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Sample records for correlacion electrica angiografica

  1. Non invasive evaluation of the coronary atherosclerosis illness in patients with silent ischemia: utility of the SPECT of myocardial perfusion. Electric, angiographic and image correlation; Valoracion no invasiva de la enfermedad ateroesclerosa coronaria en pacientes con isquemia silente: utilidad del SPECT de perfusion miocardica. Correlacion electrica, angiografica y de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente B, A.; Roffe G, F.; Aceves C, J.; Gomez A, E. [Hospital Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the work was to determine the utility of the SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) of myocardial perfusion for the ischemia detection in asymptomatic patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis Illness. It was concluded that the SPECT of myocardial perfusion has a high sensitivity (97%) for the silent ischemia diagnosis.

  2. PROGRAMAS INFORMÁTICOS PARA COMPARACIONES ENTRE CORRELACIONES: MUESTRAS INDEPENDIENTES

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    N. Clayton Silver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Existe una variedad de técnicas para probar las diferencias entre correlaciones independientes que no están disponibles en los programas estadísticos familiares para el investigador. Se presentan ejemplos de estas técnicas para evaluar diferentes hipótesis dentro del contexto de correlaciones en muestras independientes, junto con programas informáticos interactivos, amigables y libre distribución. ABSTRACT There is a variety of techniques to test the differences between independent correlations which are not available in statistical programs familiar to the researcher. We present examples of these techniques to evaluate different hypotheses within the context of correlations in independent samples, together with interactive, friendly and freeware computer programs.

  3. The rebranding of Electrica Soluziona SA - a case study

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    Monica GOMOESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to present the design and implementation stages of a rebranding campaign that took place in the Electrica Soluziona SA company. The rebranding targets a company that provides consultancy services and software solutions and that underwent a change of its main shareholders structure, as it was taken over by Indra Group. After being taken over by Indra, Electrica Soluziona has considerably enlarged its product portfolio and the market segments targeted. Thus, it was mandatory to define a complex rebranding campaign. The rebranding process was not determined only by the broadening of activity, but also by the change of visual identity elements, along with the desire of repositioning.

  4. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas fluidized bed combustor; El combustor de lecho fluidizado del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan Foressi, Julio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    After synthesizing the most important aspects of the combustion technology in fluidized bed, the experimental combustor developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is described, as well as the test results of the experiences carried out with coal from Rio Escondido, Coahuila. [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas importantes de la tecnologia de combustion en lecho fluidizado, se describe el combustor experimental desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con carbon proveniente de Rio Escondido, Coahuila.

  5. Annual statistical report UNESA 1994; Memoria Estadistica Electrica UNESA 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    UNESA (Unidad Electrica, S.A.) comprises 14 Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. It presents statistics for the years 1988 to 1994 on the national economy and the finances of the electricity sector; operating capacity and transmission and distribution lines; and electricity production and consumption. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1994 are presented. The report is also available in English.

  6. UNESA annual statistical report 1995; Memoria estadistica electrica UNESA 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    UNESA (Unidad Electrica, S.A.) comprises 14 Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. It presents statistics for the years 1988 to 1995 on the national economy and the finances of the electricity sector; operating capacity and transmission and distribution lines; and electricity production, demand and consumption. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1995 are presented.

  7. Atitude religiosa e sentido da vida: um estudo correlacional

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    Thiago Antônio Avellar de Aquino

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa abordou o sentido da vida (Viktor Frankl e a atitude religiosa. Para a logoterapia, a religiosidade não significa necessariamente a opção por uma crença religiosa, mas pode ser uma das possíveis maneiras de o homem encontrar sentido para a vida. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o sentido de vida e a atitude religiosa de forma transversal e correlacional. A amostra foi composta por 300 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, 37% homens e 63% mulheres, com idade média de 42 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Teste Propósito de Vida (PIL-Test, de James C. Crumbauch e Leonard T. Maholick, e a Escala de Atitude Religiosa/Espiritualidade, de Aquino. Os resultados apontam correlações positivas entre a atitude religiosa e a realização existencial, a atitude religiosa e a idade, o desespero existencial e o vazio existencial e a realização existencial e a idade, havendo também correlações negativas entre a atitude religiosa e o desespero existencial, a atitude religiosa e o vazio existencial, o desespero existencial e a realização existencial e o vazio existencial e a realização existencial. Concluiu-se que a atitude religiosa é uma forma de encontro de sentido de vida bem como um elemento de prevenção do vazio existencial e do desespero existencial.

  8. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  9. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  10. Evaluación de centros educativos: un estudio correlacional

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    José CARDONA ANDÚJAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo exponemos la investigación desarrollada en un conjunto de centros de Educación General Básica. El objetivo de la misma es conocer la relación existente entre diversas variables organizativas y el rendimiento académico de su alumnado, coadyuvando así a enriquecer las aportaciones científicas realizadas en esta línea. Con esta finalidad, comenzamos por plantear la problemática que nos ocupa en unas coordenadas de optimización técnica y de rentabilidad económica, entendiendo que ellas justifican suficientemente una intervención de esta naturaleza. Hemos considerado conveniente, asimismo, reflejar una muestra representativa de los estudios que, en los últimos veinte años, se han venido realizando en el campo específico que nos ocupa y así poder, de una parte, constatar sus conclusiones con las nuestras, y, por otra, dejar patente el interés de la comunidad científica mundial por las cuestiones que abordamos. En otros apartados de nuestro artículo nos ocupamos, respectivamente, de presentar las variables estudiadas, definir la muestra sobre la que intervinimos, reflejar las hipótesis concretas que aspiramos a ratificar, dar cuenta de la metodología correlacional que fundamenta las conclusiones habidas y exponer, finalmente, dichas conclusiones.ABSTRACT: This paper sets forth the research developed in a group of schools of Educación General Básica (E.G.B.*. The aim of this research was to find out what relationship there is between the diverse organizational variables and the academic performance of the students, thus helping to enrich the scientific contributions made along this line. With this aim, we began by posing the problem which concerns us in coordinates of technical optimization and economic rentability, with the understanding that these sufficiently justifiy and intervention of this nature. We also considered it convenient to reflect a representative sample of the studies which have been

  11. VIDEOJUEGOS. OBRAS ABIERTAS A EXPERIENCIAS INMERSIVAS, CORRELACIONES CREATIVAS Y EXPERIMENTACIONES COMUNICATIVAS

    OpenAIRE

    CARITA PIRES DE CARVALHO, ANDRÉ NUNO

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación, con el título "Videojuegos. Obras abiertas a experiencias inmersivas, correlaciones creativas y experimentaciones comunicativas", analiza teóricamente el mundo de los videojuegos, abordando aquellos aspectos que facilitan su comprensión como "obra abierta" al diseño, al arte y a la comunicación, para creadores y gran variedad de consumidores/jugadores. Esta investigación concibe los videojuegos como un modelo que posbilita la interprestación del término "obra abi...

  12. Determinación de correlaciones para tasa global de transferencia de

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    Villa Jadan, Santiago Francisco

    2009-01-01

    La ausencia de rellenos comerciales y económicos para torres de enfriamiento hace que aumente el costo de la construcción y mantenimiento de estos elementos, por este motivo, el objetivo principal de la tesis fue obtener correlaciones experimentales que logren estimar con el menor error posible valores característicos de un determinado tipo relleno económico para torres de enfriamiento. Se efectuó una investigación transferencia de masa y de energía, con lo que se seleccionó el modelo matemá...

  13. Correlaciones fenotípicas, ambientales y genéticas en berenjena

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    Hermes Araméndiz Tatis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones Turipaná de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigaciones (Corpoica (Cereté, Córdoba, Colombia -8° 31' N y 75° 58' O, a 13 m.s.n.m se estudiaron las correlaciones, ambientales y genéticas entre seis caracteres de 24 cultivares de berenjena (Solanum melongena. Para el efecto se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones y unidades experimentales de 10 m². Los resultados mostraron que las correlaciones fueron de mayor o igual magnitud que las fenotípicas, mientras que las ambientales fueron de escaso valor. El número de frutos y el rendimiento estuvieron genéticamente correlacionados (r = 0.56, P < 0.01, la longitud y la resistencia del fruto mostraron correlación genética negativa (r = -0.68, P < 0.01 y entre el rendimiento y peso de fruto la correlación fue muy baja (r = 0.04. El número de frutos y su peso de frutos se correlacionaron de manera negativa (r =-0.63, P < 0.01. El número de frutos por planta puede ser utilizado como criterio de selección para la obtención de cultivares de berenjena de altos rendimientos.

  14. Qualitative aspects in the projects that are developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Aspectos cualitativos en los proyectos que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The globalization of markets has generated more options of purchase of all type of goods and services, these options have generated opportunities and threats for all the companies and have looked for the satisfaction of the client as a strategy to remain or incursion into the global market. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is not the exception and therefore it looks for the identification of the qualitative aspects and to systematize its application in the projects that executes by means of the implantation of a system of quality assurance based on the series of ISO 9000 Standards. Some examples are described to identify the qualitative aspects of the projects that are developed in the Institute. [Spanish] La globalizacion de los mercados ha generado mas opciones de compra de todo tipo de bienes y servicios, dichas opciones han generado oportunidades y amenazas para todas las empresas y se ha buscado satisfacer al cliente como estrategia para permanecer o incursionar en el mercado global. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) no es la excepcion y por lo tanto busca identificar los aspectos cualitativos y sistematizar su aplicacion en los proyectos que realiza mediante la implantacion de un sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad basado en la serie de normas ISO 9000. Se describen algunos ejemplos para identificar los aspectos cualitativos de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el instituto.

  15. Electric grid in Spain: a private network of optical fiber with national coverage; Red electrica de Espana: una red privada de fibra optica con cobertura nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.

    1995-12-31

    Red Electrica constructed a grid with optical fiber in 1989 for the grids of 400-220 Kv. In 1995 the length of the grid will be of 6.600 Km. This grid supplies the telecommunication advanced services and contributes in the efficiency and quality of different tasks of Red Electrica.

  16. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  17. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  18. Correlacion entre metodos de analisis de Zn disponible en cuatro ordenes de suelos de Costa Rica

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    Eloy Molina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizo una comparación entre métodos analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Analytilos de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles Inceptisoles, 25 de c/u, utilizando las siguientes soluciones extractoras: Olsen Modificado, Meh- lich 3, Morgan Modificado, DTPA y HC1. Las cantidades de Zn extrafdas dependieron de la natu- raleza qufmica de la solucion extractora. El HCl presento los contenidos mas altos de Zn en los chasuelos, excepto en Vertisoles. Las soluciones que hicontienen el agente quelante EDTA (Olsen Modi- ficado y Mehlich`3, extrajeron niveles interme- Modidios de Zn, en tanto que los metodos que contie- Den el quelato DTPA (Morgan Modificado y DT - PA, obtuvieron los valores mas bajos. Las corre- laciones de Zn extrafble entre los 5 metodos fue- signifirOD significativas en la mayona de los casos, tanto nivel de orden de suelos como en el conjunto de indivilos 100 suelos analizados. Los coeficientes de co- rrelacion mas altos, se presentaron entre Mehlich Morgan Modificado y DTPA. Las correlaciones Modifueron consistentes en los 4 ordenes, 10 que indica que estas soluciones poseen un amplio margen de adaptacion a diferentes tipos de suelo, siendo una caractenstica ventajosa para la selección de un metodo de analisis. El Olsen Modificado fue mas slighteficiente para la extraccion de Zn en suelos de pH ligeramente acido 0 neutro (Vertisoles e Inceptiso- les, que en suelos acidos (Ultisoles y Andisoles. EI HCI extrajo cantidades muy aItas de Zn que Moraparentementestan relacionadas con formas no disponibles para lag plantas. Se concluye que lag soluciones Mehlich 3, Morgan Modificado y DT - PA son semejantes en la forma de extraer Zn dispo- Dible, y podrian seT una altemativa para sustituir el metoda tradicional de Olsen Modificado utilizado en Costa Rica. Sin embargo,la eficiencia de ellas no puede seT establecida sino a traves de log estudios de correlacion contra rendimiento en invernadero y campo.

  19. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  20. Management and control of the electrical energy demand; Administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson Controls [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Administrative measures allow a reduction in the energy consumption, but not always in the electrical demand. Control measures allow a reduction in the billing of the electrical demand, but not always in the energy consumption. This is why it is explained in this document what management and control of the electrical demand is, as well as its control strategies, the control alternatives, the billing demand and at the same time graphical representations along with three practical cases on the management of demand in air compressors, air conditioning equipment and in corporative buildings are presented. [Spanish] La aplicacion de las medidas administrativas permite reducir el consumo de energia, pero no siempre la demanda electrica. La aplicacion de medidas de control permiten reducir la demanda electrica facturable, pero no siempre el consumo de energia. Es por eso que en este documento se explica que es la administracion y el control de la demanda electrica, sus estrategias de control, las alternativas de control, la demanda facturable, representaciones graficas y tres casos practicos sobre la administracion de demanda en compresores de aire, la administracion de demanda en aire acondicionado y la administracion de demanda en un edificio corporativo.

  1. Correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales en Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

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    Baena García D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio estimó las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales entre doce caracteres agronómicos en dos dialélicos de zapallo (uno entre cinco variedades y otro entre cinco líneas S1, originadas de las anteriores. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con 15 tratamientos (5 progenitores + 10 cruzamientos F1 para cada dialélico y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados señalaron mayor estimación de las correlaciones (en magnitud y significancia estadística a favor del dialélico de líneas S1. Las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y las ambientales. La producción por planta (PFP presentó las correlaciones parciales fenotípicas y genéticas más altas con el peso por fruto (PPF y el número de frutos por planta (NFP (rPF y rPG > 0.80. El PPF y NFP pueden usarse como criterios de selección para la obtención de cultivares de altos rendimientos en C. moschata. ABSTRACT Phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. The study evaluated phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations among 12 agronomy characters, in two set diallelic from five parents each one. The first set from five open pollinated varieties and the second one from five self-pollinated lines S1, obtained from the previous varieties. The two experiments were in completely randomized blocks with five replications. A higher estimation of correlation (in magnitude and statistical significance was observed in favor of the S1 lines diallelic. The genetic correlations were higher than the phenotypic and environmental correlations. The plant yield (PFP showed the highest partial phenotypic and genetic correlations with the fruit weight (PPF and fruits per plant (NFP (rPF and rPG > 0.80. It is suggested to use the PPF and NFP as selection criteria for breeding of C. moschata for development of high yield cultivars. Key words: Calabaza (cucurbita, genetic correlation, agronomic

  2. Biometría femoral: Curva diafisaria y longitud anatómica. Estudio de las correlaciones.

    OpenAIRE

    Casteleiro González, R.; Castaño Zapatero, C.; San Martín Martínez, A.; Gómez Pellico, L.; Rodríguez Torres, R.

    1995-01-01

    Estudiamos la relación entre las longitudes anatómicas del fémur y la curvatura en el plano sagital, para lo que hemos medido en 30 fémures humanos secos y pertenecientes a individuos adultos las lóngitudes anatómicas (máxima, cóndilo-cefálica, trócleo-cefálica) y el radio diafisario. Los valores obtenidos son analizados estadísticamente y estudiadas las correlaciones lineales resultado de comparar cada una de las medidas con las demñas. Con los resultados obtenidos contribuimos a un mejor...

  3. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    On the 21 of January of 2003, at 20:06:36 hrs (Mexico center time) an earthquake occurred at the Pacific coast with a magnitude of 7.6 degrees in the Richter scale, whose epicenter was located near the state of Colima and it was felt in a large extent of the Mexican Republic. The earthquake caused numerous material damages in the structures (houses, churches, offices, etc) and vital lines, mainly in the infrastructure of the electrical sector of the region, leaving without electrical energy a large part of the nearby populations and some colonies of distant zones such as in Mexico City. The cause of the interruption of the electrical energy was due to the collapse of some of the equipment of 400 and 230 KV of the electrical transmission substations, among which are Manzanillo II and Colima II. With the experience acquired in the earthquake of October 9, 1995 in Manzanillo, in which also the facilities and equipment of the electrical substations were affected considerably, and as a part of the infrastructure project on the analysis of seismic risk of vital lines that is being developed at this moment at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), it was decided to inspect the electrical substations of the zone, where the greater damages in the facilities and equipment were reported, to analyze and to determine the main causes of their failure. [Spanish] El 21 de enero de 2003, a las 20:06:36 hrs (hora del centro de Mexico) ocurrio un sismo en la costa del Pacifico con una magnitud de 7.6 grados en escala Richter, cuyo epicentro se localizo cerca del estado de Colima y se percibio en gran parte de la republica mexicana. El sismo causo cuantiosos danos materiales en las estructuras (viviendas, iglesias, oficinas, etc) y lineas vitales, principalmente en la infraestructura del sector electrico de la region, dejando sin energia electrica a gran parte de las poblaciones cercanas y algunas colonias de zonas lejanas como es la ciudad de Mexico. La causa del corte de

  4. Wind energy for electricity generation; Generacion electrica con energia del viento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M.; Borja Diaz, Marco Antonio R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    A description is made of electricity generation utilizing wind energy (Eoloelectric Generation). The case of Mexico is reviewed in respect to this technology, mentioning a small power plant of 1.5 Megawatts installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad in the zone of La Ventosa in the State of Oaxaca. Mention is made of the possible causes why Mexico has not advanced in this type of power plants for power generation as in other countries like Germany, Spain and India. The advance in these countries is shown as well as the growth statistics of the wind power in the world. It is concluded that there is not in Mexico a strategy for wind energy utilization for electricity generation in spite of the potential benefits this technology offers [Espanol] Se describe el caso de la generacion electrica utilizando la energia del viento (Generacion Eoloelectrica). Se aborda el caso de Mexico respecto a esta tecnologia, mencionando una pequena central de 1.5 Megawatts (MW) instalada por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en la zona de la Ventosa, Oaxaca. Se mencionan las posibles causas por las que en Mexico este tipo de centrales de generacion de energia no ha avanzado como en otros paises, por ejemplo: Alemania, Espana y la India. Se muestran los avances de estos paises, asi como una estadistica del crecimiento de la generacion eoloelectrica en el mundo. Se concluye en que no existe en Mexico una estrategia para la generacion eoloelectrica a pesar de los beneficios potenciales que ofrece esta tecnologia

  5. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  6. Raoultella electrica sp. nov., isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Chung, Kyung Mi; Itoh, Hiroaki; Hiraishi, Akira; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain 1GB(T), was isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell. Strain 1GB(T) was facultatively anaerobic and chemo-organotrophic, having both a respiratory and a fermentative type of metabolism, and utilized a wide variety of sugars as carbon and energy sources. Cells grown aerobically contained Q-8 as the major quinone, but excreted Q-9 and a small amount of Q-10 when cultured with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of 1GB(T) was 54.5 mol%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that strain 1GB(T) represented a distinct lineage within the genus Raoultella (98.5-99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 94.0-96.5 % sequence similarity based on the three concatenated housekeeping genes gyrA, rpoB and parC. Strain 1GB(T) exhibited DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness of 7-43 % with type strains of all established species of the genus Raoultella. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, the name Raoultella electrica sp. nov. is proposed for strain 1GB(T). The type strain is 1GB(T) ( = NBRC 109676(T) = KCTC 32430(T)).

  7. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  8. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  9. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  10. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  11. Correlaciones genotípicas, fenotípicas y ambientales, y análisis de sendero en tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Cav. Sendt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Katherine Lagos Santander

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron diferentes componentes de producción y se estimaron las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales, considerando nueve variables relacionadas con el tamaño y la calidad del fruto de tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Cav. Sendt.; igualmente se establecieron los efectos directos e indirectos de las variables componentes de calidad sobre el peso del fruto. Para el efecto se utilizaron los datos existentes de 81 híbridos (72 híbridos interpoblacionales y nueve testigos dispuestos en tres repeticiones, en condiciones del departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que las correlaciones genotípicas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y ambientales. El peso de fruto (PF presentó las mayores correlaciones genéticas con el peso de semilla por fruto (rG = 0.97 y con el peso de pulpa más semilla (rG = 0.92. El análisis de sendero con base en correlaciones genotípicas mostró que el peso de pulpa más semilla fue la variable que tuvo el mayor efecto directo sobre el PF (1.353. Esto demuestra que una selección por peso de fruto da como resultado un aumento en peso de pulpa más semilla. Teniendo en cuenta las correlaciones fenotípicas, este análisis permitió establecer que los efectos directos de peso de semilla de fruto (PSF y peso de pulpa más semilla (P + S (1.166 y 0.743, respectivamente son los que más contribuyen al PF.

  12. Estudio descriptivo correlacional entre ira y personalidad, a la luz de la teoría de Hans Eysenck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Montaña de Barragán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una cuidadosa revisión teórica sobre el tema de la ira, su evaluación e intervención, relacionada muy directamente con la agresividad y teorías importantes de la personalidad, enfocándose principalmente a la teoría de H. Eysenck. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos, uno para medir ira (escala MAG de Ira y otro para medir dimensiones de personalidad Extroversión – Neuroticismo – Psicoticismo (EPQ-J, a 200 niños de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 11 años, en tres colegios de Santafé de Bogotá. Se realizó una aplicación piloto y validación por jueces para la Escala MAG de ira con el objetivo de verificar su efectividad, mostrando unos buenos resultados mediante una consistencia interna de 0.8236. Al relacionar esta dos pruebas se encontró que hay niveles muy significativos de correlación entre personalidad e ira, a la vez que hay buenas intercorrelaciones entre las dimensiones del EPQ-J. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre ira y conducta antisocial. El aporte del trabajo es la presentación de la escala MAG para aplicarla en población infantil

  13. ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO CORRELACIONAL ENTRE IRA Y PERSONALIDAD A LA LUZ DE LA TEORÍA DE HANS EYSENCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Montaña de Barragán

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una cuidadosa revisión teórica sobre el tema de la ira, su evaluación e intervención, relacionada muy directamente con la agresividad y teorías importantes de la personalidad, enfocándose principalmente a la teoría de H. Eysenck. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos, uno para medir ira (escala MAG de Ira y otro para medir dimensiones de personalidad Extroversión – Neuroticismo – Psicoticismo (EPQ-J, a 200 niños de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 11 años, en tres colegios de Santafé de Bogotá. Se realizó una aplicación piloto y validación por jueces para la Escala MAG de ira con el objetivo de verificar su efectividad, mostrando unos buenos resultados mediante una consistencia interna de 0.8236. Al relacionar esta dos pruebas se encontró que hay niveles muy significativos de correlación entre personalidad e ira, a la vez que hay buenas intercorrelaciones entre las dimensiones del EPQ-J. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre ira y conducta antisocial. El aporte del trabajo es la presentación de la escala MAG para aplicarla en población infantil.

  14. Power quality. Analysis of the losses related to the tension and current distortion in the electric network; Calidad de la energia electrica. Analisis de las perdidas relacionadas con la distorsion de la tension y corriente de la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch Sitar, Vladimir [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Ingenieria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In recent times every day one speaks more about power quality and about the losses produced by the tension and current distortion. The distortion in the electric network and the consumption tend to keep on increasing, and each day there will be the need of applying more resources to handle it inside a reasonable range. In this article the situation of the power quality is analyzed in the most general case and also simplified for special cases. On base on the distortion coefficients of tension and current a matrix is created where the harmonics coefficients of tension as well as the current appear in an organized form an all of the elements of that matrix are analyzed. Some topological rules are created in order to give the simplest orientation in the complex situation. The article is useful to supervise the power quality in all of the typical cases and establish a base for a more detailed analysis. [Espanol] En los ultimos tiempos cada dia mas se esta hablando sobre la calidad de la energia electrica (Power Quality) y sobre las perdidas provocadas con este factor. La distorsion de la red electrica y del consumo tiene la tendencia de seguir aumentando y cada dia mas habra que dedicar mas recursos para manejarla dentro de un rango razonable. En el articulo presentado se analiza la situacion de la calidad de energia en caso mas general y tambien simplificada para los casos especiales. A base de coeficientes de distorsion, de tension y corriente se crea una Matriz donde figuran tanto los coeficientes de armonicas de tension como de corriente en una forma ordenada y se analizan todos los elementos de esta matriz. Se crean algunas reglas topologicas para dar la orientacion mas simple en la situacion compleja. El articulo sirve para dar supervision a la calidad de energia en todos los casos tipicos y establecer una base para el analisis mas detallado.

  15. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The physical design of electric substations involves a variety of activities, such as developing, reviewing and performing modifications to different design proposals, estimating costs and producing documents to be integrated into an executive project. These activities are usually conducted at the Distribution Divisions of the Federal Electric Commission (CFE) through two separate processes: the development of engineering plans with computer-aided design software (CAD) and volumetric calculations for the initial budget using conventional spreadsheets. The documents are manually developed on an individual basis, without the existence of any functions to allow for automatically updating the design modifications of any of the plans. The corresponding initial budget becomes a lengthy and laborious process with the likelihood of inconsistencies among the documents. In order to optimize the design process for the public and electromechanical works of electric substations (ES) in a three-dimensional (3D) graphic environment, the IIE's Management of Process Supervision, in coordination with the CFE Distribution Subdivision, developed the System for the Design of Electric Substation Distribution (SDESD). This system makes use of the advantages of CAD3D technology to develop detail engineering, cost engineering to calculate initial budgets and virtual reality for three-dimensional interactive navigation. It is worth mentioning that this system is currently in the implementation phase at the CFE Distribution Subdivision. This article briefly describes the main stages in the development of the project, as well as the functioning and principal components of the system. [Spanish] El diseno fisico de subestaciones electricas implica una variedad de actividades, tales como elaborar, revisar y efectuar modificaciones de diferentes propuestas de diseno, estimar costos y producir documentos, para integrarlos como parte de un proyecto ejecutivo. Estas actividades usualmente se

  16. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  17. Towards a distributed electric generation scheme with non-conventional energies; Hacia un esquema de generacion electrica distribuida con energias no convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Several factors contributed to the existence of large electric systems as we know them today, such as: the increase of the electric demand by the advancement of the industrial development, the appearance of electric equipment, and household devices and by the advancement in the engineering systems, just to mention a few of them. With all this, the third part of the World population still does not have access to the electricity service. The efforts that the small electric enterprises perform to carry the service up to the site where it is required, every day time becomes more expensive and less effective. Exhausted by the weight of a huge economic debt, many electric utilities of the developing countries find each time more difficult to obtain financing to extend the power lines. This situation becomes still more serious with the present privatization scheme of the electric utilities. Although new technologies are being developed to counteract the negative effects caused by the large electricity generation power plants, the society seems to begin to show preferences for more benign to the environment options. The scheme of distributed generation can be given in to modalities: By means of isolated systems in remote sites, where there is not access to the conventional services; and with systems interconnected with the electric network where this is available [Espanol] Varios factores contribuyeron a la aparicion de los grandes sistemas electricos como los conocemos hoy en dia, tales como: el crecimiento de la demanda electrica por el avance del desarrollo industrial, la aparicion de equipos electricos y aparatos electrodomesticos y por avances en la ingenieria de los sistemas, por mencionar algunos. Con todo ello, la tercera parte de la poblacion mundial no tiene aun acceso al servicio electrico. Los esfuerzos que realizan las companias electricas para llevar el servicio hasta donde se requiere, resultan cada vez mas costosos y menos efectivos. Agobiadas por el peso

  18. Price models of electrical energy, via stochastic processes; Modelos de precios de energia electrica, via procesos estocasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Ramos, Hugo

    2008-12-15

    The electrical energy prices own very particular characteristics that make them different from the prices of any good which are immersed under the fluctuation of the laws of supply and demand. The present work proposes a revision and modification of the model for the prices of electrical energy based on stochastic processes, developed in 2002 by M.T. Barlow. Our model satisfactorily explains the dynamics of the prices, having as an example the case of the energy market of Alberta, CA. The proposed model is based on the power transformation of Yeo-Johnson in 2000, which does not have dominion restrictions. Also, it is assumed that the energy price depends on the demand, which is modeled as a process of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck. The proposed model was applied to real data, obtaining corresponding estimations of the interest parameters, as well as their validation. Also simulation results are shown to determine the empirical distribution of the estimators of maximum credibility of the parameters. [Spanish] Los precios de energia electrica poseen caracteristicas muy particulares que los hacen diferentes a los precios de cualquier bien que estan inmersos bajo la fluctuacion de las leyes de la oferta y la demanda. El presente trabajo propone una revision y modificacion del modelo para los precios de energia electrica basado en procesos estocasticos, desarrollado en 2002 por M. T. Barlow. Nuestro modelo explica satisfactoriamente la dinamica de los precios, teniendo como ejemplo el caso del mercado de energia de Alberta, Ca. El modelo propuesto esta basado en la transformacion potencia de Yeo-Johnson en 2000, la cual no tiene restricciones de dominio. Tambien, se asume que el precio de la energia depende de la demanda, la cual es modelada como un proceso de Ornstein-Uhlenbeck. El modelo propuesto se aplico a datos reales, obteniendo estimaciones correspondientes de los parametros de interes, asi como su validacion. Tambien se muestran resultados de simulacion para determinar la

  19. The electric energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; La energia electrica en Mexico y el desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Aragon, Leticia [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document explains the importance of the sustainable development in the electric energy, that is, that the technological advances in the electric sector do no hamper the future of the generations to come and generate potential problems such as: environmental pollution, unnecessary expenses in the realization of new technologies already executed. Mention is made of the relationship between nature and society, the ecological crisis, and the electric energy, seven points are given on how to control and treat waste waters, three points are given to handle and dispose of solid wastes, finally four points are given on the noise contamination control. It is concluded that the problem of reducing the environmental impact of the generation of electricity does not depend on the applied technology, since there are technological options for its solution, but on other more complex factors that deal with the generation of wealth, its distribution and the population growing [Espanol] En el presente documento se explica la importancia del desarrollo sustentable en la energia electrica, es decir que los avances tecnologicos en el sector energetico no entorpezcan el futuro de las generaciones venideras y generen posibles problemas como: contaminacion del medio ambiente, gastos innecesarios en la realizacion de las nuevas tecnologias realizadas. Se menciona la relacion entre la naturaleza y la sociedad, la crisis ecologica y la energia electrica, se dan siete puntos de como controlar y tratar aguas residuales, se proporcionan tres puntos para manejar y disponer de residuos solidos, por ultimo se dan cuatro puntos sobre el control de la contaminacion por ruido. Se concluye en que el problema de reducir el impacto ambiental por la generacion de electricidad no depende de la tecnologia empleada pues existen alternativas tecnologicas para su solucion, sino en otros aun mas complejos que tienen que ver con la generacion de la riqueza, su distribucion y el crecimiento de la poblacion

  20. Photovoltaic systems interconnected to the electric network; Sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    . Enseguida, se muestra la solucion que le encontro el Gobierno del Estado a este problema para lo que fue necesaria la participacion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta participacion, se traduce en un proyecto que muestra la viabilidad de instalar sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en casas habitacion. Despues, se presenta una descripcion no solo de los elementos que conforman el sistema, sino tambien de la metodologia y el funcionamiento del mismo. Posteriormente, se presenta el efecto positivo, economicamente y ambientalmente hablando, que tuvo la instalacion del sistema en las 220 casas habitacion del fraccionamiento Valle de las Misiones, asi como las caracteristicas generales del mismo. Ademas, se presenta la manera de alcanzar un mayor impacto y cobertura del sistema. Finalmente, se presentan los auspiciadotes del proyecto: la Secretaria de Energia (SENER), la CFE, la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), la Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), el IIE, el Banco de Desarrollo de America del Norte (BDAN) y el Gobierno del Estado de Baja California.

  1. un estudio correlacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valdez Medina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos autores afirman que la elección de pareja se basa principalmente en encontrar características semejantes a las de los padres. Así, las mujeres buscarían un hombre que se parezca a su padre, mientras que los hombres tenderían a elegir una mujer parecida a su madre. Por ello, se realizó una investigación con el fin de encontrar si había correlación entre las características percibidas en las características de autoconcepto de los padres y el de la pareja permanente, para lo cual se utilizó un cuestionario elaborado ex profeso. Se halló que los hombres perciben una mayor relación entre su madre y su pareja, en comparación con las mujeres, concluyéndose que en ambos sexos existe una clara tendencia a vincularse con una pareja sobre la base del tipo de relación que se tuvo con los padres.

  2. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  3. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  4. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  5. The new financing techniques and the reorganization of the Mexican electric industry; Las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y la reorganizacion de la industria electrica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The exhaustion of the financing model of the Mexican Electric Industry based on foreign credits, the State contribution and in a small part from auto-financing, has determined the search for new financing sources for the investment in this capital intensive sector. The main characteristic of the State new strategy to increase the investment capacity is to incite the private capital to make massive investments in the electric production segment. Nevertheless, there are different modalities to make the private capital participate in this sector`s segment. In this paper we make an analysis of the new financing techniques and their relationship with the regulations and the electric industry structure. Finally, the role of the conservation and the appropriate use of the energy is discussed as a mechanism for the modulation of the pressures coming from the financial sphere over the reorganization process of the National electric industry. [Espanol] El agotamiento del modelo de financiamiento de la industria electrica mexicana que tiene como base los creditos extranjeros, los aportes del estado y una pequena parte de autofinanciamiento, ha determinado la busqueda de nuevas fuentes de financiamiento de las inversiones de este sector intensivo en capital. La caracteristica principal de la nueva estrategia del estado para aumentar la capacidad de inversion es la de incitar al capital privado a realizar inversiones masivas en el segmento de la produccion electrica. Existen sin embargo diferentes modalidades para hacer participar al capital privado en este segmento del sector. En el presente trabajo hacemos un analisis de las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y sus relaciones con la reglamentacion y la estructura de la industria electrica. Por ultimo, se discute el papel del ahorro y uso eficiente como mecanismo para modular las presiones provenientes de la esfera financiera sobre el proceso de reorganizacion de la industria electrica nacional.

  6. IDEOLOGÍA POLÍTICA EN TORNO A ISSUES Y VALORES SOCIALES: UN ESTUDIO CORRELACIONAL EN CIUDADANOS DE CÓRDOBA/ARGENTINA/Political ideology regarding values and social issues: a correlational study in citizens from Córdoba/Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brussino, Silvina

    2013-01-01

    ... correlacional indicando que los distintos posicionamientos ideológicos analizados se relacionan diferencialmente con los valores sociales de los ciudadanos de Córdoba. En la misma línea, se e...

  7. "Coeficientes de herencia, correlaciones, repetibilidad e índice de selección de rasgos reproductivos en porcinos"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango B. Humherto

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The number of pigs born and live weights at 1,21 and 56 days were analyzed in 480 litters (4265 pigs born in the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario at Palmira during 1981 -1987. Repetibility, correlations and selection indexes were calculated for the 3 characters. Heritability (h2 values were estimated using a computer program developed by the first author. Significant differences were found for sex, year born; sire and lit1er size. Breed effect was significant only for birth weight. Estimated values of h2 were: a half sibs -weight: at birth 0.38,21 d =0.23; 56d = 0.41-litter size: at birthO.23; 21d=0.17; 56d=0.27. b Regression-weights: at birth 0.21; 21 d=O.33; 56d=0.23 - litter size: at birth 0.32; 21 d=0 .19; 56d =0.39. 'Genetic and phenotypic correlations ranged from low to medium. Repetibilities were high. Calculated selection index was: Index =0.34 Xl + 18X2. Where Xl = birth weight; X2 =56 days weight. Genetic advance, applying this index, could be 5 % and 342 % percent larger for birth weight and weaning weight respectively.

    Se analizo la información de la sección de porcinos del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA, en Palmira, entre 1981 -1987, para 480 camadas (4265 lechones. Se calcularon los índices de herencia de las características número y peso de lechones al nacimiento 21 y 56 días, las correlaciones entre las variables y la repetibilidad. Se calculo un índice de selección basado en dos y tres carac1eres. Los cálculos de h2 se diseñaron con programas de  computación para los modelos existen1es. Igualmente se procedió con las otras variables. EI análisis de varianza mostro diferencias significativas para sexo de la cría, año de nacimiento a las tres edades (pn, p21 y p56 y para numero, tamaño de camada y semental en el peso a las tres edades. EI efecto de raza solo resulto significativo para el peso al nacimiento. Los valores calculados de las heredabilidades

  8. The Mexican electric industry under an opening triangle; La industria electrica mexicana bajo un triangulo de apertura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Guevara, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document analyzes the electric industry in Mexico in its opening phase, which must be qualified as a strategic activity within the present and future becoming of the Mexican economy. The Mexican electric sector was framed within the National Project born out in the country`s Politic Constitution; where the State economic intervention is driven and induced, with its exclusive duty in strategic activities through public enterprises created for that purpose and as a support of Mexico`s economic and social welfare. Within the opening it should be pointed out the participation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Energy Program, the Development Program and Restructure of the Energy Sector 1995-2000 [Espanol] En el presente documento se analiza la industria electrica en Mexico en su fase de apertura, la cual debe calificarse como una actividad estrategica dentro del devenir presente y futuro de la economia mexicana. El sector electrico mexicano se enmarco dentro del Proyecto Nacional que nace en la Constitucion Politica del pais; donde se impulsa e induce la intervencion economica del Estado, con su quehacer exclusivo en actividades estrategicas, por medio de empresas publicas creadas para tal fin y en apoyo del bienestar economico y social de Mexico. Dentro de la apertura hay que senalar la participacion que tiene el Tratado de Libre Comercio, el Programa de Energia y el Programa de Desarrollo y Reestructuracion del Sector Energia 1995-2000

  9. Application of unimodal optic fiber to communications among electric substations; Aplicacion de fibra optica unimodal a comunicaciones entre subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Pinon, Fernando; Hernandez Juarez, Taide [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The utilization of the unimodal fiber optics technology in the electric power systems, represents one of the best communication options because of its multiple advantages, that results in a better coordination of the technical and administrative activities, needed to carry the electric energy from its generation site to the most remote locations. In this document a study, in accordance with the available options for the design of communication systems via unimodal optic fiber, is presented. With this technology, ties of more than 100 kilometers without the need of repeating stations, can be made. [Espanol] La utilizacion de la tecnologia de fibra optica unimodal en los sistemas electricos de potencia representa una de las mejores alternativas de comunicacion por sus multiples ventajas que se traducen en una mejor coordinacion de las acitividades tecnicas y administrativas necesarias para llevar la energia electrica desde el lugar de generacion hasta los puntos mas distantes. En este documento se presenta un estudio de acuerdo a las opciones disponibles para el diseno de sistemas de comunicacion por fibra optica unimodal. Con esta tecnologia se pueden realizar enlaces mayores que 100 km sin necesidad de repetidores.

  10. Correlaciones estadísticas para la estimación de propiedades reológicas de asfaltos en estado original y envejecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Puello Méndez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan las correlaciones estadísticas para la estimación de parámetros reológicos a partir de parámetros químicos, para dos asfaltos colombianos y un asfalto venezolano, sometidos a ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado en laboratorio. Las propiedades reológicas se evaluaron mediante la obtención de curvas maestras (análisis dinámico-mecánico, cuyo comportamiento se ajusta al modelo reológico propuesto por Christensen y Anderson. Los parámetros químicos comprenden la composición genérica (análisis SARA, así como características estructurales y funcionales (análisis FTIR.Las correlaciones obtenidas muestran que el índice reológico (R puede ser estimado a partir del Índice de Inestabilidad Coloidal (Ic y el Índice de Sulfóxidos (S=O con un grado de correlación de 83,81%, mientras que el logaritmo de la frecuencia de transición (log ωc puede ser estimado a partir del Índice de Alifáticos (Al y el índice de Sulfóxidos (S=O, con un grado de correlación del 81,88%.

  11. Autoactualización gerencial, satisfacción laboral y productividad: un estudio correlacional en empresas del Bajío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Vargas Téllez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la relación entre el nivel de Autoactualización (madurez o desarrollo personal de supervisores, gerentes o empresarios en dieciséis empresas (PYMES de calzado de la ciudad de León, con los niveles de Satisfacción Laboral y la productividad. En general se aprecia que existe un nivel medio de satisfacción laboral en casi todas las empresas abordadas, así como perfiles del POI (Personal Orientation Inventory con niveles abajo del promedio estándar de Autoactualización en los supervisores; se encontraron correlaciones entre la mayoría de escalas del POI (nivel de desarrollo personal del empresario o supervisor, e ítems de SL (encuesta de satisfacción laboral, especialmente los relacionados con el binomio jefe-subordinado. También se encontraron correlaciones significativas en tres de los cuatro indicadores de productividad considerados para este estudio con la SL.

  12. Ana?lisis te?cnico de un central solar para la produccio?n de energi?a ele?ctrica en el canto?n Santa Isabel de la provincia del Azuay

    OpenAIRE

    Macancela V, Washington; Regalado C., Edmundo; Campoverde A, Freddy; Quizhpi P., Flavio

    2013-01-01

    Al igual que el modelo energe?tico mundial, la matriz ele?ctrica del Ecuador depende en parte de un sistema basado en fuentes de energi?a fo?sil y una fraccio?n del sistema es energi?a renovable, la primera contribuye con la emanacio?n de gases de efecto invernadero. Hoy en di?a el desarrollo e implementacio?n de tecnologi?as de generacio?n ele?ctrica orientadas directamente al cuidado del medio ambiente, se ha tornado sumamente importante. Entre otras razones por la cual se investiga sobr...

  13. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  14. Interconnection of industrial centers with the electric network of the public service; Interconexion de centros industriales con la red electrica del servicio publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Sedano, Inocente; Lopez Velazquez, Juan Jose; Garcia Paredes, Job; Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Alvarez, David; Guzman Camacho, Benigno [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The large industrial centers that have continuous production processes and consume high amounts of electrical energy, generally have their own power generation. The petrochemical complexes, the paper and steel factories and the sugar mills are examples of this type of centers. On the other hand, the new regulation for the generation of electrical energy that allows to the electrical energy interchange between private companies and the public network, has originated the necessity of connecting systems that formerly operated isolated. Since the original design of the isolated electrical systems was to operate in an independent form, making the interconnection can generate technical problems that must be analyzed and solved. In this paper, some experiences related with the behavior of electrical equipment when connected to operate with the public network, are presented. [Spanish] Los grandes centros industriales que tienen procesos de produccion continua y consumen altas cantidades de energia electrica, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Los complejos petroquimicos, las fabricas de papel y acero y los ingenios azucareros son ejemplos de este tipo de centros. Por otro lado, la nueva reglamentacion de generacion de energia electrica que permite el intercambio de energia electrica entre las companias privadas y la red publica, ha originado la necesidad de conectar sistemas que antes operaban aislados. Debido a que el diseno original de los sistemas electricos aislados fue trabajar en forma independiente, el realizar la interconexion puede generar problemas tecnicos que tienen que analizarse y resolverse. En este articulo, se presentan algunas experiencias relacionadas con el comportamiento del equipo electrico al operar conectado con la red publica.

  15. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  16. Experimental evaluation of the consumption of electrical energy of domestic refrigerators in Mexico; Evaluacion experimental del consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores domesticos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo Cabanas, Fernando Gabriel [Programa de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this work the experimental methodology developed to carry out tests of the electrical energy of refrigerators consumption as norm NOM-015-ENER-2002 is described. The tests were made in the Laboratory of Controlled Environment of the Iztapalapa Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana to a sample of old domestic refrigerators in operation. The results found show that the consumption of electrical energy of refrigerators of more than 10 years of age can be higher than 60% of what a modern refrigerator of high efficiency would consume, or 30% higher if the refrigerator was made between 1997 and 2002. With these results it is sustained, in a more complete way, the evaluation of the saving potential of the national electrical energy by the substitution of old domestic refrigerators by modern, as reported in a previous work. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la metodologia experimental desarrollada para efectuar pruebas del consumo de energia electrica a refrigeradores conforme la norma NOM-015-ENER-2002. Las pruebas se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado de la Unidad Iztapalapa de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana a una muestra de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos en operacion. Los resultados encontrados muestran que el consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores de mas de 10 anos de antig�edad puede superior al 60% de lo que consumiria un refrigerador moderno de alta eficiencia, o superior en un 30% si el refrigerador fue fabricado entre 1997 y 2002. Con estos resultados se sustenta de manera mas completa la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica nacional por substitucion de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos por modernos reportado en un trabajo anterior.

