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Sample records for correlated quasirelativistic wave

  1. Expectation values of r sup q between Dirac and quasirelativistic wave functions in the quantum-defect approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwato-Njock, K

    2002-01-01

    A search is conducted for the determination of expectation values of r sup q between Dirac and quasirelativistic radial wave functions in the quantum-defect approximation. The phenomenological and supersymmetry-inspired quantum-defect models which have proven so far to yield accurate results are used. The recursive structure of formulae derived on the basis of the hypervirial theorem enables us to develop explicit relations for arbitrary values of q. Detailed numerical calculations concerning alkali-metal-like ions of the Li-, Na- and Cu-iso electronic sequences confirm the superiority of supersymmetry-based quantum-defect theory over quantum-defect orbital and exact orbital quantum number approximations. It is also shown that relativistic rather than quasirelativistic treatment may be used for consistent inclusion of relativistic effects.

  2. One-dimensional quasi-relativistic particle in the box

    CERN Document Server

    Kaleta, Kamil; Malecki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Two-term Weyl-type asymptotic law for the eigenvalues of one-dimensional quasi-relativistic Hamiltonian (-h^2 c^2 d^2/dx^2 + m^2 c^4)^(1/2) + V_well(x) (the Klein-Gordon square-root operator with electrostatic potential) with the infinite square well potential V_well(x) is given: the n-th eigenvalue is equal to (n pi/2 - pi/8) h c/a + O(1/n), where 2a is the width of the potential well. Simplicity of eigenvalues is proved. Some L^2 and L^infinity properties of eigenfunctions are also studied. Eigenvalues represent energies of a `massive particle in the box' quasi-relativistic model.

  3. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quasirelativistic calculation of 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configuration spectroscopic parameters for the W$^{39+}$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovich, P; Kisielius, R

    2015-01-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectral parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions is used to derive spectral data for the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations of the multicharged tungsten ion W$^{39+}$. The relativistic effects are taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The configuration interaction method is applied to include the electron correlation effects. Produced data are compared with existing experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

  5. Quasirelativistic theory for the magnetic shielding constant. III. Quasirelativistic second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and its application to tellurium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2005-07-22

    The quasirelativistic (QR) generalized unrestricted Hartree-Fock method for the magnetic shielding constant [R. Fukuda, M. Hada, and H. Nakatsuji, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1015 (2003); R. Fukuda, M. Hada, and H. Nakatsuji, J. Chem. Phys.118, 1027 (2003)] has been extended to include the electron correlation effect in the level of the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). We have implemented the energy gradient and finite-perturbation methods to calculate the magnetic shielding constant at the QR MP2 level and applied to the magnetic shielding constants and the NMR chemical shifts of 125Te nucleus in various tellurium compounds. The calculated magnetic shielding constants and NMR chemical shifts well reproduced the experimental values. The relations of the chemical shifts with the natures of ligands, and the tellurium oxidation states were investigated. The chemical shifts in different valence states were explained by the paramagnetic shielding and spin-orbit terms. The tellurium 5p electrons are the dominant origin of the chemical shifts in the Te I and Te II compounds and the chemical shifts were explained by the p-hole mechanism. The tellurium d electrons also play an important role in the chemical shifts of the hypervalent compounds.

  6. Phase sorting wave-particle correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzing, C. A.; LaBelle, J.; Bounds, S. R.; Dolan, J.; Kaeppler, S. R.; Dombrowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    Wave-particle correlations, particularly of Langmuir waves and electrons, have been the subject of significant interest extending back to the 1970s. Often, these correlations have been simply observing modulation of the electrons at the plasma frequency with no phase resolution. The first phase-resolving correlators were developed at UC Berkeley in the late 1980s and reported by Ergun in the early 1990s. A design is presented which further improves on phase resolution in correlations of Langmuir waves and electrons with phase resolution of 22.5°. In this technique, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is used to lock onto the wave and subdivide the phase. Electrons are sorted on-the-fly as they arrive into the phase bins. Discussed are details of accurate timing, testing, and calibration of this system as well as results from rocket flights in which statistically significant phase correlations have been observed.

  7. Propagating wave correlations in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, Stephen C.; Gradoni, Gabriele; Hartmann, Timo; Tanner, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    We describe a novel approach for computing wave correlation functions inside finite spatial domains driven by complex and statistical sources. By exploiting semiclassical approximations, we provide explicit algorithms to calculate the local mean of these correlation functions in terms of the underlying classical dynamics. By defining appropriate ensemble averages, we show that fluctuations about the mean can be characterised in terms of classical correlations. We give in particular an explicit expression relating fluctuations of diagonal contributions to those of the full wave correlation function. The methods have a wide range of applications both in quantum mechanics and for classical wave problems such as in vibro-acoustics and electromagnetism. We apply the methods here to simple quantum systems, so-called quantum maps, which model the behaviour of generic problems on Poincaré sections. Although low-dimensional, these models exhibit a chaotic classical limit and share common characteristics with wave propagation in complex structures.

  8. Nonlocally-induced (quasirelativistic) bound states: Harmonic confinement and the finite well

    CERN Document Server

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal Hamiltonian-type operators, like e.g. fractional and quasirelativistic, seem to be instrumental for a conceptual broadening of current quantum paradigms. However physically relevant properties of related quantum systems have not yet received due (and scientifically undisputable) coverage in the literature. In the present paper we address Schr\\"{o}dinger-type eigenvalue problems for $H=T+V$, where a kinetic term $T=T_m$ is a quasirelativistic energy operator $T_m = \\sqrt{-\\hbar ^2c^2 \\Delta + m^2c^4} - mc^2$ of mass $m\\in (0,\\infty)$ particle. A potential $V$ we assume to refer to the harmonic confinement or finite well of an arbitrary depth. We analyze spectral solutions of the pertinent nonlocal quantum systems with a focus on their $m$-dependence. Extremal mass $m$ regimes for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of $H$ are investigated: (i) $m\\ll 1$ spectral affinity ("closeness") with the Cauchy-eigenvalue problem ($T_m \\sim T_0=\\hbar c |\

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    2016-03-01

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.

  10. Measurements of the vertical correlation in turbulence under broken waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Deigaard, Rolf; Sutherland, James

    1998-01-01

    Turbulence measurements have been carried out in the surf zone of a wave flume. The purpose of the measurements is to determine the length scale of the turbulence generated by the wave breaking. The length scale of the turbulence is estimated on basis of the correlation between simultaneous measu...

  11. Correlation techniques and measurements of wave-height statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthart, H.; Taylor, W. C.; Graf, K. A.; Douglas, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Statistical measurements of wave height fluctuations have been made in a wind wave tank. The power spectral density function of temporal wave height fluctuations evidenced second-harmonic components and an f to the minus 5th power law decay beyond the second harmonic. The observations of second harmonic effects agreed very well with a theoretical prediction. From the wave statistics, surface drift currents were inferred and compared to experimental measurements with satisfactory agreement. Measurements were made of the two dimensional correlation coefficient at 15 deg increments in angle with respect to the wind vector. An estimate of the two-dimensional spatial power spectral density function was also made.

  12. Diffraction of collinear correlated photon pairs by an ultrasonic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of collinear photon pairs diffraction by an ultrasonic wave is investigated for Bragg incidence. A BBO crystal was used for producing collinear correlated photon pairs via type-I spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The experimental setup for diffraction of collinear correlated photon pairs was tested based on Malus' law for pairs of photons. The obtained results do not support the L. B. Deng's theory of 2012, presented in his work entitled "Diffraction of entangled photon pairs by ultrasonic waves" [Front. Phys. 7, 239 (2012)] . An alternative simple theoretical description of interaction of collinear photon pairs with ultrasonic waves is shown in the present paper which reveals very good agreement with corresponding experimental data.

  13. Strong correlations generically protect d -wave superconductivity against disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, V.; Miranda, E.

    2016-05-01

    We address the question of why strongly correlated d -wave superconductors, such as the cuprates, prove to be surprisingly robust against the introduction of nonmagnetic impurities. We show that, very generally, both the pair-breaking and the normal state transport scattering rates are significantly suppressed by strong correlations effects arising in the proximity to a Mott insulating state. We also show that the correlation-renormalized scattering amplitude is generically enhanced in the forward direction, an effect which was previously often ascribed to the specific scattering by charged impurities outside the copper-oxide planes.

  14. Ballistic quench-induced correlation waves in ultracold gases

    CERN Document Server

    Corson, John P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the wave packet dynamics of a pair of particles that undergoes a rapid change of scattering length. The short-range interactions are modeled in the zero-range limit, where the quench is accomplished by switching the boundary condition of the wave function at vanishing particle separation. This generates a correlation wave that propagates rapidly to nonzero particle separations. We have derived universal, analytic results for this process that lead to a simple phase-space picture of the quench-induced scattering. Intuitively, the strength of the correlation wave relates to the initial contact of the system. We find that, in one spatial dimension, the $k^{-4}$ tail of the momentum distribution contains a ballistic contribution that does not originate from short-range pair correlations, and a similar conclusion can hold in other dimensionalities depending on the quench protocol. We examine the resultant quench-induced transport in an optical lattice in 1D, and a semiclassical treatment is found to...

  15. The cross-correlation search for periodic gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Mukhopadhyay, Himan; Whelan, John T

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the use of cross-correlations between multiple gravitational wave (GW) data streams for detecting long-lived periodic signals. Cross-correlation searches between data from multiple detectors have traditionally been used to search for stochastic GW signals, but recently they have also been used in directed searches for periodic GWs. Here we further adapt the cross-correlation statistic for periodic GW searches by taking into account both the non-stationarity and the long term-phase coherence of the signal. We study the statistical properties and sensitivity of this search, its relation to existing periodic wave searches, and describe the precise way in which the cross-correlation statistic interpolates between semi-coherent and fully-coherent methods. Depending on the maximum duration over we wish to preserve phase coherence, the cross-correlation statistic can be tuned to go from a standard cross-correlation statistic using data from distinct detectors, to the semi-coherent time-frequen...

  16. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    CERN Document Server

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the $^8$B nucleus.

  17. Quantum dust magnetosonic waves with spin and exchange correlation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroof, R.; Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-15

    Dust magnetosonic waves are studied in degenerate dusty plasmas with spin and exchange correlation effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, spin magnetization energy, and exchange correlation, a generalized dispersion relation is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. The exchange-correlation potentials are used, based on the adiabatic local-density approximation, and can be described as a function of the electron density. For three different values of angle, the dispersion relation is reduced to three different modes under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effects of quantum corrections in the presence of dust concentration significantly modify the dispersive properties of these modes. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets) and in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, etc.)

  18. Short-range spin- and pair-correlations : a variational wave-function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, D

    2004-01-01

    A many-body wave-function is postulated, which is sufficiently general to describe superconducting pair-correlations, and/or spin-correlations, which can occur either as long-range order or as finite-range correlations. The proposed wave-function appears to summarize some of the more relevant aspect

  19. Detection of gravitational waves in Michelson interferometer by the use of second order correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Aryeh, Y

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the second order correlation function of the gravitational waves detectors' currents or photonumbers, and the observation of the gravitational signals by using a spectrum analyzer is discussed. The method is based on complicated data processing and is expected to be efficient for coherent periodic gravitational waves. It is suggested as an alternative method to the conventional one which is used now in the gravitational waves observatories.

  20. Estimating the location of a tunnel using correlation and inversion of Rayleigh wave scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasililar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of near-surface scatterers, such as cavities, tunnels, abandoned mine shafts, and buried objects, is important to mitigate geohazards and environmental hazards. By inversion of travel times of cross-correlated scattered waves, due to the incident Rayleigh waves, we estimate the loc

  1. Measuring the correlation of two optical frequencies using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Watts, Regan T; Huynh, Tam N; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P

    2014-11-10

    We use the physics of four-wave mixing to study the decorrelation of two optical frequencies as they propagate through different fiber delays. The phase noise relationship between the four-wave mixing components is used to quantify and measure the correlation between the two optical frequencies using the correlation coefficient. We show the difference in the evolution of decorrelation between frequency-dependent and frequency-independent components of phase noise.

  2. Extension of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method to mixed-component correlations of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.; Mikesell, T. Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper; Nakahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Using ambient seismic noise for imaging subsurface structure dates back to the development of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method in the 1950s. We present a theoretical analysis of the SPAC method for multicomponent recordings of surface waves to determine the complete 3 × 3 matrix of correlations between all pairs of three-component motions, called the correlation matrix. In the case of isotropic incidence, when either Rayleigh or Love waves arrive from all directions with equal power, the only non-zero off-diagonal terms in the matrix are the vertical–radial (ZR) and radial–vertical (RZ) correlations in the presence of Rayleigh waves. Such combinations were not considered in the development of the SPAC method. The method originally addressed the vertical–vertical (ZZ), RR and TT correlations, hence the name spatial autocorrelation. The theoretical expressions we derive for the ZR and RZ correlations offer additional ways to measure Rayleigh wave dispersion within the SPAC framework. Expanding on the results for isotropic incidence, we derive the complete correlation matrix in the case of generally anisotropic incidence. We show that the ZR and RZ correlations have advantageous properties in the presence of an out-of-plane directional wavefield compared to ZZ and RR correlations. We apply the results for mixed-component correlations to a data set from Akutan Volcano, Alaska and find consistent estimates of Rayleigh wave phase velocity from ZR compared to ZZ correlations. This work together with the recently discovered connections between the SPAC method and time-domain correlations of ambient noise provide further insights into the retrieval of surface wave Green’s functions from seismic noise.

  3. Interaction of Shock Waves in Cement Mortar Plate Investigated by the Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Dong; LIU Kai-Xin; ZHANG Guang-Sheng; WEN Shang-Gang; TAN Fu-Li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Interaction of shock waves in cement mortar plate is studied by digital speckle correlation method and digital high-speed photography technique. When the plates were destroyed by two detonators exploding at the same time, variation of shock wave field is obtained. Experimental results show that the interaction of shock waves will result in a nonlinear huge increase of local normal strain, leading to large deformation and serious destruction. However, the occurrence of this strongly nonlinear phenomenon sensitively depends on the interval between detonators, and it will only appear when the interval is smaller than the diameter of the region where shock waves exist.

  4. Quasirelativistic Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyukhin, A V

    2013-11-01

    We address the problem of a microscopic derivation of the Langevin equation for a weakly relativistic Brownian particle. A noncovariant Hamiltonian model is adopted, in which the free motion of particles is described relativistically while their interaction is treated classically, i.e., by means of action-to-a-distance interaction potentials. Relativistic corrections to the classical Langevin equation emerge as nonlinear dissipation terms and originate from the nonlinear dependence of the relativistic velocity on momentum. On the other hand, similar nonlinear dissipation forces also appear as classical (nonrelativistic) corrections to the weak-coupling approximation. It is shown that these classical corrections, which are usually ignored in phenomenological models, may be of the same order of magnitude, if not larger than, relativistic ones. The interplay of relativistic corrections and classical beyond-the-weak-coupling contributions determines the sign of the leading nonlinear dissipation term in the Langevin equation and thus is qualitatively important.

  5. Correlated noise in networks of gravitational-wave detectors: subtraction and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Eric; Schofield, Robert M S; Effler, Anamaria

    2014-01-01

    One of the key science goals of advanced gravitational-wave detectors is to observe a stochastic gravitational-wave background. However, recent work demonstrates that correlated magnetic fields from Schumann resonances can produce correlated strain noise over global distances, potentially limiting the sensitivity of stochastic background searches with advanced detectors. In this paper, we estimate the correlated noise budget for the worldwide Advanced LIGO network and conclude that correlated noise may affect upcoming measurements. We investigate the possibility of a Wiener filtering scheme to subtract correlated noise from Advanced LIGO searches, and estimate the required specifications. We also consider the possibility that residual correlated noise remains following subtraction, and we devise an optimal strategy for measuring astronomical parameters in the presence of correlated noise. Using this new formalism, we estimate the loss of sensitivity for a broadband, isotropic stochastic background search usin...

  6. Characterization of Pairwise Correlations from Multiple Quantum Correlated Beams Generated from Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2017-01-10

    We theoretically characterize the performance of the pairwise correlations (PCs) from multiple quantum correlated beams based on the cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. The presence of the PCs with quantum corre- lation in these systems can be verified by calculating the degree of intensity difference squeezing for any pair of all the output fields. The quantum correlation characteristics of all the PCs under different cascaded schemes are also discussed in detail and the repulsion effect between PCs in these cascaded FWM processes is theoretically predicted. Our results open the way for the classification and application of quantum states generated from the cascaded FWM processes.

  7. Left ventricular ejection time, not heart rate, is an independent correlate of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Paolo; Palombo, Carlo; Salvi, Giovanni Matteo; Labat, Carlos; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase

    2013-12-01

    Several studies showed a positive association between heart rate and pulse wave velocity, a sensitive marker of arterial stiffness. However, no study involving a large population has specifically addressed the dependence of pulse wave velocity on different components of the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to explore in subjects of different age the link between pulse wave velocity with heart period (the reciprocal of heart rate) and the temporal components of the cardiac cycle such as left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was assessed in 3,020 untreated subjects (1,107 men). Heart period, left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, and early-systolic dP/dt were determined by carotid pulse wave analysis with high-fidelity applanation tonometry. An inverse association was found between pulse wave velocity and left ventricular ejection time at all ages (pulse wave velocity and heart period was also found, with the exception of the youngest subjects (P = 0.20). A significant positive correlation was also found between pulse wave velocity and dP/dt (P pulse wave velocity at all ages, whereas the contribution of heart period no longer became significant. Our data demonstrate that pulse wave velocity is more closely related to left ventricular systolic function than to heart period. This may have methodological and pathophysiological implications.

  8. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  9. Phase correlator reduces mm-wave radar cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R., Sr.; Hobbs, P.; Locatelli, J.

    1986-03-01

    A technique involving the IC storage of magnetron phase for reference has been developed to make possible the use of the low-cost efficient magnetron in obtaining phase coherent signals for pulse Doppler radar. In the new external coherence method, the recorded random midpulse-region phase is compared with the frequency of the echo allowing Doppler information, free of phase noise, to be extracted. The gated magnetron was tested at Ka-band in a 35-GHz radar, and good agreement with the CP-4 5.5 GHz radar was shown. With good accuracy down to 10 cm/s, the present system, especially in the mm-wave region, has important applications to meteorological and military radar.

  10. Auto-correlation analysis of wave heights in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Sarkar; Jignesh Kshatriya; K Satheesan

    2006-04-01

    Time series observations of significant wave heights in the Bay of Bengal were subjected to auto-correlation analysis to determine temporal variability scale.The analysis indicates an exponential fall of auto-correlation in the first few hours with a decorrelation time scale of about six hours.A similar figure was found earlier for ocean surface winds.The nature of variation of auto-correlation with time lags was also found to be similar for winds and wave heights.

  11. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-04-14

    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  12. Correlation of P-wave dispersion with insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Ahmet; Aslan, Eyup; Buyukınan, Muammer; Pirgon, Ozgur

    2017-03-01

    P-wave dispersion is a new and simple electrocardiographic marker that has been reported to be associated with inhomogeneous and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses. In the present study, we evaluated P-wave dispersion in obese adolescents and investigated the relationship between P-wave dispersion, cardiovascular risk factors, and echocardiographic parameters. We carried out a case-control study comparing 150 obese adolescents and 50 healthy controls. Maximum and minimum P-wave durations were measured using a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, and P-wave dispersion was calculated as the difference between these two measures. Echocardiographic examination was also performed for each subject. Multivariate linear regression analysis with stepwise variable selection was used to evaluate parameters associated with increased P-wave dispersion in obese subjects. Maximum P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion were significantly higher in obese adolescents than control subjects (143±19 ms versus 117±20 ms and 49±15 ms versus 29±9 ms, pdispersion was positively correlated with body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, total cholesterol, serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance score, left ventricular mass, and left atrial dimension. P-wave dispersion was negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, left atrial dimension (β: 0.252, p=0.008) and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (β: 0.205; p=0.009) were independently associated with increased P-wave dispersion in obese adolescents. Insulin resistance is a significant, independent predictor of P-wave dispersion in obese adolescents.

  13. Unveiling linearly and nonlinearly correlated signals between gravitational wave detectors and environmental monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzurihara, Hirotaka; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Mano, Shuhei; Verkindt, Didier; Kanda, Nobuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noise hunting is a critical requirement for realizing design sensitivity of a detector, and consequently, noise origins and its features have been revealed partially. Among the noise sources to be hunted, sources of nonlinearly correlated noise, such up-conversion noise, are hard to find and can limit the sensitivity of gravitational wave searches with advanced detectors. We propose using a correlation analysis method called maximal information coefficient (MIC) to find both nonlinear and linear correlations. We apply MIC to the scattered light noise correlated between the seismic activity and the strain signal, which limited the sensitivity of the Virgo detector during the first science run. The results show that MIC can find nonlinearly correlated noise more efficiently than the Pearson correlation method. When the data is linearly correlated, the efficiency of the Pearson method and MIC is comparable. On the other hand, when the data is known to be nonlinearly correlated, MIC finds the correlation while the Pearson method fails completely.

  14. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  15. Spatial correlations and partial polarization in electromagnetic optical fields : effects of evanescent waves

    OpenAIRE

    Setälä, Tero

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, partial polarization and spatial correlation properties of electromagnetic optical fields are investigated. The emphasis is on near fields which exist only within the distance of the light wavelength from the emitting or scattering object. In the near-field region, the contribution of the evanescent (non-radiating) waves is overwhelming compared to the propagating waves that can be observed far from the source. Certain fundamental issues related to the optical near-fields ...

  16. Correlations of $\\boldsymbol{\\pi N}$ Partial Waves for Multi-Reaction Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, M; Rönchen, D; Workman, R

    2016-01-01

    In the search for missing baryonic resonances, many analyses include data from a variety of pion- and photon-induced reactions. For elastic $\\pi N$ scattering, however, usually the partial waves of the SAID or other groups are fitted, instead of data. We provide the partial-wave covariance matrices needed to perform correlated $\\chi^2$ fits, in which the obtained $\\chi^2$ equals the actual $\\chi^2$ up non-linear and normalization corrections. For any analysis relying on partial waves extracted from elastic pion scattering, this is a prerequisite to assess the significance of resonance signals and to assign any uncertainty on results. The influence of systematic errors is also considered.

  17. Correlation-driven d -wave superconductivity in Anderson lattice model: Two gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Marcin M.; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Spałek, Józef

    2016-07-01

    Superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has an unconventional nature and is considered to originate from the universal features of the electronic structure. Here, the Anderson lattice model is studied by means of the full variational Gutzwiller wave function incorporating nonlocal effects of the on-site interaction. We show that the d -wave superconducting ground state can be driven solely by interelectronic correlations. The proposed microscopic mechanism leads to a multigap superconductivity with the dominant contribution due to f electrons and in the dx2-y2-wave channel. Our results rationalize several important observations for CeCoIn5.

  18. Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick

    2015-09-14

    A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) wave functions and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting wave functions is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction wave functions, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact wave function. Due to the dependence of DOCI wave functions on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based wave functions are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.

  19. On the reliability of direct Rayleigh-wave estimation from multicomponent cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongbo; Mikesell, T. Dylan

    2017-09-01

    Seismic interferometry is routinely used to image and characterize underground geology. The vertical component cross-correlations (CZZ) are often analysed in this process; although one can also use radial component and multicomponent cross-correlations (CRR and CZR, respectively), which have been shown to provide a more accurate Rayleigh-wave Green's function than CZZ when sources are unevenly distributed. In this letter, we identify the relationship between the multicomponent cross-correlations (CZR and CRR) and the Rayleigh-wave Green's functions to show why CZR and CRR are less sensitive than CZZ to non-stationary phase source energy. We demonstrate the robustness of CRR with a synthetic seismic noise data example. These results provide a compelling reason as to why CRR should be used to estimate the dispersive characteristics of the direct Rayleigh wave with seismic interferometry when the signal-to-noise ratio is high.

  20. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of electromagnetic waves scattered from a spatially quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan; Chang, Liping

    2016-10-17

    Within the validity of the first-order Born approximation, expressions are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of an electromagnetic plane wave scattered from a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. Upon establishing the correlation matrix of the scattering potential of the medium, we show that the CIF is the summation of Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potential matrix. Numerical results reveal that the CIF is susceptible to the effective width and correlation length of the medium, and degree of polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave. Our study not only extends the current knowledge of the CIF of a scattered field but also provides an important reference to the study of high-order intensity correlations of light scattered from a spatially anisotropic medium.

  1. Triplet p-wave pairing correlation in low-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianxing; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-02-01

    We reveal an edge spin triplet p–wave superconducting pairing correlation in slightly doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons. By employing a method that combines random-phase approximation, the finite-temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo approach, and the ground-state constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown that such a spin-triplet pairing is mediated by the ferromagnetic fluctuations caused by the flat band at the edge. The spin susceptibility and effective pairing interactions at the edge strongly increase as the on-site Coulomb interaction increases, indicating the importance of electron-electron correlations. It is also found that the doping-dependent ground-state p-wave pairing correlation bears some similarity to the famous superconducting dome in the phase diagram of a high-temperature superconductor, while the spin correlation at the edge is weakened as the system is doped away from half filling.

  2. Triplet p-wave pairing correlation in low-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianxing; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-01-01

    We reveal an edge spin triplet p–wave superconducting pairing correlation in slightly doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons. By employing a method that combines random-phase approximation, the finite-temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo approach, and the ground-state constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown that such a spin-triplet pairing is mediated by the ferromagnetic fluctuations caused by the flat band at the edge. The spin susceptibility and effective pairing interactions at the edge strongly increase as the on-site Coulomb interaction increases, indicating the importance of electron-electron correlations. It is also found that the doping-dependent ground-state p-wave pairing correlation bears some similarity to the famous superconducting dome in the phase diagram of a high-temperature superconductor, while the spin correlation at the edge is weakened as the system is doped away from half filling. PMID:28186185

  3. LiNbO3/p+n diode surface acoustic wave memory correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝; 水永安; 印建华

    1997-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis of strip-coupled LiNbO3/p+ n diode surface acoustic wave (SAW) memory correlator in the parametric mode is presented. The influence of some important factors on correlation output is analyzed and calculated, including the amplitudes of reference, read and write signal, duration of write signal and doping density of the diode array. The conclusions can be employed for the design of improved strip-coupled SAW memorycorrelators.

  4. Field-Correlation Effects on Rayleigh-Enhanced Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延帮; 姜谦; 米辛; 俞祖和; 傅盘铭

    2002-01-01

    We study Rayleigh-enhanced nondegenerate four-wave mixing (NFWM) with time-delayed, correlated fluctuating fields. The importance of the field correlation is revealed in the Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM spectrum when the time delay is varied. The Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM is employed to study the ultrafast processes in the frequency domain. A relaxation time as short as 220 fs was deduced in the Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM experiments in carbon disulphide.

  5. Correlation dimension analysis and capillary wave turbulence in Dragon-Wash phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huai-Wu; Li, Rui-Qu; Chen, Song-Ze; Li, Cun-Biao

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the evolution of surface capillary waves of deep water excited by gradually increasing the lateral external force at a single frequency. The vertical velocities of the water surface are measured by using a Polytec Laser Vibrometer with a thin layer of aluminium powder scattering on the surface to reflect the laser beam. Nonlinear interaction processes result in a stationary Fourier spectrum of the vertical surface velocities (the same as the surface elevation), i.e. Iω ~ ω-3.5. The observed spectrum can be interpreted as a wave-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for the case of 'narrowband pumping' for a direct cascade of energy. Correlation dimension analysis of the whole development process reveals four distinct stages during the wave structure development and identifies the wave turbulence stage.

  6. Correlation dimension analysis and capillary wave turbulence in Dragon-Wash phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Huai-Wu; Li Rui-Qu; Chen Song-Ze; Li Cun-Biao

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of surface capillary waves of deep water excited by gradually increasing the lateral external force at a single frequency.The vertical velocities of the water surface are measured by using a Polytec Laser Vibrometer with a thin layer of aluminium powder scattering on the surface to reflect the laser beam.Nonlinear interaction processes result in a stationary Fourier spectrum of the vertical surface velocities (the same as the surface elevation),i.e.Iω~ω-3.5.The observed spectrum can be interpreted as a wave-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for the case of 'narrowband pumping' for a direct cascade of energy.Correlation dimension analysis of the whole development process reveals four distinct stages during the wave structure development and identifies the wave turbulence stage.

  7. Optical Measurement of In-plane Elastic Waves in Mechanical Metamaterials Through Digital Image Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, Marshall; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We report on a Digital Image Correlation-based technique for the detection of in-plane elastic waves propagating in structural lattices. The experimental characterization of wave motion in lattice structures is currently of great interest due its relevance to the design of novel mechanical metamaterials with unique/unusual properties such as strongly directional behavior, negative refractive indexes and topologically protected wave motion. Assessment of these functionalities often requires the detection of highly spatially resolved in-plane wavefields, which for reticulated or porous structural assemblies is an open challenge. A Digital Image Correlation approach is implemented that tracks small displacements of the lattice nodes by centering image subsets about the lattice intersections. A high speed camera records the motion of the points by properly interleaving subsequent frames thus artificially enhancing the available sampling rate. This, along with an imaging stitching procedure, enables the capturing ...

  8. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo

    2006-01-01

    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu a

  9. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo

    2006-01-01

    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu

  10. Two-Photon Correlation of Spontaneously Generated Broadband Four Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Vered, Rafi; Pe'er, Avi

    2011-01-01

    We precisely measure the time-energy correlation of broadband, spontaneously generated four waves mixing (FWM), and demonstrate novel time-frequency coupling effects. By pumping a photonic crystal fiber with narrowband picosecond pulses we generate FWM in a unique regime, where extremely broadband (>100nm), sidebands are generated that are incoherent, yet time-energy correlated. Although conceptually similar to parametric down conversion (PDC), the time-energy correlation in FWM is unique in its dependence on pump intensity due to self and cross phase modulation effects, yielding surprising spectral and temporal structure in the correlations. Specifically, a power dependent splitting of the correlation in both energy and time is observed at high power. While these effects are minute compared to the time duration and bandwidth of the FWM sidebands, they are well observed using sum frequency generation as a precise, ultrafast correlation detector. A theoretical model accounts for the results and highlights the ...

  11. Stochastic wave function approach to the calculation of multitime correlation functions of open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, H P; Petruccione, F; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Kappler, Bernd; Petruccione, Francesco

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of probability distributions on projective Hilbert space a scheme for the calculation of multitime correlation functions is developed. The starting point is the Markovian stochastic wave function description of an open quantum system coupled to an environment consisting of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators in arbitrary pure or mixed states. It is shown that matrix elements of reduced Heisenberg picture operators and general time-ordered correlation functions can be expressed by time-symmetric expectation values of extended operators in a doubled Hilbert space. This representation allows the construction of a stochastic process in the doubled Hilbert space which enables the determination of arbitrary matrix elements and correlation functions. The numerical efficiency of the resulting stochastic simulation algorithm is investigated and compared with an alternative Monte Carlo wave function method proposed first by Dalibard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 68}, 580 (1992)]. By means of a stan...

  12. New analysis for the correlation between gravitational waves and neutrino detectors during SN1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Galeotti, P

    2016-01-01

    The two major problems, still associated with the SN1987A, are: a) the signals observed with the gravitational waves detectors, b) the duration of the collapse. Indeed, the sensitivity of the gravitational wave detectors seems to be small for detecting gravitational waves and, while some experimental data indicate a duration of order of hours, most theories assume that the collapse develops in a few seconds. Since recent data of the X-ray NuSTAR satellite show a clear evidence of an asymmetric collapse, we have revisited the experimental data recorded by the underground and gravitational wave detectors running during the SN1987A. New evidence is shown that confirms previous results, namely that the data recorded by the gravitational wave detectors running in Rome and in Maryland are strongly correlated with the data of both the Mont Blanc and the Kamiokande detectors, and that the correlation extends over a long period of time (one or two hours) centered at the Mont Blanc time. This result is obtained by comp...

  13. New analysis for the correlation between gravitational wave and neutrino detectors during SN1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); INFN Sez. di Torino, Turin (Italy); Pizzella, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    Two major problems, still associated with the SN1987A, are: (a) the signals observed with the gravitational waves detectors, (b) the duration of the collapse. Indeed, (a) the sensitivity of the gravitational wave detectors seems to be small for detecting gravitational waves and, (b) while some experimental data indicate a duration of order of hours, most theories assume that the collapse develops in a few seconds. Since recent data of the X-ray NuSTAR satellite show a clear evidence of an asymmetric collapse, we have revisited the experimental data recorded by the underground and gravitational wave detectors running during the SN1987A. New evidence is shown that confirms previous results, namely that the data recorded by the gravitational wave detectors running in Rome and in Maryland are strongly correlated with the data of both the Mont Blanc and the Kamiokande detectors, and that the correlation extends over a long period of time (1 or 2 h) centered at the Mont Blanc time. This result indicates that also Kamiokande detected neutrinos at the Mont Blanc time, and these interactions were not identified because not grouped in a burst. (orig.)

  14. Correlations between personality traits and specific groups of alpha waves in the human EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Different individuals have alpha waves with different wavelengths. The distribution of the wavelengths is assumed to be bell-shaped and smooth. Although this view is generally accepted, it is still just an assumption and has never been critically tested. When exploring the relationship between alpha waves and personality traits, it makes a huge difference if the distribution of the alpha waves is smooth or if specific groups of alpha waves can be demonstrated. Previous studies have not considered the possibility that specific groups of alpha waves may exist. Methods. Computerized EEGs have become standard, but wavelength measurements are problematic when based on averaging procedures using the Fourier transformation because such procedures cause a large systematic error. If the actual wavelength is of interest, it is necessary to go back to basic physiology and use raw EEG signals. In the present study, measurements were made directly from sequences of alpha waves where every wave could be identified. Personality dimensions were measured using an inventory derived from the International Personality Item Pool. Results. Recordings from 200 healthy individuals revealed that there are three main groups of alpha waves. These groups had frequencies around 8, 10, and 12 waves per second. The middle group had a bimodal distribution, and a subdivision gave a total of four alpha groups. In the center of each group, the degree of extraversion was high and the degree of neuroticism was low. Many small differences in personality traits were found when the centers were compared with one another. This gave four personality profiles that resemble the four classical temperaments. When people in the surrounding zones were compared with those in the centers, relatively large differences in personality traits were found. Conclusions. Specific groups of alpha waves exist, and these groups have to be taken into account when correlations are made to personality dimensions and

  15. A wave field synthesis approach to reproduction of spatially correlated sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alain; Dia, Rokhiya; Robin, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    This article discusses an open-loop wave field synthesis (WFS) approach for the reproduction of spatially correlated sound fields. The main application concerns laboratory reproduction of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure on aircraft fuselages and measurement of their sound transmission loss. The problem configuration involves reconstruction of random sound pressure distributions on a planar reproduction surface using a planar array of reproduction monopoles parallel to the reproduction plane. In this paper, the WFS formulation is extended to sound fields with imposed time and spatial correlation properties (or equivalently imposed cross-spectral density in the frequency and wave number domains). Numerical examples are presented for the reproduction of a propagating plane wave, diffuse acoustic field and wall pressure in subsonic or supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The reproduction accuracy is examined in terms of the size of the source plane and reproduction plane, their separation, and the number of reproduction sources required per acoustic wavelength. While the reproduction approach cannot reconstruct sub-wavelength correlation scales of subsonic turbulent boundary layers, it effectively reconstructs correlation scales larger than the acoustic wavelength, making it appropriate for diffuse acoustic field and supersonic turbulent layers.

  16. Body Waves Revealed by Spatial Stacking on Long-Term Cross-Correlation of Ambient Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Wang; Yinhe Luo; Kaifeng Zhao; Limeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRCT: Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that complete Green’s Function can be retrieved from cross-correlation in a diffuse field. High SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) surface waves have been extracted from cross-correlations of long-duration ambient noise across the globe. Body waves, not extracted in most of ambient noise studies, are thought to be more difficult to retrieve from regular ambient noise data processing. By stacking cross-correlations of ambient noise in 50 km inter-station distance bins in China, western United States and Europe, we observed coherent 20–100 s core phases (ScS, PKIKPPKIKP, PcPPKPPKP) and crustal-mantle phases (Pn, P, PL, Sn, S, SPL, SnSn, SS, SSPL) at distances ranging from 0 to 4 000 km. Our results show that these crustal-mantle phases show diverse characteristics due to different substructure and sources of body waves beneath different regions while the core phases are relatively robust and can be retrieved as long as stations are available. Further analysis indicates that the SNR of these body-wave phases depends on a compromise between stacking fold in spatial domain and the coherence of pre-stacked cross-correlations.Spatially stacked cross-correlations of seismic noise can provide new virtual seismograms for paths that complement earthquake data and that contain valuable information on the structure of the Earth. The extracted crustal-mantle phases can be used to study lithospheric heterogeneities and the robust core phases are significantly useful to study the deep structure of the Earth, such as detecting fine heterogeneities of the core-mantle boundary and constraining differential rotation of the inner core.

  17. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, George H.; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Grüneis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.

  18. Exos-B/Siple Station VLF wave-particle interaction experiments: 1. General description and wave-particle correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Mukai, T.; Bell, T.F.; Inan, U.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Katsufrakis, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    In situ measurements of both energetic particles and VLF waves have been carried out in a joint program involving the Japanese satellite EXOS-B and the Siple Station VLF transmitter. A general description of the experiment is given as well as some results concerning wave-particle correlations. Detailed analysis of the observed wave characteristics is given in a companion paper. Correlations of electron flux and pitch angle anisotropy in the energy range from 85 eV to 6.9 keV with waves in a range from 300 Hz to 9 kHz are examined. These electrons sometimes have a pitch angle distributions with a peak flux at 90/sup 0/ pitch angle (so-called pancake distribution). On five passes out of a total of 50 during the summer campaign in 1979, the energy of the electrons that showed a high pitch angle anisotropy shifted upward as the satellite moved into the plasmasphere, crossing the plasmapause in the equatorial region. In two cases out of five, strong Siple signals were observed in the geomagnetic equatorial region just outside the plasmapause, in association with such a pancake pitch angle distribution of electrons. The Siple signals are most likely amplified by the cyclotron instability due to the high pitch angle anisotropy (HPAA), although the flux of resonant electrons was relatively small. For three other cases of HPAA, the satellite location was so far away from the Siple meridian that the signal level, even if amplified, was too weak to be detected by the satellite. Emissions associated with Siple signals were detected on five (two equatorial and three high latitude) passes, which were all confined on 6 days after a large magnetic storm. On the days when the Siple triggered emissions were observed, the pitch angle anisotropy was low, but the electron flux at resonant energies in the equatorial region was four or five times larger than that on other non-triggering days in all energy channels from 85 eV to 6.9 keV.

