718 alloy – microstructure and fractography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INCONEL alloy 718 is a high-strength, corrosion-resistant nickel chromium material used at -253 °C to 705 °C for production of heat resistant parts of aero jet engine mostly. The fatigue test provided on this kind materials were done via low frequency loading up to this time. Nowadays, needs of results at higher volume of loading cycles leads to high frequency loading with aim to shorten testing time. Fatigue test of experimental material was carried out at frequency 20 kHz with stress ration R = - 1 (push – pull at room temperature. It was found that this superalloy can still fracture after exceeding 108 cycles. Besides fatigue test were microstructural characterisation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM fractography evaluation done.

  20. Fatigue modelling for gas nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop an algorithm able to predict the fatigue lifetime of nitrided steels. Linear multi-axial fatigue criteria are used to take into account the gradients of mechanical properties provided by the nitriding process. Simulations on rotating bending fatigue specimens are made in order to test the nitrided surfaces. The fatigue model is applied to the cyclic loading of a gear from a simulation using the finite element software Ansys. Results show the positive contributions of nitriding on the fatigue strength

  1. Review of studies on corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong-chang; ZHANG jin; HUANG Wei-jiu; W. DIETZEL; K. U. KAINER; C. BLAWERT; KE Wei

    2006-01-01

    This review provided some recent progress of the research on corrosion mechanisms of magnesium and its alloys and a basis for follow-on research. Galvanic corrosion,pitting corrosion,intergranular corrosion (IGC),filiform corrosion,crevice corrosion,stress corrosion cracking (SCC),and corrosion fatigue (CF) were discussed. The influence of metallurgical factors such as alloying elements,microstructure and secondary phases,processing factors such as heat treatment and weld,and environmental factors including temperature,relative humidity,solution pH values and concentration on corrosion were discussed. In particular,a mechanism of pitting corrosion caused by AlMn particles was proposed. The corrosion properties of AZ91D weld material were investigated.

  2. RESEARCH ON DEGRADATION CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT OF SOME STEELS USED IN MANUFACTURING MINING EQUIPMENT. MECHANICAL TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous action of mechanical stress variables and the corrosive environment leads to the deterioration of structures made of steel or of other metallic materials, a process called fatigue in corrosive environment or corrosion fatigue, which has causes and effects different from degradation under the singular action, either of mechanical strain or of corrosive environment. The aim of this paper is the study of the behavior,under fatigue conditions in corrosive environment of low alloy steels meant for the construction of mining equipment used in various mining operations in Gorj county. Based on experimental research regarding sustainability in fatigue corrosion, analyses of the interaction between the mechanical and the electrochemical factors as well as microscopic analyses of the structures we aim in this paper at deeply studying the performance of degradation processes that occur in the surface layers and lead to destruction by corrosion fatigue of the steels under study.

  3. 蒸汽过滤器疲劳强度与寿命分析%Fatigue Strength and Life Analysis of Steam Superheater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 靳慧

    2015-01-01

    The steam superheater is a kind of pressure vessel which heats the steam from the saturation temperature to the superheat temperature in the boiler steam.The equipment was designed by ASME code,the test was done under 7.1 MPa of hydrostatic pressure in the normal temperature to ensure the bearing capacity.But the working temperature of the steam superheater is about 350 ℃ and the elastic modulus and yield stress would change a lot.The test at working temperature are difficult to realize.The safety and reliability cannot be guaranteed only rely on the experimental research at room temperature. Now the finite element calculations can simulate more condition and can guarantee the safety of steam generator.The steam superheater which is from a synthetic ammonia plant were taken as object of study. The three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element model of steam superheater was established,the dis-placement deformation of the intersection line between the nozzle and cylinder was presented by ANSYS calculating and compared with the experimental results,which verified that the finite element model can be used;Then the steam filter under the real operating conditions was simulated by finite element method, stress distribution and fatigue strength of open hole area were obtained;At last,fatigue evaluation results were compared between ANSYS fatigue calculation result(ASME Ⅷ -2)and the calculation result based on the Rssian Federation national standard ГОСТР25859.%蒸汽过热器是将蒸汽从饱和温度进一步加热至过热温度的一种压力容器。该设备是根据ASME 规范设计,在常温7.1 MPa 静水压力下经过测试确保轴承的能力。但蒸汽过热器的工作温度约为350℃,弹性模量和屈服应力都会发生很大的变化,在工作温度下的试验难于实现,此时可以借助有限元分析软件提供参考。对某20万吨合成氨厂的蒸汽过热器大开孔壳体建立了三维弹塑性有限元模型,

  4. Online stress corrosion crack and fatigue usages factor monitoring and prognostics in light water reactor components: Probabilistic modeling, system identification and data fusion based big data analytics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jagielo, Bryan J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Iverson, William I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL (United States); Bhan, Chi Bum [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Soppet, William S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Nuclear reactors in the United States account for roughly 20% of the nation's total electric energy generation, and maintaining their safety in regards to key component structural integrity is critical not only for long term use of such plants but also for the safety of personnel and the public living around the plant. Early detection of damage signature such as of stress corrosion cracking, thermal-mechanical loading related material degradation in safety-critical components is a necessary requirement for long-term and safe operation of nuclear power plant systems.

  5. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

  6. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  7. Present Situation of the Anti-Fatigue Processing of High-Strength Steel Internal Thread Based on Cold Extrusion Technology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hong; Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Sixing; Zhang, Shanwen; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-03-01

    The adoption of cold-extrusion forming for internal thread net forming becomes an important component of anti-fatigue processing with the development of internal thread processing towards high performance, low cost and low energy consumption. It has vast application foreground in the field of aviation, spaceflight, high speed train and etc. The internal thread processing and anti-fatigue manufacture technology are summarized. In terms of the perspective of processing quality and fatigue serving life, the advantages and disadvantages of the processing methods from are compared. The internal thread cold-extrusion processing technology is investigated for the purpose of improving the anti-fatigue serving life of internal thread. The superiorities of the plastic deformation law and surface integrity of the metal layer in the course of cold extrusion for improving its stability and economy are summed up. The proposed research forecasts the development tendency of the internal thread anti-fatigue manufacturing technology.

  8. On the microstructural basis of creep strength and creep-fatigue interaction in 9-12 % Cr steels for application in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukuru, H.

    2007-03-06

    As part of the efforts of preserving the environment it is necessary to reduce of the CO2 emissions from power plants. This can be done by increasing the plant efficiency. Research groups around the world are engaged in developing new steels capable of sustaining higher stresses and temperatures envisaged for high-efficiency power plants. Research carried out in Europe is organized within the COST Programme (Co-Operation in Science and Technology) aiming at replacing the conventional steels of type X20CrMoV121 by the new class of 9-12% Cr-steels with modified composition. The resistance of materials against deformation at elevated temperatures depends on their microstructure. Frequently in 9-12% Cr-steels improved short-term creep properties do not persist in the long-term service [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. This is related with insufficient microstructural stability. Hardening contributions in 9-12% Cr-steels come from solute atoms of the ferritic matrix, from dislocations, and from precipitates of foreign phases within the matrix. The term ''carbide stabilized substructure hardening'' of 9-12% Cr steels [7, 8] indicates that the hardening contributions are interdependent. The dislocations are the carriers of plastic deformation. They interact with each other, with solute atoms and with precipitates. The dislocation-dislocation interaction leads to formation of planar dislocation networks constituting low-angle boundaries. They form a subgrain structure within the grains. At present, a full and detailed understanding of the effects exerted by the different components of microstructure on creep strength is still lacking. The present work makes a contribution to the efforts of understanding the microstructural basis of creep strength and of creep-fatigue interaction by transmission electron microscopic structure investigations coupled with creep tests. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out with regard to hardening by

  9. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are being more widely used today by aerospace, automotive, sports equipment, and a number of other commercial industries because of their advantages over conventional metals. Composites have a high strength-to-weight ratio and can be constructed to meet specific design needs. Composite structures are already in use in secondary parts of the Douglas MD-11 and are planned to be used in the new MD-12X. Plans also exist for their use in primary and secondary structures on the Boeing 777. Douglas proposed MD-XX may also incorporate composite materials into primary structures such as the wings and tail. Use of composites in these structures offers weight savings, corrosion resistance, and improved aerodynamics. Additionally, composites have been used to repair cracks in many B-1Bs where traditional repair techniques were not very effective. Plans have also been made to reinforce all of the remaining B-1s with composite materials. Verification of the structural integrity of composite components is needed to insure safe operation of these aerospace vehicles. One aspect of the use of these composites is their response to fatigue. To track this progression of fatigue in aerospace structures, a convenient method to nondestructively monitor this damage needs to be developed. Traditional NDE techniques used on metals are not easily adaptable to composites due to the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of these materials. Finding an effective means of nondestructively monitoring fatigue damage is extremely important to the safety and reliability of such structures. Lamb waves offer one method of evaluating these composite materials. As a material is fatigued, the modulus degrades. Since the Lamb wave velocity can be related to the modulus of the material, an effective tool can be developed to monitor fatigue damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. In this work, preliminary studies have been conducted which monitor fatigue damage in