  17. Efficient use of electric power in corporative 3M Mexico; Uso eficiente de la energia electrica en el corporativo 3M Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, Alfredo; Quinones Bonilla, Antonio S. [3M Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico); Bustos Antunez, Jorge I.; Reyes Arce, Manuel [Hines Interests, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    It is not enough to count on with the state of the art technology for the daily operation of a building, the challenge is to be able to make a clear analysis and with attainable goals for the optimization of rational use of the electrical energy in the operation of intelligent buildings without affecting the comfort and productivity for users as well as the functionality and profitability for the owner. This went our base to carry out control strategies that helped the efficient use of the electrical energy, obtaining important savings without neglecting the operative part, of services and human within the property. It is thus, that 3M Mexico wanting to reach these purposes, conducted actions to improve the efficiency of the equipment in the following items: electric network, general lighting, air conditioning system, ventilation and extraction, hydropneumatic system, and sumps operation. [Spanish] No basta contar con la tecnologia de punta para la operacion diaria de un edificio, el reto es ser capaces de realizar un analisis claro y con metas alcanzables para la optimizacion de uso racional de la energia electrica en las operaciones de edificios inteligentes sin afectar el confort y productividad para usuarios asi como la funcionalidad y rentabilidad para el propietario. Esta fue nuestra base para llevar a cabo estrategias de control que ayudaron al uso eficiente de la energia electrica, obteniendo ahorros importantes sin descuidar la parte operativa, de servicios y humana dentro de la propiedad. Es asi, que 3M Mexico queriendo alcanzar dichos propositos, realizo acciones para mejorar la eficiencia de los equipos en los siguientes rubros: red electrica, iluminacion general, sistema de aire acondicionado, ventilacion y extraccion, sistema hidroneumatico, y operacion de carcamos.

  18. The Spanish energetic mix; prevision and historic evolution of the electric production structure; El mix energetico espanol; evolucion historica y prevista de la estructura de produccion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revuelta, J.; Lopez Sanz, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the past and forecasted evolution of the electric production of the Spanish system (excluding the Spanish isolated systems), according to the records of the System Operator, Red Electrica de Espana, and the studies of its Network Planning department. The behaviour of the demand is analysed, as well as the evolution of the generation mix. The article expose the main recent changes the sector has undergone and points out the main future challenge it will face regarding the forecasted evolution of the demand, the integration of renewable energy sources, and the energy objectives established at European and national level. (Author)

  19. Supervisory control for hybrid systems of electrical generation based on fuzzy logic; Control supervisorio para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica basado en logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e

  20. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean [Department of Theory and Economic History, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Garcia, Santiago [Department of Economics and Economic History, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  1. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  2. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  3. Supervisory fussy control for an electric generating hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas Mendoza, Javier

    2004-11-15

    the fuzzy supervisory controller were compared with a conventional controller. The results shows that the supervisory controller fulfills the three main objectives of the system operation: I) to reduce the fuel consumption of the back-up system, II) to reduce the depth of the discharge of the battery bank, and III) to keep fully charged the battery bank as much as possible in order to make a better use of the available free renewable energy sources. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica (SHGE). En este trabajo se definio la configuracion y los elementos que componen el SHGE a utilizar, producto de la revision de configuraciones de sistemas hibridos propuestas actualmente. La configuracion del SHGE incluye: arreglos fotovoltaicos y aerogeneradores como fuentes de generacion renovable, una maquina de combustion interna como sistema de respaldo, un banco de baterias como medio de almacenamiento de energia, cargas electricas en corriente alterna y un inversor CD/CA para poder alimentarlas. Tambien a partir de la configuracion propuesta se buscaron y seleccionaron los modelos matematicos de los diferentes elementos del sistema. Se llevo a cabo la validacion de los modelos a traves de la comparacion de la salida contra datos reales obtenidos en un SHGE instalado en Pachuca. Con los modelos se llevo a cabo el desarrollo de un programa de simulacion para un SHGE en Matlab. Se determino la funcion principal del controlador supervisorio dentro del SHGE. La funcion es satisfacer el o los objetivos de operacion del sistema. La filosofia de operacion del controlador supervisorio se definio a partir de la configuracion electrica propuesta y de los objetivos de operacion del sistema. Por lo que respecta al desarrollo del controlador supervisorio, se llevo a cabo una revision de los controladores supervisorios actuales que utilizan alguna tecnica de control inteligente. A partir de

  4. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  5. Energy saving in buildings through the elimination of typical problems; Ahorro de energia electrica en edificios a traves de la eliminacion de problemas tipicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, Alex G. [Genertek, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The enormous electric energy consumption in buildings represents an important area of saving opportunities. The design of installations without advanced technical illumination criteria, the absence of standardization over energy efficiency, the lack of observation of the existing standards and guides, the continuous load growth in existing installations and the lack of appropriate maintenance, are some of the causes of the inefficient use of electric energy in buildings. Although the problems, and consequently the solutions, are exclusive for each unit, some of the former are frequently repeated. In this paper the problems found along more than 40 audits conducted in large buildings of different types in Mexico city are commented. [Espanol] El enorme consumo de energia electrica en edificios representa una importante area de oportunidad para ahorro. El diseno de instalaciones sin criterios luminotecnicos avanzados, la ausencia de normalizacion sobre eficiencia energetica, la falta de observancia de las normas y recomendaciones vigentes, el continuo crecimiento de carga en instalaciones existentes y la falta de mantenimiento adecuado son algunas de las causas del uso ineficiente de la energia electrica en inmuebles. Aunque los problemas y por tanto las soluciones son particulares para cada unidad, algunos de los primeros se repiten frecuentemente. En este trabajo se comentan los problemas encontrados a lo largo de mas de 40 auditorias realizadas a inmuebles grandes de diversos tipos en la ciudad de Mexico.

  6. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  7. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  8. Methodology for the prediction and solution of the harmonic distortion in the distribution power lines; Metodologia para la prediccion y solucion de la distorsion armonica en las redes electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The harmonic distortion in the distribution electric systems, caused by the increment in the utilization of power electronics, presents a growing problem for the power supply enterprises, as well as for their users. The distortion of the voltage wave shape in the distribution electric systems can produce additional heating in transformers, damage in motors, faults in capacitor banks, frequent fuse capacitors banks operation and inadequate operation of controllers and protecting schemes. This paper presents a general overview on the harmonics problem in distribution systems. The sources of harmonic currents, their effects in the electric system and the methodology implemented in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for their detection, measurement and control, are described. [Espanol] La distorsion armonica en los sistemas electricos de distribucion, ocasionada por el incremento en la utilizacion de la electronica de potencia, presenta un problema creciente tanto para las empresas suministradoras de energia electrica como para sus usuarios. La distorsion de la forma de onda del voltaje en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica puede producir calentamiento adicional en transformadores, dano en motores, fallas en bancos de capacitores, operacion frecuente de fusibles de bancos de capacitores y operacion inadecuada de controladores y esquemas de proteccion. En este trabajo se presenta un panorama general sobre el problema de armonicas en redes de distribucion. Se describen las fuentes de corrientes armonicas, sus efectos en el sistema electrico y la metodologia implantada en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para detectarlas, medirlas y controlarlas.

  9. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  10. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the results obtained in the measurement of magnetic losses in metallic conduits in electric installations. The losses for parasitic currents and by hysteresis were obtained in different conditions of magnetic density, caused by the net current resulting from the sum of all the currents of all the conductors that travel along the conduit. These currents are named differential currents, and the conditions in which they appear in the electric installations are described. The magnetic induction phenomenon that occurs in metallic conduit is briefly described and the basic concepts that describe it. A theoretical-experimental methodology is offered to quantify the energy losses by parasitic currents and by the metal magnetization in these metallic conduits. At the same time, the impact of these differential currents impact in the reactance of the electric installation is quantified. The obtained results for twelve conduits of different diameters and different wall thickness are shown. A comparison analysis is made with the reported results in a previous article, where the losses were estimated by means of the temperature rise measurement of the metallic wall. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la medicion de perdidas magneticas en tuberias conduit (metalicas) en instalaciones electricas. Las perdidas por corrientes parasitas y por histeresis se obtuvieron para diferentes condiciones de densidad magnetica, provocada por la corriente neta resultante de la suma de las corrientes de todos los conductores que viajan por la tuberia. A estas corrientes se les designa corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se explica brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que se presenta en las tuberias metalicas y los conceptos basicos que la describen. Se plantea una metodologia teorico-experiemental para cuantificar las perdidas de energia, por

  11. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  12. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  13. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  14. A microwave technique for electrical conductivity measurements in semiconductors; Un procedimiento en frecuencia de microondas para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Zehe, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Starostenko, O [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, (Mexico); Perez, L [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-01-15

    In the present paper a theoretical approach is given together with the description of the experimental technique for electrical conductivity measurements of semiconductors in frequency range of 10 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of {lambda}= 3 cm. It is shown, that the sample conductivity, measured without the need of electrical contacts, Is practically identical with results obtained by direct current methods. The potential use of the method for dielectric measurements in samples of general shape is included in the discussion. Given that the local electrical field is known only in bodies of ellipsoidal shape, one has to apply approximation methods for sample shapes of practical relevance (cylinders, cubes, disks). Finally, the measuring range and corresponding errors are explained on the base of measurements realized with silicon samples. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se desarrolla la teoria junto con la descripcion del arreglo experimental para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en muestras semiconductoras, utilizando un campo de microondas de {lambda}= 3 cm, correspondiente a una frecuencia n de 10 GHz. Se demuestra que la conductividad electrica medida sin la necesidad de contactos electricos es practicamente identica con resultados obtenidos por el metodo comun utilizando corriente directa (d.c.). Se incorpora en la discusion ademas el potencial del metodo para el estudio de propiedades dielectricas en muestras de geometria general. Dado que solamente en cuerpos con geometria elipsoidal se conoce bien el campo electrico local, y con esto el momento bipolar inducido, para muestras de geometrias mas practicas (cilindros, cubos, discos) se acude a metodos de aproximacion. Finalmente, se discute el rango de mediciones y errores, y se presentan mediciones concretas, utilizando muestras de silicio.

  15. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  16. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment for the waste water from the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas installations; Tratamiento anaerobio-aerobio de las aguas residuales de las instalaciones del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The waste water treatment plant of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is analyzed. This plant originally was a plant of the activated sludge type (aerobic development), process that consumes large amounts of energy and that produces residual sludge 5 or 6 times greater than the anaerobic processes. The methodology and the techniques utilized were base in the analysis of the existing plant introducing an anaerobic treatment and performing laboratory experimentation. The plant design parameters considered are described. The results show the benefits of treating by anaerobic means the waste waters since depuration are obtained on the order of 75%, as well as the reduction of resulting residual sludge and in energy consumption. A reduction of 60% to 70% can be attained if a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes is utilized [Espanol] Se analiza la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta planta era originalmente una planta de lodos activados (desarrollo aerobio), proceso que consume mucha energia y genera lodos residuales de 5 a 6 veces mas que los procesos anaerobios. La metodologia y las tecnicas utilizadas se basaron en el analisis de la planta de tratamiento existente en el IIE; en la caracterizacion residual del IIE; en la modificacion de la planta de tratamiento introduciendo un tratamiento anaerobio y efectuando experimentacion en laboratorio. Se describen los parametros de diseno de la planta considerados. Los resultados muestran los beneficios de tratar por medios anaerobios las aguas residuales ya que se obtienen depuraciones del orden del 75%, asi como la reduccion de lodos residuales resultantes y el consumo de energia, pueden reducirse de un 60% a un 70% si se utiliza la combinacion de los procesos anaerobios y aerobios

  17. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  18. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  19. Genetic Correlations and Path Analysis in Butternut Squash Cucurbita moschata Duch / Correlaciones Genéticas y Análisis de Sendero en Zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanín Ortiz Grisales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A genetic correlation and path analysis was carried out for yield and fruit quality components of diallel crosses of butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch, using openpollinated introductions, S0 and inbred lines S1 and S2 at two sites: Candelaria and Buga, located in the Department of Valle delCauca, Colombia. A split-plot experimental design with arranged, random blocks and four replicates was used. The average fruit weight presented positive genetic correlations with the total production per plant in all three generations and at both test sites. The total plant dry matter and total production per plant presented a high genetic correlation, and the fruit dry matter was inversely correlated with the total carotene. The total carotene and fruit color were independent. The path analysis confirmed high genetic correlations between the number of fruits per plant, average fruitweight, and total plant dry matter, with direct, positive effects, that were significantly greater than zero for the variables of number of fruits per plant and average fruit weight in regards to the total plant dry matter. The total production per plant expressed a direct, negative effect on the total plant dry matter. The fruit dry matter presented an indirect, negative effect on the total plant dry matter through the average fruit weight and an indirect, positive effect through the total production per plant. / Resumen. Se estudiaron las correlaciones genéticas y el análisis de sendero para los componentes del rendimiento y calidad del fruto de zapallo Cucurbita moschata Duch, en cruzamientos dialélicos entre introducciones de libre polinización S0 y sus líneas S1 y S2 en dos localidades, Candelaria y Buga, ubicadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas, arregladas en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. El peso promedio del fruto presentó correlación gen

  20. Use of correlation and linear regression to increase annual stream flow records; Uso de la correlacion y la regresion lineal para ampliar registros de volumenes escurridos anuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Aranda, D.F. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-03-01

    Firstly, the estimates of standard deviation and arithmetic mean as basic statistical parameters are emphasised, which point out the variability and magnitude of annual streamflow records in the hydrological studies of planning water-resource developments inside a region. Then the equations for quantitative evaluations of statistical convenience of extending a short stream flow record are described in detail. The previous makes use of additional and common data in one or two closer hydrometric stations, with this the short observed record has a certain correlation (dependence or association). Later two numerical applications to real problems are given, the first one for the two dimensional model, which uses a closed hydrometric station in order to extend the short record, and the second application for the three dimensional model which makes use of two auxiliary hydrometric stations. Lastly, three general observations about the paper are cited. [Spanish] Inicialmente se destaca la importancia de las estimaciones de la medida y la desviacion estandar como parametros estadisticos basicos, los cuales caracterizan la magnitud y la variabilidad de los volumenes escurridos anuales en los estudios hidrologicos de planeacion del aprovechamiento de los recursos hidraulicos de una region. Enseguida, se describen con detalle las ecuaciones que permiten evaluar cuantitativamente si es conveniente o no, desde un punto de vista estadistico, ampliar el registro corto de escurrimientos, con base en datos comunes, adicionales y disponibles; esto en una o dos estaciones hidrometricas cercanas, con las cuales, el registro reducido guarda cierta correlacion (dependencia o asociacion). Lo anterior, significa evaluar si con base en el registro ampliado, las estimaciones de la medida y la variancia mejoran estadisticamente. Posteriormente, se realizan dos aplicaciones numericas a casos reales; una, para el modelo bidimensional que utiliza una estacion hidrometrica cercana para ampliar el

  1. Evaluation of the reliability of electric power transmission systems; Evaluacion de confiabilidad de sistemas de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel

    1989-07-01

    algorithm in a digital program, this was proved in a personal computer applying it to IEEE transmission systems evaluated with other methods, among them one of 140 buses and 199 transmission lines. The results as far as reliability indexes compared with the other methods were very satisfactory and promising as far as required CPU time and memory for larger systems. [Spanish] En esta tesis se ataca el problema de la Evaluacion de la Confiabilidad de los Sistemas de Transmision de Energia Electrica para fines de su planeacion integral. Una vez descrito el problema se presentan los indices que miden la confiabilidad de los sistemas electricos de potencia. Despues se describen los metodos para evaluar las redes de transmision, como el de Enumeracion de Contingencias, el Monte Carlo, el de Markov y los metodos para sistemas complejos como el de Cortes Minimos. Este ultimo se desarrolla ampliamente por las ventajas que presenta su aplicacion en la planeacion de redes grandes y complejas. El metodo de cortes minimos consta de dos grandes pasos: Determinar los cortes minimos para los puntos de carga y calcular los indices de confiabilidad en base a los cortes minimos. Los algoritmos convencionales para la determinacion de cortes minimos consideran un problema por cada punto de carga en forma independiente pasando por una determinacion de caminos minimos. En este tipo de algoritmos el tiempo de CPU y el espacio en memoria requeridos crecen exponencialmente para el caso de sistemas de transmision grandes, lo que representa una fuerte restriccion para su aplicacion. Para resolver este problema se establecio una metodologia en la que se modela el sistema por medio de un grafo y se determinan los cortes minimos con un algoritmo basado en la construccion de ciclos en el grafo dual. Con estos cortes se evalua la conexidad y capacidad de la red, obteniendose los indices de confiabilidad para cada bus y para el sistema. Estos indices se calculan con la representacion equivalente para

  2. Weather impact on the electric energy consumption of domestic users; Impacto del clima en el consumo de energia electrica en los usuarios domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is said that when an energy saving and efficient use of energy program is implemented it must be a business for three: the user, the society and the electric utility. In respect to the user, his decision making is quite simple: is it cheaper or more expensive for me?. Unfortunately in many cases we want a very short return time or the money needed for the initial investment is not available. For instance, and incandescent bulb is several times less expensive than a compact fluorescent lamp, but if we make the calculation on the life-time and on the power consumption reduction of the compact fluorescent lamp, we can conclude that this one is more economic. The benefit for the society can be seen under many different aspects, being the most important the natural resources conservation and the environment. From the stand point of the utility the heavier possible factors are the postponement of the investments and the system reliability. When some of the programs of the Demand Side Management (DSM) are applied, the utilities support or promote non financially profitable but improve their image before the user, on creating a consciousness in the saving and in the efficient use of energy: a short term investment is made and a long term revenue is obtained. For this reason for an optimum selection and implementation the saving and the efficient use of electric energy measures a detailed knowledge of the consumption way is required. In this paper the importance of monitoring the way the different type of users employ the energy in order to make up decisions on DSM programs in many different scenarios: cities, type of users, income level, etc. is shown. [Espanol] Se dice que cuando se implementa un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica, debe ser negocio para tres: el usuario, la sociedad y la empresa electrica. En lo que respecta al usuario, su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro. Desafortunadamente en muchos de los casos

  3. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A.; Cortes Eslava, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The ``Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE)`` (University Energy Program) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) through the project ``Ecologic Control of The University Campus`` has the objective of instrumenting policies for the rational use of the electric energy in the UNAM installations. The PUE has performed a series of activities aimed at the establishment of an integral program for the electric energy management in the UNAM. This program has to consider the measures for energy saving (MES) of general kind and to promote a series of specific measures to be adequated and implemented for each one of the departments. The success in establishing a series of MES compels to quantify its effects, to register and to analyze them to be in position of enhancing them, since it must be kept in mind that something that can not be measured can not be improved. For this purpose the PUE is developing a continuous monitoring pilot network of electric energy with local and remote access and an automated metering system. Two monitoring schemes are experimented, one commercial metering equipment and another one with own metering technology. In this paper the characteristics of the proposed monitoring schemes are described. [Espanol] El Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), a traves del proyecto {sup C}ontrol Ecologico del Campus Universitario{sup ,} tiene como objetivo instrumentar politicas de uso racional de la energia en las instalaciones universitarias. El PUE ha realizado una serie de actividades encaminadas a establecer un programa integral de administracion de la energia electrica en la UNAM. El programa mencionado debe considerar medidas de ahorro de energia (MAE) de tipo general y promover una serie de medidas particulares, para ser adecuadas e implantadas por cada una de las dependencias. El exito en el establecimiento de una serie de MAE, obliga a cuantificar sus efectos, registrarse y

  4. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  5. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.

  6. Educational software tool for protection system engineers: distance relay; Herramienta educativa para la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas: relevador de distancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Guajardo, L.A.; Conde-Enriquez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: luistrujillo84@gmail.com; con_de@yahoo.com

    2012-04-15

    In this article, a graphical software tool is presented; this tool is based on the education of protection system engineers. The theoretical fundaments used for the design of operation characteristics of distance relays and their algorithms are presented. The software allows the evaluation and analysis of real time events or simulated ones of every stage of design of the distance relay. Some example cases are presented to illustrate the activities that could be done with the graphical software tool developed. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una herramienta computacional grafica para apoyar la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas. Los fundamentos teoricos para el diseno de caracteristicas de operacion de relevadores de distancia, asi como las rutinas de programacion de un relevador de distancia son presentados. La herramienta desarrollada permite la evaluacion de las etapas de diseno de relevadores y el analisis de la operacion ante eventos reales o simulados. Se presentan algunos casos de ejemplo para ilustrar las actividades didacticas que son posibles de realizar con la herramienta presentada.

  7. The electric power generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future; La generacion electrica en Mexico y sus impactos ambientales: Pasado, presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution, past and present of the installed capacity and of the electric power generation, as well as the fuel consumption and the associated green-house gases emission. Also, under the technique of economic scenarios and future towns (in short and mediate terms) the potential needs of installed capacity, generation, mix and fuel consumption and associated green gases emissions is analyzed. Later on a comment is made on the energy implications of the substitution of fuels policies and the environmental Standards. Finally, a series of comments is established on the possible technological directions for the sector, from the stand point of generation efficiency and its effects in the reduction of emissions [Espanol] El proposito del presente trabajo es analizar la evolucion historica, pasada y presente, de la capacidad instalada y de la generacion electrica, asi como el consumo de combustibles y las emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Tambien se analiza bajo la tecnica de escenarios economicos y poblaciones a futuro (en el corto y mediano plazo) las posibles necesidades de capacidad instalada, generacion, mezcla y consumo de combustibles y emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Posteriormente se comenta sobre las implicaciones energeticas de las politicas de sustitucion de combustibles y estandares ambientales. Por ultimo se establecen una serie de comentarios sobre las posibles direcciones tecnologicas para el sector, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia de generacion y sus efectos en la reduccion de las emisiones

  8. Electrochemical generation of energy: from the portable electronic devices to industrial plants; Generacion electroquimica de energia electrica: de los dispositivos electronicos portatiles a las plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, Javier [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article proposes the electrical energy generation via electrochemistry as substitute of petroleum and discusses on the development of low and high temperature fuel cells fed by diverse types of fuels: electrolyte fuel cells of polymeric membrane, PEM cells H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, cell of direct alcohol consumption, PEM cells and bio-fuel cells, SOFC cells and bio-fuel cells. It presents its constitution, operation principles, and use plausibility, present situation in the market, advantages and disadvantages, as well as already made cell insertion projects. [Spanish] Este trabajo propone la generacion de energia electrica via electroquimica como sustituto del petroleo y discurre sobre el desarrollo de celdas de combustible de baja y alta temperatura alimentadas por diversos tipos de combustibles: celdas de combustible de electrolito de membrana polimerica, celda PEM H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, celda de consumo directo de alcohol, celdas PEM y biocombustibles, celdas de combustible de oxido solido y biocombustibles. Expone su constitucion, principios de operacion, plausibilidad de uso, situacion actual en el mercado, ventajas y desventajas, asi como proyectos de insercion de celdas ya realizados.

  9. Energy losses produced by differential currents in the metallic ducts of electric installations; Perdidas de energia producidas por corrientes diferenciales en la tuberia metalica de instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero L, Eduardo; Bratu S, Neagu; Marquez M, Luis; Caballero R, Rafael [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this article it is explained what is known as differential currents and the conditions in which they appear in the electrical installations. A short outline is made on the magnetic induction phenomenon that appears in metallic conduits, due to the circulation of differential currents along the inside of the tube and that in turn produces energy losses in the form of heat, that is dissipated in the tube surrounding environment. The results of the measurements performed in the laboratory are shown in order to quantify the energy losses in the metallic conduit. It was found that for certain conditions these losses are significant. [Espanol] En este articulo se explica lo que se entiende por corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se plantea brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que aparece en las tuberias metalicas, debido a la circulacion de corrientes diferenciales por el interior del tubo y que a su vez produce perdidas de energia en forma de calor, que se disipa en el ambiente que rodea al tubo. Se muestran los resultados de las mediciones que se llevaron a cabo en laboratorio para poder cuantificar las perdidas en tuberia metalica conduit. Se encontro que para ciertas condiciones estas perdidas son significativas.

  10. Correlaciones entre la condición gingival, prácticas, creencias y modelos de comportamiento de salud oral en estudiantes universitarios de Bogotá, Colombia / Correlation Among Gingival Conditions, Oral Hygiene Practices, Beliefs, and Behavior Models ...

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Méndez, Carlos Alberto; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Niño Corredor, Martha Alejandra; Práctica privada, Bogotá, Colombia; Romero Fonseca, Adriana Zuleny; Práctica privada, Bogotá, Colombia

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN. Antecedentes: La literatura describe la asociación significativa de múltiples factores sociodemográficos, creencias y patrones de comportamiento con la salud dental y gingival. Objetivo: Evaluar correlaciones entre la salud gingival, factores sociodemográficos, creencias y dos modelos de comportamiento de creencias en salud oral y de autoeficacia oral. Métodos: Ochenta jóvenes estudiantes universitarios con diagnóstico de gingivitis recibieron un examen clínico periodontal y respondi...

  11. Papel de la lactancia materna en la respuesta al estrés: estudio comparativo y correlacional de los niveles de cortisol y alfa amilasa de madres y sus hijos lactantes con diferentes tipos de alimentación

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Cañas, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Se conoce que la exposición al estrés durante etapas tempranas de la vida, predispone al individuo a presentar psicopatologías como depresión y ansiedad entre otras. Actualmente no es claro si el tipo de alimentación puede ser una variable que afecte la respuesta al estrés en los niños durante los dos primeros años de vida. El objetivo de esta tesis fue determinar y establecer correlaciones entre las concentraciones de cortisol (CORT) y alfa amilasa (AA) (biomarcadores de la...

  12. Empirical correlation among the dynamic elastic constants and the waves P and S velocities in rocks; Correlaciones empiricas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades de las ondas P y S de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos

  13. Um estudo correlacional entre habilidades sociais e traços de personalidade A correlational study of social skills to personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maurício Haas Bueno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de um estudo correlacional entre habilidades sociais e traços de personalidade segundo o modelo dos cinco grandes fatores. Foram sujeitos da pesquisa 189 estudantes universitários, de ambos os sexos (41 homens e 148 mulheres, de 18 a 59 anos (média 26,3 anos, primeiro-anistas dos cursos de Letras, História, Psicologia, Pedagogia e Biologia. Foram aplicados o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais, que informa sobre (a enfrentamento com risco, (b auto-afirmação na expressão de afeto positivo, (c conversação e desenvoltura social, (d auto-exposição a desconhecidos e a situações novas e (e auto-controle da agressividade a situações aversivas; e um Inventário de Personalidade que informa sobre os cinco grandes fatores: extroversão, socialização, escrupulosidade, neuroticismo e abertura para novas experiências. Encontrou-se que a variância de enfrentamento com risco pode ser explicada principalmente por extroversão e abertura para novas experiências; auto-afirmação na expressão de afetos positivos, por socialização e equilíbrio emocional; conversação e desenvoltura social, pelo conjunto equilibrado de todas os cinco grandes fatores, exceto escrupulosidade; auto-exposição a desconhecidos e a situações novas, por extroversão e equilíbrio emocional; e auto-controle da agressividade por socialização.The purpose of this study was to investigate de correlation of social skills to personality traits by the big five factors model. The Ss were 189 undergraduates, 41 men and 148 women, from 18 to 59 ys. old (mean 26,3 ys. old, freshmen of the Literature, History, Psychology, Pedagogy, and Biology courses. The instruments were the Social Skills Inventory, which informs about (a confront with risk, (b self-affirmation on the positive affect expression, (c conversation and social easiness, (d self-exposure to strangers and new situations, and (e self-control of aggressiveness in

  14. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  15. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  16. Algorithms for the evaluation of the reliability of networks and substations; Algoritmos para evaluar la confiabilidad de redes y subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Two algorithms are presented, one for analyzing the reliability of networks and another one to analyzing the reliability of electrical substations. The algorithms model a network or a substation by means of a graph and determine all the exits, of up to third degree, which isolates the load points. The algorithm that is used for the network analysis, is the one of p-cuts and in the case of the substations it is the one of minimum ways, for later, from these minimum p-cuts and of the minimum ways, obtains the minimum cuts. These minimum cuts are evaluated with the approximate method and give as a result the system reliability and of each one of the components that have been modeled. At the end some examples and results obtained are shown. As case of study, the algorithm is applied to two substations arrangements and to a network of industrial distribution, but it is possible to be applied to transmission and distribution networks. [Spanish] Se presentan dos algoritmos, uno para analizar la confiabilidad de redes y otro para analizar la confiabilidad de subestaciones electricas. Los algoritmos modelan una red o una subestacion por medio de un grafo y determinan todas las salidas, de hasta tercer grado, que aislan los puntos de carga. El algoritmo que se utiliza para el analisis de redes, es el de p-cortes y en el caso de las subestaciones es el de caminos minimos, para despues, a partir de estos p-cortes minimos y de los caminos minimos, obtener los cortes minimos. Estos cortes minimos se evaluan con el metodo aproximado y dan como resultado la confiabilidad del sistema y de cada una de las componentes que se hayan modelado. Al final se muestran algunos ejemplos y resultados obtenidos. Como caso de estudio, el algoritmo se aplica a dos arreglos de subestaciones y a una red de distribucion industrial, pero se puede aplicar a redes de transmision y de distribucion.

  17. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  18. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  19. Capítulo VIII: heredabilidad del rendimiento y sus componentes en tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.; correlaciones genéticas y ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Arias Mario

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio se desarrolló con el fin de determinar la heredabilidad, en sentido amplio, del rendimiento y sus componentes en tomate y a la vez describir las relaciones genotípicas y ambientales para dichos componentes en una población constituida por tres líneas endocriadas (Ponderosa Red, Chonto y Red Cherry como progenitores y las F1 provenientes de los cruzamientos entre los progenitores en una sola dirección. La heredabilidad se estimó en base a los cuadrados medios esperados del análisis de varianza y las correlaciones genotípicas y ambientales en base a los cuadrados medios esperados del análisis de varianza y productos cruzados medios del análisis de covarianza. Para el rendimiento se estimó una heredabilidad de 79.3%, para el número total de frutos de 93.107%, para peso promedio de de fruto de 4.25%. Los coeficientes de correlación genotípicos estimados fueron: para número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de frutos de -0.985; para número de inflorescencias por planta y número de frutos por inflorescencia de 0,541; para número de lóculos por fruto y peso promedio de lóculos de 0.826. Los coeficientes de correlación ambiental estimados fueron: para número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de frutos de -0.512; para rendimiento y número de frutos por planta de -0.065; para rendimiento y peso promedio de frutos de 0.613; para número de inflorescencias y número de frutos por inflorescencias de -0.878; para número de lóculos por fruto y peso promedio de lóculos de -0.779. Lo anterior indica que el método de mejoramiento para rendimiento, dentro de la población estudiada, seria la selección, tomando como índice de selección apropiado el peso promedio de frutos pero sin descuidar el número de frutos. Se debe maximizar las condiciones favorables de suelo y manejo de cultivo para permitir una adecuada manifestación de los dos componentes primarios del rendimiento.

    This study

  20. Measuring the electric energy services for the World Trade Center in Mexico city; Medicion de los servicios de energia electrica del World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Nunez, Humberto; Robledo Vera, Humberto [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In conforming the project of measuring the electric power for the World Trade Center of Mexico City, the use of top technology has been considered that in its field represents the application for the first time in our country the automatic reading of the electric energy meters. In this paper the network for the supply of electric power to the World Trade Center is described as well as the measuring systems of this building and mention is made of the characteristics of the system components and the advantages of remote reading. General data is provided on this collection of buildings, the connections in its tower and a feeding one line diagram of the tower itself [Espanol] En la conformacion del proyecto de medicion de la energia electrica para el edificio World Trade Center de la Ciudad de Mexico, se ha considerado el uso de tecnologia de punta que en su campo representa la aplicacion por primera vez en nuestro pais de la lectura automatica de medidores de energia electrica. En esta ponencia se describen la red de suministro al World Trade Center, los sistemas de medicion de este edificio y se mencionan las caracteristicas de los componentes del sistema y las ventajas de las lecturas remotas. Se proporciona datos generales sobre el conjunto de este edificio, las derivaciones en su torre y un diagrama unifilar de alimentacion de la torre del mismo

  1. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  2. CORRELACIONES Y ANÁLISIS DE SENDERO EN ALGODÓN (Gossypium hirsutum L. EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO CORRELATIONS AND PATH ANALYSIS IN COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum L. IN THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del algodón es la principal actividad agrícola en la economía del Caribe colombiano en el segundo semestre del año y el principal abastecedor de fibra a la industria nacional desde hace aproximadamente 60 años. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales, entre 11 caracteres agronómicos y realizar un análisis de sendero para rendimiento de fibra. Se utilizaron los datos de la evaluación agronómica de 10 genotipos de algodón en ocho ambientes del Caribe colombiano. En cada ambiente se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los resultados indicaron que las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y ambientales. El rendimiento de fibra (REF presentó las mayores correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y fenotipicas parciales con el porcentaje de fibra (PFI, el rendimiento de algodón - semilla (RAS y el peso de mota (PMO, con valores de r > 0,43 (PThe cotton crop is the main agricultural activity in the economy of the colombian Caribbean in the second semester of the year and the main supplier of fibre to national industry for about 60 years. The objective of this work was to estimate the phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations, between 11 agronomic characters and to make a path analysis for fibre yield. Data of agronomic evaluation of 10 genotypes of cotton in eight environments of the colombian Caribbean were used. In each environment experimental design at random complete blocks with four repetitions were used. The results indicated that genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental correlations. Fibre yield (FIY presented the highest phenotypic, genetic and partial phenotypic correlations with ginning percentage (GP, seed-cotton yield (SCY and boll weight (BOW with values of r > 0,43 (P<0,01. The FIP (0,810 was the cause variable that showed the greatest direct effect on

  3. End uses of electric energy in homes of a group of dwellings; Usos finales de la energia electrica en hogares de un conjunto habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J.; Alarcon Maldonado, E.; Silva Oliver, J.; Ortiz Segura, J.; Vargas Rubio, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    ). El analisis de la informacion permite conocer la capacidad de consumo de energia electrica que tienen las viviendas de la muestra y a hacer inferencias de la capacidad de consumo de la unidad habitacional.

  4. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    that is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  5. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J.I.; Morillon Galvez, D. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  6. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  7. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  8. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  9. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  10. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  11. Prevalence and correlates of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia e correlaciones de la lucha física entre adolescentes escolares en Santiago de Chile, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is a growing interest in injury as a public health issue across the world. There is paucity of data on the prevalence and social correlates of non-fatal interpersonal violence in low- and middle-income income nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and associated factors for physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile. METHOD: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Chilean Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2004 in Santiago. We aimed to assess the prevalence and social correlates of having been involved in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 2111 respondents, 40.7% (54.3% males and 26.6% females reported having been in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females [OR = 3.89, 95% CI (3.11, 4.85]. Substance use (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting [OR = 3.05, 95% CI (2.40, 3.87 for substance use, and OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.32, 2.05 for bullying]. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting [OR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.50, 0.78]. CONCLUSION: We have estimated the prevalence of having engaged in a physical fight among in-school adolescents in Santiago, Chile. We have found that the prevalence is similar to what has been reported in diverse settings in Africa, Europe and North America.OBJETIVO: Existe un creciente interés en el daño como un asunto de salud pública a través del mundo. Hay escasez de datos en la prevalencia y correlaciones sociales de violencia interpersonal no fatal, en naciones con bajos y medianos ingresos. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia y el factor asociado a lucha física entre estudiantes adolescentes en Santiago, Chile. MÉTODO: Hemos conducido un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Global Chilena de Salud Basada en Escuelas

  12. Ideología política en torno a «issue»s y valores sociales: un estudio correlacional en ciudadanos de Córdoba/Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina BRUSSINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la relación existente entre los valores sociales y la ideología política de los ciudadanos cordobeses. Para ello, se tomó una muestra cuotificada por nivel socioeconómico, edad y sexo de 373 ciudadanos de Córdoba entre 18 a 65 años de edad. A los participantes seleccionados se les aplicó a la escala de ideología política que considera posicionamientos situacionales sobre los siguientes tópicos específicos: política social, economía, sexualidad, drogas, religión, ecología, seguridad, comunicación (Brussino, Imhoff, Rabbia y Paz García; y b el cuestionario de los valores básicos, propuesto por Gouveia et al. (2008, que está compuesto por 18 valores agrupados en seis orientaciones generales. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a un análisis correlacional indicando que los distintos posicionamientos ideológicos analizados se relacionan diferencialmente con los valores sociales de los ciudadanos de Córdoba. En la misma línea, se efectuaron análisis de regresión múltiple a través del método de pasos sucesivos, mediante el cual se constató la contribución específica que realizan los valores sociales a la explicación de los distintos posicionamientos ideológicos.

  13. Procedures to enter the international market of the carbon and PEMEX electrical generation projects; Procedimientos para ingresar al mercado internacional del carbono y proyectos de generacion electrica de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeferino Abundis, Yolanda [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The consumption and production of the electrical energy contribute to the gas emission that has the property of retaining heat in the atmosphere, giving rise to an increment in the global average temperature of the Earth, and causing a climatic change that the international scientific consensus describes as important alterations in the meteorological patterns. As a result of this, international actions were taken. The most ambitious agreement and by its quantified and obligatory character is presented the Kyoto Protocol, that forces the countries listed in Annex 1 to reduce their emissions through national measures and flexible mechanisms, within these last ones is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that contemplates the mutual cooperation between developed and developing countries in the participation of projects tending to the reduction of gas emissions of greenhouse effect. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) has large necessities of electrical energy and steam, and counts on projects with characteristics that under the CDM cover the characteristics to be technical and economically viable. [Spanish] El consumo y produccion de la energia electrica contribuye a la emision de gases que tienen la propiedad de retener calor en la atmosfera, dando lugar a un incremento en la temperatura promedio global de la Tierra, y provocando un cambio climatico que el consenso cientifico internacional describe como alteraciones importantes en los patrones meteorologicos. A raiz de esto, se tomaron acciones internacionales. El acuerdo mas ambicioso y por su caracter cuantificado y obligatorio lo representa el Protocolo de Kyoto, quien obliga a los paises listados en el Anexo 1 a reducir sus emisiones a traves de medidas nacionales y mecanismos flexibles, dentro de estos ultimos se encuentra el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) que contempla la cooperacion mutua entre paises desarrollados y en vias de desarrollo en la participacion de proyectos tendientes a la reduccion de emisiones

  14. Reliability of electric generation units by evaluating the loss of power and efficiency of turbines; Confiabilidad de las unidades de generacion electrica mediante la evaluacion de la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de las turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the specialized technical service to evaluate the loss of power and efficiency of an open steam turbine is to quantify these losses caused by the deterioration of internal seals, deterioration of the steam path geometry components (nozzles and blades) and increased roughness of the blades and nozzle surface due to erosion (steam, humidity and impacts) and, also, due to salts deposition. In the same way, to establish a set of recommendations, in order of importance by the attention of the Power Plant with the purpose of recovering the major quantity of power and efficiency lost by the steam turbine and assurance, by means of technical supervision of the activities set in the recommendations, and in accordance with CFE rules, international standards and the personal experience of the Instituto de Investogaciones Electricas (IIE), staff, an acceptable quality in rehabilitation of mechanical components such as the maintenance of the steam turbine itself. Using an application example, this paper describes, the methodology of execution of this kind of services. Also, the quality of the maintenance and the rehabilitation of the steam turbine components are quantified. [Spanish] El objetivo del servicio tecnico especializado para evaluar la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor abierta es cuantificar dichas perdidas a causa del deterioro de los sellos internos, del deterioro la geometria de referencia de los componentes del canal de vapor (alabes fijos y alabes moviles) y del aumento de la rugosidad de la superficie de los alabes a causa de la erosion (marcas de vapor, de humedad y de impactos) y de la deposicion de sales. Asimismo, establecer una serie de recomendaciones en orden prioritario para la atencion de la central, con el fin de recuperar la mayor parte de la potencia y eficiencia perdidas por la turbina y asegurando, mediante la supervision tecnica de las actividades resultantes de las recomendaciones y conforme a la normativa de la

  15. Correlaciones cuánticas y grafos

    OpenAIRE

    López Tarrida, Antonio José

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral trata de diversos aspectos de la teoría cuántica (TC), que abarcan desde el campo de los fundamentos de la disciplina (en particular, la búsqueda de un conjunto de principios que seleccionen y distingan a la TC en el panorama de las teorías probabilísticas generales) hasta el reino de las aplicaciones en información y computación cuánticas.   Todos los problemas que hemos abordado en nuestra investigaci&oacut...

  16. GENERACION Y MODIFICACION DE CORRELACIONES CUANTICAS

    OpenAIRE

    JARA FIGUEROA, CRISTIAN IGNACIO

    2013-01-01

    El concepto de información parece trivial, pero los recientes avances nos indican que tiene mucha más relevancia física de la que pensamos en primera aproximación. La información es física ya que no existe información sin representación y dependiendo de la naturaleza del sistema físico que usemos para codificarla, podemos manipularla y procesarla de manera distinta. Son de particular interés los fenómenos que aparecen cuando el sistema en que se almacena la información es un sistema de ...

  17. Determinación de la tenacidad a la fractura de muestras de Acero 45 fundido, empleando las correlaciones entre el KIC y la energía de impacto medida en el ensayo de Charpy. // Determination of the fracture tenacity of cast Steel grade 45 samples, using th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos Morales

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinan los valores de tenacidad a la fractura (KIC de muestras de Acero 45 fundido,empleando las correlaciones entre la tenacidad a la fractura y la energía de impacto (CVN obtenida del ensayo de Charpy.Se hace una discusión sobre las correlaciones que más se ajustan en la región de transición y en upper shelf. Se comparanlos valores obtenidos de estas correlaciones a valores de tenacidad a la fractura establecidos en la literatura.Palabras claves: Fractura, energía de impacto, acero fundido.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper, the values of fracture toughness (KIC are determined on specimens of cast steel grade 45, using thecorrelations among the fracture toughness (KIC and the impact energy (CVN obtained from a Charpy test. A discussion ismade on the correlations that are better adjusted in the transition region and in upper shelf region. The obtained values arecompared from these correlations to values of fracture toughness (KIC settled down in the literature.Key words. Fracture, impact energy, cast steel.

  18. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  19. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A.; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  20. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    In Mexico, the incident solar radiation is high enough, that encourage its use both to produce process heat or electricity trough solar cells in autonomous configurations or grid. In European countries with substantially lower irradiation levels such as Germany or Spain. PV Grid Connected Systems (PVGCS) are a mature technology that is widely used in these countries, mainly due to tax incentives and preferential feed in tariffs schemes. Of the benefits that electricity production modality provides both the user and to the electricity grid and also the technical benefits for the utilities for incorporating distributed generation at its distribution system. In Mexico, more and more people are motivated to invest in this type of technology. This article analyzes the particular case of a user that is classified as High Consumption Domestic Customer (HCDC) in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, who owns a single phase of 6 kWp PVGCS installed on the roof of her house. The reported results in this paper come from data analyzed by the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) for a three year monitoring period. The paper includes meteorological information, energy and power balances, maximum power, standard production, system losses, efficiency of the photovoltaic generator and inverters, among other performance information. The document highlights the impact that the PV system on electricity consumption user billing from the utility, and some recommendations are provided on what must be done in order get out from the HCDC classification and the economic benefits of it. [Spanish] En Mexico se tienen niveles de irradiacion solar suficientemente altos que desde un punto de vista puramente energetico alientan a su aprovechamiento en la produccion de electricidad, ello mediante sistemas fotovoltaicos directamente conectados a la red electrica convencional (SFVI). En paises europeos con niveles de irradiacion sustancialmente inferiores - i.e. Espana o Alemania- esta

  1. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    observacion cientifica, ha demostrado su eficacia en la modernizacion de cientos de procesos industriales, comerciales, de comunicacion y de servicios, asi como de los materiales y metodologias utilizadas para la proteccion de diversos equipos y procesos; desde la proteccion en sistema y equipos en alta tension hasta sistemas que manejan muy baja energia, entre los que incluyen electronicos y digitales. Sin embargo, existen leyes fundamentales como la ley de Ohm, la ley de gravedad o la ley universal de gases que, pese a que fueron descubiertos hace muchos anos, siguen vigentes y su validez proporciona elementos invaluables para el desarrollo de nuevos metodos, procesos y desarrollos tecnologicos. Uno de los casos mas relevantes que amalgama la aplicacion de criterios fundamentales y el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologias y su aplicacion en los llamados dispositivos de proteccion no convencionales lo constituye la proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas en edificios y estructuras. La aplicacion de estos dispositivos en el ambito mundial ha generado escepticismo de una gran parte de la comunidad cientifica, reacciones diversas entre los usuarios y un postura firme por parte de los fabricantes para que dichas tecnologias sean incluidas en normas internacionales. El objetivo de este articulo es ofrecer al lector la informacion basica sobre los inicios de la proteccion, la evolucion que los metodos de proteccion contra las tormentas electricas han tenido desde el siglo XVIII, la aplicacion de los criterios fundamentales de proteccion en estructuras o edificios modernos y su contenido, asi como la situacion que prevalece actualmente en los comites de las diversas organizaciones normativas nacionales e internacionales en lo referente a la inclusion de las nuevas tecnologias en las guias de diseno.