  19. Optical Measurement of In-plane Waves in Mechanical Metamaterials Through Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Marshall; Trainiti, Giuseppe; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    We report on a Digital Image Correlation-based technique for the detection of in-plane elastic waves propagating in structural lattices. The experimental characterization of wave motion in lattice structures is currently of great interest due its relevance to the design of novel mechanical metamaterials with unique/unusual properties such as strongly directional behaviour, negative refractive indexes and topologically protected wave motion. Assessment of these functionalities often requires the detection of highly spatially resolved in-plane wavefields, which for reticulated or porous structural assemblies is an open challenge. A Digital Image Correlation approach is implemented that tracks small displacements of the lattice nodes by centring image subsets about the lattice intersections. A high speed camera records the motion of the points by properly interleaving subse- quent frames thus artificially enhancing the available sampling rate. This, along with an imaging stitching procedure, enables the capturing of a field of view that is sufficiently large for subsequent processing. The transient response is recorded in the form of the full wavefields, which are processed to unveil features of wave motion in a hexagonal lattice. Time snapshots and frequency contours in the spatial Fourier domain are compared with numerical predictions to illustrate the accuracy of the recorded wavefields.

  20. Studying propagation of seismic waves across the Valley of Mexico from correlations of seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, D. N.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Singh, S.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Quintanar, L.; Valdés, C.

    2009-12-01

    We reconstruct Rayleigh and Love waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 22 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE) and Valley of Mexico Experiment (VMEX). The cross-correlations are computed over 2 years of noise data for the 9 MASE stations and over 1 year for the 13 VMEX stations. Surface waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio are then used in the group velocity dispersion analysis. We use the reconstructed waveforms to measure group velocity dispersion curves at period of 0.5 to 5 seconds. For traveling path inside the lake-bed zone, the maximum energy is observed at velocity higher than expected for the fundamental mode. This indicates that the propagation within the Mexico basin is dominated by higher modes of surface waves that propagate deeper in the basin. We identify the propagation modes by comparing observations with theoretical dispersion curves and eigenfunctions calculated for Rayleigh and Loves waves associated with a given model of the upper crust. The fundamental mode shows a very low group velocity, <100m/s, which is consistent with previous studies. The domination of the higher modes in the Valley of Mexico may be a determining factor in the long duration of the seismic signal. A better velocity constraint on the deeper structure of the basin is thus needed to fully understand this phenomenon.

  1. Optical Measurement of In-plane Waves in Mechanical Metamaterials Through Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Marshall; Trainiti, Giuseppe; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    We report on a Digital Image Correlation-based technique for the detection of in-plane elastic waves propagating in structural lattices. The experimental characterization of wave motion in lattice structures is currently of great interest due its relevance to the design of novel mechanical metamaterials with unique/unusual properties such as strongly directional behaviour, negative refractive indexes and topologically protected wave motion. Assessment of these functionalities often requires the detection of highly spatially resolved in-plane wavefields, which for reticulated or porous structural assemblies is an open challenge. A Digital Image Correlation approach is implemented that tracks small displacements of the lattice nodes by centring image subsets about the lattice intersections. A high speed camera records the motion of the points by properly interleaving subse- quent frames thus artificially enhancing the available sampling rate. This, along with an imaging stitching procedure, enables the capturing of a field of view that is sufficiently large for subsequent processing. The transient response is recorded in the form of the full wavefields, which are processed to unveil features of wave motion in a hexagonal lattice. Time snapshots and frequency contours in the spatial Fourier domain are compared with numerical predictions to illustrate the accuracy of the recorded wavefields. PMID:28205589

  2. Microscopic model of quantum butterfly effect: out-of-time-order correlators and traveling combustion waves

    CERN Document Server

    Aleiner, Igor L; Ioffe, Lev B

    2016-01-01

    We extend the Keldysh technique to enable the computation of out-of-time order correlators. We show that the behavior of these correlators is described by equations that display initially an exponential instability which is followed by a linear propagation of the decoherence between two initially identically copies of the quantum many body systems with interactions. At large times the decoherence propagation (quantum butterfly effect) is described by a diffusion equation with non-linear dissipation known in the theory of combustion waves. The solution of this equation is a propagating non-linear wave moving with constant velocity despite the diffusive character of the underlying dynamics. Our general conclusions are illustrated by the detailed computations for the specific models describing the electrons interacting with bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons, two-level-systems etc.) or with each other.

  3. Subtraction of correlated noise in global networks of gravitational-wave interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael W.; Christensen, Nelson L.; De Rosa, Rosario; Fiori, Irene; Gołkowski, Mark; Guidry, Melissa; Harms, Jan; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Paoletti, Federico; Thrane, Eric

    2016-11-01

    The recent discovery of merging black holes suggests that a stochastic gravitational-wave background is within reach of the advanced detector network operating at design sensitivity. However, correlated magnetic noise from Schumann resonances threatens to contaminate observation of a stochastic background. In this paper, we report on the first effort to eliminate intercontinental correlated noise from Schumann resonances using Wiener filtering. Using magnetometers as proxies for gravitational-wave detectors, we demonstrate as much as a factor of two reduction in the coherence between magnetometers on different continents. While much work remains to be done, our results constitute a proof-of-principle and motivate follow-up studies with a dedicated array of magnetometers.

  4. Subtraction of correlated noise in global networks of gravitational-wave interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael W; De Rosa, Rosario; Fiori, Irene; Gołkowski, Mark; Guidry, Melissa; Harms, Jan; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Paoletti, Federico; Thrane, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of merging black holes suggests that a stochastic gravitational-wave background is within reach of the advanced detector network operating at design sensitivity. However, correlated magnetic noise from Schumann resonances threatens to contaminate observation of a stochastic background. In this paper, we report on the first effort to eliminate intercontinental correlated noise from Schumann resonances using Wiener filtering. Using magnetometers as proxies for gravitational-wave detectors, we demonstrate as much as a factor of two reduction in the coherence between magnetometers on different continents. While much work remains to be done, our results constitute a proof-of-principle and motivate follow-up studies with a dedicated array of magnetometers.

  5. Calculations of properties of screened He-like systems using correlated wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S T; Solovyova, A; Winkler, P

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, the techniques of correlated wave functions for two-electron systems have been extended to obtain results for P and D states in a screening environment, and in particular for Debye screening. In these calculations, the satisfaction of both the quantum virial theorem and a related sum rule has been enforced and found to provide a high degree of stability of the solutions. Second, in order to facilitate the general use of correlated wave functions in combination with sum rule stability criteria, a rather systematic computational approach to this notoriously cumbersome method has been developed and thoroughly discussed here. Accurate calculations for few-electron systems are of interest to plasma diagnostics; in particular, when inaccuracies in binding energies are drastically magnified as they occur in exponents of Boltzmann factors.

  6. Nanotechnology Quantum Detectors for Gravitational Waves: Adelaide to London Correlations Observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the nanotechnology zener diode quantum detector effect for gravitational waves is reported, based upon the quantum to classical transition being induced by dynamical 3-space fluctuations. Gravitational waves were detected by way of waveform correlations between time measurement in two Digital Storage Oscilloscopes, revealing time delays of 13 to 20 seconds over 24 hrs for Adelaide to London travel, varying as the earth rotates. The speed and direction were found, for January 1, 2013, to be 512 km/s, RA = 4.8 hrs, Dec = 83 deg S. This velocity agrees with previous detections using different techniques, such as the NASA spacecraft Earth-flyby Doppler shifts, which found 491 km/s, RA = 5.2 hrs, Dec = 80 deg S, for December 8, 1992. Consequently it was realised that nanotechnology zener diode quantum detectors have been operating, for different reasons, for some 15 years, and are known as RNGs (Random Number Generators or REGs (Random Event Generators. The discovery herein reveals that they are not random. Correlations between data from a REG in Perth and a REG in London gave the speed and direction, for January 1, 2013, to be 528 km/s, RA = 5.3 hrs, Dec = 81 deg S. We also report highly correlated current fluctuations from collocated zener diode circuits. The GCP REG network constitutes an international gravitational wave detector network, with currently some 60 REGs operating, and with records going back to 1998. These detectors permit the study of dynamical 3-space structure, and also apparent anomalous scattering of the waves when passing deeper into the earth, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, earthquakes, and correlations with fluctuations in various rate processes such as nuclear decays. The quantum to classical transition is shown to be caused by 3-space dynamics, and so challenges the standard interpretation of probabilities in quantum theory.

  7. Effects of the internal waves on the time correlation of the acoustic fields in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaodi; LI Zhenglin; ZHANG Renhe

    2004-01-01

    Internal waves are one of the primary causes of sea water mass variations in shallow water. The time stability of an acoustic channel may be degraded by the activities of internal waves. Based on the oceanographic data of Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX), the characteristics of the internal waves in the East China Sea (ECS) are analyzed and the effects of linear and solitary internal waves on broadband acoustic field correlation are numerically investigated. The numerical results of the length of the correlation time affected by the internal waves are compared with the experimental data. It was found that the existence of both linear internal waves and soliton packets may be one of the explanations of the experimental correlation drop.

  8. Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G T; Orozco, L A; Castro-Beltran, H M; Carmichael, H J

    2000-10-09

    We report measurements in cavity QED of a wave-particle correlation function which records the conditional time evolution of the field of a fraction of a photon. Detection of a photon prepares a state of well-defined phase that evolves back to equilibrium via a damped vacuum Rabi oscillation. We record the regression of the field amplitude. The recorded correlation function is nonclassical and provides an efficiency independent path to the spectrum of squeezing. Nonclassicality is observed even when the intensity fluctuations are classical.

  9. Cancellous bone fast and slow waves obtained with Bayesian probability theory correlate with porosity from computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph J; Nelson, Amber M; Holland, Mark R; Miller, James G

    2012-09-01

    A Bayesian probability theory approach for separating overlapping ultrasonic fast and slow waves in cancellous bone has been previously introduced. The goals of this study were to investigate whether the fast and slow waves obtained from Bayesian separation of an apparently single mode signal individually correlate with porosity and to isolate the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The Bayesian technique was applied to trabecular bone data from eight human calcanei insonified in the medial-lateral direction. The phase velocity, slope of attenuation (nBUA), and amplitude were determined for both the fast and slow waves. The porosity was assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT) and ranged from 78.7% to 94.1%. The method successfully separated the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The phase velocity for both the fast and slow wave modes showed an inverse correlation with porosity (R(2) = 0.73 and R(2) = 0.86, respectively). The slope of attenuation for both wave modes also had a negative correlation with porosity (fast wave: R(2) = 0.73, slow wave: R(2) = 0.53). The fast wave amplitude decreased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.66). Conversely, the slow wave amplitude modestly increased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.39).

  10. Correlation of densities with shear wave velocities and SPT N values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Uday, Anjali; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.; Al-Arifi, Nassir S. N.

    2016-06-01

    Site effects primarily depend on the shear modulus of subsurface layers, and this is generally estimated from the measured shear wave velocity (V s) and assumed density. Very rarely, densities are measured for amplification estimation because drilling and sampling processes are time consuming and expensive. In this study, an attempt has been made to derive the correlation between the density (dry and wet density) and V s/SPT (standard penetration test) N values using measured data. A total of 354 measured V s and density data sets and 364 SPT N value and density data sets from 23 boreholes have been used in the study. Separate relations have been developed for all soil types as well as fine-grained and coarse-grained soil types. The correlations developed for bulk density were compared with the available data and it was found that the proposed relation matched well with the existing data. A graphical comparison and validation based on the consistency ratio and cumulative frequency curves was performed and the newly developed relations were found to demonstrate good prediction performance. An attempt has also been made to propose a relation between the bulk density and shear wave velocity applicable for a wide range of soil and rock by considering data from this study as well as that of previous studies. These correlations will be useful for predicting the density (bulk and dry) of sites having measured the shear wave velocity and SPT N values.

  11. Analysis of two-orbital correlations in wave functions restricted to electron-pair states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Tecmer, Paweł; Legeza, Örs

    2016-10-01

    Wave functions constructed from electron-pair states can accurately model strong electron correlation effects and are promising approaches especially for larger many-body systems. In this article, we analyze the nature and the type of electron correlation effects that can be captured by wave functions restricted to electron-pair states. We focus on the pair-coupled-cluster doubles (pCCD) ansatz also called the antisymmetric product of the 1-reference orbital geminal (AP1roG) method, combined with an orbital optimization protocol presented in Boguslawski et al. [Phys. Rev. B 89, 201106(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.201106, whose performance is assessed against electronic structures obtained form density-matrix renormalization-group reference data. Our numerical analysis covers model systems for strong correlation: the one-dimensional Hubbard model with a periodic boundary condition as well as metallic and molecular hydrogen rings. Specifically, the accuracy of pCCD/AP1roG is benchmarked using the single-orbital entropy, the orbital-pair mutual information, as well as the eigenvalue spectrum of the one-orbital and two-orbital reduced density matrices. Our study indicates that contributions from singly occupied states become important in the strong correlation regime which highlights the limitations of the pCCD/AP1roG method. Furthermore, we examine the effect of orbital rotations within the pCCD/AP1roG model on correlations between orbital pairs.

  12. Baseline-free fatigue crack detection based on spectral correlation and nonlinear wave modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon; Yang, Suyoung; Lim, Hyung Jin

    2016-12-01

    By generating ultrasonic waves at two different frequencies onto a cracked structure, modulations due to crack-induced nonlinearity can be observed in the corresponding ultrasonic response. This nonlinear wave modulation phenomenon has been widely studied and proven capable of detecting a fatigue crack at a very early stage. However, under field conditions, other exogenous vibrations exist and the modulation components can be buried under ambient noises, making it difficult to extract the modulation components simply by using a spectral density function. In this study, the nonlinear modulation components in the ultrasonic response were extracted using a spectral correlation function (the double Fourier transform) with respect to time and time lag of a signal’s autocorrelation. Using spectral correlation, noise or interference, which is spectrally overlapped with the nonlinear modulation components in the ultrasonic response, can be effectively removed or reduced. Only the nonlinear modulation components are accentuated at specific coordinates of the spectral correlation plot. A damage feature is defined by comparing the spectral correlation value between nonlinear modulation components with other spectral correlation values among randomly selected frequencies. Then, by analyzing the statistical characteristics of the multiple damage feature values obtained from different input frequency combinations, fatigue cracks can be detected without relying on baseline data obtained from the pristine condition of the target structure. In the end, an experimental test was conducted on aluminum plates with a real fatigue crack and the test signals were contaminated by simulated noises with varying signal-to-noise ratios. The results validated the proposed technique.

  13. Correlation of seismic wave velocities with fracture densities: Implications for the critical zone in mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M. P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Flinchum, B. A.; Pasquet, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing scientific interest in the critical zone, the accurate determination of fracture density in the subsurface remains difficult as access and costs can prohibit ground-truthing through drilling. A more precise characterization of the fracturing process provides critical insight in to subsurface structures. This is particularly important in determining the point at which protolithic rock becomes fractured bedrock and then degrades to soil through the process of weathering. We studied outcrops in the Laramie Range of southeastern Wyoming were studied and fracture densities were correlated with seismic pressure (P) wave velocities. We used the Differential Effective Medium (DEM) rock physics model to validate our findings and provide a more robust characterization of the role of P-wave velocities acquired on outcrops play in critical zone science. This approach marks a significant departure from previous research, which has not applied P-wave fracture relationships in outcrops onto the critical zone for subsurface characterization. We compared our results with borehole data to establish a relationship between surface outcrops and subsurface rock structures. We found a clear, inverse relationship between a decrease in P-wave velocity and an increase in fracture density consistent with borehole data in the studied area. Our findings suggest that outcrops can be used to determine fracture density in the critical zone. We show that the use of seismic refraction surveys on outcrops provides a non-invasive, highly transferrable method through which we can predict fracturing densities in the subsurface.

  14. Time Reversal Mirrors and Cross Correlation Functions in Acoustic Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Louis; Jonsson, B. Lars G.; de Hoop, Maarten V.

    2009-03-01

    In time reversal acoustics (TRA), a signal is recorded by an array of transducers, time reversed, and then retransmitted into the configuration. The retransmitted signal propagates back through the same medium and retrofocuses on the source that generated the signal. If the transducer array is a single, planar (flat) surface, then this configuration is referred to as a planar, one-sided, time reversal mirror (TRM). In signal processing, for example, in active-source seismic interferometry, the measurement of the wave field at two distinct receivers, generated by a common source, is considered. Cross correlating these two observations and integrating the result over the sources yield the cross correlation function (CCF). Adopting the TRM experiments as the basic starting point and identifying the kinematically correct correspondences, it is established that the associated CCF signal processing constructions follow in a specific, infinite recording time limit. This perspective also provides for a natural rationale for selecting the Green's function components in the TRM and CCF expressions. For a planar, one-sided, TRM experiment and the corresponding CCF signal processing construction, in a three-dimensional homogeneous medium, the exact expressions are explicitly calculated, and the connecting limiting relationship verified. Finally, the TRM and CCF results are understood in terms of the underlying, governing, two-way wave equation, its corresponding time reversal invariance (TRI) symmetry, and the absence of TRI symmetry in the associated one-way wave equations, highlighting the role played by the evanescent modal contributions.

  15. Quantum Interferometry and Correlated Two-Electron Wave-Packet Observation in Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Meyer, Kristina; Laux, Martin; Zhang, Yizhu; Hagstotz, Steffen; Ding, Thomas; Heck, Robert; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The concerted motion of two or more bound electrons governs atomic and molecular non-equilibrium processes and chemical reactions. It is thus a long-standing scientific dream to measure the dynamics of two bound correlated electrons in the quantum regime. Quantum wave packets were previously observed for single-active electrons on their natural attosecond timescales. However, at least two active electrons and a nucleus are required to address the quantum three-body problem. This situation is realized in the helium atom, but direct time-resolved observation of two-electron wave-packet motion remained an unaccomplished challenge. Here, we measure a 1.2-femtosecond quantum beating among low-lying doubly-excited states in helium to evidence a correlated two-electron wave packet. Our experimental method combines attosecond transient-absorption spectroscopy at unprecedented high spectral resolution (20 meV near 60 eV) with an intensity-tuneable visible laser field to couple the quantum states from the perturbative ...

  16. Observation of atomic speckle and Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations in guided matter waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, R G; Hodgman, S S; Manning, A G; Johnsson, M T; Baldwin, K G H; Truscott, A G

    2011-01-01

    Speckle patterns produced by multiple independent light sources are a manifestation of the coherence of the light field. Second-order correlations exhibited in phenomena such as photon bunching, termed the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, are a measure of quantum coherence. Here we observe for the first time atomic speckle produced by atoms transmitted through an optical waveguide, and link this to second-order correlations of the atomic arrival times. We show that multimode matter-wave guiding, which is directly analogous to multimode light guiding in optical fibres, produces a speckled transverse intensity pattern and atom bunching, whereas single-mode guiding of atoms that are output-coupled from a Bose-Einstein condensate yields a smooth intensity profile and a second-order correlation value of unity. Both first- and second-order coherence are important for applications requiring a fully coherent atomic source, such as squeezed-atom interferometry.

  17. Wavelet entropy filter and cross-correlation of gravitational wave data

    CERN Document Server

    Terenziand, R

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for enhancing the cross-correlation of gravitational wave signals eventually present in data streams containing otherwise uncorrelated noise. Such method makes use of the wavelet decomposition to cast the cross-correlation time series in time-frequency space. Then an entropy criterion is applied to identify the best time frequency resolution, i.e. the resolution allowing to concentrate the signal in the smallest number of wavelet coefficients. By keeping only the coefficients above a certain threshold, it is possible to reconstruct a cross-correlation time series where the effect of common signal is stronger. We tested our method against signals injected over two data streams of uncorrelated white noise.

  18. Multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves based on cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F.; Xia, J.; Xu, Z.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional active seismic survey can no longer be properly applied in highly populated urban areas due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. Passive seismic methods, however, have gained much more attention from the engineering geophysics community because of their environmental friendly and deeper investigation depth. Due to extracting signal from noise has never been as comfortable as that in active seismic survey, how to make it more efficiently and accurately has been emphasized. We propose a multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves (MAPW) based on long noise sequences cross-correlations to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a relative low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz) in urban areas. We utilize seismic interferometry to produce common virtual source gathers from one-hour-long noise records and do dispersion measurements by using the classic passive multi-channel analysis of surface waves (PMASW). We used synthetic tests to demonstrate the advantages of MAPW for various noise distributions. Results show that our method has the superiority of maximizing the analysis accuracy. Finally, we used two field data applications to demonstrate the advantages of our MAPW over the classic PMASW on isolating azimuth of the predominant noise sources and the effectivity of combined survey of active multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and MAPW. We suggest, for the field operation using MAPW, that a parallel receiver line which is close to a main road or river, if any, with one or two hours noise observation will be an effective means for an unbiased dispersion image. Keywords: passive seismic method, MAPW, MASW, cross-correlation, directional noise source, spatial-aliasing effects, inversion

  19. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Shahoo; Moradzadeh, Ali; Riabi, Reza Ghavami; Gholami, Raoof; Sadeghzadeh, Farhad

    2014-06-01

    Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  20. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN. Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  1. A cross-correlation method to search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and Virgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignotto, M; Cerdonio, M; Conti, L; Drago, M; Liguori, N [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bonaldi, M; Falferi, P; Vinante, A [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Camarda, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Universita di Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6a, 35131 Padova (Italy); Longo, S; Ortolan, A [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Mezzena, R; Mion, A; Prodi, G A; Re, V; Salemi, F; Vitale, S [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Taffarello, L; Vedovato, G; Zendri, J P [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: virginia.re@lnl.infn.it (and others)

    2008-06-07

    We present a method to search for transient gravitational waves using a network of detectors with different spectral and directional sensitivities: the interferometer Virgo and the bar detector AURIGA. The data analysis method is based on the measurements of the correlated energy in the network by means of a weighted cross-correlation. To limit the computational load, this coherent analysis step is performed around time-frequency coincident triggers selected by an excess power event trigger generator tuned at low thresholds. The final selection of gravitational wave candidates is performed by a combined cut on the correlated energy and on the significance as measured by the event trigger generator. The method has been tested on one day of data of AURIGA and Virgo during September 2005. The outcomes are compared to the results of a stand-alone time-frequency coincidence search. We discuss the advantages and the limits of this approach, in view of a possible future joint search between AURIGA and one interferometric detector.

  2. Tetrahedral shape and surface density wave of $^{16}$O caused by $\\alpha$-cluster correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    $\\alpha$-cluster correlations in the $0^+_1$ and $3^-_1$ states of $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O are studied using the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics, with which nuclear structures are described from nucleon degrees of freedom without assuming existence of clusters. The intrinsic states of $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O have triangle and tetrahedral shapes, respectively, because of the $\\alpha$-cluster correlations. These shapes can be understood as spontaneous symmetry breaking of rotational invariance, and the resultant surface density oscillation is associated with density wave (DW) caused by the instability of Fermi surface with respect to particle-hole correlations with the wave number $\\lambda=3$. $^{16}$O($0^+_1$) and $^{16}$O($3^-_1$) are regarded as a set of parity partners constructed from the rigid tetrahedral intrinsic state, whereas $^{12}$C($0^+_1$) and $^{12}$C($3^-_1$) are not good parity partners as they have triangle intrinsic states of different sizes with significant shape fluctuation because...

  3. Radio-wave emission due to hypervelocity impacts and its correlation with optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T.; Maki, K.; Yamori, A.

    This paper describes the most interesting phenomena of radio-wave emission due to hypervelocity impacts. A projectile of polycarbonate with 1.1 g weight was accelerated by a rail gun to 3.8 km/sec, and hit two targets which are a 2 mm thick aluminum plate upstream and a 45 mm diameter aluminum column downstream, respectively. The projectile first breaks wires to give a triggering signal to a data recorder, then penetrates the aluminum plate, and finally hit the column, The emitted radio-waves propagate through the chamber window, and are received by antennas at each frequency band. The receivers in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands consist of a low noise amplifier, a mixer, a local oscillator and an IF amplifier , respectively. The receiver in 1 MHz-band is a simple RF amplifier. The outputs of all receivers are fed to a data recorder which is actually a high-speed digital oscilloscope with a large amount of memory. The radio-waves were successfully recorded in 22 GHz-band with 500 MHz bandwidth, in 2 GHz-band with 300 MHz bandwidth, and in 1MHz-band. The waveforms in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands coincide well each other, and are composed of two groups of sharp impulses with a separation of about 20 micro seconds. The width of an impulse is less than 2 n sec. which is the resolution limit of the data recorder. We carried out optical observations using an ultra-high speed camera simultaneously through another window of the chamber. The time interval between scenes is 2 micro sec. We can see a faint light of the projectile before the first impact to the plate, and then a brilliant gas exploding backward from the plate and forward to the column. After hitting the column target, the brilliant gas flows to the chamber wall and is reflected back to make a mixture with dark gas in the chamber. Excellent correlation between radio-wave emission and the observed optical phenomena was obtained in the experiment. It is easily conceived that the radio-waves consist of quite a wide frequency

  4. High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, S.A. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Fawcett, E. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.

  5. High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, S.A. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fawcett, E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.

  6. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun, E-mail: lvjenny0417@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kyung Hee, E-mail: yourheeya@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung, E-mail: AA40501@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Tae, E-mail: jtlee@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US.

  7. Pearson相关系数法快慢横波波场分离%Wave filed separation of fast-slow shear waves by Pearson correlation coefficient method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 冯晅; 刘财

    2012-01-01

    横波分裂是各向异性介质的重要特征,当横波或转换波穿过各向异性介质到达地面时,地面三分量检波器的x分量和y分量接收到的地震记录中都会同时存在快横波和慢横波.将快横波和慢横波进行分离,进而计算介质的各向异性参数是多分量数据处理中重要的一步.将数学中的Pearson相关系数引入到多分量地震勘探中,提出了Pearson相关系数法进行旋转角度识别,进而分离快、慢横波波场.相比于传统的互相关法,Pearson相关系数法从精度、抗噪性能和计算效率上都有提高.%Shear-wave splitting is an important characteristic of anisotropic media. Generally, when S or P-SV waves reach to the ground through anisotropic media, the seismic record received by x component and y component of three-component detector contains fast wave and slow wave simultaneously- Separating fast wave and slow wave and then calculating the anisotropic parameters of media are an important step in multi-component data processing. The authors introduce the Pearson correlation coefficients into multi-component seismic exploration and propose the Pearson correlation coefficients to detect the rotation angle and then separate the fast wave and slow wave. Compared with the traditional cross-correlation method, the Pearson correlation coefficient method is better in accuracy, noise immunity and computational efficiency.

  8. Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-guo; CHEN Yun-min; KE Han

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies using field case history data yielded new criteria for evaluating liquefaction potential in saturated granular deposits based on in situ, stress-corrected shear wave velocity. However, the conditions of relatively insufficient case histories and limited site conditions in this approach call for additional data to more reliably define liquefaction resistance as a function of shear wave velocity. In this study, a series of undrained cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on saturated sand with shear wave velocity Vs measured by bender element. By normalizing the data with respect to minimum void ratio, the test results, incorporated with previously published laboratory data, statistically revealed good correlation of cyclic shear strength with small-strain shear modulus for sandy soils, which is almost irrespective of soil types and confining pressures. The consequently determined cyclic resistance ratio, CRR, was found to be approximately proportional to Vs4. Liquefaction resistance boundary curves were established by applying this relationship and compared to liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements. Although in the range of Vs1>200 m/s the presented curves are moderately conservative, they are remarkably consistent with the published field performance criteria on the whole.

  9. A cross-correlation search for intermediate-duration gravitational waves from GRB magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the afterglow in 1997, the progress made in our understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been spectacular. Yet a direct proof of GRB progenitors is still missing. In the last few years, evidence for a long-lived and sustained central engine in GRBs has mounted. This has called attention to the so-called millisecond-magnetar model, which proposes that a highly magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron star may exist at the heart of some of these events. The advent of advanced gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and Virgo may enable us to probe directly, for the first time, the nature of GRB progenitors and their byproducts. In this context, we describe a novel application of a generalized cross-correlation technique optimized for the detection of long-duration gravitational wave signals that may be associated with bar-like deformations of GRB magnetars. The detection of these signals would allow us to answer some of the most intriguing questions on the nature of GRB progenitors, and serve as a starting point for a new class of intermediate-duration gravitational wave searches.

  10. Capillary waves and the decay of density correlations at liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Muñoz, Jose; Chacón, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Wertheim predicted strong density-density correlations at free liquid surfaces, produced by capillary wave fluctuations of the interface [M. S. Wertheim, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 2377 (1976), 10.1063/1.433352]. That prediction has been used to search for a link between capillary wave (CW) theory and density functional (DF) formalism for classical fluids. In particular, Parry et al. have recently analyzed the decaying tails of these CW effects moving away from the interface as a clue for the extended CW theory [A. O. Parry et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 28, 244013 (2016), 10.1088/0953-8984/28/24/244013], beyond the strict long-wavelength limit studied by Wertheim. Some apparently fundamental inconsistencies between the CW and the DF theoretical views of the fluid interfaces arose from the asymptotic analysis of the CW signal. In this paper we revisit the problem of the CW asymptotic decay with a separation of local non-CW surface correlation effects from those that are a truly nonlocal propagation of the CW fluctuations from the surface towards the liquid bulk.

  11. Quantum correlations by four-wave-mixing in atomic vapor. Theory and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Glorieux, Quentin

    2011-01-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the generation of quantum correlations in the continuous variable regime by way of four-wave mixing in a hot atomic vapor. Two theoretical approaches have been developed. On one side, we study the four-wave mixing under the "classical" non-linear optics point of view. In such a way we obtain the evolution equation for an ideal linear amplifier in a {\\chi}^(3) medium. On the other side, we present a microscopic model with 4 levels in the double-{\\Lambda} configuration to calculate the {\\chi}^(3) coefficient in a atomic vapor dressed with a laser. This calculation allows us to derive the spectra of intensity noise for interesting parameters. The experimental part of this work describes the demonstration of this effect on the D1 line of rubidium 85. We present a measurement of relative intensity squeezing as high as -9.2dB below the standard quantum limit, and an original regime where quantum correlations have been measured without amplification.These results have b...

  12. Fully differential cross sections in single ionization of helium by ion impact: Assessing the role of correlated wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M.F. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: ciappi@pks.mpg.de; Cravero, W.R. [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, B8000CPB, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of final state dynamic correlation in single ionization of atoms by ion impact analyzing fully differential cross sections (FDCS). We use a distorted wave model where the final state is represented by a {phi}{sub 2} type correlated function, solution of a non-separable three body continuum Hamiltonian. This final state wave function partially includes the correlation of electron-projectile and electron-recoil relative motion as coupling terms of the wave equation. A comparison of fully differential results using this model with other theories and experimental data reveals that inclusion of dynamic correlation effects have little influence on FDCS, and do not contribute to a better description of available data in the case of electronic emission out-of scattering plane.

  13. Enhanced Rayleigh waves tomography of Mexico using ambient noise cross-correlations (C1) and correlations of coda of correlations (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Z. J.; Perton, M.; Calo, M.; Cordoba-Montiel, F.; Legrand, D.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-12-01

    Standard application of the seismic ambient noise tomography considers the existence of synchronous records at stations for green's functions retrieval. More recent theoretical and experimental observations showed the possibility to apply correlation of coda of noise correlation (C3) to obtain green's functions between stations of asynchronous seismic networks making possible to dramatically increase databases for imagining the Earth's interior. However, this possibility has not been fully exploited yet, and right now the data C3 are not included into tomographic inversions to refine seismic structures. Here we show for the first time how to incorporate the data of C1 and C3 to calculate dispersion maps of Rayleigh waves in the range period of 10-120s, and how the merging of these datasets improves the resolution of the structures imaged. Tomographic images are obtained for an area covering Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico and the southern U.S. We show dispersion maps calculated using both data of C1 and the complete dataset (C1+C3). The latter provide new details of the seismic structure of the region allowing a better understanding of their role on the geodynamics of the study area. The resolving power obtained in our study is several times higher than in previous studies based on ambient noise. This demonstrates the new possibilities for imaging the Earth's crust and upper mantle using this enlarged database.

  14. Universal bulk charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in the cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabis, Wojciech

    2014-03-01

    The recent observation of bulk CDW order in YBa2Cu3O8+δ(YBCO) in competition with superconductivity is a significant development. Using Cu L-edge resonant X-ray scattering, we also observe bulk CDW order in HgBa2CuO4+δ(Hg1201 Tc = 72K). The correlations appear below TCDW ~ 200K, well below the pseudogap temperature T* ~ 320K associated with unusual magnetism, but coincident with the onset of Fermi-liquid-like charge transport. In contrast to YBCO, we observe no decrease of the CDW amplitude below Tc, and the correlation length is short and temperature independent. CDW correlations therefore are a universal property of underdoped cuprates, enhanced by low structural symmetry and a magnetic field, but fundamentally not in significant competition with superconductivity. We also discuss the relationship between the CDW modulation wave vector and the Fermi surface area extracted from QO experiments. Work supported by DOE-BES. In collaboration with Y. Li, M. Le Tacon, L. Braicovich, A. Kreyssig, M. Minola, G. Dellea, E. Weschke, M. Veit, A. Goldman, T. Schmitt, G. Ghiringhelli, N. Barisic, M.K. Chan, C. Dorow, G. Yu, X. Zhao, B. Keimer, M. Greven.

  15. EEG-correlated fMRI of P3b component in P300 waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuezhi; WANG Liqun; WANG Mingshi

    2005-01-01

    Electroencephalography-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) can be used to identify blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes associated with both physiological and pathological EEG events. Here, we implemented continuous and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to identify BOLD signal changes related to P3b component of P300, and 64 channels of EEG were recorded in 11 subjects during Landot Ring task inside a 1.5 T functional magnet resonance (MR) scanner using an MR-compatible EEG recording system. Functional scanning by echoplanar imaging covered almost the entire cerebrum every 2 s, leaving gaps of 2 s without scanning. Off-line MRI artifact subtraction software was applied to obtain continuous EEG data. Additionally, a P300 wave matched filter was constructed to inspect P300 wave occurrence following every target stimulus, target stimuli inspected to induce P300 were detected and their MRI scan number were then used as input for an event-related fMRI analysis. Finally MRI statistical parametric maps were constructed and corrected for multiple comparisons. By random effect group analysis, activations were detected in the right superior parietal lobule and bilaterally in inferior parietal lobule(p<0.001, uncorrected). The results demonstrated the upper regions were sources of P3b component and involved in target detection in memory comparison task.

  16. Minimum variance imaging based on correlation analysis of Lamb wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jiadong; Lin, Jing; Zeng, Liang; Luo, Zhi

    2016-08-01

    In Lamb wave imaging, MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) is a promising approach for the detection and monitoring of large areas with sparse transducer network. Previous studies in MVDR use signal amplitude as the input damage feature, and the imaging performance is closely related to the evaluation accuracy of the scattering characteristic. However, scattering characteristic is highly dependent on damage parameters (e.g. type, orientation and size), which are unknown beforehand. The evaluation error can degrade imaging performance severely. In this study, a more reliable damage feature, LSCC (local signal correlation coefficient), is established to replace signal amplitude. In comparison with signal amplitude, one attractive feature of LSCC is its independence of damage parameters. Therefore, LSCC model in the transducer network could be accurately evaluated, the imaging performance is improved subsequently. Both theoretical analysis and experimental investigation are given to validate the effectiveness of the LSCC-based MVDR algorithm in improving imaging performance.

  17. Experimental observation of quantum correlations in four-wave mixing with a conical pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leiming; Du, Jinjian; Feng, Jingliang; Qin, Zhongzhong; Marino, Alberto M; Kolobov, Mikhail I; Jing, Jietai

    2017-04-01

    Generation of multimode quantum states has drawn much attention recently due to its importance for both fundamental science and the future development of quantum technologies. Here, by using a four-wave mixing process with a conical pump beam, we have experimentally observed about -3.8  dB of intensity-difference squeezing between a single-axial probe beam and a conical conjugate beam. The multi-spatial-mode nature of the generated quantum-correlated beams has been shown by comparing the variation tendencies of the intensity-difference noise of the probe and conjugate beams under global attenuation and local cutting attenuation. Due to its compactness, phase-insensitive nature, and easy scalability, our scheme may find potential applications in quantum imaging, quantum information processing, and quantum metrology.

  18. Correlated photon pair generation in AlGaAs nanowaveguides via spontaneous four-wave mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Kultavewuti, Pisek; Qian, Li; Pusino, Vincenzo; Sorel, Marc; Aitchison, J Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a source of correlated photon pairs which will have applications in future integrated quantum photonic circuits. The source utilizes spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a dispersion-engineered nanowaveguide made of AlGaAs, which has merits of negligible two-photon absorption and low spontaneous Raman scattering (SpRS). We observe a coincidence-to-accidental (CAR) ratio up to 177, mainly limited by propagation losses. Experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions of the SFWM photon pair generation and the SpRS noise photon generation. We also study the effects from the SpRS, propagation losses, and waveguide lengths on the quality of our source.

  19. Correlated photon pair generation in AlGaAs nanowaveguides via spontaneous four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultavewuti, Pisek; Zhu, Eric Y; Qian, Li; Pusino, Vincenzo; Sorel, Marc; Stewart Aitchison, J

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate a source of correlated photon pairs which will have applications in future integrated quantum photonic circuits. The source utilizes spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a dispersion-engineered nanowaveguide made of AlGaAs, which has merits of negligible two-photon absorption and low spontaneous Raman scattering (SpRS). We observe a coincidence-to-accidental (CAR) ratio up to 177, mainly limited by propagation losses. Experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions of the SFWM photon pair generation and the SpRS noise photon generation. We also study the effects from the SpRS, propagation losses, and waveguide lengths on the quality of our source.

  20. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the cross-correlation of gravitational wave standard sirens and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Masamune

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries are known to be an excellent absolute distance indicator, yet it is unclear whether electromagnetic counterparts of these events are securely identified for measuring their redshifts, especially in the case of black hole-black hole mergers such as the one recently observed with the Advanced LIGO. We propose to use the cross-correlation between spatial distributions of gravitational wave sources and galaxies with known redshifts as an alternative means of constraining the distance-redshift relation from gravitational waves. In our analysis, we explicitly include the modulation of the distribution of gravitational wave sources due to weak gravitational lensing. We show that the cross-correlation analysis in next-generation observations will be able to tightly constrain the relation between the absolute distance and the redshift, and therefore constrain the Hubble constant as well as dark energy parameters.