  10. Contribution of the low cycle fatigue on ultra high purity Ni-Cr-Fe alloys and on Ni monocrystals to the understanding of the hydrogen role in stress corrosion cracking for the alloys 600 and 690; Apport de la fatigue oligocyclique sur alliages Ni-Cr-Fe d'ultra haute purete et sur monocristaux de Ni a la comprehension sous contrainte des alliages 600 et 69O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaudot, N

    1999-06-01

    We discuss the role of hydrogen in cracking of Ni base alloys used for pressurised water reactor (PWR) primary tubes (alloy 600 and 690). Cracking can be explained by a Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) phenomenon. For this purpose, Low cycle fatigue (R = - 1) under cathodic charging at room temperature is conducted to study hydrogen effects on propagation of cracks mechanically initiated by the formation of Persistent Slip Bands (PSB). Low cycle fatigue on Ultra High Purity specimens (Ni, alloy 600 and 690) reveals the very important hydrogen effect on crack propagation rate, whatever the Cr content in the Ni base alloy. If Cr seems to have an effect over-hydrogen penetration in specimens (by a protective film formation), it have no beneficial effect when hydrogen have diffused ahead of a crack tip. Propagation rates (transgranular or intergranular) are highly increased, no matter of the absence of impurities like sulphur. Then, in PWR, the difference in the behaviour of alloy 600 and 690 could be due to a slower microcrack propagation rate for alloy 690. Protective films could play an important role in this difference, which is to study. Low cycle fatigue on Ni single crystals oriented for single slip shows, for the first time on bulk specimen, a macroscopic softening which can be explained. by hydrogen-dislocation interactions. Moreover, a simple quantitative model based on these interactions results in the same softening as the one observed experimentally. These results allow to validate experimentally one of the most important steps in the 'Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity (CEP) model', i.e. the softening ahead of a stress corrosion crack tip by hydrogen dislocation interactions. This is of importance because this model can explain cracking in numerous FCC materials-environment couple. (author)

  11. Effect of long-period stacking ordered phase on microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion resistance of Mg alloys: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daokui Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys containing long period stacking ordered (LPSO phase have been received a great deal of attention in the last decade owing to their excellent comprehensive properties of mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. In this paper, some fundamental aspects of LPSO containing Mg alloys have been reviewed, including: (1 microstructural characterization, formation conditions and the associated phase transformation of LPSO phases in Mg alloys; (2 deformation mechanism of LPSO phases and their influence on the deformation mechanism of the Mg matrix; (3 effect of LPSO structure on the mechanical performance such as tensile strength, creep resistance, fracture toughness and fatigue strength; (4 corrosion behavior of LPSO containing Mg alloys and their possible applications as the biomaterials. Moreover, some remaining unsolved issues of the LPSO containing Mg alloys and the future target about how to further improve their service properties have been also described.

  12. Accelerated corrosion test and corrosion failure distribution model of aircraft structural aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-lin; MU Zhi-tao; JIN Ping

    2006-01-01

    Based on corrosion damage data of 10 years for a type of aircraft aluminum alloy, the statistical analysis was conducted by Gumbel, Normal and two parameters Weibull distribution function. The results show that aluminum alloy structural member has the corrosion history of pitting corrosion-intergranular corrosion-exfoliation corrosion, and the maximum corrosion depth is in conformity to normal distribution. The accelerated corrosion test was carried out with the complied equivalent airport accelerated environment spectrum. The corrosion damage failure modes of aluminum alloy structural member indicate that the period of validity of the former protective coating is about 2.5 to 3 years, and that of the novel protective coating is about 4.0 to 4.5 years. The corrosion kinetics law of aluminum spar flange was established by fitting corrosion damage test data. The law indicates two apparent corrosion stages of high strength aluminum alloy section material: pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion/exfoliation corrosion.The test results agree with the statistical fit result of corrosion data collected from corrosion member in service. The fractional error is 5.8% at the same calendar year. The accelerated corrosion test validates the corrosion kinetics law of aircraft aluminum alloy in service.

  13. Microstructure, Fatigue Behavior, and Failure Mechanisms of Direct Laser-Deposited Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alex S.; Shao, Shuai; Shamsaei, Nima; Thompson, Scott M.; Bian, Linkan

    2017-03-01

    Inconel 718 is considered to be a superalloy with a series of superior properties such as high strength, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at room and elevated temperatures. Additive manufacturing (AM) is particularly appealing to Inconel 718 because of its near-net-shape production capability for circumventing the poor machinability of this superalloy. Nevertheless, AM parts are prone to porosity, which is detrimental to their fatigue resistance. Thus, further understanding of their fatigue behavior is required before their widespread use in load-bearing applications. In this work, the microstructure and fatigue properties of AM Inconel 718, produced in a Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) system and heat treated with a standard heat treatment schedule, are evaluated at room temperature. Fully reversed strain controlled fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with straight gage sections at strain amplitudes ranging from 0.001 mm/mm to 0.01 mm/mm. The fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens were inspected with a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the employed heat treatment allowed the large, elongated grains and dendritic structure of the as-built material to break down into smaller, equiaxed grains, with some dendritic structures remaining between layers. The AM specimens were found to possess lower fatigue resistance than wrought Inconel 718, and this is primarily attributed to the presence of brittle metal-carbide/oxide inclusions or pores near their surface.

  14. Microstructure, Fatigue Behavior, and Failure Mechanisms of Direct Laser-Deposited Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alex S.; Shao, Shuai; Shamsaei, Nima; Thompson, Scott M.; Bian, Linkan

    2016-12-01

    Inconel 718 is considered to be a superalloy with a series of superior properties such as high strength, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at room and elevated temperatures. Additive manufacturing (AM) is particularly appealing to Inconel 718 because of its near-net-shape production capability for circumventing the poor machinability of this superalloy. Nevertheless, AM parts are prone to porosity, which is detrimental to their fatigue resistance. Thus, further understanding of their fatigue behavior is required before their widespread use in load-bearing applications. In this work, the microstructure and fatigue properties of AM Inconel 718, produced in a Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) system and heat treated with a standard heat treatment schedule, are evaluated at room temperature. Fully reversed strain controlled fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with straight gage sections at strain amplitudes ranging from 0.001 mm/mm to 0.01 mm/mm. The fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens were inspected with a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the employed heat treatment allowed the large, elongated grains and dendritic structure of the as-built material to break down into smaller, equiaxed grains, with some dendritic structures remaining between layers. The AM specimens were found to possess lower fatigue resistance than wrought Inconel 718, and this is primarily attributed to the presence of brittle metal-carbide/oxide inclusions or pores near their surface.

  15. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  16. 巧克力裹包机正切型从动系统凸轮轴疲劳强度研究%Study on cam shaft fatigue strength of tangent type follower system of the chocolate bind chartered plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常锋; 王振成; 刘瑞礼; 王欣

    2013-01-01

    Through the methods of trial for combining together with tired stress strain and theory analysis,the article studied the tangent type follower system of the chocolate bind chartered plane was studied on imitating 38GrMoAlA the high-quality alloy structure steel material guildert,under the situation on circulate operate stress of fatigue strength,Proposed the recognize method of fatigue strength tigen-value on tangent type follower system,gave the oval curve and equation on Limiting stress toge ther with the stress Oval equation on Octahedron fatigue limit,provided for reference and choice when engineering technical personnel design.%通过试验与疲劳应力应变理论分析相结合的方法,研究模拟38GrMoAlA优质合金结构钢材质的巧克力裹包机正切型从动系统凸轮轴,在循环工作应力条件下的疲劳强度;提出正切型从动系统凸轮轴疲劳强度特性值的确定方法;并给出它的极限应力椭圆曲线和方程及八面体疲劳极限应力椭圆方程,供工程技术人员设计时参考和选用.

  17. The influence of the chemical composition and type of alloy on corrosion performances of some medium strength Al-Mg-Si series of alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Delijić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the chemical composition, i.e. content of silicone (Si and other alloying elements (Zr, Mn, etc on the corrosion behaviour and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si (6xxx type alloys was investigated in this paper. Open circuit corrosion potential (OCP measurements, linear polarization and potentiodynamic anodic/cathodic polarization were employed in order to determine the corrosion behaviour of artificially aged Al-Mg-Si samples in the chloride ions containing aqueous corrosion solutions. The difference in OCPs for the tested 6xxx type alloys in relation to the standard AA1020 alloy was observed to be between 1-4%, except for the AlMg0.65Si0.76Zr0.1 alloy when the difference was 14% (about 100 mV. The presence of zirconium and manganese in AlMgSi0.7 base alloy, that contains small excess of Si, shifts the OCPs to more negative values for -15 mV (~2% and -88 mV (~11% in natural water and 0,51 mol NaCl, respectively. All the tested 6xxx type alloys, except AlMg0.7Si1.2Mn0.8, show almost the same corrosion rates and other corrosion characteristics in chloride solution, with mass loss per year between 2.3-3 g/m2 .