  2. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  3. Energy saving in the pumping of drinking water, Municipality of San Felipe, Guanajuato; Ahorro de energia electrica en bombeo de agua potable, en el municipio de San Felipe, Gto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz Sanchez, Lorenzo [Applied Technology Center de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper shows the results attained in energy saving through a project of potable water pumping, which took an investment of $433,043.00 and an internal rate of return of 126%. This project puts into evidence that it is possible to reduce between 15 and 30% of the total invoicing for energy consumption in potable water pumping if an equipment of poor efficiency is replaced by another of high efficiency. The project was requested by the Guanajuato's State Water Comision and the Municipal Bureau of Sewage and Potable Water, with the double intention of reducing the energy consumption along with the corresponding invoicing and incrementing the output of the wells in order to improve the potable water supply. In the site two high efficiency submersible motor-pumps were installed previously to the energy diagnosis that triggered profitable operation results and a convenient invoicing. [Spanish] Se documentan los resultados obtenidos en un proyecto de ahorro de energia en el bombeo de agua potable realizado con una inversion de $433,043.00 y con una tasa interna de retorno de 126%. Este proyecto pone en evidencia que es posible reducir entre el 15 y 30% de la facturacion total por consumo de energia electrica en el bombeo de agua potable si se sustituye un equipo poco eficiente por otro de alta eficiencia. El proyecto fue solicitado por la Comision Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato y la Junta Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del municipio, con un doble proposito, reducir el consumo de energia junto con la facturacion correspondiente e incrementar la capacidad de produccion de los pozos con la intencion de mejorar el abasto de agua potable. En el lugar se instalaron dos motobombas sumergibles de alta eficiencia previo diagnostico energetico que desencadenaron rentables resultados operativos y de facturacion.

  4. Control voltage of the generator of auto-excited induction for applications on micro/mini generation o electric power; Control de voltaje del generador de induccion auto-excitado para aplicaciones de micro/mini generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Montalvo, Emmanuel

    2006-09-15

    literature, since in this one it is only mentioned that the dynamics of the voltage and frequency change, but it is not shown how. In base of the dynamic behavior of the GIAE a scheme of simple control is proposed to regulate the generator voltage with the minimum of necessary elements, which is translated into a reduced cost, greater reliability and in addition provides a satisfactory voltage regulation. The control strategy is simple but functional, which permits its implementation without major complications. Finally an analysis is realized of the harmonic distortion produced by the proposed control. [Spanish] Aunque solamente una parte de la potencia mini/micro hidraulica ha sido explorada en nuestro pais, este tipo de generacion de energia electrica puede ser considerada como una forma viable de generacion de electricidad, principalmente por lo que respecta a los aspectos ecologicos, economicos y sociales. El impacto que pueden tener estas plantas en las regiones en las que son instaladas es siempre positivo: reduccion de costo de la energia, derrama economica, y principalmente un bienestar social. La energia electrica es uno de los pilares para el desarrollo economico de un pais y proporciona una mejor calidad de vida. En la actualidad la investigacion y la tecnologia orientada a la operacion y control de las micro/mini plantas de generacion ha despertado el interes de muchos investigadores en diversos paises del mundo como China, la India, Canada, USA, por mencionar algunos. El generador de induccion juega un papel crucial en la utilizacion de estas tecnologias. El trabajo de Basset y Potter en 1935, es la piedra angular sobre la posibilidad de generar energia haciendo uso de la maquina de induccion y un banco de capacitores conectado a las terminales de la maquina. Esta configuracion se conoce como generador de induccion auto-excitado (GIAE). Se han realizado diversas investigaciones que tratan sobre el principio de funcionamiento y el comportamiento dinamico de un

  5. Calculation of the electromagnetic fields in electric machines through the use of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of induction problems. Pt. 3; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas de induccion. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  6. Application of an evolutionary algorithm in the reactive compensation of transmission networks of electrical energy planning; Aplicacion de un algoritmo evolutivo en la planificacion de la compensacion reactiva de redes de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio A.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the present work it is considered the mathematical formulation of the problem of the reactive compensation planning, The solution technique based on evolutionary programming is described and the results of compensation in the Northwest subsystem of the Mexican electrical system are shown. A technique of optimization based on the Evolutionary Programming is proposed to solve the problem of the Planning of the Reactive Compensation in transmission of electrical energy networks. The problem consists in determining how much compensation to add and where to locate it in such a way that the investment cost of the compensation equipment is diminished, plus the operation costs associated to the transmission losses, plus a penalty function associated to the violations of the operative limits of voltage. The compensation that is determined must allow that the network operates in normal conditions before any contingency of a pre-established assembly. The problem considered is non-linear and whole compound. Tests made to a representative system of the Northwest area of the Mexican electrical system of 171 nodes and 284 branches are reported. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea la formulacion matematica del problema de planificacion de la compensacion reactiva, se describe la tecnica de solucion basada en programacion evolutiva y se muestra resultados de compensacion en el subsistema Noroeste del sistema electrico mexicano. Se propone una tecnica de optimizacion basada en la Programacion Evolutiva para resolver el problema de la Planificacion de la Compensacion Reactiva en redes de transmision de energia electrica. El problema consiste en determinar cuanta compensacion agregar y donde ubicarla de tal manera que se minimice el costo de inversion del equipo de compensacion, mas los costos de operacion asociados a las perdidas de transmision, mas una funcion de penalizacion asociada a la violaciones de los limites operativos de voltaje. La compensacion que se determine

  7. Speed control and generation of electric power of a gas turbine by means of fuzzy-logic; Control de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas mediante logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamaca Fernandez, Luis Jonathan

    2000-08-01

    The development of a fuzzy-logic control algorithm is presented. It was developed for the speed and load control of a gas turbine. The speed/load controller of the gas turbine which were conventional Pi's were completely replaced by the fuzzy-logic controllers. The fuzzy controllers correspond to MISO systems that has as input the error an its rate of change and as an output the control signal for the fuel valve. The fuzzy controller provides an algorithm that can turn a strategy of linguistic control (based on knowledge of experts) into a strategy of automatic control. The fuzzy controllers were validated by the development of functional test in a simulation of a nonlinear mathematical gas-turbine model. The controllers were programmed in C language in PC. Simulation test for the speed regulation and load tracking were used for the controller validation. The fuzzy controller had a good performance because the minimized the signal error produced by the set of programmed system perturbations (due to control actions). Besides, they had a better reference tracking then PI controllers. Consequently, the proposed fuzzy controllers have a better performance than the conventional control system. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno, programacion y evaluacion de un algoritmo de control basado en logica difusa para el control de velocidad y generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas. En el esquema de control velocidad/carga de la turbina de gas, se sustituyeron completamente los dos controladores convencionales del tipo PI por controladores difusos, teniendo asi un control digital directo. Los controladores difusos corresponden a sistemas MISO que utilizan como variables de entrada el error y la derivada del error, y como variable de salida la senal de control a la valvula de combustible. De esta forma, un controlador difuso provee un algoritmo que puede convertir una estrategia de control linguistico (basado en conocimiento de expertos

  8. Analysis and design of a dish/Stirling system for solar electric generation with a 2.7 kW air-cooled engine; Analisis y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar con concentrador de disco parabolico y motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado por aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Chacon, R.; Velazquez-Limon, N. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mails: rbeltran1@uabc.edu.mx; nicolas.velazquez@uabc.edu.mx; Sauceda-Carvajal, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: dsaucedac@upbc.edu.mx

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling, simulation and design of a solar power system of a parabolic dish with an air-cooled Stirling engine of 2.7 kW. The model used for the solar concentrator, the cavity and the Stirling engine were successfully validated against experimental data. Based on a parametric study, the design of the components of the engine is carried out. The study shows that as system capacity increases, the overall efficiency is limited by the power required by the fan, since the design of the cooler needs greater amounts of heat removal by increasing the air flow without affecting the internal conditions of the process (mass flow of working gas and internal dimensions of the same). The system was optimized and achieves an overall efficiency of solar to electric energy conversion of 26.7%. This study shows that the use of an air-cooled Stirling engine is potentially attractive for power generation at low capacities. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelado matematico, la simulacion y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar de disco parabolico con motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado directamente por aire. El modelo utilizado para el concentrador, la cavidad y el motor Stirling, fueron validados satisfactoriamente con datos experimentales. Con base en un estudio parametrico se realizo el dimensionamiento de los componentes del motor. El estudio realizado muestra que conforme se incrementa la capacidad del sistema, la eficiencia global se ve limitada por la potencia requerida por el ventilador, dado que el diseno del enfriador necesita retirar mayores cantidades de calor aumentando el flujo de aire, sin afectar las condiciones internas del proceso (flujo masico del gas de trabajo y dimensiones internas del mismo). El sistema fue optimizado obteniendo una eficiencia global de conversion de energia solar a electrica de 26.7%. Este estudio muestra que el uso de un motor Stirling enfriado directamente por aire es potencialmente

  9. Actitudes hacia la política en estudiantes universitarios, sus correlaciones con la edad, el estrato socioeconómico y el nivel educativo, y diferencias según el género en la ciudad de Bucaramanga (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio correlacional- transversal fue caracterizar las actitudes hacia la política, correlacionándolas con la edad, el estrato socioeconómico y el nivel educativo de los participantes, asi como sus diferencias según el género, en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Bucaramanga (Colombia. Se utilizó una escala de actitud validada para tal fin (Álvarez,2012. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes más desfavorables fueron las de la satisfacción con la democracia, el interés y comprensión de los asuntos políticos, la confianza política y la implicación política. Las más favorables fueron la valoración de los líderes y partidos políticos, la eficacia política, la ideología política, la participación electoral y política y la influencia política; finalmente la actitud con posiciones tanto favorables como desfavorables fue el optimismo político. La edad, el estrato y los semestres de carrera cursados se correlacionaron con las actitudes de forma débil o muy débil, directa e indirectamente (- 0.10

  10. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    institutional procedures, the standards, the commercial programs and the programs developed by the Management of Planning, used in the CFE to make the electric distribution systems planning. In the same way, in Chapter 4 a methodology for the optimization of the electrical grids in low tension is proposed, standing out some errors that are commonly committed in the design of these types of networks, doing recommendations to correct them with low cost investments. Because of the importance in the design of medium tension lines, in Chapter 3 the set of economic conductors for 23 kV was determined for urban and rural areas, system type A (3F-4H, 2F-3H, 1F-2H), by means of the Modified Method. With this information we will be able to select the conductor that offers the best economy in the time, in each extension of the network. In Chapter 5 the proposed methodology in the planning of the electrical system of distribution of the Zapotlan Zone was applied, as much in substations as in the high and medium tension network. In this chapter analyses of optimization of the network were performed, capacitor banks application, attention to the incremental demand, power losses, contingencies by fault and reliability of the provision. Finally the obtained conclusions of the investigation and the work carried out are presented; as well as the recommendations for future facilities. [Spanish] Las 13 Divisiones de Distribucion en las cuales la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene estructurada, administrativa y tecnicamente, la distribucion de la energia electrica en su territorio atendido, estan constituida a su vez por un total de 120 Zonas de Distribucion, clasificadas conforme al producto de su numero de clientes, por su volumen de ventas anuales, en media y baja tension, como zonas tipo I, II y III. Ejemplos de zonas tipo III son las Zona Guadalajara y la Zona Metropolitana Monterrey Norte, Oriente y Poniente (metropolis), la tipo II son zonas predominantemente urbanas como Queretaro

  11. INFRAESTRUCTURA DE COMUNICACIONES EN MICRORREDES ELECTRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Eduardo Gaona García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra un estudio de la actualidad técnica y tecnológica de la infraestructura de comunicaciones utilizadas en  microrredes eléctricas, en este sentido ha surgido la necesidad de investigar, analizar, mejorar y desarrollar métodos de comunicación tanto alámbricos como inalámbricos que permitan crear una infraestructura de comunicaciones que soporte las características de control, supervisión y trasmisión de información entre dispositivos de control en una microrred de forma eficiente, segura y confiable.Dadas estas características en el artículo se analizan  las diferentes arquitecturas y topologías propuestas entorno a comunicaciones en el ambiente Smart Grid que se puedan adaptar a la forma en que opera una microrred. Se muestran las propuestas  y desarrollos realizados en el  área de telecomunicaciones concerniente a protocolos de comunicaciones utilizados en microrredes eléctricas, con el fin de conocer las tecnologías, protocolos y algoritmos utilizados en la transmisión de datos.

  12. INCLUSIÓN DE CORRELACIONES TEMPORALES CON DEPENDENCIA A LARGO PLAZO Y PATRONES AUTOSIMILARES EN MODELOS DE REDES IEEE 802.3 INCLUSION OF LONG-RANGE-DEPENDENT TEMPORARY CORRELATIONS AND SELF-SIMILAR PATTERNS IN IEEE 802.3 NETWORKS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginno Millán Naveas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos de un proyecto de investigación sobre el modelado de redes de computadoras con mecanismo de control de acceso al medio, según el estándar IEEE 802.3-2005, empleando los postulados de la teoría de conjuntos autosimilares para establecer el nivel de impacto que poseen las correlaciones temporales con dependencia de largo alcance sobre el rendimiento de tales redes. Se postula una nueva forma de estimar grados de autosimilaridad basada en una variación del estimador de Whittle.The foundation of a research project about a model of computer networks with media access control mechanism based on the IEEE standard 802.3-2005 is presented. The model draws from the theory of self-similar sets for establishing the impact level that the long-range-dependent temporary correlations have on the performance of such networks. A new method for the estimation of self-similar levels based on a variation of the Whittle estimator is postulated.

  13. Estudio correlacional entre el afecto negativo y el rechazo escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Cándido J. Inglés; Gonzálvez, Carolina; García-Fernández, José Manuel; VICENT, María; Sanmartín, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    El estudio del afecto y su relación con el comportamiento de rechazo a la escuela es un campo de investigación con escasos trabajos previos. El objetivo de estudio fue analizar la relación entre el Afecto Negativo y los distintos factores que justifican el rechazo escolar en estudiantes de Educación Primaria. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 476 estudiantes españoles con un rango de edad que osciló entre los 8 y los 12 años (M = 10.08; DE = 1.28). Las variables de este estudio fueron evaluadas...

  14. Specification for the interconnection to a electric network of low tension of photovoltaic systems with 30 kW of capacity; Especificacion para la interconexion a la red electrica de baja tension de sistemas fotovoltaicos con capacidad hasta 30kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Jose [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation, there are shown the details of the photovoltaic systems interconnected with the electric network (SFVI), carried out by the Mexico's Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) with the support of the Mexican Electric Research Institute (IIE). First of all, there are found the objectives of the photovoltaic system interconnected to the electric network (SFVI). Then, there are mentioned the places where such sort of systems could be installed; besides, it is shown a diagram explaining the process of such systems. At the same time, there are briefly explained the components that are necessaries for their properly operation. Some of the elements previously mentioned are: photovoltaic generator (GFV), inverter, interface, and logic circuits and the control. It is shown a diagram with the location of the electrical disconnect switches. Then, it is shortly explained the place where the SFVI should be connected and there are given some requisites that are important to fulfill in order to have everything updated. Finally, it is mentioned the methodology that should be followed in order to supervise that everything works in a properly way, this last issue is carried out by CFE. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se presentan los pormenores del sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a la red (SFVI), realizado por la Comision federal de Electricidad (CFE) con apoyo del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). En primer lugar, se encuentran los objetivos que tiene el uso de SFVI. Enseguida, se muestra un diagrama que explica el proceso que dichos sistemas realizan. Asimismo, se explican brevemente los elementos que, de uno u otro modo, son necesarios para el adecuado funcionamiento del SFV. Ademas, se muestra un diagrama con la ubicacion de los interruptores de desconexion. Luego, se explica escuetamente el lugar donde se debe de conectar el SFVI, ademas de algunas condiciones que se deben de cumplir para que no haya mayores contratiempos. Finalmente, se

  15. Program integration at JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V./Electric energy saving/Environmental management system /ISO 14001 standard; Integracion de programas en JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Ahorro de energia electrica/Sistema de administracion ambiental/Estandar ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote Molina, Martin [JVC Industrial de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Tijuana (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is possible, and besides logic, the integration of programs such as the electric energy saving and an environmental management system. In managing the consumption and the demand of the electric service, there is an effect on the pollutants emitted for the generation. It is clear that the user in not, and can not be, responsible for the type of fuel used but its importance in project planning is out of question. In its turn the central point of the environmental management system, consists in identifying the main effects on the environment caused by its activities, services and products, as well as the current or potential control level of the enterprise on them. Such identification and further evaluation took us at JVC Industrial de Mexico, to integrate conceptually and operationally such programs. The commitment with the Management was concentrated and strengthened resulting in a fuller consciousness of resource administration. [Espanol] Es posible, ademas de logica, la integracion de programas tales como el ahorro de energia electrica y un sistema de administracion ambiental. Al administrar el consumo y la demanda del servicio electrico tenemos un efecto en los contaminantes emitidos para la generacion. Es claro que el usuario no es, ni puede ser, responsable del tipo de combustible utilizado pero su importancia en la planeacion de proyectos es indiscutible. A su vez el punto central del sistema de administracion ambiental, consiste en identificar los principales efectos en el medio ambiente causados por sus actividades, servicios o productos, asi como el nivel de control actual o potencial de la empresa sobre ellos. Dicha identificacion y la posterior evaluacion nos llevo, en JVC Industrial de Mexico, a integrar tanto conceptual como operacionalmente dichos programas. El compromiso de la Gerencia se vio concentrado y fortalecido dando como resultado una conciencia mas plena de la administracion de recursos.

  16. Avaliação por imagem da área de gordura visceral e suas correlações com alterações metabólicas Evaluación por imagen del área de grasa visceral y sus correlaciones con alteraciones metabólicas Imaging assessment of visceral adipose tissue area and its correlations with metabolic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karla Carneiro Roriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade androgênica está associada a um risco maior de distúrbios metabólicos, favorecendo assim a ocorrência de doenças cardiovasculares e outras morbidades. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da área de tecido adiposo visceral (ATAV, medida pela tomografia computadorizada, sobre alterações metabólicas em adultos e idosos. MÉTODOS: Tomografias computadorizadas e valores de lipoproteínas: o colesterol total e frações, os triglicérides, a glicemia e o ácido úrico foram obtidos de 194 indivíduos estratificados por sexo, grupo etário e massa corporal, e analisados utilizando os testes de correlação e de média. RESULTADOS: Os idosos apresentaram maiores valores da ATAV, glicemia, ácido úrico e colesterol total. As maiores correlações foram encontradas entre a ATAV, os triglicérides e o VLDL-c (r > 0,5; p FUNDAMENTO: La obesidad androgénica está asociada a un riesgo mayor de disturbios metabólicos, favoreciendo así la ocurrencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares y otras morbilidades. OBJETIVOS: Verificar la influencia del área de tejido adiposo visceral (ATAV, medida por la tomografía computarizada, sobre alteraciones metabólicas en adultos y adultos mayores. MÉTODOS: Tomografías computarizadas y valores de lipoproteínas: el colesterol total y fracciones, los triglicéridos, la glucemia y el ácido úrico se obtuvieron de 194 individuos estratificados por sexo, grupo de edad y masa corporal, y se analizaron utilizando las pruebas de correlación y de promedio. RESULTADOS: Los adultos mayores presentaron mayores valores de la ATAV, glucemia, ácido úrico y colesterol total. Las mayores correlaciones se encontraron entre la ATAV, los triglicéridos y el VLDL-c (r > 0,5; p BACKGROUND: Androgenic obesity is associated with a higher risk of metabolic disorders, thus favoring the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and other morbidities. OBJECTIVE: To verify the influence of the visceral adipose tissue

  17. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    de potencia (CUFP). Ademas, se desarrolla en esta tesis las ecuaciones utilizadas en el Jacobiano del metodo Newton-Raphson, para resolver flujos de potencia incluyendo los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Se muestra diferentes aplicaciones que se tienen al instalar un dispositivo, tales como prevencion de flujos en anillo, barrera electronica, incremento en la capacidad de transmision y especificacion del flujo de potencia en lineas de transmision. Por otra parte, se desarrolla en la tesis un analisis de sensibilidades de un sistema de potencia en estado estacionario. Tambien se proponen en la tesis los parametros de control para los cuales se calcula las sensibilidades. Asimismo, se utiliza un indice de desempeno para medir el grado de congestion de un sistema electrico. Al calcular las sensibilidades se utiliza los resultados obtenidos de los flujos de potencia. Se usa 4 redes electricas para encontrar donde se debe situar cada dispositivo SIFLETCA para reducir la congestion en el sistema. Tambien, se compara el metodo desarrollado en la tesis con un metodo de sensibilidades que emplea flujos de CD para validacion y mostrar las ventajas de usar el metodo Newton en flujos de potencia.

  18. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  19. Preferred external power supplies; Fuentes electricas preferentes exteriores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Anton, L.

    2010-07-01

    In June 2008 ANAV and ENDESA DISTRIBUCION (EDE) undertook a joint study of Asco NPP Preferred External Power Supplies (PEPSs) to check the number of lines or power supplies to the 110 kV substation at Asco that met the criteria defined in the power supply regulations applicable to Asco NPP and primarily to confirm compliance with IEEE 765-2006 standard. (Author).

  20. UNESA annual report 1982. UNESA memoria estadistica electrica 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Activities of UNESA the union of electric power companies in Spain, are given for 1982. Details are given on electricity production and consumption, research programs within the power industry, financial data and international trade. (In Spanish)

  1. Pequenas y microcentrales hidroelectricas: alternativa real de generacion electrica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sierra Vargas, Fabio Emiro; Sierra Alarcon, Adriana Fernanda; Guerrero Fajardo, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    ...), concentrando la descripcion en tres aspectos: las turbinas mas usadas, las caracteristicas de los generadores y una breve descripcion de la legislacion colombiana respecto a la pequena generacion...

  2. UNESA annual statistical report 2000; UNESA memoria-estadistica electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    UNESA is an organisation of Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1997 are presented. An overview is presented of Spain's new electricity system, installed transmissions and distribution lines, electricity generation, electricity demand, economic and financial aspects of the electricity industry, and prices, rates, billing and supply conditions. The report includes statistical tables on installed capacity, electricity generation, consumption and demand, international exchanges of electricity, circuit lengths of transmission and distribution lines, and electricity balances for Spain.

  3. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy; Bandera Obrera. Politica Electrica Independiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahen, D. [Sindicato Unico de Trabajadores de la Industria Nuclear, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  4. Transient and steady state analysis in the frequency domain for time-invariant and time variant electrical networks using the algebraic operational matrices approach; Analisis transitorio y de estado estable en el dominio de la frecuencia de redes electricas invariantes y variantes en el tiempo utilizando el enfoque algebraico de las matrices operacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro Castillo, Isidro Ignacio

    1999-02-01

    insight in to the properties of time varying networks by using methods of analysis in the frequency domain, which are well established for the analysis of time-invariant networks. The question arises whether these methods can be applied and modified for the analysis of time varying networks. Some possible solutions have been reported in the open literature. In this thesis a efficient solution is reported, which is based on operational matrices and, according to the author's knowledge, it has not been published before. An advantage of the method is that it can be seen as a direct extension of the Ohm's laws and the nodal analysis widely used in power systems for circuit analysis. The results presented in the thesis are validated with time domain simulations. In all cases the results obtained from both solutions matched with a vary low tolerance. [Spanish] En este trabajo el problema de predecir la distorsion armonica es tratado en forma general. El problema es presentado tal que el proceso de solucion no se limita a mantenerlo en el dominio de Fourier porque puede ser manejado en cualquier otro dominio generado por cualquier base dada por toda expansion en series ortogonales, incluidas las series de Fourier. En este trabajo se muestra que las series ortogonales tales como las series Hartley o Walsh pueden ser utilizadas para resolver mas eficientemente los problemas de distorsion armonica que la forma convencional considera en el dominio armonico. De este trabajo es claro que el dominio armonico es un caso particular de la formulacion aqui presentada. La teoria utilizada para presentar y resolver el problema de la distorsion armonica esta basada principalmente en el concepto de las matrices operacionales desarrolladas en las areas de Control y Sistemas. La aproximacion tiene la ventaja de proporcionar un marco de referencia general para resolver problemas de estado estable y dinamico en redes electricas y sistemas en general. Un hecho importante presentado en

  5. Inteligência emocional e provas de raciocínio: um estudo correlacional Emotional intelligence and reasoning tests: a correlacional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Garcia de Jesus Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo propôs-se a investigar a validade convergente do Mayer, Salovey e Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - MSCEIT, um instrumento de avaliação da Inteligência Emocional, por meio da correlação com as Baterias de Provas de Raciocínio - BPR-5, de inteligência fluida e cristalizada. A amostra consistiu de 191 universitários, com idades variando entre 17 e 60 anos, provenientes dos cursos de Pedagogia, Educação Física, Administração, Ciências contábeis e Sistemas de Informação de uma instituição particular do interior do estado de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados foram aplicados em duas sessões coletivas em grupos separados por seus cursos. A correlação geral entre MSCEIT e BPR-5 foi baixa e significativa (r=0,18; pThis paper intended to study the convergent validity as detailed by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - MSCEIT, as a tool to assess Emotional Intelligence by relating them to the Baterias de Provas de Raciocínio (Series of Reasoning Tests - BPR-5, regarding fluid and crystallized intelligence. The sample consisted of 191 grad students, between 17 and 60 years old, with majors in the areas of Pedagogy, PE, BA, Accounting and Information Systems, from a privately funded university from the state of Sao Paulo. The instruments were applied in two collective sessions in groups classified by their majors. The general correlation between MSCEIT and BPR-5 was low and significant (r=0,18; p<0,05, showing a little convergence of constructs. However, this correlation was increased (r=0,28; p<0,01, when discarding the Spatial and Mechanical reasoning tests (BPR-5, for they also assess other skills besides Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence.

  6. Emotional intelligence and reasoning tests: a correlacional study / Inteligência emocional e provas de raciocínio: um estudo correlacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Garcia de Jesus Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intended to study the convergent validity as detailed by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test – MSCEIT, as a tool to assess Emotional Intelligence by relating them to the Baterias de Provas de Raciocínio (Series of Reasoning Tests – BPR-5, regarding fluid and crystallized intelligence. The sample consisted of 191 grad students, between 17 and 60 years old, with majors in the areas of Pedagogy, PE, BA, Accounting and Information Systems, from a privately funded university from the state of Sao Paulo. The instruments were applied in two collective sessions in groups classified by their majors. The general correlation between MSCEIT and BPR-5 was low and significant (r=0,18; p<0,05, showing a little convergence of constructs. However, this correlation was increased (r=0,28; p<0,01, when discarding the Spatial and Mechanical reasoning tests (BPR-5, for they also assess other skills besides Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence.

  7. Estimation of fouling factors in the design of steam generators; Estimacion de factores de ensuciamiento en el diseno de generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Archila, David Ivanhoe

    1997-12-31

    This thesis proposes an alternative to correct design problems the evaluation of fouling factors of thermal energy transfer components of a power station generator. That alternative involves the development of a subroutine to apply fundamental empirical thermal transfer correlations, written in FORTRAN language and extends a principal program for steam generator thermal analysis, developed by Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. [Espanol] Esta tesis propone una alternativa, basada en el calculo de factores de ensuciamiento de elementos de transferencia de energia termica de un generador de vapor, como mecanismo para corregir el diseno deficiente de areas de calefaccion. Esta alternativa involucra el desarrollo de una subrutina, escrita en FORTRAN, la cual realiza el calculo de los factores de ensuciamiento empleando correlaciones fundamentadas en la teoria de los procesos de transferencia de calor y forma parte de un programa principal para el analisis termico de generadores de vapor desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

  8. Quantum correlations and graphs. Correlaciones cuánticas y grafos.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral trata de diversos aspectos de la teoría cuántica (TC), que abarcan desde el campo de los fundamentos de la disciplina (en particular, la búsqueda de un conjunto de principios que seleccionen y distingan a la TC en el panorama de las teorías probabilísticas generales) hasta el reino de las aplicaciones en información y computación cuánticas.   Todos los problemas que hemos abordado en nuestra investigaci&oacut...

  9. Estudio correlacional de estilos de aprendizaje de estudiantes con modalidad en ciencias naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fabiola Herrera Cifuentes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados de una investigación en la que se identificó el estilo de aprendizaje de un grupo de estudiantes de secundaria con base en los modelos de estilos de aprendizaje propuestos por Kolb (1984, Alonso, Gallego y Honey (1994 y Grasha (1996. Una vez identificado el estilo de aprendizaje predominante de cada uno de los sujetos de la población, según los distintos instrumentos propuestos para tal fin por cada uno de los modelos, se examinó si existe alguna correlación entre las distintas categorías de estilos de aprendizaje propuestas por cada uno de los modelos señalados anteriormente. Los resultados obtenidos no muestran una preferencia de los estudiantes por un único estilo de aprendizaje en cada uno de los modelos estudiados. Se obtuvieron porcentajes altos de preferencias por el estilo activo según el modelo de Alonso, Gallego y Honey, asimilador según el modelo de Kolb y participativo según el modelo de Grasha, sin que los porcentajes obtenidos sean lo suficientemente representativos de la población. Obtenidos los valores de correlación entre cada uno de los estilos de aprendizaje propuestos en cada modelo a través del coeficiente Lambda de Goodman y Kruskal para variables nominales, se encontró que los valores de correlación son prácticamente despreciables, lo que confirmaría, en alguna medida, la independencia de cada uno de los modelos analizados.

  10. CORRELACION ENTRE DISTINTOS TIPOS HISTOLOGICOS DE CANCER DE MAMA Y RECEPTORES ESTROGENICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Schiaffino O.,Rodrigo; Ibarra P.,Andrés; González A.,Raúl; Urrutia M.,Julio

    2002-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de 140 muestras histológicas tomadas en pacientes con cáncer de mama para determinar su concentración de receptores de estrógenos. Destaca la importancia, frecuencia de positividad para receptores de estrógenos en todos los tipos histológicos

  11. Física cuántica : interferencias, correlaciones y realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Scarani, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 8 de febrer de 2016 La física cuántica se ha erigido como uno de los pilares fundamentales sobre los cuales se asienta la física moderna. Es una puerta a un mundo fascinante, de características sorprendentes; un microcosmos regido por la imposibilidad de la determinación exacta de pares de propiedades de una partícula, como su posición y su momento. Física cuántica realiza con maestría un descenso a los abismos de la interferometría de partículas, la teleportación...

  12. The radio-pathological correlation of spleen lesions; Correlacion radioanatomopatologica de la lesion esplenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Cespedes, M.; Camacho, F. I. [Hosptial Virgen de la Salud. Toledo (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To review the spectrum of spleen lesions, by correlating the radiologic images with the anatomopathological findings. A retrospective study was carried out on 180 patients with splenic lesions, whose diagnosis had been confirmed by the anatomopathological unit. The iconography was studied, distinguishing between the following categories: inflammatory/infectious pathology, cystic and vascular lesions, benign diffuse infiltration illnesses, tumours and development abnormalities. We showed the distribution of the lesions observed in our series and the correlation of the radiologic images with those of the pathologic study of the most significant ones. The current imaging methods allow for a reliable diagnostic approach to the splenic processes, however, the anatomopathological correlation, when possible, has been proven o be very useful. Currently computed tomography is still the technique chosen to evaluate the spleen, especially due to its availability. The arrival of the helical computed tomography has significantly improved the characterisation and the detection of lesions. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be especially useful for small lesions and for some diffuse infiltrations, such as hemochromatosis. (Author) 36 refs.

  13. Estudio correlacional de estilos de aprendizaje de estudiantes con modalidad en ciencias naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Fabiola Herrera Cifuentes; Pedro Nel Zapata Castañeda

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo muestra los resultados de una investigación en la que se identificó el estilo de aprendizaje de un grupo de estudiantes de secundaria con base en los modelos de estilos de aprendizaje propuestos por Kolb (1984), Alonso, Gallego y Honey (1994) y Grasha (1996). Una vez identificado el estilo de aprendizaje predominante de cada uno de los sujetos de la población, según los distintos instrumentos propuestos para tal fin por cada uno de los modelos, ...

  14. Miocardiopatia alcohòlica: correlacions clínico-morfològiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Solà, J. (Joaquim)

    1989-01-01

    L'alcohol etíliic és una substància que, ingerida crònicament, es comporta com un tòxic multisistèmic. La possibiltat de relacionar l'alcohol amb patologia orgànica ja va ser suggerida fa temps, però no va ser fins fa uns cent anys en que es va evidenciar el seu efecte deleteri sobre el múscul i el miocardi.La miocardiopatia alcohòlica és una miocardiopatia dilatada de característiques cliniques i funcionals indistingibles de la idiopàtica, però que incideix en un malalt amb una ingesta alcoh...

  15. Estudo correlacional entre o Teste de Pfister e o Desenho da Figura Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso,Lucila Moraes; Capitão,Cláudio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo buscar as correlações existentes entre os indicadores emocionais e cognitivos das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister e do Desenho da Figura Humana, tanto no sistema DFH-Koppitz como no DFH-Sisto. As técnicas das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister (TPC) e do Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH) são instrumentos projetivos que permitem que se conheçam aspectos da personalidade de quem os executa. De acordo com a literatura, os dois métodos medem o mesmo construto, justificando ...

  16. PRODUCTOS DE GLICACION AVANZADA (AGES) DIETARIOS Y SU CORRELACION CON NIVELES PLASMATICOS

    OpenAIRE

    JARA CONTRERAS; NATALIA MARIA

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Los productos de glicación avanzada son un grupo numeroso y heterogéneo de moléculas que se producen en forma endógena, asociados a la hiperglicemia y estrés oxidativo. Estas sustancias además pueden generarse durante la cocción o procesamiento de los alimentos y, al ser absorbidos, alteran el metabolismo glucídico teniendo además efectos inflamatorios a nivel celular. Objetivos: Confirmar si la ingesta dietaría de AGEs se correlaciona con los niveles : plasmáticos de estos c...

  17. Maturidade viso-motora e inteligência: um estudo correlacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou as relações entre a inteligência e a maturidade viso-motora. Foram aplicados o DFH-escala Sisto e o Teste de Bender, pelo sistema de pontuação gradual (B-SPG, em 244 alunos, sendo 50% meninos com idades de 7 a 10 anos, média de oito anos (DP=1,08, que cursavam da primeira à quarta série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os testes foram aplicados coletivamente, sendo que, no caso do Bender, as figuras foram projetadas no quadro para que pudessem ser copiadas pelas crianças. Foram evidenciadas correlações negativas e significativas entre os escores dos testes em ambos os sexos e nas idades. concluiu-se que o Teste Gestáltico forneceu uma estimativa das capacidades intelectuais de crianças.

  18. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA) annual report 2006. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2006 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation, transmission and distribution and a summary of achievements during 2006. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year. A summary of the report is available in English and Spanish on the website www.unesa.es.

  19. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA annual report 2000. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2000 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation transmission and distribution and summary of achievements during 2001. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Information is given on emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOX and particulates. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year, together with annual figures from 1940 to date.

  20. Twelve years of continuous measurements of atmospheric electrical activity in Mexico's Tropical highland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso Lozada, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-04-01

    la mayor actividad de tormentas electricas se produce en el verano, con menos de 10% en otono e invierno. Se obtuvo una correlacion significativa entre los datos de precipitacion de una red de 66 estaciones y la frecuencia de descargas. Se dio especial atencion a la cuestion de la actividad electrica atmosferica y el clima en el Valle de Mexico.

  1. EFECTO DEL COBRE SOBRE LA EXCITABILIDAD ELECTRICA DE NEURONAS PIRAMIDALES DE CA 1

    OpenAIRE

    VERA BUSCHMANN, JORGE ALEJANDRO

    2010-01-01

    El cobre es un metal esencial para los organismos aeróbicos y ha sido vinculado principalmente al metabolismo celular. Además, existen evidencias para proponer que este metal tiene un rol en la modulación de la excitabilidad neuronal. Sin embargo, esta hipótesis no ha sido demostrada directamente. En nuestro laboratorio encontramos que cobre en concentraciones que pueden alcanzarse en el espacio sináptico (0,01-0,1 μM), aumenta la tasa de disparos espontáneos de neuronas pir...

  2. Electrical energy: what is in game; Energia electrica: lo que esta en juego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Robredo, R.

    2004-07-01

    In the occasion of the inauguration of the Academic Course in the Spanish Club of the Energy, the Endesa president made these reflections on the main factors that actually affect the development of the electrical energy.

  3. Options of electric generation and sustainability; Opciones de generacion electrica y sustentabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a study on the sustainability of the main electricity generation options is presented. The study is based on a matrix of sustainability indicators developed in Switzerland. A revision of some sustainability studies performed in countries with certain energy diversity and with experience in nuclear power plants operation, is done. Studies, in general, are performed for the power plant life cycle, taking into account economic aspects, fuel prices impact on electricity generation costs, fuel reserves indicators and material consumption. Air emission, waste production and human health impact data are also presented. All the results lead to confirm that nuclear energy has a high degree of sustainability vis a vis other options based on fossil fuels and renewable. Finally some comments are presented in order to highlight the importance that nuclear energy might have in the sustainable development of Mexico. (Author)

  4. ENFOQUE MULTIOBJETIVO DE LA MEJORA DE LA EFICIENCIA DE CENTRALES ELECTRICAS: ANALISIS ENERGETICO Y ECONOMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, Ana B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The auxiliary services of power plants have raised their energy consumption given that, nowadays, power plants usually operate at partial loads. This paper presents a multiple criteria study about the efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services through a series of strategies. Besides the energy savings, two economic criteria are considered: the economic investment required and the Internal Rate of Return to maximize the profitability of the investment. In order to solve this multiobjective problem, we have developed a scheme which combines several approaches in order both to make use of the main advantages of each method and to progressively adapt the solution process to the decision maker’s preferences. Finally, we solve the multiobjective problem associated to a real case study using the scheme designed. With this case study, we show the usefulness of the scheme proposed, and we highlight the importance of an understandable feedback and an adaptive process.

  5. Gas pipelines design for power plants supply; Diseno de gasoductos para abastecimiento de centrales electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Oscar G. [TGN Transportadora de Gas del Norte, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carranza, Hugo A. [TOTAL Gas Transmission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casanova, Jorge A. [CMS Energy, Jackson, Michigan (United States); Casares, Carlos A.M. [TECPETROL, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas demand continues to grow in the world and in Argentina. The thermoelectric generation increases each year its perceptual participation in a total gas demand. In Latin America, meanwhile,natural gas transport systems do not have availability of economic alternatives for storage, forced to endure severe dynamic requirements to cover peak demand time and day. Under these new conditions to study the characteristics of loads and design methods of new pipelines, and adequacy of existing, deserves revised. The old discussions about stationary design versus transitional design renew face of change in composition of demand. This work analyze the characteristics of demand, the redefinition of the status of load, the criteria for handling line pack, the differences in results by method analysis used (dynamic/stationary), analyzing conceptually and quantitatively the principle variables that affecting the design. Finally runs on a general recommendation to use design patterns when planning a network with increased integration of electricity generation.

  6. Electrical machines monitoring using partial discharges; Monitorizacion de maquinas electricas mediante descargas parciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, J. C.; Rodriguez Ruiz, S.

    2006-07-01

    Electrical Machines Monitoring is a philosophy that is being more and more accepted in maintenance, the application of these techniques has a lot of advantages as the life evaluation non-intrusively and the detection and evolution evaluation of defects. this paper presents the monitoring of electrical machines using the Partial Discharges technique, which allow the evaluation of insulation of Electrical Machines. Real Cases are included in the paper as samples in which this techniques has been useful to detecting defects. (Author)

  7. Electrical characteristics of the hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications; Caracteristicas electricas de la hidroxiapatita para aplicaciones biomedicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Buisan N, M.G.; Mendez G, M.M. [Laboratorio de Corrosion, ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The electric characteristics of hydroxyapatite films were studied (HAP) deposited on metallic substrates oxidized naturally. The substrates was made of steel 316L and of titanium. These materials are used in reconstructive surgery for prosthesis and osseous implants. The studies were carried out with the techniques of potentiostatic polarization and faraday impedance. The potentiostatic polarization reveals that the very well-known piezoelectricity of the HAp subsists after the coating processes (it captures thermal and spray-pyrolysis). Its also revealed a semiconductor behavior of the HAp that until now had not been reported. This characteristic is important, by its relationship with the stability of the HAp coating in front of corrosion processes in the alive tissues. The results of the impedance tests were mathematically analyzed starting from the Nyquist diagrams, of Bode and of power. The physical interpretation is presented under the form of equivalent circuits (CE). In the case of the HAp on a steel 316L substrate, the CE is a Rancles-Voigt module that corresponds to the behavior of a dielectric with flights. In the case of the titanium substrate an element of constant phase appears to high frequencies (CPE), in series with the Rancles-Voigt module. The CPE reveals the presence of a rectifier of the metal/SC-n type that only it could be located in the interface among the titanium and its natural oxide (TiO{sub 2}). The absence of the CPE in the case of the steel 316L substrate indicates that the natural oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) it doesn't form with the steel a Schottky diode, possibly because the chromite is as a SC-n degenerate. On the interface Ti/TiO{sub 2} exists results qualitatively identical by other researchers that have worked with the same impedance technique, but applied by humid via (EIS). The CE that have proposed are based on the anodic processes of accretion/dissolution of the film at low pH. This proposal is questioned by our results, obtained under non electrochemical conditions. In accordance with our interpretation, the answer in frequencies of the system Ti/TiO{sub 2}/HAp can separate in two well differentiated ranges: that of low frequency, where operates the CE Rancles-Voigt that contains the information on the HAp; and that of high frequency, where operates the CPE that contain the information on the union Ti/TiO{sub 2}. This spectral resolution is, in principle, very convenient. However, when it is sought to characterize the HAp and the study should be carried out at low frequencies, the necessity to obtain an acceptable statistics implies a great lost of time. This unfavorable circumstance cannot be obviated by means of the Kramers-Kronig transformations, clearly inapplicable in these systems. (Author)

  8. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  9. Energy security and the electric industry in Mexico; Seguridad energetica e industria electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias Ayub, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The availability of energy resources is such a major issue of the energy security. Can it be declared that with regard to such issue Mexico is a safe country? Nowadays, this country is facing up to a group of challenges, related to the energy supply, which cannot be passed over, besides, it is missing to ensure the technology investment and a responsible diversification. [Spanish] La disponibilidad de recursos energeticos es un aspecto sumamente importante de la seguridad energetica. Podemos afirmar que Mexico es en este sentido un pais seguro? Hoy dia enfrenta una serie de retos en materia de abastecimiento energetico que no pueden pasarse por alto: hace falta asegurar la inversion tecnologica y una diversificacion responsable.

  10. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes; Diagnostico del plasma por medio de sondas electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colunga S, S

    1991-04-15

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  11. The PBMR electric power generation plant; La planta de generacion de energia electrica PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: gabriela_perez@engineer.com

    2003-07-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  12. Evaluacion termica, mecanica y electrica de materiales compuestos cordierita-mullita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Camerucci

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available cordierite and mullite powders were used to obtain cordierite and cordierite-30wt% mullite materials by attrition milling, uniaxial pressing and sintering. Cordierite powders were the coarse (D50 = 1.82 mum, medium (D50 = 0.9 mum and fine (D50 = 0.45 mum single granulometric fractions and binary mixtures of them. Mullite powder employed in composites was the 7 h-attrition milled one (D50 = 1.3 mum. Hardness (H V and fracture toughness (K IC were measured by Vickers indentation techniques. Composites showed higher H V and K IC than cordierite matrices. In both materials, H V and K IC diminish with the increasing porosity. Dielectric constant (epsilon and losses (tan delta were determined at 1 MHz. An increase in epsilon and tan delta values was registered when mullite was present in composites with respect to cordierite material. Higher the porosity, epsilon was lower and tan delta increased. The thermal expansion coefficients (alpha were determined up to 1000 °C resulting the alpha of the composite close to that of the silicon.