  1. Health correlates of workplace bullying: a 3-wave prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias; Persson, Roger; Hogh, Annie; Willert, Morten Vejs; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past 6-12 months and data on health characteristics were obtained by self-reports. We identified major depression using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interviews and the Major Depression Inventory. We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of outcomes according to self-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses adjusting for bullying during follow-up, all health correlates except poor sleep quality persisted up to four years. Self-reported health correlates of workplace bullying including sick-listing, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and a diagnosis of depression tend to persist for several years regardless of whether bullying is discontinued or not. Independent measures of bullying and outcomes are needed to learn whether these findings reflect long lasting health consequences of workplace bullying or whether self-labelled workplace bullying and health complaints are correlated because of common underlying factors.

  2. Serum Osteopontin Level Correlates with Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity in Geriatric Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is involved in the regulation of vascular calcification processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fasting serum OPN concentration and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV in geriatric persons. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 93 geriatric persons. cfPWV were performed by SphygmoCor system. Serum OPN levels were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Geriatric adults who had diabetes (P=0.007 or dyslipidemia (P=0.029 had higher cfPWV levels than those without diabetes or dyslipidemia. The univariable linear regression analysis showed that age (P=0.002, waist circumference (P=0.048, body mass index (P=0.004, systolic blood pressure (P=0.001, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.036, pulse pressure (P=0.017, creatinine (P=0.002, and log-OPN level (P=0.001 were positively correlated with cfPWV levels, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol level (P=0.007 and glomerular filtration rate (P=0.001 were negatively correlated with cfPWV levels among the geriatric adults. Multivariable forward stepwise linear regression analysis of the significant variables also showed that log-OPN (β=0.233, R2=0.123, regression coefficient: 1.868, P=0.011 was still an independent predictor of cfPWV levels in geriatric persons.

  3. Brain correlates of spike and wave discharges in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Olivotto, Sara; Ruggieri, Andrea; Gessaroli, Giuliana; De Giorgis, Valentina; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Meletti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    To provide imaging biomarkers of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWD) in patients with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). Eighteen GLUT1DS patients with pathogenetic mutation in SLC2A1 gene were studied by means of Video-EEG simultaneously recorded with functional MRI (VideoEEG-fMRI). A control group of sex and age-matched patients affected by Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) with GSWD were investigated with the same protocol. Within and between groups comparison was performed as appropriated. For GLUT1DS, correlations analyses between the contrast of interest and the main clinical measurements were provided. EEG during fMRI revealed interictal GSWD in 10 GLUT1DS patients. Group-level analysis showed BOLD signal increases at the premotor cortex and putamen. With respect to GGE, GLUT1DS patients demonstrated increased neuronal activity in the putamen, precuneus, cingulate cortex, SMA and paracentral lobule. Whole-brain correlation analyses disclosed a linear relationship between the GSWD-related BOLD changes and the levels of glycorrhachia at diagnosis over the sensory-motor cortex and superior parietal lobuli. The BOLD dynamics related to GSWD in GLUT1DS are substantially different from typical GGE showing the former an increased activity in the premotor-striatal network and a decrease in the thalamus. The revealed hemodynamic maps might represent imaging biomarkers of GLUT1DS, being potentially useful for a precocious diagnosis of this genetic disorder.

  4. Correlation between intensity fluctuations induced by scattering of a partially coherent, electromagnetic wave from a quasi-homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chang, Liping; Chen, Feinan

    2016-12-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, the correlation between intensity fluctuations is derived for a partially coherent, electromagnetic plane wave scattering from a spatially quasi-homogeneous medium. Young's pinholes are utilized to control the degree of coherence of the incident field. For the electromagnetic scattering case, it is shown that the CIF of the scattered field strongly depends on the degree of polarization of the incident wave, Young's pinhole parameter, effective radius and correlation length of the medium. The influences of these parameters on the CIF distributions are revealed by numerical calculations.

  5. Circulating motilin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 and their correlations with gastric slow waves in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao-Jue; Cai, Xu-Dong; Xing, Jie; Zhong, Guang-Hui; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) commonly complain upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, especially anorexia. Hemodialysis (HD) has been noted to improve GI symptoms; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study was designed 1) to study effects of HD on GI symptoms and gastric slow waves; and 2) to investigate possible roles of ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1): the study recruited 13 healthy controls, 20 CKD patients without HD (CKD group), and 18 CKD patients with HD (HD group). Dyspeptic symptoms, autonomic functions, gastric slow waves, and plasma level of ghrelin and GLP-1 were analyzed. First, the CKD patients with HD showed markedly lower scores of anorexia (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.2 ± 0.4, P waves, compared with controls. Third, the CKD group exhibited a significantly lower ghrelin level compared with the HD group (26.8 ± 0.9 vs. 34.1 ± 2.3 ng/l, P waves was positively correlated with ghrelin (r = 0.385, P = 0.019) but negatively correlated with GLP-1 (r = -0.558, P waves in CKD patients. An increase in ghrelin and a decrease in GLP-1 might be involved in the HD-induced improvement in gastric slow waves. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Isolating important technical elements on the basis of an inter-profile correlation of transformational hodographs for discontinuous waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babadzhanov, T.L.; Malushin, I.I.

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe the principle characteristics of transformational hodographs. A series of such transformational hodographs of refracted waves are analyzed on models. It is indicated that under complex conditions such as those found in areas with two- and three- stage sedimentary structures, or in regions with salt cupula tectonics, intra-profile correlations can be used to verify the geologic structure type.

  7. Stress-wave induced fracture of unidirectional composites: an experimental study using digital image correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyeon; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, fracture behavior of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite materials is optically investigated. Single-edge notched coupons are studied under geometrically symmetric impact loading. The notch orientation parallel to or at an angle relative to the fiber orientation is considered to produce mode-I as well as mixed-mode fracture. Stress-wave induced crack initiation and rapid crack growth events are studied using a digital correlation technique and high-speed photography. Surface deformations histories in the crack-tip vicinity are obtained by analyzing decorated speckle recordings. Measured deformation fields are used to extract fracture parameters and examine the effect of fiber orientation on crack initiation and growth behaviors. The maximum crack speed observed is the highest for mode-I dominant conditions and decreases with increasing fiber orientation angle. With increasing fiber orientation angle, crack takes longer to attain the maximum speed upon initiation. The crack initiation toughness values decrease with increasing degree-of-anisotropy.

  8. Semiclassical approach to mesoscopic systems. Classical trajectory correlations and wave interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltner, Daniel [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-07-01

    This volume describes mesoscopic systems with classically chaotic dynamics using semiclassical methods which combine elements of classical dynamics and quantum interference effects. Experiments and numerical studies show that Random Matrix Theory (RMT) explains physical properties of these systems well. This was conjectured more than 25 years ago by Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit for the spectral properties. Since then, it has been a challenge to understand this connection analytically. The author offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. He extends previous semiclassical approaches that treated spectral and conductance properties. He shows that RMT results can in general only be obtained semiclassically when taking into account classical configurations not considered previously, for example those containing multiply traversed periodic orbits. Furthermore, semiclassics is capable of describing effects beyond RMT. In this context he studies the effect of a non-zero Ehrenfest time, which is the minimal time needed for an initially spatially localized wave packet to show interference. He derives its signature on several quantities characterizing mesoscopic systems, e. g. dc and ac conductance, dc conductance variance, n-pair correlation functions of scattering matrices and the gap in the density of states of Andreev billiards. (orig.)

  9. Energy correlations of photon pairs generated by a silicon microring resonator probed by Stimulated Four Wave Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs.

  10. Extracting the Group Velocity of Rayleigh Waves from the Cross Correlation of the Ambient Seismic Noise Between Two Seismic Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xing; Li Jun; Lin Shu; Zhou Zhengrong; Kang Lanchi; Ou Yiping

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the 8 broad-band stations' microseism data recorded by the Seismic Monitoring Network of Fujian Province to calculate the vertical correlation coefficient between two stationsat intervals of 5 minutes. According to the time intervals technique we obtain the different coefficients and then add the correlative coefficients. Depending on this, we extract the group velocity of Rayleigh waves from the cross correlation of the ambient seismic noise between two seismic stations and figure out the group velocity' spatial distribution. The results show that the signal noise ratio (SNR) increases proportionally to the superposition times, but the results from different days are similar to one another. Synchronously, the arrival-time is also stable and there is no obvious change when coming across typhoons. It is found the velocity of the surface wave is 2.9~3. 1km/s in Fujian Province, which is close to the observationally attained value.

  11. Energy correlations of photon pairs generated by a silicon microring resonator probed by Stimulated Four Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Grassani, Davide; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs.

  12. Study on Correlation and Quantitative Error Estimation Method Among the Splitting Shear Wave Identification Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiqiang; Zhou Huilan; Li Hong; Gai Dianguang

    2000-01-01

    Based on the propagation characteristics of shear wave in the anisotropic layers, thecorrelation among several splitting shear-wave identification methods hasbeen studied. Thispaper puts forward the method estimating splitting shear-wave phases and its reliability byusing of the assumption that variance of noise and useful signal data obey normaldistribution. To check the validity of new method, the identification results and errorestimation corresponding to 95% confidence level by analyzing simulation signals have beengiven.

  13. Correlation between d-wave pairing behavior and magnetic-field-dependent zero-bias conductance peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekin, J.W.; Xu, Y. [Electromagnetic Technology Division, NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Mao, S.; Venkatesan, T. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Face, D.W. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware 19880-0304 (United States); Eddy, M. [Superconductor Technologies, Inc., Santa Barbara, California 93111-2310 (United States); Wolf, S.A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We consistently observe a magnetic-field-dependent conductance peak at zero-bias voltage in a wide range of superconductor/noble-metal junctions fabricated from oxide superconductors (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} and Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O) that have been reported to exhibit d-wave pairing behavior; however, no measurable peak appears in similar junctions made from an s-wave oxide superconductor (Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}). Explanations of this correlation are considered in terms of the Appelbaum-Anderson model for magnetic interface scattering and the midgap-state model for d-wave interface states. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Correlated Band Structure of a Transition Metal Oxide ZnO Obtained from a Many-Body Wave Function Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2017-01-13

    Obtaining accurate band structures of correlated solids has been one of the most important and challenging problems in first-principles electronic structure calculation. There have been promising recent active developments of wave function theory for condensed matter, but its application to band-structure calculation remains computationally expensive. In this Letter, we report the first application of the biorthogonal transcorrelated (BITC) method: self-consistent, free from adjustable parameters, and systematically improvable many-body wave function theory, to solid-state calculations with d electrons: wurtzite ZnO. We find that the BITC band structure better reproduces the experimental values of the gaps between the bands with different characters than several other conventional methods. This study paves the way for reliable first-principles calculations of the properties of strongly correlated materials.

  15. Correlated Band Structure of a Transition Metal Oxide ZnO Obtained from a Many-Body Wave Function Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining accurate band structures of correlated solids has been one of the most important and challenging problems in first-principles electronic structure calculation. There have been promising recent active developments of wave function theory for condensed matter, but its application to band-structure calculation remains computationally expensive. In this Letter, we report the first application of the biorthogonal transcorrelated (BITC) method: self-consistent, free from adjustable parameters, and systematically improvable many-body wave function theory, to solid-state calculations with d electrons: wurtzite ZnO. We find that the BITC band structure better reproduces the experimental values of the gaps between the bands with different characters than several other conventional methods. This study paves the way for reliable first-principles calculations of the properties of strongly correlated materials.

  16. Low Energy Particle Oscillations and Correlations with Hydromagnetic Waves in the Jovian Magnetosphere: Ulysses Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, N.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    We report on measurements of energetic particle modulations observed by the HI-SCALE instrument aboard the Ulysses Spacecraft that were associated with the only hydromagnetic wave event measured inside the Jovian magnetosphere by the Ulysses magnetometer investigation.

  17. Many-body nodal hypersurface and domain averages for correlated wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We outline the basic notions of nodal hypersurface and domain averages for antisymmetric wave functions. We illustrate their properties and analyze the results for a few electron explicitly solvable cases and discuss possible further developments.

  18. All correlations must die: Assessing the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in pulsar-timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S R; Babak, S; Brem, P; Gair, J R; Sesana, A; Vecchio, A

    2016-01-01

    We present two methods for determining the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background affecting a pulsar-timing array, where detection is based on recovering evidence for correlations between different pulsars, i.e. spatial correlations. Nulling these spatial correlations is crucial to understanding the response of our detection statistic under the null hypothesis so that we can properly assess the significance of plausible signals. The usual approach of creating many noise-only simulations is, albeit useful, undesirable since in that case detection significance is predicated on our (incomplete) understanding of all noise processes. Alternatively, destroying any possible correlations in our real datasets and using those (containing all actual noise features) is a much superior approach. In our first method, we perform random phase shifts in the signal-model basis functions, which has the effect of eliminating signal phase coherence between pulsars, while keeping the statistical properties of t...

  19. First cross-correlation analysis of interferometric and resonant-bar gravitational-wave data for stochastic backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgamy, M.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McCaulley, B. J.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Miller, P.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moody, V.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nettles, D.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Paik, H.-J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Weaver, J.; Webber, D.; Weber, A.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-07-01

    Data from the LIGO Livingston interferometer and the ALLEGRO resonant-bar detector, taken during LIGO’s fourth science run, were examined for cross correlations indicative of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in the frequency range 850 950 Hz, with most of the sensitivity arising between 905 and 925 Hz. ALLEGRO was operated in three different orientations during the experiment to modulate the relative sign of gravitational-wave and environmental correlations. No statistically significant correlations were seen in any of the orientations, and the results were used to set a Bayesian 90% confidence level upper limit of Ωgw(f)≤1.02, which corresponds to a gravitational-wave strain at 915 Hz of 1.5×10-23Hz-1/2. In the traditional units of h1002Ωgw(f), this is a limit of 0.53, 2 orders of magnitude better than the previous direct limit at these frequencies. The method was also validated with successful extraction of simulated signals injected in hardware and software.

  20. First Cross-Correlation Analysis of Interferometric and Resonant-Bar Gravitational-Wave Data for Stochastic Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgamy, M; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Di Credico, A; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hamilton, W O; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Miller, P; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moody, V; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nettles, D; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Paik, H J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P

    2007-01-01

    Data from the LIGO Livingston interferometer and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector, taken during LIGO's fourth science run, were examined for cross-correlations indicative of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in the frequency range 850-950 Hz, with most of the sensitivity arising between 905 Hz and 925 Hz. ALLEGRO was operated in three different orientations during the experiment to modulate the relative sign of gravitational-wave and environmental correlations. No statistically significant correlations were seen in any of the orientations, and the results were used to set a Bayesian 90% confidence level upper limit of Omega_gw(f) <= 1.02, which corresponds to a gravitational wave strain at 915 Hz of 1.5e-23/rHz. In the traditional units of h_100^2 Omega_gw(f), this is a limit of 0.53, two orders of magnitude better than the previous direct limit at these frequencies. The method was also validated with successful extraction of simulated signals injected in hardware and software.

  1. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...

  2. Correlation Between P-wave Velocity and Strength Index for Shale to Predict Uniaxial Compressive Strength Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic refraction survey is a non destructive method used in site investigation to identify the seismic velocity subsurface strata. Although it is widely known, the reliability of the result is still doubtable for some reason as well as due to an engineer’s ignorant, which insist on using conventional method rather than new advanced method causing the lack of usage in geophysical method for testing. This study aims to produce a correlation between P-wave velocity value and point load strength index value for shale. Both field and laboratory tests were carried out. In order to obtain the P-wave value, seismic refraction method was conducted as a field test at Precint 4, Putrajaya, Malaysia to achieve the Pwave velocity value of the shale bed. Ten samples of shale were collected from the field and laboratory tests were conducted. The tests are divided into three sections, namely non-destructive laboratory test, physical properties test and mechanical properties test. Ultrasonic Velocity Test via PUNDIT test was conducted as non-destructive laboratory test to acknowledge the P-wave velocity value in laboratory. Both field and laboratory P-wave velocity value were then compared and the result delivers are reliable due to it is within the range. For physical properties test, the rock density and porosity were acknowledged. Meanwhile, Point Load Test was conducted as mechanical properties. Correlation for both Pwave velocity value and point load strength value were achieved via producing an empirical relationship as the end result. Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS value was made via converting the point load strength value to UCS value using a correlation. By acknowledging this empirical relationship, it shows that geophysical methods are able to produce a reliable result. Hence more and widely used of geophysical method will be profound in the future.

  3. Correlation between insulin resistance and breast elasticity heterogeneity measured by shear wave elastography in premenopausal women - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Pawel; Wysocki, Piotr J; Kycler, Witold; Opala, Tomasz

    2011-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of breast cancer. Our study was aimed at exploring correlations between glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, obesity and quantitatively estimated breast elasticity in healthy women. The pilot study included 37 premenopausal women aged 22-45 years who underwent B-mode sonography and real-time shear wave elastography. Blood was collected for fasting insulin and glucose, and HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated. The mean elasticity of glandular and fatty tissue measured in both breasts was 12.5 ±3.5 kPa and 10.9 ±3.7 kPa respectively. Insulin levels did not correlate with glandular tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.23, p=0.15), but nearly correlated with fat tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.30, p=0.06), in outer quadrants significantly (Rs=-0.38, p=0.02). Interestingly, a strong correlation of insulin and insulin resistance with elasticity heterogeneity was found in fatty tissue (Rs=-0.59, p<0.001 and Rs=-0.60, p<0.001 respectively). The heterogeneity of fatty tissue but not glandular elasticity also correlated with body mass index. Insulin levels and insulin resistance correlate with breast fat tissue heterogeneity, but their role in breast pathology remains unclear.

  4. Electronic structure and correlated wave functions of a few electron quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Tokuei [Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ishida, Hiroshi [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Fujikawa, Kazuo [Institute of Quantum Science, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2015-01-22

    The energy spectra and wave functions of a few electrons confined by a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic and anharmonic potentials have been studied by using a full configuration interaction method employing a Cartesian anisotropic Gaussian basis set. The energy spectra are classified into three regimes of the strength of confinement, namely, large, medium and small. The polyad quantum number defined by a total number of nodes in the wave functions is shown to be a key ingredient to interpret the energy spectra for the whole range of the confinement strength. The nodal pattern of the wave functions exhibits normal modes for the harmonic confining potential, indicating collective motions of electrons. These normal modes are shown to undergo a transition to local modes for an anharmonic potential with large anharmonicity.

  5. How kilometric sandy shoreline undulations correlate with wave and morphology characteristics: preliminary analysis on the Atlantic coast of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, D.; Falqués, A.

    2014-04-01

    Sandy coasts are characterized by a number of rhythmic patterns like, amongst others, shoreline undulations or sandwaves at a kilometric scale. One hypothesis for their formation is that high angle waves (large incidence angle with respect to shore normal) could induce an instability of the shoreline (Ashton et al., 2001). More recently, a scaling for their wavelength has also been proposed (van den Berg et al., 2014). The existing studies rely mainly on modelling but quantitative field tests are lacking. We aim at investigating how both the formation hypothesis of these shoreline undulations and the theoretical scaling do fit with nature at a global scale. The first step, which is the goal of this paper, is to set up the methodology by analyzing the Atlantic African coast as test site. First, based on global databases, shoreline wavelength LS, wave characteristics (obliquity θW and wavelength λW) and mean shoreface slope β are determined. Then the wave obliquity is confronted with the presence of shoreline undulations. Finally the values of the ratio β LS / λW are estimated and discussed in comparison with the estimate of van den Berg et al. (2014). It is found that the correlation between shoreline sandwave occurrence and wave obliquity is very good, allowing the identification of 5 new potential unstable shoreline stretches, whereas the results on the scaling are not conclusive and deserve further investigations.

  6. Computation of antenna pattern correlation and MIMO performance by means of surface current distribution and spherical wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the stringent demand for an accurate prediction of MIMO channel capacity and diversity performance in wireless communications, more effective and suitable models that account for real antenna radiation behavior have to be taken into account. One of the main challenges is the accurate modeling of antenna correlation that is directly related to the amount of channel capacity or diversity gain which might be achieved in multi element antenna configurations. Therefore spherical wave theory in electromagnetics is a well known technique to express antenna far fields by means of a compact field expansion with a reduced number of unknowns that was recently applied to derive an analytical approach in the computation of antenna pattern correlation. In this paper we present a novel and efficient computational technique to determine antenna pattern correlation based on the evaluation of the surface current distribution by means of a spherical mode expansion.

  7. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  8. Examination of Existing Shear Wave Velocity and Shear Modulus Correlations in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    in Terms of Characteristic Indices of Soil," Butsuri- Tanko (Geophysical Exploration) (in Japanese), Vol 29, No. 4, pp 34-41. . 1978a. "Empirical Shear...34Physical Background of the Statistically Obtained S-Wave Velocity Equation in Terms of Soil Indexes," Butsuri- Tanko (Geophysical Explo- ration) (in Japanese

  9. Correlation of pulse wave velocity with left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension once blood pressure has been normalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu H. Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stiffness has been proposed as a simple method to assess arterial loading conditions of the heart which induce left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. There is some controversy as to whether the relationship of vascular stiffness to LVH is independent of blood pressure, and which measurement of arterial stiffness, augmentation index (AI or pulse wave velocity (PWV is best. Carotid pulse wave contor and pulse wave velocity of patients (n=20 with hypertension whose blood pressure (BP was under control (<140/90 mmHg with antihypertensive drug treatment medications, and without valvular heart disease, were measured. Left ventricular mass, calculated from 2D echocardiogram, was adjusted for body size using two different methods: body surface area and height. There was a significant (P<0.05 linear correlation between LV mass index and pulse wave velocity. This was not explained by BP level or lower LV mass in women, as there was no significant difference in PWV according to gender (1140.1+67.8 vs 1110.6+57.7 cm/s. In contrast to PWV, there was no significant correlation between LV mass and AI. In summary, these data suggest that aortic vascular stiffness is an indicator of LV mass even when blood pressure is controlled to less than 140/90 mmHg in hypertensive patients. The data further suggest that PWV is a better proxy or surrogate marker for LV mass than AI and the measurement of PWV may be useful as a rapid and less expensive assessment of the presence of LVH in this patient population.

  10. Surface wave group velocity in the Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, estimated using ambient noise cross-correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Somei, Kazuhiro; Miyakoshi, Ken; Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Inter-station cross-correlation functions estimated using continuous ambient noise or microtremor records were used to extract the seismic wave propagation characteristics of the Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan. Temporary continuous observations were conducted at 15 sites in the Osaka basin between 2011 and 2013. The data were analyzed using seismic interferometry. The target period range was 2-8 s. Cross-correlations between all of the possible station pairs were calculated and stacked to produce a year-long data set, and Rayleigh wave signals in the vertical and radial components and Love wave signals in the transverse component were identified from the results. Simulation of inter-station Green's functions using the finite difference method was conducted to check the performance of the current three-dimensional velocity structure model. The measured time lag between the observed and theoretical Green's functions was less than 2 s for most station pairs, which is less than the wave period of interest in the target frequency range. Group velocity tomography was applied to group delay times estimated by means of multiple filter analysis. The estimated group velocities for longer periods of 5-8 s exhibited spatial variation within the basin, which is consistent with the bedrock depth distribution; however, the group velocities for shorter periods of 2-3 s were almost constant over the studied area. The waveform and group velocity information obtained by seismic interferometry analysis can be useful for future reconstruction of a three-dimensional velocity structure model in the Osaka basin.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. 3-D shear wave velocity model of Mexico and South US: bridging seismic networks with ambient noise cross-correlations (C1) and correlation of coda of correlations (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Calò, Marco; Legrand, Denis; Córdoba-Montiel, Francisco; Iglesias, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an innovative strategy to enhance the resolution of surface wave tomography obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation (C1) by bridging asynchronous seismic networks through the correlation of coda of correlations (C3). Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves show consistent results between synchronous and asynchronous stations. Rayleigh wave group traveltimes are inverted to construct velocity-period maps with unprecedented resolution for a region covering Mexico and the southern United States. The resulting period maps are then used to regionalize dispersion curves in order to obtain local 1-D shear velocity models (VS) of the crust and uppermost mantle in every cell of a grid of 0.4°. The 1-D structures are obtained by iteratively adding layers until reaching a given misfit, and a global tomography model is considered as an input for depths below 150 km. Finally, a high-resolution 3-D VS model is obtained from these inversions. The major structures observed in the 3-D model are in agreement with the tectonic-geodynamic features and with previous regional and local studies. It also offers new insights to understand the present and past tectonic evolution of the region.

  12. Effects of source correlation on the spectral shift of light waves on scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-05-01

    The far-zone scattered spectrum has been investigated for the scattering of two correlated sources from a deterministic medium. It is shown that red shift or blue shift can be produced in the far-zone scattered spectrum, and the spectral shift is influenced by the source correlation.

  13. Correlations between the duration of pain and the success of shock wave therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, K; Herbert, C; Schostok, T; Brown, M; Thiele, R

    2001-06-01

    Patients who have had successful treatment for either chronic heel pain (plantar fasciitis) or humeral epicondylitis subsequently were evaluated for a comparable problem in the contralateral heel or elbow. Patients who had experienced symptoms in the contralateral heel or elbow for a shorter period were less likely to have a positive result from shock wave therapy than those patients who had received treatments for more chronic symptoms.

  14. Experimental Study of Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strongly Correlated Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency dust acoustic waves (DAW) were excited in a laboratory argon dusty plasma by modulating the discharge voltage with a low frequency AC signal. Metallic graphite particles were used as dust grains and a digital FFT technique was used to obtain dispersion characteristics. The experimental dispersion relation shows the reduction of phase velocity and a regime where $\\partial \\omega/\\partial k < 0$. A comparison is made with existing theoretical model.

  15. Correlates of Osteoprotegerin and Association with Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Appel, Lawrence; Wolf, Myles; Budoff, Matt J.; Chen, Jing; Lustigova, Eva; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Glenn, Melanie; Hanish, Asaf; Raj, Dominic; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Weir, Matthew R.; Parekh, Rulan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a cytokine that regulates bone resorption, has been implicated in the process of vascular calcification and stiffness. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Serum OPG was measured in 351 participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from one site of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Cortical bone mineral content (BMC) was measured by quantitative computed tomography in the tibia. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between serum OPG and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, measures of abnormal bone and mineral metabolism, and pulse wave velocity. Results Higher serum OPG levels were associated with older age, female gender, greater systolic BP, lower estimated GFR, and lower serum albumin. OPG was not associated with measures of abnormal bone or mineral metabolism including serum phosphorus, albumin-corrected serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, or cortical BMC. Among 226 participants with concurrent aortic pulse wave velocity measurements, increasing tertiles of serum OPG were associated with higher aortic pulse wave velocity after adjustment for demographics, traditional vascular risk factors, and nontraditional risk factors such as estimated GFR, albuminuria, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, serum albumin, and C-reactive protein or after additional adjustment for cortical BMC in a subset (n = 161). Conclusions These data support a strong relationship between serum OPG and arterial stiffness independent of many potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism, and inflammation. PMID:21940840

  16. Investigations of Passive Seismic Body-Wave Interferometry Using Noise Auto-correlations for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, C.; Nowack, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the positive lags of the auto-correlation for the seismic transmission response of a layered medium correspond to the reflection seismogram (Claerbout, 1968). In this study, we investigate the use of ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms for frequencies up to 1 Hz. The goal is to determine the most suitable parameters used for the processing of ambient seismic noise for the identification of crustal and upper mantle reflections and to minimize unwanted artifacts in the noise correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave components of the Green's function beneath a station, a number of processing steps are required. We first remove the instrument response and apply a temporal normalization to remove the effects of the most energetic sources. Next we implement spectral whitening. We test several operators for the spectral whitening where the undulations of the power spectrum are related to the strengths of later arrivals in the auto-correlation. Different filters are then applied to the auto-correlation functions, including Gaussian and zero phase Butterworth filters, in order to reduce the effect of side lobes. Hourly auto-correlations are then stacked for up to one year. On the final stack, Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is applied to equalize the correlation amplitudes in the time domain. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlation is first tested on selected TA stations in Nevada, where we are able to identify PmP and SmS arrivals similar to those found by Tibuleac and von Seggern (2012). We then investigate noise auto-correlations applied to selected USArray TA stations in the central US.

  17. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...

  18. Correlation between convection electric fields in the nightside magnetosphere and several wave and particle phenomena during two isolated substorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.; Unwin, R. S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heacock, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Correlation of several magnetoionospheric wave and particle phenomena previously linked observationally to magnetospheric substorms and inferred to involve convection electric fields with whistler measurements of convection activity during two relatively isolated substorms. The events occurred at about 0600 UT on July 15, 1965, and about 0500 UT on Oct. 13, 1965. The correlated phenomena include cross-L inward plasma drifts near midnight within the plasmaphere, diffuse auroral radar echoes observed near the dusk meridian, IPDP micropulsations (intervals of pulsations of diminishing period) in the premidnight sector, apparent contractions and expansions of the plasma sheet at about 20 earth radii in the magnetotail, and Pc 1/Pi 1 micropulsation events near or before midnight. Two new vlf phenomena occurred during the October 13 event - a noise band within the plasmasphere associated with a convecting whistler path, and ?hisslers,' falling-tone auroral-hiss forms repeated at intervals of about 2 sec.

  19. A Stochastic Wave Model Interpretation of Correlation Functions for Turbulent Shear Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    narrow band (frequency filtered) correlation function data. Next, the power spectral density function is identified as the appropriate frequency weighting... density function which agrees with the observed data is taken to be the superposition of a strong, unorganized background turbulence (Markoff noise...function with which to synthesize the broad band (unfiltered) from the narrow band correlation functions. The functional form of the power spectral

  20. Correlation between Shear Wave Velocity and Porosity in Porous Solids and Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kováčik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity dependence on porosity was modelled using percolation theory model for the shear modulus porosity dependence. The obtained model is not a power law dependence (no simple scaling with porosity, but a more complex equation. Control parameters of this equation are shear wave velocity of bulk solid, percolation threshold of the material and the characteristic power law exponent for shear modulus porosity dependence. This model is suitable for all porous materials, mortars and porous rocks filled with liquid or gas. In the case of pores filled with gas the model can be further simplified: The term for the ratio of the gas density to the density of solid material can be omitted in the denominator (the ratio is usually in the range of (10−4, 10−3 for all solids. This simplified equation was then tested on the experimental data set for porous ZnO filled with air. Due to lack of reasonable data the scientists are encouraged to test the validity of proposed model using their experimental data.

  1. Extraction of ionization spectra from correlated wave functions: a comparison between different methods

    CERN Document Server

    Argenti, Luca; Feist, Johannes; Nagele, Stefan; Liertzer, Matthias; Persson, Emil; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Lindroth, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We compare three techniques to extract partial photoelectron spectra from the wave packet resulting from the integration on a finite-element discrete variable representation basis of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for an helium atom subject to an ultra-short XUV pulse. These techniques are: projection on products of hydrogenic bound and continuum states, projection onto multi-channel scattering states computed in a B-spline close-coupling basis, and a technique based on exterior complex scaling (ECS) [Palacios \\emph{et al}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 76}, 043420 (2007)] implemented in the same basis used for the time propagation. These methods allow to monitor the population of continuum states in wave packets created with ultrashort pulses in different regimes. The first method works well at the energies where the ionization continuum is unstructured while it becomes inefficient close to threshold openings due to the presence of long-lived metastable states or of vanishingly slow photofragments. The agreem...

  2. Constraints on structural evolution from correlations between hydraulic properties and P-wave velocities during brittle faulting of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Benedikt; Duda, Mandy; Renner, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    One of the key challenges in geophysics concerns the derivation of structure and state of rocks and rock formations from constraints on the spatial distribution of their physical properties, as gained from laboratory experiments, borehole logging, and surveys at the surface covering scales from centimeters to kilometers. The use of information from the propagation of elastic waves constitutes the most common approach to derive the structure and state of rocks, if direct information on in-situ properties is limited (e.g., through boreholes) or inaccessible. Furthermore, the determination of hydraulic rock properties serves the dual purpose of constraining structure and providing the basis for predictions of the behavior of a system of interest during continued fluid injection or production, as associated with, e.g., exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs, operation of subsurface liquid-waste repositories, or geothermal energy provision. In-situ, wave observations potentially provide better coverage of rock volumes (in space and time) than hydraulic investigations and thus constraints on correlations between elastic and hydraulic properties bear the potential to improve subsurface characterization. In our laboratory study, we continuously monitored hydraulic properties and elastic wave velocities of porous Wilkeson sandstone samples during conventional triaxial deformation. Confining pressures applied in the tests cover the range from below to above the critical pressure for crack closure to control the state of pre-existing cracks. Hydraulic properties were determined using the oscillatory pore-pressure method owing to its benefits regarding continuous and highly resolved monitoring of permeability and specific storage capacity during deformation and even imminent localized failure. The magnitude of the deformation-associated variations in the monitored physical properties strongly depends on initial microstructure and degree of hydrostatically induced crack closure

  3. Recovery of correlation function of internal random rough surfaces from diffusely scattered elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Craster, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    We propose an ultrasonic methodology to reconstruct the height correlation function of remotely inaccessible random rough surfaces in solids. The inverse method is based on the Kirchhoff approximation(KA), and it requires measuring the angular distribution of diffuse scattering intensities by sending in a narrow band incident pulse. Near field scattering effects are also included by considering the Fresnel assumption. The proposed approach is successfully verified by simulating the scattering from multiple realizations of rough surfaces whose correlation function is known, calculating the mean scattering intensities from these received signals, and then deploying the inverse method on these to reconstruct the original correlation function. Very good agreement between the reconstructed correlation function and the original is found, for a wide range of roughness parameters. In addition, the effect of reducing the number of realizations to approximate the mean intensity are investigated, providing confidence bounds for the experiment. An experiment on a corrugated rough surface is performed with a limited number of scans using a phased array, which further validates the proposed inversion algorithm.

  4. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of light generated by scattering of Young’s diffractive electromagnetic waves by a quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan

    2016-11-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, formulas are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of light generated by a Young’s diffractive electromagnetic wave scattered by a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. It is shown that the CIF of the scattered field can be written as the summation of the Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potentials. The differences between our results and those obtained in the previous literature are discussed. Our results might be important in investigating the high-order intensity correlation of an electromagnetic wave scattered from a 3D anisotropic object.

  5. Dropping Sigma-Meson Mass and In-Medium S-Wave pion-pion Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aouissat, Z; Schuck, P; Wambach, J

    1999-01-01

    The influence of a dropping sigma-meson mass on previously calculated in-medium pion-pion correlations in the J=I=0 (sigma-meson) channel is investigated. It is found that the invariant-mass distribution around the vacuum threshold experiences a further strong enhancement with respect to standard many-body effects. The relevance of this result for the explanation of recent $A(\\pi,2\\pi)X$ data is pointed out.

  6. A Cross-correlation method to search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and Virgo

    CERN Document Server

    Bignotto, M; Camarda, M; Cerdonio, M; Conti, L; Drago, M; Falferi, P; Liguori, N; Longo, S; Mezzena, R; Mion, A; Ortolan, A; Prodi, G A; Re, V; Salemi, F; Taffarello, L; Vedovato, G; Vinante, A; Vitale, S; Zendri, J P; Acernese, F; Alshourbagy, M; Amico, P; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Astone, P; Avino, S; Baggio, L; Ballardin, G; Barone, F; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bauer, T S; Bigotta, S; Birindelli, S; Boccara, C; Bondu, F; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brillet, A; Brisson, V; Buskulic, D; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Campagna, E; Carbognani, F; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cesarini, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Clapson, A C; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Corda, C; Corsi, A; Cottone, F; Coulon, J P; Cuoco, E; D'Antonio, S; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Davier, M; De Rosa, R; Del Prete, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Evans, M; Fafone, V; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Gammaitoni, L; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Giordano, L; Granata, V; Greverie, C; Grosjean, D; Guidi, G; Hamdani, S; Hebri, S; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Huet, D; Kreckelbergh, S; La Penna, P; Laval, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a method to search for transient GWs using a network of detectors with different spectral and directional sensitivities: the interferometer Virgo and the bar detector AURIGA. The data analysis method is based on the measurements of the correlated energy in the network by means of a weighted cross-correlation. To limit the computational load, this coherent analysis step is performed around time-frequency coincident triggers selected by an excess power event trigger generator tuned at low thresholds. The final selection of GW candidates is performed by a combined cut on the correlated energy and on the significance as measured by the event trigger generator. The method has been tested on one day of data of AURIGA and Virgo during September 2005. The outcomes are compared to the results of a stand-alone time-frequency coincidence search. We discuss the advantages and the limits of this approach, in view of a possible future joint search between AURIGA and one interferometric detector.

  7. Inhomogeneities in a strongly correlated d-wave superconductors in the limit of strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The complex interplay of the strong correlations and impurities in a high temperature superconductor is analyzed within a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, augmented with Gutzwiller approximation for taking care of the strong electronic repulsion. The inclusion of such correlations is found to play a crucial role in reducing inhomogeneities in both qualitative and quantitative manner. This difference is comprehended by investigating the underlying one-particle ``normal states'' that includes the order parameters in the Hartree and Fock channels in the absence of superconductivity. This amounts to the renormalization of disorder both on the lattice sites and also on links. These two components of disorder turn out to be spatially anti-correlated through self-consistency. Interestingly, a simple pairing theory in terms of these normal states is found to describe the complex behaviors of dirty cuprates with reasonable accuracy. However, this framework needs modifications in the limit where disorder strengths are comparable to the band width. We will discuss appropriate updates in the formalism to describe physics of inhomogeneities with strong disorder.

  8. All correlations must die: Assessing the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Lentati, L.; Babak, S.; Brem, P.; Gair, J. R.; Sesana, A.; Vecchio, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present two methods for determining the significance of a stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background affecting a pulsar-timing array, where detection is based on evidence for quadrupolar spatial correlations between pulsars. Rather than constructing noise simulations, we eliminate the GWB spatial correlations in the true data sets to assess detection significance with all real data features intact. In our first method, we perform random phase shifts in the signal-model basis functions. This phase shifting eliminates signal phase coherence between pulsars, while keeping the statistical properties of the pulsar timing residuals intact. We then explore a method to null correlations between pulsars by using a "scrambled" overlap-reduction function in the signal model for the array. This scrambled function is orthogonal to what we expect of a real GW background signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of these methods using Bayesian model selection on a set of simulated data sets that contain a stochastic GW signal, timing noise, undiagnosed glitches, and uncertainties in the Solar system ephemeris. Finally, we introduce an overarching formalism under which these two techniques are naturally linked. These methods are immediately applicable to all current pulsar-timing array data sets, and should become standard tools for future analyses.