  18. Case Studies of Fatigue Life Improvement Using Low Plasticity Burnishing in Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevey, Paul S.; Shepard, Michael; Ravindranath, Ravi A.; Gabb, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Surface enhancement technologies such as shot peening, laser shock peening (LSP), and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) can provide substantial fatigue life improvement. However, to be effective, the compressive residual stresses that increase fatigue strength must be retained in service. For successful integration into turbine design, the process must be affordable and compatible with the manufacturing environment. LPB provides thermally stable compression of comparable magnitude and even greater depth than other methods, and can be performed in conventional machine shop environments on CNC machine tools. LPB provides a means to extend the fatigue lives of both new and legacy aircraft engines and ground-based turbines. Improving fatigue performance by introducing deep stable layers of compressive residual stress avoids the generally cost prohibitive alternative of modifying either material or design. The X-ray diffraction based background studies of thermal and mechanical stability of surface enhancement techniques are briefly reviewed, demonstrating the importance of minimizing cold work. The LPB process, tooling, and control systems are described. An overview of current research programs conducted for engine OEMs and the military to apply LPB to a variety of engine and aging aircraft components are presented. Fatigue performance and residual stress data developed to date for several case studies are presented including: * The effect of LPB on the fatigue performance of the nickel based super alloy IN718, showing fatigue benefit of thermal stability at engine temperatures. * An order of magnitude improvement in damage tolerance of LPB processed Ti-6-4 fan blade leading edges. * Elimination of the fretting fatigue debit for Ti-6-4 with prior LPB. * Corrosion fatigue mitigation with LPB in Carpenter 450 steel. *Damage tolerance improvement in 17-4PH steel. Where appropriate, the performance of LPB is compared to conventional shot peening after exposure to engine

  19. Fatigue Analysis and Life Prediction of Dumpers with Cumulative Fatigue Damage Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shouju; LIU Yingxi; SUN Huiling

    2004-01-01

    A fatigue damage model is developed for evaluating accumulative fatigue damage of dumpers. The loading spectrums acted on dumpers are created according to measured strain data in field. The finite element analysis is carried out for assessing stress distribution and strength characteristics of dumpers. Fatigue damage indexes and service life are calculated by a modified Palmgren-Miner rule. The investigation shows that fatigue notch factor has a significant influence on the calculation of fatigue damage of dumpers.

  20. Fatigue Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed thro...... of the natural period, damping ratio, current, stress Spectrum and parameters describing the fatigue strength. Further, soil damping is shown to be significant for the Mono-tower.......In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed...

  1. Fatigue Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed thro...... of the natural period, damping ratio, current, stress spectrum and parameters describing the fatigue strength. Further, soil damping is shown to be significant for the Mono-tower.......In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed...

  2. 夹杂物尺寸对汽车车轮用钢疲劳寿命的影响%Influence of Inclusion Size on Fatigue Life of High Strength Steel for Automobile Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤晓; 李会; 许晓嫦; 李良; 徐浩浩

    2013-01-01

    The fatigue life of high strength steel for automobile wheel was investigated by MTS858 electro-hydraulic servo fatigue testing, and then the fatigue fracture morphology was analyzed by Quanta 600 scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the preliminary analysis of the experimental data, the critical size of inclusions was calculated. According to the theory of normal distribution, fatigue life of the wheel steel was predicted. The results show that the fatigue cracks are all initiated from the internal and subsurface inclusions. The energy spectrum analysis indicates that the main components of the inclusions are oxides of calcium and aluminium. The measured size of most of the inclusions at the crack sources are larger than the critical size.%采用MTS858电液伺服疲劳实验机研究了高强度车轮用钢的疲劳寿命,并用Quanta 600环境扫描电子显微镜对疲劳断口形貌进行了观察.通过对实验数据分析,计算得出了夹杂物的临界尺寸,并根据正态分布理论对车轮钢的疲劳寿命进行了预测.研究结果表明,疲劳裂纹均是从内部或者亚表面的夹杂物处萌生;能谱分析表明:夹杂物的成分主要是钙铝的氧化物,测量所得裂纹源处夹杂物尺寸大部分超过了临界尺寸.

  3. 威布尔分布随机载荷下齿轮弯曲疲劳试验分析%Experimental study of gear bending fatigue strength under random load according to three-parameter Weibull distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 许洪斌; 高孝旺; 祖世华

    2012-01-01

    根据齿轮传动过程中普遍承受的三参数威布尔分布载荷谱,编制了试验用随机变幅疲劳载荷谱,在MTS电液伺服疲劳试验机上利用成组试验方法完成了该随机载荷作用下齿轮弯曲疲劳试验,得到了特定变异系数三参数威布尔分布载荷谱下齿轮弯曲强度的S-N曲线。试验结果证明,在服从三参数威布尔分布随机载荷谱下,随机变幅疲劳试验得出的轮齿疲劳寿命远低于恒载荷疲劳试验得出的疲劳寿命。对随机载荷下的齿轮设计的疲劳极限的理论值进行了预测,并与试验结果进行了比较。随机载荷下的理论值与试验结果相吻合,因此可以通过随机载荷谱的载荷比例系数去推断随机载荷下齿轮弯曲疲劳强度值。%Random-amplitude fatigue load spectrum for experiments is made according to the ubiquitous three-parameter Weibull distribution in gear transmission.Gear bending fatigue test under the random load is carried out on a MTS electro-hydraulic servo material fatigue tester by using group testing method,and the S-N curve of gear bending strength under three-parameter Weibull distribution with specific variation coefficients is obtained.The fatigue test results show the gear's endurance life under random load is far less than that under constant load when the load submits to three-parameter Weibull distribution random load spectrum.The theoretical value of fatigue limit for gear under random load is predicated and compared with test results.The theoretical value is in accordance with the test results.Therefore,the fatigue strength of gear bending under random load can be deduced according to the load ratio coefficient of random load spectrum.

  4. Fatigue evaluation algorithms: Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passipoularidis, V.A.; Broendsted, P.

    2009-11-15

    A progressive damage fatigue simulator for variable amplitude loads named FADAS is discussed in this work. FADAS (Fatigue Damage Simulator) performs ply by ply stress analysis using classical lamination theory and implements adequate stiffness discount tactics based on the failure criterion of Puck, to model the degradation caused by failure events in ply level. Residual strength is incorporated as fatigue damage accumulation metric. Once the typical fatigue and static properties of the constitutive ply are determined,the performance of an arbitrary lay-up under uniaxial and/or multiaxial load time series can be simulated. The predictions are validated against fatigue life data both from repeated block tests at a single stress ratio as well as against spectral fatigue using the WISPER, WISPERX and NEW WISPER load sequences on a Glass/Epoxy multidirectional laminate typical of a wind turbine rotor blade construction. Two versions of the algorithm, the one using single-step and the other using incremental application of each load cycle (in case of ply failure) are implemented and compared. Simulation results confirm the ability of the algorithm to take into account load sequence effects. In general, FADAS performs well in predicting life under both spectral and block loading fatigue. (author)

  5. Fatigue Evaluation Algorithms: Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passipoularidis, Vaggelis; Brøndsted, Povl

    A progressive damage fatigue simulator for variable amplitude loads named FADAS is discussed in this work. FADAS (Fatigue Damage Simulator) performs ply by ply stress analysis using classical lamination theory and implements adequate stiffness discount tactics based on the failure criterion of Puck......, to model the degradation caused by failure events in ply level. Residual strength is incorporated as fatigue damage accumulation metric. Once the typical fatigue and static properties of the constitutive ply are determined,the performance of an arbitrary lay-up under uniaxial and/or multiaxial load time...... blade construction. Two versions of the algorithm, the one using single-step and the other using incremental application of each load cycle (in case of ply failure) are implemented and compared. Simulation results confirm the ability of the algorithm to take into account load sequence effects...

  6. Surface Studies of HSLA [high strength low alloy] Steel after Electrochemical Corrosion in Supercritical CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M. Holcomb, G. Tylczak, J Beck, J Fedkin, M. Lvov, S.

    2011-10-11

    Corrosion resistance of pipeline materials for transporting coal combustion produced supercritical CO{sub 2} from power plants to sequestration sites has not been fully determined. Although pipeline materials are resistant to corrosion in pure supercritical CO{sub 2}, cleaning costs of combustion produced CO{sub 2} streams from impurities such as H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} are too high, making sequestration of pure CO{sub 2} streams unfeasible. Impacts of the H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} impurities on pipeline corrosion must be determined. Filling Up This Technological Gap requires studying effects of H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} concentrations on pipeline.