  13. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation; Analisis del portafolio energetico para la generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  14. Electric power and environment in Mexico; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, J. [ed.] [UNAM IIE-PUE, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  15. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  16. Instalación electrica de un polideportivo integrando energías renovables

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdaba Salamanca, David

    2016-01-01

    El objeto del siguiente proyecto es definir la instalación eléctrica de un pabellón polideportivo y la descripción y justificación de la instalación solar fotovoltaica conectada a red instalada en la cubierta del polideportivo. Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica Grado en Ingeniería Eléctrica

  17. ¿Es compatible el compatibilismo con la existencia de correlaciones cuánticas del tipo EPR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Cañizares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El compatibilismo afirma que el libre albedrío es compatible con el determinismo. Para el «compatibilismo de las bifurcaciones» pertenece a la esencia de la libertad «poder actuar de otra manera», mientras que para el «compatibilismo de la fontalidad» resulta decisiva la ultimidad del agente como fuente de control. Ahora bien, dadas dos partículas con entrelazamiento EPR, la medición de una variable en una de ellas determina instantáneamente el valor de dicha variable en la otra. Experimentos recientes hacen finalmente insostenibles explicaciones basadas en variables ocultas locales: o la naturaleza está ónticamente indeterminada o bien está determinada de modo global. El primer caso es incompatible con los dos compatibilismos y el segundo es incompatible con el «poder actuar de otra manera». Además, implicaría la existencia de variables ocultas no locales como fuente última de determinación, con longitudes de correlación típicas mayores que las del cuerpo humano: la acción no podría originarse en su interior. El compatibilismo, por tanto, debe ser rechazado.

  18. Correlaciones cuánticas de uno y dos átomos interactuando con campos electromagnéticos /

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños Cervantes, Luis Octavio

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias (Física), presenta Luis Octavio Castaños Cervantes ; asesor Rocío Jáuregui Renaud. XI, 201 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias (Física) UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 2011

  19. Estudo correlacional entre a Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (EAP e o Inventário Fatorial de Personalidade (IFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a relação entre a Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (EAP e o Inventário Fatorial de Personalidade (IFP, a fim de obter evidências de validade de construto convergente-divergente. A amostra se compôs de 122 estudantes do Ensino Médio de uma escola particular do interior paulista, com idade variando entre 14 e 17 anos, sendo 44,3% do sexo masculino e 55,7% do feminino. Os principais resultados apresentaram correlações significativas de 0,18 a 0,46 entre as dimensões do EAP e os fatores do IFP, a saber, Ciências Exatas com o fator Persistência, Artes e Comunicação com os fatores Instracepção e Mudança, Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde com o fator Deferência, Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais com os fatores Intracepção e Afago, Atividade Burocrática com os fatores Dominância, Exibição e Persistência, Ciências Humanas e Sociais Aplicadas com os fatores Intracepção e Mudança, e Entretenimento com os fatores Mudança, Afiliação e Assistência.

  20. Alta correlacion en la deteccion de anticuerpos y antigenos de virus del dengue en muestras de suero y plasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirly Julieth Parra Alvarez; Carolina Coronel Ruiz; María Goretti Castilla Pérez; Myriam Lucia Velandia Romero; Jaime Eduardo Castellanos Parra

    2015-01-01

    ... samples which have been used in total blood tests haemogram. Objective. To assess the performance of four dengue ELISA tests in serum or plasma samples obtained from presumptive dengue cases. Methodology...

  1. Phyllodes tumor: clinical, radiological and pathological correlation in 50 cases; Tumor filodes: correlacion clinica, radiologica y anatomopatologica en 50 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higueras, A.; Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Cano, A. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To review the radiological features of the phyllodes tumor, correlating them with the clinical presentation, histological type and response to treatment. Fifty phyllodes tumors in 29 patients aged 16 to 59 years (mean: 41 years) were analyzed retrospectively. The series included 12 cases of recurrence, 1 of bilateral tumor and 6 of multiple tumor. Forty-five lesions were studied by mammography and 36 by ultrasound. Clinically guided fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed in 8 cases. The pathological diagnosis was obtained by means of surgical biopsy in every case (31 benign and 19 malignant). Twenty-four patients underwent postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up for a mean period of 32 months. Mammography revealed the presence of a nodule or mass in 42 cases, asymmetrical density in two and a generalized increase in density in one: Multifocal lesions were detected in six cases. The size varied widely, with masses measuring >5 cm showing a greater probability of malignancy (p<0.01). Calcifications were observed in 13% of the cases. Ultrasound revealed the presence of heterogeneous, hypoechoic nodules, with cystic areas in five tumors, all of which were malignant (p<0.01). Local recurrence was detected in 31% of the cases and bone metastases in one. The phyllodes tumor is an uncommon fibroepithelial tumor that has a potential for recurrence and distant metastasis. Mammographic and ultrasound features are similar to those of the fibroadenoma, a lesion with which it is occasionally associated. Multiple lesions are not infrequent and it can present with calcifications. The presence of cystic areas and a tumor size of >5 cm are the only radiological findings that are statistically associated with malignancy. The recurrence rate is greater in malignant tumors than in benign lesions, especially in patients treated by tumor resection. (Author) 28 refs.

  2. Depressão, ansiedade e psicopatia: um estudo correlacional com indivíduos privados de liberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Investigar se existe correlação entre sintomas depressivos, sintomas ansiosos e psicopatia em 25 prisioneiros de um município do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizados os Inventários de Depressão e Ansiedade Beck e a Escala Hare para psicopatia. As entrevistas foram realizadas nas dependências de uma instituição prisional de forma individual. Resultados Foi encontrada correlação estatisticamente significativa entre depressão e ansiedade, e o escore total de psicopatia não se correlacionou com ansiedade, somente com depressão. Por outro lado, o fator 2 da escala, referente ao aspecto comportamental do transtorno, apresentou correlação com ansiedade e depressão. Conclusão Embora alguns dados tenham sido concordantes com os da literatura, a pesquisa apresentou resultados não encontrados em estudos anteriores. Dessa forma, evidencia-se a necessidade de realizar novos estudos na área.

  3. Estudio descriptivo correlacional entre ira y personalidad, a la luz de la teoría de Hans Eysenck

    OpenAIRE

    Clemencia Montaña de Barragán; María Alexandra Acosta; Ruby Maritza Gerena

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una cuidadosa revisión teórica sobre el tema de la ira, su evaluación e intervención, relacionada muy directamente con la agresividad y teorías importantes de la personalidad, enfocándose principalmente a la teoría de H. Eysenck. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos, uno para medir ira (escala MAG de Ira) y otro para medir dimensiones de personalidad Extroversión Neuroticismo Psicoticismo (EPQ-J), a 200 niños de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas ...

  4. Correlational study between sorption and goo apparent organoclays; Estudo correlacional entre sorcao e viscosidade aparente em argilas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.L.; Silva, M.R.O.; Ferreira, H.S.; Brasileiro, C.T., E-mail: darciely_lin@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcusraffael@outlook.com, E-mail: hebersivini@gmail.com, E-mail: camilabrasileiro@globo.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The sorption of surfactants in bentonite clay can occur through the mechanism of adsorption and absorption, this being a very supple phenomenon according clay and surfactant utilized. Thus the more surfactant sorbed at the organoclay it becomes, and can be used in various applications, including in oil drilling fluid. This study aimed to correlate the sorption of surfactants with the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluids (oil base). In organophilization process was used Bentongel clay which had its concentration varied from 3.16 to 7.16% by weight of clay. It was used to organophilization an ionic surfactant Praepagem WB with 75% of active matter, where its concentration ranged from 127-181 mEq. After organophilizated the clays were filtered, dried in an oven for 48 hours and passed in ABNT sieve No. 200, to be so characterized. Sorption was calculated from mathematical equations. Non-aqueous fluids were prepared according to standard Petrobras (EP-1EP-00023A) for rheological testing. Correlating the sorption of surfactant, and the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluid, obtained satisfactory results where observed through the scatter plots there is a strong correlation between the variables sorption and apparent viscosity, it should also be noted that the viscosity is a variable which increases with an increase in sorption, confirming that the surfactant concentration influences the viscosity. (author)

  5. Formation of electrical islands conformed by a generator, a part from an electrical distributor and industrial plants; Formacion de islas electricas conformadas por un generador, parte de una distribuidora electrica y plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguero, J.L.; Beroqui, M.; Barbieri, B. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Instituto de Investigaciones Tecnologicas para Redes y Equipos Electricos

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe, through an example, the aspects of importance to be taken into consideration for a successful electric island formation in cases that have an important generation excess with respect to the demand, and in cases that result in a balanced condition.This paper is based on the accomplished investigations due to the need of a petrochemistry industry of increasing the reliability of its electric power provision.

  6. A electricidade na cidade de Évora : da Companhia eborense de Electricidade à União Electrica Portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cardoso de Matos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the production and distribution of electricity became a safer and more effective alternative for public and private illumination and for the supply of motive power. In this context, several entrepreneurial initiatives emerged which aimed at the production and distribution of electricity in different urban centres. In this text, one addresses the emergence and evolution of the Évora Electricity Company (Companhia Eborense de Electricidade, since its formation in the beginning of the 20th century until 1942, when the distribution of electricity to the city of Évora began to be secured by the Portuguese Electrical Union (União Eléctrica Portuguesa.

  7. ABWR, an option for the electric generation in Mexico; ABWR, una opcion para la generacion electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Xolocostli M, J.V. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: amgt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The A BWR reactor (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) it was developed in a project group among the Company TEPCO, (Tokyo Electric Power Company), Hitachi, Toshiba and General Electric. The A BWR is the first nuclear reactor of the type BWR third generation that entered in commercial operation in the 90 Th decade. One of those main characteristics of the A BWR are that the system of external recirculation has been eliminated, that is to say, the pumps and external recirculation pipes have been replaced by 10 internal recirculation pumps mounted in the inferior part of the pressure vessel, for that external recirculation systems neither the use of jet pumps are not needed. Another important characteristic of the A BWR is the simplification of the activation of the safety systems. The simplifications in the design of the A BWR and the use of new technologies have reduced the quantity of equipment and the time of construction compared with the previous designs of BWRs. The construction project for the A BWR consists of a period of construction from 48 to 54 months, measured since that the first concrete structure is placed until that it enters in commercial operation, in accordance with the documents liberated by G E. (Author)

  8. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    A description is presented of the different types of integrated gasifiers that at the moment are used in the synthesis gas production to be used, with different fuels in the generation of electricity in Combined Cycle. Three cases of application of integrated gasifiers are analyzed. The first it is the engine power upgrade of a Combined Cycle power plant to natural gas to burn fuel of bad quality in an integrated gasifier (CCGI). The second one examines the incorporation of a shift reactor in which the synthesis gas is transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} which are used to move the turbine to gas, adapted for pure hydrogen. Finally is studied the amount of other by-products that can be obtained from these co-generation cycles such as CO{sub 2} to be used in secondary recovery of oil wells, N{sub 2} to be used in the fertilizer industry or in the proper oil production and H{sub 2} to be used in the oil industry or the generation with fuel cells. All the cases are studied in quantitative form, making the balance of mass and energy of each one of them. In order to give more practical sense to the calculations, the engineering data of the Valladolid Power station of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken as base. This article provides a basic idea, but very practical, to estimate the fuel consumption of the different modes of arrangement of a CCGI power station, as well as the volumes of the different gases that can be produced and the modifications to the size of the equipment that is required. [Spanish] Se presenta una descripcion de los diferentes tipos de gasificadores integrados que actualmente se utilizan en la produccion de gas de sintesis para ser utilizados, con diferentes combustibles, en la generacion de electricidad con Ciclo Combinado. Se analizan tres casos de aplicacion de gasificadores integrados. El primero es la repotenciacion de una planta de Ciclo Combinado a gas natural para quemar combustible de mala calidad en un gasificador integrado (CCGI). El segundo, examina la incorporacion de un reactor shift en el cual el gas de sintesis se transforma en CO{sub 2} y H{sub 2} el cual se usa para mover la turbina a gas, adaptada para hidrogeno puro. Finalmente se estudia la cantidad de otros subproductos que se pueden obtener de estos ciclos de cogeneracion tales como CO{sub 2} para ser usado en recuperacion secundaria de pozos petroleros, N{sub 2} para ser usado en la industria de fertilizantes o en la propia produccion petrolera y H{sub 2} para ser usado en la industria petroquimica o en la generacion con celdas de combustible. Todos los casos son estudiados en forma cuantitativa, realizando los balances de masa y energia de cada uno de ellos. Para darle mas sentido practico a los calculos, se han tomado como base los datos tecnicos de la Central Valladolid de Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Este articulo proporciona una idea basica, pero muy practica, para estimar el consumo de combustible de los diferentes modos de arreglo de una central CCGI, asi como los volumenes de los diferentes gases que se pueden producir y las modificaciones al tamano de los equipos que se requieren.

  9. Electrical characterization of a laminar manganese oxide type birnessite; Caracterizacion electrica de un oxido de manganeso laminar tipo birnesita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, N. P.; Becerra, M. E.; Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohgiraldoo@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Carrera 27 No. 64-60, 170004 Manizales (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    This paper records the characterization of a manganese oxide synthesized by solid state routes which is analogous to natural mineral called birnessite. The analysis of X-ray diffraction and average oxidation state of manganese show that the material has a lamellar structure containing manganese in oxidation states (+4) and (+3). The results of electron microscopy along with surface area and pore size measurements reveal the presence of micro and meso pores in the material. Impedance spectroscopy suggests that high frequency electrical conduction occurs in the volume and on the border of the aggregates; in contrast, ionic conductivity at low frequencies was associated with potassium ions located in the interlaminar region. Ac conductivity values at low frequencies were 1.599 x 10{sup -6} Ω{sup -1} cm{sup -1} and 6.416 x 10{sup -5} Ω{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at high frequencies. These values are associated with an increased probability of electron jumping as frequency increases. These findings contribute to the understanding of electrical conduction processes and provides important information about its potential applications. As a result, this research will prove relevant in the field of batteries, super capacitors and heterogeneous catalysis, among others. (Author)

  10. Modelacion y Visualizacion Tridimensional Interactiva de Variables Electricas en Celdas de Electro-Obtencion con Electrodos Bipolares

    CERN Document Server

    Labraña, César Mena; Silva, Lautaro Salazar

    2010-01-01

    The use of floating bipolar electrodes in electrowinning cells of copper constitutes a nonconventional technology that promises economic and operational impacts. This paper presents a computational tool for the simulation and analysis of such electrochemical cells. A new model is developed for floating electrodes and a method of finite difference is used to obtain the threedimensional distribution of the potential and the field of current density inside the cell. The analysis of the results is based on a technique for the interactive visualization of three-dimensional vectorial fields as lines of flow.

  11. Consolidation of iron powder by electrical resistance sintering; Consolidacion de polvo de hierro mediante sinterizacion por resistencia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J. M.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Herrera, E. J.

    2003-07-01

    A particular kind of hot pressing, in which the powder mass, subjected to pressure, is simultaneously heated by passing through a high-intensity electrical current is described and analysed. Commercial iron powder was used for the experimental work. Special emphasis is given to the densification kinetics. A qualitative microscopic interpretation of densification rate is suggested, based on the hypothesis of partial formation and rapid solidification of liquid phase. This interpretation is supported by the evolution of global porosity and electrical resistance of specimens during the electrical sintering process. The microstructural characteristics of compacts consolidated in the conventional way (cold pressing and furnace sintering) and by electrical resistance sintering are compared. (Author) 18 refs.

  12. Auto generation plant of Artigas landfill (Bilbao, Spain); Planta de autogeneracion electrica del vertedero de Artigas (Bilbao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, N.; Dorronsoro, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    The disposition of MSW in the landfill generates a mixture of gases or {sup b}iogas{sup ,} its primary content is methane (50-60%) which has a very important energetic value, that can be very useful. In this sense, the present work point out the characteristics of the auto generation electrical plant of Artigas landfill, just like the results of the analytical study of the past two years. In this project which was partly funded by the UE, have participated Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Bilbao, EVE and CIEMAT. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Internal Arc: People safety in the electrical wiring; Arco interno: Seguridad de las personas ante instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchausti, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the internal arc phenomenon, an extremely fast, almost explosive and unattended process of transformation form an initial electric power to the generation of a pressure and heat wave inside the medium its produced its consequences for safety, current methods of limiting them and current regulations in general for equipment used in medium-voltage electrical distribution networks. Taking into account that this type of equipment is found thought the distribution network in both public buildings and unrestricted access areas, safety (of operators and the general public) must be taken into account in the design of equipment and installations to minimize the risk of internal arcs occurring. This is the gist of, for example, ITC 16 of the Spanish Regulation on Power Plants and transformer substations. In addition to the construction aspects specific to each device in which the manufacturer has to takes steps to minimize the risks of an internal arcs occurring. This is the gist of, for example, ITC 16 of the Spanish Regulation on Power Plants and transformer substations. In addition to the construction aspects specific to each device in which an internal arc occurring, it is understood to be vitally important that users, installers and designers of Medium Voltage installations are familiar with the installation conditions stated by the manufacturer and thus avoid risks. (Author) 14 refs.

  14. Hydraulic speed variators for electrical energy saving; Variadores de velocidad hidraulicos para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This paper shows the characteristics and applications of the hydraulic speed variators, where because of the conditions of the industrial processes it is necessary to vary the operation parameters, obtaining therefore an energy saving besides improving the control of these processes. In addition, the technical and economic evaluation is presented of a project of the Mazatlan Fossil Power Plant, in which it is intended to invest in the installation of a hydraulic speed variator connected to the forced draft fan of unit number three, which operates with an induction motor of 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), with a Voltage of 4,180 V at 1,180 rpm. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra las caracteristicas y aplicaciones de los variadores de velocidad hidraulicos, donde por las condiciones de los procesos industriales sea necesario variar los parametros de operacion, obteniendose asi un ahorro de energia ademas de mejorar el control de dichos procesos. Se presenta ademas la evaluacion tecnica y economica de un proyecto de la Planta Termoelectrica Mazatlan, en donde se pretende invertir en la instalacion de un variador de velocidad hidraulico acoplado al ventilador de tiro forzado de la unidad numero tres, el cual opera con un motor de induccion de 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), con un voltaje de 4,180 V y una velocidad de 1,180 rpm.

  15. RESONANCIA ELECTRICA EN EL RANGO THETA (8) EN NEURONAS DE LA CAPA II DEL NUCLEO CORTICAL ANTERIOR DE LA AMIGDALA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El complejo de la amígdala participa en procesar información sensorial relevante desde el punto de vista emocional. La información sensorial olfativa entra desde el bulbo olfatorio (OB) a este complejo a través de la corteza olfatoria, la cual incluye los núcleos corticales de la amígdala. En ratas las neuronas mitrales del OB y aquellas de la capa II del núcleo cortical anterior (ACo) y la corteza periamigdaloide división medial (P A Cm) presentan oscilaciones intrínsecas del potencial de...

  16. RESONANCIA ELECTRICA EN EL RANGO THETA (0) EN NEURONAS DE LA CAPA II DEL NUCLEO CORTICAL ANTERIOR DE LA AMIGDALA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El complejo de la amígdala participa en procesar información sensorial relevante desde el punto de vista emocional. La información sensorial olfativa entra desde el bulbo olfatorio (OB) a este complejo a través de la corteza olfatoria, la cual incluye los núcleos corticales de la amígdala. En ratas las neuronas mitrales del OB y aquellas de la capa II del núcleo cortical anterior (ACo) y la corteza periamigdaloide división medial (P A Cm) presentan oscilaciones intrínsecas del ...

  17. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results; El Mercado de Generacion Electrica en Espana: Estructura, Funcionamiento y Resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  18. Uso de agua en la purificacion de biodiesel: optimizacion mediante el control de propiedades electricas de efluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Romano, Silvia Daniela

    2012-01-01

    La producción sustentable de biodiesel requiere la optimización del consumo de agua. Este es un factor clave que debe tenerse en cuenta en la etapa de diseño y en la operación de las plantas. El impacto ambiental y la calidad del producto final dependen críticamente del correcto diseño del proceso de purificación y del control del mismo durante la producción. En plantas pequeñas y medianas el consumo de agua empleado respecto al volumen de biocombustible a purificar llega al 100% o 150%...

  19. Electric energy saving using natural illumination, in educational spaces; Ahorro de energia electrica utilizando iluminacion natural, en espacios educativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpuche, Maria G; Marincic, Irene; Ochoa, Jose M [Programa de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    In this article the natural illumination in a space pertaining to the building of Architecture of the University of Sonora, in the city of Hermosillo is analyzed, Located towards the Northeast facade. This same space is repeated in the South facade, and paradoxically the space has the same dimensions and the same luminance design. Also the simulation of natural illumination by means of the Ecotec program is realized, and the levels of natural illumination in educational spaces, corresponding to the facilities of the University of Sonora are analyzed, where most of the year there is a completely clear sky. [Spanish] En este articulo se analiza la iluminacion natural en un espacio correspondiente al edificio de Arquitectura de la Universidad de sonora, en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Ubicado hacia la fachada Noreste. Este mismo espacio se repite en la fachada Sur, y el espacio tienen las mismas dimensiones y paradojicamente, el mismo diseno luminico. Tambien se realiza la simulacion de iluminacion natural mediante el programa Ecotec, y se analizan los niveles de iluminacion natural en espacios educativos, correspondientes a las instalaciones de la Universidad de Sonora, donde la mayor parte del ano se cuenta con un cielo completamente despejado.

  20. New challenges to electrical interconnection systems in Central America; Nuevos retos que plantea la integracion electrica Centroamericana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Pinzon, Luz Amalia [IRHE, Panama (Panama)

    1996-07-01

    The electrical interconnection between Central America countries is a project of regional integration, whose purpose is to optimize the advantage of interconnecting of six electrical systems of their respective countries. This require the establishment of legal procedures to operate the high voltage transmission grid from Guatemala to Panama. The mid and long term planning of the interconnected electrical grid, is a new challenge for the electrical companies, considering that as up to now, they have been satisfying small markets. The possibility to use nuclear energy to satisfy a bigger market is now feasible and deserves to be considered since the beginning of the interconnection project. (author)

  1. DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DE GENERACION ELECTRICA CON PANELES FOTOVOLTAICOS BASADO EN UNA TOPOLOGIA MULTINIVEL PUENTE-H.

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA MENDEZ, ELENA ELIZABETH

    2008-01-01

    L A ENERGÍA solar fotovoltaica es una fuente de energía renovable donde, por medio de paneles fotovoltaicos, se convierte la luz solar en energía eléctrica. Actualmente es una energía costosa pero tiene un gran potencial debido al elevado precio de los co 91p.

  2. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello un adecuado aporte hacia la competitividad industrial, confort humano y proteccion del medio.

  3. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  4. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  5. Electrical energy measurement under free market schemes; Medicion de la energia electrica bajo esquemas de libre mercado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata Garcia, Juan A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Vidrio Lopez, Gilberto; Gomez Lopez, Jose M.; Mijarez Castro, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The energy markets deregulation brings new opportunities and challenges, for the companies of electricity as well as for the consumers. The transaction of electricity in an open market requires of well informed participants to analyze the market conditions, they need to know how much energy is consumed, in what time and in what point of the electrical circuits. The lack of a good measurement system is one of the main barriers that prevent the participants to benefit from the opportunities of an open market. In this article the more representative schemes of measurement of the state of art in schemes of free market are exposed, their technological capacities and technologies behind them. It is also mentioned the measurement facilities, control centers, energy quality and technological tendencies. [Spanish] La desregulacion de los mercados de energia trae nuevas oportunidades y retos, tanto para la companias de electricidad como para los consumidores. La compra-venta de electricidad en un mercado abierto requiere de participantes bien informados para analizar las condiciones del mercado, estos necesitan conocer cuanta energia se consume, en que tiempo y en que lugar de los circuitos electricos. La falta de un buen sistema de medicion es una de las principales barreras que impide a los participantes beneficiarse de las oportunidades de un mercado abierto. En este articulo se exponen los esquemas de medicion mas representativos del estado de la practica en esquemas de libre mercado, sus capacidades y tecnologias detras de ellos. Tambien se habla sobre las instalaciones de medicion centros de control, calidad de energia y tendencias tecnologicas.

  6. Estudio correlacional entre el talento académico y las características de personalidad en jóvenes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Puentes Carreño, Aura Matilde

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación establece la relación entre el talento académico y las características de personalidad, en jóvenes universitarios. Es un estudio cuantitativo, realizado con una muestra de 221 estudiantes, de la Universidad Javeriana, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala EDITA de Talento Académico de Alegría, Lay, Calderón y Cárdenas (2008), que fue revisada y adaptada para la investigación y el Cuestionario de Personalidad 16 PF de Cattell (1982). Los resultados muestran una relación directa,...

  7. ANÁLISIS CORRELACIONAL-PREDICTIVO DE LA INFLUENCIA DE LA ASISTENCIA A CLASE EN EL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO UNIVERSITARIO. ESTUDIO DE CASO EN UNA ASIGNATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Rodríguez Sabiote

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las universidades españolas, al igual que otras universidades europeas, se encuentran en la actualidad inmersas en un proceso de reforma encaminado hacia la Convergencia Europea que afecta a cuestiones tanto formales como docentes. En este nuevo escenario, la distribución del trabajo del alumno en horas presenciales, teóricas y prácticas, así como en horas no presenciales es uno de los nuevos cambios que se proponen. La presente investigación pretende analizar, a través de un análisis logarítmico lineal tipo logit, la influencia que tiene la asistencia del alumnado a las clases presenciales teóricas y prácticas de la asignatura Bases Metodológicas de la Investigación Educativa, asignatura de la Licenciatura de Pedagogía, en la superación de dicha asignatura. Los resultados muestran de forma significativa una clara relación entre dichas variables.

  8. CORRELACION ENTRE INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL Y RENDIMIENTO ACADEMICO EN LOS ALUMNOS DEL QUINTO GRADO DE EDUCACION SECUNDARIA DEL CONSORCIO DE COLEGIOS CATOLICOS DEL CUSCO - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ SÁNCHEZ, ELMER FREDY

    2007-01-01

    NIVELES DEL TEST DE INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO EN LAS ÁREAS DE MATEMÁTICA Y COMUNICACIÓN CORRELACIÓN ENTRE LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL Y EL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO EN LAS +REAS DE MATEMÁTICA Y COMUNICACIÓN DISCUSIÓN DE RESULTADOS INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL DEFINICIONES DE INTELIGENCIA TEORÍAS PSICOLÓGICAS DE LA INTELIGENCIA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL SEGÚN BARÓN DEFINICIÓN DE LOS FACTORES DE LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL EN LA EDUCACIÓN IN...

  9. A persona(lidade) do educador de infância e o desenvolvimento da criança: um estudo correlacional

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tomando como enfoque as competências desenvolvimentais da criança, debruçámo-nos sobre o modo como a personalidade dos Educadores de Infância as influenciam. Para consolidar a nossa problemática, utilizámos dois marcos conceptuais: o sócioconstrutivismo de Vygotsky e o humanismo de Rogers. Para deslindar a problemática em questão reflectimos sobre conceitos como: desenvolvimento humano, numa perspectiva filo e ontogenética, enfatizando o desenvolvimento da criança; educação, sobretudo Educaçã...

  10. Metacompreensão e inteligência: um estudo correlacional com estudantes do ensino fundamental Metacomprehension and intelligence: a correlate study with elementary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou buscar evidências de validade para a Escala de Metacompreensão (META-FII por meio da correlação com o WISC-III. Participaram 61 estudantes, 59,0% do gênero feminino, regularmente matriculadas em uma escola da rede pública de ensino de São Paulo. As idades dos participantes variaram de 10 a 13 anos (M = 11,79; DP = 1,13. A META-FII foi aplicada coletivamente em uma primeira sessão e o WISC-III em duas sessões posteriores, individualmente. Os resultados evidenciaram diferença significativa quanto ao gênero apenas para o QI compreensão verbal. Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre os QIs, verbal, compreensão verbal e total com a META-FII o que atribui a evidência de validade para a escala de metacompreensão.This study aimed to get validity evidences of Metacomprehension Scale (META-FII by WISC-III correlation test. The participants were 61 students, 59,0% were female that were at public elementary school in São Paulo state. The age variation was from 10 through 13 years old (M = 11,79; SD = 1,13. The META-FII scale was collectively administered in the first session and the WISC-III in two post sessions, individually. The results showed significant difference to genre only at verbal comprehension QI. Verbal, verbal comprehension and total QI were positive correlated with META-FII scale which give to the scale validity evidences.

  11. Experiências depressivas e mecanismos de defesa : estudo exploratório-correlacional na população idosa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Psicologia (Secção de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde - Núcleo de Psicologia Clínica Dinâmica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2012 O objetivo desta investigação é explorar a expressividade das dimensões e facetas de personalidade conceptualizadas por Sidney Blatt (Auto-criticismo; Dependência: Necessidade, Contato; Eficácia), a utilização de mecanismos de defesa segundo a organização de Andrews, Singh e Bond (1993) e a relação entre ambas, em adultos de i...

  12. Correlaciones anatomoclínicas en el paciente con traumatismo raquimedular y/o craneoencefálico: Importancia en enfermería.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Martín, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    [ES] Esta tesis se ha enfocado en la evolución a lo largo de diez años del manejo inicial (asistencia prehospitalaria por un Soporte Vital Avanzado -SVA-), del paciente con lesión cerebral traumática (LCT) y/o lesión medular traumática (LMT). Basados en todos los aspectos y comentarios que se desarrollan en los apartados de introducción y discusión, los objetivos y enfoque del presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral se realiza un análisis retrospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo de la Asistencia ...

  13. Correlacion clinica-patologica de corioamnionitis en pacientes que ingresan al servicio ginecologia en el año 2009 en el Hospital Universitario Clinica San Rafael

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tuvo como utilidad básica determinar cuál es la correlación del diagnóstico clínico con los criterios de Gibss y con el Gold estándar que es la patología en las paciente con corioamnionitis para así poder establecer si el diagnostico se realizó en forma adecuada y cuáles son los criterios más relevantes para su diagnóstico. Dicha investigación se realizó de la siguiente manera: 1. Se Identificaron las pacientes que ingresaron al servicio de urgencias...

  14. Correlacion de variables antropometricas como predictor de salud, en una poblacion de ni?os y adolescentes con sindrome de Down de Temuco, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio Cresp Barria; Felipe Caamaño Navarrete; Rodrigo Ojeda Nahuepcura; Claudia Machuca Barría; Ángela Carrasco Jiménez

    2014-01-01

      Background. The importance of investigating obesity has grown during recent years, especially regarding groups of people involving long-term special education needs, such as Downs syndrome. Objective...

  15. Creatividad, función ejecutiva y rendimiento académico: un estudio correlacional en educación secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo-Reina, Karol Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este Trabajo fin de Máster ha sido caracterizar la integración visomotora de un grupo de niños con TDAH; y determinar la relación entre TDAH y dificultades académicas. Para ello se seleccionó un grupo de niños con TDAH y un grupo control, se aplicó el Beery VMI y una encuesta. Resultados: se encontró que el desempeño del Beery VMI fué bajo y muy bajo en el grupo con TDAH; medio y alto en el grupo control. Se identificaron más niños con problemas académicos en ...

  16. Autoactualización gerencial, satisfacción laboral y productividad: un estudio correlacional en empresas del Bajío

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alberto Vargas Téllez

    2008-01-01

    Se estudia la relación entre el nivel de Autoactualización (madurez o desarrollo personal) de supervisores, gerentes o empresarios en dieciséis empresas (PYMES) de calzado de la ciudad de León, con los niveles de Satisfacción Laboral y la productividad. En general se aprecia que existe un nivel medio de satisfacción laboral en casi todas las empresas abordadas, así como perfiles del POI (Personal Orientation Inventory) con niveles abajo del promedio estándar de Autoactualización en los superv...

  17. CORRELACION ENTRE INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL Y RENDIMIENTO ACADEMICO EN LOS ALUMNOS DEL QUINTO GRADO DE EDUCACION SECUNDARIA DEL CONSORCIO DE COLEGIOS CATOLICOS DEL CUSCO - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ SÁNCHEZ, ELMER FREDY

    2007-01-01

    NIVELES DEL TEST DE INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO EN LAS ÁREAS DE MATEMÁTICA Y COMUNICACIÓN CORRELACIÓN ENTRE LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL Y EL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO EN LAS +REAS DE MATEMÁTICA Y COMUNICACIÓN DISCUSIÓN DE RESULTADOS INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL DEFINICIONES DE INTELIGENCIA TEORÍAS PSICOLÓGICAS DE LA INTELIGENCIA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL SEGÚN BARÓN DEFINICIÓN DE LOS FACTORES DE LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL EN LA EDUCACIÓN IN...

  18. Ansiedade, bruxismo e aprendizagem: uma análise correlacional em alunos da 7º série do Ensino Fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Dorivaldo

    2009-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar as correlações existentes entre a incidência de bruxismo, níveis de ansiedade-traço e níveis de ansiedade-estado em duas escolas com propostas pedagógicas em que, teoricamente, os processos de aprendizagem teriam características diferentes. Para a realização da presente análise, foram utilizados o teste de ansiedade Stai-Idate, a ficha clínica de bruxismo, entrevista com os orientadores das escolas pesquisadas e com os alunos da amostra. A discu...

  19. Correlaciones entre la curva de retención de humedad y propiedades físico-químicas de los suelos de La Habana

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge García Coronado; Hanoi Medina González

    2009-01-01

    El estudio lleva a cabo un análisis de correlación con la finalidad de identificar las variables más predictivas de la curva de retención de humedad en suelos de la provincia de la Habana. Para ello, se tuvieron en cuenta un total de 10 propiedades físicas y químicas y las curvas de retención de humedad, de un total de 116 puntos muestreados a dos profundidades en toda la región. Son obtenidas las componentes principales de la humedad gravimétrica en todo el rango de la curva, así como de la ...

  20. Estudio correlacional entre memoria declarativa y una prueba psicométrica en una muestra de adolescentes escolares de la ciudad de Bucaramanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Botelho de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Diversos estudios han demostrado que el alertamiento emocional potencia la memoria a largo plazo en adultos.Objetivo: El presente trabajo pretende contribuir al estudio de la memoria declarativa asociada con contenido emocional mediante la evaluación con una prueba auditivo-visual en adolescentes, su correlación con indicadores psicométricos de ansiedad derivados del Cuestionario de Autoevaluación Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo en Niños (STAIC y el desempeño académico de adolescentes.Metodología: Se estudió una muestra de 59 adolescentes escolares de Bucaramanga, hombres y mujeres, con edades entre los 12 y 15 años. Esta muestra se distribuyó en dos grupos: los adolescentes que obtuvieron un puntaje alto en el punto rasgo del STAIC y los que obtuvieron un puntaje bajo en la misma prueba. Cada uno de los grupos se distribuyó aleatoriamente en dos subgrupos donde los participantes observaron una misma serie de 11 diapositivas acompañadas por narraciones diferentes. Un subgrupo fue expuesto a una historia «emocionalmente neutra» y el otro subgrupo a una historia «de alertamiento emocional».Resultados: Dentro de los resultados más importantes se encontró que los sujetos que asistieron a la versión emocional de la prueba recordaron más elementos de la historia que los sujetos que asistieron a la historia neutra, evidenciando el efecto mnemónico inducido por «alertamiento emocional». No obstante este efecto no fue modificado por los niveles de ansiedad estado y rasgo evaluados con el STAIC.Conclusiones: Se encontró que las emociones más asociadas con la versión emocional de la prueba auditivo-visual fueron tristeza y miedo, mientras que la versión neutra estuvo más asociada con la emoción felicidad. Además, se pudo demostrar una correlación positiva significativa entre el desempeño académico y la potenciación mnemónica.

  1. Creatividad, función ejecutiva y rendimiento académico: un estudio correlacional en educación secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo-Reina, Karol Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este Trabajo fin de Máster ha sido caracterizar la integración visomotora de un grupo de niños con TDAH; y determinar la relación entre TDAH y dificultades académicas. Para ello se seleccionó un grupo de niños con TDAH y un grupo control, se aplicó el Beery VMI y una encuesta. Resultados: se encontró que el desempeño del Beery VMI fué bajo y muy bajo en el grupo con TDAH; medio y alto en el grupo control. Se identificaron más niños con problemas académicos en ...

  2. Estudo correlacional entre o Teste de Pfister e o Desenho da Figura Humana Correlational study between the Test of Pfister and the Human Figure Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo buscar as correlações existentes entre os indicadores emocionais e cognitivos das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister e do Desenho da Figura Humana, tanto no sistema DFH-Koppitz como no DFH-Sisto. As técnicas das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister (TPC e do Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH são instrumentos projetivos que permitem que se conheçam aspectos da personalidade de quem os executa. De acordo com a literatura, os dois métodos medem o mesmo construto, justificando o objetivo do presente estudo. Neste estudo, foram considerados os protocolos do TPC e do DFH de 118 meninos e meninas com idade entre 6 e 12 anos, estudantes do pré à sexta série e nível socioeconômico variado. Os testes foram aplicados em uma única sessão individual, com tempo livre. Utilizou-se o SPSS para estabelecer a relação entre os dois instrumentos. As análises empregadas possibilitaram verificar algumas relações entre os indicadores emocionais e cognitivos dos dois testes.The present study was aimed at seeking correlations between the emotional and cognitive indicators of the Colored Pyramids Test of Pfister (CPT and the Human Figure Drawing (HFD - both in the Koppitz's HFD and the Sisto's HFD systems. The techniques of Colored Pyramids Test (CPT of Pfister and Human Figure Drawing (HFD are projective instruments that permit to know aspects of the executor's personality. According to literature, the two methods measure the same constructo, justifying the objective of looking for correlations between them. The protocols of both CPT and HFD of 118 boys and girls aged between 6 and 12, students from elementary to sixth-grade classes and belonging to different social-economic levels, were considered at the present study. Tests were applied in a single individual session, with free time. The SPSS program was used in order to establish relation between both instruments. The analyses employed allowed to check some relations between emotional and cognitive indicators of both tests.

  3. Estudo correlacional entre o Teste de Pfister e o Desenho da Figura Humana Correlational study between the Test of Pfister and the Human Figure Drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso; Cláudio Garcia Capitão

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo buscar as correlações existentes entre os indicadores emocionais e cognitivos das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister e do Desenho da Figura Humana, tanto no sistema DFH-Koppitz como no DFH-Sisto. As técnicas das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister (TPC) e do Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH) são instrumentos projetivos que permitem que se conheçam aspectos da personalidade de quem os executa. De acordo com a literatura, os dois métodos medem o mesmo construto, justificando ...

  4. Correlation of the myocardial perfusion corrected by attenuation with the coronariography. Preliminary results; Correlacion de la perfusion miocardica corregida por atenuacion con la coronariografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, S.E.; Garcia O, R. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Centro Medico ABC, Campis Observatorio, IAP (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The attenuation that suffers the radiation in the soft tissues of the hinders the appropriate interpretation of the myocardial perfusion studies, for what have been implemented attenuation correction systems to reduce the attenuation for soft tissues and to provide myocardial perfusion images more accurate in the diagnosis of coronary illness. The objective was to evaluate the utility of an attenuation correction system (with source of Gadolinium 153) to minimize the devices that look like true defects of myocardial perfusion, caused by soft tissues (mammary tissue, thoracic wall, abdomen, left hemi diaphragm), and to compare those interpretations of the studies with the interpretations of the corresponding coronariographies. The method consists of 95 electronic files which were revised with the concept of heart catheterization, being identified 20 patients from the masculine sex to those that underwent coronariography among May 1999 and December 2002, and that they had study of myocardial perfusion in a maximum period of 3 months foresaw to the invasive procedure. (Author)

  5. Escala de dificultades percibidas para la conducción, hostilidad y extraversión: un análisis correlacional en conductores de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto colombiano son muy pocos los trabajos sobre factores asociados a la accidentalidad vial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar las características psicométricas de una escala para medir la dificultad en conducir (EDC en Bogotá respetando diversas normas de tránsito, y la relación entre esta escala y medidas de hostilidad, ira, extraversión e indicadores de malas prácticas de conducción (accidentes y multas. Un cuestionario que cubría estas variables fue aplicado a una muestra no aleatoria de conductores de bus, carros particulares y taxis de Bogotá (n=293. Los resultados arrojaron una alta fiabilidad interna de la EDC, una estructura factorial esencialmente mono- dimensional y relaciones entre un mayor puntaje en la EDC y más hostilidad, ira, accidentes y multas. La extroversión tuvo una influencia indirecta sobre el puntaje en la EDC.

  6. Habilidades sociais educativas, relacionamento conjugal e comportamento infantil na visão paterna: um estudo correlacional = Educational social skills, marital relationship and child behavior according to fathers: a correlational study = Habilidades sociales educativos de relación marital y la conducta de los niños en la perspectiva del padre: un estudio correlacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantinato, Aline Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A interação entre pais e filhos pode influenciar o comportamento das crianças, sendo necessário investigar especificamente quais os comportamentos parentais podem interferir no desenvolvimento infantil. Sendo assim, este estudo teve por objetivos: a descrever as habilidades sociais educativas paternas, o relacionamento conjugal e os comportamentos infantis segundo a avaliação dos pais (homens e (b relacionar as habilidades sociais educativas paternas, o relacionamento conjugal e os comportamentos infantis. Participaram 40 pais de crianças em idade pré-escolar que responderam ao Roteiro de Entrevista de Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais, Questionário de Relacionamento Conjugal e Questionário de Capacidades e Dificuldades. Os resultados apontaram para a relação entre o baixo repertório de habilidades sociais educativas com variáveis negativas do relacionamento conjugal e problemas de comportamento das crianças, assim como, quanto melhor as habilidades sociais educativas, melhor a avaliação da relação conjugal e melhor também o repertório comportamental infantil

  7. Relación microestructura resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos duros ricos en cromo y tungsteno aplicados por soldadura electrica (SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisys Margarita León Sevilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la microestructura y resistencia a la abrasión de recubrimientos duros depositados por soldadura sobre placas de acero estructural ASTM A36. Se utilizaron cinco electrodos comerciales, dos de bajo cromo, dos de alto cromo aplicados en una y dos capas y uno rico en tungsteno depositado en una capa La resistencia al desgaste fue evaluada en una máquina de rueda de caucho y arena seca construida según la norma ASTM G65-80. Como material abrasivo se utilizaron partículas de sílice con índice de finura AFS 50- 70. La caracterización de las microestructuras se realizó utilizando microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido. Los resultados mostraron que el parámetro de resistencia a la abrasión no está directamente relacionado con dureza del material pero sí con el tipo, tamaño, forma, composición química y distribución de los carburos presentes en la matriz del recubrimiento. La mejor resistencia a la abrasión se obtuvo en depósitos con microestructura compuesta por carburos primarios (del tipo M7C3 en recubrimientos ricos en Cr o del tipo MC, M6C en recubrimientos ricos en W en una matriz eutéctica.

  8. Optical and electrical properties of thin films of bismuth ferric oxide; Propiedades opticas y electricas de peliculas delgadas de oxido de bismuto ferrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona R, D.

    2014-07-01

    The bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) has caused great attention in recent years because of their multi ferric properties, making it very attractive for different technological applications. In this paper simultaneous ablation of two white (Bi and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was used in a reactive atmosphere (containing oxygen) to deposit thin films of BFO. The composition of the films is changed by controlling the plasma parameters such as the average kinetic energy of the ions (E p) and the plasma density (Np). The effects caused by excess of Bi and Fe in atomic structure and the optical and electrical properties of the films BiFeO{sub 3} in terms of plasma parameters were studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns of BFO samples with excess of bismuth above 2% at. They exhibited small changes in structure leading to improved levels of leakage currents compared to levels of the film with a stoichiometry close to BiFeO{sub 3} composition. These samples showed a secondary phase (Bi{sub 2}5FeO{sub 4}0 selenite type) that led to the increase in the values of band gap and resistivity as well as the improvement of the piezoelectric properties. On the other hand, the films with iron excess showed as secondary phase compounds of iron oxide (α - γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that caused increments in the conductivity and decrease in the values of band gap. The results are discussed in terms of the excesses of Bi and Fe which were correlated with the plasma parameters. (Author)

  9. Three-dimensional calculation of the electromagnetic fields produced by power transmission lines; Calculo tridimensional de los campos electromagneticos producidos por lineas electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Bisceglia, Mateo; Acosta, Eduardo O. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Lab. de Electrooptica]. E-mail: jcfernan@fi.uba.ar

    2001-07-01

    The used methods for calculation of produced electromagnetic fields by power transmission lines, assumes straight power transmission lines working in parallel to a plane soil. The influence of the associated curvature to its weight is depreciated, or it is introduced by means of a horizontal line of a intermediate height among the maximum and minimum heights of the power line. In this work it is compared the created values by horizontal and catenary lines. By means of investigations, it has been found a situation where for larger arrows there are great differences between the exact calculation and the approximation of horizontal line, and also the situation which shows that the better approximation is obtained by means of placing the horizontal line something above the minimum height.