  9. Analytic, group-theoretic wave functions for confined, correlated N-body systems with general two-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M.; Watson, D. K.; Loeser, J. G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an analytic N-body wave function for identical particles under quantum confinement with a general two-body interaction. A systematic approach to correlation is developed by combining three theoretical methods: dimensional perturbation theory, the FG method of Wilson et. al., and the group theory of the symmetric group. Analytic results are achieved for a completely general interaction potential. Unlike conventional perturbation methods which are applicable only for weakly interacting systems, this analytic approach is applicable to both weakly and strongly interacting systems. This method directly accounts for each two-body interaction, rather than an average interaction so even lowest-order results include beyond-mean-field effects. One major advantage is that N appears as a parameter in the analytical expressions for the energy so results for different N are easy to obtain.

  10. Wave function and strange correlator of short-range entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Bi, Zhen; Rasmussen, Alex; Slagle, Kevin; Xu, Cenke

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate the following conclusion: If |Ψ⟩ is a one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) nontrivial short-range entangled state and |Ω⟩ is a trivial disordered state defined on the same Hilbert space, then the following quantity (so-called "strange correlator") C(r,r('))=⟨Ω|ϕ(r)ϕ(r('))|Ψ⟩/⟨Ω|Ψ⟩ either saturates to a constant or decays as a power law in the limit |r-r(')|→+∞, even though both |Ω⟩ and |Ψ⟩ are quantum disordered states with short-range correlation; ϕ(r) is some local operator in the Hilbert space. This result is obtained based on both field theory analysis and an explicit computation of C(r,r(')) for four different examples: 1D Haldane phase of spin-1 chain, 2D quantum spin Hall insulator with a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, 2D spin-2 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state on the square lattice, and the 2D bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase with Z(2) symmetry. This result can be used as a diagnosis for short-range entangled states in 1D and 2D.

  11. 3D shear-wave velocity structure of the eastern Tennessee seismic zone from ambient noise correlation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroucau, Pierre; Kuponiyi, Ayodeji; Vlahovic, Gordana; Powell, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (ETSZ) is an intraplate seismic region characterized by frequent but low magnitude earthquakes and is the second most active seismic area in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. One key question in the ETSZ is the actual relationship between earthquake distribution and geological structure at depth. Seismicity is mostly confined in the Precambrian basement, below the Paleozoic cover of the southern Appalachian foreland fold-and-thrust belt and shows little to no correlation with surface geological features. Since the middle of the seventies, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) has installed and maintained several seismic networks in central and eastern United States. In this work, we use Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion information obtained from cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise at 24 short-period stations located in the vicinity of the ETSZ. The 3D velocity structure is estimated in four steps. First, dispersion curves are obtained for simultaneously recording station pairs for periods ranging from 2 to 20 s. Then, 2D group and phase velocity maps are determined for each period. Those maps are further used to reconstruct dispersion curves at fixed, regularly spaced locations. For each of these locations, a 1D shear-wave velocity profile is finally inverted for, that takes velocity information from previous studies into account. By providing new information about the upper crustal structure of this region, this work is a contribution to the understanding of the seismic activity of the ETSZ, and -to a broader extent- of the structure and evolution of the North American lithosphere.

  12. Correlated dynamics of the motion of proton-hole wave packets in a photoionized water cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Vendrell, Oriol; Santra, Robin

    2013-01-18

    We explore the correlated dynamics of an electron hole and a proton after ionization of a protonated water cluster by extreme ultraviolet light. An ultrafast decay mechanism is found in which the proton-hole dynamics after the ionization are driven by electrostatic repulsion and involve a strong coupling between the nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom. We describe the system by a quantum-dynamical approach and show that nonadiabatic effects are a key element of the mechanism by which electron and proton repel each other and become localized at opposite sides of the cluster. Based on the generality of the decay mechanism, similar effects may be expected for other ionized systems featuring hydrogen bonds.

  13. Correlation between propagation loss and silicon dioxide film properties for surface acoustic wave devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Satoru; Miura, Michio; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Satoh, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya

    2013-05-01

    The correlation between the propagation loss and SiO2 film properties has been studied for temperature-compensated SAW devices using the SiO2/LiNbO3 structure. The SAW devices were prepared under different deposition temperatures for SiO2 film. Although they possessed excellent temperature coefficient of elasticity characteristics, devices prepared at lower temperature showed lower Q-factors. The SiO2 films were also deposited on a Si substrate under the same deposition conditions used for the SAW device preparation. Optical characterization was performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), spectrometer measurement, and Raman spectroscopy. IR absorbance spectra were almost same in the FT-IR measurement. However, optical attenuation in the UV region decreased with the deposition temperature in the spectrometer measurement. The optical attenuation is caused by the increase of the extinction coefficient in the SiO2 layer, and its optical wavelength dependence indicated that observed excess attenuation is caused by Rayleigh scattering. The Raman scattering also decreased with the deposition temperature in the Raman spectroscopy. The scattering is caused by the distortion of the SiO2 network. These results indicate that the Rayleigh scattering caused by the distortion of the SiO2 network is the main contributor to the excess SAW propagation loss in this case.

  14. A Model-Based Cross-Correlation Search for Gravitational Waves from Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, John T; Zhang, Yuanhao; Peiris, Prabath

    2015-01-01

    We consider the cross-correlation search for periodic GWs and its potential application to the LMXB Sco X-1. This method coherently combines data from different detectors at the same time, as well as different times from the same or different detectors. By adjusting the maximum time offset between a pair of data segments to be coherently combined, one can tune the method to trade off sensitivity and computing costs. In particular, the detectable signal amplitude scales as the inverse fourth root of this coherence time. The improvement in amplitude sensitivity for a search with a coherence time of 1hr, compared with a directed stochastic background search with 0.25Hz wide bins is about a factor of 5.4. We show that a search of 1yr of data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with a coherence time of 1hr would be able to detect GWs from Sco X-1 at the level predicted by torque balance over a range of signal frequencies from 30-300Hz; if the coherence time could be increased to 10hr, the range would be 20-500Hz...

  15. Wave intensity analysis in mice: age-related changes in WIA peaks and correlation with cardiac indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, Nicole; Kusmic, Claudia; Stea, Francesco; Faita, Francesco

    2016-11-03

    Mouse models are increasingly employed in the comprehension of cardiovascular disease. Wave Intensity Analysis (WIA) can provide information about the interaction between the vascular and the cardiac system. We investigate age-associated changes in WIA-derived parameters in mice and correlate them with biomarkers of cardiac function. Sixteen wild-type male mice were imaged with high-resolution ultrasound (US) at 8 weeks (T 0) and 25 weeks (T 1) of age. Carotid pulse wave velocity (PWV) was calculated from US images using the diameter-velocity loop and employed to evaluate WIA. Amplitudes of the first (W 1) and the second (W 2) local maxima, local minimum (W b) and the reflection index (RI = W b/W 1) were assessed. Cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and stroke volume (SV) were evaluated; longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain and strain rate values (LS, LSR, RS, RSR, CS, CSR) were obtained through strain analysis. W 1 (T 0: 4.42e-07 ± 2.32e-07 m(2)/s; T 1: 2.21e-07 ± 9.77 m(2)/s), W 2 (T 0: 2.45e-08 ± 9.63e-09 m(2)/s; T 1: 1.78e-08 ± 7.82 m(2)/s), W b (T 0: -8.75e-08 ± 5.45e-08 m(2)/s; T 1: -4.28e-08 ± 2.22e-08 m(2)/s), CO (T 0: 19.27 ± 4.33 ml/min; T 1: 16.71 ± 2.88 ml/min), LS (T 0: 17.55 ± 3.67%; T 1: 15.05 ± 2.89%), LSR (T 0: 6.02 ± 1.39 s(-1); T 1: 5.02 ± 1.25 s(-1)), CS (T 0: 27.5 ± 5.18%; T 1: 22.66 ± 3.09%) and CSR (T 0: 10.03 ± 2.55 s(-1); T 1: 7.50 ± 1.84 s(-1)) significantly reduced with age. W 1 was significantly correlated with CO (R = 0.58), EF (R = 0.72), LS (R = 0.65), LSR (R = 0.89), CS (R = 0.61), CSR (R = 0.70) at T 0; correlations were lost at T 1. The decrease in W 1 and W 2 suggests a cardiac performance reduction, while that in Wb, considering unchanged RI, might indicate a wave energy decrease. The loss of correlation between WIA-derived and cardiac parameters might reflect an alteration in cardiovascular interaction.

  16. Multi-Configuration Distorted-Wave Approximation in Electron-Impact Ionization of Ar6+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Si-Liang; LI Ping; FANG Quan-Yu; QIU Yu-Bo; LI Yue-Ming; YAN Jun; WANG Jian-Guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ A quasi-relativistic distorted-wave approximation is developed to investigate the direct electron-impact ionization processes, in which the configuration interactions are considered in the initial andfinalstates of target. As an example, the direct detailed-level electron-impact ionization cross sections for the ground and low excited states of Ar6+(3s2, 3p2, 3s3d) are calculated in the energy range from 1.02 to 15Ith (Ith the ionization threshold). Comparison with the available data demonstrates that our results are reasonable. The effects of configuration interactions are discussed, and the validity of transformation principles by statistical weights between configuration-averaged and detailed-level electron-impact ionization cross sections is analysed.

  17. Chaotic diffusion in steady wavy vortex flow-Dependence on wave state and correlation with Eulerian symmetry measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G P [Instituto de Oceanografia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Rudman, Murray [CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, P.O. Box 56, Highett, Vic. 3190 (Australia); Rowlands, G [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gkinglisboa@gmail.com, E-mail: Murray.Rudman@csiro.au, E-mail: G.Rowlands@warwick.ac.uk

    2008-01-31

    The dimensionless effective axial diffusion coefficient, D{sub z}, calculated from particle trajectories in steady wavy vortex flow in a narrow gap Taylor-Couette system, has been determined as a function of Reynolds number (R = Re/Re{sub c}), axial wavelength ({lambda}{sub z}), and the number of azimuthal waves (m). Two regimes of Reynolds number were found: (i) when R < 3.5, D{sub z} has a complex and sometimes multi-modal dependence on Reynolds number; (ii) when R > 3.5, D{sub z} decreases monotonically. Eulerian quantities measuring the departure from rotational symmetry, {psi}{sub {theta}}, and flexion-free flow, {psi}{sub {nu}}, were calculated. The space-averaged quantities {phi}-bar{sub {theta}} and {phi}-bar{sub {nu}} were found to have, unlike D{sub z}, a simple unimodal dependence on R. In the low R regime the correlation between D{sub z} and {psi}{sub {theta}}{psi}{sub {nu}} was complicated and was attributed to variations in the spatial distribution of the wavy disturbance occurring in this range of R. In the large R regime, however, the correlation simplified to D{sub z}{approx}{phi}-bar{sub {theta}}{phi}-bar{sub {nu}} for all wave states, and this was attributed to the growth of an integrable vortex core and the concentration of the wavy disturbance into narrow regions near the outflow and inflow jets. A reservoir model of a wavy vortex was used to determine the rate of escape across the outflow and inflow boundaries, the size of the 'escape basins' (associated with escape across the outflow and inflow boundaries), and the size of the trapping region in the vortex core. In the low R regime after the breakup of all KAM tori, the outflow basin ({gamma}{sub O}) is larger than the inflow basin ({gamma}{sub I}), and both {gamma}{sub O} and {gamma}{sub I} are (approximately) independent of R. In the large R regime, with increasing Reynolds number the trapping region grows, the outflow basin decreases, and the inflow basin shows a slight increase

  18. Communication: Development of standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and its application to the lateral diffusion of lipids in a supported lipid bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otosu, Takuhiro; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2017-07-01

    We present standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SEW-FCS). This technique utilizes the interference of two evanescent waves which generates a standing evanescent-wave. Fringe-pattern illumination created by a standing evanescent-wave enables us to measure the diffusion coefficients of molecules with a super-resolution corresponding to one fringe width. Because the fringe width can be reliably estimated by a simple procedure, utilization of fringes is beneficial to quantitatively analyze the slow diffusion of molecules in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), a model biomembrane formed on a solid substrate, with the timescale relevant for reliable FCS analysis. Furthermore, comparison of the data between SEW-FCS and conventional total-internal reflection FCS, which can also be performed by the SEW-FCS instrument, effectively eliminates the artifact due to afterpulsing of the photodiode detector. The versatility of SEW-FCS is demonstrated by its application to various SLBs.

  19. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by surface acoustic waves: Gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussonnière, A.; Baudoin, M.; Brunet, P.; Matar, O. Bou

    2016-05-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed, the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or, more generally, by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In turn, we elucidate the origin of the resonance frequency shift, as well as the origin of the strong correlation between oscillatory and translational motion. We show that for sessile drops, the velocity is mainly determined by the amplitude of oscillation and that the saturation observed is due to the nonlinear dependence of the drop response frequency on the dynamically induced stretching.

  20. Phase correlation between four-wave mixing and optical fields in double Λ-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Taek; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-12-12

    We study the spectral features and phase of four-wave mixing (FWM) light according to the relative phase-noise of the optical fields coupled to a double Λ-type atomic system of the 5S1/2-5P1/2 transition of 87Rb atoms. We observe that the spectral shape of the FWM spectrum is identical to that of the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum due to two-photon coherence and that it is independent of the relative phase-noise of the pump light. From these results, we clarify that the two-photon coherence plays a very important role in the FWM process. Furthermore, we measure the relative linewidth of the FWM signal to the probe and pump lasers by means of a beat interferometer. We confirmed that the phase of the FWM signal is strongly correlated with that of the pump laser under the condition of phase-locked probe and coupling lasers for two-photon coherence.

  1. Far-field correlation of bidirectional tracking beams due to wave-front deformation in inter-satellites optical communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Zhongtian; Ma, Jing; Wu, Feng; Tan, Liying

    2015-03-23

    In some applications of optical communication systems, such as inter-satellites optical communication, the correlation of the bidirectional tracking beams changes in far-field as a result of wave-front deformation. Far-field correlation model with wave-front deformation on tracking stability is established. Far-field correlation function and factor have been obtained. Combining with parameters of typical laser communication systems, the model is corrected. It shows that deformation pointing-tracking errors θ(A) and θ(B), far-field correlation factor δ depend on RMS of deformation error rms, which decline with a increasing rms including Tilt and Coma. The principle of adjusting far-field correlation factor with wave-front deformation to compensate deformation pointing-tracking errors has been given, through which the deformation pointing-tracking error is reduced to 18.12″ (Azimuth) and 17.65″ (Elevation). Work above possesses significant reference value on optimization design in inter-satellites optical communication.

  2. Quantum correlations by four-wave mixing in an atomic vapor in a non-amplifying regime: a quantum beam splitter for photons

    CERN Document Server

    Glorieux, Quentin; Guibal, Samuel; Likforman, Jean-Pierre; Coudreau, Thomas; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053826

    2011-01-01

    We study the generation of intensity quantum correlations using four-wave mixing in a rubidium vapor. The absence of cavity in these experiments allows to deal with several spatial modes simultaneously. In the standard, amplifying, configuration, we measure relative intensity squeezing up to 9.2 dB below the standard quantum limit. We also theoretically identify and experimentally demonstrate an original regime where, despite no overall amplification, quantum correlations are generated. In this regime a four-wave mixing set-up can therefore play the role of a photonic beam splitter with non--classical properties, i.e. a device that splits a coherent state input into two quantum correlated beams.

  3. Correlation Analysis Algorithm for Transmission Line Fault Location Based on Travelling Wave%行波相关法的输电线路故障定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜林; 庞军; 司马文霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced correlation method to locate transmission line fault. First it described the principle of transmission line fault location based on traveling waves. The principle of correlation analysis is introduced, then the method using correlation analysis in fault location is given. Transmission line model is established with EMTP-ATP. Basing on the model, some kinds of fault are simulated. The feasibility of this algorithm is proved based on simulation results. By comparing with the classical wavelet analysis, this paper gave the advantages of this algorithm in two cases:noise influence suppression and accuracy of near distance fault location. Experiment is established to simulate transmission line grounding fault. The experiment result showed the correlation algorithm's validity . All the analysis result indicated that the correlation algorithm have a high precision.

  4. A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2017-05-01

    Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a 3 year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistler-mode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct butterfly distributions usually correspond to magnetosonic waves with larger amplitudes and vice versa. The averaged magnetosonic wave amplitude is less than 5 pT in the case of normal and flat-top distributions with a butterfly index BI =1 but reaches ˜50-95 pT in the case of distinct butterfly distributions with BI >1.3. For magnetosonic waves with amplitudes >50 pT, the occurrence rate of butterfly distribution is above 80%. Our study suggests that energetic electron butterfly distributions in the slot region are primarily caused by magnetosonic waves.

  5. Cross-correlation search for continuous gravitational waves from a compact object in SNR 1987A in LIGO Science Run 5

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L; Lasky, P D; Chung, C T Y; Darman, N S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a cross-correlation search for gravitational waves from SNR 1987A using the second year of LIGO Science Run 5 data. The frequency band 75--450\\,Hz is searched. No evidence of gravitational waves is found. A 90\\% confidence upper limit of $h_0 \\leq 3.8\\times10^{-25}$ is placed on the gravitational wave strain at the most sensitive frequency near 150\\,Hz. This corresponds to an ellipticity of $\\epsilon \\leq 8.2\\times10^{-4}$ and improves on previously published strain upper limits by a factor $\\approx4$. We perform a comprehensive suite of validations of the search algorithm and identify several computational savings which marginally sacrifice sensitivity in order to streamline the parameter space being searched. We estimate detection thresholds and sensitivities through Monte-Carlo simulations.

  6. Auto correlation analysis of coda waves from local earthquakes for detecting temporal changes in shallow subsurface structures - The 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, H.

    2013-12-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures, I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Because the use of coda waves requires earthquakes, time resolution for monitoring decreases. But at regions with high seismicity, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions. Studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw 9.0), Japan, earthquake for which velocity changes have been already reported by previous studies, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in the analysis. For each moderate earthquake, normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in arrival times of phases. The phases at lag times of less than 1s are studied because changes at shallow depths are focused. Based on the stretching method, temporal variations in the arrival times are measured at the stations. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. Amounts of the phase delays are in the order of 10% on average with the maximum of about 50% at some stations. For validation, the deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations are conducted. The results show that the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percents, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable to detect larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is

  7. Crossover from Weakly to Strongly Correlated Regions in the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model — Off-diagonal Wave Function Monte Carlo Studies of Hubbard Model II —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.

  8. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  9. Time-domain Implementation of the Optimal Cross-Correlation Statistic for Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background Searches in Pulsar Timing Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlin, Sydney J; Demorest, Paul B; Ellis, Justin; Price, Larry R; Romano, Joseph D; Siemens, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries, cosmic strings, relic gravitational waves from inflation, and first order phase transitions in the early universe are expected to contribute to a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the 10^(-9) Hz-10^(-7) Hz frequency band. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) exploit the high precision timing of radio pulsars to detect signals at such frequencies. Here we present a time-domain implementation of the optimal cross-correlation statistic for stochastic background searches in PTA data. Due to the irregular sampling typical of PTA data as well as the use of a timing model to predict the times-of-arrival of radio pulses, time-domain methods are better suited for gravitational wave data analysis of such data. We present a derivation of the optimal cross-correlation statistic starting from the likelihood function, a method to produce simulated stochastic background signals, and a rigorous derivation of the scaling laws for the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation statist...

  10. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    presented target stimulus. In addition to the task requirements, irrelevant tones were presented in the background. Research has shown that even though these stimuli are not attended, ERP's to them can still be elicited. The amplitude of the ERP waves has been shown to change as a function of a person's level of alertness. ERP's were also collected and analyzed for the target stimuli for each task. Brain maps were produced based on the ERP voltages for the different stimuli. In addition to the ERP's, a quantitative EEG (QEEG) was performed on the data using a fast Fourier technique to produce a power spectral analysis of the EEG. This analysis was conducted on the continuous EEG while the subjects were performing the tasks. Finally, a QEEG was performed on periods during the task when subjects indicated that they were in an altered state of awareness. During the tasks, subjects were asked to indicate by pressing a button when they realized their level of task awareness had changed. EEG epochs were collected for times just before and just after subjects made this reponse. The purpose of this final analysis was to determine whether or not subjective indices of level of awareness could be correlated with different patterns of EEG.

  11. On the (In)Efficiency of the Cross-Correlation Statistic for Gravitational Wave Stochastic Background Signals with Non-Gaussian Noise and Heterogeneous Detector Sensitivities

    CERN Document Server

    Lionel, Martellini

    2015-01-01

    Under standard assumptions including stationary and serially uncorrelated Gaussian gravitational wave stochastic background signal and noise distributions, as well as homogenous detector sensitivities, the standard cross-correlation detection statistic is known to be optimal in the sense of minimizing the probability of a false dismissal at a fixed value of the probability of a false alarm. The focus of this paper is to analyze the comparative efficiency of this statistic, versus a simple alternative statistic obtained by cross-correlating the \\textit{squared} measurements, in situations that deviate from such standard assumptions. We find that differences in detector sensitivities have a large impact on the comparative efficiency of the cross-correlation detection statistic, which is dominated by the alternative statistic when these differences reach one order of magnitude. This effect holds even when both the signal and noise distributions are Gaussian. While the presence of non-Gaussian signals has no mate...

  12. Correlation consistent basis sets for molecular core-valence effects with explicitly correlated wave functions: The atoms B-Ne and Al-Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. Grant; Mazumder, Shivnath; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2010-02-01

    Correlation consistent basis sets have been optimized for accurately describing core-core and core-valence correlation effects with explicitly correlated F12 methods. The new sets, denoted cc-pCVnZ-F12 (n =D, T, Q) and aug-cc-pCF12VnZ (n =D, T, Q, 5), were developed by augmenting the cc-pVnZ-F12 and aug-cc-pVnZ families of basis sets with additional functions whose exponents were optimized based on the difference between all-electron and valence-electron correlation energies. The number of augmented functions added is fewer, in general, than in the standard cc-pCVnZ and cc-pwCVnZ families of basis sets. Optimal values of the geminal Slater exponent for use with these basis sets in MP2-F12 calculations are presented and are also recommended for CCSD-F12b calculations. Auxiliary basis sets for use in the resolution of the identity approximation in explicitly correlated calculations have also been optimized and matched to the new cc-pCVnZ-F12 series of orbital basis sets. The cc-pCVnZ-F12 basis sets, along with the new auxiliary sets, were benchmarked in CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of spectroscopic properties on a series of homo- and heteronuclear first and second row diatomic molecules. Comparing the effects of correlating the outer core electrons in these molecules with those from conventional CCSD(T) at the complete basis set limit, which involved calculations with new cc-pCV6Z basis sets for the second row elements that were also developed in the course of this work, it is observed that the F12 values are reasonably well converged already at just the triple-ζ level.

  13. Enhancement of the d-wave pairing correlations by charge and spin ordering in the spin-one-half Falicov-Kimball model with Hund and Hubbard coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkašovský, Pavol

    2016-08-01

    The projector quantum Monte Carlo method is used to examine the effects of the spin-independent U fd as well as spin-dependent J z Coulomb interaction between the localized f and itinerant d electrons on the stability of various types of charge/spin ordering and superconducting correlations in the spin-one-half Falicov-Kimball model with Hund and Hubbard coupling. The model is studied for a wide range of f- and d-electron concentrations and it is found that the interband interactions U fd and J z stabilize three basic types of charge/spin ordering, namely, i) the axial striped phases, ii) the regular n-molecular phases and iii) the phase-separated states. It is shown that the d-wave pairing correlations are enhanced within the axial striped and phase-separated states, but not in the regular phases. Moreover, it was found that the antiferromagnetic spin arrangement within the chains further enhances the d-wave paring correlations, while the ferromagnetic one has a fully opposite effect.

  14. Method of optical self-mixing for pulse wave transit time in comparison with other methods and correlation with blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Kattai, Rain; Karai, Deniss; Kaik, Juri

    2004-07-01

    This paper is a part of research to develop convenient method for continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure by non-invasive and non-oscillometric way. A simple optical method, using self-mixing in a diode laser, is used for detection of skin surface vibrations near the artery. These vibrations, which can reveal the pulsate propagation of blood pressure waves along the vasculature, are used for pulse wave registration. The registration of the Pulse Wave Transit Time (PWTT) is based on computing the time delay in different regions of the human body using an ECG as a reference signal. In this study, the comparison of method of optical self-mixing with other methods as photoplethysmographic (PPG) and bioimpedance (BI) for PWTT is done. Also correlation of PWTT, obtained with different methods, with arterial blood pressure is calculated. In our study, we used a group of volunteers (34 persons) who made the bicycle exercise test. The test consisted of cycling sessions of increasing workloads during which the HR changed from 60 to 180 beats per minute. In addition, a blood pressure (NIBP) was registered with standard sphygmomanometer once per minute during the test and all NIBP measurement values were synchronized to other signals to find exact time moments where the systolic blood pressure was detected (Korotkoff sounds starting point). Computer later interpolated the blood pressure signal in order to get individual value for every heart cycle. The other signals were measured continuously during all tests. At the end of every session, a recovery period was included until person's NIBP and heart rate (HR) normalized. As a result of our study it turned out that time intervals that were calculated from plethysmographic (PPG) waveforms were in the best correlation with systolic blood pressure. The diastolic pressure does not correlate with any of the parameters representing PWTT. The pulse wave signals measured by laser and piezoelectric transducer are very similar

  15. Using the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition framework to compute the three dimensional Empirical Orthogonal Functions of stratospheric planetary waves from time correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Joran; Domeisen, Daniela I. V.

    2016-04-01

    Many geophysical waves in the atmosphere or in the ocean have a three dimensional structure and contain a range of scales. This is for instance the case of planetary waves in the stratosphere connected to baroclinic eddies in the troposphere [1]. In the study of such waves from reanalysis data or output of numerical simulations, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) obtained as a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the data sets have been of great help. However, most of these computations rely on the diagonalisation of space correlation matrices: this means that the considered data set can only have a limited number of gridpoints. The main consequence is that such analyses are often only performed in planes (as function of height and latitude, or longitude and latitude for instance), which makes the educing of the three dimensional structure of the wave quite difficult. In the case of the afore mentionned waves, the matter of the longitudinal dependence or the proper correlation between modes through the tropopause is an open question. An elegant manner to circumvent this problem is to consider the output of the Orthogonal Decomposition as a whole. Indeed, it has been shown that the normalised time series of the amplitude of each EOF, far from just being decorrelated from one another, are actually another set of orthogonal functions. These can actually be computed through the diagonlisation of the time correlation matrix of the data set, just like the EOF were the result of the diagonalisation of the space correlation matrix. The signal is then fully decomposed in the framework of the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition as the sum of the nth explained variance, time the nth eigenmode of the time correlation times the nth eigenmode of the spacial correlations [2,3]. A practical consequence of this result is that the EOF can be reconstructed from the projection of the dataset onto the eigenmodes of the time correlation matrix in the so-called snapshot method [4]. This is very

  16. Ionization of helium targets by proton impact: a four-body distorted wave-eikonal initial state model and electron dynamic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Hanssen, J, E-mail: monti@ifir-conicet.gov.a [Institut de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Bv. Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-10-14

    Single ionization of dielectronic atomic targets by the impact of protons is theoretically investigated. To describe this process, a four-body distorted wave model is proposed where both electrons are considered as active ones. In particular, the case corresponding to ionization of one of the electrons while the other one remains in a bound state of the residual target is analysed. The influence of the dynamic correlation between electrons, which is included in the model through the simultaneous time coupling of their evolutions during the collision, is analysed for the proton-helium system under different physical conditions.

  17. Brain perfusion monitoring with frequency-domain and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy: a cross-correlation study in newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.; Katz, A.; Alfano, R.R. [Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers and New York State Center for Advanced Technology for Ultrafast Photonic Materials and Applications Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics, The City College of the City University of New York, 138th Street and Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Kofinas, A.D.; Kofinas, D.A.; Beyer, D. [Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Medicine, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, The Affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 121 De Kalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Stubblefield, P.G. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston University School of Medicine, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Rosenfeld, W.; Maulik, D. [Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 251 First Street, Mineola, New York 11501 (United States); Stankovic, M.R. [Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Medicine, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, The Affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 121 De Kalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston University School of Medicine, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 251 First Street, Mineola, New York 11501 (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The newborn piglet brain model was used to correlate continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy. Six ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were subjected to a series of manipulations in blood oxygenation with the effects on brain perfusion known to be associated with brain hypoxia-ischaemia. An excellent agreement between the CW and FD was demonstrated. This agreement improved when the scattering properties (determined by the FD device) were employed to calculate the differential pathlength factor, an important step in CW data processing. (author)

  18. A search for low-energy neutrinos correlated with gravitational wave events GW150914, GW151226 and GW170104 with the Borexino detector

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, M.; Altenmuller, K.; Appel, S; Atroshchenko, V.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Basilico, D.; Bellini, G; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Caprioli, S

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a low-energy neutrino search using the Borexino detector in coincidence with the gravitational wave (GW) events GW150914, GW151226 and GW170104. We searched for correlated neutrino events with energies greater than 250 keV within a time window of $\\pm500$ s centered around the GW detection time. A total of five candidates were found for all three GW150914, GW151226 and GW170104. This is consistent with the number of expected solar neutrino and background events. As a...

  19. Pulsed Wave Doppler Ultrasound Is Useful to Assess Vasomotor Response in Patients with Multiple System Atrophy and Well Correlated with Tilt Table Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Vin Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to assess sympathetic vasomotor response (SVR by using pulsed wave Doppler (PWD ultrasound in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA and correlate with the tilt table study. We recruited 18 male patients and 10 healthy men as controls. The SVR of the radial artery was evaluated by PWD, using inspiratory cough as a provocative maneuver. The response to head-up tilt was studied by a tilt table with simultaneous heart rate and blood pressure recording. The hemodynamic variables were compared between groups, and were examined by correlation analysis. Regarding SVR, MSA patients exhibited a prolonged latency and less heart rate acceleration following inspiratory cough. Compared with the tilt table test, the elevation of heart rate upon SVR was positively correlated to the increase of heart rate after head-up tilt. The correlation analysis indicated that the magnitude of blood pressure drop from supine to upright was positively associated with the SVR latency but negatively correlated with the heart rate changes upon SVR. The present study demonstrated that blunted heart rate response might explain MSA's vulnerability to postural challenge. PWD may be used to predict cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress upon head-up tilt in MSA patients.

  20. Spontaneous four-wave mixing in liquid-core fibers: towards fibered Raman-free correlated photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, M.; Zaquine, I.; Delaye, P.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the generation of correlated photon pairs in a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber. Moreover, we show that, thanks to the specific Raman properties of liquids, the Raman noise (which is the main limitation of the performance of silica-core fiber-based correlated photon pair sources) is highly reduced. With a demonstrated coincident-to-accidental ratio equal to 63 and a pair generation efficiency of about 10-4 per pump pulse, this work contributes to the development of high-quality correlated photon pair sources for quantum communications.

  1. Spontaneous four-wave mixing in liquid-core fibers: Towards fibered Raman-free correlated photon sources

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, M; Delaye, P

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the generation of correlated photon pairs in a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber. Moreover, we show that, thanks to the specific Raman properties of liquids, the Raman noise (which is the main limitation of the performance of silica-core fiber-based correlated photon pair sources) is highly reduced. With a demonstrated coincident-to-accidental ratio equal to 63 and a pair generation efficiency of about 10$^{-4}$ per pump pulse, this work opens the way for the development of high quality correlated photon pair sources for quantum communications.

  2. Research on Correlation Between Gravity Waves Energy and Jet%急流与低层大气重力波能量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 易帆

    2011-01-01

    通过分析武汉(30.5°N,114°E)上空2000至2004年的Radiosonde常规观测数据,对当地对流层(1~10 km)与低平流层(18~25 km)的某些惯性重力波特征进行了研究,发现重力波能量与急流强度变化之间存在显著的相关.同时分析了海口(20°N,114°E)(2000至2004年)、北京(40°N,116°E)(2001年12月至2003年2月)的Radiosonde观测数据并进行了比较,发现较高纬度地区的相关性明显大于低纬度地区.通过对武汉地区2006年1月5天Radiosonde加密观测数据的分析,讨论了重力波动能与势能的高度变化,进一步发现纬向风的垂直剪切与急流中心的分布分别与重力波势能和动能的强弱分布相对应.%By analyzing the routine Radiosonde data obtained at Wuhan (30.5°N, l14°E) from 2000 to 2004, some characteristics of inertial gravity wave in Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (TLS) were studied, and a strong correlation between the variation of gravity wave energy and jet intensity was found.Similar result of Wuhan was obtained by analyzing the routine Radiosonde data obtained at Haikou (20°N, 114°E) and Beijing (40°N, 116°E), and stronger correlation was found in higher latitude area.An intensive Radiosonde observation at Wuhan, which lasted 5 days in Jan 2006, was conducted to examine the variation with altitude of gravity wave kinetic energy and potential energy, and it was demonstrated that the excitation of gravity wave in TLS is attributed to jet (zonal wind shear), which suggests that it's a main excitation source of gravity wave in lower atmosphere.

  3. 毫米波辐照下大鼠脑电的长程相关性%Long-range correlations of electroencephalogram in rats irradiated by millimeter wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛嵘; 裴剑; 李芬; 张杰; 齐红星; 陈树德; 乔登江

    2011-01-01

    通过脑电长程相关性的分析,定量研究了35 GHz毫米波辐照大鼠时产生的应激反应.通过退趋势分析法,得到反映高频成分的标度指数.显示在辐照前该成分具有布朗噪声的特性,辐照时具有长程相关性;而反映低频成分的标度指数显示在辐照前该成分具有长程相关性,辐照时成为布朗噪声.引进应激指标参量低频成份标度指标数/高频成份标度指标数,用其值的平均变化率来衡量大鼠在35 GHz毫米波作用下应激反应的剧烈程度.通过计算得到辐照时应激指标参量增加了49.9%±13.6%,说明35 GHz毫米波辐照使得大鼠脑电的高频部分变得更加有序,而低频成分变得更加无序,表明大鼠受35 GHz毫米波辐照而产生了剧烈应激反应.%A quantitative study was conducted on stress reaction in rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave.Long-range correlations analysis of the rat electroencephalogram(EEG) was investigated.The scaling exponents α1 and α2 were calculated by detrended fluctuation analysis(DFA) method.The exponent α1 shows that the high frequency EEG component is characterized by Brownian noise before irradiated by 35 GHz millimeter wave while it has long-range correlations during irradiation.The exponent α2 shows that the low frequency EEG component has long-range correlations before irradiation while it is characterized by Brownian noise during irradiation.Introducing stress parameter k(k=α2/α1 ), the average change rate of k was used to evaluate the intensity of stress in rat evoked by 35 GHz millimeter wave.The k increases 49.9% ±13.6% during irradiation, which indicates that the high frequency EEG component becomes more ordered and the low frequency EEG component becomes more disordered,showing the acute stress irt rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave.

  4. Nonlinear dynamical systems effects of homeopathic remedies on multiscale entropy and correlation dimension of slow wave sleep EEG in young adults with histories of coffee-induced insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Bootzin, Richard R; Brooks, Audrey J

    2012-07-01

    Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG. Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stages 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-min segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects. MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings. Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporo-spacial correlations between cortical and subcortical EEG spike-wave complexes of the Idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, M; Velasco, F; Velasco, A L

    1997-01-01

    All-night EEG recordings of the interictal 2/s spike-wave complexes (SKW) from different cortical and subcortical regions were performed in 5 patients with atypical absences of the Idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (ILGS), in whom multicontact depth electrodes were implanted in the centromedian thalamic region as a part of a neuroaugmentive procedure for seizure control. Since during slow wave sleep III cortical spike (S2) and subcortical negative spike (NSK) consisting of simple monophasic negative potentials appeared together with a ratio of almost 1:1 and with fixed temporal relations, it was possible to determine visually the differences in peak-to-peak intervals of S2 and NSK, as well as their amplitude distribution in different cortical and subcortical structures. It was found that the peak of subcortical NSK preceded by 35 ms that of cortical S2. In addition, subcortical NSK and cortical S2 potentials attained maximal amplitude at the mesencephalic-thalamic reticular and frontal cortical regions, respectively, from which amplitude of NSK and S2 decreased with distance to other subcortical and cortical regions. These data suggest that interictal 2/s SKW of the ILGS result from ascending reticular impulses impinging upon the frontal cortical neurons.

  6. Experimental generation of quadruple quantum-correlated beams from hot rubidium vapor by cascaded four-wave mixing using spatial multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leiming; Qi, Jian; Du, Jinjian; Jing, Jietai

    2017-02-01

    Multimode quantum states, such as multipartite quantum entanglement or quantum correlations, are important for both fundamental science and the future development of quantum technologies. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally realize a scheme that can fully exploit the multi-spatial-mode nature of the four-wave-mixing (FWM) process, i.e., spatial multiplexing, and thus integrates multiple FWM processes into a single cell at each stage of the cascaded process. The number of generated quantum-correlated beams 2n is exponentially dependent on the number of vapor cells n . In addition, the quantum correlations between the multiple beams also increase as the number of vapor cell increases. For the case of n =2 , we experimentally show that the degree of intensity-difference squeezing between the four quantum-correlated beams in our scheme is enhanced to -8.2 ±0.2 dB from -5.6 ±0.3 and -6.5 ±0.2 dB of squeezing obtained with a single FWM process. Our system may find applications in quantum information and precision measurement.

  7. Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Molodij, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    I present expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence. The properties of the angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The theoretical study is completed by practical implementations that can be envisioned to determine and eventually compensate the effects of the fluctuations of the intensity during the astronomical observations. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

  8. Impurity Non-Preserving 3-Point Correlators of BMN Operators from PP-Wave Holography II Fermionic Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, S

    2006-01-01

    The holographic principle in the pp-wave limit proposed in our previous works is further confirmed by studying impurity non-preserving processes which contain a fermionic BMN operator with one scalar and one fermion impurities. We show that the previously proposed duality relation between the matrix elements of the three point interaction Hamiltonian in the holographic string field theory and the OPE coefficients in super Yang-Mills theory holds to the leading order in the large $\\mu$ limit. Operator mixing is required to obtain the BMN operator of definite conformal dimension which corresponds to the string state with one scalar and one fermion excitations. The mixing term plays a crucial role for our duality relation to be valid. Our results, combined with those in the previous papers, provide a positive support that our duality relation holds for the general process regardless of the kind of impurities and of whether impurities conserve or not.

  9. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drop excited by surface acoustic waves: gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussonière, Adrien; Brunet, Philippe; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2016-01-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or more generally by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In...