  7. Properties, weldability and corrosion behavior of supermartensitic stainless steels for on- and offshore applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taban, Emel; Kaluc, Erdinc; Ojo, Olatunji Oladimeji [Kocaeli Univ. (Turkey). Welding Research, Education and Training Center

    2016-08-01

    Stimulated material-environment interactions inside and around flowlines of deep or ultra deep wells during oil and gas exploration, and fabrication economy of pipelines have been the major challenges facing the oil and gas industries. Presumably, an extensive focus on high integrity, performance and material economy of flowlines have realistically made supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) efficient and effective material choices for fabricating onshore and offshore pipelines. Supermartensitic stainless steels exhibit high strength, good low temperature toughness, sufficient corrosion resistance in sweet and mildly sour environments, and good quality weldability with both conventional welding processes and modern welding methods such as laser beam welding, electron beam welding and hybrid welding approaches. In terms of economy, supermartensitic stainless steels are cheaper and they are major replacements for more expensive duplex stainless steels required for tubing applications in the oil and gas industry. However, weld areas of SMSS pipes are exposed to sulphide stress cracking (SSC), so intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) or stress corrosion cracking can occur. In order to circumvent this risk of cracking, a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) for 5 minutes at about 650 C is recommended. This paper provides detailed literature perusal on supermartensitic stainless steels, their weldability and corrosion behaviors. It also highlights a major research area that has not been thoroughly expounded in literature; fatigue loading behaviors of welded SMSS under different corrosive environments have not been thoroughly detailed in literature.

  8. ANALYSIS OF PITTING CORROSION ON AN INCONEL 718 ALLOY SUBMITTED TO AGING HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rocha Caliari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is one of the most important superalloys, and it is mainly used in the aerospace field on account of its high mechanical strength, good resistance to fatigue and creep, good corrosion resistance and ability to operate continuously at elevated temperatures. In this work the resistance to pitting corrosion of a superalloy, Inconel 718, is analyzed before and after double aging heat treatment. The used heat treatment increases the creep resistance of the alloy, which usually is used up to 0.6 Tm. Samples were subjected to pitting corrosion tests in chloride-containing aqueous solution, according to ASTM-F746-04 and the procedure described by Yashiro et al. The results of these trials show that after heat treatment the superalloy presents higher corrosion resistance, i.e., the pitting corrosion currents of the as received surfaces are about 6 (six times bigger (~0.15 mA than those of double aged surfaces (~0.025 mA.

  9. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution...... for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing...

  10. Improvement of magnetic hysteresis loss, corrosion resistance and compressive strength through spark plasma sintering magnetocaloric LaFe11.65Si1.35/Cu core-shell powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyin You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available LaFe11.65Si1.35/Cu core-shell powders were achieved by self-designed magnetron sputtering system, which presents a better solidification during spark plasma sintering in comparison to the naked LaFe11.65Si1.35 powders. Much higher compressive strength, lower corrosion current density and magnetic hysteresis losses are achieved for the sintered sample of LaFe11.65Si1.35/Cu core-shell powders without significant decrease of the magnetic entropy change. The compressive strength, corrosion current density and maximum magnetic hysteresis losses are 105.6 MPa/16.8 MPa, 1.08 × 10−3A/cm2/3.03 × 10−3 A/cm2 and 1.33 J/kg/2.71 J/kg, respectively for the sintered samples of core-shell structured/naked powders. The technique of fabricating the core-shell structured powders demonstrated here is also applicable for other types of functional powders.

  11. Fatigue in Breakwater Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The reliability of rubble mound breakwaters depends on the hydraulic stability and the mechanical strength of the armour units. The paper deals with the important aspect of fatigue related to the strength of concrete armour units.......The reliability of rubble mound breakwaters depends on the hydraulic stability and the mechanical strength of the armour units. The paper deals with the important aspect of fatigue related to the strength of concrete armour units....

  12. Effect of the Content of Retained Austenite and Grain Size on the Fatigue Bending Strength of Steels Carburized in a Low-Pressure Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, P.; Dybowski, K.; Lipa, S.; Januszewicz, B.; Pietrasik, R.; Atraszkiewicz, R.; Wołowiec, E.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of the content of retained austenite and of the initial austenite grain size on high-cycle fatigue of two low-alloy steels 16MnCr5 and 17CrNi6-6 after carburizing in a low-pressure atmosphere (acetylene, ethylene and hydrogen) and subsequent high-pressure gas quenching is investigated.

  13. Progress in the Brittle Fracture and Fatigue of High Strength Steels and Their Welds%高强度钢材及其焊缝脆性断裂与疲劳性能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元清; 林云; 周晖; 张延年; 石永久

    2012-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of high strength steel as well as its application in the domestic and foreign construction engineering and bridge engineering were briefly described, as well as a number of practical engineering problems analyzed. Summing up the related research of domestic and foreign high strength steels and their welds on their brittle fracture and fatigue, the article raised the need for study on the fracture toughness and fatigue performance of high strength steel used in construction and its connection weld and the change law of influence factor. Low temperature, weld defects, increasing thickness of steel and high-frequency dynamic load were found greatly reducing the resistance capacity of brittle fracture of high strength steel and fatigue life; Other than these external factors,for mechanical properties and toughness due to special metallurgical processes,the application of high strength steel was limited.%简单阐述了高强度钢材的优、缺点以及在国内外建筑工程和桥梁工程中的应用情况,并分析了其实际工程中存在的若干问题.总结了国内外对高强度钢材及其焊缝的脆性断裂与疲劳破坏的相关研究,引出研究高强度建筑用结构钢材及其连接焊缝的断裂韧性和疲劳性能以及影响因素变化规律的必要性,得出了如下结论:低温、焊缝缺陷、钢材厚度的增加和高频动荷载极大降低了高强度钢材的抗脆断能力及疲劳寿命;同时高强度钢材由于特殊冶金工艺而具有的力学性能和韧性加上这些外因限制了其使用范围.

  14. The Effect of Contouring on Fatigue Strength of Spinal Rods: Is it Okay to Re-bend and Which Materials Are Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivka, Michael A; Fan, Yung K; Eck, Jason C

    2013-11-01

    Small-diameter spinal rods were tested in fatigue loading before and after contouring in pedicle screw constructs using dynamic testing machines. To characterize the change in fatigue performance of spinal rods resulting from contouring. Spine surgeons have a variety of rod materials to choose from, and selecting the best rod depends on patient characteristics and rod material properties, including fatigue performance. Four rod materials were tested, all 4.5 mm in diameter: titanium alloy (Ti), cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr), and 2 different grades of stainless steel (SS and ultra SS). Three conditions were tested: straight (virgin rods), bent (rods bent to a radius of curvature of 100 mm), and re-bent (rods over-bent to a radius of 50 mm, then partially straightened to a 100-mm radius). Fatigue testing was conducted on unilateral vertebrectomy constructs with polyaxial screws. In all conditions, the endurance limit of the CoCr rods was at least 25% higher than the other materials but could not be determined because screw failure precluded rod failure. In the bent condition, the endurance limits of Ti, standard SS and ultra SS were reduced between 20% and 40%. In the re-bent condition, the endurance limit of Ti, standard SS, and ultra SS increased compared with the bent condition. Changes in fatigue performance are best explained by residual rod stresses induced during contouring. It appears safe to over-bend and then re-bend, for 1 cycle, small-diameter spinal rods made of the materials tested in this study using tube benders, and CoCr rods were clearly superior for all conditions. However, larger rods, multiple cycles of bending and re-bending, and rods bent using other instruments such as French benders were not studied and may result in different performance under the same conditions. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Equivalent hot spot stress approach for multiaxial fatigue strength assessment of complex welded joints%复杂焊接接头多轴疲劳强度评估的等效热点应力法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 黄如旭; 黄一

    2012-01-01

    The current hot spot stress approach still has some limitations to the multiaxial fatigue strength assessment of complex welded joints.In this paper,an new stress estimation approach for the multiaxial fatigue strength assessment of complex welded joints is proposed,in which an equivalent hot spot stress is defined at a point(called Zero Point) in plate thickness direction where nonlinear distribution stress due to the notch effect of the weld is equal to zero.The proposed approach is based on that the nonlinear stress peak is not included in the hot spot stress and the nonlinear distribution stress is in self-equilibrium.First,influence factors and change laws of the Zero Point position were discussed,and a fitting equation for determining the Zero Point position was established.Then,published fatigue tests data and numerical stress results of some welded joints were used for comparison between the proposed equivalent hot spot stress approach and the current hot spot stress approach.The equivalent hot spot stress approach was verified to be consistent with the current hot spot stress approach and also have higher accuracy for considering the thickness effect on the fatigue strength to a certain extent.The merit of the proposed approach is that it can be used to estimate the multiaxial fatigue strength of welded joints through combining multiaxial fatigue theory.%基于焊缝本身引起的非线性分布应力自平衡的性质,在板厚方向非线性分布应力大小为零的位置(零点位置)定义等效热点应力,提出一种新的能够用于复杂焊接接头多轴疲劳应力评价方法.首先,分析了零点位置的影响因素和变化规律,建立了确定零点位置的拟合方程.然后,和公开发表的试验数据以及现有的热点应力法有限元计算结果进行了对比.结果表明,等效热点应力法和现有的热点应力法具有很好的一致性,而且能够在一定程度上考虑厚度效应对疲劳强度的影