  10. Potential large scale generation of electricity with wind energy in Mexico; Potencial de generacion electrica en gran escala con energia eolica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldera Munoz, Enrique

    1997-12-31

    The technology of wind-electric stations for the conversion of wind-power into electricity massively generated and interconnected to the National electric systems is nowadays a mature technology. By the end of 1995 the world had an installed capacity in operation of 5,000 MW and what had been planned for year 2000 was to complete an installed capacity in operation 13,800 MW, in accordance with a Riso National Laboratory of Denmark study of 1995. This document describes the current status of this technology in Mexico, as well as the historic evolution of the electric sector [Espanol] La tecnologia de centrales eoloelectricas para la conversion de energia eolica a electricidad, generada masivamente e interconectada a los sistemas electricos nacionales, es en la actualidad una tecnologia madura. A finales de 1995 en el mundo habia una capacidad instalada en operacion de 5,000 MW y lo que se habia planificado para el ano 2000 eran completar en operacion 13,800 MW, segun encuesta realizada por Riso National Laboratory de Dinamarca en 1995. Este documento describe el estado actual de esta tecnologia en Mexico, asi como la evolucion historica del sector electrico

  11. Management program of cables and electrical conductions in operating nuclear power plant; Programa de gestion de cables y conducciones electricas en C. N. en Operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pereira, J.

    2012-07-01

    The management of cables and electrical conductions of a nuclear power plant is an activity very important during making the original design and subsequent design modifications, by the cable volume and nuclear safety regulations. During the design and construction of the Nuclear Power Plants, the late XX century, this work was carried out using manual procedures. The introduction of new technology provides users the ability to create relational databases for data according to the needs. Also tools and IT programs develop for the management of these databases with more reliability and a major number of possibilities at the moment of handling the available information. This paper aims to expose advances and developments in this field and present the methodology and lessons learned.

  12. Renewable energies: A real option for the electrical generation in Mexico?; Energias renovables: opcion real para la generacion electrica en Mexico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The renewable energies offer additional benefits to the kilowatts (kW) and kilowatts-hour (kWh) that they produce, because they include the creation of new jobs, a cleaner mean of generation and power assurance, among others. In view of this, most of the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and several developing nations have established goals for the renewable energies in their power plans. Many of these countries also have fomented the local development of industries of renewable energy and are penetrating aggressively in this new technology market. [Spanish] Las energias renovables ofrecen beneficios adicionales a los kilowatts (kW) y kilowatts-hora (kWh) que producen, pues incluyen la creacion de nuevos empleos, un medio mas limpio de generacion y seguridad energetica, entre otros. En vista de ello, la mayoria de los paises de la Organizacion de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE) y varias naciones en desarrollo han establecido metas para las energias renovables en sus planes energeticos. Muchos de estos paises tambien han fomentado el desarrollo local de industrias de energia renovable y estan penetrando agresivamente en este nuevo mercado de la tecnologia.

  13. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales como los watthorimetros y los efectos que sufren los equipos de iluminacion debido a la presencia de armonicas tales como la disminucion del factor de potencia en balastros que son de alto factor de potencia y el incremento de la temperatura de operacion de balastros del tipo magnetico.

  14. What does and electric utility when it needs gas? The EU case; Que hace una empresa electrica cuando necesita gas? El caso de Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicochea Calderon, J. A.; Loredo Fernandez, E.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show the environmental reports content and form and the differences among them and their causes. For this, we will carry out a comparative analysis of the several firms environmental reports that are considered as advanced from a point of view of the environmental care. So, we can show a relation between real firms environmental development and their reports content and form and the relation between this issue and the environment where firms work. (Author)

  15. Design of a grounding network in electrical substations. Materials and formulas the most used; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas. Materiales y formulas mas utilizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull Martin, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as well as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presenta los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asimismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  16. 4th. technical meeting of distribution electric power and installations for the users; 4as jornadas tecnicas de redes electricas de distribucion e instalaciones de usuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The present report announces the 4th meeting on distribution of electric power and the facilities for the users. The meeting. Will be celebrate on October and it main objective is to exchange. The information of distribution of electric power. (Author)

  17. Fuzzy-logic-based supervisory controller for the management of energy in a hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas, J.; Caratozzolo, P.; Ortega, C.; Gonzalez, R.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and validates the use of a fuzzy-logic-based supervisory controller for the management of energy in a hybrid system. The general configuration of the hybrid system is presented as well as the operational objectives of the supervisory controller. The inputs and outputs of the controller are also presented along with the hierarchical structure employed in order to reduce the number of rules in the knowledge base. The results obtained are compared against those of a conventional controller. Simulations were carried out using Matlab. (Author)

  18. Optimal restoration strategies based on heuristic techniques for electrical distribution networks; Estrategias de restablecimiento optimas basadas en tecnicas heuristicas para redes de distribucion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Castrejon, J. A; Islas Perez, E; Espinosa Reza, A; Garcia Mendoza, R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mails: adrian.cruz@iie.org.mx; eislas@iie.org.mx; aer@iie.org.mx; rgarcia@iie.org.mx

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we present a proposed solution to the problem of finding alternatives to reset faults in radial distribution networks power systems. This solution uses a deterministic method based on the definition of heuristics and whose main objectives are to improve execution time and solution quality. This search is based on the alternate repetition of two stages: a stage that attempts to reset the unconnected areas and other areas trying ballasting overloaded. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una propuesta de solucion al problema de busqueda de alternativas de restablecimiento para fallas en redes de distribucion radiales en sistemas electricos de potencia. Esta solucion utiliza un metodo deterministico basado en la definicion de heuristicas y cuyos objetivos principales son: mejorar el tiempo de ejecucion y calidad de la solucion. Esta busqueda se basa en la repeticion alternada de dos etapas: una etapa que intenta restablecer las areas desconectadas y otra que intenta deslastrar las areas sobrecargadas.

  19. Project and construction of the electric grid Don Rodrigo-Pinar del Rey. Proyecto y construccion de la linea electrica Don Rodrigo-Pinar del Rey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig Soles, J.; Arevalo Camacho, J.

    1993-01-01

    The electric grid at 400 KV which links the substations of Don Rodrigo (Sevilla) and Pinar del Rey (Cadiz) was planned to improve the distribution to all the end-users of Cadiz province. This new grid reduces those disturbances produced by metallurgical industries at the zone. Operation was started in August 1993. (Author)

  20. Geothermal power production. Worldwide current status and perspectives; Energia electrica a partir de recursos geotermicos. Estado actual y perspectivas a nivel mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro-Camazon, C.

    2009-07-01

    Geothermal energy is used today in several countries for electrical power production. although technology used is well established, it represents only a small percentage of world electricity production due to the fact that only some of the scarce high temperature reservoirs existing in the world are used. Nowadays the development of new exploitation techniques will convert in limitless, in a humanity-needs scale, this renewable resource. Some studies foresee that geothermal power production will be a key stone in the supply of electricity worldwide in a few years. Today rapid growing of the number of geothermal installations in Germany is a clear example of what may happen in other countries in a near future. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  2. Modeling and control of an electric power generation hybrid system; Modelado y control de un sistema hibrido de generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Guzman, D; Aguilar Mejia, O; Tapia Olvera, R; Santiago Tepantlan, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Tulancingo, Huapalcalco, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: omar.aguilar@upt.edu.mx

    2013-03-15

    With growing concerns on energy subject, the development of renewable energy sources is becoming more attractive. This paper presents the output power control of a wind energy conversion system based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The currents from voltage source inverter are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal dqo frame using a decoupled feed-forward control. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory. [Spanish] Con la creciente preocupacion en materia de energia, el desarrollo de fuentes de energia renovables es cada vez mas atractivo. Este trabajo presenta la regulacion de la potencia de salida de un sistema de generacion eolica basado en un generador sincrono de imanes permanentes. Las corrientes de la fuente inversora de voltaje son controladas en un marco de referencia ortogonal dqo usando un compensador por retroalimentacion en adelanto. Las simulaciones realizadas en MATLAB / Simulink, demuestran que los controladores presentan un excelente desempeno en estado transitorio, asi como en estado estacionario.

  3. Development of Image Reconstruction Algorithms in electrical Capacitance Tomography; Desarrollo de algoritmos de reconstruccion de imagenes en tomografia de capacitancia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Barcala Riveira, J. M.

    2007-12-28

    The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) has not obtained a good development in order to be used at industrial level. That is due first to difficulties in the measurement of very little capacitances (in the range of femto farads) and second to the problem of reconstruction on- line of the images. This problem is due also to the small numbers of electrodes (maximum 16), that made the usual algorithms of reconstruction has many errors. In this work it is described a new purely geometrical method that could be used for this purpose. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. Regulation of electricity distribution in Spain. Principles and mechanisms for distribution; Regulacion de la distribucion de energia electrica en Espana. Principios y mecanismos de retribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez San Roman, T.

    2007-07-01

    First, a conceptual framework for electricity network regulation is presented. In the second part, this paper reviews the current situation of electricity distribution regulation in Spain highlighting its main shortcomings. Finally, some guidelines for the design of a new remuneration model for each distribution company are proposed. This new regulatory model will increase efficiency, promoting the required investment for improving quality of supply and reducing energy losses. This model is based on two new regulatory tools: regulatory accounting and network reference models. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  6. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  7. Nissan Mexicana. First place in national prize of electrical energy saving 1998; Nissan Mexicana. Primer lugar en premio nacional de ahorro de energia electrica 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez S, Enrique [Nissan Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., Planta Civac, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    For Plant CIVAC of Nissan Mexicana, the energy saving began in the year of 1990. From then, different programs have been developed using different strategies for energy saving until arriving at the Benchmarking with other Plants of Japan, which represents a new challenge, since it opened up an area of opportunity of saving in processes that generally were known in detail as far as to its main function (to make vehicles with quality, cost and opportunity of delivery), but the parameter of energy consumption of by unit and its benefits in relation to the cost was unknown. This was endorsed by the high Direction and began with the optimization of training for the operation of each equipment with the involvement of the user (Production), the engineering area (that establishes the process) and the maintenance area. We designed a general program where the basic activities were included, such as the general and special activities. Each one of them fulfilled its objective, but the special activities took us to the optimization of the processes, finding excess of energy in the design conditions. [Spanish] Para Planta CIVAC de Nissan Mexicana, el ahorro de energia se inicio en el ano de 1990. A partir de entonces se han desarrollado programas de ahorro de energia usando estrategias diferentes hasta llegar al Benchmarking con otras Plantas de Japon, el cual representa un reto nuevo, ya que puso al descubierto una area de oportunidad de ahorro en los procesos que por lo general se conocian a detalle en cuanto a la funcion principal (hacer vehiculos con calidad, costo y oportunidad de entrega), pero se desconocia el parametro de consumo de energia por unidad y sus beneficios en relacion con el costo. Esto fue avalado por la alta Direccion y se inicio con la capacitacion de la optimizacion de la operacion de cada equipo y se involucro al usuario (Produccion), al area de ingenieria (que establece el proceso) y al area de mantenimiento. Elaboramos un programa general donde se incluyeron las actividades basicas, como las generales y las actividades especiales. Cada una de ellas cumplio su objetivo, pero las actividades especiales nos llevaron a la optimizacion de los procesos, encontrando exceso de energia en las condiciones de diseno .

  8. Synthesis, characterization and electric evaluation of barium zirconate doped with trivalent lanthanides; Sintesis, caracterizacion y evaluacion electrica de circonatos de bario dopados con lantanidos trivalentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerena, O. A.; Carda, J. B.; Beltran, H.; Cordoncillo, E.; Valencia, J. S.

    2014-04-01

    Barium zirconate is an oxidic material having perovskite structure that exhibits high chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing environments, such as in the presence of water and carbon dioxide, its conductivity has led to consider it as a electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell finding good results, with the limitation of operating at temperatures above 800 degree centigrade. Several researchers have proposed that it is possible to improve their electrical conductivity by changes in chemical composition, particularly for doping with trivalent cations that replace the zirconium in B site of perovskite. In this study, barium zirconate was synthesized by the amorphous citrate method to examine the possibility of obtaining in more favorable conditions than those made by the conventional method of synthesis (ceramic method or solid state reaction) conditions are synthesized. Barium zirconate doped with europium, gadolinium, holmium, lanthanum, neodymium and praseodymium was prepared, the present phase identified cation was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the electrical properties were examined by impedance spectroscopy (IS) at temperatures between 480 and 680 degree centigrade in order to evaluate its potential use as a fuel cell electrolyte in solid oxide. The contributions of this research has focused on the synthesis method, in the production of ceramic powders of barium zirconate at temperatures lower than those required by the ceramic method, in obtaining chemical, structural, morphological and electrical information of material synthesized. The desired phase synthesis conditions set found, also, a significant increase is seen in the solid conductivity of doped lanthanum, holmium and europium zirconate of barium in relation to the material without doping. (Author)

  9. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R.; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  10. Fisiopatoligia de las tormentas electricas en el encefalo del paciente con una lesion cerebral aguda. Resultados preliminares de un estudio piloto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahuquillo, J; Sueiras, M; Garcia-Lopez, B;

    2011-01-01

    The phenomena of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD and CSD-like phenomena) are cellular depolarization waves involved in the progression of lesions in patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Which are detected by an electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording. Experimentally, CSD...... induces cerebral hypoxia and increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Objectives: To determine the frequency and duration of CSD episodes in patients with TBI and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) requiring craniectomy. Material and methods: 20 patients were included....... Conclusions: Episodes of CSD and CSD-like phenomena are frequently detected in patients with MMCAI and TBI....

  11. Sustainability of sources of electric generation: indicators and global qualification using fuzzy logic; Sustentabilidad de fuentes de generacion electrica: indicadores y calificacion global empleando logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx

    2005-07-01

    A methodology developed to evaluate the sustainability of sources of electric generation but used in Mexico and in the World is presented. For it was applied one matrix of sustainability indicators that considers the principles and criteria of general sustainability as 'not exhaustion of natural resources', 'non production of non degradable waste', and 'not high sensibility to social and environmental factors'. The approaches to evaluate in a wide way these principles are numerous and to each approach associates an indicator, call sustainability indicator. The contribution of this work consists on the development of a methodology to qualify globally the sustainability of each option of electric generation, combining all the sustainability indicators. The methodology applies a system of diffuse control to build the function of global qualification of sustainability dependent of all the indicators. (Author)

  12. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  13. Diseño para el control de un hogar inteligente mediante el uso del sistema domotico (x-10) por medio de la red electrica

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Hidalgo, Luis; Moreno Demera, Walter; Veliz Velastegui, Ninfa; Leyton, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo consiste en dar a conocer la domótica en el ecuador así como el diseño de un sistema domótico en un hogar mediante el uso de la tecnología X-10. Se comenzará con una breve reseña de lo que significa domótica, el significado de la palabra, los componentes de un sistema domótico. Luego se hablará de la Tecnología X-10, sus inicios, conceptos profundos sobre como funciona, su estructura, las diferentas aplicaciones que tiene y los equipos que se encuentran disponibles en ...

  14. La energía electrica, dentro de la estructura tecnológica de la industria antioqueña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López Alvarez

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una visión general de la estructura tecnológica de la industria antioqueña en su conjunto para el periodo 1975-1987. Para el análisis se supone una función de producción en dos niveles: en el primero se emplean como insumos el capital, el trabajo, los energéticos y otras materias primas; en el segundo, los energéticos son desagregados en electricidad y otros. Usando una función translogarítmica de costos para cada uno de los niveles, se llega, finalmente, a presentar estimaciones de las elasticidades precio directas y cruzadas que darían cuenta de las relaciones económicas entre los insumos. Examinando los resultados de las estimaciones se observa que las elasticidades directas son todas negativas, el capital y los insumos energéticos son sustitutivos, mientras que la única complementariedad se presenta entre el trabajo y los insumos energéticos.

  15. Utilization of sites of final disposition of municipal wastes for electrical power generation; Aprovechamiento de sitios de disposicion final de residuos municipales para generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Sanchez, Felipe; Sarmiento Bleicher, Conrado [Departamento del Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    Mexico confronts very comprehensive environmental problems, and the solid wastes and their control are not the minor of the preoccupations on the matter. The present work tries to demonstrate the usefulness or the economic advantages and the use of a sanitary land fill as a power source, outlining the necessity and convenience of planning and of designing the future sanitary land fills, specially those of the important urban centers, thinking of its usefulness beyond a confinement of the materials that lack use or commercial value. [Spanish] Mexico afronta una problematica ambiental muy amplia, y los residuos solidos y su control no son la menor de las preocupaciones al respecto. El presente trabajo trata de demostrar la utilidad o rentabilidad del aprovechamiento de un relleno sanitario como fuente energetica, perfilando la necesidad y conveniencia de planear y disenar los futuros rellenos sanitarios, especialmente los de los centros urbanos importantes, pensando en su utilidad mas alla de un confinamiento de los materiales que carecen de uso o valor comercial.

  16. The market of emission of CO{sub 2} and electric power industry; El comercio de derechos de emision de CO{sub 2} y las empresas electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moso, A.

    2005-07-01

    With the coming into force, the first of January 2005, of the Emissions Trading Scheme Directive, it has been launched in Europe a mechanism that can be considered as the most flexible and efficient, from the economic point of view, aiming to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Actually, by taking into account the CO{sub 2} cost, the emissions reduction is optimised, enhancing the utilisation of the most competitive technology, considering the environmental cost, and also providing the appropriate signals leading new power plant investments to the most environmentally friendly technologies. (Author)

  17. Characterization of the malignity of tumors in the central nervous system utilizing the correlation dimension analysis; Caracterizacion de la malignidad de tumores del sistema nervioso central utilizando analisis de dimension de correlacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, D.; Zambrano, C.; Martin L, M. [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Resonancia Magnetica. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, A.P. 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    In the present work it is proposed a method for the characterization of the irregularities present in the edges of malignant leisure of central nervous system over axial images generated through Nuclear magnetic Resonance by images. Through the use of techniques of digital images processing was possible to locate, extract and generate temporal series. These temporal series were utilized using the correlation dimension concept for producing a parameter which takes different values depending of the leisure type. It is demonstrated that this type of analysis suffers in a very acceptable form independently of the errors which can be generate by the fact that in the practice of temporal series obtained they are composed by a reduced number of points. (Author)

  18. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter; Correlacion de medidas de macrotextura tomadas con el metodo volumetrico y con diferentes texturometros lasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Análisis correlacional de las secuelas estructurales y funcionales que son ocasionadas por la respiración oral y que condicionan la deglución.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Vera, Tomasa Victoria

    2008-01-01

    L'objectiu principal de la investigació va ser estudiar els efectes ocasionats per un hàbit de respiració oral en les diferents estructures orofacials i analitzar la relació entre respiració oral i deglució atípica. Per a això, es van definir les estructures que poden sofrir alteració per la inspiració oral i que són objecte d'estudi. La selecció de la mostra es va realitzar a partir de la revisió de 762 històries clíniques dels pacients que van iniciar tractament en el Servei de Logopèdia de...

  20. Velocidade de marcha, equilíbrio e idade: um estudo correlacional entre idosas praticantes e idosas não praticantes de um programa de exercícios terapêuticos

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,SSE; Caldas,CP

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos anteriores têm mostrado que o processo de envelhecimento está associado a modificações no padrão da marcha e no equilíbrio. A análise destas funções motoras contribui para identificar situações de risco para quedas, evento que representa um grave problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Investigar a existência de correlação entre as variáveis: velocidade de marcha, equilíbrio corporal e idade de dois grupos de idosas praticantes e não praticantes de um programa de exercí...

  1. Estudio correlacional entre el capital social y la inserción social de la población desplazada residente en la ciudad de Barranquilla y municipios aledaños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesideth María De La Hoz Echeverría

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper establishes the relation between the social capital and social insertion of the displaced population. 73 displaced people, distributed as follows: 61 women and 12 men living in Barranquilla and surrounding municipalities. The information was processed in the SPSS Version 18. In order to establish the correlation between social capital and insertion, the Pearson correlation coefficient was applied. The social capital showed that the displaced people or refugees (61,6 % and other distrusting people (64,3 % have confidence in their relatives and people nearby in the way that they have supportive ties with the community to cooperate in the achievement of common targets actively (52,1 %. As a result, the social networks showed that the displaced people come to their relatives, friends and neighbors mainly to obtain help (82 %. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant interrelation between social capital and social insertion (r=0,299; p <0,05. In other words, a greatest social capital is the possibility of social insertion of the displaced population. Resumen En el presente artículo de investigación, se establece la correlación entre el capital social y la inserción social de la población desplazada. La muestra la conforman 73 desplazados distribuidos así: 61 mujeres y 12 hombres radicados en la ciudad de Barranquilla y municipios aledaños. Los datos se procesaron en el SPSS Versión 18. Para establecer la correlación, se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. El capital social reveló que las personas desplazadas desconfían de las demás personas (61,6 %, tienen confianza en los familiares y personas cercanas (64,3 % y mantienen vínculos con la comunidad para cooperar activamente en el logro de objetivos comunes (52,1 %. Las redes sociales arrojaron que los desplazados acuden principalmente a sus familiares, amigos y vecinos para obtener ayuda (82 %. El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson reflejó una correlación significativa entre el capital social y la inserción social (r=0,299; p <0,05, es decir, a mayor capital social, mayor es la posibilidad de inserción social de la población desplazada.

  2. "Avaliação neuropsicológica de componentes da linguagem e da memória de trabalho na infância: adaptação de tarefa discursiva e estudo correlacional"

    OpenAIRE

    Prando,Mirella Liberatore

    2011-01-01

    No âmbito da neuropsicologia cognitiva e do desenvolvimento infantil, a avaliação de funções cognitivas como a linguagem e a memória, e suas inter-relações, são de extrema relevância para a clínica e a pesquisa. Na medida em que as investigações sobre a interface entre componentes linguísticos e mnemônicos em crianças em desenvolvimento típico ainda são escassas, esta dissertação, por meio de dois estudos empíricos, visou a (1) apresentar o processo de adaptação de uma tarefa discursiva narra...

  3. Corrupción en la función pública: un estudio sobre correlaciones entre corrupción, calidad de la democracia, gobernanza, desigualdad de renta y desempleo en el mundo (2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Perez Bernardes de Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio cuantitativo de la corrupción ha crecido en las últimas décadas, abriendo caminos sin precedentes para la pesquisa social. En este trabajo, se hace una comparación transnacional sobre la percepción de corrupción en la función pública desde 2008 hasta 2012. Se trabaja con tres hipótesis: 1 la corrupción es más frecuente en países con menor calidad democrática; 2 todos los indicadores de gobernanza ejercen algún efecto sobre la corrupción; 3 la desigualdad es un importante predictor del nivel de corrupción, aún más que el desempleo. Para probar estas hipótesis se utilizan datos del Democracy Ranking of the Quality of Democracy, Corruption Perception Index, Worldwide Governance Indicators, datos del World Development Indicators y del Banco Mundial, datos estos que calculan el nivel global de desempleo y el índice Gini, que mide la desigualdad de consumo y renta. Los resultados muestran que las dos primeras hipótesis son adherentes, ya que hay alta correlación negativa entre corrupción en la función pública y cualidad de la democracia además de los seis indicadores de gobernanza. La tercera hipótesis muestra relativa adherencia pues, desigualdad de renta y desempleo están correlacionados con la corrupción en el funcionalismo público, sin embargo, la correlación tiene bajo valor de significancia, lo que indica que estos dos factores son apenas parte de un todo entre factores que componen el nivel de corrupción.

  4. Solid-Pseudo papillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas: CAT Study of Three Cases and Correlation with Anatomophatological Findings; Neoplasia solida seudopapilar pancreatica: estudio por TC de tres casos y correlacion con los hallazgos anatomopatologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, A. J.; Alegre, N.; Aguilar, R. [Hospital Clinico. Malaga (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The solid-pseudo papillary tumor (SPT) (1% of all pancreatic neoplasms) presents an epidemiological profile and a few radiological characteristics that, through unspecific, can be suggestive of its diagnosis. We present three cases of detected SPT, the first two occurring in women 20 and 38 years old, respectively: the third one occurs in a 72-years-old patient with epigastralgia. In two cases, the CT showed expansive lesions without signs of aggressivity, with capsular enhancement and internal heterogeneous areas. Some were of blood density, without internal septums, and with gross calcifications (in one lesion). The remaining case was not detected with CT. Pathological and tomographical aspects are related to lesion size. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Correlations during the day of diffuse solar radiation to the global solar radiation in Vigo (Spain); Correlaciones minutarias, horarias y diarias de la radiacion solar difusa a la radiacion solar global en Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Santos, J.

    2004-07-01

    In the Solar Energy Lab of the University of Vigo a weather station has been in operation since October 2001. Two Kipp and Zonen pyranometers, one of them with a shade ring, have been measuring global and diffuse solar radiation. From these data of the years 2002 and 2003, the diffuse-to-global minute, hourly and daily correlations are obtained and shown in graphs. These correlations are also plotted together with other correlations referred in the literature for comparison. The graphs show the effect of the clear-cloudy behaviour of the solar radiation for short periods of time, effect that is not seen for larger periods of time as daily periods. (Author)

  6. CORRELACION ENTRE EL CLIMA SOCIAL FAMILIAR Y LA FORMACION DE HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN ESTUDIANTES DEL 3ER. GRADO DEL NIVEL SECUNDARIO DE LA INSTITUCION EDUCATIVA SAN JUAN BAUTISTA DE LA SALLE, AREQUIPA, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    MARCO DE REFERENCIA SOBRE FAMILIA Y JUICIO MORAL FAMILIA COMO SISTEMA SOCIAL TIPOS DE FAMILIA PATRONES DE CRIANZA SOCIALIZACIÓN DEL ADOLESCENTE: EL PAPEL DE LA FAMILIA LA FAMILIA CON HIJOS ADOLESCENTES LA INTERACCIÓN FAMILIAR DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DE LOS ADOLESCENTES LA ADOLESCENCIA DESARROLLO COGNOSCITIVO EN LA ADOLESCENCIA CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL PENSAMIENTO DEL ADOLESCENTE CLIMA SOCIAL - FAMILIAR LA FAMILIA FAMILIA Y ESCUELA: SEMEJANZAS Y DIFERENCIAS SISTEMAS DE ACTIVIDADES SISTEMAS DE RELACION...

  7. Evaluation of radiosensitivity and correlation between physical and biological dosimetry in a case of vascular radiology; Valoracion de la radiosensibilidad y correlacion entre dosimetria biologica y fisica en un caso de radiologia vascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Sebastia, N.; Aparici, F.; Candela, C.; Soriano del Castillo, J. M.; Perez, J.; Gras, P.; Cervera, J.; Alonso, O.; Villaescusa, J. I.

    2013-07-01

    The threshold dose required to produce a deterministic effect or even differences in the degree of the effect produced vary between individuals due to idiopathic causes, at the age or underlying disease. According to this work based on the Society of Interventional Radiology and the Guidelines for patient radiation dose management greater than 60 minutes fluoroscopy time management it is an indirect indicator of a significant radiation dose. According to this guide, instructions post procedure in these cases included a follow-up of the patient. (Author)

  8. Práctica de ajedrez y transferencia cognitiva de funciones ejecutivas: un proyecto de investigación correlacional en jóvenes y adultos de la ciudad de La Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Fernando A.

    2013-01-01

    Las funciones ejecutivas (FE) abarcan una serie de procesos cognitivos entre los que se destacan la anticipación, la elección de objetivos, la planificación, la selección de la conducta, la autorregulación, el autocontrol y el uso de retroalimentación (Tirapu Ustárroz y col., 2008). Durante los últimos años, distintos investigadores han logrado delimitar dichos procesos especificando las capacidades que los componen (Díaz y col., 2012; Vidaurreta, 2011). Así, las FE estarían integradas por la...

  9. Satisfacción laboral del cuerpo académico de la Facultad de Cs. Económicas y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Un estudio descriptivo-correlacional de los resultados obtenidos

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol Cols, Lucas J.

    2014-01-01

    Estudios efectuados en el ámbito de las Universidades Nacionales devolvían un cuadro de situación caracterizado por la prevalencia de información interna, transaccional y cuantitativa, por la falta de información vinculada a otro tipo de variables consideradas más soft, como lo es la satisfacción en el empleo, y, por ende, su omisión a la hora de tomar decisiones que involucran el desarrollo de sus participantes y el diseño de políticas orientadas a la construcción de una organización vivible...

  10. Vulnerabilidade ao estresse no trabalho e percepção de suporte familiar em porteiros: um estudo correlacional Vulnerability to the stress at work and perception of family support in doormen: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Oliveira Alves Telles Nunes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar e correlacionar os níveis de vulnerabilidade ao estresse no trabalho e percepção de suporte familiar em trabalhadores porteiros. Participaram 100 porteiros de uma empresa prestadora de serviços de médio porte. Utilizou-se o questionário de caracterização, a Escala de Vulnerabilidade ao Estresse no Trabalho (EVENT e o Inventário de Percepção de Suporte Familiar (IPSF. A idade média dos participantes foi de 37,8 anos; trabalhavam na empresa, em torno de quatro anos e como porteiros, em média, há cinco anos. Os resultados mostraram uma pontuação média na medida de estresse geral da EVENT, sugerindo indicação de poucos estressores nesse grupo de porteiros. O IPSF também apresentou pontuação média, indicando que grande parte dos participantes possui percepção de bom suporte familiar. As análises mostraram correlações negativas fracas, porém estatisticamente significantes, entre a dimensão adaptação familiar do ipsf e as dimensões clima e funcionamento organizacional, pressão no trabalho e total da EVENT.This study had the objective of evaluating and correlating the levels of work stress vulnerability and family support perception in doormen workers. 100 doormen of a medium sized, service provider company took part. A characterization questionnaire, the Scale of Vulnerability to the Stress at Work (EVENT, and the Inventory of Perception of Family Support (IPSF were used. The age average of the participants was 37,8 years old, who worked in the company around four years, and as doormen, an average of five years. The results showed an average score that was obtained in measuring general stress of EVENT, suggesting that few stress factors were indicated on this doormen group. The IPSF also presented an average score, indicating that most of the participants have the perception of good family support. The analysis showed negative correlations between work stress vulnerability and family support, but statistically significant.

  11. Application of the electrical characterization to the study of the hydrated phases of the cement with coal bottom ash; Aplicacion de la caracterizacion electrica al estudio de las fases hidratadas de cemento con adicion de escorias de centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de; Alvaro, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of using Bottom and Fly Ash as partial replacement of cement in the hydration process. Through measurements of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X -ray diffraction (XRD), we analyze from the early stages to the hydration process to the end. Values of EIS, XRD and its relation, are used to determine transformation of hydrated phases, and for each of the substitutions, is indicated as modified the hydrated phase as a function of time and compared it with the reference material. It also proves the relevance of using EIS measures in real time, and as non destructive testing to characterize the hydration process of these materials. (Author)

  12. Replacement of electrical protection of generation (main generator, main transformer and auxiliary transformers) and new associated monitoring system; Sustitucion de portecciones electricas de generacion (genrador principal, transformador principal y transformadores auxiliares) y nuevo sistema de supervision asociado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archilla, J.

    2013-07-01

    The replacement of the electrical protection of generation is a technological quantum leap, since moving from an analog system (known by) (all, intuitive and visual) to a digital (integrates the hardware on a single computer, much more powerful and programmable). The keys to overcoming the challenge are know to manage the technological leap, the operational limitations of plant (keep operating the)preferred sources of energy) and make a good design (including a review independent of the configuration of the relays, taking into account the experience (operational available).

  13. Estimation of charges for services of transmission of electrical energy between regions of the national electrical system; Estimacion de cargos por servicios de transmision de energia electrica entre regiones del sistema electrico nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda Ruiz, Adrian; Flores Alba, Dora Elia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Escobar Lopez, Akihito [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In order to facilitate the answer of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) to the requests of services of transmission of authorized or potential licensees, this organism devised the construction of matrices of charges that allow in a fast and direct way for specific transactions, to know the charges in which different types of transmission services incur classified by transport levels and by tension levels in which the service is asked for. These tables could be published in the media that might be judged advisable, in order that the applicant licensees have access to a preliminary estimation of the charges for the required services, without the need of going, for one first estimation, directly to the CFE for their calculation. This article presents the results of the development of a calculation tool that allows estimating, in a fast and efficient way, charges for transmission services between regions of the national electrical system. [Spanish] Para facilitar la respuesta de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) a las solicitudes de servicios de transmision de permisionarios autorizados o potenciales, esta ideo la construccion de matrices de cargos que permitan de manera rapida y directa para transacciones especificas, conocer los cargos en que incurren diferentes tipos de servicios de transmision clasificados por niveles de transporte y por niveles de tension en los que se solicita el servicio. Dichas tablas podran ser publicadas en los medios que se juzguen convenientes, con el fin de que los permisionarios solicitantes tengan acceso a una estimacion preliminar de los cargos por los servicios requeridos, sin necesidad de acudir, para una primera estimacion, directamente a la CFE para su calculo. Este articulo presenta los resultados del desarrollo de una herramienta de calculo que permite estimar, de manera rapida y eficiente, matrices de cargos por servicios de transmision entre regiones del sistema electrico nacional.

  14. Electric characterization of grain boundaries in ionic conductors by impedance spectroscopy measurements in a bicrystal; Caracterizacion electrica de fronteras de grano en conductores ionicos mediante medidas de espectroscopia de impedancias en un bicristal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechero, M. A.; Rocci Riner Schmidt, M.; Diaz-Guillen, M.; Doaz-Guillen, M. R.; Dura, O.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; Santamaria, J.; Leon, C.

    2012-07-01

    Here we show impedance spectroscopy measurements on a bicrystal of the ionically conducting Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). By using micrometer sized electrodes it is possible to measure ionic transport perpendicular to a single grain boundary, and characterize its electrical properties. We are thus able to obtain the microscopic parameters that determine the charge distribution at the grain boundary and the ionic transport through it, as the potential energy barrier {delta}{phi} = 0.35{+-}0.01 V at 275 degree centigrade, and the space charge layer thickness {lambda} = 5{+-}1 A. These values are significantly different from those previously obtained in polycrystalline ceramic samples of the same material, and show much better agreement with the values predicted by the Mott-Schottky model for the charge distribution and ionic transport through the grain boundary. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Ecologic Generation on electricity during the transport and distribution of natural gas; Generacion ecologica de energia electrica en los procesos de transporte y de distribucion de gas natural canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    The pipeline transmission and distribution of natural gas is carried out at high pressure. However, the pressure has to be reduced to supply the natural gas to local networks. The decrease of the pressure take place in the so-called Regulating an Metering Gas Stations. Currently, it is possible to make use of this gas expansion process to generate electrical energy by means of Gas Expanders. These technologies do not consume chemically natural gas to generate electricity and, consequently do not producer air-pollutants such as CO. SO2, and NOx in comparison with the fuel driven combustion technologies. Environmentally, the Gas Expanders are clean energy devices and should be legally kept in mind as the renewable energies are considered. (Author)

  16. Evolution of electric power quality in the electricity distribution networks of Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area; La evolucion de la calidad de la energia en las redes de distribucion electrica de la zona metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnoni, Mario [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Grupo Energia y Ambiente. E-mail: mbrugno@aleph.fi.uba.ar

    1998-07-01

    The standards adopted for technical service quality in the Metropolitan Buenos Aires Concession Area and the results obtained in the application of the quality improvement during its first phase is analyzed. (author)

  17. The need of a systematic approach for developing training programs in electrical power plants; Necesidad de un enfoque sistematico para el desarrollo de planes de capacitacion de centrales generadoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendizabal, Jose L.; Blesa, Pedro [TECNATOM SA, Madrid (Spain); Saiz, Maria Carmen [Central Nuclear de Almaraz, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The work and tasks analysis process application based on the job position as a starting point for training plans design, gives accomplished answer to the first of the demands. The training, instrumentalized, in the job position tries to solve the second one. (author).

  18. Regional Analysis of Aids and Prices for Small-scale Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Spain; Analisis Regional de Precios y Ayudas para Sistemas fotovoltaicos de Pequena Escala Conectados a Red Electrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.; Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.

    2002-07-01

    Electricity production from small solar photovoltaic systems in Spain obtains a premium pnce of 0,36 Euros/kWh over the electricity market price or a fix price of 0.40 Euros/kWh. The development of these small systems, in Spain clearly demonstrates that the established prime is not sufficient in the majority of locations. On the other hand, the prime revision set up by the RD 2818/98. considering the profitability of the renewable installations, demand a regional analysis of small PV systems profitability necessary in Spain. The accomplished results permit to conclude that the amount of the current prime is by itself insufficient to make profitable the small grid-connected PV systems in anywhere of the national geography. To guarantee the profitability of these systems is should be necessary to place the fix price at around 0,93 Euros/k Wh. However, if the duplication of the current price obtained by these installations was considered, this could ensure the profitability of these small systems in at least the 77% of the land. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Models for power transformers monitoring in the intelligent electrical network: humidity and temperature of bubble generation; Modelos para el monitoreo de transformadores de potencia en la red electrica inteligente: humedad y temperatura de generacion de burbujas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Garcia, Roberto; Ponce Noyola, David; Guzman Lopez, Arali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Betancourt Ramirez, Enrique; Tamez Torres, Gerardo [PROLEC GE, (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the development of two experimental models in order to ensure reliable operation of power transformers under emergency overload conditions. The first model estimates the moisture distribution in the transformer windings, while the second model estimates the safe operating temperature and time before steam bubbles generation presents. Additionally, an electronic device was designed and built, using the models developed, in order to monitor in real time both parameters. This device allows a more reliable operation of the transmission network, considering the transformers condition. [Spanish] Este documento presenta el desarrollo de dos modelos experimentales para asegurar la operacion confiable de transformadores de potencia bajo condiciones de sobrecarga de emergencia. El primer modelo estima la temperatura de operacion segura y el tiempo antes de que ocurra la generacion de burbujas de vapor. Ademas, se diseno y construyo un dispositivo electronico, usando los modelos desarrollados, con el fin de monitorear en tiempo real ambos parametros. Este dispositivo permite una operacion mas confiable de la red de transmision, considerando la condicion de los transformadores.

  20. orrelacio?n de los me?todos California Mastitis Test (CMT), Conductividad Ele?ctrica (CE) y Conteo de Ce?lulas Soma?ticas (CCS) en el laboratorio de calidad de leche de la UPS

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cruz Gonza?lez, Eloy Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Actualmente, la mastitis bovina continu?a siendo una de las enfermedades ma?s costosas de la ganaderi?a lechera. Nuestro pai?s no esta? exento de esta grave enfermedad que no solo afecta la calidad de la leche sino que es la causa de pe?rdidas econo?micas por disminucio?n de la produccio?n, descarte y el riesgo de antibio?ticos en la leche, esto u?ltimo la convierte en un potencial riesgo para el consumidor.

  1. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  2. Implementation of portfolio theory to the analysis of electricity generation in Mexico; Implementacion de la teoria del portafolio para el analisis de la generacion de energia electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    As part of the activities of economic analysis to the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027 of Mexico has been developed a computational platform to support decision-making based on the risk and performance in obtaining the optimum combination of technologies involved in the electricity generation. To this end, they consider five technologies: combined cycle, thermal coal, nuclear, hydro and wind. Each technology has been analyzed independently based on the total cost of generation level (given in dl s/KWh or dl s/MWh), leaning on documents as the Poise 2012-2026 and COPAR 2013. Subsequently by portfolio theory proposed by Markowitz, that combination of technologies that provide a greater benefit in the electricity generation is determined. In this study we consider two base work areas on which the proposed portfolios are reflected. The conformation of work areas is derived from the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027, considering a scenario with fossil technologies (combined cycle, thermal coal and nuclear) and other, making greater emphasis on the use of renewable technologies (combined cycle, hydro and wind). Finally, four portfolios are presented, each one with different percentages of ownership of technology in electricity generation, verifying the risk and performance of each combination. Of the analyzed portfolios, one corresponds to the mix of technologies which are currently in the country. The remaining derive the percentage share of combined-cycle technology, by subtracting 10% of their contribution and distributing it in three ways: by increasing the 10% share of nuclear technology; increasing 10% contribution of thermal coal technology and finally, extending the 5% of the electricity generation of nuclear technology and 5% increase in the electricity generation by wind technology. (Author)

  3. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  4. Analysis of Methodologies for Identifying Exclusion Zones for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP); Analisis de Metodologias de Identificacion de Zonas de Exclusion para Estudios de Potencial de Energia Electrica Termosolar (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, P.; Ramirez, L.; Navarro, A. A.; Polo, J.; Zarza, E.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is the proposal of a valid and unique methodology to any territory of the potential for solar power generation, reducing subjectivity and enabling comparison of results from the examination of several existing methodologies for CSP, particularly those developed by the Institute for diversification and saving of Energy (IDAE), Greenpeace, National renewable energy laboratory (NREL) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Subsequently, we apply and compare the results obtained with those already installed CSP plants, giving an idea of the suitability of each methodology to locate plants in areas considered suitable. (Author)

  5. Internalization of externalities in the generation costs of electric power centrals of carbon, combined cycle and nuclear; Internalizacion de externalidades en los costos de generacion de centrales electricas de carbon, ciclo combinado y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, M.C. [Universidad Anahuac del Norte (Mexico); Palacios H, J.; Ramirez S, R.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5 Ocoyoacac 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgrivera@avantel.net

    2007-07-01

    The technologies of electric power generation that use fossil fuels, they incorporate in the Even Total Cost of Generation (CTNG) only the direct costs of generation (investment, fuel costs, operation costs and maintenance). nevertheless, the nuclear energy incorporates besides the direct costs, the externalities that causes to the human health and the environment. In this work the CTNG is calculated that incorporates the externalities, of a thermoelectric power station of coal, a plant of combined cycle and of four reactors of Generation III (ABWR, ACR, AP1000 and EPR). The obtained results show that the nuclear power station has smaller CTNG that the technologies that use fossil fuels. It is important to stand out that they are only considering the externalities of the stage of electricity generation, for what the mining phase and transport of the fuel toward the central are not considered in the present document. (Author)

  6. Conceptual design of a nucleo electric simulator with PBMR reactor based in Reduced order models; Diseno conceptual de un simulador de nucleo electrica con reactor PBMR basado en modelos de orden reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    This project has as purpose to know to depth the operation of a PBMR nucleo electric type (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor), which has a reactor of moderate graphite spheres and fuel of uranium dioxide cooled with Helium and Brayton thermodynamic cycle. The simulator seeks to describe the dynamics of the one process of energy generation in the nuclear fuel, the process of transport toward the coolant one and the conversion to mechanical energy in the turbo-generators as well as in the heat exchangers indispensable for the process. The dynamics of reload of the fuel elements it is not modeled in detail but their effects are represented in the parameters of the pattern. They are modeled also the turbo-compressors of the primary circuit of the work fluid. The control of the power of the nuclear reactor is modeled by means of reactivity functions specified in the simulation platform. The proposed mathematical models will be settled in the platform of simulation of Simulink-Mat Lab. The proposed control panels for this simulator can be designed and to implement using the box of tools of Simulink that facilitates this process. The work presents the mathematical models more important used for their future implementation in Simulink. (Author)

  7. 15 years of production of electric energy of the Laguna Verde power plant, its plans and future; 15 anos de produccion de energia electrica de la Central Laguna Verde, sus planes y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera C, A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: arr99999@cfe.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the year 2005 Laguna Verde power plant reaches 15 years of producing electric power in Mexico arriving to but of 100 million Megawatts-hour from their beginning of commercial activities. The Unit 1 that entered at July 29, 1990 and the Unit 2 at April 10, 1995, obtaining the Disposability Factors from their origin is: 84.63% in Unit 1 and 83.67% in Unit 2. The march of the X XI century gives big challenges of competition to the Laguna Verde Central, with the possible opening of the electric market to private investment, for their Goals and Objectives of a world class company, taking the evaluation system and qualification of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) that promotes the Excellence in the operation of the nuclear power stations in all their partners. This Association supports the development of programs that allow the monitoring of the behavior in Safety Culture, Human fulfilment, Equipment reliability, Industrial Safety, Planning, Programming and Control, Personalized Systematic Training, and the use of the Operational experience in the daily tasks. The present work tries to explain the system of evaluation/qualification of WANO, the definition of Goals and Objectives to reach the excellence and of the programs, it will present the Program of the Reliability of Equipment with its main actions the productivity. (Author)

  8. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  9. Importance of the lighting systems in commercial establishments and services and some criteria for electric energy saving; Importancia de los sistemas de iluminacion en comercios y servicios y algunos criterios para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala Pimentel, Alicia Isabel [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Among the projects executed by the Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), there are projects for apartment stores, self service stores, office buildings, schools and hospitals. As of now, we have executed 57 projects, from which in 47 of them the correction of the lighting system was a measure to apply. In this paper, we will show the corrective lighting measures that have been feasible to apply from the technical and economical stand point, the saving percentages that have been possible to attain and some additional considerations. [Espanol] Dentro de los proyectos realizados en la Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), se encuentran proyectos en almacenes departamentales, tiendas de autoservicio, edificios de oficinas, escuelas y hospitales. A la fecha contamos con 57 proyectos realizados, en los cuales en 47, la correccion del sistema de iluminacion fue una de las medidas a aplicar. En este trabajo mostraremos las acciones correctivas de iluminacion que han sido factibles de aplicar desde el punto de vista tecnico y economico, los porcentajes de ahorro que han sido posibles obtener y algunas consideraciones adicionales.