  10. Sound waves and resonances in electron-hole plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the recent experimental signatures of relativistic hydrodynamics in graphene, we investigate theoretically the behavior of hydrodynamic sound modes in such quasirelativistic fluids near charge neutrality, within linear response. Locally driving an electron fluid at a resonant frequency to such a sound mode can lead to large increases in the electrical response at the edges of the sample, a signature, which cannot be explained using diffusive models of transport. We discuss the robustness of this signal to various effects, including electron-acoustic phonon coupling, disorder, and long-range Coulomb interactions. These long-range interactions convert the sound mode into a collective plasmonic mode at low frequencies unless the fluid is charge neutral. At the smallest frequencies, the response in a disordered fluid is quantitatively what is predicted by a "momentum relaxation time" approximation. However, this approximation fails at higher frequencies (which can be parametrically small), where the classical localization of sound waves cannot be neglected. Experimental observation of such resonances is a clear signature of relativistic hydrodynamics, and provides an upper bound on the viscosity of the electron-hole plasma.

  11. Prospective Assessment of Correlation between US Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and MR Elastography in a Pediatric Population: Dispersion of US Shear-Wave Speed Measurement Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Andrew T; Dillman, Jonathan R; Xanthakos, Stavra; Kohli, Rohit; Sprague, Garrett; Serai, Suraj; Mahley, Alana D; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between ultrasonographic (US) point shear-wave elastography (SWE) and magnetic resonance (MR) elastography liver shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements in a pediatric population and to determine if US data dispersion affects this relationship. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant investigation; informed consent and patient assent (as indicated) were obtained. Patients (age range, 0-21 years) undergoing clinical liver MR elastography between July 2014 and November 2015 were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent two-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo 1.5-T MR elastography with point SWE performed immediately before or immediately after MR elastography. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship and agreement between point SWE and MR elastography SWS measurements. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify predictors of US data dispersion, with the best multivariate model selected based on Akaike information criterion. Results A total of 55 patients (24 female) were enrolled (mean age, 14.0 years ± 3.9 (standard deviation) (range, 3.5-21.4 years). There was fair correlation between point SWE and MR elastography SWS values for all patients (ρ = 0.33, P = .016). Correlation was substantial, however, when including only patients with minimal US data dispersion (n = 26, ρ = 0.61, P = .001). Mean body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with minimal US data dispersion than in those with substantial US data dispersion (25.4 kg/m(2) ± 7.8 vs 32.3 kg/m(2) ± 8.3, P = .003). At univariate analysis, BMI (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.21; P = .006) and abdominal wall thickness (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.74; P = .005) were significant predictors of US data dispersion. In the best multivariate model, BMI was the only significant predictor (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI: 1

  12. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Shiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r=-0.24, P=0.04, the estimated GFR (r=0.42, P=0.0003, cystatin C (r=-0.29, P=0.01, and urinary albumin excretion (r=-0.29, P=0.01. The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P=0.002. Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD.

  13. Chiral Spin-Density Wave, Spin-Charge-Chern Liquid, and d+id Superconductivity in 1/4-Doped Correlated Electronic Systems on the Honeycomb Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two interesting candidate quantum phases—the chiral spin-density wave state featuring anomalous quantum Hall effect and the d+id superconductor—were proposed for the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. Using a combination of exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, the variational Monte Carlo method, and quantum field theories, we study the quantum phase diagrams of both the Hubbard model and the t-J model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. The main advantage of our approach is the use of symmetry quantum numbers of ground-state wave functions on finite-size systems (up to 32 sites to sharply distinguish different quantum phases. Our results show that for 1≲U/t<40 in the Hubbard model and for 0.1wave state or a spin-charge-Chern liquid, but not a d+id superconductor. However, in the t-J model, upon increasing J, the system goes through a first-order phase transition at J/t=0.80(2 into the d+id superconductor. Here, the spin-charge-Chern liquid state is a new type of topologically ordered quantum phase with Abelian anyons and fractionalized excitations. Experimental signatures of these quantum phases, such as tunneling conductance, are calculated. These results are discussed in the context of 1/4-doped graphene systems and other correlated electronic materials on the honeycomb lattice.

  14. Frequency and wave number dependence of the shear correlator in strongly coupled hot Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kajantie, K; Vepsalainen, M; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2011-01-01

    We use AdS/QCD duality to compute the finite temperature Green's function G(omega,k;T) of the shear operator T_12 for all omega,k in hot Yang-Mills theory. The goal is to assess how the existence of scales like the transition temperature and glueball masses affects the correlator computed in the scalefree conformal N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We observe sizeable effects for T close to T_c which rapidly disappear with increasing T. Quantitative agreement of these predictions with future lattice Monte Carlo data would suggest that QCD matter in this temperature range is strongly interacting.

  15. Relativistic corrections for non-Born-Oppenheimer molecular wave functions expanded in terms of complex explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2017-06-01

    In our previous work S. Bubin et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 122 (2016), 10.1016/j.cplett.2016.01.056, it was established that complex explicitly correlated one-center all-particle Gaussian functions (CECGs) provide effective basis functions for very accurate nonrelativistic molecular non-Born-Oppenheimer calculations. In this work, we advance the molecular CECGs approach further by deriving and implementing algorithms for calculating the leading relativistic corrections within this approach. The algorithms are tested in the calculations of the corrections for all 23 bound pure vibrational states of the HD+ ion.

  16. Magnetoencephalography Slow-Wave Detection in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Ongoing Symptoms Correlated with Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb Swan, Ashley; Nichols, Sharon; Drake, Angela; Angeles, AnneMarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Ming-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common in the United States, accounting for as many as 75-80% of all TBIs. It is recognized as a significant public health concern, but there are ongoing controversies regarding the etiology of persistent symptoms post-mTBI. This constellation of nonspecific symptoms is referred to as postconcussive syndrome (PCS). The present study combined results from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and cognitive assessment to examine group differences and relationships between brain activity and cognitive performance in 31 military and civilian individuals with a history of mTBI+PCS and 33 matched healthy control subjects. An operator-free analysis was used for MEG data to increase reliability of the technique. Subjects completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and measures of abnormal slow-wave activity from MEG were collected. Results demonstrated significant group differences on measures of executive functioning and processing speed. In addition, significant correlations between slow-wave activity on MEG and patterns of cognitive functioning were found in cortical areas, consistent with cognitive impairments on exams. Results provide more objective evidence that there may be subtle changes to the neurobiological integrity of the brain that can be detected by MEG. Further, these findings suggest that these abnormalities are associated with cognitive outcomes and may account, at least in part, for long-term PCS in those who have sustained an mTBI.

  17. Correlated dynamics of the motion of proton-hole wave-packets in a photoionized water cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol; Santra, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We explore the correlated dynamics of an electron-hole and a proton after ionization of a protonated water cluster by extreme ultra-violet (XUV) light. An ultrafast decay mechanism is found in which the proton--hole dynamics after the ionization are driven by electrostatic repulsion and involve a strong coupling between the nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom. We describe the system by a quantum-dynamical approach and show that non-adiabatic effects are a key element of the mechanism by which electron and proton repel each other and become localized at opposite sides of the cluster. Based on the generality of the decay mechanism, similar effects may be expected for other ionized systems featuring hydrogen bonds.

  18. Inclusion of electron correlation for the target wave function in low- to intermediate-energy e-N2 scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherford, C. A.; Brown, F. B.; Temkin, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a recent calculation, an exact exchange method was developed for use in the partial-differential-equation approach to electron-molecule scattering and was applied to e-N2 scattering in the fixed-nuclei approximation with an adiabatic polarization potential at low energies (0-10 eV). Integrated elastic cross sections were calculated and found to be lower than experiment at energies both below and above the Pi(g) resonance. It was speculated at that time that improved experimental agreement could be obtained if a correlated target representation were used in place of the uncorrelated one. The present paper implements this suggestion and demonstrates the improved agreement. These calculations are also extended to higher energies (0-30 eV) so asd to include the Sigma(u) resonance. Some discrepancies among the experiments and between experiment and the various calculations at very low energy are noted.

  19. Development and Application of Explicitly Correlated Wave Function Based Methods for the Investigation of Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elward, Jennifer Mary

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots (QDs), are well known to have very unique optical and electronic properties. These properties can be controlled and tailored as a function of several influential factors, including but not limited to the particle size and shape, effect of composition and heterojunction as well as the effect of ligand on the particle surface. This customizable nature leads to extensive experimental and theoretical research on the capabilities of these quantum dots for many application purposes. However, in order to be able to understand and thus further the development of these materials, one must first understand the fundamental interaction within these nanoparticles. In this thesis, I have developed a theoretical method which is called electron-hole explicitly correlated Hartee-Fock (eh-XCHF). It is a variational method for solving the electron-hole Schrodinger equation and has been used in this work to study electron-hole interaction in semiconductor quantum dots. The method was benchmarked with respect to a parabolic quantum dot system, and ground state energy and electron-hole recombination probability were computed. Both of these properties were found to be in good agreement with expected results. Upon successful benchmarking, I have applied the eh-XCHF method to study optical properties of several quantum dot systems including the effect of dot size on exciton binding energy and recombination probability in a CdSe quantum dot, the effect of shape on a CdSe quantum dot, the effect of heterojunction on a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot and the effect of quantum dot-biomolecule interaction within a CdSe-firefly Luciferase protein conjugate system. As metrics for assessing the effect of these influencers on the electron-hole interaction, the exciton binding energy, electron-hole recombination probability and the average electron-hole separation distance have been computed. These excitonic properties have been found to be strongly infuenced by the

  20. Plane-wave pseudopotential implementation and performance of SCAN meta-GGA exchange-correlation functional for extended systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    We present the implementation and performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed, SCAN, meta-GGA exchange-correlation (XC) approximation in the planewave-pseudopotential (PW-PP) formalism using the Troullier-Martins pseudopotential scheme. We studied its performance by applying the PW-PP implementation to several practical applications of interest in condensed matter sciences: (a) crystalline silicon and germanium, (b) martensitic phase transition energetics of phosphorene, and (c) a single water molecule physisorption on a graphene sheet. Given the much-improved accuracy over the GGA functionals and its relatively low computational cost compared to hybrid XC functionals, the SCAN functional is highly promising for various practical applications of density functional theory calculations for condensed matter systems. At same time, the SCAN meta-GGA functional appears to require more careful attention to numerical details. The meta-GGA functional shows more significant dependence on the fast Fourier transform grid, which is used for evaluating the XC potential in real space in the PW-PP formalism, than other more conventional GGA functionals do. Additionally, using pseudopotentials that are generated at a different/lower level of XC approximation could introduce noticeable errors in calculating some properties such as phase transition energetics.

  1. Tomography 3D models of S wave from cross-correlation of seismic noise to explore irregularities of subsoil under the artificial lake of Chapultepec Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Valdes, J. E.; Escobedo-Zenil, D.

    2013-05-01

    In June 2006, the base of the artificial lake in Chapultepec Park collapsed. 20 thousand liters of water were filtered to the ground through a crack increasing the dimensions of initial gap. Studies indicated that the collapse was due to saturated material associated with a sudden and massive water filtration process. Geological studies indicates that all the area of this section the subsoil is composed of vulcano-sedimentary materials that were economically exploited in the mid-20th century, leaving a series of underground mines that were rehabilitated for the construction of the Park. Currently, the Lake is rehabilitated and running for recreational activities. In this study we have applied two methods of seismic noise correlation; seismic interferometry (SI) in time domain and the Spatial Power Auto Correlation (SPAC) in frequency domain, in order to explore the 3D subsoil velocity structure. The aim is to highlight major variations in velocity that can be associated with irregularities in the subsoil that may pose a risk to the stability of the Lake. For this purpose we use 96 vertical geophones of 4.5 Hz with 5-m spacing that conform a semi-circular array that provide a length of 480 m around the lake zone. For both correlation methods, we extract the phase velocity associated with the dispersion characteristics between each pair of stations in the frequency range from 4 to 12 Hz. In the SPAC method the process was through the dispersion curve, and in SI method we use the time delay of the maximum amplitude in the correlation pulse, which was previously filtered in multiple frequency bands. The results of both processes were captured in 3D velocity volumes (in the case SI a process of traveltime tomography was applied). We observed that in the frequency range from 6 to 8 Hz, appear irregular structures, with high velocity contrast in relation with the shear wave velocity of surface layer (ten thick m of saturated sediments). One of these anomalies is related

  2. Multi-scale cross-correlation characteristics of void fraction wave propagation for gas-liquid two-phase flows in small diameter pip e%小管径气液两相流空隙率波传播的多尺度相关性∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟路生; 金宁德

    2016-01-01

    The void fraction wave is a special physical phenomenon in a gas-liquid two-phase flow system. Understanding the propagation of the void fraction wave is of great significance for uncovering the physical mechanisms in both flow pattern transition and the fluid velocity measurement. In this study, detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) is used to investigate the multi-scale cross-correlation characteristics of the coupled ARFIMA processes. It is found that the DCCA can effectively reveal the multi-scale cross-correlation dynamical behaviors of complex system. Then, we carry out the experimental test in a vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow pipe with small inner diameter. The DCCA is used to detect the cross-correlation characteristics of the void fraction wave on multiple time scales, and the growth rate of the cross-correlation level for the void fraction wave is observed on low time scales. Additionally, the spatial attenuation factor (SAF) of the void fraction wave is calculated to investigate the instability of the wave propagation. The SAF is close to zero under the transitional flow patterns, which means that the void fraction wave is in a stable propagating state. For bubble flows, the void fraction wave presents the attenuation characteristics, whilst the void fraction wave shows the amplification characteristics under the slug and churn flow patterns. Interestingly, the instability behaviors of the void fraction wave are always associated with its multi-scale cross-correlation characteristics. Specifically, the increasing rate of the wave cross-correlation level on low scales is much higher for transitional flow patterns, which is corresponding to the stable propagating characteristic of the void fraction wave. However, when the void fraction wave exhibits attenuation or amplification characteristics under other flow patterns, the increasing rate of the wave cross-correlation level on low scales is much lower.

  3. Epicardial fat thickness correlates with P-wave duration, left atrial size and decreased left ventricular systolic function in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Cardoso, A; Santos-Furtado, M; Grindler, J; Ferreira, L A; Andrade, J L; Santo, M A

    2017-08-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is increased in obesity and has important interactions with atrial and ventricular myocardium. Most of the evidence in this scenario can be confused by the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, which are very common in this population. The influence of EF on atrial remodeling and cardiac function demands further investigation on morbidly obese without these comorbidities. We prospectively recruited 20 metabolically healthy morbidly obese and 20 normo-weights controls. The maximum P-wave duration (PWD) was analyzed by 12-lead electrocardiogram. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and EF thickness (EFT) were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography. The mean of maximum PWD and LAD were significantly larger in the obese group as compared to the control group: 109.55 ± 11.52 ms × 89.38 ± 11.19 ms and 36.12 ± 3.46 mm × 31.45 ± 2.64 mm, (p p p p = 0.001) and LAD (r = 0.667; p = 0.001). An inverse correlation was found between EFT and LVEF (r = -0.523; p = 0.001). In a multiple multivariate regression analysis the EFT remains correlated with LAD and LVEF. In a select group of morbidly obese, the excess of EF had a significant impact on atrial remodeling and cardiac function. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 脊髓损伤患者肌电图F波与痉挛的相关性%Correlation between F-waves of electromyography and spasm in patients with spinal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅丽; 高伟; 尤春景; 郭铁成; 许涛; 喻澜

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After the damage of central nervous system, F-waves of electromyography is the valuable way for detecting tendon reflex and muscular tension below injured segment. The increase of spasm, stiffness and muscular tension induced by upper motor neuron injury can revoke change of F-waves.However, change of F-waves after spinal injury, and relationship between Fwaves and spasm of lower limb after injury are still unclear at present.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of minimal latency, occurrence rate and every index of dispersion-time degree of F-waves with post-injured spinal cord spasm in patients with spinal injury.DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 29 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury,who were hospitalized at Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology between June 2002 and March 2004, were selected as spinal injury group. Another 29 normal healthy volunteers were enrolled as normal control group in the same period. METHODS: Spasm level of both lower extremities in patients with spinal injury was graded with Ashworth scale to assess flexion of both coax, flexion of knee joint and Ashworth grade of dorsiflexion of ankle. F-waves was detected with Kepoint1.5 type EMG instrument produced by Denmark.Minimal latency, maximal latency and occurrence rate of F-waves of tibial nerve of both lower extremities were recorded. The discrete-time degree (difference value of maximal latency of F-waves and minimal latency of Fwaves) and mean occurrence rate of F-waves were calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The difference of each index between patients with spinal injury and normal persons was compared and the correlation of spasm with discrete-time degree, occurrence rate and minimal latency of F-waves

  5. The Sharpshooter X-wave: Correlation of an Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) Waveform with Xylem Penetration During Feeding of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring is a rigorous means of observing and quantifying the feeding of any piercing-sucking insect. Previous studies with aphid and leafhopper pests of agricultural crops have demonstrated the unique value of what is termed the X wave, i.e. the waveform that r...

  6. The Sharpshooter X-wave: Correlation of xylem penetration by glassy-winged sharpshooter with an electrical penetration graph (EPG) waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring is a rigorous means of observing and quantifying the feeding of any piercing-sucking insect. Previous studies with aphid and leafhopper pests of agricultural crops have demonstrated the unique value of what is termed the X wave, i.e. the waveform that r...

  7. TOFD检测中变形波信号和非相关信号的识别%Identification Between Distortion Wave and Non-Correlation Signal in TOFD Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈业汉; 范良; 孙小兵; 张晓斌

    2011-01-01

    One of the key technologies for TOFD inspection is identification and interpretation for graph spectrum.According to the distortion wave signal in TOFD graph spectrum, the time difference calculation was done, and the influence of non-correlation signal and distortion wave was excluded as much as possible combining with the analysis of inspection cases.So the identification and measuration for defect was done correctly, and misjudgment of defect was also avoided.%TOFD检测技术的难点之一是图谱识别和判读.针对TOFD检测图谱中的变形波信号进行了时差计算,并结合检测实例进行了展示和分析,以排除变形波和其它非相关信号的影响,从而正确识别和测定缺陷,避免误判.

  8. STUDY OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN POWER DEPOSITION OFTHE LOWER HYBRID WAVES AND THE HARDX-RAY RADIATION ON HT-7 TOKAMAK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石跃江; 万宝年; 凌必利; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    A seven-channel NaI(T1) detector array installed on an HT-7 superconducting tokamak has been used to detect the hard X-ray (Ehv>20 keV) emitted from the plasma. The physical mechanism of the lower hybrid waves propagating and absorbed in the plasma is investigated by the measurement of the hard X-ray radial profile at different discharge parameters.

  9. A new wave-matching algorithm based on absolute value and cross-correlation algorithm%基于绝对值差的归一化波形匹配混合算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶海民; 戎蒙恬; 邓晓东; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms based on normalized cross-correlation ( NCC) are frequently used in waves matching, but they have the drawback of high computational cost. This paper proposes a new algorithm to calculate the NCC based on absolute value algorithm. First the original wave is decomposed into three layers. An advanced absolute value algorithm, sequential similarity detection algorithm and NCC are used for waves matching on different layer. It shows by the experiments that the new algorithm enhances the speed of calculation comparing with the original NCC algorithm.%基于归一化的波形匹配算法运用十分广泛,但缺点是运算量大.为此提出一种基于绝对值差的归一化混合算法.该算法先将原始波形分解成三层,在每一层分别采用改良的绝对值差法、改良的序列相似性法、归一化互相关法进行匹配,最终实现精确匹配.实验表明,这种混合算法比归一化互相关法在波形匹配速度上有了大幅度的提高.

  10. Observation of correlated atom pairs in spontaneous four wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates; Observation de paires d'atomes correles au travers de la collision de deux condensats de Bose-Einstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, A

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis, we report on the observation of pairs of correlated atoms produced in the collision of two Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium. Three laser beams perform a Raman transfer which extracts the condensate from the magnetic trap and separates it into two parts with opposite mean momenta. While the condensates propagate, elastic scattering of pairs of atoms occurs, whose momenta satisfy energy and momentum conservation laws. Metastable helium atoms large internal energy allows the use of a position-sensitive, single-atom detector which permits a three-dimensional reconstruction of the scattered atoms'momenta. The statistics of these momenta show correlations for atoms with opposite momenta. The measured correlation volume can be understood from the uncertainty-limited momentum spread of the colliding condensates. This interpretation is confirmed by the observation of the momentum correlation function for two atoms scattered in the same direction. This latter effect is a manifestation of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for indistinguishable bosons. Such a correlated-atom-pair source is a first step towards experiments in which one would like to confirm the pairs'entanglement. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  12. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about -7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status.

  13. Correlation analysis of apparent seismic wave speeds and gas parameters in front of the coal roadway%巷道前方煤体波速与瓦斯参数相关分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志军; 刘盛东; 张兴元

    2012-01-01

    为了获取掘进巷道前方煤体地震波速度和瓦斯参数间的对应关系,以阳泉五矿为实施矿井.采用矿井地震波速度超前探测方法对掘进煤巷进行探测,通过初至波拾取获得地震波原始记录中纵、横波速,并与巷道前方30m范围内平均瓦斯参数作相关分析.分析结果表明:一定条件下,煤体瓦斯含量越高,其地震波纵、横波速度越低.运用曲线拟合对纵、横波视速度与瓦斯绝对涌出量和瓦斯浓度进行拟合发现:纵、横波视速度与瓦斯绝对涌出量间存在△P=-4.6415Vp-2.7048Vs+16.1353的负线性关系;纵、横波视速度与瓦斯浓度间存在η=-0.9302Vp-0.5704Vs+3.3132的负线性关系,并对线性拟合结果进行验证表明:在误差允许范围内,计算值与实测值基本吻合.最后计算得到适用于太原组15#煤层及变质程度更高煤层的视速度瓦斯预警指标:Vp=2.00m/ms和Vs=0.73 m/ms.%In order to find the relationships between apprarent seismic wave speeds and gas parameters in the drilling coal roadway. The fifth mine of YangQuan is chosen to be the testing mine. Mine Seismic Speed Detection Method is used for advanced detection. The apparent speeds of P-wave and S-wave are gained by picking up first break in the original seismic records. The average gas parameters of the 30 meters range in front of the drilling roadway are calculated. Then the correlation analysis of apparent speeds and average gas parameters are done. The results indicate that the higher the average gas parameters are the slower the apparent speeds would be under certain conditions. The curve fitting is used to finding the linear relationship between them. Arid the curve fitting results show that there is a negative formula(△P=-4. 6415Vp-2. 7048VS+16. 1353) between apparent speeds of P-wave and S-wave and absolute amount of gas emission. There is a similar formula (η=-0. 9302Vp-0. 5704Vs+3. 3132) between apparent speeds of P-wave and S-wave and

  14. Empirical correlation among the dynamic elastic constants and the waves P and S velocities in rocks; Correlaciones empiricas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades de las ondas P y S de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos

  15. Localized coherence of freak waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Arnida L.; van Groesen, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates in detail a possible mechanism of energy convergence leading to freak waves. We give examples of a freak wave as a (weak) pseudo-maximal wave to illustrate the importance of phase coherence. Given a time signal at a certain position, we identify parts of the time signal with successive high amplitudes, so-called group events, that may lead to a freak wave using wavelet transform analysis. The local coherence of the critical group event is measured by its time spreading of the most energetic waves. Four types of signals have been investigated: dispersive focusing, normal sea condition, thunderstorm condition and an experimental irregular wave. In all cases presented in this paper, it is shown that a high correlation exists between the local coherence and the appearance of a freak wave. This makes it plausible that freak waves can be developed by local interactions of waves in a wave group and that the effect of waves that are not in the immediate vicinity is minimal. This indicates that a local coherence mechanism within a wave group can be one mechanism that leads to the appearance of a freak wave.

  16. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  17. Exact Solitary-wave Solutions and Periodic Wave Solutions for Generalized Modified Boussinesq Equation and the Effect of Wave Velocity on Wave Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-guo Zhang; Shao-wei Li; Wei-zhong Tian; Lu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    By means of the undetermined assumption method, we obtain some new exact solitary-wave solutions with hyperbolic secant function fractional form and periodic wave solutions with cosine function form for the generalized modified Bonssinesq equation. We also discuss the boundedness of these solutions. More over,we study the correlative characteristic of the solitary-wave solutions and the periodic wave solutions along with the travelling wave velocity's variation.

  18. 脉搏波传导速度与心血管病及其危险因素的相关性分析%Correlation between pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国杰; 黄秀先; 梁树俊; 张红叶; 魏万林; 田国祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in elderly population. Methods Cluster sampling method was used to select 1701 people who were equal to or over 70 years old ( average age: 73.8 ) , and then they were given questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory tests. The level of carotid—femoral pulse wave velocity ( cfPWV ) was detected by applying French Complior SP, and the relationship between cfPWV and hypertension and their risk factors was observed. Results The level of cfPWV increased along with the increase of blood pressure, and was significantly higher in the patients with hypertension, brain stroke, myocardial infarction and diabetes than that in normal population with statistical difference. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that age, male sex, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and insulin resistance index were correlated to cfPWV ( P<0.001 ) , and was negatively correlated to body mass index in whole population and the patients with brain stroke, myocardial infarction and diabetes. Conclusion The level of cfPWV is closely related to hypertension and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in elder population.%目的 探讨老年人群脉搏波速度(PWV)与心血管病及危险因素的相关性.方法 采用整群抽样方法纳入≥70岁人群1701例,进行问卷调查、体格检查和实验室检验,测量颈-股动脉脉搏波速度(cfPWV),观察cfPWV与高血压及相关危险因素的关系.结果 cfPWV 水平随血压水平升高而升高,在高血压、脑卒中、心肌梗死和糖尿病患者中cfPWV明显高于正常人群,差异有统计学意义.多元逐步回归分析显示在入选者和脑卒中、心肌梗死和糖尿病人群中,年龄、男性、平均动脉压、心率、胰岛素抵抗指数(Homa IR)与cfPWV呈正相关(P<0.001),体重指数与cfPWV负相关.结论 在老年人群中,cfPWV与高血压及心血管病危险因素密切相关.

  19. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  1. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  2. Infra-Gravity Wave Generation by the Shoaling Wave Groups over Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu-Hsien; HWUNG Hwung-Hweng

    2012-01-01

    A physical parameter,μb,which was used to meet the forcing of primary short waves to be off-resonant before wave breaking,has been considered as an applicable parameter in the infra-gravity wave generation.Since a series of modulating wave groups for different wave conditions are performed to proceed with the resonant mechanism of infragravity waves prior to wave breaking,the amplitude growth of incident bound long wave is assumed to be simply controlled by the normalized bed slope,βb.The results appear a large dependence of the growth rate,α,of incident bound long wave,separated by the three-array method,on the normalized bed slope,βb.High spatial resolution of wave records enables identification of the cross-correlation between squared short-wave envelopes and infra-gravity waves.The crossshore structure of infra-gravity waves over beaches presents the mechanics of incident bound- and outgoing free long waves with the formation of free standing long waves in the nearshore region.The wave run-up and amplification of infra-gravity waves in the swash zone appear that the additional long waves generated by the breaking process would modify the cross-shore structure of free standing long waves.Finally,this paper would further discuss the contribution of long wave breaking and bottom friction to the energy dissipation of infra-gravity waves based on different slope conditions.

  3. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  4. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  5. 脉搏波速度、动脉弹性与冠心病影响因素的相关性%Correlation between pulse wave velocity, arterial elastic function and influencing factors of coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石姗姗; 李保应; 于飞; 王茜; 张志勉; 高海青

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究颈-股脉搏波速度(CFPWV)、大动脉弹性指数(C1)、小动脉弹性指数(C2)和冠心病影响因素的相关性,并探讨CFFWV、C1、C2在冠心病早期诊断中的价值.方法 将131名受检者分为高血压组和高血压合并冠心病组,应用康普乐( Complior)动脉脉搏波速度测定仪(Artech,France)测定CFPWV,CV Profilor DO-2020型动脉弹性功能测定仪测定C1、C2.结果 ①与单纯高血压组相比,合并冠心病组的CFPWV、C1、C2均明显增高(P<0.01);②CFPWV与年龄、腔腹血糖(FPG)、甘油三酯(TG)、收缩压(SBP)、脉压(PP)呈正相关(r=0.475,0.186,0.183,0.360,0.455,P<0.05),C1与年龄、SBP、PP呈负相关(r=-0.391,-0.247,-0.283,P<0.01),C2与年龄、BMI、TG、SBP、PP、平均动脉压(MAP)呈负相关(r=-0.365,-0.126,-0.198,-0.340,-0.355,-0.210,P<0.05).结论 CFPWV和C1、C2可作为早期预测冠心病的无创性敏感性指标.%Objective To analyze the relationship between pulse wave velocity, arterial elastic indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease, and to find the value of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity(CF-PWV) , large arteria elastic indexes(Cl) and small arterial elastic indexes(C2) in early diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Methods 131 subjects were divided into two groups;the hypertension group and the hypertension with coronary heart disease group. CFPWV, Cl and C2 were measured by the pulse wave velocity measurement system (Complior) and the artery elasticity function measurement system(CV Profilor DO-2020). Results ① The CFPWV, Cl and C2 of the coronary heart disease group were significantly higher than those of the hypertension group (P < 0.01). ② In multiple regression analysis, CFPWV was correlated with age, fasting blood sugar(FPG) , triglycerides(TG) , systolic blood pressure( SBP) and pulse pressure( PP) (r = 0.475, 0.186, 0.183, 0.360, 0.455, P <0.05 ). Cl was negatively correlated with age, SBP and PP

  6. Accommodation space in a high-wave-energy inner-shelf during the Holocene marine transgression: Correlation of onshore and offshore inner-shelf deposits (0–12 ka) in the Columbia River littoral cell system, Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Twichell, D. C.; Roberts, M. C.; Vanderburgh, S.; Hostetler, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC), a high-wave-energy littoral system, extends 160 km alongshore, generally north of the large Columbia River, and 10–15 km in across-shelf distance from paleo-beach backshores to about 50 m present water depths. Onshore drill holes (19 in number and 5–35 m in subsurface depth) and offshore vibracores (33 in number and 1–5 m in subsurface depth) constrain inner-shelf sand grain sizes (sample means 0.13–0.25 mm) and heavy mineral source indicators (> 90% Holocene Columbia River sand) of the inner-shelf facies (≥ 90% fine sand). Stratigraphic correlation of the transgressive ravinement surface in onshore drill holes and in offshore seismic reflection profiles provide age constraints (0–12 ka) on post-ravinement inner-shelf deposits, using paleo-sea level curves and radiocarbon dates. Post-ravinement deposit thickness (1–50 m) and long-term sedimentation rates (0.4–4.4 m ka− 1) are positively correlated to the cross-shelf gradients (0.36–0.63%) of the transgressive ravinement surface. The total post-ravinement fill volume of fine littoral sand (2.48 × 1010 m3) in the inner-shelf represents about 2.07 × 106 m3 year− 1 fine sand accumulation rate during the last 12 ka, or about one third of the estimated middle- to late-Holocene Columbia River bedload or sand discharge (5–6 × 106 m3 year− 1) to the littoral zone. The fine sand accumulation in the inner-shelf represents post-ravinement accommodation space resulting from 1) geometry and depth of the transgressive ravinement surface, 2) post-ravinement sea-level rise, and 3) fine sand dispersal in the inner-shelf by combined high-wave-energy and geostrophic flow/down-welling drift currents during major winter storms.

  7. Universality of nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations: the factorization property of the nuclear wave function, the relative and center-of-mass momentum distributions, and the nuclear contacts

    CERN Document Server

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Morita, Hiko

    2016-01-01

    The two-nucleon momentum distributions have been calculated for nuclei up to A=40 and various values of the relative and center-of-mass momenta and angle between them. For complex nuclei a parameter-free linked-cluster expansion, based upon a realistic local two-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family and variational wave function featuring central, tensor, spin and iso-spin correlations, has been used. The obtained results show that: 1) independently of the mass number A, at values of the relative momentum k_rel> 2 fm^{-1} the proton-neutron momentum distributions for back-to-back (BB) nucleons (K_cm=0) exhibit the factorization property n_A^{pn}(k_rel,K_cm=0)=C_A^{pn} n_D(k_rel) n_{cm}^{pn}(K_cm=0), where n_D is the deuteron momentum distribution, n_{cm}^{pn}(K_{cm}=0) the momentum distribution of the c.m. motion of the pair and C_A^{pn} the nuclear contact measuring the number of BB pn pairs with deuteron-like momenta; 2) the values of the proton-neutron nuclear contact C_A^{pn} are obtained in a model-i...

  8. Making waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Traveling waves propagating along surfaces play an important role for intracellular organization. Such waves can appear spontaneously in reaction-diffusion systems, but only few general criteria for their existence are known. Analyzing the dynamics of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli, Levine and Kessler (2016 New J. Phys. 18 122001) now identified a new mechanism for the emergence of traveling waves that relies on conservation laws. From their analysis one can expect traveling waves to be a generic feature of systems made of proteins that have a cytoplasmic and a membrane-bound state.

  9. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  10. Shear wave speed recovery in sonoelastography using crawling wave data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce; Renzi, Daniel; Thomas, Ashley

    2010-07-01

    The crawling wave experiment, in which two harmonic sources oscillate at different but nearby frequencies, is a development in sonoelastography that allows real-time imaging of propagating shear wave interference patterns. Previously the crawling wave speed was recovered and used as an indicator of shear stiffness; however, it is shown in this paper that the crawling wave speed image can have artifacts that do not represent a change in stiffness. In this paper, the locations and shapes of some of the artifacts are exhibited. In addition, a differential equation is established that enables imaging of the shear wave speed, which is a quantity strongly correlated with shear stiffness change. The full algorithm is as follows: (1) extract the crawling wave phase from the spectral variance data; (2) calculate the crawling wave phase wave speed; (3) solve a first-order PDE for the phase of the wave emanating from one of the sources; and (4) compute and image the shear wave speed on a grid in the image plane.

  11. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  12. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  14. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  15. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    forecasting in real-time, as the GPU-based wave model backbone was very computationally efficient. The data assimilation algorithm was developed on a polar grid domain in order to match the sampling characteristics of the observation system (wave imaging marine radar). For verification purposes, a substantial set of synthetic wave data (i.e. forward runs of the wave model) were generated to be used as ground truth for comparison to the reconstructions and forecasts produced by Wavecast. For these synthetic cases, Wavecast demonstrated very good accuracy, for example, typical forecast correlation coefficients were between 0.84-0.95 when compared to the input data. Dependencies on shadowing, observational noise, and forecast horizon were also identified. During the second year of the project, a short field deployment was conducted in order to assess forecast accuracy under field conditions. For this, a radar was installed on a fishing vessel and observations were collected at the South Energy Test Site (SETS) off the coast of Newport, OR. At the SETS site, simultaneous in situ wave observations were also available owing to an ongoing field project funded separately. Unfortunately, the position and heading information that was available for the fishing vessel were not of sufficient accuracy in order to validate the forecast in a phase-resolving sense. Instead, a spectral comparison was made between the Wavecast forecast and the data from the in situ wave buoy. Although the wave and wind conditions during the field test were complex, the comparison showed a promising reconstruction of the wave spectral shape, where both peaks in the bimodal spectrum were represented. However, the total reconstructed spectral energy (across all directions and frequencies) was limited to 44% of the observed spectrum. Overall, wave-by-wave forecasting using a data assimilation approach based on wave imaging radar observations and a physics-based wave model shows promise for short-term phase

  16. Global coherence of dust density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  17. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2004-10-12

    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  18. Waves, damped wave and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Kim Dang

    2009-01-01

    We consider the wave equation in a bounded domain (eventually convex). Two kinds of inequality are described when occurs trapped ray. Applications to control theory are given. First, we link such kind of estimate with the damped wave equation and its decay rate. Next, we describe the design of an approximate control function by an iterative time reversal method.

  19. Gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, David

    1987-02-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  20. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... this extended period. The prototype is highly instrumented. The overtopping characteristic and the power produced are presented here. This has enabled comparison between the prototype and earlier results from both laboratory model and computer simulation. This gives the optimal operating point and the expected...

  1. Janus Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens. Analytic formulas for the intensity distribution after focusing are derived, while numerical and experimental demonstrations are given for some of the most interesting members of this family, the accelerating Airy and ring-Airy beams.

  2. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  4. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  5. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  6. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  7. Wave Generation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    1993-01-01

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.

  8. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions and wedge waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Q.Lin; Will Perrie

    2005-01-01

    A tetrad mechanism for exciting long waves,for example edge waves,is described based on nonlinear resonant wave-wave interactions.In this mechanism,resonant interactions pass energy to an edge wave,from the three participating gravity waves.The estimated action flux into the edge wave can be orders of magnitude greater than the transfer fluxes derived from other competing mechanisms,such as triad interactions.Moreover,the numerical results show that the actual transfer rates into the edge wave from the three participating gravity waves are two-to three- orders of magnitude greater than bottom friction.

  9. A laboratory study of breaking waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros³aw Têgowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some aspects of the wave-breaking phenomenon. The objectives were to study wave-breaking criteria, and the probability of whitecap coverage under fully controlled wave conditions. An additional task was to in vestigate the characteristic spectral features of the noise produced by breaking waves and the acoustic energy generated during wave breaking events. A controlled experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway. Waves were generated by a computer-controlled multi-flap wave maker, which reproduced a realistic pattern of the sea surface for the prescribed spectra. Using wave staff recordings and photographic techniques, correlations between the breaking parameters and the radiated acoustic emissions were established.

  10. Universality of nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations: The factorization property of the nuclear wave function, the relative and center-of-mass momentum distributions, and the nuclear contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Morita, H.