  16. 焊接接头疲劳强度改善技术在海洋工程中的应用%Technology application for improving fatigue strength of welding joint to offshore engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时群超

    2011-01-01

    相对于船舶和普通海洋钢结构,深水和大型海洋工程结构面临的安全性更为重要.焊接结构很容易出现断裂问题,其中多数为疲劳失效,对于这个问题除了通过优化设计和提高质量要求之外,通过制造工艺对焊接接头疲劳强度进行改善也是很好的选择.在此结合部分海洋工程建造规范和应用实践,介绍了包括焊缝外观整体加工、焊趾打磨、TIG熔修和锤击等在内的海洋工程钢结构常用的焊接接头疲劳改善技术,提供了实用的操作细节和使用注意事项,并讨论了以上疲劳改善工艺在海洋工程建造应用中需解决的问题及其应用前景.%The safety of deepwater or large offshore structures is distinctly important than ship and other ordinary marine structures. Welded steel structures have high crack risk,especially fatigue cracks.In some cases,except good design and additional quality requirements,it is a good solution that uses manufacturing process to improve weld detail fatigue strength.Based on some offshore codes and engineering practice,this paper introduce some usual weld detail fatigue strength improvement methods,including weld profiling by machining and grinding,Weld toe grinding,TIC dressing,Hammer peening.sum up some practical process details and matters need attention.At last of this paper discuses some problems need solving, and analyze the application prospect forecast of weld detail fatigue strength improvement technique in offshore engineering.

  17. 高强度钢30Cr3SiNiMoVA的疲劳特性研究%Study of Fatigue Performance for High Strength Steel 30Cr3SiNiMoVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 董万元; 王小兵; 梁强

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain fatigue design data of high strength steel 30Cr3SiNiMoVA, the fatigue test of this steel material have been carried out. In the experiment the material conditional fatigue limit was tested by the up-and-down method, and other fatigue data were done by the group test method under four stress levels for the polished specimen and unpolished specimen of the material, respectively. Then a two-parameter least square method was used to fit the S-N curve, and the probability method was used to obtain the PS-N curve. By the comparisons between two S-N curves, it is seen that the fatigue life of unpolished samples is lower than that of polished samples under same fatigue load level, so 30Cr3SiNiMoVA's fatigue life is sensitive to the surface rough state of the specimen, and this sensitivity is increasing with the decreasing of fatigue load, and the fatigue limit of the polished specimen is about 1. 4 times of the unpolished specimen. It is suggested that the effective technology should be applied into improving the surface rough state of one type of this material. These data will provided a valuable support for the engineering applications of 30Cr3SiNiMoVA.%为了获得超高强度钢30Cr3SiNiMoVA的疲劳设计数据,对该材料进行了疲劳性能实验.分别对该材料的抛光和未抛光试样进行轴向拉压疲劳实验.用升降试验法测定材料的条件疲劳极限,用成组实验法在四级应力水平下测试其疲劳寿命.结合升降法所得的条件疲劳极限值和成组法实验数据,采用双参数最小二乘法拟合SN曲线,运用概率方法求得P-S-N曲线.通过对两种试样的SN曲线分析可知:未抛光试样的疲劳寿命要低于抛光试样的疲劳寿命,并且疲劳载荷级越低,两类试样之间的疲劳寿命差越大,抛光试样的疲劳极限大约是未抛光试样的1.4倍.相关实验现象表明30Cr3SiNiMoVA的疲劳寿命对试样表面粗糙状态非常敏感,建议该类材料在应用过

  18. Strength of Hard Alloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.

  19. 点蚀损伤船体结构板的极限剪切屈曲强度研究%Ultimate shear strength of ship structural plate with pitting corrosion damnification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 黄一; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion-caused thickness loss makes the ultimate strength of ship structural plates degraded significantly. An assessing method for ultimate strength of ship hull plate with corrosion damnification un-der edge shear loading based on corroded volume loss is proposed by theoretical deduction and finite ele-ment analysis. The models which are in accord with the actual ship hull plate are obtained. The quantita-tive assessment formulae are obtained by statistics approach according to the data that come from the non-linear finite element analyses of a series of the setting models by changing the plate thickness, the number, the diameter and the distribution of the pits. It is found out that the proposed corroded volume loss based ultimate strength assessment formulae can accurately predict the ultimate buckling strength of the pitted plate under the shear loading. Moreover, the formulae are applicable for reliability or risk assessment of the actual ship panels with pitting corrosion wastage of the sea-going steel ships during their service lives.%  腐蚀损伤导致船体结构板的极限承载能力大幅度下降。文章采用腐蚀体积描述板的点蚀损伤程度,模拟船体结构板的点蚀损伤形态,在点蚀损伤板模型中变化板的厚度、点蚀数目、点蚀直径以及点蚀分布等要素,实施系列有限元数值模拟计算,在进行理论分析的基础上,采用统计学方法,建立了点蚀损伤板极限剪切屈曲强度的评估方法,得到了点蚀损伤板极限剪切屈曲强度的计算公式。从而确立了基于腐蚀体积的点蚀损伤船体结构板极限剪切屈曲强度的评价技术,可为在役海船点蚀损伤后的安全性评估提供有效的技术手段。

  20. Demonstration and Validation of Controlled Low-Strength Materials for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Steel Pipes: Final Report on Project F09-A17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    812 Park Drive Warner Robins , GA 31088 James B. Bushman and Bopinder S. Phull Bushman and Associates P. O. Box 425 Medina, OH 44258 Final report...Under Project F09-AR17, “Dilute Flowable Backfill Validation for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Piping at Fort Hood , TX” ERDC/CERL TR-15-33 ii...Appendix C: Fort Hood Demonstration Equipment and Materials for ROI Analysis

  1. Ultimate Strength of Ship Structural Plate with Pitting Corrosion Damnification Under Uniaxial Compression%点蚀损伤船体板格单轴压缩极限强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 黄一

    2016-01-01

    为了能够简单准确地计算服役期内点蚀损伤船体板格的极限强度,选择腐蚀体积为点蚀损伤板的主要评估参数,结合实际船体板格的腐蚀损伤特点,采用有限元数值计算方法,分析点蚀坑形状、有限元单元类型、蚀坑分布和蚀坑深度对板极限强度的影响,以及板的初始柔度、初始变形、长宽比和板边缘线性载荷因子对板极限强度折减因子的影响,并利用回归分析方法,建立了基于腐蚀体积的点蚀损伤船体板格极限强度折减因子的计算公式.结果表明,整套公式的计算结果与有限元计算结果的相对误差仅有极少量在5%,~6%,之间,绝大部分在5%,以内,可用于服役期内点蚀损伤船体板格的安全评估.%To simply and accurately calculate the ultimate strength of ship structural plates with corrosion damnifica-tion during the service lives of ships,the corrosion volume loss was used as the most important assessment parameter of the plate with corrosion damnification.On the basis of the characteristics of the actual hull structural plates,the effects of some parameters(the shape of pits,the type of finite elements,the distribution of pits and the depth of pits)on the ultimate strength and the effects of some parameters(the initial slenderness,the initial geometric deflec-tion and the aspect of plates and the linear load factors at the plate edges)on ultimate strength reduction factor were studied by the nonlinear finite element analyses.The ultimate strength reduction factor formulae based on the corro-sion volume loss were obtained by regression analysis approach.The results show that most of the relative errors be-tween the calculating value by the formulae and finite element analysis result are below 5%, and only very few is 5%,—6%,.The formulae can be used in the safety assessment of ship structural plates with pitting corrosion damnifi-cation during their service lives.

  2. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  3. 含组合腐蚀缺陷管线剩余强度分析及寿命预测%Residual Strength Analysis and Life Prediction of Pipeline with Combined Corrosion Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓勇; 胡军; 陈碧; 安利平

    2016-01-01

    The finite element method ANSYS is used to analyze the pipeline with rectangle and oval combination corrosion defects. Under different internal pressures,the relationship between stress and the depth of corrosion de-fects and the effects of stress on failure are studied,the remaining strength of pipeline is determined and the residu-al life of pipeline is predicted. It is concluded that the defects depth is the important factor which influences failure of pipeline. Rectangular defects have greater impact on the remaining strength of the pipeline. The finite element a-nalysis method provides more accurate data for residual life prediction and remaining strength analysis,which also has a certain reference value.%利用ANSYS有限元法分析了含矩形和椭圆形组合腐蚀缺陷的管线,研究了在内压作用下,应力与腐蚀缺陷深度的关系,应力对失效的影响,并确定了管线的剩余强度,预测了管线的剩余寿命。结果表明,缺陷深度是影响失效的一个很重要因素,矩形缺陷对管道的剩余强度影响较大,有限元分析方法为管线剩余强度分析及寿命预测提供了比较准确的相关数据,具有一定的参考价值。

  4. Titanium in fatigue critical military aircraft structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, F.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the effect of fatigue requirements on titanium structure in military aircraft applications, specifically, fighter aircraft. The discussion covers how fatigue affects the design and analysis of detail parts, and how manufacturing processes affect the fatigue performance of titanium structure. Criteria for designing fighter aircraft have evolved from simple strength calculations to extremely complex computer generated analyses involving strength, durability, damage tolerance and fatigue. Fatigue life prediction is an important part of these analyses and dramatically affects the design and weight of fighter aircraft. Manufacturing processes affect fatigue performance both in a positive and negative manner. Designers must allow for the effect of these processes on titanium structure and consider the efficiency and economy of adding processes that increase fatigue life.