  10. Microstructure and electrical properties of bismuth and bismuth oxide deposited by magnetron sputtering UBM; Microestructura y propiedades electricas de bismuto y oxido de bismuto depositados por magnetron sputtering UBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otalora B, D. M.; Dussan, A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Materiales Nanoestructurados y sus Aplicaciones, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, 111321 Bogota (Colombia); Olaya F, J. J., E-mail: jjolayaf@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, 111321 Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, bismuth (Bi) and bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were prepared, at room temperature, by Sputtering Unbalanced Magnetron (UBM - Unbalance Magnetron) technique under glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and System for Measuring Physical Properties - PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System). Dark resistivity of the material was measured for a temperature range between 100 and 400 K. From the XRD measurements it was observed a polycrystalline character of the Bi associated to the presence of phases above the main peak, 2θ = 26.42 grades and a growth governed by a rhombohedral structure. Crystal parameters were obtained for both compounds, Bi and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. From the analysis of the spectra of the conductivity as a function of temperature, it was established that the transport mechanism that governs the region of high temperature (T>300 K) is thermally activated carriers. From conductivity measurements the activation energies were obtained of 0.0094 eV and 0.015 eV for Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi, respectively. (Author)

  11. Conditions of a new development of the nuclear energy: the new imperatives of the electric competition; Condiciones de un nuevo desarrollo de la energia nuclear: los nuevos imperativos de la competencia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this work firstly, it is present a panorama that it makes mention to the energy and environmental aspects of long term for which the reactivation of the nuclear sector could be one of the main answers in the electric industry. Next, we will determine the specific imperatives that weigh on the nuclear investment in a market environment. Later on we will examine the way in that the general problem of the investments in the liberalized electric industries takes progressively to abandon the competitive pattern of reference in diverse countries, that which allows to establish a field most favorable for the nuclear investment. Finally, we will analyze the viability of the public areas that the states could apply to create a specific mark dedicated to organize the nuclear investments in the electric industries where the competition continued being very strong. (Author)

  12. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy; Riesgos economicos de la expansion de la capacidad de generacion de energia electrica: impacto de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva G, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  13. Fussy control for the operation of an electric energy generation system based in type PEM fuel cells; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Roman, Miguel

    2004-10-15

    In this work, the design of a control system with fuzzy PID controllers is reported. It combines the techniques of multimode control and gain scheduling as well as the design of a compensator that will reduce the interaction effects among control loops in a multivariable system. The simulated system is based on a non-lineal mathematical model. Its validity range supports up to 1440 watts, for a nominal design of 1 KW power. To carry out the fuzzy PID Controller's design, firstly the PID conventional controllers were designed for three operating points of power demand: 0 W, 500 W and 1000 W. The methodology adopted for the determination of the conventional PID controller's parameters was poles cancellation. This methodology demanded the lineal identification of the process for the three mentioned operating points: low, medium and high power. With the information obtained from the adjusted conventional controllers in the three operating points, the design of fuzzy PID controllers based on the TSK system was achieved. For this work, this method is equivalent to the technique of gain scheduling since only conventional PID controllers with the same structure are used. In addition, a control scheme using a compensator that had the function of reducing the interaction effects among the control loops was designed. The compensator was located between the controller and the plant and only introduces compensation factors among control signals, maintaining the direct path of the control loop in the original control scheme. Several tests of the whole operating range, in order to make a performance analysis of both the conventional PID controller and the fuzzy PID controller were carried out, introducing step form signals in the power demand. The performance of the generation system was validated as a function of an error based index minimization as well as on the actuator control signal shape. The dynamic coupling degree among the control loops was analyzed, as well as static interaction compensators with the most common methods found in the bibliography: ideal, simplified and inverse were designed. Simulation tests for the analysis of the compensator with reference changes for anode pressure, cathode pressure changes as well as for cell temperature carried out. Also, a fuzzy compensator to carry out the analysis in the whole operation range were designed. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reporta el diseno de un sistema de control integrado por controladores PID difusos, que conjunta las tecnicas de control multimodo y de ganancias programadas, y el diseno de un compensador que reduce los efectos de interaccion entre los lazos de control del sistema multivariable. El modelo matematico que se simulo en este trabajo de tesis tiene la caracteristica de ser un modelo no lineal. Su rango de validez abarca hasta 1440 watts, para un diseno nominal de 1 KW de potencia. Para llevar a cabo el diseno del Controlador PID difuso, primero se disenaron controladores PID convencionales en tres puntos de operacion de demanda de potencia: 0 W, 500 W y 1000 W. La metodologia de ajuste empleada para la determinacion de las ganancias del control PID convencional fue la de cancelacion de polos. Esta metodologia requirio de la identificacion lineal del proceso en los tres puntos de operacion mencionados: baja, media y alta potencia. Con la informacion obtenida de los controladores convencionales ajustados en los tres puntos de operacion, fue posible el diseno de controladores PID difusos basados en el sistema TSK. Para este trabajo de tesis el metodo es solo equivalente a la tecnica de ganancias programadas ya que solo se usan controladores PID convencionales con la misma estructura. Se diseno tambien un esquema de control con un compensador el cual tiene como funcion el reducir los efectos de interaccion entre los lazos de control. Dicho compensador se localizo entre el controlador y la planta y solamente introduce factores de compensacion entre las senales de control conservando la via directa del lazo de control del esquema de control original. Se realizaron pruebas en todo el rango de operacion, para el analisis del desempeno del controlador PID convencional y el controlador PID difuso, introduciendo senales en forma de escalon en la demanda de potencia. Se valido el desempeno del sistema de generacion en funcion de la minimizacion de un indice de error y de la forma suave de la senal de control hacia los actuadores. Se analizo el grado de acoplamiento dinamico entre los lazos de control y se disenaron compensadores de interaccion estaticos con los metodos mas comunes encontrados en la bibliografia: ideal, simplificado e inverso. Se realizaron pruebas para el analisis del compensador ante cambios en la referencia para la presion del anodo, presion del catodo y temperatura de la celda, se diseno tambien un compensador difuso para llevar a cabo el analisis en todo el rango de operacion.

  14. Equivalence between electrical measurements and X ray diffraction in the formation of crystalline phases of cement paste; Equivalencia entre medidas electricas y difraccion de rayos X en la formacion de fases cristalinas de pastas de cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a comparative study of the hydration process in a very early age, first 20 hours, between a conventional cement paste and its equivalent with a replacement of slag of about 12%, is done. The study was undertaken through semiadibatic calorimetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It shows that using electrical impedance spectroscopy we can determine the state of crystallization of the cement with and without additions, thereby determining the time at which the different processes are initiated in the hydration. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Electric and microstructural characterization of densified ceramics of BaTiO3 obtained by pechini; Caracterizacion electrica y microestructural de ceramicas densificadas de BaTiO3 obtenido por pechini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Rivera, E.; Rodriguez-Paez, J.E.

    2010-07-01

    The barium titanate BaTiO3 is a material of great technological interest due to their dielectric properties. The functionality of this mixed oxide is mainly determined by its structure. Different synthesis methods have been used to improve the electrical response of BaTiO3. In this work BaTiO3 powders were synthesized using the polymeric precursor method, Pechini, obtaining the compound at 650 C, with uniform nanometric particle size ({approx}20nm). The nature of the synthesized powders was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that the crystalline phase present in the sample treated at 650 C is cubic and at 1100 C is tetragonal, with a relation c/a . 1.007. The samples sinterized at 1100 C showed a ferroelectric-paraelectric transition at a temperature of T . 123 C. The ceramic powders of barium titanate tetragonal, pressed and densified, was electrical characterizing with curves current-voltage (I-V) at different temperatures. Additionally, we measured the change in electrical resistance versus temperature (R-T) and we tested the behavior thermistor (PTCR) of the material for different pressures. Also the electric response of the material with the variation of the frequency, for different temperatures, was measured. (Author).

  16. Proposal for the utilization of neural networks for the forecast of the electric power demand in a distribution system; Propuesta de utilizacion de las redes neuronales para la prediccion de la demanda electrica en un sistema de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Pedro O.; Aguero, Carlos A.; Ferreyra, Ruben; Passoni, Lucia Isabel; Clara, Fernando [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1997-12-31

    In this work, the first advances of the investigation project are presented that is developed in the University. The main objective of this project is the recognition of patterns and the definition of models of prediction of the energy demand through the neural networks. Achieved these technical indicators will be possible to analyze, in more complete form, the evolution of a system of electric of distribution. The neural networks is technical not parametric that have demonstrated their aptitude so much in the recognition of patterns as in the recognition of patterns as in the prediction of parameters, in diverse areas. At the moment its use in the field of the energy planning, is still a beginner topic. (author) 12 refs., 5 figs.;poprado at fi.mdp.edu.ar; lpassoni at fi.mdp.edu.ar

  17. An application of neural network in geophysical prospecting. Electrical resistivity at Las Virgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Una aplicacion de las redes neuronales a la prospeccion geofisica. Resistividad electrica en las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma Guzman, Sergio Hugo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The technology of the neural network is presented with geophysical focus in the Las Virgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The results obtained when extrapolating the associative data of the prospecting magnetoteluria and Vertical Electric Sounding, on the area of the geothermal wells to the rest of the area, allows to classify zones of interest for the geothermal exploitation. Also, the use of these associative parameters with the information of the stabilized temperature of the wells, they allow to predict temperatures for the rest of the area. [Spanish] Se presenta una aplicacion de la tecnologia de las redes neuronales con enfoque geofisico en el campo geotermico de Las Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Los resultados obtenidos al extrapolar los datos asociativos de las prospecciones geoelectricas de magnetoteluria y sondeos electricos verticales, en la zona de los pozos geotermicos al resto del area, permiten clasificar zonas de interes para la explotacion geotermica. Tambien, la utilizacion de estos parametros asociativos con la informacion de la temperatura estabilizada de los pozos, permiten predecir temperaturas para la misma area.

  18. SISTEMA DE INFORMACION PARA LA GESTION Y MANEJO DE LOS PROCESOS DE INSPECCION DE REDES DE DISTRIBUCION ELECTRICA DE BAJA, MEDIA Y ALTA TENSION DE LA EMPRESA DEL PACIFICO EPSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO VALENCIA

    2009-01-01

    gestión funcional de las inspecciones de redes realizadas a las redes de distribución eléctricas de la empresa generadora y distribuidora de energía del Pacífico (EPSA. Este trabajo fue realizado en el marco de un proyecto universidad - empresa entre la Universidad de Valle y la empresa de energía del Pacífico (EPSA. Se presenta una descripción del sistema de gestión, su funcionamiento y la importancia que el sistema de gestión tiene para la empresa estudiada. También se aborda la descripción funcional de las entidades afectadas en el desarrollo y la metodología empleada en su implementación. Se presentan resultados experimentales enfocándose en comparaciones de desempeño.

  19. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Commercial exploitation in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico, started in 1982 when the first five backpressure-power units of 5-MW each were commissioned. Nowadays the installed capacity is 188 MW from 14 units: five in the South Zone fed by steam produced from 18 production wells plus two binary-cycle power units fed by residual brines; and seven in the North Zone with steam supplied by 22 production wells. There are seven backpressure-power units with high specific consumption [between 14.5 and 13.6 tons per hour of steam (t/h) per MW]. Three operate in the South Zone and four in the North Zone. This paper shows a way to achieve more efficient use of the geothermal resource by replacing the seven backpressure units, which have completed their useful lifetime-or are close to do it-with two, new condensing power units with lower specific consumption: one unit of 50 MW to be located in the North Zone and the other of 25 MW to be placed in the South Zone. No new wells need be drilled. In this way, the average specific consumption would be reduced to 8.8-7.2 t/h per MW (saving 47% of the steam), the income for electric generation would be increased and the steam-extraction rate would remain the same. [Spanish] En 1982 empezo la explotacion comercial del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, con la instalacion y puesta en servicio de las primeras cinco unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion de 5 MW cada una. Actualmente la capacidad instalada es de 188 MW, con catorce unidades: cinco en la zona sur, alimentadas por el vapor de 18 pozos productores, mas dos unidades de ciclo binario que utilizan salmuera residual, y siete unidades en la zona norte, alimentadas por 22 pozos. Hay siete unidades a contrapresion con un consumo especifico elevado [entre 14.5 y 13.6 toneladas por hora (t/h) de vapor por MW], tres de las cuales se localizan en la zona sur y cuatro en la zona norte. En este documento se presenta un proyecto para hacer mas eficiente el aprovechamiento del recurso geotermico, que consiste en la sustitucion de esas siete unidades a contrapresion, que ademas de su consumo especifico elevado ya han cumplido o estan proximas a cumplir sus periodos de vida util, por dos nuevas unidades a condensacion, de menor consumo especifico: una de 50 MW, ubicada en la zona norte, y otra de 25 MW en la zona sur, sin necesidad de perforar nuevos pozos para empezar su operacion. De esta manera el consumo especifico se reduciria a entre 8.8 y 7.2 t/h por MW (un ahorro del 47%), incrementando los ingresos por generacion de energia sin requerir aumentos en la extraccion de masa del yacimiento.

  20. Diagnosis of the local thermal equilibrium by optical emission spectroscopy in the evolution of electric discharge; Diagnostico del equilibrio termico local por espectroscopia optica de emision en la evolucion de una descarga electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J.; Pacheco P, M.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velazquez P, S. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, Metepec 52140, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work applies the technique of optical emission spectroscopy to diagnose the temperature of the species generated in plasma in the transition to glow discharge arc. Whit this diagnosis is possible to determine the local thermal equilibrium conditions of the discharge. (Author)

  1. Methodology for attainment of magnetic field maximum values near the power distribution lines; Metodologia para la obtencion de valores maximos de campo magnetico en la proximidad de lineas electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Fabiana [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria]. E-mail: fferreir@fi.uba.ar

    2001-07-01

    The magnetic field which a person near the high voltage line is submitted depends on certain physical magnitudes and also on various elements present in the surrounding as well. Therefore, it is necessary to develop calculation methods to the fast evaluation of the presence of those elements. For certain reference conditions it is possible to calculate the exact value of the magnetic field. Affecting this reference value by a factor for each of the conditions the maximum value of the field is obtained. The paper proposes formulas for some of these factors and studies the viability of obtaining by numerical and/or statistical methods.

  2. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-04

    Sevillana de Electricidad 11.3 Union Electrica-Fenosa 16.7 Iberduero Asco 1 60 FECSA 40 Endesa-Enher Cofrentes 100 Hidroelectrica Espanola Asco 2... Electricidad Lemoniz 1 and 2 100 Iberduero Trillo 2 80 Endesa-Enher 20 Union Electrica-Fenosa JPRS-WER-88-056 4 October 1988 45 ECONOMIC Cost of

  3. Magnetic Resonance Image Wavelet Enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, UAM Iztapalapa, Mexico−DF, 09340, Mexico email:arog@xanum.uam.mx. Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics...Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, UAM Iztapalapa, Mexico-DF

  4. Images generated by ultra-sound; Imagenes generadas por ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez, Valery Francisco; Marcial, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    inspeccion requirio del analisis de imagenes ultrasonicas de las soldaduras de dos muestras de bastones; dichas imagenes se generaron mediante un barrido ultrasonico tipo C (C-scan) usando un sistema integrado en el Laboratorio de Pruebas no Destructivas de la Unidad de Sistemas de Combustion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). El analisis permitio establecer la configuracion adecuada del equipo a utilizar en la inspeccion en sitio, los procedimientos de calibracion del mismo y los criterios de aceptacion/rechazo de las soldaduras a inspeccionar. Asimismo, se presenta una correlacion entre los valores de los coeficientes de reflexion ultrasonicos medidos en las soldaduras y los valores teoricos para la adherencia en la interfaz solido-solido predichos por un modelo simple de interfaz imperfecta. Estos resultados son un primer paso en la caracterizacion cuantitativa de uniones solido-solido, que aunado a futuros desarrollos tendria un impacto tecnologico inmediato en la determinacion del estado de soldaduras por friccion, soldaduras con aporte de metal fundido y grado de adherencia de recubrimientos sobre estructuras expuestas a condiciones que inducen corrosion.

  5. Mathematical modeling of the hydrogen evolution reaction using HClO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as electrolytes; Modelacion matematica de la reaccion de evolucion del hidrogeno utilizando HClO{sub 4} y H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} como electrolitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Chavez, Laura; Herrera Peraza, Eduardo; Alonso Nunez, Gabriel [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Manzanarez Papayanopoulos, Luisa [PROFEPA, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Verde Gomez, Ysmael [Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun, Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Keer Rendon, Arturo [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    tecnologia, se ha visto limitada por factores tales como el elevado costo de los distintos componentes que conforman una celda de combustible. Por ejemplo, el platino empleado por excelencia como el mejor catalizador para llevar a cabo la reaccion quimica entre hidrogeno y oxigeno, responsable de la produccion de energia electrica. En la busqueda de la optimizacion o sustitucion del platino, es importante contar con una metodologia que permita realizar un diagnostico in situ del estado de dicho catalizador. Este diagnostico involucra aspectos tales como la determinacion de los sitios activos y la carga y la degradacion que el catalizador puede ir sufriendo durante el funcionamiento de la celda. El presente trabajo consiste en el desarrollo de un modelo matematico que alimentado con las constantes de velocidad y los fenomenos involucrados en la reaccion de la evolucion del hidrogeno, produce como datos de salida, las curvas de polarizacion (E vs I) y de espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica para dicha reaccion. Se considero para la modelacion, al Pt monocristalino preferenciado en las direcciones (111) y (100) como catalizador y usando diversos acidos como electrolitos. Las curvas obtenidas con el algoritmo matematico muestran una correlacion de la influencia del tipo y concentracion de los acidos usados como electrolitos y la densidad de corriente electrica debido a la evolucion del H{sub 2}. Finalmente, este modelo deja abierta la posibilidad de explorar el efecto del cambio en los valores de las variables involucradas en las reacciones de una celda de combustible, lo que nos permitira evaluar in situ el estado y comportamiento del catalizador.

  6. Regresiones y correlaciones simples y múltiples significativas entre la variabilidad genética medida con microsatélites y variables reproductivas, ecológicas, morfo-fisiológicas y demográficas en Félidos, Primates y Cérvidos neotropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Un fenómeno enormemente importante de determinar reside en el hecho de si los marcadoresmoleculares tipo microsatélites (STRPs poseen una evolución molecular neutral que esté altamente correlacionada, ya de forma lineal o no, con los números efectivos de las poblacionesy con aquellos eventos que afectan concomitantemente a los números efectivos, tales como lacapacidad de dispersión, el tipo de reproducción, el número y supervivencia de las camadas,etc. Para ello analizamos la variabilidad genética medida en forma de heterocigosidad esperaday el número promedio de alelos por locus en 5 microsatélites (seis especies de Félidos, 10microsatélites (ocho especies de Primates y 16 microsatélites (ocho especies de ciervos frentea los valores obtenidos para 54 variables en los félidos, 77 variables en Primates y 40 variablesen cérvidos.

  7. Correlation of the radioprotective effect of the methyl gallate on the ruptures induction in DNA and it effect in the capture of free radicals; Correlacion del efecto radioprotector del metil galato sobre la induccion de rupturas en el ADN y su efecto en la captura de radicales libres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cabral P, A.; Cruz V, V.L.; Gonzalez B, F.; Zarco M, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    It is shown in alive, the capacity of the methyl gallate to reduce the induced ruptures in the DNA for {gamma} radiation. As well as to capture free radicals in a system in vitro. This suggests that the methyl gallate can be a radioprotector that acts capturing free radicals. (Author)

  8. Correlation between the thermoluminescence and the F centre thermal stability in KBr, KI, NaCl and NaF irradiated at room temperature; Correlacion entre la termoluminiscencia y la estabilidad termica de los centros F en KBr, KI, NaCl y NaF irradiados a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, D. F.

    1977-07-01

    Over the years several models have been proposed to explain the thermoluminescence in irradiated alkali halides. To verify these models, the thermoluminescence and the thermal stability of the F centres in KBr, K l, NaCl and NaF single crystals irradiated at room temperature with x or gamma rays have been studied. It has been concluded that both phenomena, the thermoluminescence and the F centre thermal stability are two different aspects of the same basic phenomenon, i.e. the recombination of mobile interstitials thermally released from traps with F centres (Ausin V. and Alvarez Rivas J.L. 1972). It has been found in some cases, that the H centres also play the role of recombination centres for interstitials. (Author) 42 refs.

  9. Correlation of the glomerular filtration rate by the Gates scintigraphy method and by the creatinine purification in urine of 24 hours; Correlacion de la tasa de filtracion glomerular por el metodo gamagrafico de Gates y por la depuracion de creatinina en orina de 24 horas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez A, E

    2003-07-01

    The kidney is an important organ that makes that exist equilibrium inside the organism. In it' s multiple functions, one that interests us to know is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To know this, exist laboratory and scintigraphy studies like the scintigraphy with technique of Gates and the creatinine purification in urine of 24 hours. The files of 44 patients were studied, which were clinically candidates to kidney donors healthy (25 women and 19 men) with ages that varied from the 18 years to the 54 years ( 35.1 years), with a weight of 43 kilograms to 94 kilograms (68.95 Kg) and with a corporal surface of 1.29 to 2.08 m{sup 2} (1.70 m{sup 2}). These patients underwent study protocols with creatinine purification and with renal scintigraphy. The glomerular filtration rate obtained by creatinine purification varied from 51.9 ml/min. to 156 ml/min. and the GFR obtained by scintigraphy varied from 3.6 ml/min. to 155.2 ml/min. Once obtained the gathering of data the test of Student was applied to compare the averages of both distributions and the analysis of lineal regression to determine the coefficients of correlation of the complete group. (Author)

  10. A força de preensão manual é boa preditora do desempenho funcional de idosos frágeis: um estudo correlacional múltiplo The hand-grip forecasts the functional performance of fragile elder subjects: a multiple-correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandio A.R. Geraldes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A força de preensão manual (FPM associa-se com a funcionalidade de idosos, mas há dúvidas sobre o valor dessa relação em todas as situações. O estudo observou a correlação entre FPM de idosos residentes em instituições de cuidados permanentes (asilos e o desempenho funcional (DF em tarefas específicas e inespecíficas para as mãos. Participaram 12 homens (70±6 anos; 64±9 kg; 160±10 cm e sete mulheres (77±11 anos; 49±10 kg; 147±10 cm. A FPM foi medida com dinamômetro hidráulico. As tarefas motoras propostas foram: caminhar 10 m na velocidade máxima (C10, timed up & go test (TUGT, colocar e retirar chave de fechadura (TCCF e tirar e recolocar lâmpada em um bocal (TCLB. O teste de Wilcoxon revelou que os homens apresentaram melhores desempenhos que as mulheres em todos as medidas, exceto IMC, TCCF e TCLB (pHand-grip strength (HGS has been used to predict functional limitation in the elderly. However, this relationship in all situations is doubtful. The purpose of the study was to observe the association between HGS and functional performance (FP, in specific and not specific tasks among 19 long-term home elderly residents, 12 men (70±6 yrs; 64±9 kg; 160±10 cm and 7 women (77±11 yrs; 49±10 kg; 147±10 cm. HGS was measured by a hydraulic hand dynamometer. The FP was measured by the time to perform the following tasks: 1 habitual gait speed (HGS; 2 timed up & go test (TUGT; 3 opening a lock with a key (OLK; 4 to take off and put in a light bulb (TPB. The Wilcoxon test revealed that men were better than women in all measurements except for the IMC, OLK and TPL (p<0.05. The Spearman coefficients showed significant correlation between HGS and three FP tests: TPL (r=-.54; p=.018; TUGT (r=-.67; p=.002 and HGS (r=-.69; p=.001. The multiple correlation showed good correlation between the HGS and all FP tests (R=.66; R²=.44; p<.04. These results suggest that HGS may be a good predictor for FP, especially for fragile and institutionalized elderly subjects, having a good potential as an epidemiologic exposition variable to forecast functional performance.

  11. The use of a measure with a strong correlation with the visual system to analyze the influence of the acquisition conditions over image quality in panoramic dental images; Implementacion de una medida objetiva de fuerte correlacion con el sistema visual humano para analizar la influencia de las condiciones de adquisicion sobre la calidad de las imagenes panoramicas dentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Diaz, M.; Miranda Castaneda, I.; Borges Garcia, T.

    2012-07-01

    The High Dynamic Range Visible Difference Predictor (HDR-VDP) was created to overcome the poor correlation between objective and subjective digital image quality criteria. This metric has been successfully tested to analyze the effect of medical images compression over image quality. A study using 13 dental panoramic images of an anthropomorphic phantom was carried out. Images were acquired with a digital Kodak equipment. Tube current and beam energy were changed among studies in order to analyze how the image quality was affected by the acquisition parameters variation. The criterion about image quality of two expert observers was taken into account. Furthermore, HDR-VDP was fitted to the problem under analysis. Correlation between the metric and the subjective criterion was also analyzed. HDR-VDP had a correlation of r 0.683 (p = 0. 013) with respect to the subjective criterion. The metric calculated over 9 x 9 pixel windows in regions of interest was able to detect differences in image quality for a typical range of kVp and mA in this type of study. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Flows correlation of the Tuxtlas, Veracruz volcanic field. Dating by TL of ceramics found in leakages of the San Martin volcano; Correlacion de flujos del campovolcanico de los Tuxtlas, Veracruz. Fechamiento por TL de ceramicas encontradas en derrames del volcan San Martin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.; Schaaf, P.; Espindola, J.M. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zamora, A. [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, UNAM (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the age estimation carried out to archaeological ceramics found inside the spills and one ash deposit both of the San Martin volcano. The technique used for its processing was that of fine grain (4-11 {mu}m). The paleodosis it was calculated using the additive method for the determination of the equivalent dose (Q) and the regenerative method for the determination of the factor by supralineality (l). The samples of ceramic were processed like total sample. In the case of the geologic sample (ash sample) one carries out the separation of minerals in particular glasses at 95% of purity. For the determination of the annual dose rate its were carried out in the place of sampling measurements with a gamma spectrometry equipment, with it the determinations of Uranium, thorium and potassium were obtained, besides the cosmic contribution. Once having both elements (paleodosis and annual dose rate) it was calculated the age of the samples and consequently of the flows, which were stratigraphically correlated. (Author)

  13. Radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: correlation with the blood CD4 cell count; Patrones radiologicos de la tuberculosis pulmonar en pacientes con infeccion VIH: correlacion con el indice de linfocitos CD4 en sangre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isusi, M.; Eguidazu, J.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To describe the radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its correlation with the blood CD4 cell count. We present 44 HIV+patients, 24 with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) and 20 in whom the CD4 counts surpassed this level (group B). We also assessed the chest x-ray images to determine whether or not there was any correlation with the blood CD4 cell counts. Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical study of the differences in the radiological findings in the two groups. The incidence of atypical features was significantly greater in the patients with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) than in those with CD4 counts of over 200 cells/mm''3 (group B). Among HIV+patients, those with a more intact immune status were more likely to present lung x-ray images typical of post-primary TB, with cavitary lesions in upper lobes. The group of patients in whom the immune deficiency was more marked showed a greater incidence of atypical pulmonary findings, more characteristics of primary TB. (Author)

  14. Correlaciones entre la resolución de problemas matemáticos y el enfoque socio-crítico en el contexto de la institución educativa María de los Ángeles Cano Márquez

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Córdoba, Maribel; Sebastián Mena, Juan

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo busca contribuir a que los docentes de matemáticas, de la institución María de los Ángeles Cano Márquez, accedan a una herramienta teórica y metodológica para ser usada en la resolución de problemas matemáticos. El tipo de investigación en la que se inscribe este trabajo es cualitativo y está basado en el estudio de casos; su propósito es recoger antecedentes del enfoque socio-crítico y de la resolución de problemas matemáticos así como describir su estado actual, con l...

  15. Amplitude e cadência do passo e componentes da aptidão muscular em idosos: um estudo correlacional multivariado Amplitud y cadencia del paso y componentes de la capacidad muscular en personas de edad avanzada: un estudio correlativo multivariado A multivariate analysis of the correlation between step length-pacing and muscular fitness components in elder subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo verificar a associação de amplitude e cadência do passo com componentes da aptidão muscular (CAM (flexibilidade, força e resistência muscular de membros inferiores, em 25 mulheres de 60 a 86 anos de idade (média = 79 ± 7 anos, fisicamente independentes e cujas condições clínicas não contra-indicassem a realização dos testes propostos. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: a amplitude e cadência do passo (AMP e CAP; b peso, estatura e altura sentada em um banco com medida padronizada (44cm; c marcha estacionária de dois minutos (número de repetições (RESISR; d força máxima relativa de extensão de joelhos (carga/peso corporal (FORCAR; e flexibilidade de tornozelo e quadril (graus (FLEXT e FLEXQ. A AMP e CAP foram comparadas com as variáveis dos CAM por meio de técnicas de correlação simples e multivariada. Os resultados indicaram que: a AMP e CAP associaram-se significativamente com o conjunto das variáveis de força e flexibilidade, conforme sugerido pela boa correlação canônica (r can = 0,79; p Este estudio tiene por objetivo verificar la asociación entre la amplitud y cadencia del paso y los componentes de la capacidad muscular (CAM (flexibilidad, fuerza y resistencia muscular de miembros inferiores, en 25 mujeres de 60 a 86 años de edad (promedio = 79 ± 7 anos, físicamente independientes y cuyas condiciones clínicas no impusieron restricciones a la realización de las pruebas sugeridas. Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: a amplitud y cadencia del paso (AMP y CAP; b peso, estatura y altura sentada en un banco con medida estandarizada (44cm; c marcha estacionaria de dos minutos (número de repeticiones (RESISR; d fuerza máxima relativa de extensión de las rodillas (carga / peso corporal (FORCAR; e flexibilidad del tobillo y cuadril (grados (FLEXT y FLEXQ. La AMP y CAP se compararon a las variables de los CAM por medio de técnicas de correlación simple y multivariada. Los resultados indicaron que: a AMP y CAP se asociaron significativamente con el conjunto de las variables de fuerza y flexibilidad, según sugerido por la buena correlación canónica (r can = 0,79; p The objective of the study was to verify the association between step length and pacing during gait and muscular fitness components (CAM (flexibility, strength and muscular endurance of the inferior limbs in 25 physically independent and apparently healthy women aged between 65 to 86 years-old (mean = 79±7 yrs tests. The following variables were assessed: a total and inferior limbs height and body weight; b step length and pacing (CAMP and CAP; c 2-minute step-in-place test (number of repetitions (RESISR; d maximal strength of knee extensors (load/body weight (FORCAR; e ankle and hip flexibility (FLEXT and FLEXQ. Data were analyzed by simple and multivariate correlation techniques. The results suggested that: a step length and pacing variables were directly associated to CAM, as suggested by the canonical analysis (rcan =.79; p <.05; b the step length seemed to be more correlated with maximal strength and muscular endurance than with flexibility; c the overall association of FLEXT, FLEXQ, FORCAR and RESISR with AMP and CAP was stronger than the correlations found for any isolated variable. Based on these findings, a regression equation was proposed to estimate gait efficiency from CAM variables: EMB = 7.53-.26(FLEXQ+.29(FLEXT-1.87(FORCAR-.05(RESISR, and EMF = 7(EMB+76, where EMB = Raw Gait Score and EMF = Final Gait Score (r² =.90; SEE =.35; p <.0001.

  16. Correlation between the deep of the band tail and the potential originated by the impurities in semiconductors n-type and weakly compensated; Correlacion entre la profundidad de la cola de banda y el potencial originado por las impurezas en semiconductores tipo n y ligeramente compensados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonthal, Gerardo; Moros, Jose [Universidad de Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2001-02-01

    The doped semiconductors band tail E{sub 0} and the potential by ionized impurities E{sub p} were correlated for n-type and weakly compensated samples of Ge, Si, GaP and CdS. Results showed a lineal behavior with slope of 1.417 and ordinate intersection close to zero. The slope was very close to waited {radical}2 because E{sub p} is a rms potential. [Spanish] Se correlaciono la profundidad de la cola de banda E{sub 0} de los semiconductores dopados con el potencial E{sub p} debido a la interaccion entre las impurezas ionizadas para muestras tipo n y ligeramente compensadas de Ge, Si, GaP y CdS. Los resultados mostraron un comportamiento lineal dependiente 1.417 y corte con el eje de las ordenadas cercano a cero. La pendiente dio muy cercana al {radical}2 esperando en vista de que E{sub p} es un potencial rms.

  17. Correlation between logging records and superficial series of the Continental Aptiense-Albiense of the extreme SW of the Basco-Cantabrian basin and their application in the identification of lignitiferous zones. Correlacion entre registros de sondeos y series de superficie del Aptiense-Albiense continental del extremo SW de la Cuenca Vascocantabrica y su aplicacion a la identificacion de zonas lignitiferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, I.; Robles, S.; Pujalte, V. (Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. Estratigrafia, Geodinamica y Paleontologia)

    1991-11-01

    The materials from Miocene age which appeared in this area are attributed to the so-called 'post-manto' materials. Those materials form a calcareous series with more detritical parts generated in the zone between the continent and the shallow platform. Sub-environments are very well represented in a sequence which includes four tecto-sedimentary unities. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Correlation of the activity of the {sup 238} U in soil and {sup 222} Rn in domiciles, with the rocks of cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Correlacion de la actividad del {sup 238} U en suelo y {sup 222} Rn en domicilios, con las rocas de ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Montero C, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120 C.P. 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2004-07-01

    The state of Chihuahua has numerous locations of uranium, being Pena Blanca the great and more important location of the country. Diverse rock types with important quantities of uranium are distributed by the whole state. The igneous extrusive acid rocks are those that have bigger quantity of uranium, like they are the rhyolites and dacites and these rocks are located in enough proportion by the whole state. Some of the main cities of the state are near to locations or uraniferous rocks, as Aldama, Nuevo Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Jimenez and Bocoyna, other important cities are not near important locations. It was determined specific activity by gamma spectroscopy of the series of the {sup 238} U in soils and determination of the radon concentration in domiciles of the main cities of the state. They were found high specific activity values in soil in eight of the thirteen analyzed cities and important radon concentrations in three cities. It was found relationship among the specific activity in soil in near cities to uraniferous locations. (Author)

  19. Velocidade de marcha, equilíbrio e idade: um estudo correlacional entre idosas praticantes e idosas não praticantes de um programa de exercícios terapêuticos Gait speed, balance and age: a correlational study among elderly women with and without participation in a therapeutic exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SSE Abreu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos anteriores têm mostrado que o processo de envelhecimento está associado a modificações no padrão da marcha e no equilíbrio. A análise destas funções motoras contribui para identificar situações de risco para quedas, evento que representa um grave problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Investigar a existência de correlação entre as variáveis: velocidade de marcha, equilíbrio corporal e idade de dois grupos de idosas praticantes e não praticantes de um programa de exercícios terapêuticos e compará-las entre os grupos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional realizado com 40 voluntárias idosas com idades entre 65 e 89 anos, recrutadas em um centro de convivência para a terceira idade, divididas em dois grupos: um grupo de 20 idosas praticante de um programa de exercícios terapêuticos e 20 idosas não praticantes. Foi mensurada a velocidade de marcha usual dos sujeitos da pesquisa e aplicadas duas escalas de equilíbrio: escala de equilíbrio de Berg e a Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment of Gait and Balance (POMA de Tinetti. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos não revelaram correlação significativa entre a velocidade de marcha e o equilíbrio corporal dos sujeitos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Foi evidenciado que independente de um bom nível de equilíbrio, o parâmetro velocidade de marcha declinou com a idade nos dois grupos.BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the aging process is associated with changes to gait patterns and balance. Analysis of these motor functions contributes towards identifying situations with the risk of falling. Such events are a serious public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there were correlations between gait speed, body balance and age in two groups of elderly women, one that participated in a therapeutic exercise program and the other did not. In addition, the two groups were compared in these variables. METHODS: This was an observational study, conducted among 40 elderly female volunteers aged between 65 and 89 years, who were recruited at a social center for the elderly. They were divided into two groups: one group of 20 elderly women who participated in a therapeutic exercise program and another group of 20 who did not participate in the program. The subjects' normal gait speed was measured and two balance scales were applied: Berg's balance scale and Tinetti's Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment of Gait and Balance (POMA. RESULTS: The results obtained did not reveal significant correlations between gait speed and body balance. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that, independent of a good degree of balance, gait speed declined with age in both groups.

  20. Consciência fonológica no início da escolarização e o desempenho ulterior em leitura e escrita: estudo correlacional Phonological awareness in the beginning of schooling and ulterior performance in reading and writing: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Solange Vanzo Pestun

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas contemporâneas têm demonstrado que habilidades metalingüísticas são fundamentais para aquisição e desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Com o propósito de verificar se crianças que não haviam freqüentado a escola até sua inserção no pré III e que não possuíam conhecimento de leitura e soletração apresentavam consciência fonológica ao ingressarem no ensino formal, e se a presença dessa habilidade favorecia a aquisição da leitura e escrita, 167 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 5 anos e 8 meses, de nível sócio-econômico semelhante, participaram deste estudo, que foi realizado em três etapas. Na primeira etapa (início do pré III, a habilidade de consciência fonológica foi avaliada por meio da Prova de Consciência Fonológica. Nas segunda e terceira etapas (início e término do 1º ano, as crianças foram reavaliadas em consciência fonológica e avaliadas em leitura oral e escrita sob ditado de palavras e de pseudopalavras. Os resultados indicaram correlação positiva entre consciência fonológica e ulterior desempenho em leitura e em escrita.Contemporary research has demonstrated that metalinguistic skills are fundamental for the acquisition and development of reading and writing skills. With the purpose of verifying if children who had not attended school before preschool III, with no knowledge of reading and spelling, presented phonological awareness when entering formal schooling and if the presence of this skill favored reading and writing acquisition, 167 children from both sexes with an average age of 5 years and 8 months old, similar social-economical level, took part in this study which was carried out in three stages. In the first stage (beginning of preschool III, the phonological awareness skill was evaluated by means of the Phonological Awareness Test. In the second and third stages (beginning and ending of the first grade of the elementary school, the children were reassessed in their phonological awareness and evaluated in oral reading and writing with dictation of words and pseudowords. The results showed a positive correlation between phonological awareness and ulterior performance in reading as well as in writing.

  1. Tidal power plant energy estimation; Cuantificacion de energia de una planta mareomotriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, J.; Hiriart Le Bert, G.; Silva Casarin, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (mexico)]. E-mail: JlopezGo@iingen.unam.mx; gerardo367@yahoo.com.mx; RSilvaC@iingen.unam.mx

    2010-04-15

    In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of flow tide and the other flow-ebb tides, with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in flow tide, ebb tides or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia que permite estimar de manera rapida y sencilla el potencial de energia que puede ser extraido a traves de una planta mareomotriz. La evaluacion se realiza utilizando un nomograma normalizado que es funcion del area del embalse versus la capacidad electrica instalada, para asi obtener el potencial energetico en una zona en particular. Los resultados contemplan dos formas de operacion, una llamada en flujo y otra en flujo-reflujo, dos esquemas de embalse (sencillo y doble embalse). Para la elaboracion del nomograma normalizado se utilizaron resultados numericos de la simulacion de multiples plantas mareomotrices bajo diferentes escenarios durante un ano de operacion. Los escenarios

  2. Development of a chromatographic method for the study of the stability and compatibility of Mexican fuel oils; Desarrollo de un metodo cromatografico para el estudio de estabilidad y compatibilidad de combustoleos mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass Amador, Georgina; Panama Tirado, Luz Angelica [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-11-01

    compatibility of fuel oil mixes. [Espanol] En Mexico, la mayoria de la energia electrica producida proviene del uso de combustibles residuales pesados conocidos como combustoleos los cuales han sufrido disminuciones en la calidad debido a una combinacion de factores, entre los que destaca el de los cambios en el proceso de refinacion. Es necesario desarrollar metodos que sean capaces de indicar la inestabilidad (formacion de sedimento o incremento en viscosidad durante el almacenamiento o calentamiento) o incompatibilidad (formacion de sedimento al mezclar dos o mas) de los combustoleos utilizados en las centrales termoelectricas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el desarrollar una prueba alternativa para el estudio de la compatibilidad y/o estabilidad de combustoleos mexicanos empleando cromatografia de liquidos de alta resolucion (CLAR) y asi poder determinar aspectos estructurales del combustoleo que determinan su estabilidad. Dado que la formacion de sedimentos ocurre cuando el poder disolvente del combustible es inadecuado para mantener los asfaltenos en solucion, es importante conocer la medida del poder disolvente o aromaticidad del diluyente; asi pues, la primera parte de este trabajo se centro en la determinacion del perfil de compuestos aromaticos de los diluyentes de los combustoleos, la otra parte se dedico a la determinacion del perfil de distribucion de los pesos moleculares de los asfaltenos presentes en los combustoleos. Los perfiles de la fraccion aromatica, asi como los de distribucion de pesos moleculares se determinaron empleando cromatografia de liquidos, en la que se empleo una variedad de columnas y de disolventes. Se efectuo una combinacion de pruebas de rutina tales como contenido de asfaltenos, equivalencia de tolueno, viscosidad, etcetera con el fin de obtener correlaciones con el metodo cromatografico desarrollado. En este articulo se discute solo la seccion correspondiente a la obtencion del perfil de contenidos de aromaticos de los combustoleos. Se

  3. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  4. Aplicaciones de las Peliculas Delgadas en Microelectronica

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Rosa; Broitman, Esteban

    1986-01-01

    En este articulo se presenta una reseña acerca del uso de las peliculas delgadas en microelectronica con especial enfasis en las peliculas resistivas. Se detallan las propiedades electricas de la aleacion niquel-cromo.

  5. The fuel cells: Truths on the generation of clean and efficient electricity electrochemical way; Las celdas de combustible: Verdades sobre la generacion de electricidad limpia y eficiente via electroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the search of alternative technologies for the generation of electrical energy, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has put special attention in a technology that promises to be key in the next years: The fuel cells, it is for this reason that in this article a review of this type of cells is presented, as well as its basic characteristics and benefits as a result of its use for the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] En la busqueda de tecnologias alternativas de generacion de energia electrica, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha puesto atencion especial en una tecnologia que promete ser clave en los proximos anos: Las celdas de combustible, es por ello que en este articulo se presenta una resena de este tipo de celdas, asi como sus caracteristicas principales y beneficios como resultado de su utilizacion para la generacion de energia electrica.

  6. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1997 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  7. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1996 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  8. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1985 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  9. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1994 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  10. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1993 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  11. Comparación y Análisis de los Objetivo, Campos de Aplicación y Referencias de las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas: NOM-001-SEMP-1994 y NOM-001-SEDE-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan González Flores

    2000-01-01

    Aquí se pretende informar sobre la entrada en vigor de la NOM-001-SEDE- 1999, aplicable a INSTALACIONES ELECTRICAS DE UTILIZACION, que suple y cancela a la NOM-001-SEMP-1994 RELATIVA A LAS INSTALACIONES...