    2016-10-01

    Background: The two-nucleon momentum distributions of nucleons N1 and N2 in a nucleus A , nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) , is a relevant quantity that determines the probability of finding two nucleons with relative momentum krel and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum Kc .m .; at high values of the relative momentum and, at the same time, low values of the c.m. momentum, nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) provides information on the short-range structure of nuclei. Purpose: Our purpose is to calculate the momentum distributions of proton-neutron and proton-proton pairs in 3He, 4He, 12C, 16O, and 40Ca, in correspondence to various values of krel and Kc .m .. Methods: The momentum distributions for A >4 nuclei are calculated as a function of the relative, krel, and center-of-mass, Kc.m., momenta and relative angle Θ , within a linked cluster many-body expansion approach, based upon realistic local two-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family and variational wave functions featuring central, tensor, and spin-isospin correlations. Results: Independently of the mass number A , at values of the relative momentum krel≳1.5 -2 fm-1 the momentum distributions exhibit the property of factorization, nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) ≃nrelN1N2(krel) nc.m . N1N2(Kc .m .) ; in particular, for p n back-to-back pairs one has nAp n(krel,Kc .m .=0 ) ≃CAp nnD(krel) nc.m . p n(Kc .m .=0 ) , where nD is the deuteron momentum distribution, nc.m . p n(Kc .m .=0 ) the c.m. motion momentum distribution of the pair, and CAp n the p n nuclear contact measuring the number of back-to-back p n pairs with deuteron-like momenta (kp≃-kn,Kc .m .=0 ). Conclusions: The values of the p n nuclear contact are extracted from the general properties of the two-nucleon momentum distributions corresponding to Kc .m .=0 . The Kc .m .-integrated p n momentum distributions exhibit the property nAp n(krel) ≃CAp nnD(krel) but only at very high values of krel, ≳3.5 -4 fm-1. The theoretical ratio of the p p /p n momentum distributions of 4He

  11. Frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home: cross-sectional analysis of the UK national diet and nutrition survey, waves 1-4 (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Brown, Tamara; Lake, Amelia A; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Adamson, Ashley J

    2015-04-16

    Food prepared out-of-home tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home, with a positive association between frequency of consumption and both fat intake and body fatness. There is little current data on who eats out-of-home food. We explored frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home, using data from a large, UK, population representative study. Data were from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12). Socio-demographic variables of interest were gender, age group, and socio-economic position. Self-reported frequency of consuming meals out and take-away meals at home was categorised as: less than once per week and once per week or more. Analyses were performed separately for adults (aged 18 years or older) and children. Data from 2001 adults and 1963 children were included. More than one quarter (27.1%) of adults and one fifth (19.0%) of children ate meals out once per week or more. One fifth of adults (21.1%) and children (21.0%) ate take-away meals at home once per week or more. There were no gender differences in consumption of meals out, but more boys than girls ate take-away meals at home at least weekly. The proportion of participants eating both meals out and take-away meals at home at least weekly peaked in young adults aged 19-29 years. Adults living in more affluent households were more likely to eat meals out at least once per week, but children living in less affluent households were more likely to eat take-away meals at home at least once per week. There was no relationship between socio-economic position and consumption of take-away meals at home in adults. One-fifth to one-quarter of individuals eat meals prepared out-of-home weekly. Interventions seeking to improve dietary intake by reducing consumption of out-of-home food may be more effective if tailored to and targeted at adults aged less than 30 years. It may also be important to develop interventions to help

  12. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  13. New Interpretation of Dependence of Wind Stress on Wave State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栋梁; 娄安刚

    2003-01-01

    Based on observations from buoys, it is found that the wave age is well correlated with the nondimensional wave height, and this correlation is best described by a 3/5-power law. This similarity law is valid in the cases of wind waves as well as swells under natural sea states. On the basis of the 3/5-power law combined with the well-known 3/2-power law, it is shown that the wave-induced wind stress increases rapidly with wave age, indicating that the traditional observations or analytic techniques have only given the turbulent Reynolds stress induced by short wind waves, but excluded the long-wave-induced wind stress. The latter constitutes a small fraction to the total wind stress when the wave age is smaller than 1.0. The increase of sea-surface roughness with wave age can be attributed to wave breaking.

  14. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  15. Waves & vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Engineering school; This course is designed for students of Polytech Marseille, engineering school. It covers first the physics of vibration of the harmonic oscillator with damping and forcing, coupled oscillators. After a presentation of the wave equation, the vibration of strings, beams and membranes are studied.

  16. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  17. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  18. Notes from 1999 on computational algorithm of the Local Wave-Vector (LWV) model for the dynamical evolution of the second-rank velocity correlation tensor starting from the mean-flow-coupled Navier-Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kurien, Susan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    These notes present an account of the Local Wave Vector (LWV) model of a turbulent flow defined throughout physical space. The previously-developed Local Wave Number (LWN) model is taken as a point of departure. Some general properties of turbulent fields and appropriate notation are given first. The LWV model is presently restricted to incompressible flows and the incompressibility assumption is introduced at an early point in the discussion. The assumption that the turbulence is homogeneous is also introduced early on. This assumption can be relaxed by generalizing the space diffusion terms of LWN, but the present discussion is focused on a modeling of homogeneous turbulence.

  19. 代谢综合征各危险因素与不同节段脉搏波速度的相关性分析%The correlation of metabolic syndrome factors and pulse wave velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵颖; 边素艳; 叶平; 骆雷鸣; 肖文凯; 吴红梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional was conducted to investigate the correlation of pulse wave velocity (PWV)and metabolic syndrome (MS)factors.Methods All the adult participants in this cross-sectional investi-gation were recruited from 3 big communities during their annual physical examination.Regional arterial stiffness was assessed simultaneously by measuring PWV in three arterial segments,carotid -femoral (cfPWV),carotid -radial (crPWV)and carotid-ankle PWV (caPWV).Demographic characteristics and basal biochemical parameters inclu-ding height,weight,waist and hip circumference,blood pressure,and serum levels of glucose,lipid,uric acid and cre-atinine were collected.MS was identified according to the criteria from the International Diabetes Federation defini-tion.Results A total of 2439 citizens (aged 18 to 92 years)were enrolled into this study,which included 732 partic-ipants with MS (prevalence,30.01%).The subjects with MS were older[(53.25 ±13.73)vs.(50.03 ±15.73), P<0.01],and had a higher cfPWV,caPWV,crPWV(11.68 ±2.92)m/s vs.(10.24 ±2.43)m/s,(9.46 ±1.73) m/s vs.(8.76 ±2.23)m/s,(9.76 ±1.52)m/s vs.(9.42 ±1.45)m/s,P<0.01 for all],and an increased inci-dence of cardiovascular diseases (18.3% vs.9.1%,P<0.001).Partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age and sex showed that pulse pressure,LDL-C,uric acid and all component of MS were significantly correlated to the values of cfPWV and caPWV (P<0.05 for all).The results of multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that MS was an independent risk factor for the cfPWV,cfPWV and caPWV.Further analysis showed that increased sys-tolicblood pressure and hyperglycemia were the independent risk factors for cfPWV and caPWV ,and the diastolic blood pressure for crPWV.Central obesity was correlated with enhanced cfPWV,while no correlation was observed be-tween the level of serum triglyceride,high density lipoprotein and PWV.Conclusion MS is the independent risk fac-tor for the arteriosclerosis

  20. Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grishchuk, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed) gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported by observations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In the most favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achieved by the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers in LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advanced ground-based and space-based laser interferom...

  1. Multipeakedness and groupiness of shallow water waves along Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.; Mandal, S.

    that would be expected from an estimate based on a completely random successive of the wave heights. Grouping ofhigh waves (H s = 2 m) in a long travelled swell recorded at a shallow water location ofwest coast of India was examined by THOMAS et al. (1986... to be succeeded by large waves, while small waves tend to be succeeded by other small waves. For the long travelled swell, GODA (1983) found a mean correlation of 0.65 between successive waves and 0.35, 0.18 and 0.07 for the following waves. THOMAS et at. (1986...

  2. Infinite range correlations of intensity in random media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Retzker; B Shapiro

    2002-02-01

    We study a new type of long-range correlations for waves propagating in a random medium. These correlations originate from scattering events which take place close to a point source. The scattered waves propagate by diffusion to distant regions. In this way long range correlations, between any pair of distant points, are established.

  3. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator.......This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  4. Relativistic spherical plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Maksimchuk, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-02-01

    Tightly focused laser pulses that diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we study theoretically and numerically relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking.

  5. Refraction of coastal ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Refraction of gravity waves in the coastal area off Cape Hatteras, NC as documented by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from Seasat orbit 974 (collected on September 3, 1978) is discussed. An analysis of optical Fourier transforms (OFTs) from more than 70 geographical positions yields estimates of wavelength and wave direction for each position. In addition, independent estimates of the same two quantities are calculated using two simple theoretical wave-refraction models. The OFT results are then compared with the theoretical results. A statistical analysis shows a significant degree of linear correlation between the data sets. This is considered to indicate that the Seasat SAR produces imagery whose clarity is sufficient to show the refraction of gravity waves in shallow water.

  6. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  7. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  8. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  9. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  10. The Osborn wave in hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Kim, B S; Patel, C

    1985-02-01

    A patient is reported who presented with fatal hypothermia. The electrocardiographic changes of a sinus bradycardia, prolonged QT interval and Osborn waves were documented and correlated with body temperature. The possible genesis of these electrocardiographic changes is reviewed in this article.

  11. Probing density waves in fluidized granular media with diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Philip; Reinhold, Steffen; Sperl, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Density waves are characteristic for fluidized beds and affect measurements on liquidlike dynamics in fluidized granular media. Here the intensity autocorrelation function as obtainable with diffusing-wave spectroscopy is derived in the presence of density waves. The predictions by the derived form of the intensity autocorrelation function match experimental observations from a gas-fluidized bed. The model suggests separability of the contribution from density waves from the contribution by microscopic scatterer displacement to the decay of correlation and thus paves the way for characterizing microscopic particle motions using diffusing-wave spectroscopy as well as heterogeneities in fluidized granular media.

  12. 渤海浅层沉积物剪切波速与深度的相关性分析%Correlative analysis between shear wave velocity and depth of shallow sediments in Bohai Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨锐; 董明明; 吴海京; 王园君

    2011-01-01

    剪切波速是工程场地地震安全性评价最重要的参数之一.本文应用大量渤海浅层沉积物的剪切波速实测数据,利用最小二乘法通过三种模型探讨了不同土质类型的剪切波速与深度的关系,给出了不同土质类型的剪切波速与深度拟合最佳的统计公式.并与的推荐公式在某一海域工程场地的测试结果进行对比分析,结果表明:本文所建立的统计公式对剪切波速的预测效果明显好于规范所推荐的统计公式.因此本文所推荐的渤海不同土质类型的剪切波速与深度间的统计公式,可供无波速测试的渤海海洋工程场地借鉴使用.%The shear wave velocity of soils is one of the most important parameters in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering. Based on the tested data of shear wave velocity of shallow sediments from lots of boreholes in Bohai Gulf, the best regression equations of shear wave velocity and depth for different types of soils are established by using three statistical models. The predicted shear wave velocity of soils with recommended equations are compared with the results of formula in the Chinese design code for earthquake resistance of special structures (GB50191-93) in a certain borehole. It is indicated that the fitting accuracy of recommended equations is better than that of formula in design code. Therefore, the recommended regression equations of shear wave velocity and depth of shallow sediments in Bohai Gulf can be used for marine sites of Bohai Gulf, whose shear wave velocities are not tested.

  13. Spike wave location and density disturb sleep slow waves in patients with CSWS (continuous spike waves during sleep).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölsterli Heinzle, Bigna K; Fattinger, Sara; Kurth, Salomé; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Ringli, Maya; Bast, Thomas; Critelli, Hanne; Schmitt, Bernhard; Huber, Reto

    2014-04-01

    In CSWS (continuous spike waves during sleep) activation of spike waves during slow wave sleep has been causally linked to neuropsychological deficits, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms are still unknown. In healthy subjects, the overnight decrease of the slope of slow waves in NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep has been linked to brain recovery to regain optimal cognitive performance. Here, we investigated whether the electrophysiologic hallmark of CSWS, the spike waves during sleep, is related to an alteration in the overnight decrease of the slope, and if this alteration is linked to location and density of spike waves. In a retrospective study, the slope of slow waves (0.5-2 Hz) in the first hour and last hour of sleep (19 electroencephalography [EEG] electrodes) of 14 patients with CSWS (3.1-13.5 years) was calculated. The spike wave "focus" was determined as the location of highest spike amplitude and the density of spike waves as spike wave index (SWI). There was no overnight change of the slope of slow waves in the "focus." Instead, in "nonfocal" regions, the slope decreased significantly. This difference in the overnight course resulted in a steeper slope in the "focus" compared to "nonfocal" electrodes during the last hour of sleep. Spike wave density was correlated with the impairment of the overnight slope decrease: The higher the SWI, the more hampered the slope decrease. Location and density of spike waves are related to an alteration of the physiologic overnight decrease of the slow wave slope. This overnight decrease of the slope was shown to be closely related to the recovery function of sleep. Such recovery is necessary for optimal cognitive performance during wakefulness. Therefore we propose the impairment of this process by spike waves as a potential mechanism leading to neuropsychological deficits in CSWS. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals

  14. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  15. CARMA Correlator Graphical Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Shaya, B.; Pound, M. W.

    2011-07-01

    CARMA Correlator Graphical Setup (CGS) is a Java tool to help users of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) plan observations. It allows users to visualize the correlator bands overlaid on frequency space and view spectral lines within each band. Bands can be click-dragged to anywhere in frequency and can have their properties (e.g., bandwidth, quantization level, rest frequency) changed interactively. Spectral lines can be filtered from the view by expected line strength to reduce visual clutter. Once the user is happy with the setup, a button click generates the Python commands needed to configure the correlator within the observing script. CGS can also read Python configurations from an observing script and reproduce the correlator setup that was used. Because the correlator hardware description is defined in an XML file, the tool can be rapidly reconfigured for changing hardware. This has been quite useful as CARMA has recently commissioned a new correlator. The tool was written in Java by high school summer interns working in UMD's Laboratory for Millimeter Astronomy and has become an essential planning tool for CARMA PIs.

  16. Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S KHAN; N A KHAN

    2016-10-01

    The influences of relative motion, the size of the wave packet and the average momentum of the particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the dynamics of the quantum mutual information, the classical correlation and the quantum discord on the spincorrelations of entangled fermions are studied. In the limit of small average momentum, regardless of the size of the wave packet and the rapidity, the classical and the quantum correlations are equally weighted. On the otherhand, in the limit of large average momentum, the only correlations that exist in the system are the quantum correlations. For every value of the average momentum, the quantum correlations maximize at an optimal size of the wave packet. It is shown that after reaching a minimum value, the revival of quantum discord occurs with increasing rapidity.

  17. 冲击波对足底筋膜炎疼痛及功能的即时疗效分析及筋膜形态学与疼痛的网络相关性研究%Study on Instant Efficacy of Pain and Function in Plantar Fasciitis Treated with Shock Wave and Correlation in Fascia Morphology and Pain Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 方建辉; 邓建林; 张志杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the instant efficacy of pain and function in plantar fasciitis treated with extracorporeal shock wave, and to explore the correlation in fascia morphology and pain network. Methods:20 cases of patients with chronic plantar fasciitis were all treated with shock wave, before and after treatment the degree of pain was respectively evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), distance of single leg jumping was test-ed, and plantar fascia thickness was measured with musculoskeletal ultrasound, to analyze the correlation between plantar fascia thickness and degree of pain. Results:After treatment shock wave VAS score and single leg jumping distance were both significantly better than those before treatment (P<0.05);the plantar fascia thickness had positive correlation with VAS score, which meant the thicker the plantar fascia, the more serious the pain. Con-clusion:Instant efficacy of shock wave in chronic plantar fasciitis is remarkable, and plantar fascia thickness has certain correlation with pain.%目的:分析体外冲击波治疗对足底筋膜炎疼痛及功能的即时疗效,并探讨筋膜形态学与疼痛的相关性。方法:20例慢性足底筋膜炎患者均采用冲击波治疗,分别于治疗前后采用视觉模拟评分法(Visual Analogue Scale,VAS)对患者的疼痛程度进行评价,测试单腿跳跃距离,并应用肌骨超声测量足底筋膜厚度,分析足底筋膜厚度与疼痛程度的相关性。结果:经冲击波治疗后,患者的VAS评分及单腿跳跃距离均较治疗前显著改善(P<0.05);足底筋膜厚度与VAS评分呈正相关,即足底筋膜越厚,疼痛越严重。结论:冲击波治疗慢性足底筋膜炎即时疗效显著,且足底筋膜厚度与疼痛有一定相关性。

  18. Geometrical vs wave optics under gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Angélil, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or, geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics, rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches, we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic...

  19. Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Grishchuk, L P

    2001-01-01

    The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed)gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported byobservations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In themost favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achievedby the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers inLIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advancedground-based and space-based laser interferometers will be needed. The specificstatistical signature of relic gravitational waves, associated with thephenomenon of squeezing, is a potential reserve for further improvement of thesignal to noise ratio.

  20. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is very well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis of modern

  1. CMS-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CMS -Wave 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward-marching, finite...difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection

  2. Breakup of Spiral Waves in Coupled Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; JIA Ya; TANG Jun; YANG Li-Jian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breakup of spiral wave in the Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with nearest-neighbour couplings is reported.Appropriate initial values and parameter regions are selected to develop a stable spiral wave and then the Gauesian coloured noise with different intensities and correlation times is imposed on all neurons to study the breakup of spiral wave, respectively.Based on the mean field theory, the statistical factor of synchronization is defined to analyse the evolution of spiral wave.It is found that the stable rotating spiral wave encounters breakup with increasing intensity of Gaussian coloured noise or decreasing correlation time to certain threshold.

  3. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  4. Superconductivity from correlated hopping

    CERN Document Server

    Batista, C D; Aligia, A A

    1995-01-01

    We consider a chain described by a next-nearest-neighbor hopping combined with a nearest-neighbor spin flip. In two dimensions this three-body term arises from a mapping of the three-band Hubbard model for CuO$_2$ planes to a generalized $t-J$ model and for large O-O hopping favors resonance-valence-bond superconductivity of predominantly $d$-wave symmetry. Solving the ground state and low-energy excitations by analytical and numerical methods we find that the chain is a Luther-Emery liquid with correlation exponent $K_{\\rho} = (2-n)^2/2$, where $n$ is the particle density.

  5. Frequency hopping millimeter wave reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupido, L.; Sánchez, J.; Estrada, T.

    2004-10-01

    Reflectometry techniques are employed to study density fluctuations in fusion plasmas either using one channel or two channels with slightly different frequencies, to probe simultaneously closely spaced plasma layers (for radial correlation studies). The present article describes a novel system with increasing measuring capability utilizing only one single frequency that can be hopped during the discharge. This broadband fast hopping mm-wave reflectometer (BFHR) has been developed for both ASDEX upgrade (Max Plank Institute-Garching-Germany) and TJ-II stellarator (CIEMAT-Spain). The BFHR incorporates frequency synthesizers at microwave frequencies multiplied into the millimeter-wave range and uses heterodyne detection for sensitive phase and amplitude measurements.

  6. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  7. Strongly correlated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

    2012-09-18

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO₂ and Fe₃O₄, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials.

  8. Cross-correlation beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigrok, Elmer; Gibbons, Steven; Wapenaar, Kees

    2016-10-01

    An areal distribution of sensors can be used for estimating the direction of incoming waves through beamforming. Beamforming may be implemented as a phase-shifting and stacking of data recorded on the different sensors (i.e., conventional beamforming). Alternatively, beamforming can be applied to cross-correlations between the waveforms on the different sensors. We derive a kernel for beamforming cross-correlated data and call it cross-correlation beamforming (CCBF). We point out that CCBF has slightly better resolution and aliasing characteristics than conventional beamforming. When auto-correlations are added to CCBF, the array response functions are the same as for conventional beamforming. We show numerically that CCBF is more resilient to non-coherent noise. Furthermore, we illustrate that with CCBF individual receiver-pairs can be removed to improve mapping to the slowness domain. An additional flexibility of CCBF is that cross-correlations can be time-windowed prior to beamforming, e.g., to remove the directionality of a scattered wavefield. The observations on synthetic data are confirmed with field data from the SPITS array (Svalbard). Both when beamforming an earthquake arrival and when beamforming ambient noise, CCBF focuses more of the energy to a central beam. Overall, the main advantage of CCBF is noise suppression and its flexibility to remove station pairs that deteriorate the signal-related beampower.

  9. 基于雷电定位系统与行波实测数据的雷击故障关联度分析%The Correlation Degree of Lightning Location System and Measured Field Traveling Wave Data for Lightning Induced Fault Distinguishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹璞璘; 束洪春; 马仪; 黄然; 董俊; 余多; 白冰

    2015-01-01

    The identification of lightning induced fault and fault without lightning striking is a significant factor for lightning protection design to reduce number of lightning induced fault. In order to analyze the possibility of the information fusion of lightning location system (LLS) record and traveling wave data, this paper dissected different time and space domain characteristic of these two systems records. Considered the height difference influence, the fault distance calculated by traveling wave was transformed to suspected fault tower to calculating the difference between lightning records and traveling wave data. The polarity of traveling wave and lightning current was taken into account to remove some lightning records with different polarity. For computing the correlation degree of lightning records and traveling wave data, the number of detection station demonstrated the accuracy of lightning records is considered. The lightning induced fault and fault without lightning is identified based on the incidence of lightning records and traveling wave data. The proposed method was confirmed by the line patrolling results.%准确识别雷击故障与非雷击性故障对针对化防雷设计、降低雷击跳闸率具有重要意义.从雷电定位系统记录与行波数据所包含时空信息的不同特点入手,分析雷电地闪记录与行波数据在时间与空间上的关联可能性,计及高程差对线路长度影响,将行波测距结果换算为故障参考杆塔坐标,使行波测距结果能够与雷电地闪记录位置进行空间层面的匹配.引入雷电流极性与初始行波极性排除部分极性不一致的雷电地闪记录干扰,以地闪观测站数作为必要的附加条件,构造雷击记录与行波数据之间的关联度函数,对具体一次实际故障是否为雷击故障计算出关联度,在此基础上对雷击故障与非雷击性故障进行判断.并以实际巡线结果为依据,验证了所提算法的可行性.

  10. Low frequency magnetic signals associated with Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Paul J.; Goetz, K.; Lin, N.; Monson, S. J.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Stone, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    With the URAP experiment on Ulysses, low frequency signals with a magnetic component in close time correlation with electrostatic Langmuir waves at the plasma frequency are observed. In most, if not all, of these cases, the Langmuir waves are part of a Type III solar burst. This effect is investigated and it is shown that the low frequency waves are in the whistler mode and are most likely due to nonlinear effects involving Langmuir waves.

  11. Smooth sandwich gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, J

    1999-01-01

    Gravitational waves which are smooth and contain two asymptotically flat regions are constructed from the homogeneous pp-waves vacuum solution. Motion of free test particles is calculated explicitly and the limit to an impulsive wave is also considered.

  12. The physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Georgi, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The first complete introduction to waves and wave phenomena by a renowned theorist. Covers damping, forced oscillations and resonance; normal modes; symmetries; traveling waves; signals and Fourier analysis; polarization; diffraction.

  13. Coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound correlation and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2014-09-01

    Both photoacoustics and ultrasound have been researched extensively but separately. In this letter, we report an initial study on the coherent correlation between pulsed photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave. By illuminating an object with a pulsed laser and external ultrasound sequentially, both the endogenous photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave are received and coherently correlated, demonstrating enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Image contrast of the proposed coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging is also demonstrated to be improved significantly on vessel-mimicking phantom, due to fusion of the optical absorption and ultrasound reflection contrasts by coherent correlation of either conventional laser-induced photoacoustic imaging or pulse-echo ultrasound imaging separately.

  14. Parametric decay of wide band Langmuir wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Mitsuo; Pécseli, Hans L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous results obtained for modulational instability of a Langmuir wave spectrum are extended to account also for the Langmuir wave decay. The general model is tested by considering first the parametric decay of single-mode Langmuir waves, and also two-wave models, where several combinations are considered: one wave is modulationally unstable, another decay unstable and one where both waves are unstable with respect to decay. For the general case with continuous wave spectra it is found that distribution of the Langmuir wave energy over a wide wavenumber band reduces the decay rate when the correlation length for the spectrum becomes comparable to the wavelength of the most unstable sound wave among the possible decay products.

  15. An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).

  16. 不同胎龄新生儿卵圆孔未闭与心电图钩形R波的相关性%Correlation between patent foramen ovale and crochetage R wave of electrocardiogram in neonates of different gestational weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 庞保东; 吴传发; 陈莹; 胡静; 王灿

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨不同胎龄新生儿心电图钩形R波对卵圆孔未闭的诊断价值.方法:将142例不同胎龄新生儿按胎龄分为28~30周组、31 ~33周组、34 ~36周组、37 ~40周组,观察各组心电图Ⅱ、Ⅲ、aVF、V1导联钩形R波的出现率.结果:各组间Ⅲ导联、V1导联、Ⅱ、Ⅲ导联钩形R波出现率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);各组间Ⅱ、Ⅲ、aVF导联钩形R波出现率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),31 ~33周组出现率较其他组高.结论:不同胎龄新生儿卵圆孔未闭与Ⅱ、Ⅲ、aVF导联心电图QRS钩形改变有相关性.%Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of crochetage R wave of electrocardiogram for patent foramen ovale in neonates of different gestational weeks. Methods: One hundred and forty -two neonates were divided into 28 -30 gestational weeks, 31-33 gestational weeks, 34-36 gestational weeks, and 37-40 gestational weeks, the occurrence rates of crochetage R wave in lead Ⅱ , Ⅲ, aVF, and Ⅵ in the four groups were observed. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the occurrence rates of crochetage R wave in lead Ⅱ, lead Ⅲ, and lead aVF among different groups (P < 0. 05), the occurrence rate of crochetage R wave in neonates of 31 -33 gestational weeks was higher than those in the other groups. Conclusion: Patent foramen ovale in neonates of different gestational weeks is correlated with crochetage R wave in lead Ⅱ , lead Ⅲ, and lead aVF displayed in electrocardiogram.

  17. 基于Copula理论岩体质量Q值及波速与变形模量多变量相关性研究%MULTIVARIABLE CORRELATION OF ROCK MASS QUALITY INDEX Q SYSTEM VALUE,WAVE VELOCITY AND DEFORMATION MODULUS BASED ON COPULA THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 黄达; 张永兴

    2014-01-01

    以锦屏I级水电站坝址大理岩岩体原位变形试验和勘察结果为例,在分析岩体变形模量Em、纵波波速Vp以及岩体质量指标Q值间的两两相关关系的基础上,利用Copula函数能够描述多变量相关性的优点,构造了拟合Em,Vp和Q值间关系的最优Copula函数,并在岩体变形模量估值中进行运用。研究结果表明,三维Clayton Copula函数是拟合岩体波速Vp,Q值和变形模量mE间相关关系最优Copula函数。利用构造的Em-Vp-Q间关系的最优Copula函数求条件概率,可在已知岩体Vp和Q值条件下计算其他方法对变形模量估值的保证率,或者计算具有一定保证率的岩体变形模量估值,得到具有最优拟合的变形模量估值。该方法建立多因素间的相关关系,使现场试验和勘察的数据得到充分利用,为建立岩体变形模量与岩体参数间相关关系及估值提供一种新的途径。%There are strong correlations between deformation modulus Em of rock mass and physico-mechanical parameters or rock mass quality indices. These correlations were usually used for the estimation of deformation modulus. However,most of these correlations are established between a single parameter and deformation modulus;the other related parameters obtained from the in-situ tests or engineering geology survey are underused. Based on the correlation investigation between deformation modulus and wave velocity( Vp),deformation modulus and Q system,wave velocity and Q system of marble rock mass in Jinping I hydropower station,taking the advantage of Copula functions that can describe the correlations of multivariate,the optimal fitting Copula function of Em- PV -Q is selected. Then it has been applied to the estimation of deformation modulus. The result m shows that Clayton Copula is the optimal fitting Copula function of Em-Vp-Q. The guaranteed rates of estimated by other methods can be obtained;and the estimation of mE can be

  18. Correlator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneveld, C. van

    1968-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of designs of cross-correlation receivers for the detection of active underwater transmissions. Particular attention is given to the various structures of phase insensitive receivers, and to the problems concerned with clipping of the input signal and the reference functio

  19. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    generates wave and wind roses and histograms of directional wave data required to define the wave climate for Corps projects. Five published technical...on the CIRP wiki: http://cirpwiki.info/wiki/Main_Page Application of Products Projected Benefits Documentation Points of Contact CIRP Website Figure 2. Display of time series of wave height ( blue ) and wind speed (red)

  20. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  1. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  2. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  3. Linear Rogue waves

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, C

    2015-01-01

    We predict the existence of linear discrete rogue waves. We discuss that Josephson effect is the underlying reason for the formation of such waves. We study linear rogue waves in continuous system and present an exact analytical rogue wave solution of the Schrodinger-like equation.

  4. Finsler p p -waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Andrea; Pabst, Cornelia

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present Finsler gravitational waves. These are a Finslerian version of the well-known p p -waves, generalizing the very special relativity line element. Our Finsler p p -waves are an exact solution of Finslerian Einstein's equations in vacuum and describe gravitational waves propagating in an anisotropic background.

  5. Dependence of Wave-Breaking Statistics on Wind Stress and Wave Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.; Atakturk, Serhad S.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of wave breaking for pure wind driven waves has been studied on Lake Washington at wind speeds up to 8 m/s. Video recordings were employed to identify and categorize the breaking events in terms of micro-scale, spilling and plunging breakers. These events were correlated with the magnitude of the wave spectrum measured with a resistance wire wave gauge and band pass filtered between 6 and 10 Hz. An equivalent percentage of breaking crests were found for spilling and plunging events. Wave forcing as measured by wind stress (or friction velocity, u(sub *), squared) and by inverse wave age, u(sub *)/Cp where Cp is the phase velocity of the waves at the peak of the frequency spectrum, were found to be good prerictors of percentage of breaking crests. When combined in a two parameter regression, those two variables gave small standard deviation and had a high correlation coefficient (66 percent). The combination of u(sub *)(exp 2) and u(sub *)/Cp can be understood in physical terms. Furthermore, for the larger values of u(sub *)(exp 2) the dependence of wave braking and wave age was stronger than at the low end of the values u(sub *)(exp 2) and u(sub *)/Cp. Thus, both the level of wave development as determined by inverse wave age, which we may term relative wind effectiveness for wave forcing and the wind forcing on the water surface determine the incidence of wave breaking. Substituting U(sub 10)(sup 3.75) (which is the dependence of whitecap cover found by Monahan and coworkers) an equivalent correlation was found to the prediction by u(sub *)(exp 2). Slightly better standard deviation value and higher correlation coefficient were found by using a Reynolds number as predictor. A two-parameter regression involving u(sub *)(exp 2) and a Reynold's number proposed by Toba and his colleagues which relates u(sub *)(exp 2) and peak wave frequency, improves the correlation even more but is less easy to interpret in physical terms. The equivalent percentage of

  6. Studies on seismic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海明; 陈晓非

    2003-01-01

    The development of seismic wave study in China in the past four years is reviewed. The discussion is divided into several aspects, including seismic wave propagation in laterally homogeneous media, laterally heterogeneous media, anisotropic and porous media, surface wave and seismic wave inversion, and seismic wave study in prospecting and logging problems. Important projects in the current studies on seismic wave is suggested as the development of high efficient numerical methods, and applying them to the studies of excitation and propagation of seismic waves in complex media and strong ground motion, which will form a foundation for refined earthquake hazard analysis and prediction.

  7. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  8. Gravitational wave astronomy with radio galaxy surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    In the next decade, new astrophysical instruments will deliver the first large-scale maps of gravitational waves and radio sources. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the possibility to combine them to provide new and complementary ways to study the Universe. Using simulated catalogues appropriate to the planned surveys, it is possible to predict measurements of the cross-correlation between radio sources and GW maps and the effects of a stochastic gravitational wave background on galaxy ...

  9. A Comparison of Nature Waves and Model Waves with Special Reference to Wave Grouping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    This paper represents a comparative analyses of the occurrence of wave grouping in field storm waves and laboratory waves with similar power spectra and wave height distribution.......This paper represents a comparative analyses of the occurrence of wave grouping in field storm waves and laboratory waves with similar power spectra and wave height distribution....

  10. Stochastic wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Sobczyk, K

    1985-01-01

    This is a concise, unified exposition of the existing methods of analysis of linear stochastic waves with particular reference to the most recent results. Both scalar and vector waves are considered. Principal attention is concentrated on wave propagation in stochastic media and wave scattering at stochastic surfaces. However, discussion extends also to various mathematical aspects of stochastic wave equations and problems of modelling stochastic media.

  11. Sources of localized waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzipetros, Argyrios Alexandros

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of two types of Localized Wave (L W) pulses is considered; these are the 'Focus Wave Model (FWM) pulse and the X Wave pulse. First, we introduce the modified bidirectional representation where one can select new basis functions resulting in different representations for a solution to the scalar wave equation. Through this new representation, we find a new class of focused X Waves which can be extremely localized. The modified bidirectional decomposition is applied...

  12. Waves at Navigation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 2 19a. NAME...upgrades the Coastal Modeling System’s ( CMS ) wave model CMS -Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wave model, and BOUSS-2D, a Boussinesq-type nonlinear wave...provided by this work unit address these critical needs of the Corps’ navigation mission. Description Issue Addressed CMS -Wave application at Braddock

  13. Relativistic spherical plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Zhidkov, A G; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2011-01-01

    Tightly focused laser pulses as they diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we report on theoretical study of relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking. These waves may be suitable as particle injectors or as flying mirrors that both reflect and focus radiation, enabling unique X-ray sources and nonlinear QED phenomena.

  14. Wave-Ice interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈奚海莉

    2001-01-01

    The growth and movement of sea ice cover are influenced by the presence of wave field. Inturn, the wave field is influenced by the presence of ice cover. Their interaction is not fully understood.In this paper, we discuss some current understanding on wave attenuation when it propagates through frag-mented ice cover, ice drift due to the wave motion, and the growth characteristics of ice cover in wave field.

  15. Superconductivity, Antiferromagnetism, and Kinetic Correlation in Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yanagisawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ground state of two-dimensional Hubbard model on the basis of the variational Monte Carlo method. We use wave functions that include kinetic correlation and doublon-holon correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. It is still not clear whether the Hubbard model accounts for high-temperature superconductivity. The antiferromagnetic correlation plays a key role in the study of pairing mechanism because the superconductive phase exists usually close to the antiferromagnetic phase. We investigate the stability of the antiferromagnetic state when holes are doped as a function of the Coulomb repulsion U. We show that the antiferromagnetic correlation is suppressed as U is increased exceeding the bandwidth. High-temperature superconductivity is possible in this region with enhanced antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation and pairing interaction.

  16. P-wave Cooper pair splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Soller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Splitting of Cooper pairs has recently been realized experimentally for s-wave Cooper pairs. A split Cooper pair represents an entangled two-electron pair state, which has possible application in on-chip quantum computation. Likewise the spin-activity of interfaces in nanoscale tunnel junctions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in recent years. However, the possible implications of spin-active interfaces in Cooper pair splitters so far have not been investigated.Results: We analyze the current and the cross correlation of currents in a superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitter, including spin-active scattering. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we calculate the cumulant-generating function of charge transfer. As a first step, we discuss characteristics of the conductance for crossed Andreev reflection in superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitters with s-wave and p-wave superconductors and no spin-active scattering. In a second step, we consider spin-active scattering and show how to realize p-wave splitting using only an s-wave superconductor, through the process of spin-flipped crossed Andreev reflection. We present results for the conductance and cross correlations.Conclusion: Spin-activity of interfaces in Cooper pair splitters allows for new features in ordinary s-wave Cooper pair splitters, that can otherwise only be realized by using p-wave superconductors. In particular, it provides access to Bell states that are different from the typical spin singlet state.

  17. Freak waves in counterpropagating wave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støle-Hentschel, Susanne; Rye, Lisa; Raustøl, Anne; Trulsen, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The kurtosis of unimodal and counterpropagating bimodal wave systems is compared by means of laboratory experiments and simulations. Both give strong evidence that a bimodal wave system with waves travelling in opposite directions has reduced kurtosis compared to the corresponding unidirectional case. We thus anticipate reduced probability of freak waves in counterpropagating waves. The laboratory tests were performed with a JONSWAP wavefield in a long and narrow flume. The unimodal case was run with a damping beach in one end, while the bimodality was created by inserting a reflecting wall. The simulations were carried out with a numerical wave tank based on a Higher order spectral method employing partially or non-reflecting boundary conditions.

  18. Long Waves Associated with Bichromatic Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Guohai(董国海); YE Wenya(叶文亚); Nicholas Dodd

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model of low frequency waves is presented. The model is based on that of Roelvink (1993), but the numerical techniques used in the solution are based on the so-called Weighted-Average Flux (WAF) method withTime-Operator-Splitting (TOS) used for the treatment of the source terms. This method allows a small number ofcomputational points to be used, and is particularly efficient in modeling wave setup. The short wave (or primary wave)energy equation is solved with a traditional Lax-Wendroff technique. A nonlinear wave theory is introduced. The modeldescribed in this paper is found to be satisfactory in modeling low frequency waves associated with incident bichromaticwaves.

  19. Wave Energy Estimation by Using A Statistical Analysis and Wave Buoy Data near the Southern Caspian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Zamani; M.A.Badri

    2015-01-01

    Statistical analysis was done on simultaneous wave and wind using data recorded by discus-shape wave buoy. The area is located in the southern Caspian Sea near the Anzali Port. Recorded wave data were obtained through directional spectrum wave analysis. Recorded wind direction and wind speed were obtained through the related time series as well. For 12-month measurements (May 25 2007-2008), statistical calculations were done to specify the value of nonlinear auto-correlation of wave and wind using the probability distribution function of wave characteristics and statistical analysis in various time periods. The paper also presents and analyzes the amount of wave energy for the area mentioned on the basis of available database. Analyses showed a suitable comparison between the amounts of wave energy in different seasons. As a result, the best period for the largest amount of wave energy was known. Results showed that in the research period, the mean wave and wind auto correlation were about three hours. Among the probability distribution functions, i.e Weibull, Normal, Lognormal and Rayleigh, “Weibull” had the best consistency with experimental distribution function shown in different diagrams for each season. Results also showed that the mean wave energy in the research period was about 49.88 kW/m and the maximum density of wave energy was found in February and March, 2010.

  20. Reliability Index of Caisson Breakwaters for Load Variables Correlated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄禄文; 李炎保

    2004-01-01

    In order to suit the condition that the wave uplift is correlated with the horizontal wave load acting on a vertical breakwater, a generally used method for determining the reliability index β of the breakwater, i.e. the Hasofer-Lind method, is extended in a generalized stochastic space for correlative variables. The computational results for a caisson breakwater indicate that the value of β for the case of correlated variables is obviously smaller than that for the case of independent variables.

  1. Weibel Instability Growth Rate in Magnetized Plasmas with Quasi-Relativistic Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Sayed Ahmad; Mahdavi, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of the Weibel instability is investigated for dense magnetized plasmas. As we know, due to the electron velocity distribution, the Coulomb collision effect of electron-ion and the relativistic properties play an important role in such study. In this study an analytical expression for the growth rate and the condition of restricting the Weibel instability are derived for low-frequency limit. These calculations are done for the oscillation frequency dependence on the electron cyclotron frequency. It is shown that, the relativistic properties of the particle lead to increasing the growth rate of the instability. On the other hand the collision effects and background magnetic field try to decrease the growth rate by decreasing the temperature anisotropy and restricting the particles movement.