  5. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  6. 某汽车差速器齿轮的强度分析及疲劳寿命预测%A Car Differential Gear Strength Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良模; 刘飞; 夏汉关; 赵红军; 王小乾; 张艳伟

    2012-01-01

    运用现代设计方法进行了某汽车差速器齿轮静强度分析和疲劳寿命预测。将几何模型导入HyperMesh中,利用壳单元和实体单元划分网格,并建立合适的MPC单元以方便载荷和约束的施加。根据齿轮的对称性,建立了行星齿轮和半轴齿轮单齿的有限元模型。利用有限元分析软件ANSYS进行行星齿轮和半轴齿轮静强度分析。分析结果表明所设计的齿轮能满足强度要求。基于齿轮有限元分析结果,利用疲劳分析软件MSC.Fatigue得出行星齿轮和半轴齿轮寿命云图及最低疲劳寿命,均满足寿命要求。%Modern design method is used for a car differential gear static strength analysis and fatigue life prediction. The geometric model is imported to HyperMesh, the shell element and entity unit are used for division grid, and proper MPC unit are established for load and constraint applied. According to the gear of symmetry, planetary gear and axle side gear single tooth finite element model are established. Using finite element analysis software ANSYS, planetary gear and axle shaft gear static strength are analyzed, and the results show that the designed gears can meet the requirements. Based on gear finite element analysis results, planetary gear and axle shaft gear life nephogram and minimum fatigue life are analyzed by using fatigue analysis software MSC. Fatigue. Both gears can satisfy actual life requirement.

  7. Study on Rotation Capability and Fatigue Strength of Elliptical Flexure Spherical Hinge%椭圆型弹性球铰链转动性能及疲劳强度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成刚; 尤晶晶; 吴洪涛

    2011-01-01

    基于卡氏第二定理,推导出椭圆型弹性球铰链柔度、精度的解析表达式.提出弹性球铰链柔度精度比的概念,并以此为性能指标对铰链的设计进行了优化.结果表明:铰链应选用弹性模量大、切变模量小的材料;在保证强度的前提下,应尽量减小椭圆广角、椭圆长短半轴之比以及铰链最小厚度与椭圆短半轴之比.指出在设计弹性铰链时不能仅追求转动性能,还需要考虑其疲劳强度,进而推导出弹性球铰链疲劳强度的校验公式.%Based on the Castigliano's second theorem, the equations were formulated for the compliance and precision of an elliptical flexure spherical hinge. A new concept of compliance accuracy ratio of flexure spherical hinge was proposed, which was used as the performance index of hinges. Optimization was done, and the results show that materials of hinges should be with high elastic modulus and low shear modulus; all of the wide-angle, the ratio of long half axis to short half axis and the ratio of the minimum thickness to short half axis of ellipse should be as little as possible on the premise of ensuring strength. A view point was proposed,that fatigue strength must also be considered except for improving performance while designing the flexure hinges, and the check formula of fatigue strength was derived.

  8. Corrosion-resistant sulfur concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur concretes have been developed by the Bureau of Mines as construction materials with physical and mechanical properties that suit them for use in acid and salt corrosive environments where conventional concretes fail. Mixture design methods were established for preparing sulfur concretes using different types of aggregates and recently developed mixed-modified sulfur cements. Bench-scale testing of the sulfur concretes has shown their potential value. Corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of sulfur concrete are superior to those of conventional materials. Field in situ evaluation tests of the sulfur concretes as replacement for conventional concrete materials are in progress in corrosive areas of 24 commercial chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical plants.

  9. Fatigue in Breakwater Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of rubble mound breakwaters depends on the hydraulic stability and the mechanical strength of the armour units. The paper deals with the important aspect of fatigue related to the strength of concrete armour units. Results showing significant fatigue from impact tests with Dolosse...... made of unreinforced and steel fibre reinforced flyash concrete are presented. Moreover universal graphs for fatigue in armour units made of conventional unreinforced concrete exposed to impact load and pulsating load are presented. The effect of fibre reinforcement and the implementation of fatigue...

  10. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  11. Subsea rigid jumper design and ⅤⅣ fatigue evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a design procedure for subsea rigid jumper system including strength and fatigue analysis.Special attention gives to a methodology based on DNV-RP-F105 to evaluate jumper fatigue damage caused by vortex induced vibration (ⅤⅣ).Jumper strength analysis is to determine the jumper configuration which can accommodate various load conditions and all possible span lengths driven by installation tolerances of connected subsea structures.Fatigue analysis includes two parts:thermal fatigue and ⅤⅣ fatigue.This paper presents the procedure of ⅤⅣ fatigue damage calculation.An example is given to illustrate above methodologies.

  12. Corrosion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  13. 基于焊接应力场的高强钢疲劳寿命研究%Analysis of high-strength steel fatigue based on welding stress field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆丰; 唐昌德; 郝寿军; 李永正

    2014-01-01

    运用 ANSYS APDL 语言编程,对船用高强钢 T 型试件的焊接过程进行了模拟,得到了其焊接残余应力场的分布规律。以预应力的方式将其应力场施加到结构的疲劳寿命计算过程中,得到了结构在焊接残余应力影响下的疲劳寿命。并通过与实验数据进行对比,较为直观地反映焊接残余应力对疲劳寿命的影响。%By using ANSYS APDL language,we simulated the welding process of T-joint test specimen made of ship high-strength steel. After obtaining the distribution of welding residual stress,it was used as pre-stress dur-ing the fatigue calculation. By comparing the FEM and test results,the influence of residual stress on fatigue life was visually reflected.

  14. Co-Ni超高强度钢的疲劳裂纹扩展行为与组织的关系%Relationship Between Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour and Microstructures in Co-Ni Ultra-high Strength Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平; 凌斌; 王俊丽

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between fatigue crack growth behaviour and microstructures of 23NiCo steel was studied at the stress ratio R=0.1. 23NiCo steel showed slower fatigue crack growth rate than other steels with the same strength level,it is related to the characteristic of microstructures of 23NiCo steel.The absence of cementite and formation of reverted austenite at the plate boundaries tempered at 482℃ are the main factors.%研究了23NiCo钢应力比R=0.1的疲劳裂纹扩展行为与组织的关系。23NiCo钢比同一强度级钢具有较低的裂纹扩展速率的原因主要与钢的微观组织特征有关。23NiCo钢在482℃回火组织中板条边界形成薄膜状的逆转奥氏体和不存在渗碳体是主要的组织因素。

  15. Effects of Corrosion Defect on Residual Strength of High Pressure Manifold%腐蚀缺陷对高压管汇剩余强度的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符方杰; 樊建春; 张继信

    2012-01-01

    In light of common types of internal corrosion defect, the model of rectangular even corrosion and global pit corrosion was established by means of the ANSYS finite element analysis software. The effect of defect types and form parameters on the residual strength of high pressure manifold was analyzed. In modeling the symmet- ric constraint was added on the axial and circumferential symmetric planes of the corrosion high pressure straight tube model. The constraint of radial direction was added on the external side of vertical symmetric plane so as to prevent the rigid displacement of the model. The analysis indicates that the defect length and depth have a remarkable effect on the stress of high pressure straight tube and its width has less effect on the stress. In the case of axial distribution of the pit groups the stress concentration at the defect tends to decrease with the increase of defect center distance.%对含缺陷的高压管汇进行剩余强度分析很有必要。借助ANSYS有限元分析软件,针对高压管汇常见的内腐蚀缺陷类型,建立矩形均匀腐蚀和球形凹坑腐蚀模型,分析缺陷类型以及形状参数对高压管汇剩余强度的影响。建模时在腐蚀高压直管模型的轴向及环向对称面上加对称约束,为了防止模型产生刚体位移,在纵向对称面外侧加径向方向约束。分析结果认为,缺陷长度和深度对高压直管所受应力的影响较大,宽度对应力的影响较小;凹坑群沿轴向分布时,随缺陷中心距离的增大,缺陷处应力集中程度有减小的趋势。

  16. 腐蚀缺陷管道剩余强度ANSYS有限元模拟可行性研究%Feasibility of finite element analysis on residual strength of pipeline with corrosion defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 李洋; 孙世斌; 张旭昀; 徐子怡; 毕凤琴