  12. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1987 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  13. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1992 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  14. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1991 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  15. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1989 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  16. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1988 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  17. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1995 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  18. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  19. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1986 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  20. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1990 issues of ``boletin iie``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the database.

  1. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  2. Comparación y Análisis de los Objetivo, Campos de Aplicación y Referencias de las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas: NOM-001-SEMP-1994 y NOM-001-SEDE-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Juan González Flores

    2000-01-01

    Aquí se pretende informar sobre la entrada en vigor de la NOM-001-SEDE- 1999, aplicable a INSTALACIONES ELECTRICAS DE UTILIZACION, que suple y cancela a la NOM-001-SEMP-1994 RELATIVA A LAS INSTALACIONES DESTINADAS AL SUMINISTRO Y USO DE LA ENERGÍA ELECTRICA, comentar y comparar acerca de los objetivos, campos de aplicación y referencias de ambas normas.

  3. IIE Bulletin: selected articles from 1998 issues of `Boletin iie`; Articulos selecccionados del Boletin iie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Boletin IIE, produced by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas in Mexico, is issued six times a year. Separate citations and abstracts have been prepared for individual articles in scope for the ETDE Energy database. [Espanol] El Boletin IIE es producido en Mexico por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. Este se publica 6 veces al ano. Se han preparado citas y resumenes para articulos individuales dentro del alcance de la base de datos Energy del ETDE.

  4. Comparación y Análisis de los Objetivo, Campos de Aplicación y Referencias de las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas: NOM-001-SEMP-1994 y NOM-001-SEDE-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González Flores

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se pretende informar sobre la entrada en vigor de la NOM-001-SEDE- 1999, aplicable a INSTALACIONES ELECTRICAS DE UTILIZACION, que suple y cancela a la NOM-001-SEMP-1994 RELATIVA A LAS INSTALACIONES DESTINADAS AL SUMINISTRO Y USO DE LA ENERGÍA ELECTRICA, comentar y comparar acerca de los objetivos, campos de aplicación y referencias de ambas normas.

  5. Comparación y Análisis de los Objetivo, Campos de Aplicación y Referencias de las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas: NOM-001-SEMP-1994 y NOM-001-SEDE-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Juan González Flores

    2000-01-01

    Aquí se pretende informar sobre la entrada en vigor de la NOM-001-SEDE- 1999, aplicable a INSTALACIONES ELECTRICAS DE UTILIZACION, que suple y cancela a la NOM-001-SEMP-1994 RELATIVA A LAS INSTALACIONES DESTINADAS AL SUMINISTRO Y USO DE LA ENERGÍA ELECTRICA, comentar y comparar acerca de los objetivos, campos de aplicación y referencias de ambas normas.

  6. Northern Division. Distribution Zone. Juarez.; Division norte. Zona de distribucion. Juarez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, J. M. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The public service law of electrical energy, its regulation and the manual of services to the public in the matter of electrical energy govern the sale of electrical energy. The Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico altogether with the participation of the Secretarias of Energia, de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, and to the proposal of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), fixes the tariffs, their adjustment or restructuring. The CFE mission is to satisfy the electrical energy necessities and expectations of the clients, through a profitable and competitive organization, guaranteeing the integral development of its collaborators. Its product, electrical energy, is received from other areas within the CFE. The electrical tariffs simultaneously fulfill three functions: financial, economical and social. [Spanish] La venta de energia electrica se rige por la ley del servicio publico de energia electrica, su reglamento, el manual de servicios al publico en materia de energia electrica. La Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico con la participacion de las Secretarias de Energia, de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, y a propuesta de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), fija las tarifas, su ajuste o reestructuracion. La mision de CFE es satisfacer las necesidades y expectativas de energia electrica de los clientes, a traves de una organizacion rentable y competitiva, garantizando el desarrollo integral de sus colaboradores. Su producto, la energia electrica, la reciben de otras areas dentro de la CFE. Las tarifas electricas cumplen simultaneamente tres funciones: financiera, economica y social.

  7. Simulation of the park for electric generation of the Argentine Republic, analysis of its possible expansion with restrictions in the disposability of the fossil fuels; Simulacion del parque de generacion electrica de la Republica Argentina, analisis de su posible expansion con restricciones en la disponibilidad de los combustibles fosiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubergia, J.H.; Coppari, N.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rey, F.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: giuberg@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-07-01

    In this work one simulates, using the program MESSAGE, the generation park electric of the Argentine Republic and their possible expansion, with restrictions in the readiness of fossil fuels. This, as other models of planning energetics promoted by IAEA, optimizes the expansion of the net having as function objective the smallest cost in the system. 25 years they were simulated, adopting like base the anus 2000 and considering different scenarios of internal and external demands. It was analysed the increase of the demand with restrictions in the readiness of the natural gas in the winter periods, since the Argentinean electric system has a great dependence of this fuel. To cover the increase of the electric demand, were selected the machines and fuels, at the moment available, with more technical and economic possibilities. In the scenarios without restrictions to the use of natural gas the program selects to the nuclear power station of Atucha II, to the increase of bench mark of the hydraulic power station of Yacireta and combined cycles that burn natural gas. In those in that the supply of natural gas is limited, it selects previously besides the signal ones, other nuclear power stations, other hydroelectric projects and turbines of gas operating with gas oil to cover the top requirements. (Author)

  8. Technical economic feasibility study for the implementation of a nuclear power plant for the production of electricity in Colombia; Estudio de factibilidad tecnico economica para la implementacion de una central de energia nuclear para la produccion de energia electrica en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, David E.; Bolanos, Hernan G.; Mayorga, Manuel A.; Rodriguez, Edwin A., E-mail: david_egO@yahoo.es, E-mail: hernanbolaos@yahoo.com.ar, E-mail: alejo_mayorga@yahoo.com, E-mail: edwin.rodriguez@distoyota.com.co [Escuela Colombiana de Carreras Industriales (ECCI), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion GIATME

    2013-07-01

    A study on the technical and economic feasibility will be used to implement a nuclear power in Colombia to generate electricity. To this will be searched if there are previous studies on this topic and what they concluded. The manner in which power is supplied will be discussed in a national level nowadays, its strengths and weaknesses. It will be investigated the legal norms that exists in the country on nuclear power and renewable energy sources, the standards established at world level, the nuclear accidents and the great examples. Providers will be sought on the world market nuclear equipment which serve to this purpose and the technical characteristics of these equipment will be discussed. The type of fuel used in nuclear reactors, its origin, method of production, specifications, availability and long-term and safe handling and final disposal are considered. safe handling of this technology and policy or international rules that will studied.

  9. Simulation of the solar thermal power plant of 5 MW based in the technology of Parabolic Trough Collector with the simulation program TRANSYS; Simulacion de una central electrica termosolar de 5MWe basada en la tecnologia de colector solar cilindro parabolico, con el programa de simulacion TRANSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. L.; Sautullo, C. S.

    2004-07-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) have raised an increasing interest in the last years. Within the scope of Concentrating Solar Power technologies, Parabolic Trough is at the forefront stage of development. The improved process of Direct Steam Generation technology (DSG) could increase even further the efficiency of Parabolic Trough Power Plants. An essential tool for STPP design is the development of a computational model of a complete power plant. The modular program TRNSYS has been used for this purpose. The model presented in this work simulates the thermal and hydraulic behavior of a complete 5 MW STPP in the south of Spain, with no back-up fuel. The model represents the DSG solar field coupled to the power block. Superheated steam is produced in the solar field, and used in a conventional Rankine cycle to produce electricity in the electric generator. (Author)

  10. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator; Modelado y simulacion de la linea de vapor, las turbinas de alta y de baja presion y el regulador de presion para el simulador universitario de nucleo electricas SUN RAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos, UNAM (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  11. Scenarios simulation of severe accident type small loss of coolant (Loca), with the code MELCOR version 2.1 for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Simulacion de escenarios de accidente severo tipo perdida de refrigerante (Loca) pequeno, con el codigo MELCOR version 2.1 para la central nucleo-electrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Godinez S, V., E-mail: Jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work was carried out the analysis of two scenarios of the accident type with loss of coolant in a recirculation loop for a break with smaller ares to 0.1 ft{sup 2} (4.6 cm{sup 2}), which is classified according to their size like small Loca. The first simulated scenario was a small Loca without action of the emergency coolant injection systems, and the second was a small Loca with only the available system LPCS. This design base accident was taken into account for its relevance with regard to the damage to the core and the hydrogen generation. Was also observed and analyzed the response of the action of the ECCS that depend of the loss of coolant reason and this in turn depends of the size and type of the pipe break. The specified scenarios were simulated by means of the use of MELCOR model for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde that has the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. (Author)

  12. Study on the electrical impact of the additional eolic production integration on the networks of Cabo Verde Republic - the Santiago case; Estudos de impacto electrico da integracao de producao eolica adicional nas redes electricas da Republica de Cabo Verde - Caso de Santiago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.A. Pecas [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia. E-mail: jpl@riff.fe.up.pt; Vasconcelos, Helena [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: hvasconcelos@inescn.pt; Santos, Ruy Lopes dos; Fonseca, Joao D. [Empresa de Electricidade e Agua (ELECTRA). S.A.R.L., Sao Vicente (Cabo Verde). E-mail: dg-electra@mail.cvtelecom.cv

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology adopted for the studies on stationary and dynamic behaviour for evaluation the impact on the S. Vicente, Santiago and Sal islands networks resulting from the increasing of the eolic production capacity, considering a scenery corresponding to the year of 1998. The increasing influenced the expansion of the eolic parks being explored since the year 1994. The describe case study refers to the Santiago island, and the results obtained for this particular network are presented.

  13. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde; Estudios de calidad de la energia en la red electrica del almacen de acopio de partes reusables y aceites contaminados (CCAC) de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  14. Geostatistical Modelling of the Travertine Formation Associated with the Alicun de las Torres Thermal System by Using Electrical Tomography and Porosity Data; Modelizacion mediante Tecnicas Geoestadisticas de la Formacion de Trevertinos Asociada al Sistema Termal de Alicun de las Torres a partir de Datos de Tomografia Electrica y Porosidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Perez, A. J.; Aracil, E.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2010-11-17

    In the framework of a Singular Strategic Project entitled: Advanced Technologies of Carbon, Capture and Storage (CCS)1', supported by the MICINN (Spain) and the FEDER founds (EU), specifically in the Carbon Storage Task, a comprehensive study on the CO{sub 2} leakage as DIG (Dissolved Inorganic Carbon) in the Alicun de Las Torres (Prov. of Granada) natural analogue thermal system was envisaged. This analogous system is characterised by the presence of a very important travertine formation, which can be considered as a permanent and stable sink for CO{sub 2}. Consequently, the estimation of the travertine mass has been a main objective of this investigation. For that, data from two complementary electrical tomography campaigns, previously treated by a powerful geostatistical tool, have been used, as well as the porosity average value of this travertine and the calcite density. Besides this, the statistical methodology applied has also allowed the establishment of a 3-D model of the travertine formation, displaying the geological contact between this formation and the underlying materials, as well as the contacts among the three units forming the travertine formation. (Author) 23 refs.

  15. Methodology to determine the consumption and potential of saving of electrical energy in the systems of air-conditioning in the residential sector: case the Northwest of Mexico; Metodologia para determinar el consumo y potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en los sistemas de climatizacion en el sector residencial: caso Noroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, J. A.; Morillon Galvez, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work there are studied the characteristics of the consumption of electrical residential energy due to the systems of air conditioning and to cos mell, in the region Northwest of Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, and Nayarit) and the North region (Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon). Between the principal results one finds that the potential saving of electrical energy, with base in the use of passive systems as the isolation of the housings, decided in 3,356 GWh (similar to the electrical annual supply that there needs the state of Durango or Guerrero). (Author)

  16. Perceived Autonomy-Support Instruction and Student Outcomes in Physical Education and Leisure-Time: A Meta-Analytic Review of Correlates. [Percepción de la formación de apoyo a la autonomía y resultados en estudiantes en educación física y tiempo libre: Una revisión meta-analítica de correlaciones].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lochbaum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a global concern. Physical educators have direct access to children. Researchers have investigated the benefits of student perceived physical education (PE autonomy-supportive instruction in PE and leisure-time (LT. Hence, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the direct effects of perceived PE autonomy-supportive instruction on a number of student outcomes. In total, 39 correlation based studies totaling 23,554 participants were analyzed with mean weighted correlation (rw as the analyzed effect size. Nearly all effect sizes were statistically significant (p < .01. Effect sizes in PE ranged in meaningfulness from large to small across the PE categories of basic needs, emotions, motivational processes and behaviors, physical activity self-esteem, physical activity motivation, and general self-esteem/concept. For LT, effect sizes were mostly medium to small across the basics needs, motivation processes, and physical activity categories. Thus, though student perceived PE teacher autonomy-support instruction was meaningfully related to basics needs, higher level motivational processes (i.e. intrinsic motivation, and positive emotions in PE and LT, the relationships were small in meaningfulness with regards to physical activity. Future research must elucidate how perceived PE teacher autonomy-support instruction may directly improve children’s physical activity to combat the global inactivity epidemic.

  17. Analysis of low-frequency climate periodicity in lacustrine sediments from the Enciso Group (Lower Cretaceous, Cameros basin, La Rioja, Spain) and its application to the correlation and dating of the series; Analisis de la periodicidad climatica de baja frecuencia registrada en los sedimentos lacustres del Grupo Enciso (Cretacico Inferior de la cuenca de Cameros, La Rioja): Aplicaciones a la correlacion y datacion de la serie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo, A.; Munoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    We have characterized seven facies linked to three sedimentary environments: distal riverine, siliciclastic lacustrine and carbonate lacustrine, in the Lower Cretaceous syn-rift deposits in the Cameros basin (Enciso Group). The analysis was conducted on a 996-metre-thick series consisting of 74 sedimentary cycles. The facies were analysed using the Markov chains method. We identified three type-sequences linked to the recognised sedimentary environments. By studying the relationships between the facies we were able to develop a sedimentological model, with the relative position of each facies related to the lake shoreline. From this model we could construct a time series based on semi-quantitative depth (depth rank) and analyse it with the Wavelet and REDFIT programs. Spectral analysis identified periodic sedimentary cycles comparable to Milankovitch frequencies. The results show power-spectrum maxima (confidence level >99%) at 90.56 m, 16.66 m, 7.14 m, 5.37 m and 3.93 m. The sedimentary cycle interpreted as short eccentricity (16.66 m) is the most easily identifiable in the outcrop and constitutes the basis of our sequential analysis. The accumulation rate calculated for the Enciso Group is 175 m/Ma. Sedimentation of the Enciso Group at the Munilla section covers a time span of about 6 Ma, from the Upper Hauterivian to the the Middle Aptian. (Author)

  18. Aspectos sociopsicológicos del medio laboral asociados a la autoestima de personas que viven con VIHn Notificaciones Ver (159) Administrar Contenido de la revista Herramientas del artículo Imprimir este artículo Metadatos de indexación Cómo citar un elemento Publicar un comentario Información Para los lectores/as Para los autores/as Para los bibliotecarios/as Acerca de los autores/as Lic. Nielvis de la Caridad Senra Pérez MSc. Mailé Contrera Betarte MSc. Yexenia Martín Chávez Encuéntranos en... Inicio / Aspectos sociopsicológicos del medio laboral asociados a la autoestima de personas que viven con VIH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lic. Nielvis de la Caridad Senra Pérez; MSc. Mailé Contrera Betarte; MSc. Yexenia Martín Chávez

    2016-01-01

    ... y continúa siendo correlacional, describiendo y relacionando las variables: autoestima, apoyo social y conocimiento que poseen los directivos y trabajadores sobre el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana...

  19. Actions in the electrical sector to propitiate the environmental protection; Acciones en el sector electrico para propiciar la proteccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Gaspari, Mateo [Fideicomiso de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The saving of electrical energy is one of the most efficient means to propitiate the environmental protection in the surroundings of the facilities used in the production of electrical energy. The emission of polluting agents associated with the electric power generation is analyzed, among them, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, along with the particulate emission of ash or soot. In addition, an analysis is made of the contribution of the electrical energy saving to the environmental protection and the actions that the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico will undertake on the electric energy saving for the 1995 to the 2000 period. [Spanish] El ahorro de energia electrica es uno de los medios mas eficientes para propiciar la proteccion ambiental en el entorno de las instalaciones usadas en la produccion de energia electrica. Se analiza la emision de contaminantes asociados con la generacion electrica, entre ellos, el CO{sub 2}, el SO{sub 2} y NO{sub 2}, junto con la emision de particulas de ceniza o de hollin. Ademas se analiza la contribucion del ahorro de energia electrica a la proteccion ambiental y las acciones que emprendera la Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico sobre ahorro de energia electrica para el periodo 1995 al 2000.

  20. Fiber optics for voltage and current measurement; Utilizacion de fibras opticas en la medicion de voltaje y corriente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta Jimenez, Francisco Javier; Santos Dominguez, Martin; Gutierrez Martinez, Celso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This paper offers a brief revision of the techniques employed in the voltage and current measurement in power plants and mention is made also of its main limitations. Likewise the optical methods of transduction of the mentioned electrical variables indicating their advantages and difficulties for its implementation. Finally the activities developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Elctricas (IIE) in this field are described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se ofrece una breve revision de las tecnicas utilizadas en la medicion de voltaje y corriente en plantas electricas y se mencionan sus principales limitaciones. Asimismo, se presentan los metodos opticos de transduccion de las variables electricas mencionadas, indicando sus ventajas y las dificultades para su realizacion. Finalmente, se describen las actividades que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en este campo.

  1. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  2. Electrónica de Potencia

    OpenAIRE

    Maseda Rego, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nivel educativo: Grado. Duración (en horas): Más de 50 horas La Electronica de Potencia es una asignatura de tercer curso, impartida en los grados en Ingenieria Electrónica Industrial y Automatica, y en Ingenieria Electrica, que estudia la conversión electrónica de la energía electrica y sus efectos derivados. Los resultados de aprendizaje para esta asignatura son: conocer las diferentes aplicaciones de la electrónica de potencia; conocer las diferentes aplicaciones de los elementos ut...

  3. Technological tendencies and their relation with energy markets; Tendencias tecnologicas y su relacion con mercados de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Castro, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article some associate technological tendencies with areas of interest of the Control Systems Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are presented. Here the relations or influence that these tendencies have and will continue having in the future with the definition and implantation of energy markets are mentioned. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan algunas tendencias tecnologicas asociadas con areas de interes de la Division de Sistemas de Control del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Aqui se mencionan las relaciones o influencia que dichas tendencias tienen y continuaran teniendo en el futuro con la definicion e implantacion de mercados de energia.

  4. Effects of the addition of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH in the electrical properties of thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by pyrolytic spray; Efectos de la adicion de H{sub 2}O y NH{sub 4}OH en las propiedades electricas de peliculas delgadas de Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} depositadas por rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera S, H.J.; Alarcon F, G.; Aguilar F, M. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia H, M.; Guzman M, J. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Araiza I, J.J. [UAZ, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work we studied the electrical properties of yttrium oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis from Y(acac){sub 3} and N,N-DMF. The films were deposited on Si(100) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The electrical characteristic of the films was improved when a mist of H{sub 2}O and/or NH{sub 4}0H was simultaneously added to the deposition system. Current and capacitance versus voltage measurements were obtained when the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were integrated in MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) structures. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a dielectric constant up to 15 were obtained. The films can stand electric fields up to 2 MV/cm. An interface state density in the range of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1} was measured at midgap from the high and low frequency capacitance measurements. (Author)

  5. Prospective of the solar thermal technologies through concentration for the generation of electrical energy (Annexe 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de las tecnologias termosolares a concentracion para la generacion de potencia electrica (Anexo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this document are presented the technical-economical the present state of the technologies with electricity generation purposes at worldwide level and the technological prospective for the next years. At present it is estimated that in most of the power scenarios at worldwide level the situation will continue with a strong dependency in fossil fuels. The future dynamics of the energy procurement will depend on diverse factors such as energy efficiency, the international norms and regulations derived of the environmental impact and prices of the primary energy sources. The countries of the first world are developing new technologies of compatible character with the environment, with self-consumption intentions and with the vision of establishing new markets of export towards developing countries. In this context, several countries have established R y D programs for the generation of electricity through solar systems using the thermodynamic conversion. [Spanish] En este documento se presenta el estado actual tecnico-economico de las tecnologias con propositos de generacion de electricidad a nivel mundial y la prospectiva tecnologica para los proximos anos. En la actualidad se estima que en la mayoria de los escenarios energeticos a nivel mundial la situacion continuara con una fuerte dependencia de los combustibles fosiles. La dinamica futura del suministro de energia dependera de diversos factores como la eficiencia energetica, las normas y regulaciones derivadas del impacto ambiental y los precios internacionales de los energeticos. Los paises del primer mundo estan desarrollando nuevas tecnologias de caracter compatible con el medio ambiente, con propositos de autoconsumo y con la vision de establecer nuevos mercados de exportacion hacia paises en desarrollo. En este contexto, varios paises han establecido programas de Investigacion y Desarrollo para la generacion de electricidad a traves de sistemas solares utilizando la conversion termodinamica.

  6. Modelo analitico para el transporte electronico en peliculas delgadas semiconductoras

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres-Luengo, M; Martinez, H.M; Torres, J; Lopez-Carreno, L.D

    2013-01-01

    ... cientificas que buscan mejorar la sensibilidad, selectividad y velocidad de respuesta a un gas objetivo [4],[5],[6]. Los oxidos metalicos semiconductores (SMO, por sus siglas en ingles) se utilizan con frecuencia como material de deteccion en los sensores de gas. En este caso, la resistencia electrica de una pelicula de SMO cambia debido a ...

  7. DEFINITION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POSTS FOR ENERGY INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COROIU N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to identify the personnel categories from energy industry, the approach in the selection, recruitment, hiring, as well as optimizing the working process, with examples from the process in a multinational company with private capital and integrated compartment in the human resources S.C. ELECTRICA S.A.

  8. Private vs. Public Investment in the Mexican Utility Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck-Assad, Flory Anette

    2016-01-01

    How should the strategies and regulations of the Mexican laws be designed in order to trigger a country to go from a non-sustainable energy economy towards a sustainable energy economy? This paper proposes a classroom debate of the reformed Law of Public Electricity Service in Mexico (LSPEE, 1992: Ley del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica),…

  9. The microfluidic Kelvin water dropper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Alvaro G.; Hoeve, van Wim; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Shui, Lingling; Xie, Yanbo; Fontelos, Marco A.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Berg, van den Albert; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    The so-called "Kelvin water dropper" is a simple experiment demonstrating the spontaneous appearance of induced free charge in droplets emitted through a tube. As Lord Kelvin explained, water droplets spontaneously acquire a net charge during detachment from a faucet due to the presence of electrica

  10. Optimum Concentration Ratio Analysis Using Dynamic Thermal Model for Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    hplate = Hsil/tau_H ; Pc = hplate*(A)*(T-Tstream) ;% convective cooling of the cell by the ambient air % as it stands now, Pc remains constant...Iberoamericano de Estudiantes de Ingenieria Electrica, s.l. : Cibelec, 2005. 40. Brogren, Maria. Optical Effeciency of Low-Concentrating Solar Energy

  11. ECOEFICIENCIA DE LA PROPUESTA DE GENERAR ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA EN EL FUNDO DE LA UCSM IRRIGACION MAJES PARA SU AUTOABASTECIMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    DESCRIPCION DEL FUNDO CONSUMO DE ENERGÍA ELECTRICA EN EL FUNDO PROPUESTA DEL SISTEMA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICO DIMENSIONAMIENTO DEL SISTEMA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICO INVERSION REQUERIDA METODOLOGIA EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA PROVENIENTE DE LA RED EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA AISLADA EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA CON INTERCONEXION A LA RED ANALISIS DE ECOEFICIENCIA EVALUACION DE LA ECOEFICIENCIA - RESULTADOS

  12. Kondo effect and impurity band conduction in Co:TiO2 magnetic semiconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaneti, R.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of charge carriers and their interaction with local magnetic moments in an oxide magnetic semiconductor is established. For cobalt-doped anatase TiO2 films, we demonstrate conduction in a metallic donor-impurity band. Moreover, we observe a clear signature of the Kondo effect in electrica

  13. Efecto Hall del In en Película Evaporada

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera de Camboa, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    El efecto Hall demostrado por Edwin Herbert Hall (1) en 1879 ha venido a ser un hecho importante para la comprension del coruportamiento de los portadores de carga en la conduccion electrica. Es por esto que es necesario investigar este fenomeno en Ia Física del Estado Solido en los diferentes solidos.

  14. Supervisory control system based on PC applied to substations automatization of and to regional operation centers of distribution networks; Sistema de control supervisorio basado en PC aplicado en automatizacion de subestaciones y centros de operacion regional de redes de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picasso B, Cuitlahuac [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Astorga Q, Clemente [Luz y Fuerza del Centro (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In order to increase the services quality in the electrical energy, to improve the process of identification of energy losses, to increase the equipment efficiency, to count on more complete statistics of profiles of load consumptions, among other applications, the Compania de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC) carries out the modernization in automatization of substations and regional operation centers of distribution networks. The technological base to make these programs requires automating the operative schemes of the substation and distribution centers that supervise the events of the electrical process. In this article the main results of the development and integration of master stations based on PC, that were made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and that have been integrated in the electrical company LyFC are presented. [Spanish] Con el proposito de incrementar la calidad de los servicios en la energia electrica, mejorar el proceso de identificacion de perdidas de energia, aumentar la eficiencia de los equipos, contar con estadisticas mas completas de perfiles de consumos de carga, entre otras aplicaciones, la Compania de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC) lleva a cabo la modernizacion en automatizacion de subestaciones y centros de operacion regional de redes electricas de distribucion. La base tecnologica para realizar estos programas, requiere de automatizar los esquemas operativos de la subestacion y centros de distribucion que supervisan los eventos del proceso electrico. En este articulo se presentan los principales resultados del desarrollo e integracion de estaciones maestras basadas en PC, que se realizaron en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y que se han integrado en la compania electrica LyFC.

  15. Sistemas funcionales, organizaciones y membrecia: paradojas sobre la inclusion organizacion/sistema parcial en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labrana, Julio; Perez-Solari, Felipe; Rivera, Felipe; Campos, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    .... En este sentido, no se ha observado el problema de una correlacion estricta entre la inclusion o exclusion organizacional y funcional, pues no se ha considerado con detenimiento la clausura operativa...

  16. UNA REFLEXIÓN CRÍTICA DESDE LA EDUCACIÓN INTERCULTURAL. HACIA LA PEDAGOGÍA DE LA RECREACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Alomía Riascos

    2016-03-01

    emancipadoras, respetuosas, justas, solidarias y humanas provocando fructíferas relaciones, correlaciones e interacciones siempre presentes en los ambientes culturales, educativos, escolares y comunitarios, en consonancia con una perspectiva intercultural.

  17. La maximizacion de los beneficios para la salud publica de la poblacion a traves de la toma de decision en inversiones publicas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivone, Camana Rita; Nilda, Tanski

    2009-01-01

    El estudio del caso presentado realizo la correlacion entre los indices de colecta y tratamiento de alcantarillado en las grandes regiones brasilenas con las tasas de mortalidad infantil de estas mismas regiones...

  18. El sistema de calificacion cualitativa para la Prueba Gestaltica de Bender--modificada. Estudio preliminar de sus propiedades psicometricas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merino Soto, Cesar A

    2010-01-01

    ... (por intervalos de confianza) llega a niveles altos. La correlacion con criterios de conducta orientada a la tarea, inteligencia fluida y el reporte parental de conductas de motricidad fina dan soporte a la validez y utilidad de este nuevo sistema...

  19. Conducta autolesiva en adolescentes portugueses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferreira Goncalves, Sonia; Martins, Carla; Rosendo, Ana Paula; Cesar Machado, Barbara; Silva, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    Con la finalidad de evaluar la frecuencia y la correlacion de la conducta autolesiva en 569 adolescentes portugueses de edades comprendidas entre 12 y 20 anos de edad, se han completado cuestionarios...

  20. Síntomas depresivos versus depresión en adultos mayores de una comunidad rural

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemente Cordero Sánchez; Guillermina García Madrid; Marcela Flores Merlo; Francisco Javier Báez Hernández; Alejandro Torres Reyes; Miguel Ángel Zenteno López

    2014-01-01

    ... la sintomatología depresiva en adultos mayores de una comunidad rural del estado de Puebla, México. Estudio descriptivo, correlacional, transversal, realizado en 155 adultos mayores a quienes...

  1. Agencia de autocuidado y adherencia al tratamiento en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velandia-Arias, Anita; Rivera-Alvarez, Luz N

    2009-01-01

    Metodos Diseno descriptivo correlacional que midio y relaciono la Agencia de autocuidado y la Adherencia a los tratamientos en una muestra de 201 personas que contaban con algun factor de riesgo cardiovascular...

  2. La percepcion del tiempo: influencias en la salud fisica y mental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyanadel, Cristian; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    ...) y el Cuestionario de Salud (SF-36), junto a tres medidas de estimacion del tiempo. Las correlaciones de Pearson y el ANOVA muestran relaciones significativas entre las dimensiones, salud fisica, mental y estimacion del tiempo...

  3. Plan de investigación: Evaluación del factor emocional en adolescentes en centros en alto valor añadido

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero Diego, María

    2017-01-01

    Este plan de investigación tiene como finalidad la realización de un análisis descriptivo correlacional de instrumentos de medida de inteligencia emocional para la evaluación de competencia emocional y el posterior análisis de validez y fiabilidad con la finalidad de realizar correlaciones entre esta competencia y el rendimiento académico en adolescentes, con el objetivo de promover la competencia emocional para el desarrollo de adolescentes.

  4. Residual magnetic field in rotary machines; Campo magnetico residual en maquinas rotatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez V, Esteban A; Apanco R, Marcelino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The residual magnetism is a phenomenon in which the magnetic dipoles of a substance are oriented in a certain degree. On the other hand, when internal forces exist capable of aligning elementary magnetic dipoles of a material, a permanent magnet is obtained. Just as in a conductor or in a material, in the elements of a rotary electrical machine magnetic fields can be induced that produce a residual magnetism or magnetization. In the rotary electrical machines, the magnetization phenomenon causes serious problems, such as the generation of induced currents that propitiate the mechanical wear in bearings, collars, trunnions and inclusive in the shaft, by effects known as pitting, frosting and spark tracks, as well as erroneous readings in vibration and temperature sensors, that in some cases can cause the shut down of the machine. In this article are presented the general concepts on the residual magnetism in rotary electrical machines, the causes that originate it and the problems that arises, as well as the demagnetization of the components that have residual magnetic field. The results obtained by the area of Electrical Equipment of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas are revised, during the execution of activities related to the measurement and elimination of the residual magnetic field in rotary electrical machines. [Spanish] El magnetismo residual es un fenomeno en el que los dipolos magneticos de una sustancia se encuentran orientados en un grado determinado. Por otro lado, cuando existen fuerzas internas capaces de alinear los dipolos magneticos elementales de un material, se tiene un iman permanente. Al igual que en un conductor o un material, en los elementos de una maquina electrica rotatoria se pueden inducir campos magneticos que producen un magnetismo residual o magnetizacion. En las maquinas electricas rotatorias, el fenomeno de magnetizacion causa graves problemas, como la generacion de corrientes inducidas que propician el desgaste mecanico

  5. Analysis of the Solar Resource Information Datasets for Thermal and/or electric Generation Using a Geographical Information System. Cases of Application: Central Cafeteria - University of the Valley, Cali Municipality and Farm {sup P}ozo Verde{sup ,} Jamundi Municipality , Cauca Valley, Colombia; Analisis de las Fuentes de Informacion sobre Recurso Solar para Generacion Termica y/o Electrica Empleando un Sistema de Informacion Geografica. Casos de Aplicacion: Cafeteria Central - Universidad del Valle, Municipio de Cali y Granja {sup P}ozo Verde{sup ,} Municipio de Jamundi, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J.; Manrique, P. A.; Pinedo, I.

    2009-10-12

    In this report, two examples of renewable energy assessments based on Geographical Information Systems are presented. Several case studies have been carried out in the Valley of Cauca (Colombia), and one on them has been used to size a hybrid system. The results of this particular case study are presented in a second report. The aim of this document is analysing the different sources of data that could be used in the characterization of solar energy for electricity and electricity-heat use. With this purpose, data of two areas in Valley of Cauca obtained from the Atlas of Solar Radiation of Colombia, SWERA project and SSE-NASA have been compared. The data coming from these sources has been analysed using a Geographical Information System, and the conclusions are described along with cartographic and numeric products. These reports are the result of a collaboration established between Universidad del Valle (Colombia) and CIEMAT (Spain), and have been done by the author while his staying at our center included on his PhD program.

  6. Synthesis of Li{sub 1}+xM{sup I}II{sub x}Ti{sub 2}-x(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with nasicon structure, using sol-gel methods. Study of the relationship microstructure electrical properties; Sintesis mediante quimica sol gel de compuestos Li{sub 1}+xM{sup I}II{sub x}Ti{sub 2}-x(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} con estructura tipo Nasicon. Estudio de la relacion microestructura-propiedades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Estebanez, M.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; Isasi-Marin, J.

    2010-07-01

    Compounds of formula Li{sub 1}+xM{sup I}II{sub x}Ti{sub 2}-x(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with M{sup I}II = Cr, Fe and x = 0 and 0.05 have been prepared at soft temperatures using the Pechini synthesis method, based on sol-gel chemistry. The structural and microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), shows that all of them crystallize in a NASICON-type structure with similar lattice parameters. Doping with Fe and Cr, causes an increase of the density of the samples after sinterization what clearly improves the ionic conductivity of the original material, LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} until values of 9x10{sup -}4 S cm{sup -}1 at room temperature in the chromium-doped material. (Author)

  7. Cogeneration projects in PEMEX refining; Proyectos de cogeneracion en PEMEX Refinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerra O' Leary, Jose [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    Mexican Petroleum proposes the electric power cogeneration, the energy consumption and rationalization as well as the operative performance improvement. This is the reason Pemex refining considers the cogeneration projects development possibility related with the Refining National System to supply the six refineries with steam and electric power. And also the energy auto-supply to other Pemex refining, using the liquid and solid residuals as fuels for petroleum refining. [Spanish] Petroleos Mexicanos propone la Cogeneracion de energia electrica, el aprovechamiento y la racionalizacion del consumo de energia, asi como el mejoramiento del desempeno operativo, por lo cual Pemex Refinacion plantea la posibilidad del desarrollo de proyectos de Cogeneracion asociados a las refinerias del Sistema Nacional de Refinacion, para abastecer de vapor y energia electrica a cada una de las seis refinerias, asi como el autoabastecimiento de energia a otras instalaciones de Pemex Refinacion, utilizando como combustibles los residuales liquidos y solidos de la refinacion del petroleo.

  8. Electric field and energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperbolaidal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Koo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The electric potential and intensity field, as well as the energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperboloidal electrodes is evaluated as a superposition of prolate spheroidal harmonics using the Green-function technique. This study is motivated by the need to model the electric field between the tip and the sample in a scanning tunnelling microscope, and it can also be applied to a conductor-insulator-conductor junction. [Spanish] Los campos de potencial y de intensidad electrica, asi como la energia de una carga electrica puntual entre electrodos hiperboloidales confocales se evaluan como superposiciones de armonicos esferoidales prolatos usando la tecnica de la funcion de Green. Este estudio ha sido motivado por la necesidad de modelar el campo electrico entre la punta y la muestra de un microscopio de tunelamiento y barrido, y se puede aplicar tambien a una union de conductor-aislante-conductor.

  9. Geotermics; Geotermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano Gomez, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) through the Management of Geotermics has developed technologies that have allowed the utilization of the existing natural thermal energy from inside the Earth. In this article the developments made in this management are presented among which are the following ones: development of geotermometer of cationic composition (GCC), development of an Anapress system, and design and construction of mixed permeameter gas - liquid. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) a traves de la Gerencia de Geotermia ha desarrollado tecnologias que han permitido el aprovechamiento de la energia termica natural existente en el interior de la tierra. En este articulo se presentan los desarrollos realizados en esta gerencia entre los cuales se encuentran los siguientes: desarrollo de un geotermometro de composicion cationica (GCC), desarrollo de un sistema Anapres, y diseno y construccion de un permeametro mixto gas - liquido.

  10. Evaluation of the useful life of steam turbine rotors; Evaluacion de vida util de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero Parra, Antonio; Garcia Illescas, Rafael; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents the methodology applied by the Management of Turbomachinery of the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the evaluation of the remaining useful life of steam turbine rotors in the phase of initiation of fissures. The evaluation of the remaining useful life of turbines, will reveal the real state of health of the rotor and will serve as a base for the future decision making that guarantees their structural integrity. [Spanish] El presentes articulo presenta la metodologia aplicada por la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para la evaluacion de la vida util remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor en la fase de iniciacion de fisuras. La evaluacion de la vida util de turbinas, revelar el estado real de salud del rotor y servira de base para la toma de decisiones futuras que garanticen su integridad estructural.

  11. The corporative information systems and their application in the SICORP of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Los sistemas de informacion corporativa y su aplicacion en el SICORP de la Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia Lavalle, Manuel; Gonzalez Sustaeta, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Miranda Miranda, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    To be well informed sometimes is a difficult goal to reach, mainly when the companies are developed and grown at the present times rate. It is from this necessity that the Corporative Information Systems (SIC) arise. In this article a real application of a SIC in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented, in whose conceptualization and implementation, personnel of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is participating. [Spanish] Estar bien informado a veces resulta una meta dificil de alcanzar, sobre todo cuando las empresas se desarrollan y crecen al ritmo de los tiempos actuales. Es a partir de esta necesidad que surgen los Sistemas de Informacion Corporativa (SIC). En este articulo se presenta una aplicacion real de un SIC en la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), en cuya conceptualizacion e implantacion esta participando personal del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  12. Probabilistic fracture mechanics in the integrity evaluation of components; Mecanica de fractura probabilista en la evaluacion de la integridad de componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco Nava, Jose Manuel; Torres Toledano, Jose Gerardo; Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Because of the importance of fracture mechanics in applications to pressure vessels, piping and other components used in thermal power plants, the Mechanical Engineering Unit of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been developing activities in this field since some years ago. In this paper, the process for the analysis of probabilistic fracture mechanics is described. As an example, an application to the calculation of fault probability in piping systems, is presented. [Espanol] Dada la importancia de la mecanica de fractura en aplicaciones de recipientes a presion, tuberias y otros componentes utilizados en centrales termicas, la Unidad de Ingenieria Mecanica del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha venido desarrollando actividades en este campo desde hace algunos anos. En el presente trabajo, se describe el proceso para el analisis de mecanica de fractura probabilista. Como ejemplo se presenta una aplicacion al calculo de probabilidad de falla en tuberias.

  13. Asphaltenes in Mexican fuel oils; Asfaltenos en combustoleos mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longoria Ramirez, Rigoberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this article the main aspects in which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has worked to contribute to the solution of problems due to the presence of asphaltenes in national fuel oils, are emphasized. The increment of these compounds, that concentrate harmful elements, in the last ten years has reached 22% by weight of the fuel oil. It is demonstrated that the quantification of asphaltenes depends on the type of solvent employed. [Espanol] En este articulo se subrayan los principales aspectos en los que el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado para contribuir a la solucion de problemas debidos a la presencia de asfaltenos en combustoleos nacionales. El incremento de estos compuestos, que concentran elementos nocivos, en los ultimos diez anos ha llegado hasta un 22% del peso del combustoleo. Se demuestra que la cuantificacion de los asfaltenos depende del tipo de solvente utilizado.

  14. Optimum design of a self-supported power transmission tower type 2M2 for 230 kW; Diseno optimo de una torre de transmision autosoportada tipo 2M2, para 230 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejel Valdez, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Millan Monje, Alejandro; Honk Hernandez, Wenceslao [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    A group of specialists from the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analyzes the design of various types of power transmission towers in their application stage, in order to enhance them. In this article the structural characteristics of the self-supported tower type 2M2 for 230 kV of two circuits and of suspension, are presented. [Espanol] Un grupo de especialistas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analiza el diseno de diversos tipos de torres de transmision en su etapa de aplicacion, con el fin de mejorarlos. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas estructurales de la torre autosoportada tipo 2M2 para 230 kV, de dos circuitos y de suspension.

  15. Atmospheric electric discharges and grounding systems; Descargas atmosfericas y sistemas de conexion a tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the work made by the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in the area of atmospheric electric discharges and grounding connections at Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented. The work consisted of the revision of the procedures for the design of transmission lines and substations of CFE from which high indexes of interruptions are reported, from this, a program was defined that allowed to improve the existing designs in CFE. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el trabajo realizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en el area de descargas atmosfericas y conexiones a tierra en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El trabajo consistio en la revision de los procedimientos de diseno de las areas de transmision y subestaciones de la CFE para los que se reportan altos indices de salidas, a partir de esto se definio un programa que permitio mejorar los disenos existentes en la CFE.

  16. Pilot projects in window type air conditioning equipment in the domestic sector; Proyectos piloto en equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ricardo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    The present paper shows the energy saving that can be obtained in the domestic sector when replacing window type air conditioning equipment of low efficiency by equipment of greater efficiency, as well as the necessary parameters to identify such results, derived from the pilot projects of substitution being developed by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) at the moment. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los ahorros de energia que pueden obtenerse en el sector domestico al sustituir equipos de aire acondicionado tipo ventana de baja eficiencia, por equipos de mayor eficiencia, asi como los parametros necesarios para identificar tales resultados, derivados de los proyectos pilotos de sustitucion que desarrolla actualmente el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE).

  17. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  18. The necessity of renovation of the fundamental concepts of geochemistry for the geothermal systems; La necesidad de renovacion de los conceptos fundamentales de geoquimica para los sistemas geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahendra Jaiswal, Pal Verma [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the exhaustive experimentation of the compilation of the experimental data of quartz solubility is presented along with the saturation curve water - steam and in the zone of compressed liquid. On the base of these data a regression relation was derived, which is valid for the entire range of temperature from 0 to 374 Celsius degrees. This study was developed by Mahendra Pal Verma Jaiswal, researcher of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el experimento exhaustivo de la recopilacion de los datos experimentales de la solubilidad de cuarzo a lo largo de la curva de saturacion agua - vapor y en la zona de liquido comprimido. Sobre la base de estos datos se derivo una relacion de regresion, la cual es valida para todo el rango de temperatura desde 0 a 374 grados Celsius. Este estudio fue desarrollado por Mahendra Pal Verma Jaiswal, investigador del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)

  19. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  1. Spanish Electric Sector Nuclear R and D Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, M.; Francia, L.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the R and D model that, based on the experience gained and lessons learned in nearly forty years of nuclear power use in Spain, is Promoted by the Spanish Electricity Sector for the nuclear R and D activities it develops in a coordinated manner in the frame of the Nuclear Energy Committee of the Association Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA). (Author)

  2. Optimización del control del sistema de almacenamiento térmico en centrales solares termoeléctricas

    OpenAIRE

    Peón Menéndez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Las centrales termosolares de colectores cilindroparabolicos objeto de esta tesis utilizan aceite termico como fluido caloportador y sales fundidas como sistema de almacenamiento termico (SAT). El aceite absorbe la energia luminica procedente del sol, y la transfiere mediante intercambiadores de calor a un ciclo agua-vapor para ser convertida en energia electrica por un turbogenerador, o al sistema de almacenamiento termico para ser almacenada y posteriormente transferida al ciclo agua-vapor,...

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    in the market. ENACE the Empresa Nuclear Argentina dc Ccntralcs Flöctricas, or Argentine Nu- clear Power Plant Corporation is stepping out into the...and economy in operation. ENACE is an acronym for Empresa Nuclear Argentina de Centrales Electricas, or Argentine Nuclear Power Plant Corporation...de Energia Atömica; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Aso- sor para el Licenciamiento do Instalaciones Nucleares. "Criterios generales de seguridad en

  4. Beneficial triple-site cardiac resynchronization in a patient supported with an intra-aortic balloon pump for end-stage heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Ciszewski, Jan; Maciąg, Aleksander; Gepner, Katarzyna; Smolis-Bąk, Edyta; Sterliński, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 62-year-old male patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and end-stage heart failure supported with an intra-aortic balloon pump. Implantation of a triple-site cardiac resynchronization system and complex heart failure treatment brought a significant improvement, return to home activity and 17-month survival. The patient died due to heart failure aggravation. Within this time he was rehospitalized and successfully treated twice for an electrica...