  2. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the wave energy resource at the location of the Danish Wave Energy test Centre (DanWEC) is presented in this paper. The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) test centre is located at Hanstholm in the of North West Denmark. Information about the long term wave statistics of the resource...... is necessary for WEC developers, both to optimise the WEC for the site, and to estimate its average yearly power production using a power matrix. The wave height and wave period sea states parameters are commonly characterized with a bivariate histogram. This paper presents bivariate histograms and kernel...... density estimates of the PDF as a function both of Hm0 and Tp, and Hm0 and T0;2, together with the mean wave power per unit crest length, Pw, as a function of Hm0 and T0;2. The wave elevation parameters, from which the wave parameters are calculated, are filtered to correct or remove spurious data...

  3. Fracture channel waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  4. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  5. Distribution of the nonlinear random ocean wave period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yijun; LI Mingjie; SONG Guiting; SI Guangcheng; QI Peng; HU Po

    2009-01-01

    Because of the intrinsic difficulty in determining distributions for wave periods, previous studies on wave period distribution models have not taken nonlinearity into account and have not performed well in terms of describing and statistically analyzing the probability density distribution of ocean waves. In this study, a statistical model of random waves is developed using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics. In addition, a new nonlinear probability distribution function for the wave period is presented with the parameters of spectral density width and nonlinear wave steepness, which is more reasonable as a physical mechanism. The magnitude of wave steepness determines the intensity of the nonlinear effect, while the spectral width only changes the energy distribution. The wave steepness is found to be an important parameter in terms of not only dynamics but also statistics. The value of wave steepness reflects the degree that the wave period distribution skews from the Cauchy distribution, and it also describes the variation in the distribution function, which resembles that of the wave surface elevation distribution and wave height distribution. We found that the distribution curves skew leftward and upward as the wave steepness increases. The wave period observations for the SZFII-1 buoy, made off the coast of Weihai (37°27.6′ N, 122°15.1′ E), China, are used to verify the new distribution. The coefficient of the correlation between the new distribution and the buoy data at different spectral widths (υ=0.3-0.5) is within the range of 0.968 6 to 0.991 7. In addition, the Longuet-Higgins (1975) and Sun (1988) distributions and the new distribution presented in this work are compared. The validations and comparisons indicate that the new nonlinear probability density distribution fits the buoy measurements better than the Longuet-Higgins and Sun distributions do. We believe that adoption of the new wave period distribution would improve traditional

  6. Cross Ripples and Wave Directional Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheel, R. A.; Hay, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Cross ripples are a 3-dimensional bed state composed of two sets of ripples with different orientations: one set of smaller wavelength (4-10 cm) ripples residing within the troughs of a larger wavelength (30-50 cm) set. Cross ripples occur at intermediate wave energies. In contrast, at slightly higher energies the bed undergoes a transition to a highly 2-dimensional linear transition rippled state. In this study, the characteristics of the wave directional spectra during the occurrences of these 2- and 3-dimensional bed states are compared. The rotary fanbeam sonar record from SandyDuck97 shows that cross ripples and linear transition ripples occurred in approximately 11% and 42% of the sonar images respectively. Wave directional spectra are calculated with the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method from collocated measurements of pressure and horizontal velocity. Using the sonar record and wave directional spectra the correlation between bimodal wave directional spectra and the occurrence of the two distinct ripple types is examined and compared. Since ripple crest alignment is typically orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation, one possible creation mechanism for cross ripples is a bidirectional wave field. We find that bimodality of the wave spectrum, neither in direction nor in frequency, is unique to the occurrence of cross ripples.

  7. NEW WIND WAVE GROWTH RELATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shu-ping; HOU Yi-jun; YIN Bao-shu

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper combining the relationship between wave steepness and wave age with the significant wave energy balance equation for wind wave,a new wind wave growth relation is presented.Comparisons with the other existing wind wave growth relations show that the results in present paper accord better with the wind wave growth process.

  8. Automated classification of spatiotemporal characteristics of gastric slow wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Gao, Jerry; Du, Peng; O'Grady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K

    2013-01-01

    Gastric contractions are underpinned by an electrical event called slow wave activity. High-resolution electrical mapping has recently been adapted to study gastric slow waves at a high spatiotemporal detail. As more slow wave data becomes available, it is becoming evident that the spatial organization of slow wave plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of gastric dsyrhythmias in major gastric motility disorders. All of the existing slow wave signal processing techniques deal with the identification and partitioning of recorded wave events, but not the analysis of the slow wave spatial organization, which is currently performed visually. This manual analysis is time consuming and is prone to observer bias and error. We present an automated approach to classify spatial slow wave propagation patterns via the use of Pearson cross correlations. Slow wave propagations were grouped into classes based on their similarity to each other. The method was applied to high-resolution gastric slow wave recordings from four pigs. There were significant changes in the velocity of the gastric slow wave wavefront and the amplitude of the slow wave event when there was a change in direction to the slow wave wavefront during dsyrhythmias, which could be detected with the automated approach.

  9. A Reaction-Diffusion Model of Cholinergic Retinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdell, Benjamin; Ford, Kevin; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Prior to receiving visual stimuli, spontaneous, correlated activity in the retina, called retinal waves, drives activity-dependent developmental programs. Early-stage waves mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) manifest as slow, spreading bursts of action potentials. They are believed to be initiated by the spontaneous firing of Starburst Amacrine Cells (SACs), whose dense, recurrent connectivity then propagates this activity laterally. Their inter-wave interval and shifting wave boundaries are the result of the slow after-hyperpolarization of the SACs creating an evolving mosaic of recruitable and refractory cells, which can and cannot participate in waves, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that cholinergic waves may be modulated by the extracellular concentration of ACh. Here, we construct a simplified, biophysically consistent, reaction-diffusion model of cholinergic retinal waves capable of recapitulating wave dynamics observed in mice retina recordings. The dense, recurrent connectivity of SACs is modeled through local, excitatory coupling occurring via the volume release and diffusion of ACh. In addition to simulation, we are thus able to use non-linear wave theory to connect wave features to underlying physiological parameters, making the model useful in determining appropriate pharmacological manipulations to experimentally produce waves of a prescribed spatiotemporal character. The model is used to determine how ACh mediated connectivity may modulate wave activity, and how parameters such as the spontaneous activation rate and sAHP refractory period contribute to critical wave size variability. PMID:25474327

  10. Wave Observations from Central California: SeaSonde Systems and In Situ Wave Buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan M. Long

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave data from five 12-13 MHz SeaSondes radars along the central California coast were analyzed to evaluate the utility of operational wave parameters, including significant wave height, period, and direction. Data from four in situ wave buoys served to verify SeaSonde data and independently corroborate wave variability. Hourly averaged measurements spanned distance is 150 km alongshore × 45 km offshore. Individual SeaSondes showed statistically insignificant variation over 27 km in range. Wave height inter-comparisons between regional buoys exhibit strong correlations, approximately 0.93, and RMS differences less than 50 cm over the region. SeaSonde-derived wave data were compared to nearby buoys over timescales from 15 to 26 months, and revealed wave height correlations =0.85−0.91 and mean RMS difference of 53 cm. Results showed that height RMS differences are a percentage of significant wave height, rather than being constant independent of sea state. Period and directions compared favorably among radars, buoys, and the CDIP model. Results presented here suggest that SeaSondes are a reliable source of wave information. Supported by buoy data, they also reveal minimal spatial variation in significant wave height, period, and direction in coastal waters from ~45 km × ~150 km in this region of the central California coast. Small differences are explained by sheltering from coastal promontories, and cutoff boundaries in the case of the radars.

  11. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  12. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  13. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  14. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a

  15. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  16. Controlling spiral wave with target wave in oscillatory systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fu-Cheng; Wang Xiao-Fei; Li Xue-Chen; Dong Li-Fang

    2007-01-01

    Spiral waves have been controlled by generating target waves with a localized inhomogeneity in the oscillatory medium. The competition between the spiral waves and target waves is discussed. The effect of the localized inhomogeneity size has also been studied.

  17. Explosive Line Wave Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    curvature produced by each line wave generator. Piezoelectric pins were used for an additional assessment of the explosive lens design...to a visual assessment of the wave curvature from the high speed camera images, the explosive lens design was also evaluated using piezoelectric pins...High Explosive Firing Complex (HEFC). The various explosive line wave generators were taped vertically on a supporting board and the detonation wave

  18. Pairing correlations in exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    The BCS and HFB theories which can accommodate the pairing correlations in the ground states of atomic nuclei are presented. As an application of the pairing theories, we investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a 3-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of $^{30,31,32}$Ne and $^{14,15,16}$C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the unique role of pairing correlations in nuclei far from the stability line. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for $s$- and p-waves using the HFB wave functions. We also propose effective density-dependent pairing interactions which reproduce both the neutron-neutron ($nn$) scattering length at zero density and the neutron pairing gap in uniform matter. Then, we apply these interactions to study pairing gaps in ...

  19. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  20. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  1. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been ...

  2. Condensation of long-term wave climates for the fatigue design of hydrodynamically sensitive offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    of the marginal wind and wave distribution. This is achieved by condensation of the site-specific wave climate in terms of wave period or wave height lumping, subsequently used as input for a correlation with the corresponding wind climate. The quality of this resulting wind–wave correlation is especially...... important for hydrodynamically sensitive structures since the applied met-ocean parameters have a non-linear influence on calculated fatigue design loads. The present article introduces a new wave lumping method for condensation of the wave climate. The novelty is predominantly based on refined equivalence...

  3. The modulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves by Pc 5 ULF waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Loto'aniu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves by longer-period ULF waves has been proposed as a method for producing pearl structured Pc 1–2 EMIC waves. This study examines frequency and phase relationship between Pc 1 EMIC wavepacket envelopes and simultaneously occurring Pc 5 ULF waves using magnetic data measured by the CRRES spacecraft. Intervals from three days in 1991 where CRRES observed pearls are presented along with simple statistics for 58 EMIC wavepackets. The observations were dominated by EMIC waves propagating away from the equatorial region. Comparisons between pearl wavepacket envelopes and Pc 5 waves show excellent agreement. The pearl wavepacket duration times, τdur, were statistically correlated with Pc 5 wave periods, TPc5, resulting in a correlation coefficient of R=0.7 and best fit equation τdur=0.8·TPc5+6 s. In general, phase differences varied although time intervals of constant in-phase or anti-phase correlation were observed. Anti-phase modulation may be explained by a decreasing background magnetic field due to the negative cycle of the ULF wave decreasing Alfvén velocity and minimum resonant energy. In-phase modulation could be the result of adiabatic modulation of temperature anisotropy in-phase with variations in the background field. Non-adiabatic processes may contribute to intervals that showed varying phase differences with time. Results suggest that future theoretical developments should take into account the full range of possible wave particle interactions inside the magnetosphere.

  4. Observed Dispersion Relation of Yanai Waves and 17-Day Tropical Instability Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    day TIWs. 1. Introduction Mixed Rossby-Gravity waves (often referred to as Yanai waves) play an important role in a variety of phenomena in the...significant role in the SST and SSH variability caused by 17-day TIWs especially in the northern hemisphere. 3. Cross-correlation analysis The phase...penetrating from the upper troposphere into the lower strato - sphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 47, 167–182. Zangvil, A., 1975: Temporal and spatial

  5. The lack of equipartitioning in global body wave coda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel; Stähler, Simon C.

    2015-09-01

    Correlation of the coda of large earthquakes can be used to retrieve body waves at teleseismic distances. This retrieval depends on waves propagating with equal energy in all directions (equipartitioning). We carry out a beamforming analysis of body waves at periods of 10 and 40 s recorded at USArray and show that the late coda, up to 10 h after the Okhotsk earthquake, is dominated by waves propagating in the great circle direction; late coda waves are not equipartitioned. This implies for seismic interferometry that teleseismic body waves can only be extracted from the coda when the earthquake and the receivers are located on a great circle. This happens automatically when the employed stations are antipodal or when the autocorrelation of waves is used. The use of long-period ambient seismic noise relies on the distribution of sources because scattering only marginally randomizes directions. This provides insight into recent observations of core phases extracted from seismic interferometry.

  6. WAVE INTERACTION WITH PERFORATED CAISSON BREAKWATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xue-feng

    2003-01-01

    The reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the total horizontal forces acting on them were experimentally and numerically analyzed and discussed when wave propagates normally. To consider the viscosity effect of fluid and nonlinear action of waves on structures, the VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method combined with the k-ε turbulence model was used to simulate the interaction between waves and structures. Governing equations were solved with the finite difference method. Through 2D experimental study in the wave flume, the empirical relationship between the reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the main affecting factors were obtained from the experimental data using the least square method. Also the correlation between the ratio of the total horizontal force acting on perforated caisson and the force acting on solid caisson and the main affecting factors were regressed from the experimental data.

  7. Ticking terahertz wave generation in attoseconds

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dongwen; Meng, Chao; Du, Xiyu; Zhou, Zhaoyan; Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    We perform a joint measurement of terahertz waves and high-order harmonics generated from noble atoms driven by a fundamental laser pulse and its second harmonic. By correlating their dependence on the phase-delay of the two pulses, we determine the generation of THz waves in tens of attoseconds precision. Compared with simulations and models, we find that the laser-assisted soft-collision of the electron wave packet with the atomic core plays a key role. It is demonstrated that the rescattering process, being indispensable in HHG processes, dominant THz wave generation as well but in a more elaborate way. The new finding might be helpful for the full characterization of the rescattering dynamics.

  8. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  9. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  10. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  11. The Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive...... design an testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3:5 model turbine. Thus survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified....

  12. A coupled "AB" system: Rogue waves and modulation instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C F; Grimshaw, R H J; Chow, K W; Chan, H N

    2015-10-01

    Rogue waves are unexpectedly large and localized displacements from an equilibrium position or an otherwise calm background. For the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model widely used in fluid mechanics and optics, these waves can occur only when dispersion and nonlinearity are of the same sign, a regime of modulation instability. For coupled NLS equations, rogue waves will arise even if dispersion and nonlinearity are of opposite signs in each component as new regimes of modulation instability will appear in the coupled system. The same phenomenon will be demonstrated here for a coupled "AB" system, a wave-current interaction model describing baroclinic instability processes in geophysical flows. Indeed, the onset of modulation instability correlates precisely with the existence criterion for rogue waves for this system. Transitions from "elevation" rogue waves to "depression" rogue waves are elucidated analytically. The dispersion relation as a polynomial of the fourth order may possess double pairs of complex roots, leading to multiple configurations of rogue waves for a given set of input parameters. For special parameter regimes, the dispersion relation reduces to a cubic polynomial, allowing the existence criterion for rogue waves to be computed explicitly. Numerical tests correlating modulation instability and evolution of rogue waves were conducted.

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function $Z$ is obtained within an "interaction representation" and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for $Z$. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the $N$-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency.

  15. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  16. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  17. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  18. Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2003-02-21

    A plane-wave method for computing the three-dimensional scattering of propagating elastic waves by a planar fracture with heterogeneous fracture compliance distribution is presented. This method is based upon the spatial Fourier transform of the seismic displacement-discontinuity (SDD) boundary conditions (also called linear slip interface conditions), and therefore, called the wave-number-domain SDD method (wd-SDD method). The resulting boundary conditions explicitly show the coupling between plane waves with an incident wave number component (specular component) and scattered waves which do not follow Snell's law (nonspecular components) if the fracture is viewed as a planar boundary. For a spatially periodic fracture compliance distribution, these boundary conditions can be cast into a linear system of equations that can be solved for the amplitudes of individual wave modes and wave numbers. We demonstrate the developed technique for a simulated fracture with a stochastic (correlated) surface compliance distribution. Low- and high-frequency solutions of the method are also compared to the predictions by low-order Born series in the weak and strong scattering limit.

  19. Wave resource variability: Impacts on wave power supply over regional to international scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Fairley, Iain; Robertson, Bryson; Abusara, Mohammad; Masters, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The intermittent, irregular and variable nature of the wave energy resource has implications for the supply of wave-generated electricity into the grid. Intermittency of renewable power may lead to frequency and voltage fluctuations in the transmission and distribution networks. A matching supply of electricity must be planned to meet the predicted demand, leading to a need for gas-fired and back-up generating plants to supplement intermittent supplies, and potentially limiting the integration of intermittent power into the grid. Issues relating to resource intermittency and their mitigation through the development of spatially separated sites have been widely researched in the wind industry, but have received little attention to date in the less mature wave industry. This study analyses the wave resource over three different spatial scales to investigate the potential impacts of the temporal and spatial resource variability on the grid supply. The primary focus is the Southwest UK, a region already home to multiple existing and proposed wave energy test sites. Concurrent wave buoy data from six locations, supported by SWAN wave model hindcast data, are analysed to assess the correlation of the resource across the region and the variation in wave power with direction. Power matrices for theoretical nearshore and offshore devices are used to calculate the maximum step change in generated power across the region as the number of deployment sites is increased. The step change analysis is also applied across national and international spatial scales using output from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) ERA-Interim hindcast model. It is found that the deployment of multiple wave energy sites, whether on a regional, national or international scale, results in both a reduction in step changes in power and reduced times of zero generation, leading to an overall smoothing of the wave-generated electrical power. This has implications for the

  20. Using Kinect to Measure Wave Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J.; Loose, B.; Lovely, A.

    2012-12-01

    Gas exchange at the air-sea interface is enhanced by aqueous turbulence generated by capillary-gravity waves, affecting the absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the ocean. The mean squared wave slope of these waves correlates strongly with the gas transfer velocity. To measure the energy in capillary-gravity waves, this project aims to use the Microsoft Xbox Kinect to measure the short period wave spectrum. Kinect is an input device for the Xbox 360 with an infrared laser and camera that can be used to map objects at high frequency and spatial resolution, similar to a LiDAR sensor. For air-sea gas exchange, we are interested in the short period gravity waves with a wavenumber of 40 to 100 radians per meter. We have successfully recorded data from Kinect at a sample rate of 30 Hz with 640x480 pixel resolution, consistent with the manufacturer specifications for its scanning capabilities. At 0.5 m distance from the surface, this yields a nominal resolution of approximately 0.7 mm with a theoretical vertical precision of 0.24 mm and a practical 1 σ noise level of 0.91 mm. We have found that Kinect has some limitations in its ability to detect the air-water interface. Clean water proved to be a weaker reflector for the Kinect IR source, whereas a relatively strong signal can be received for liquids with a high concentration of suspended solids. Colloids such as milk and Ca(OH)2 in water proved more suitable media from which height and wave spectra were detectable. Moreover, we will show results from monochromatic as well as wind-wave laboratory studies. With the wave field measurements from Kinect, gas transfer velocities at the air-sea interface can be determined.

  1. Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran

    2002-06-01

    A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.

  2. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....

  3. The determinants of merger waves: An international perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugler, Klaus; Mueller, Dennis C.; Weichselbaumer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the most conspicuous features of mergers is that they come in waves that are correlated with increases in share prices and price/earnings ratios. We use a natural way to discriminate between pure stock market influences on firm decisions and other influences by examining merger patterns for both listed and unlisted firms. If “real” changes in the economy drive merger waves, as some neoclassical theories of mergers predict, both listed and unlisted firms should experience waves. We find significant differences between listed and unlisted firms as predicted by behavioral theories of merger waves. PMID:27346903

  4. Mapping the nano-Hertz gravitational wave sky

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new method for extracting gravitational wave signals from pulsar timing data. We show that any gravitational wave signal can be decomposed into an orthogonal set of sky maps, with the number of maps equal to the number of pulsars in the timing array. These maps may be used as a basis to construct gravitational wave templates for any type of source, including collections of point sources. A variant of the standard Hellings-Downs correlation analysis is recovered for statistically isotropic signals. The template based approach allows us to probe potential anisotropies in the signal and produce maps of the gravitational wave sky.

  5. Waves and instability in a one-dimensional microfluidic array

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Motion in a one-dimensional (1D) microfluidic array is simulated. Water droplets, dragged by flowing oil, are arranged in a single row, and due to their hydrodynamic interactions spacing between these droplets oscillates with a wave-like motion that is longitudinal or transverse. The simulation yields wave spectra that agree well with experiment. The wave-like motion has an instability which is confirmed to arise from nonlinearities in the interaction potential. The instability's growth is spatially localized. By selecting an appropriate correlation function, the interaction between the longitudinal and transverse waves is described.

  6. Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel

    2005-10-01

    When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime.

  7. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  8. Estimating purity in terms of correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T; Znidaric, M; Prosen, Tomaz; Seligman, Thomas H.; Znidaric, Marko

    2003-01-01

    We prove a rigorous inequality estimating the purity of a reduced density matrix of a composite quantum system in terms of cross-correlation of the same state and an arbitrary product state. Various immediate applications of our result are proposed, in particular concerning Gaussian wave-packet propagation under classically regular dynamics.

  9. Analysis of circular wave packets generated by pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S., E-mail: shuhei@concord.itp.tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Reinhold, C.O. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6372 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Burgdoerfer, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wyker, B.; Ye, S.; Dunning, F.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We demonstrate that circular wave packets in high Rydberg states generated by a pulsed electric field applied to extreme Stark states are characterized by a position-dependent energy gradient that leads to a correlation between the principal quantum number n and the spatial coordinate. This correlation is rather insensitive to the initial state and can be seen even in an incoherent mix of states such as is generated experimentally allowing information to be placed into, and extracted from, such wave packets. We show that detailed information on the spatial distribution of a circular wave packet can be extracted by analyzing the complex phase of its expansion coefficients.

  10. STRENGTH AND WAVE VELOCITY TEST ON ARTIFICIALLY FROZEN SOILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马芹永

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical analysis conducted of uniaxial compressive strength and tensile strength ofartificially frozen soil and P waves and S waves and of the relationship between the two. Experi-ments are made on frozen sand and frozen clay respectively at the temperature of - 7 ℃, - 12 ℃and - 17 ℃. Of the data obtained, regression analysis and gray-system correlation are conduct-ed. As indicated by the results, the frozen soil tensile strength is closely correlated with the Pwave velocity and the compressive with the S wave, hence the former is well described by thelatter.

  11. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  12. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  13. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype....... In the period from 1998 to 2001 extensive testing on a scale 1:50 model was carried at Aalborg University. During the last two years, testing has started on a prototype of the Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning, Denmark (scale 1:4.5 of the North Sea). The prototype was grid connected in May 2003 as the world...

  14. MHD waves in sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Sych, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The review addresses the spatial frequency morphology of sources of sunspot oscillations and waves, including their localization, size, oscillation periods, height localization with the mechanism of cut-off frequency that forms the observed emission variability. Dynamic of sunspot wave processes, provides the information about the structure of wave fronts and their time variations, investigates the oscillation frequency transformation depending on the wave energy is shown. The initializing solar flares caused by trigger agents like magnetoacoustic waves, accelerated particle beams, and shocks are discussed. Special attention is paid to the relation between the flare reconnection periodic initialization and the dynamics of sunspot slow magnetoacoustic waves. A short review of theoretical models of sunspot oscillations is provided.

  15. Five Waves of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Building on previous well-argued work by Jon Sundbo (1995a), on how innovation has evolved in three phases or waves since 1880, this paper’s contribution is extending the historical line, by offering arguments and explanations for two additional waves of innovation that explain the most recent...... developments. The paper also adds new interpretations of the previous work by Sundbo (1995a) in suggesting that the waves are triggered by societal and economic crisis. The result is a new theoretical and historical framework, proposing five waves of innovation triggered by societal and economic crises....... The innovation within each wave is constituted by different drivers of innovation: Cost-driven, development-driven, market-driven, user-driven, and remains of these waves are accumulated to form the complex character of today’s network-driven innovation....

  16. Shock wave reflection phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-dor, Gabi

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-knowledge description of the shock wave reflection phenomena from a phenomenological point of view. The first part is a thorough introduction to oblique shock wave reflections, presenting the two major well-known reflection wave configurations, namely, regular (RR) and Mach (MR) reflections, the corresponding two- and three-shock theories, their analytical and graphical solution and the proposed transition boundaries between these two reflection-wave configurations. The second, third and fourth parts describe the reflection phenomena in steady, pseudo-steady and unsteady flows, respectively. Here, the possible specific types of reflection wave configurations are described, criteria for their formation and termination are presented and their governing equations are solved analytically and graphically and compared with experimental results. The resolution of the well-known von Neumann paradox and a detailed description of two new reflection-wave configurations - t...

  17. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  18. Near Shore Wave Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    the alongshore current, and a full non linear bottom shear stress. Contributions from the alongshore wind stress are mostly evident offshore and over...fraction) profiles measured on a day with offshore wave height of 1.6m, and 10 ms-1 wind speed. The one hour mean void fraction profiles are measured in a...given the offshore wave conditions. OBJECTIVES We hypothesize that the wave-induced kinematic, sediment and morphologic processes are nonlinearly

  19. Dyakonov surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær;

    2008-01-01

    The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....

  20. Spheroidal wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Flammer, Carson

    2005-01-01

    Intended to facilitate the use and calculation of spheroidal wave functions, this applications-oriented text features a detailed and unified account of the properties of these functions. Addressed to applied mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and mathematical engineers, it presents tables that provide a convenient means for handling wave problems in spheroidal coordinates.Topics include separation of the scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates, angle and radial functions, integral representations and relations, and expansions in spherical Bessel function products. Additional subje

  1. Making Wave Concept Tangible

    OpenAIRE

    Bülbül, Mustafa Şahin

    2012-01-01

    This study includes efficiency of some designed materials and activities for the students with special needs (blind students) about wave concept. In 9th grade Turkish High School Physics Curriculum, all the students have to learn wave concept because physics course is compulsory and wave concept was prepared as a unit. Generally, blind students only memorize some definitions about period, frequency and amplitude in that unit. This seems the easiest way for both teacher and students. Observing...

  2. Stochastic Background Search Correlating ALLEGRO with LIGO Engineering Data

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, J T; Heng, I S; McHugh, M P; Lazzarini, A; Whelan, John T; Daw, Edward; Heng, Ik Siong; Hugh, Martin P Mc; Lazzarini, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We describe the role of correlation measurements between the LIGO interferometer in Livingston, LA, and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector in Baton Rouge, LA, in searches for a stochastic background of gravitational waves. Such measurements provide a valuable complement to correlations between interferometers at the two LIGO sites, since they are sensitive in a different, higher, frequency band. Additionally, the variable orientation of the ALLEGRO detector provides a means to distinguish gravitational wave correlations from correlated environmental noise. We describe the analysis underway to set a limit on the strength of a stochastic background at frequencies near 900 Hz using ALLEGRO data and data from LIGO's E7 Engineering Run.

  3. Breakup of spiral wave under different boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ying-Kui; Wang Guang-Rui; Chen Shi-Gang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the breakup of spiral wave under no-flux, periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions respectively. When the parameter ε is close to a critical value for Doppler-induced wave breakup, the instability of the system caused by the boundary effect occurs in the last two cases, resulting in the breakup of spiral wave near the boundary. With our defined average order measure of spiral wave (AOMSW), we quantify the degree of order of the system when the boundary-induced breakup of spiral wave happens. By analysing the AOMSW and outer diameter R of the spiral tip orbit, it is easy to find that this boundary effect is correlated with large values of R, especially under the Dirichlet boundary condition. This correlation is nonlinear, so the AOMSW sometimes oscillates with the variation of ε.

  4. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  5. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  6. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  7. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  8. Breakdown of universal transport in correlated d-wave superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Brian Møller; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the flat (k=0) cosmological Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with holonomy corrections of loop quantum gravity. The considered universe contains a massless scalar field and the cosmological constant Lambda. We find analytical solutions for this model in different configurat...

  9. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  10. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  11. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...

  12. Wave groups in uni-directional surface-wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groesen, van E.

    1998-01-01

    Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) eq

  13. Exitation of Whistler Waves by a Helical Wave Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balmashnov, A. A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1981-01-01

    The excitation of whistler waves in a radial inhomogeneous plasma is investigated experimentally, using a slow-wave structure consisting of a helix of variable length surrounding the plasma column. The excited waves were observed to have a wave-vector parallel to the external magnetic field....... The possibility of exciting the waves in different radial regions is demonstrated....

  14. Pulse Wave Velocity in the Carotid Artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jensen, Julie Brinck; Udesen, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the carotid artery (CA) has been estimated based on ultrasound data collected by the experimental scanner RASMUS at DTU. Data is collected from one test subject using a frame rate (FR) of 4000 Hz. The influence of FRs is also investigated. The PWV is calculated from...... distension wave forms (DWF) estimated using cross-correlation. The obtained velocities give results in the area between 3-4 m/s, and the deviations between estimated PWV from two beats of a pulse are around 10%. The results indicate that the method presented is applicable for detecting the local PWV...

  15. Ghost Imaging with Matter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Roman; Henson, Bryce; Shin, David; Hodgman, Sean; Dall, Robert; Baldwin, Kenneth; Truscott, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high resolution ghost imaging of a macroscopic object using atoms. Ghost imaging is a novel technique in which the image emerges from cross-correlation of particles (usually photons)in two separate beams. One beam is detected with a single-pixel (bucket detector) after passing through the object, while the other beam does not interact with the object and is registered with high spatial resolution. Neither detector can reconstruct the image independently. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold metastable helium atoms originating from thecollision of two Bose-Einstein Condensates. After s-wave scattering the atoms form a spherical shell of strongly correlated pairs with opposite momenta. We extend this technique with more than a10-foldincrease in the number of correlated pairs available for eachsingle experiment run, by using higher-order Bragg scattering in the Kapitza-Dirac regime, with multiple shells generated from different diffraction orders. Using single-atom detection, we create ghost images of a target maskwith a resolution given by the width of the cross-corrrelation function of atomic momenta. Future extensions could include ghost interference and EPR tests.

  16. Modulation of a quantum positron acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    Amplitude modulation of a positron acoustic wave is considered in a four-component electron-positron plasma in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle exchange-correlation potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to viscosity in the momentum balance equation of the charged carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the quantum positron acoustic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Detailed analysis of the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the quantum positron acoustic wave is presented. For a typical parameter range, relevant to some dense astrophysical objects, it is found that the quantum positron acoustic wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the quantum effect due to the particle exchange-correlation potential is significant in comparison to the effect due to the Bohm potential for smaller values of the carrier wavenumber. However, for comparatively larger values of the carrier wavenumber, the Bohm potential effect overtakes the effect of the exchange-correlation potential. It is found that the critical wavenumber for the modulation instability depends on the ratio of the equilibrium hot electron number density and the cold positron number density and on the ratio of the equilibrium hot positron number density and the cold positron number density. A numerical result on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.

  17. Interannual variability of the stratospheric wave driving during northern winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kelder

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the stratospheric wave driving during northern winter is often quantified by the January–February mean poleward eddy heat flux at 100 hPa, averaged over 40°–80° N (or a similar area and period. Despite the dynamical and chemical relevance of the wave driving, the causes for its variability are still not well understood. In this study, ERA-40 reanalysis data for the period 1979–2002 are used to examine several factors that significantly affect the interannual variability of the wave driving. The total poleward heat flux at 100 hPa is poorly correlated with that in the troposphere, suggesting a decoupling between 100 hPa and the troposphere. However, the individual zonal wave-1 and wave-2 contributions to the wave driving at 100 hPa do exhibit a significant coupling with the troposphere, predominantly their stationary components. The stationary wave-1 contribution to the total wave driving significantly depends on the latitude of the stationary wave-1 source in the troposphere. The results suggest that this dependence is associated with the varying ability of stationary wave-1 activity to enter the tropospheric waveguide at mid-latitudes. The wave driving anomalies are separated into three parts: one part due to anomalies in the zonal correlation coefficient between the eddy temperature and eddy meridional wind, another part due to anomalies in the zonal eddy temperature amplitude, and a third part due to anomalies in the zonal eddy meridional wind amplitude. It is found that year-to-year variability in the zonal correlation coefficient between the eddy temperature and the eddy meridional wind is the most dominant factor in explaining the year-to-year variability of the poleward eddy heat flux.

  18. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  19. Wave Mechanics or Wave Statistical Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By comparison between equations of motion of geometrical optics and that of classical statistical mechanics, this paper finds that there should be an analogy between geometrical optics and classical statistical mechanics instead of geometrical mechanics and classical mechanics. Furthermore, by comparison between the classical limit of quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics, it finds that classical limit of quantum mechanics is classical statistical mechanics not classical mechanics, hence it demonstrates that quantum mechanics is a natural generalization of classical statistical mechanics instead of classical mechanics. Thence quantum mechanics in its true appearance is a wave statistical mechanics instead of a wave mechanics.

  20. EMS wave logger data processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Waves can be measured in several ways. One way of measuring waves is by measuring the wave pressure at a certain depth using a pressure sensor and calculate the wave information from the pressure record. The EMS wave logger uses a Honeywell MLH 050 PGP 06A pressure sensor. The information is stored

  1. Making waves: visualizing fluid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, Wout; Zwart, Valerie; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-01-01

    We explore the visualization of violent wave dynamics and erosion by waves and jets in laser-cut reliefs, laser engravings, and three-dimensional printing. For this purpose we built table-top experiments to cast breaking waves, and also explored the creation of extreme or rogue waves in larger wave

  2. On the feasibility of the use of wind SAR to downscale waves on shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Filipponi, F.; Taramelli, A.; Valentini, E.; Camus, P.; Méndez, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, wave reanalyses have become popular as a powerful source of information for wave climate research and engineering applications. These wave reanalyses provide continuous time series of offshore wave parameters; nevertheless, in coastal areas or shallow water, waves are poorly described because spatial resolution is not detailed. By means of wave downscaling, it is possible to increase spatial resolution in high temporal coverage simulations, using forcing from wind and offshore wave databases. Meanwhile, the reanalysis wave databases are enough to describe the wave climate at the limit of simulations; wind reanalyses at an adequate spatial resolution to describe the wind structure near the coast are not frequently available. Remote sensing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the ability to detect sea surface signatures and estimate wind fields at high resolution (up to 300 m) and high frequency. In this work a wave downscaling is done on the northern Adriatic Sea, using a hybrid methodology and global wave and wind reanalysis as forcing. The wave fields produced were compared to wave fields produced with SAR winds that represent the two dominant wind regimes in the area: the bora (ENE direction) and sirocco (SE direction). Results show a good correlation between the waves forced with reanalysis wind and SAR wind. In addition, a validation of reanalysis is shown. This research demonstrates how Earth observation products, such as SAR wind fields, can be successfully up-taken into oceanographic modeling, producing similar downscaled wave fields when compared to waves forced with reanalysis wind.

  3. The influence of noise sources on cross-correlation amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2012-01-01

    We use analytical examples and asymptotic forms to examine the mathematical structure and physical meaning of the seismic cross correlation measurement. We show that in general, cross correlations are not Green's functions of medium, and may be very different depending on the source distribution. The modeling of noise sources using spatial distributions as opposed to discrete collections of sources is emphasized. When stations are illuminated by spatially complex source distributions, cross correlations show arrivals at a variety of time lags, from zero to the maximum surface-wave arrival time. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of inverting for the source distribution using the energy of the full cross-correlation waveform. The interplay between the source distribution and wave attenuation in determining the functional dependence of cross correlation energies on station-pair distance is quantified. Without question, energies contain information about wave attenuation. However, the accurate interpretation o...

  4. Directional wave measurements using an autonomous vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Lars R.; Fer, Ilker; Peddie, David

    2016-09-01

    An autonomous vessel, the Offshore Sensing Sailbuoy, was used for wave measurements near the Ekofisk oil platform complex in the North Sea (56.5º N, 3.2º E, operated by ConocoPhillips) from 6 to 20 November 2015. Being 100 % wind propelled, the Sailbuoy has two-way communication via the Iridium network and has the capability for missions of 6 months or more. It has previously been deployed in the Arctic, Norwegian Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, but the present study was the first test for wave measurements. During the campaign the Sailbuoy held position about 20 km northeast of Ekofisk (on the lee side) during rough conditions. Mean wind speed measured at Ekofisk during the campaign was 9.8 m/s, with a maximum of 20.4 m/s, with wind mostly from south and southwest. A Datawell MOSE G1000 GPS-based 2 Hz wave sensor was mounted on the Sailbuoy. Mean significant wave height ( H s 1 min) measured was 3 m, whereas maximum H s was 6 m. Mean wave period was 7.7 s, while maximum wave height, H max, was 12.6 m. These measurements have been compared with non-directional Waverider observations at the Ekofisk complex. The agreement between the two data sets was very good, with a mean percent absolute error of 7 % and a linear correlation coefficient of 0.97. The wave frequency spectra measured by the two instruments compared very well, except for low H s (˜1 m), where the motion of the vessel seemed to influence the measurements. Nevertheless, the Sailbuoy performed well during this campaign, and results suggest that it is a suitable platform for wave measurements in a broad range of sea conditions.

  5. [Correlation between EEG and neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of physiological mechanisms underlying nonepileptiform EEG abnormalities is reviewed to clarify the correlation between EEG and neuroimaging. Focal and widespread slow waves, background abnormalities, and bursts of rhythmic slow activity are discussed. EEG phenomena were correlated with lesion size, location, type (white matter vs. gray matter, high density vs. low density), and mass effect. Clinical and experimental accumulated over the past five decades suggest that polymorphic slow activity is generated in cerebral cortex by layers of pyramidal cells and is probably due to partial deafferentation from subcortical areas. Unilateral background activity changes are probably thalamic dysfunction, and bilateral paroxysmal slow activity is due to abnormal thalamocortical circuits combined with cortical pathology. Paroxysmal discharges indicate the presence of epilepsy with possible brain lesion(s). The EEG is a functional test and provides us complementary information to neuroimaging studies.

  6. Propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro. The time-reversed Lamb waves were successfully launched at 200 kHz in 18 bovine tibiae through a time reversal process of Lamb waves. The group velocities of the time-reversed Lamb waves in the bovine tibiae were measured using the axial transmission technique. They showed a significant correlation with the cortical thickness and tended to follow the theoretical group velocity of the lowest order antisymmetrical Lamb wave fairly well, consistent with the behavior of the slow guided wave in long cortical bones.

  7. Lower hybrid frequency range waves generated by ion polarization drift due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: Analysis of an event observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD) parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  8. Combined Production Of A Full-Scale Wave Converter And A Full-Scale Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    correlation between winds and waves, characterised by an average delay of 2 to 3 hours. Up to 9hours-delay the correlation remains high. Regarding power productions, results show every portfolio combining wave and wind technologies provides important benefits: minimises the percentage of time of zero...

  9. Combined Production Of A Full-Scale Wave Converter And A Full-Scale Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    correlation between winds and waves, characterised by an average delay of 2 to 3 hours. Up to 9hours-delay the correlation remains high. Regarding power productions, results show every portfolio combining wave and wind technologies provides important benefits: minimises the percentage of time of zero...