    2014-01-01

    以管道实测腐蚀缺陷为依据,用ANSYS有限元法计算含长方形、椭圆形和组合形腐蚀缺陷管道的应力、应变状态,根据第三强度失效准则确定腐蚀管道剩余强度,并结合室内管道承压实验进行了结果验证。结果表明:多个腐蚀缺陷间距对于最大等效应力存在临界值,当双点长方形腐蚀缺陷间距小于60 mm时存在干涉,其最大等效应力高于含单个缺陷管道;ANSYS有限元分析软件建模方法可靠,可以模拟含复杂腐蚀缺陷形状管道的受力状态;模拟结果与室内管道承压实验有较好的吻合度,相同条件下最大偏差小于8.6%。ANSYS有限元分析对于含复杂腐蚀缺陷管道模拟具有准确性和可靠性。%Based on the actual oilfield working condition,the stress and strain state of the pipeline with rectangular,elliptic and combined corrosion defects was calculated by using ANSYS software. According to the third failure criterion,the corrosion residual strength of the pipeline was determined. The experimental verification of finite element model was carried out based on the laboratory pipeline bulge test results. The results show that there exists a critical value between the defect span and maximum equivalent stress,and the double-point rectangular defects with high equivalent stress are dependent with each other when the span is lower than 60 mm. The modeling method of ANSYS is reliable,which can simulate complicated corrosion defects. The experimental and simulated results agree well with each other,and the maximum discrepancy is less than 8.6%. The ANSYS simulation exhibits better accuracy and reliability,and can be used for simulation of complicated corrosion defects.

  17. Increasing Fatigue Lives of Laser-Cut Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Edward W.; Donovan, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    Cut edges sanded to restore strength. Simple abrasion process removes transverse striations resulting from laser cutting of inconel 718 or equivalent alloy, increasing fatigue strengths of parts cut by laser beams. For stresses in range of 80 to 130 ksi (550 to 900 MPa) high cycle fatigue strengths restored to levels comparable to conventionally machined parts.

  18. Threshold Corrosion Fatigue of Welded Shipbuilding Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    of a deposit composition equivalent to the. L-TEC 95 solid electrode produced welds of similar tensile properties but of lower weld metal impact...toughness for welds produced with the powder-cored electrode of a deposit composition equivalent to the L-TEC 95 solid electrode was improved...consisting of a 5N H2SO 4 acid with 0.25 mg/i of arsenite (As2O3 ). Shims were placed in the electrospark discharge machined face-grooves and the

  19. Analysis of acoustic emission signals of fatigue crack growth and corrosion processes. Investigation of the possibilities for continuous condition monitoring of transport containers by acoustic emission testing; Analyse der Schallemissionssignale aus Ermuedungsrisswachstum und Korrosionsprozessen. Untersuchung der Moeglichkeiten fuer die kontinuierliche Zustandsueberwachung von Transportbehaeltern mittels Schallemissionspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsmuth, Janne

    2016-05-01

    Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes of structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars and ships. To prevent those failures, preventive, time-based maintenance is performed. However, preventive inspections are costly and include the risk of not detecting a defect, which could lead to a failure within the next service period. An alternative is the idea of continuous monitoring of the whole structure by means of acoustic emission testing (AT). With AT, defects within the material shall be detected and repaired directly after their appearance. Acoustic emission testing is an online non-destructive testing method. Acoustic emission (AE) arises from changes within the material and is transported by elastic waves through the material. If the AE event generates enough energy, the elastic wave propagates to the boundaries of the component, produces a displacement in the picometre scale and can be detected by a piezoelectric sensor. The sensor produces an electrical signal. From this AE signal, AE features such as the maximum amplitude or the frequency can be extracted. Methods of signal analysis are used to investigate the time and frequency dependency of signal groups. The purpose of the signal analysis is to connect the AE signal with the originating AE source. If predefined damage mechanisms are identified, referencing the damage condition of the structure is possible. Acoustic emission from events of the actual crack propagation process can for example lead to the crack growth rate or the stress intensity factor, both specific values from fracture mechanics. A new development in the domain of acoustic emission testing is the pattern recognition of AE signals. Specific features are extracted from the AE signals to assign them to their damage mechanisms. In this thesis the AE signals from the damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue crack growth are compared and analysed. The damage mechanisms were

  20. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degre

  1. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  2. Contrasty Tests on Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451 in Pooding Environment of Fuel Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue properties in typical corrosion environments are the premise of fatigue life design for metallic structures in aircraft. Therefore, fatigue tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens subjected to constant amplitude loading in two environments of dry air and fuel tank ponding respectively to determine pure and corrosion fatigue properties of aluminum alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451. Corrosion fatigue properties in the two environments were analyzed and compared with each other, and the interaction mechanisms between corrosion and fatigue were deduced from fractographical studies by using scanning election microscope (SEM. It is showed that fuel tank ponding has a detrimental influence on fatigue properties and the adverse effect increases with the decreasing stress level. In addition, the notch of specimen enhances the severity of corrosion effects. Fatigue crack is easily initiate from the corrosion pits on the rough fatigue surface, and crack propagation is enhanced by the corrosion products and the hydrogen embrittlement effects at crack tips, thus the degradation of fatigue properties and the reduction of fatigue life are caused.

  3. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  4. How to deal with very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) effects in practical applications?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher-Hoechst, Manfred; Issler, Stephan [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Materials and Process Engineering Metals

    2012-07-01

    Fatigue designing of high-stressed engine components is a key factor for reliable power train systems in automotive industry. In this context load assumptions are very important since this is attended with a pre-designing of important machine elements. Load analyses are usually performed by using experimental methods since the accuracy of load simulations are often not precise enough. An example for VHCF problems occurs in modern high pressure pumps for gasoline direct injection systems, which have load spectra with a large amount of cycles up to 10{sup 9} including a very powerful shape of the spectra. At the same time it is necessary to consider the properties of fuels in service since they might affect the fatigue strength significantly. For example, ethanol-based gasoline fuels are used in a lot of countries worldwide and especially their additives may lead to significant corrosion fatigue effects. In addition, it is well known that material inclusions play an important role for the VHCF behaviour especially for high-strength steels. This paper deals with possibilities to avoid VHCF problems of components in service to maintain reliable systems. (orig.)

  5. Fatigue (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of daily living . Better quality of life . More satisfaction with life. A greater sense of well-being. ... and decrease fatigue. The importance of eating enough food and drinking enough fluids. Physical therapy for patients ...

  6. Effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack growth of duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C., E-mail: crubio@cidesi.mx [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta, 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro., 76130 (Mexico); Felix-Martinez, C. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta, 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro., 76130 (Mexico); Gomez-Rosas, G. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jal (Mexico); Ocana, J.L.; Morales, M.; Porro, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I., Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} LSP is an effective surface treatment to improve fatigue properties of duplex stainless steel. {yields} Increasing pulse density, fatigue crack growth rate is reduced. {yields} Microstructure is not affected by LSP. {yields} Compressive residual stresses increases increasing pulse density. - Abstract: Duplex stainless steels have wide application in different fields like the ship, petrochemical and chemical industries that is due to their high strength and excellent toughness properties as well as their high corrosion resistance. In this work an investigation is performed to evaluate the effect of laser shock processing on some mechanical properties of 2205 duplex stainless steel. Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz with infrared (1064 nm) radiation. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm. Effect of pulse density in the residual stress field is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is determined by the contour method. It is observed that the higher the pulse density the greater the compressive residual stress. Pulse densities of 900, 1600 and 2500 pul/cm{sup 2} are used. Pre-cracked compact tension specimens were subjected to LSP process and then tested under cyclic loading with R = 0.1. Fatigue crack growth rate is determined and the effect of LSP process parameters is evaluated. In addition fracture toughness is determined in specimens with and without LSP treatment. It is observed that LSP reduces fatigue crack growth and increases fracture toughness if this steel.

  7. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of nitrogen-alloyed type 347 stainless under operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Ki Deuk; Hong, Seok Min; Kim, Dae Whan; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jin [Hanyang University, Division of materials science and engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Type 347 (S347) and Type 347N (S347N) stainless steel was evaluated under the operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These two materials showed different fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) according to the changes in dissolved oxygen content and frequency. Under the simulated PWR conditions for normal operation, the FCGR of S347N was lower than that of S347 and insensitive to the changes in PWR water conditions. The higher yield strength and better corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-alloyed Type 347 stainless steel might be a main cause of slower FCGR and more stable properties against changes in environmental conditions.