  10. Developing de Broglie Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Johansson J. X.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic component waves, comprising together with their generating oscillatory massless charge a material particle, will be Doppler shifted when the charge hence particle is in motion, with a velocity v, as a mere mechanical consequence of the source motion. We illustrate here that two such component waves generated in opposite directions and propagating at speed c between walls in a one-dimensional box, superpose into a traveling beat wave of wavelength Λd=vcΛ and phase velocity c2/v+v which resembles directly L. de Broglie’s hypothetic phase wave. This phase wave in terms of transmitting the particle mass at the speed v and angular frequency Ωd= 2πv/Λd, with Λd and Ωd obeying the de Broglie relations, represents a de Broglie wave. The standing-wave function of the de Broglie (phase wave and its variables for particle dynamics in small geometries are equivalent to the eigen-state solutions to Schrödinger equation of an identical system.

  11. Slow frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  12. [Shock waves in orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, G

    1997-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock waves have revolutionized urological stone treatment. Nowadays shock waves are widely used in orthopedics, too. This article reviews the applications of extracorporeal shock waves on bone and adjacent soft tissue. The osteoneogenetic effect of extracorporeal shock waves has been proven and can be used to treat pseudarthrosis with a success rate of around 75%. Shock waves have a positive effect in tennis and golfer's elbow, calcaneal spur, and the complex called "periarthritis humero-scapularis." The mechanism for this is not yet known, and results from large prospective and randomized studies are still lacking. However, the treatment has been performed many thousands of times. In patients in whom conservative treatment has failed surgery used to be the only choice, but its success rate barely exceeds that of shock wave therapy and surgery can still be done if shock wave therapy fails. Extracorporeal shock waves will have an impact on orthopedics comparable to its effect in urology. Scientific evaluations, professional certifications, quality assurance and reimbursement issues present great challenges.

  13. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  14. Ship bow waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOBLESSE Francis; DELHOMMEAU Gerard; LIU Hua; WAN De-cheng; YANG Chi

    2013-01-01

    The bow wave generated by a ship hull that advances at constant speed in calm water is considered.The bow wave only depends on the shape of the ship bow (not on the hull geometry aft of the bow wave).This basic property makes it possible to determine the bow waves generated by a canonical family of ship bows defined in terms of relatively few parameters.Fast ships with fine bows generate overturning bow waves that consist of detached thin sheets of water,which are mostly steady until they hit the main free surface and undergo turbulent breaking up and diffusion.However,slow ships with blunt bows create highly unsteady and turbulent breaking bow waves.These two alternative flow regimes are due to a nonlinear constraint related to the Bernoulli relation at the free surface.Recent results about the overturning and breaking bow wave regimes,and the boundary that divides these two basic flow regimes,are reviewed.Questions and conjectures about the energy of breaking ship bow waves,and free-surface effects on flow circulation,are also noted.

  15. The Relativistic Wave Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2009-01-01

    The Lorentz transformation applies directly to the kinematics of moving particles viewed as geometric points. Wave propagation, on the other hand, involves moving planes which are extended objects defined by simultaneity. By treating a plane wave as a geometric object moving at the phase velocity, novel results are obtained that illustrate the…

  16. Dyakonov surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special conditi...

  17. Gravitational waves from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-09-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  18. Correlative velocity fluctuations over a gravel river bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Velocity fluctuations in a steep, coarse-bedded river were measured in flow depths ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 m, with mean velocities at middepth from 1.1 to 3.1 m s−1. Analyses of synchronous velocity records for two and three points in the vertical showed a broad range of high coherence for wave periods from 10 to 100 s, centering around 10–30 s. Streamwise correlations over distances of 9 and 14 m showed convection velocities near mean velocity for the same wave periods. The range of coherent wave periods was a small multiple of predicted “boil” periods. Correlative fluctuations in synchronous velocity records in the vertical direction suggested the blending of short pulses into longer wave periods. The highest spectral densities were measured beyond the range of coherent wave periods and were probably induced by migration of low-relief bed forms.

  19. Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....

  20. Project GlobWave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busswell, Geoff; Ash, Ellis; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Poulter, David J. S.; Snaith, Helen; Collard, Fabrice; Sheera, Harjit; Pinnock, Simon

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GlobWave project is a three year initiative, funded by ESA and CNES, to service the needs of satellite wave product users across the globe. Led by Logica UK, with support from CLS, IFREMER, SatOC and NOCS, the project will provide free access to satellite wave data and products in a common format, both historical and in near real time, from various European and American SAR and altimeter missions. Building on the successes of similar projects for Sea Surface Temperature and ocean colour, the project aims to stimulate increased use and analysis of satellite wave products. In addition to common-format satellite data the project will provide comparisons with in situ measurements, interactive data analysis tools and a pilot spatial wave forecast verification scheme for operational forecast production centres. The project will begin operations in January 2010, with direction from regular structured user consultation.

  1. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学

    2003-01-01

    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  2. Gravitational waves from inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power-spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between t...

  3. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  4. Parabolic Wave Equation for Surface Water Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    extended to wave propagation problems in other fields of physical sciences, such as nonlinear optics ( Svelto , 1974), plasma physics (Karpman, 1975...34 Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 72, pp. 373-384. Svelto , 0., 1974, Progress in Optics, North-Holland Pub., Chapter 1, pp. 1-51. Tappert, F.D., 1977, "The

  5. Methods, algorithms and computer codes for calculation of electron-impact excitation parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovich, P; Stonys, D

    2015-01-01

    We describe the computer codes, developed at Vilnius University, for the calculation of electron-impact excitation cross sections, collision strengths, and excitation rates in the plane-wave Born approximation. These codes utilize the multireference atomic wavefunctions which are also adopted to calculate radiative transition parameters of complex many-electron ions. This leads to consistent data sets suitable in plasma modelling codes. Two versions of electron scattering codes are considered in the present work, both of them employing configuration interaction method for inclusion of correlation effects and Breit-Pauli approximation to account for relativistic effects. These versions differ only by one-electron radial orbitals, where the first one employs the non-relativistic numerical radial orbitals, while another version uses the quasirelativistic radial orbitals. The accuracy of produced results is assessed by comparing radiative transition and electron-impact excitation data for neutral hydrogen, helium...

  6. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...

  7. Elimination of Spiral Waves and Competition between Travelling Wave Impulses and Spiral Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guo-Yong; ZHANG Guang-Cai; WANG Guang-Rui; CHEN Shi-Gang; SUN Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ The interaction between travelling wave impulses and spiral waves is studied and the results of their competition are related to the exciting period. From the results, it is known that the formation and development of spiral waves in cardiac tissue depend on the period by which the travelling wave impulses are excited. A method is proposed to eliminate spiral waves, which is easily operated.

  8. The Wave Function It or Bit?

    CERN Document Server

    Zeh, H D

    2002-01-01

    Schroedinger's wave function shows many aspects of a state of incomplete knowledge or information ("bit"): (1) it is defined on a space of classical configurations, (2) its generic entanglement is, therefore, analogous to statistical correlations, and (3) it determines probabilites of measurement outcomes. Nonetheless, quantum superpositions (such as represented by a wave function) also define individual physical states ("it"). This conceptual dilemma may have its origin in the conventional operational foundation of physical concepts, successful in classical physics, but inappropriate in quantum theory because of the existence of mutually exclusive operations (used for the definition of concepts). In contrast, a hypothetical realism, based on concepts that are justified only by their universal and consistent applicability, favors the wave function as a description of (thus nonlocal) physical reality. The (conceptually local) classical world then appears as an illusion, facilitated by the phenomenon of decoher...

  9. Security Assessment of Two-Wave Encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Motoki; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sano, Takayuki

    2009-03-01

    To determine the degree of security in two-wave encryption under practical conditions, we present a novel numerical technique for simulating the recording and readout of two-wave encryption. The calculation results of the retrieval characteristics show that the diffraction efficiency in an incorrect decryption is 10 times as low as that in correct decryption key and that the output data with an incorrect key is a white noise image. We estimate the necessary key correlation to decrypt an encrypted data is 0.2 when the length of an encryption key is 2313. This means that the decoding probability of the encryption key in two-wave encryption is less than 10-6 even if such a short key is used.

  10. Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2011-01-01

    "Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing" discusses the frequency, temporal and spatial domain interplays of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes induced by atomic coherence in multi-level atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: the ultrafast FWM polarization beats due to interactions between multi-color laser beams and multi-level media; coexisting Raman-Rayleigh-Brillouin-enhanced polarization beats due to color-locking noisy field correlations; FWM processes with different kinds of dual-dressed schemes in ultra-thin, micrometer and long atomic cells; temporal and spatial interference between FWM and six-wave mixing (SWM) signals in multi-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) media; spatial displacements and splitting of the probe and generated FWM beams, as well as the observations of gap soliton trains, vortex solitons, and stable multicomponent vector solitons in the FWM signals. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlin...

  11. Generation of acoustic rogue waves in dusty plasmas through three-dimensional particle focusing by distorted waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Yi; Tsai, Jun-Yi; I, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Rogue waves--rare uncertainly emerging localized events with large amplitudes--have been experimentally observed in many nonlinear wave phenomena, such as water waves, optical waves, second sound in superfluid He II (ref. ) and ion acoustic waves in plasmas. Past studies have mainly focused on one-dimensional (1D) wave behaviour through modulation instabilities, and to a lesser extent on higher-dimensional behaviour. The question whether rogue waves also exist in nonlinear 3D acoustic-type plasma waves, the kinetic origin of their formation and their correlation with surrounding 3D waveforms are unexplored fundamental issues. Here we report the direct experimental observation of dust acoustic rogue waves in dusty plasmas and construct a picture of 3D particle focusing by the surrounding tilted and ruptured wave crests, associated with the higher probability of low-amplitude holes for rogue-wave generation.

  12. Correlation between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients%高血压患者肱踝动脉脉搏波传导速度与左心室肥厚的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的分析高血压患者肱踝动脉脉搏波传导速度(brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity,baPWV)与左心室肥厚的关系。方法入选2009年9月-2012年6月本院969例原发性高血压患者,按照左心室肥厚定义将其分为高血压伴左心室肥厚(n=380)、高血压不伴左心室肥厚(n=589)两组。应用全自动动脉硬化测定仪测定双侧baPWV,取双侧baPWV平均值。结果高血压伴左心室肥厚组baPWV水平明显高于高血压不伴左心室肥厚组(P<0.05)。线性相关分析表明高血压患者baPWV水平与室间隔厚度(r=0.139,P<0.01)、左心室后壁厚度(r=0.124,P<0.01)以及左心室重量指数呈正相关(r=0.312,P<0.01)。进一步应用多元线性回归分析调整了年龄、性别、体重指数、收缩压、舒张压、血糖、血清胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、甘油三酯等心血管危险因素的影响后,baPWV与室间隔厚度(标化的相关系数β=0.125,P<0.05)、左心室后壁厚度(标化的相关系数β=0.131,P<0.05)以及左心室重量指数(标化的相关系数β=0.027,P<0.01)仍然相关。结论高血压患者baPWV与左心室肥厚密切相关。%Objective To analyze the correlation between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients. Methods A total 969 primary hypertensive patients admitted to our hospital from September 2009 to June 2012 were divided into hypertension with LVH group (n=380) and hypertension without LVH group (n=589). Their bilateral baPWV was measured with automatic arteriosclerosis detector and its average value was calculated. Results The baPWV value was significantly higher in hypertension with LVH group than in hypertension without LVH group (P < 0.05). Linear correlation analysis showed that the baPW value was positively correlated with the interventricular septal thickness (r=0.139;P <0.01), LV posterior wall

  13. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral density......, the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...... quite well by the second order conditional wave including directional spreading and finite water depth the probability to encounter such a wave is still, however, extremely rare. The use of the second order conditional wave as initial condition to a fully non-linear three-dimensional analysis...

  14. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  15. Global Method for Electron Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The current work presents a new single-reference method for capturing at the same time the static and dynamic electron correlation. The starting point is a determinant wave function formed with natural orbitals obtained from a new interacting-pair model. The latter leads to a natural orbital functional (NOF) capable of recovering the complete intrapair, but only the static interpair correlation. Using the solution of the NOF, two new energy functionals are defined for both dynamic (Edyn) and static (Esta) correlation. Edyn is derived from a modified second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), while Esta is obtained from the static component of the new NOF. Double counting is avoided by introducing the amount of static and dynamic correlation in each orbital as a function of its occupation. As a result, the total energy is represented by the sum E˜ HF+Edyn+Esta , where E˜ HF is the Hartree-Fock energy obtained with natural orbitals. The new procedure called NOF-MP2 scales formally as O (M5) (where M is the number of basis functions), and is applied successfully to the homolytic dissociation of a selected set of diatomic molecules, paradigmatic cases of near-degeneracy effects. The size consistency has been numerically demonstrated for singlets. The values obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  17. Symmetric waves are traveling waves for a shallow water equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.

  18. Symmetric waves are traveling waves for a shallow water equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.

  19. Demonstration of Shear Waves, Lamb Waves, and Rayleigh Waves by Mode Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Introduces an experiment that can be demonstrated in the classroom to show that shear waves, Rayleigh waves, and Lamb waves can be easily generated and observed by means of mode conversion. (Author/CS)

  20. A relationship between wave steepness and wave age for wind waves in deep water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; DING Yun; GUAN Changlong

    2007-01-01

    Studying the relationship between wave steepness and wave age is import ant for describing wind wave growth with energy balance equation of significant waves. After invoking the dispersion relation of surface gravity wave in deep water, a new relationship between wave steepness and wave age is revealed based on the "3/2-power law" (Toba, 1972), in which wave steepness is a function of wave age with a drag coefficient as a parameter. With a given wave age, a larger drag coefficient would lead to larger wave steepness. This could be interpreted as the result of interaction between wind and waves.Comparing with previous relationships, the newly proposed one is more consistent with observational data in field and laboratory.

  1. Information Geometry of Quantum Entangled Gaussian Wave-Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D -H; Cafaro, C; Mancini, S

    2011-01-01

    Describing and understanding the essence of quantum entanglement and its connection to dynamical chaos is of great scientific interest. In this work, using information geometric (IG) techniques, we investigate the effects of micro-correlations on the evolution of maximal probability paths on statistical manifolds induced by systems whose microscopic degrees of freedom are Gaussian distributed. We use the statistical manifolds associated with correlated and non-correlated Gaussians to model the scattering induced quantum entanglement of two spinless, structureless, non-relativistic particles, the latter represented by minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave-packets. Knowing that the degree of entanglement is quantified by the purity P of the system, we express the purity for s-wave scattering in terms of the micro-correlation coefficient r - a quantity that parameterizes the correlated microscopic degrees of freedom of the system; thus establishing a connection between entanglement and micro-correlations. Moreover, ...

  2. Spin wave confinement

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    This book presents recent scientific achievements in the investigation of magnetization dynamics in confined magnetic systems. Introduced by Bloch as plane waves of magnetization in unconfined ferromagnets, spin waves currently play an important role in the description of very small magnetic systems ranging from microelements, which form the basis of magnetic sensors, to magnetic nano-contacts. The spin wave confinement effect was experimentally discovered in the 1990s in permalloy microstripes. The diversity of systems where this effect is observed has been steadily growing since then, and

  3. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    for a homogeneous mixture of incompressible liquid and ideal gas. This enables a numerical description of both trapped air pockets and the propagation of pressure shock waves through the aerated water. An exact Riemann solver is developed to permit a finite-volume solution to the flow model with smallest possible...... local error. The high pressures measured during wave impacts on a breakwater are reproduced and it is shown that trapped air can be compressed to a pressure of several atmospheres. Pressure shock waves, reflected off nearby surfaces such as the seabed, can lead to pressures comparable with those...

  4. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    or change. If ini- tially, only a thin layer of air close to the water surface matters in the mo- mentum transfer from wind to water, afterwards with strong winds, a layer of air upto say 15 to 30 metres comes Small sand waves formed on a seashore due... it breaks with a heading wind or on a beach). Consider an open sea of say 1000 square kilometres wherein billions of 'pushes' and 'pulls' happen over tens of hours, causing uncountable number of waves and wave groups of various types moving in different...

  5. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei B. Utkin

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal eurvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  6. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  7. Relativistic wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corinaldesi, Ernesto

    1963-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat

  8. Chiral Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Srimoyee

    2016-01-01

    We study shock waves in relativistic chiral matter. We argue that the conventional Rankine- Hugoinot relations are modified due to the presence of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the entropy discontinuity in a weak shock wave is linearly proportional to the pressure discontinuity when the effect of chiral transport becomes sufficiently large. We also show that rarefaction shock waves, which do not exist in usual nonchiral fluids, can appear in chiral matter. These features are exemplified by shock propagation in dense neutrino matter in the hydrodynamic regime.

  9. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  10. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...

  11. Water wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Birendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous

  12. Secondary Fast Magnetoacoustic Waves Trapped in Randomly Structured Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding; Li, Bo; Walsh, Robert W.

    2016-09-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves are an important tool for inferring parameters of the solar atmosphere. We numerically simulate the propagation of fast wave pulses in randomly structured plasmas that mimic the highly inhomogeneous solar corona. A network of secondary waves is formed by a series of partial reflections and transmissions. These secondary waves exhibit quasi-periodicities in both time and space. Since the temporal and spatial periods are related simply through the speed of the fast wave, we quantify the properties of secondary waves by examining the dependence of the average temporal period (\\bar{p}) on the initial pulse width (w 0) and studying the density contrast ({δ }ρ ) and correlation length (L c ) that characterize the randomness of the equilibrium density profiles. For small-amplitude pulses, {δ }ρ does not alter \\bar{p} significantly. Large-amplitude pulses, on the other hand, enhance the density contrast when {δ }ρ is small but have a smoothing effect when {δ }ρ is sufficiently large. We found that \\bar{p} scales linearly with L c and that the scaling factor is larger for a narrower pulse. However, in terms of the absolute values of \\bar{p}, broader pulses generate secondary waves with longer periods, and this effect is stronger in random plasmas with shorter correlation lengths. Secondary waves carry the signatures of both the leading wave pulse and the background plasma. Our study may find applications in magnetohydrodynamic seismology by exploiting the secondary waves detected in the dimming regions after coronal mass ejections or extreme ultraviolet waves.

  13. Optoelectronic Correlator Architecture for Shift Invariant Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Monjur, Mehjabin S; Tripathi, Renu; Donoghue, John; Shahriar, M S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical details and the underlying architecture of a hybrid optoelectronic correlator that correlates images using SLMs, detectors and VLSI chips. The proposed architecture bypasses the nonlinear material such as photorefractive polymer film by using detectors instead, and the phase information is yet conserved by the interference of plane waves with the images.

  14. Perspective: Explicitly correlated electronic structure theory for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneis, Andreas; Hirata, So; Ohnishi, Yu-ya; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2017-02-01

    The explicitly correlated approach is one of the most important breakthroughs in ab initio electronic structure theory, providing arguably the most compact, accurate, and efficient ansatz for describing the correlated motion of electrons. Since Hylleraas first used an explicitly correlated wave function for the He atom in 1929, numerous attempts have been made to tackle the significant challenges involved in constructing practical explicitly correlated methods that are applicable to larger systems. These include identifying suitable mathematical forms of a correlated wave function and an efficient evaluation of many-electron integrals. R12 theory, which employs the resolution of the identity approximation, emerged in 1985, followed by the introduction of novel correlation factors and wave function ansätze, leading to the establishment of F12 theory in the 2000s. Rapid progress in recent years has significantly extended the application range of explicitly correlated theory, offering the potential of an accurate wave-function treatment of complex systems such as photosystems and semiconductors. This perspective surveys explicitly correlated electronic structure theory, with an emphasis on recent stochastic and deterministic approaches that hold significant promise for applications to large and complex systems including solids.

  15. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Christopher A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger P.

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  16. Sunspot waves and flare energy release

    CERN Document Server

    Sych, R; Altyntsev, A; Dudík, J; Kashapova, L

    2014-01-01

    We address a possibility of the flare process initiation and further maintenance of its energy release due to a transformation of sunspot longitudinal waves into transverse magnetic loop oscillations with initiation of reconnection. This leads to heating maintaining after the energy release peak and formation of a flat stage on the X-ray profile. We applied the time-distance plots and pixel wavelet filtration (PWF) methods to obtain spatio-temporal distribution of wave power variations in SDO/AIA data. To find magnetic waveguides, we used magnetic field extrapolation of SDO/HMI magnetograms. The propagation velocity of wave fronts was measured from their spatial locations at specific times. In correlation curves of the 17 GHz (NoRH) radio emission we found a monotonous energy amplification of 3-min waves in the sunspot umbra before the 2012 June 7 flare. This dynamics agrees with an increase in the wave-train length in coronal loops (SDO/AIA, 171 {\\AA}) reaching the maximum 30 minutes prior to the flare onset...

  17. Physical Investigation of Directional Wave Focusing and Breaking Waves in Wave Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-xue; Keyyong HONG

    2005-01-01

    An experimental scheme for the generation of directional focusing waves in a wave basin is established in this paper. The effects of the directional range, frequency width and center frequency on the wave focusing are studied. The distribution of maximum amplitude and the evolution of time series and spectra during wave packet propagation and the variation of water surface parameters are extensively investigated. The results reveal that the characteristics of focusing waves are significantly influenced by wave directionality and that the breaking criteria for directional waves are distinctly different from those for unidirectional waves.

  18. Wave Dissipation and Balance - NOPP Wave Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    interactions between them, and it is not clear how to transform each type of measurement into a clear constraint for the functional form and magnitude of...white with a uniform current U = 0.15 m/s towards the trigonometric angle 99 degrees. The white dashed line marks approximately the separation between...A. Roland, A. van der Westhuysen, P. Queffeulou, J.-M. Lefevre, L. Aouf, and F. Collard. Semi-empirical dissipation source functions for wind-wave

  19. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  20. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  1. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  2. Theory of Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tiec, Alexandre Le

    2016-01-01

    The existence of gravitational radiation is a natural prediction of any relativistic description of the gravitational interaction. In this chapter, we focus on gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. First, we introduce those mathematical concepts that are necessary to properly formulate the physical theory, such as the notions of manifold, vector, tensor, metric, connection and curvature. Second, we motivate, formulate and then discuss Einstein's equation, which relates the geometry of spacetime to its matter content. Gravitational waves are later introduced as solutions of the linearized Einstein equation around flat spacetime. These waves are shown to propagate at the speed of light and to possess two polarization states. Gravitational waves can interact with matter, allowing for their direct detection by means of laser interferometers. Finally, Einstein's quadrupole formulas are derived and used to show that nonspherical compact objects moving at relativistic speeds a...

  3. NOAA NDBC SOS - waves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have waves data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for data...

  4. Global Coronal Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P F

    2016-01-01

    After the {\\em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory} ({\\em SOHO}) was launched in 1996, the aboard Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) observed a global coronal wave phenomenon, which was initially named "EIT wave" after the telescope. The bright fronts are immediately followed by expanding dimmings. It has been shown that the brightenings and dimmings are mainly due to plasma density increase and depletion, respectively. Such a spectacular phenomenon sparked long-lasting interest and debates. The debates were concentrated on two topics, one is about the driving source, and the other is about the nature of this wavelike phenomenon. The controversies are most probably because there may exist two types of large-scale coronal waves that were not well resolved before the {\\em Solar Dynamics Observatory} ({\\em SDO}) was launched: one is a piston-driven shock wave straddling over the erupting coronal mass ejection (CME), and the other is an apparently propagating front, which may correspond to the CME frontal...

  5. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  6. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  7. Waving in the rain

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaleri, Luigi; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of rain on wind wave generation and dissipation. Rain falling on a wavy surface may have a marked tendency to dampen the shorter waves in the tail of the spectrum, the related range increasing with the rain rate. Following the coupling between meteorological and wave models, we derive that on the whole this should imply stronger wind and higher waves in the most energetic part of the spectrum. This is supported by numerical experiments. However, a verification based on the comparison between operational model results and measured data suggests that the opposite is true. This leads to a keen analysis of the overall process, in particular on the role of the tail of the spectrum in modulating the wind input and the white-capping. We suggest that the relationship between white-capping and generation by wind is deeper and more implicative than presently generally assumed.

  8. Turbulence generation by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  9. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...

  10. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...

  11. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  12. The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, D.

    1991-04-01

    Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang.

  13. The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Donald

    1991-04-01

    Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang.

  14. Caustics for Spherical Waves

    CERN Document Server

    de Rham, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We study the development of caustics in shift-symmetric scalar field theories by focusing on simple waves with an $SO(p)$-symmetry in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. We show that the Galileon and the DBI-Galileon naturally emerge as the unique set of caustic-free theories, highlighting a link between the caustic-free condition for simple $SO(p)$-waves and the existence of either a global galilean symmetry or a global relativistic galilean symmetry.

  15. Electromagnetic van Kampen waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatov, A. M., E-mail: aign@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The theory of van Kampen waves in plasma with an arbitrary anisotropic distribution function is developed. The obtained solutions are explicitly expressed in terms of the permittivity tensor. There are three types of perturbations, one of which is characterized by the frequency dependence on the wave vector, while for the other two, the dispersion relation is lacking. Solutions to the conjugate equations allowing one to solve the initial value problem are analyzed.

  16. Heisenberg's wave packet reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Grabbe, J. Orlin

    2005-01-01

    This note shows that Heisenberg's choice for a wave function in his original paper on the uncertainty principle is simply a renormalized characteristic function of a stable distribution with certain restrictions on the parameters. Relaxing Heisenberg's restrictions leads to a more general formulation of the uncertainty principle. This reformulation shows quantum uncertainty can exist at a macroscopic level. These modifications also give rise to a new form of Schrodinger's wave equation as the...

  17. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) provides a literature review of wave dissipation by vegetation. INTRODUCTION: Flooding...coastal mangrove forests of Vietnam (Quartel et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Mazda et al. 1997), salt marshes of the United States (Bradley and...et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Cooper 2005, Möller and Spencer 2002, Möller et al. 1999). A year-long study by Cooper (2005) found that wave

  18. Sound Waves Levitate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    System recently tested uses acoustic waves to levitate liquid drops, millimeter-sized glass microballoons, and other objects for coating by vapor deposition or capillary attraction. Cylindrical contactless coating/handling facility employs a cylindrical acoustic focusing radiator and a tapered reflector to generate a specially-shaped standing wave pattern. Article to be processed is captured by the acoustic force field under the reflector and moves as reflector is moved to different work stations.

  19. Wind generated rogue waves in an annular wave flume

    CERN Document Server

    Toffoli, A; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves, where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an {\\it unlimited-fetch} condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.

  20. Wind Generated Rogue Waves in an Annular Wave Flume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, A; Proment, D; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M

    2017-04-07

    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an unlimited-fetch condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.

  1. Exact solitary wave solutions of nonlinear wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hyperbolic function method for nonlinear wave equations ispresented. In support of a computer algebra system, many exact solitary wave solutions of a class of nonlinear wave equations are obtained via the method. The method is based on the fact that the solitary wave solutions are essentially of a localized nature. Writing the solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear wave equation as the polynomials of hyperbolic functions, the nonlinear wave equation can be changed into a nonlinear system of algebraic equations. The system can be solved via Wu Elimination or Grbner base method. The exact solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear wave equation are obtained including many new exact solitary wave solutions.

  2. Interannual variability of the stratospheric wave driving during northern winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Haklander

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the stratospheric wave driving during northern winter is often quantified by the January–February mean poleward eddy heat flux at 100 hPa, averaged over 40°–80° N (or a similar area and period. Despite the dynamical and chemical relevance of the wave driving, the causes for its variability are still not well understood. In this study, 45 years of ERA-40 reanalysis data are used to examine several factors that significantly affect the interannual variability of the wave driving. The total poleward heat flux at 100 hPa is poorly correlated with that in the troposphere, suggesting a decoupling between 100 hPa and the troposphere. However, the individual zonal wave-1 and wave-2 contributions to the wave driving at 100 hPa do exhibit a significant coupling with the troposphere, predominantly due to their stationary components. The stationary wave-1 contribution to the total wave driving significantly depends on the latitude of the stationary wave-1 source in the troposphere. The results suggest that this dependence is associated with the varying ability of stationary wave-1 activity to enter the tropospheric waveguide at mid- to subpolar latitudes. If composites of strong and weak wave-driving years are compared, we find significantly higher refractive index values in the midlatitude stratosphere for the strong composite than for the weak composite. Since wave activity tends to propagate towards higher refractive index values, this could explain part of the interannual variability of the wave driving. Finally, an alternative approach is taken, in which the wave driving anomalies are separated into three parts: one part due to anomalies in the zonal correlation between the eddy temperature and eddy meridional wind, another part due to anomalies in the zonal eddy temperature amplitude, and a third part due to anomalies in the zonal eddy meridional wind amplitude. It is found that year-to-year variability in the zonal correlation

  3. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  4. On conformally related -waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Varsha Daftardar-Gejji

    2001-05-01

    Brinkmann [1] has shown that conformally related distinct Ricci flat solutions are -waves. Brinkmann's result has been generalized to include the conformally invariant source terms. It has been shown that [4] if $g_{ik}$ and $\\overline{g}_{ik}$ ($=^{-2}g_{ik}$, : a scalar function), are distinct metrics having the same Einstein tensor, $G_{ik}=\\overline{G}_{ik}$, then both represent (generalized) $pp$-waves and $_{i}$ is a null convariantly constant vector of $g_{ik}$. Thus $pp$-waves are the only candidates which yield conformally related nontrivial solutions of $G_{ik}=T_{ik}=\\overline{G}_{ik}$, with $T_{ik}$ being conformally invariant source. In this paper the functional form of the conformal factor for the conformally related $pp$-waves/generalized $pp$-waves has been obtained. It has been shown that the most general $pp$-wave, conformally related to ${\\rm d}s^{2}=-2{\\rm d}u[{\\rm d}v-m{\\rm d}y+H{\\rm d}u]+P^{-2}[{\\rm d}y^{2}+{\\rm d}z^{2}]$, turns out to the $(au+b)^{-2}{\\rm d}s^{2}$, where , are constants. Only in the special case when $m=0$, $H=1$, and $P=P(y,z)$, the conformal factor is $(au+b)^{-2}$ or $(a(u+v)+b)^{-2}$.

  5. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, F; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F; Veltri, P; Morrison, P J; O'Neil, T M

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named {\\it corner modes}. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the $(k,\\omega_{_R})$ plane ($\\omega_{_R}$ being the real part of the wave frequency and $k$ the wavenumber), away from the well-known `thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existenc...

  6. Deconvolution from wave front sensing using the frozen flow hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Stuart M; Hart, Michael

    2011-01-31

    Deconvolution from wave front sensing (DWFS) is an image-reconstruction technique for compensating the image degradation due to atmospheric turbulence. DWFS requires the simultaneous recording of high cadence short-exposure images and wave-front sensor (WFS) data. A deconvolution algorithm is then used to estimate both the target object and the wave front phases from the images, subject to constraints imposed by the WFS data and a model of the optical system. Here we show that by capturing the inherent temporal correlations present in the consecutive wave fronts, using the frozen flow hypothesis (FFH) during the modeling, high-quality object estimates may be recovered in much worse conditions than when the correlations are ignored.

  7. Rain waves-wind waves interaction application to scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharif, C.; Giovanangeli, J. P.; Bliven, L.

    1989-01-01

    Modulation of a rain wave pattern by longer waves has been studied. An analytical model taking into account capillarity effects and obliquity of short waves has been developed. Modulation rates in wave number and amplitude have been computed. Experiments were carried out in a wave tank. First results agree with theoretical models, but higher values of modulation rates are measured. These results could be taken into account for understanding the radar response from the sea surface during rain.

  8. Wave kinematics and response of slender offshore structures. Vol 5: Wave forces and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, L.M.; Riber, H.J.

    1999-08-01

    A load measuring system (LMS) and a wave measuring system (WMS) has been used on the North Sea platform Tyra. The LMS consists of an instrumented pipe placed vertically in the crest zone of high and steep waves. The WMS consists of an unique sonar system placed on the sea floor. Simultaneous measurements are carried out of the kinematics of waves and currents and the response of the instrumented pipe during a period of five month in the winter 1994/95. Numerical calculations with LIC22 are carried out of the response of the LMS applying the measured wave and current kinematics. The responses are compared to the measured responses of the LMS. The comparison is based on the statistical main properties of the calculated and measured response as the kinematic field is measured 150 metres away from the instrumented pipe. From the analyses the main parameters (reduced velocity V{sub R} and correlation length l{sub c}) for vortex induced vibrations (VIV) are calibrated and the main environmental conditions for VIV are determined. The hydrodynamic coefficients determining the wave and current forces on slender structures are studied (drag coefficient C{sub D} and added mass coefficient C{sub M}). Further, the effect on the drag coefficient due to air blending in the upper part of the wave is determined. (au)

  9. Partnership for Wave Power - Roadmaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Krogh, Jan; Brodersen, Hans Jørgen;

    This Wave Energy Technology Roadmap is developed by the Partnership for Wave Power including nine Danish wave energy developers. It builds on to the strategy [1] published by the Partnership in 2012, a document that describes the long term vision of the Danish Wave Energy sector: “By 2030...

  10. Nonlinear surface waves over topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    As ocean surface waves radiate into shallow coastal areas and onto beaches, their lengths shorten, wave heights increase, and the wave shape transforms from nearsinusoidal to the characteristic saw-tooth shapes at the onset of breaking; in the ensuing breaking process the wave energy is cascaded to

  11. Near Shore Wave Modeling and applications to wave energy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, G.; Galanis, G.; Hayes, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Kallos, G.; Georgiou, G.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of the wave energy potential at the European coastline is receiving increased attention the last years as a result of the adaptation of novel policies in the energy market, the concernsfor global warming and the nuclear energy security problems. Within this framework, numerical wave modeling systems keep a primary role in the accurate description of wave climate and microclimate that is a prerequisite for any wave energy assessment study. In the present work two of the most popular wave models are used for the estimation of the wave parameters at the coastline of Cyprus: The latest parallel version of the wave model WAM (ECMWF version), which employs new parameterization of shallow water effects, and the SWAN model, classically used for near shore wave simulations. The results obtained from the wave models near shores are studied by an energy estimation point of view: The wave parameters that mainly affect the energy temporal and spatial distribution, that is the significant wave height and the mean wave period, are statistically analyzed,focusing onpossible different aspects captured by the two models. Moreover, the wave spectrum distribution prevailing in different areas are discussed contributing, in this way, to the wave energy assessmentin the area. This work is a part of two European projects focusing on the estimation of the wave energy distribution around Europe: The MARINA platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/ index.aspx) and the Ewave (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/ewave/) projects.

  12. Dependence of chaotic diffusion on wave phase spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueheng; Xiang, Nong; Li, Dehui; Chen, Jiale; Fan, Peifeng

    2017-09-01

    The chaotic diffusion in velocity space has been studied by numerically solving the motion equation of charged particles in the wave field with different kinds of wave phase spectra and analytically calculating the correlation functions. It is found that the diffusion in velocity space strongly depends on the wave phase spectrum. For the periodic spectrum with two different phases, the small relative phase makes the diffusion deviate from the quasi-linear one even for an arbitrarily large overlap parameter. The quasi-linear approximation is valid when the overlap parameter is large for the spectrum in which the wave phases of any group of three neighboring waves are different. The quasi-linear threshold can be much larger than the one of the zero phased standard mapping.

  13. Electromagnetic waves and electron anisotropies downstream of supercritical interplanetary shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, L B; Szabo, A; Breneman, A; Cattell, C A; Goetz, K; Kellogg, P J; Kersten, K; Kasper, J C; Maruca, B A; Pulupa, M

    2012-01-01

    We present waveform observations of electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler waves with f_ci 1.01. Thus, the whistler mode waves appear to be driven by a heat flux instability and cause perpendicular heating of the halo electrons. The lower hybrid waves show a much weaker correlation between \\partialB and normalized heat flux magnitude and are often observed near magnetic field gradients. A third type of event shows fluctuations consistent with a mixture of both lower hybrid and whistler mode waves. These results suggest that whistler waves may indeed be regulating the electron heat flux and the halo temperature anisotropy, which is important for theories and simulations of electron distribution evolution from the sun to the earth.

  14. Investigation of dominant spin wave modes by domain walls collision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramu, M.; Purnama, I.; Goolaup, S.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Lew, W. S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-06-28

    Spin wave emission due to field-driven domain wall (DW) collision has been investigated numerically and analytically in permalloy nanowires. The spin wave modes generated are diagonally symmetric with respect to the collision point. The non-propagating mode has the highest amplitude along the middle of the width. The frequency of this mode is strongly correlated to the nanowire geometrical dimensions and is independent of the strength of applied field within the range of 0.1 mT to 1 mT. For nanowire with film thickness below 5 nm, a second spin wave harmonic mode is observed. The decay coefficient of the spin wave power suggests that the DWs in a memory device should be at least 300 nm apart for them to be free of interference from the spin waves.

  15. SCALAR WAVES AND WIRELESS POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is established that in the classical electrodynamics with Lorenz gauge there are solutions in the form of waves of scalar and vector potential at zero magnetic and electric field. It is shown that wave scalar and vector potential can interact with the substance, causing ionization of the atoms and molecules. The analogue of scalar waves in electrodynamics and sound waves in gas dynamics is discussed. Proposed technical application of the waves of scalar and vector potential similar to acoustic waves. Discusses Tesla invented electrical device capable of generating and receiving scalar waves

  16. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min-jia

    2003-01-01

    Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

  17. On the Draupner freak wave

    CERN Document Server

    Fedele, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit extreme wave statistics related to the 1993's Draupner freak wave event drawing on ERA-interim reanalysis data. In particular, we study the influence of nonlinear wave-wave interactions and space-time variability of the wave field on the predictions of the maximum wave and crest heights expected at the Draupner site. According to Janssen's (2003) theory, in realistic oceanic storms characterized by short-crested seas the wave field forgets its initial conditions and adjusts to a non-Gaussian state dominated by second order bound nonlinearities on time scales $t\\gg t_{c}\\approx0.13T_{0}/\

  18. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2015-10-09

    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Considerations on the Sp\\"orer-diagram - torsional wave relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, J

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the earlier reported spatial correlations between magnetic field distributions and the torsional wave have been substantially extended to the period 1975-2009. The investigations are based on Debrecen sunspot data and magnetic field data of Mount Wilson. The recently available data and distributions seem to support the idea that the torsional wave may be caused by flows around the toruses which result in Coriolis-deviations forward and backward, establishing the prograde and retrograde belts.

  20. Correlation Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Luminosity of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiongwei Bi; Wanquan He; Jiajin Tian; Zhimei Ding; Shuping Ge

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities (R, O, X, ) in radio, optical, X-ray and -ray wave bands for Fermi blazars, and found that there are significant correlations between R and , X and and O and for blazars, BL Lacs and FSRQs, but no correlation between and O for BL Lacs. These results suggest that for Fermi blazars, the high energy -ray emission can be related with radio, X-ray and optical emissions.