  8. Experimental Study of Stress Ratio to Fatigue Life of Steel Fiber Reinforced High-Strength Concrete Beams%应力比对钢纤维高强混凝土梁疲劳寿命影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书群; 姬宏奎; 杨松

    2016-01-01

    通过对钢纤维钢筋高强混凝土梁不同应力比的弯曲疲劳荷载试验,研究了试件的疲劳寿命及疲劳强度。根据不同应力比作用下梁试件的疲劳寿命 N ,得出本次试件梁的 S - N 曲线,裂缝开展规律。应用 Miner 理论和科尔顿-多兰(Corten -Dolan)公式进行疲劳损伤计算、疲劳寿命分析及预测,最后采用断裂力学理论分析裂缝开展规律以预测疲劳寿命,并提出裂缝开展宽度计算公式。%Through the fatigue tests of steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete beams ,the impacts to the fatigue strength and fatigue life caused by the stress ratio was analized .Based on the fatigue life N under different stress ratios , this paper acquired the S -N curve of the beams .Miner theory and Colton - Dolan formula were used for fatigue damage calculation ,fatigue life analysis and prediction .Additionally the crack expanding law was carried out by the theory of fracture mechanics in order to predict the fatigue life and propose the crack width calculation formula .

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Residual Strength of Pipe with Hemispheric Corrosion Defect%含半球形腐蚀缺陷钢管剩余强度的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨专钊; 刘道新; 张晓化

    2013-01-01

    通过有限元方法分析了含单个不同深度半球形腐蚀缺陷钢管,在不同服役条件(压力状态)下的应力和应变状态,即缺陷深度和半径分别为1/8,1/4和1/2钢管公称壁厚时,得出不同状态下von Mises等效应力和von Mises等效应变分布情况.同时计算了含不同深度半球形缺陷管道的剩余强度,并给出剩余强度随缺陷深度的经验公式,结果显示含半球形缺陷管道剩余强度随缺陷深度的增加而线性降低.%The situation of stress and strain was analyzed by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for the corroded line pipe by deferent inner pressures and with single hemispheric corrosion defects,of which the radius and depth were set as t/8,t/4 and t/2 (t,the pipe wall thickness) respectively.Meanwhile,the residual strength of the pipes with corresponding defects were calculated respectively,as well as the empirical equation that relates to the residual strength and depth-thickness ratio d/t,was established,which shown that the residual strength decreased linearly with the increasing d/t.

  10. Corrosion in airframes

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  11. CORROSION IN AIRFRAMES

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC ZORAN C.

    2016-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides a brief reference to the issue of corrosion and corrosion damage to aircraft structures. Depending on the nature and dimensions of this non uniformity, three different categories of corrosion are defined: uniform, selective and localized corrosion. The following chapters present the forms of corrosion that can occur in three defined categories of corrosion. Conditions that cause certain types of corrosion in various corrosive environments are discussed. Examp...

  12. The effect of manufacturing conditions on discontinuity population and fatigue fracture behavior in carbon/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Issa; Laquai, Rene; Walter, David; Mueller, Bernd; Graja, Paul; Meyendorf, Norbert; Donaldson, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in aerospace, military, sports, automotive and other fields due to their excellent properties, including high specific strength, high specific modulus, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, and low thermal expansion coefficient. Interlaminar fracture is a serious failure mode leading to a loss in composite stiffness and strength. Discontinuities formed during manufacturing process degrade the fatigue life and interlaminar fracture resistance of the composite. In his study, three approaches were implemented and their results were correlated to quantify discontinuities effecting static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior of carbon fiber composites. Samples were fabricated by hand layup vacuum bagging manufacturing process under three different vacuum levels, indicated High (-686 mmHg), Moderate (-330 mmHg) and Poor (0 mmHg). Discontinuity content was quantified through-thickness by destructive and nondestructive techniques. Eight different NDE methods were conducted including imaging NDE methods: X-Ray laminography, ultrasonic, high frequency eddy current, pulse thermography, pulse phase thermography and lock-in-thermography, and averaging NDE techniques: X-Ray refraction and thermal conductivity measurements. Samples were subsequently destructively serial sectioned through-thickness into several layers. Both static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior under Mode I were conducted. The results of several imaging NDE methods revealed the trend in percentages of discontinuity. However, the results of averaging NDE methods showed a clear correlation since they gave specific values of discontinuity through-thickness. Serial sectioning exposed the composite's internal structure and provided a very clear idea about the type, shape, size, distribution and location of most discontinuities included. The results of mechanical testing showed that discontinuities lead to a decrease in Mode I static interlaminar

  13. Fatigue life and damage evolution of martensitic steels for low-pressure steam turbine blades in the VHCF regime; Lebensdauer und Schaedigungsentwicklung martensitischer Staehle fuer Niederdruck-Dampfturbinenschaufeln bei Ermuedungsbeanspruchung im VHCF-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Low-pressure steam turbine blades are usually made of martensitic steels with Cr contents between 9 and 12%, which combine good corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength and sufficient ductility. The inhomogeneous flow field behind the vanes generates high-frequency oscillations above 1 kHz. In addition, the blades with lengths up to 1.5 m are operated at rotational speeds up to 3000 rpm, resulting in large centrifugal forces leading to the superposition of extremely high mean stresses. Also resonance oscillations during start-up and shutdown cannot be completely excluded. Currently, the components are designed using high safety factors against S-N curves with an assumed asymptotic fatigue limit above 107 load cycles. Nevertheless, fatigue cracks are observed even at high number of cycles, starting from the blade root without pre-damage by erosion or steam droplet impingement. While fatigue failure usually occurs at the surface, fatigue cracks at very high number of cycles (> 108) initiate at oxides or intermetallic inclusions below the surface. This transition between both failure mechanisms in the Very High-Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) regime is in the focus of numerous current research activities, because numbers of cycles above 108 can be attained in a viable period of time using the recently developed high-frequency testing techniques operated at 20 kHz. Also for wind turbines, gas turbines, bearings, springs, etc. VHCF issues become increasingly important. Within this work, the fatigue life and damage behavior of a martensitic Cr-steel during fatigue loading with and without high mean stresses at number of cycles to failure above 108 was analyzed. On the one hand, the studies gave insights into the relation between fatigue life and fatigue damage evolution of the investigated group of high-strength steels in the very high cycle fatigue regime (up to 2·109). In particular, the influence of high mean stresses on the VHCF behavior (fracture origin, crack growth

  14. Reducing Uncertainty in Fatigue Life Limits of Turbine Engine Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    this behavior in turbine engine alloys , we have developed a physically- based approach for describing fatigue var- iability, and this approach has been...of competing mechanisms in the fatigue life variability of a nearly fully-lamellar c-TiAl based alloy . Acta Mater 2005;53:1293–304. [50] Buchanan DJ...Burns JT, Larsen JM, Gangloff RP. Driving forces for localized corrosion -to- fatigue crack transition in Al–Zn– Mg –Cu. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct

  15. [Auditory fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  16. Discussion on Corrosion Strength Formula With Water to Conccrete and Its Practice in Concrete Engineering:Advices for Revision Overall of Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Code in 2012%论水对混凝土腐蚀强度公式与混凝土工程实践——2012年《岩土工程勘察规范》全面修订的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铠

    2012-01-01

    该文总结了历次修订《岩土工程勘察规范》的经验,提出了水对混凝土腐蚀强度公式,说明了腐蚀强度与混凝土密实度及抗蚀能力的紧密关系及重要意义.文中水对混凝土腐蚀强度公式,来源于工程实践,又服务于工程建设.它是水对混凝土腐蚀和混凝士抗腐蚀自然现象的表达,是人们认识腐蚀强度的基础,掌控腐蚀速度、调整混凝土抗蚀能力的依据,是腐蚀规范标准的重要内容之一.该文为规范修订提供了有益的参考.%The experiences of the precious revision of Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Code are summarized, and the formula of corrosion strength with wafer to concrete is put forward, it shows the corrosion strength has close related with concrete compactness and corrosion resistance capacity . Trie formula of corrosion strength with water to concrete comes from engineering practices ,and serves the engineering construction. It is the expression of natural phenomena with water to concrete corrosion and corrosion resistance, is the basis for people to control corrosion rate and concrete corrosion resistance, and is one of the important content for corrosion code standards. It provides the benefit references for code revision.

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  18. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...

  19. Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

  20. Graded High-Strength Spring-Steels by a Special Inductive Heat T reatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tump, A.; Brandt, R.

    2016-03-01

    A method for effective lightweight design is the use of materials with high specific strength. As materials e.g. titanium are very expensive, steel is still the most important material for manufacturing automotive components. Steel is cost efficient, easy to recycle and its tensile strength easily exceeds 2,000 MPa by means of modern QT-technology (Quenched and Tempered). Therefore, lightweight design is still feasible in spite of the high density of steel. However, a further increase of tensile strength is limited, especially due to an increasing notch sensitivity and exposure to a corrosive environment. One solution is a special QT-process for steel, which creates a hardness gradient from the surface to the core of the material. This type of tailored material possesses a softer layer, which improves material properties such as fracture toughness and notch sensitivity. This leads to a better resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. Due to this optimization, a weight reduction is feasible without the use of expensive alloying elements. To understand the damage mechanism a comprehensive testing procedure was performed on homogeneous and gradient steels. Some results regarding the fracture mechanic behavior of such steels will be discussed.