  5. First multivendor scheme in CFE to protection of 400 kV transmission line, using optical TC's, digital relays and bus IEC 61850-9-2; Primer esquema multivendedor en CFE para proteccion de linea de transmision de 400 kV, utilizando TC's opticos, relevadores digitales y bus IEC 61850-9-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Colon, V.R; Rasgado, J.P [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lara C, H; Melendez, C; Juarez, N [Subdireccion de Transmision, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    This paper presents the details of design, installation and putting into service in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), of the first multi-vendor scheme that exists in the world, for the protection of a 400kV transmission line, which uses optical current transformers and digital relays IEC 61850-9-2. This system arises as a pilot project of the Subdireccion de Transmision of the CFE with the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). To ensure success in the implementation of the protection scheme, CFE joined a team coordinated by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)involving nine international companies and a university. Pilot protection scheme is in operation under continuous monitoring, in one of the transmission lines of CFE that interconnect Manuel Moreno Torres with El Juile substations. The construction features, the challenges that were overcome and the first results obtained in operation are presented below. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta los detalles del diseno, instalacion y puesta en servicio en la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del primer esquema multivendedor que existe en el mundo, para la proteccion de una linea de transmision de 400kV, que utiliza transformadores de corriente opticos y relevadores digitales IEC 61850-9-2. Este sistema surge como un proyecto piloto de la Subdireccion de Transmision de la CFE con el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Para asegurar el exito en la implementacion del esquema de proteccion, la CFE integro un equipo de trabajo coordinado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en el que participaron 9 empresas internacionales y una universidad. El esquema de proteccion piloto, se encuentra en operacion bajo monitoreo continuo, en una de las lineas de transmision de la CFE que interconecta las subestaciones de Manuel Moreno Torres y El Juile. Las caracteristicas de construccion, los retos que fueron vencidos y los primeros resultados obtenidos en su operacion se

  6. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Cibele C.; Bovi Marilene L. A.; Nakagawa João

    2003-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude) seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrica...

  7. Design and Experimental Testing of Savonius Wind Turbine U Three Blades Type Performance as An Alternative Energy Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Arman, Rizky

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is famous for its potential natural resource especially energy in the form of mining, water and air. Wind energy is a natural resource that can be obtained for free of charge among the most abundant and available continuously throughout the year. The issue of energy is one of the greatest challenges facing today's society in the world. The utilization of wind energy can be used in sloping areas, mountains, and the waterfront. The principle of conversion of wind energy into electrica...

  8. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  9. Research, development and technological innovation of wind turbine control systems; Investigacion, desarrollo e innovacion tecnologica de sistemas de control de aerogeneradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garduno Ramirez, Raul; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo Antelmo; Sanchez Parra, Marino; Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel; Hernandez Cuellar, Maria Aurora; Alcaide Godinez, Indira Xochiquetzal; Re Lopez, Victor Genaro; Hernandez Gonzalez, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Control systems constitute the brain and the nervous system of modern machines, such as wind turbine generators (TGE by its acronym in Spanish). TGEs can work efficiently, safely and almost autonomously, thanks to the control systems with which they are equipped. Conversely, any malfunctioning of the control system may cause failure or damage of a component, a subsystem or even destruction of the TGE itself. This paper introduces some basic facts about generation of electric power from wind energy in the world and Mexico, wind turbogenerators and their most relevant technologies, TGE control systems, and R and TD+I about TGE control systems performed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. [Spanish] Los sistemas de control constituyen el cerebro y el sistema nervioso de las maquinas modernas, como aerogeneradores (AG). Los AG pueden trabajar eficiente, segura y casi autonomamente, gracias a los sistemas de control con los que estan equipados. De manera inversa, cualquier mal funcionamiento del sistema de control puede provocar falla o dano de un componente, subsistema o incluso la destruccion del propio AG. Este documento introduce algunos hechos basicos en torno a la generacion de energia electrica a partir de energia eolica en el mundo y Mexico, los aerogeneradores y sus tecnologias mas importantes, sistemas de control de AG e I+DT alrededor de los sistemas de control de AG realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

  10. Design of a hydraulic microturbine type Michell-Banki; Diseno de una microturbina hidraulica tipo Michell-Banki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Luiz, Norberto; Rodriguez Bautista, Jose; Verduzco Figueroa, Hilario; Gudino Lau, Jorge; Galindo Granados, Miguel angel [Universidad de Colima, Facultad de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Manzanillo, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: norberto_lopez@ucol.mx

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of a hydraulic microturbine (MTH), which may be installed in areas where supplies are not available for electric power transmission lines, but possessing hydroelectric. MTH's role is to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical work, is coupled to an electric generator, whose function is to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The turbine generator set will produce more electric power the greater the hydroelectric of the area. In southern Mexico, we have great hydroelectric potential, as the case of the states of Veracruz, Chiapas and Oaxaca, which have small causes of rivers where the MTH could be installed and put into operation. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es presentar el diseno de una microturbina hidraulica (MTH), la cual podra ser instalada en zonas donde no se cuente con suministro de energia electrica por medio de lineas de transmision, pero que posean aprovechamientos hidroelectricos. La funcion de la MTH es convertir la energia hidraulica en trabajo mecanico, estara acoplada a un generador electrico, cuya funcion es convertir dicha energia mecanica en energia electrica. El conjunto turbina generador producira mas potencia electrica mientras mayor sea el aprovechamiento hidroelectrico de la zona. En el sur de Mexico contamos con un gran potencial hidroelectrico, como el caso de los estados de Veracruz, Chiapas y Oaxaca, que cuentan con pequenos causes de rios donde las MTH podrian ser instaladas y puestas en operacion.

  11. Evaluation of the national cogeneration potential as an option for the expansion of the national electric system; Evaluacion del potencial nacional de cogeneracion como opcion en la expansion del sistema electrico nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva Gomez, Rolando; Hernandez Galicia, Julio Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Portes Mascorro, Enrique; Alvarez Chavez, Jose Maria [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) carried out a study to determine the amount of electric energy available by cogeneration in the industrial sector of our country. This study is based in a survey among the enterprises with the largest fuel consumption belonging to the industrial and commercial sectors and to the petrochemical branch of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The results of the study are presented, which show the location of the cogeneration potential by the following estimates: a) The scenario under a potential of 5770 MW to generate annually 4.55 x 107 MWh of electric energy. b) The scenario with a potential of 10819 MW to generate annually 9.47 x 107 Mwh of electric energy [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) llevo acabo un estudio para determinar la cantidad de energia electrica disponible por cogeneracion en el sector industrial de nuestro pais. El estudio se fundamenta en una encuesta entre las empresas con mayor consumo de combustibles pertenecientes a los sectores industrial y comercial y al ramo petroquimico de Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). Se presentan los resultados del estudio, el cual muestra la ubicacion del potencial de cogeneracion por los siguientes estimados: a) El escenario bajo con un potencial de 5770 MW para producir anualmente 4.55 x 107 Mwh de energia electrica. b) El escenario alto con un potencial de 10819 MW para producir anualmente 9.47 x 107 MWh de energia electrica

  12. On-line monitoring for the detection and prevention of faults in the power transformers; Monitoreo en linea para la deteccion y prevencion de fallas en transformadores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Tagle, Alfredo; Equihua Tapia, Hugo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Linan Garcia, Roberto; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Nunez Dominguez, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Power transformers are held to thermal, electrical and mechanical efforts, which degrade the isolation system oil/paper. So that to detect incipient degradations in transformers with more than 25 years of service installed in the transmission network of Commission Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), developed and installed six on-line Monitoring Systems for Power Transformers (SMLTP). The systems are installed at the substations Puebla II, banks AT-1 and AT-2, Malpaso II, bank, AT-1 and phase B of bank AT-1 of the electrical substation Villa de Garcia. [Spanish] Los transformadores de potencia estan sujetos a esfuerzos termicos, electricos y mecanicos, los cuales degradan el sistema de aislamiento aceite/papel. De modo que con el proposito de detectar degradaciones incipientes en transformadores con mas de 25 anos de servicio instalado en la red de transmision de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), desarrollo e instalo seis Sistemas de Monitoreo en Linea para Transformadores de Potencia (SMLTP). Los sistemas se encuentran en las subestaciones Puebla II, bancos AT-1 y AT-2, Malpaso II, banco, AT-1 y fase B del banco AT-1 de la subestacion electrica Villa de Garcia.

  13. Code for the steam tables for pure water in visual basic 6.0.; Un codigo para las tablas de vapor para agua pura en visual basic 6.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The thermodynamic data of the water are of extreme importance in all of the branches of science and technology; the facilitate the understanding of the natural Earth processes. Nevertheless, for the electrical industry the water plays a very important role during the generation of electrical energy process. Different heat sources such as coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear fuel or the geothermal heat boil the water that forms the steam used to move the turbines. Consequently, the steam tables (the thermodynamic water data) are vital to model thermal and mass transference and physical-chemical processes during the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] Los datos termodinamicos del agua son de suma importancia en todas las ramas de la ciencia y tecnologia, ellos facilitan el entendimiento de los procesos naturales de la Tierra. Sin embargo, para la industria electrica el agua juega un papel muy importante durante el proceso de generacion de energia electrica. Diferentes fuentes de calor tales como carbon, aceite, gas natural, combustible nuclear o el calor geotermico calientan el agua que forma el vapor utilizado para mover las turbinas. Luego entonces, las tablas de vapor (los datos termodinamicos de agua) son vitales para modelar transferencia termica y de masa y procesos fisico-quimico durante la generacion energia electrica.

  14. Procedure to determine the convenience of installing a co-generation system; Procedimiento para determinar la conveniencia de instalar un sistema de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos; Acosta Torres, Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this article a methodology for the selection of the co-generation system better adapted to the energy needs of an industry is presented, covering the following schemes: a) Satisfy the thermal demand and deliver to the net the excess electricity generated. b) Reduce the functioning level of the machine and produce electricity in accordance with the internal demand. The thermal demand will be satisfied, for instance, integrating a boiler in the cycle. c) Satisfy the electric demand and utilize only in part the available heat. d) Or else, reduce the operation level of the machine and produce only the necessary thermal energy, taking from the net the electric energy needed to cover the total demand. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para la seleccion del sistema de cogeneracion que mejor se adapte a las necesidades energeticas de una industria, cubriendo los siguientes esquemas: a) Satisfacer la demanda termica y ceder a la red el exceso de energia electrica generada. b) Reducir el nivel de funcionamiento de la maquina y producir electricidad de acuerdo a la demanda interna. La demanda termica se cubrira, por ejemplo, integrando una caldera al ciclo. c) Satisfacer la demanda electrica y, utilizar solo en parte el calor disponible. d) O bien, reducir el nivel de operacion de la maquina y solo producir la energia termica necesaria, tomando de la red la energia electrica para cubrir la demanda total.

  15. Energy management system. Opti-dmaX Control; Sistema de administracion de energia. Control Opti-dmaX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The electrical energy is an essential element in the activities of the present world. Optimizing its consumption represents a competitive advantage for the companies, since the operation costs would be reduced as well as the negative impact to the environment. In billing the electrical energy the tariffs consider: the consumption, the demand, the power and the schedule of use for the medium and large companies. With the Opti-dmaX system the necessary information for the correct administration of the electrical energy consumption is obtained from the measurement in the strategic points of the installation. At the same time, the processes and services are controlled, maintaining an efficient power operation that diminishes operative costs. [Spanish] La energia electrica es un elemento indispensable en las actividades del mundo actual, y optimizar su consumo, representa una ventaja competitiva para las empresas, ya que se consigue reducir los costos de operacion y el impacto al ambiente. En la facturacion de la energia electrica las tarifas consideran: el consumo, la demanda, la potencia y el horario de uso para las medianas y grandes empresas. Con el sistema Opti-dmaX se obtiene la informacion necesaria para la correcta administracion del consumo de energia electrica a partir de la medicion en los puntos estrategicos de la instalacion. A su vez, se controlan los procesos y servicios, manteniendo una operacion energetica eficiente que minimiza los costos operativos.

  16. Assessment methodology of the summer time schedule change (CHV) in Mexico: 10 years of application; Metodologia de evaluacion del cambio de horario de verano (CHV) en Mexico: 10 anos de aplicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Perez Rebolledo, Hugo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Summer Time is strongly bound to the rational use of the natural resources, since it is a measure that contributes to the care of the country energy resources and the improvement of the environment. This measure consists of advancing the clock one hour in the months that have greater insolation in the country and when doing it, the electrical energy demand is reduced, a saving in the consumption of the same is obtained, resulting in a reduction of the fossil fuel consumption that is needed to generate electric energy and also the emission of polluting agents to the environment is detained. It is to emphasize that the sustainable development and the environment depend on the energy efficient use. With the application of the Summertime Schedule, the entire country participate in the care of the energy resources that are derived from their application and generates in the population a culture of the care of the energy and the environment. This program is applied to world-wide level, including the industrialized countries. In this paper the methodology implemented by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is presented, to realize the calculations of saving in electrical power consumption and the quantification of the avoided demand, as well as the main results obtained in 10 years of application of the measure in Mexico. [Spanish] El horario de verano esta fuertemente ligado al uso racional de los recursos naturales, ya que es una medida que contribuye al cuidado de los recursos energeticos del pais y la mejora del medio ambiente. Esta medida consiste en adelantar el reloj una hora en los meses que se tiene mayor insolacion en el pais y al hacerlo, se reduce la demanda de energia electrica, se tiene un ahorro en el consumo de la misma y como resultado se reduce el consumo de combustibles fosiles que se necesitan para generar la energia electrica y tambien se dejan de emitir contaminantes al medio ambiente. Cabe resaltar que el desarrollo sustentable y el

  17. Methodology to establish the profile that defines a meta-specification that applies to distribution substations - Mexico case based on norm IEC-61850; Metodologia para establecer el perfil que define una meta-especificacion que aplica a subestaciones de distribucion -caso Mexico- basada en la norma IEC-61850

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picazo Blanquel, Cuitlahuac; Chairez Campos Carlos; Garcia Hernandez, Joaquin; Godinez Enriquez, Hebert; Poujol Galvan, Francisco C.; Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Villalobos Ramos, Andres; LLamas Gonzalez, Rosa E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Samitier Otero, Carlos [Global Networking Engineering (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In this article is presented a case of study of automation of electrical substations of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) of Mexico, in which the Norm IEC-61850 has been taken as reference. The case of study consists of defining a metaspecification for the protection, control, measurement and communication systems required by the substations of electrical distribution. For the development the obtained previous experience in the development of a bequeathed system SA, norm IEC61850 has been taken as reference, as well as the experiences documented in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Global Networking Engineering (GNE), Spain. This way, the obtained result is the metaspecification, which establishes the application of the control, protective equipment and measurement under the interoperability concepts, as well as the automation functions of substations applied in the intelligent networks (REI's). The methodology put into practice includes the design of the system architecture (SAS), the operation philosophy, the topology of the communications network, the data modeling one with logical nodes that include data types and classes of common data (CDC), transference of information, and administration of the archives ICD, SSD, SCD, and CID. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un caso de estudio de automatizacion de subestaciones electricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) de Mexico, en el cual se ha tomado como referencia la norma IEC-61850. El caso de estudio consiste en definir una metaespecificacion para los sistemas proteccion, control, medicion y comunicaciones requeridos por las subestaciones de distribucion electrica. Para el desarrollo se ha tomado como referencia la experiencia previa obtenida en el desarrollo de un sistema SA legado, la norma IEC61850, asi como las experiencias documentadas en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), la Comision Federal de

  18. Resiliencia y Variables Asociadas en Cuidadores Informales de Pacientes con Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Mercedes Cerquera Córdoba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La resiliencia es una variable protectora ante el rol del cuidador, por ello, este estudio pretende identificar la relación entre la resiliencia y la sobrecarga, la depresión, la percepción de apoyo social y estrategias de afrontamiento. Se trata de un estudio transversal de alcance correlacional que contó con una muestra de 101 cuidadores, evaluados por medio de los instrumentos Zarit, mos, ider , Coping, la Escala de Resiliencia de Wagnild y Young. Se identificaron correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas entre apoyo social y solución de problemas como estrategia de afrontamiento y resiliencia, y correlaciones negativas con depresión, evidenciando en estos resultados los factores protectores y de riesgo que pueden aportar a la creación de futuros programas de intervención.

  19. Resiliencia y Variables Asociadas en Cuidadores Informales de Pacientes con Alzheimer/Resilience and Associated Variables in Informal Caregivers of Alzheimer Patients/Resiliência e Variáveis Associadas em Cuidadores Informais de Pacientes com Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Mercedes Cerquera Córdoba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La resiliencia es una variable protectora ante el rol del cuidador, por ello, este estudio pretende identificar la relación entre la resiliencia y la sobrecarga, la depresión, la percepción de apoyo social y estrategias de afrontamiento. Se trata de un estudio transversal de alcance correlacional que contó con una muestra de 101 cuidadores, evaluados por medio de los instrumentos Zarit, mos, ider, Coping, la Escala de Resiliencia de Wagnild y Young. Se identificaron correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas entre apoyo social y solución de problemas como estrategia de afrontamiento y resiliencia, y correlaciones egativas con depresión, evidenciando en estos resultados los factores protectores y de riesgo que pueden aportar a la creación de futuros programas de intervención.

  20. Autoconcepto y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de la carrera de obstetricia de la Universidad Científica del Perú- 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy Pérez, Luis Gabriel; Guimet Rojas, Lilia Graciela

    2014-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo: Determinar la vinculación entre el autoconcepto y el rendimiento académico en estudiantes de la carrera de Obstetricia de la Universidad Científica del Perú en el año 2013. La investigación fue de tipo correlacional, de diseño no experimental de tipo transeccional correlacional. La población la conformó todos los estudiantes de la carrera de Obstetricia de la Universidad Científica del Perú que fueron 320 y la muestra la conformó los estudiantes del IX cic...

  1. Lectura crítica y aprendizaje de asignatura de realidad nacional- estudiantes de III ciclo de ciencias sociales- Facultad de Educación y Humanidades- Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana- Iquitos, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Salinas, Gustavo; Acosta Prada, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo: Demostrar que existe correlación entre la lectura crítica y el aprendizaje de la asignatura de Realidad Nacional en estudiantes del III ciclo de Ciencias Sociales de la Facultad de Educación y Humanidades de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana de Iquitos en el año 2014. La investigación fue de tipo correlacional, de diseño no experimental de tipo transversal correlacional. La población la conformó 45 estudiantes de III ciclo de Ciencias Sociales...

  2. Internet, herramienta educativa y rendimiento académico- estudiantes del área clínica- Facultad de Medicina Humana- Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Asesor Dra. Perea Torres, Delia La investigación tiene como objetivo, determinar la relación del internet y como herramienta educativa y rendimiento académico en estudiantes del área clínica Facultad de Medicina Humana Universidad de la Amazonia Peruana 2013. La investigación fue de tipo correlacional de diseño no experimental de tipo transversal correlacional. La población estuvo conformada por 204 estudiante matriculados en área clínica de la Facultad de Medicina Humana de la Univ...

  3. Autoconcepto y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de la carrera de obstetricia de la Universidad Científica del Perú- 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Asesor Dra. Perea Torres, Delia La investigación tuvo como objetivo: Determinar la vinculación entre el autoconcepto y el rendimiento académico en estudiantes de la carrera de Obstetricia de la Universidad Científica del Perú en el año 2013. La investigación fue de tipo correlacional, de diseño no experimental de tipo transeccional correlacional. La población la conformó todos los estudiantes de la carrera de Obstetricia de la Universidad Científica del Perú que fueron 320 y la muest...

  4. EVENTOS ESTRESANTES Y LA RELACIÓN CON EL CONSUMO DE ALCOHOL Y TABACO EN ADOLESCENTES

    OpenAIRE

    VILLEGAS-PANTOJA,MIGUEL ÁNGEL; ALONSO-CASTILLO, María Magdalena; Alonso-Castillo, Bertha Alicia; Guzmán Facundo, Francisco Rafael.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre la experimentación de eventos estresantes y el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes de preparatoria del Área Metropolitana de Monterrey, México. Material y método: Diseño descriptivo correlacional con muestreo probabilístico estratificado (n=416). Se aplicaron los cuestionarios Sucesos de Vida, la Prueba de Identificación de Desórdenes por Uso de Alcohol (AUDIT) y una cédula de datos. Resultados: El número de eventos estresantes correlacionó posi...

  5. “Determinantes genéticos asociados con la resistencia a cefalosporinas, aminoglicósidos y quinolonas en aislamientos hospitalarios de Acinetobacter Baumannii”

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Castro, Olga Esther

    2011-01-01

    139 aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii aislados de 4 hospitales colombianos entre el 2005 y 2009 se les detectaron varios genes de resistencia a antibióticos relacionados con el fenotipo de resistencia a cefalosporinas, aminoglicósidos y quinolonas. La presencia de la ISAba1 corriente arriba del gen blaADC se correlacionó con la resistencia a cefalosporinas. El integron de clase 1 se correlacionó con los genes de enzimas modificadoras de aminoglicósidos aadA1 y aacC1. La presencia del...

  6. ALGORITMO COMPUTACIONAL PARA PREDECIR EL GRADIENTE DE PRESIÓN EN POZOS VERTICALES MEDIANTE LA CORRELACIÓN DE FLUJO MULTIFÁSICO DE HAGEDORN Y BROWN

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Luis; Duarte, María

    2015-01-01

    La precisión en la predicción de la caída de presión esperada durante el flujo multifásico de fluido en la sarta de producción de un pozo es un problema ampliamente conocido en la industria petrolera. Son muchas las correlaciones y modelos mecanísticos que permiten estimar el gradiente de presión en pozos como las correlaciones de: Duns y Ros (2008); Orkiszewski (1967); Hagedorn y Brown (1965), Beggs y Brill (1973), Govier y col. (1999), entre otras. Cada una de ellas presentan condiciones de...

  7. Resiliencia y Variables Asociadas en Cuidadores Informales de Pacientes con Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La resiliencia es una variable protectora ante el rol del cuidador, por ello, este estudio pretende identificar la relación entre la resiliencia y la sobrecarga, la depresión, la percepción de apoyo social y estrategias de afrontamiento. Se trata de un estudio transversal de alcance correlacional que contó con una muestra de 101 cuidadores, evaluados por medio de los instrumentos Zarit, mos, ider , Coping, la Escala de Resiliencia de Wagnild y Young. Se identificaron correlaciones positi...

  8. Percepción de crianza parental y su relación con el inicio del consumo de drogas en adolescentes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Villegas-Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contra todo esfuerzo, el inicio del consumo de drogas continúa siendo precoz. Se presumen asociaciones con factores relativos a la crianza, pero la escasa evidencia encontrada indica un vacío en el conocimiento de este fenómeno. Objetivo: identificar la relación entre la percepción de crianza parental y la edad de inicio en el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes. Materiales y método: diseño descriptivo correlacional con muestreo probabilístico. La muestra de adolescentes (n = 416 se estimó para IC 95 %. Se empleó una cédula sobre consumo de drogas y el cuestionario “Mis memorias de crianza” EMBU-I. Resultados: se identificaron correlaciones positivas entre la percepción de crianza parental y la edad de inicio del consumo de tres drogas. Por sexo del progenitor se encontraron ocho correlaciones entre la percepción de crianza paterna (todas las dimensiones de crianza y la edad de inicio del consumo de cuatro drogas. En las madres, la dimensión de calidez se correlacionó positivamente con la edad de inicio del consumo de tabaco. Conclusiones: posiblemente la crianza parental desempeña un papel importante en el inicio temprano del consumo de sustancias por los adolescentes, por lo que es preciso considerarla en la prevención de las adicciones.

  9. INDICADORES DE DESEMPEÑO DE LA DESTILACIÓN DE BIOETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NILSON MARRIAGA

    2009-01-01

    producido lo que obliga al uso de materias primas que generen suficiente biomasa para producir el vapor requerido. Se encontraron correlaciones que permiten establecer fácilmente los diámetros de las columnas de destilación en función de la capacidad de producción.

  10. Impacto humano y riqueza de especies de vertebrados terrestres: una revisión a diferentes escalas macroecológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Joaquin Torres Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El impacto humano es una variable fundamental en biogeografia de la conservacion. Para explorar su efecto sobre la riqueza de especies revisamos la literatura cientifica para vertebrados terrestres (anfibios, reptiles, mamiferos y aves sobre este tema. Se realizo una busqueda de bibliografia en ingles para el periodo 2000-2013 en la base de datos “ISI Web of Knowledge” filtrando por palabras claves. Analizamos la distribucion de publicaciones por area biogeografica, la influencia del tamano de grano, extension geografica, grupo taxonomico y del signo de los coeficientes de correlacion impacto humano-riqueza de especies. Encontramos 30 publicaciones que cumplian nuestros criterios de busqueda. Estas se concentran mayoritariamente en el Paleartico. Aves y mamiferos son los grupos con mayor disponibilidad de publicaciones. Los estudios mas frecuentes se ubican a una extension regional y continental. Por ultimo, la distribucion de frecuencias de las correlaciones entre impacto humano y riqueza de especies muestra que dominan las correlaciones positivas, sobre todo a extensiones amplias. A tamano de grano <1000 km2, encontramos una correlacion negativa dominante, que podria estar mediada por procesos de perdida y fragmentacion de habitat o cambios del uso del suelo. Estos resultados sirven para orientar aquellas regiones biogeograficas, grupos taxonomicos y escalas que precisan de mayor atencion a la hora de planificar estudios futuros, que seran de vital interes para comprender las respuestas de la biodiversidad ante escenarios de cambio global.

  11. Crianza y desconexión moral en infantes: Su relación en una comunidad vulnerable de Barranquilla/Relationship between child-rearing and moral disconnection among infants in a vulnerable community in Barranquilla/Criança e desconexão moral na infância: a relação desses fatores em uma comunidade vulnerável de Barranquilla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marina Begoña Martínez-González; Claudia Andrea Robles-Haydar; José Juan Amar-Amar; Fernando Alexis Crespo-Romero

    2016-01-01

    ... problemáticas en los infantes. Se realizó una investigación que correlacionó las prácticas de crianza de familias en una comunidad vulnerable de la ciudad de Barranquilla, con los mecanismos...

  12. Personalidad infantil y memoria auditiva inmediata en un grupo de escolares con rendimiento académico normal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge E. Restrepo; Ángel Roca; Santiago Sucerquia; Sara Herrera

    2012-01-01

    .... Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar las correlaciones entre la personalidad infantil normal y la memoria auditiva inmediata en un grupo de escolares con rendimiento académico normal. Se evaluó un grupo de 36...

  13. Violencia en estudiantes universitarios en San Luis Potosí, México: Un estudio desde la perspectiva de género Violence in college students at San Luis Potosi, Mexico: A study from gender perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yesica Yolanda Rangel Flores; Minerva García Rangel

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar las correlaciones que se establecen entre género y autopercepción homicida y suicida en estudiantes de una universidad de la Región Media en San Luís Potosí, México. Metodología...

  14. Relaciones entre pruebas de velocidad, tests de salto y dinamometría isométrica en velocistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido Solana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las habilidades deportivas, la capacidad de producir fuerza lo más rápidamente posible, o fuerza explosiva, juega el papel más importante en la optimización de dichas habilidades. Zatsiorsky (1995 la define como “la habilidad para desarrollar la máxima fuerza en la menor cantidad de tiempo”. Las correlaciones existentes entre pruebas de velocidad y tests de salto han sido ampliamente observadas. Sin embargo, las correlaciones entre pruebas de velocidad y tests isométricos están menos estudiadas. Una muestra de 24 velocistas de categoría junior fue sometida a pruebas de velocidad específica, tests de salto con contramovimiento y en profundidad, así como a un test isométrico máximo para la musculatura extensora del tobillo. Los resultados muestran fuertes relaciones entre los tests de carrera y los de salto, así como de estos últimos con los de dinamometría. Por otro lado, sólo con el test de 20 metros se obtienen correlaciones con variables del test isométrico, sin que se encuentren correlaciones con la marca en 100 metros lisos. La principal conclusión de nuestros datos es que las variables medidas en un test isométrico van a tener alta relación con la primera fase de la carrera en pruebas de velocidad.

  15. Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY

  16. Calidad de vida, resiliencia e ideación suicida en adolescentes víctimas de abuso sexual = Quality of life, resilience and suicidal ideation in adolescent victims of sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Quiceno, Japcy M.; Mateus, Jineth; Cardenas, Marisol; Villareal, Diana; Vinaccia, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las relaciones de la resiliencia y la ideación suicida con la calidad de vida en 50 adolescentes víctimas de abuso sexual de la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia. El diseño fue ex-post-facto correlacional de corte t

  17. ACTITUDES HACIA LA MUERTE EN UN GRUPO DE ADULTOS INTERMEDIOS Y MAYORES CON ENFERMEDAD CRÓNICA (HIPERTENSIÓN, DIABETES Y CÁNCER) EN LA CIUDAD DE BUCARAMANGA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez; Zulay Florez

    2008-01-01

      Se desarrolló un estudio correlacional-transversal que exploró las actitudes hacia la muerte en un grupo de adultos intermedios y mayores con enfermedad crónica (hipertensión, diabetes y cáncer...

  18. Actitudes hacia la muerte en un grupo de adultos intermedios y mayores con enfermedad crónica (hipertensión, diabetes y cáncer) en la ciudad de Bucaramanga

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez; Zulay Flórez Galvis

    2008-01-01

    Se desarrolló un estudio correlacional-transversal que exploró las actitudes hacia la muerte en un grupo de adultos intermedios y mayores con enfermedad crónica (hipertensión, diabetes y cáncer...

  19. Relaciones entre logro de aprendizaje, automonitoreo, estilo cognitivo y estilos de aprendizaje en estudiantes de medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martínez-Bernal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis de las relaciones que existen entre logro de aprendizaje, uso de automonitoreo metacognitivo, estilo cognitivo (dimensión Dependencia- Independencia de Campo y estilo de aprendizaje (Clasificación de Grasha, en estudiantes universitarios. El estudio se realizó con una población de 130 alumnos de una facultad de medicina de 6º a 10º semestre en una universidad en Bogotá, Colombia. Utilizando la metodología de correlaciones bivariadas se buscaron asociaciones entre el promedio académico alcanzado por los estudiantes, el automonitoreo metacognitivo, medido con el cuestionario MSQL, los estilos cognitivos por medio de la prueba EFT y los estilos de aprendizaje reportados en el inventario de Grasha. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones positivas del logro de aprendizaje con las variables: estilo cognitivo, uso de estrategias metacognitivas, estilos de aprendizaje competitivo y participativo, y correlaciones negativas con los estilos de aprendizaje evasivo y dependiente. De igual forma se encontraron otras correlaciones entre las variables de estudio que son discutidas en el documento.

  20. Funcionamiento familiar y su relación con la exposición a la violencia en adolescentes mexicanos

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos-Guajardo, Julia; Norma A. Ruvalcaba-Romero; Castillo-López, Jesús; Ayala-Díaz, Paulina C.

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la relación entre el funcionamiento familiar y la exposición a la violencia en adolescentes mexicanos. Se propuso un diseño transversal, descriptivo y correlacional. La muestra estuvo conformad

  1. Co-generation project for the Combined Cycle Power Plant President Juarez Rosarito and a reverse osmosis desalting plant; Proyecto de cogeneracion para la planta de ciclo combinado Presidente Juarez Rosarito y una planta desaladora de osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector; Espindola Hernandez, Salvador [Universidad NAcional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    In this work a technical and economical analysis of the installation of a reverse osmosis desalting plant connected to a power station that uses the combined cycle technology under a co-generation scheme is presented: production of electricity and water. The operation program of the desalting power station will be determined by the demand of energy of the combined cycle power station; the proposal is that the desalting plant operates in the hours of low load of the power station and shuts down at the peak hours of electrical energy demand. So that this study is representative, the demand curves of electric energy of the units of combined cycle of Central President Juarez Rosarito of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken and updated the data of the reverse osmosis desalting plants that are available at the moment in the market. As basis of the study the level costs will be determined so much as the electrical energy generated by the power station of combined cycle, operating inside and outside of a co-generation scheme and the costs made level for the water produced by the reverse osmosis plant under two assumptions: the first one is buying the electrical energy from CFE and the second one considering that the CFE is the owner of the desalting plant and therefore the cost of electrical energy to desalting the plant is zero. This work shows the economic impacts on the costs of the generation of electrical energy and on those of the desalted water in a co-generation scheme. The results shown in this study can be considered for the future planning in the construction of desalting plants to supply of water in the Northwestern zones of the country where serious problems of water shortage exist. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un analisis tecnico y economico de la instalacion de una planta desaladora de osmosis inversa acoplada a una central de generacion de energia electrica que utiliza la tecnologia de ciclo combinado bajo un esquema de

  2. Assessment and planning of the electrical systems in Mexican refineries by 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Flores, Luis Ivan; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Hugo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Dario Taboada; Guillermo; Pano Jimenez, Javier [PEMEX, (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    ser suministrados por las fuentes de generacion instaladas en cada una de las refinerias y a traves de una expansion de su capacidad de generacion. Estas centrales electricas necesitan aumentar su produccion de electricidad y vapor de agua a niveles por encima de su capacidad instalada, lo que significa integrar nuevos equipos de generacion de energia (gas o vapor turbogeneradores), asi como el aumento de las cargas electricas. En la actualidad, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) tiene la intencion de reestructurar sus sistemas electricos y de vapor, a fin de suministrar de forma optima los servicios requeridos para la produccion de combustibles de alta calidad. En este articulo se presenta la situacion actual de los sistemas de energia electricas originales de las refinerias y se evalúa la integracion electrica de las plantas de proceso en los nuevos esquemas tipicos. Tambien se presentan los esquemas conceptuales propuestos para reestructurar el sistema de energia electrica para dos refinerias, cuya planificacion estrategica se centro en la aplicacion de las modificaciones necesarias para la integracion de nuevas plantas de proceso que demandaran alrededor de 20 MW para cada refineria en el ano 2014. Los resultados del analisis permitieron identificar las condiciones actuales de los sistemas de energia electrica en la industria de refinacion de petroleo o de la Industria Nacional de Refinacion (INR), y por lo tanto ofrecer soluciones tecnicas que podrian ser utiles para los ingenieros que desarrollan proyectos similares.

  3. Scenarios simulation for the conservation and efficient use of energy, using passive control measures; Simulacion de escenarios de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia, utilizando medidas de control pasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, G.; Heard, Ch.; Sanchez Viveros, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas,Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Every one involved with the conservation and efficient use of electric energy, has listened in reiterative occasions to the causes that changed the conventional mentality at the beginning of the seventies. Nevertheless, there are many persons that still ignore that by using the energy rationally, their costs are significantly reduced, their comfort is enhanced and the environmental problems are minimized. Specifically, in the domestic sector, from the figures reported by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in 1996, the electric energy sold was 28,410 Gwh, that is, 23.4% of the total consumption (121,579 Gwh). Table 1 presents the average by tariff in the national domestic sector, which shows that 20% of the electricity consumed was required for environmental conditioning (air conditioning, evaporative coolers and electric fans). The above figures quantitatively show that there is a strong impact in the consumption of electric energy due to weather conditions. For this reason, currently the Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) and the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) are promoting standards and projects to propitiate the rationalization in the use of energy, besides of achieving the improvement of thermal comfort conditions. One more case would be the Fideicomiso para el Aislamiento Termico de la Vivienda en Mexicali (FIPATERM), which promotes the financing of saving measures and efficient energy use in cities with extreme climate. This paper describes the strategy that was followed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the development of the human and material infrastructure, that has allowed the sustainment of several projects in the saving and efficient use of energy in CFE, CONAE, FIDE, FIPATERM and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), concretely in relationship with the thermal analysis of dwellings. [Espanol] Todos aquellos relacionados con el ahorro y el uso eficiente de la energia electrica, han

  4. Condensers for measuring steam quality at the inlet of back-pressure units of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Condensadores para medir la calidad del vapor a la entrada de las turbinas a contrapresion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Rubi; Reyes Delgado, Lisette; Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Electrical conductivity is an indirect measurement of the quality of the steam supplied to power units. In the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, the electrical conductivity once was measured in a discrete and periodic way by condensing steam samples through a water-cooled condenser. In an attempt to continuously measure conductivity, conductivity meters were installed where the units discharged, but the values proved unstable and unrepresentative. Thereafter, taking into account that steam quality should be measured at the steam delivery-reception point, equipment was designed and tested for continuously condensing steam. Finally it was possible to get an air-cooled condenser able to condense 500 milliliters per minute, enough to collect a representative flow of the steam and to measure its electrical conductivity. The equipment was installed in all seven back-pressure units operating in the field and to date has been operating in an optimal manner. [Spanish] La conductividad electrica es una medida indirecta de la calidad del vapor que se suministra a las unidades turbogeneradoras. En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., la conductividad electrica se media en forma puntual y periodica, condensando muestras de vapor por medio de un serpentin enfriado con agua. Despues, ante la necesidad de medirla en forma continua, se instalaron conductivimetros en las descargas de las unidades, pero los valores resultaron muy inestables y poco representativos. Considerando, ademas, que la calidad del vapor debe medirse en el punto de entrega-recepcion, se disenaron y probaron equipos para condensar vapor de manera continua, lograndose construir un condensador enfriado por aire que logra condensar un flujo de 500 mililitros por minuto, cantidad suficiente para tener un flujo representativo del vapor que alimenta a las turbinas y medirle su conductividad electrica. Se instalaron estos equipos en las siete unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion que funcionan en el campo

  5. Methodology for the location of PMU for the monitoring of critical oscillations in power systems; Metodologia para la ubicacion de PMU para el monitoreo de oscilaciones criticas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Guizar, Jorge Guillermo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The deregulation and restructuring undergone by the electrical industry, as well as the tendency at world-wide level of reorganization in generation, transmission and distribution units has brought about, as a consequence, drastic changes in the operation of the electric power systems. The difficulties to construct new transmission power lines and the continuous increase in the electricity consumption are forcing more and more to operate the electric power systems every time nearer their safety limits. Nevertheless, to assure the system reliability without mattering what so plaintiff is the operating condition is a requirement that the electrical companies must satisfy. This panorama has motivated and impelled the use of new technologies for the critical indicators the monitoring that allow the electrical companies to guarantee the system safe operation. In this paper a methodology for the location of Fasorial Measurement Units, better known as FMU for the monitoring of the critical oscillation modes in the electric power systems is presented. [Spanish] La desregulacion y reestructuracion experimentada por la industria electrica, asi como la tendencia a nivel mundial de reorganizacion en unidades de generacion, transmision y distribucion ha traido como consecuencia cambios drasticos en la operacion de los sistemas electricos de potencia. Las dificultades para construir nuevas lineas de transmision y el incremento continuo en el consumo de electricidad estan forzando a operar el sistema electrico de potencia cada vez mas cerca de sus limites de seguridad. Sin embargo, asegurar la confiabilidad del sistema sin importar que tan demandante sea la condicion de operacion es un requisito que las companias electricas deben satisfacer. Este panorama ha motivado e impulsado el uso de nuevas tecnologias para el monitoreo de indicadores criticos que permitan a las companias electricas garantizar una operacion segura del sistema. En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia para

  6. Alternative analysis to increase the power in combined-cycle power plants; Analisis de alternativas para el incremento de potencia en plantas termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Cruz, Hector; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Gerencia de Procesos Termicos, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: hpacheco@iie.org.mx; aarriola@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The electricity industry traditionally had two thermodynamic cycles for power generation: conventional steam turbine (Rankine cycle) used to supply a base load during the day, and gas turbines (Brayton cycle), for its speed response, normally used to cover peak loads. However, to provide variable peak loads, the gas turbine, as a volumetric machine is affected by the change in air density by changing the combustion temperature. This paper shows the scheme of integration of both systems, that it's known as combined cycle and the different options that would have these power plants, to maintain or increase their power in variable ambient conditions. It analyzes different options, such as: 1. Supplementary fire in the stove. 2. Air cooling intake in the gas turbine (evaporation system or mechanical system). 3. Steam injection in the combustion chamber. [Spanish] La industria electrica tradicionalmente a contado con dos ciclos termodinamicos para generacion electrica: las turbinas convencionales de vapor (ciclo de Rankine) se utilizan para suministrar una carga base durante el dia, y las turbinas de gas (ciclo de Brayton), por su rapidez de respuesta, se utilizan normalmente para cubrir las cargas pico. Sin embargo, para suministrar las cargas variables pico, la turbina a gas, por ser una maquina volumetrica, se ve afectada por el cambio de la densidad del aire de combustion al cambiar la temperatura ambiente. En este trabajo se muestra el esquema de integracion de ambos sistemas, en lo que se conoce como ciclo combinado y las diferentes opciones que tendrian estas plantas de generacion electrica para mantener o incrementar su potencia en condiciones ambiente variable. Para ello se analizan diferentes opciones, tales como: 1.- Combustion suplementaria en el recuperador de calor. 2.- Enfriamiento del aire de admision a la turbina de gas (mediante un sistema de evaporacion o mediante un sistema mecanico). 3.- Inyeccion de vapor a la camara de combustion. Palabras

  7. Implementation of the design attendent by computers (CAD) for the location of structures of power transmission lines; Implementacion del diseno asistido por computadora para la localizacion de estructuras de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel; Gutierrez Arriola, Gustavo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order that the tools of CAD (Design Attended by Computer) that are offered in the market are really useful, they must combine the criteria and experiences of the expert designers with the specifications and practices established in the electrical company. This includes, from the introduction to the information system of the available input data and its design criteria, to obtaining the required output information. In the present work the methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in the design of power transmission lines that integrates the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) requirements in the design of its transmission power lines is an advanced computer tool that results in obtaining better designs. Some of the most important aspects are the reduction of the used working time, the cost of the designed line, its reliability, the flexibility in the information handling and the quality of presentation. [Spanish] Para que las herramientas de diseno asistido por computadora que se ofrecen en el mercado sean realmente utiles deben conjuntar los criterios y experiencias de los disenadores expertos con las especificaciones y practicas establecidas en la empresa electrica. Esto incluye desde la introduccion al sistema de la informacion de datos de entrada de la que se dispone y de sus criterios de diseno hasta la obtencion de la informacion de salida que se requiere. En el presente trabajo se resume la metodologia desarrollada por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en el diseno de lineas de transmision, que integra los requerimientos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en el diseno de sus lineas de transmision en una herramienta de computo avanzada y que redunda en la obtencion de mejores disenos. Algunos de los aspectos mas importantes son la reduccion del tiempo de trabajo empleado, el costo de la linea disenada, su confiabilidad, la flexibilidad en el manejo de informacion y la calidad de presentacion.

  8. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  9. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  10. Evaluation of a process for the removal of gases contained in geothermal steam through condensation and re-evaporation; Evaluacion de un proceso de remocion de gases contenidos en el vapor geotermico, por medio de la condensacion y de revaporacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo C, Raul; Lam Rea, Luis; Garmino, Hector; Jimenez, Humberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto I Geothermal Field, developed and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has currently an installed electric power generation capacity of 180 MW and is at a very advanced stage in the development of Cerro Prieto II and III, which will allow to raise the generation capacity to 620 MW. During the exploitation of a geothermal field, in producing steam with the purpose of generating electricity, brines and waste gases are obtained. The hydrogen sulfide exhaust to the environment implies pollution problems, for this reason processes have been developed for the oxidation of these gases downstream the turbogenerator either in the flow of separated gases in the steam condensation or in the condensate produced. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has collaborated with CFE in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this gas and in the development of the processes for its abatement. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto I, desarrollado y operado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), actualmente tiene una capacidad instalada de generacion de energia electrica de 180 MW, y se encuentra en etapa muy avanzada, el desarrollo de Cerro Prieto II y III, lo que permitira incrementar la capacidad de generacion a 620 MW. Durante la explotacion de un campo geotermico, al producir vapor con el proposito de generar electricidad, se obtienen salmueras y gases de desecho. La descarga de acido sulfhidrico a la atmosfera implica problemas de contaminacion, por esta razon se han desarrollado procesos para la oxidacion de este gas aguas abajo de la turbina generadora, ya sea en la corriente de gases que se separan en la condensacion del vapor o en el condensado producido. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha colaborado con la CFE en la evaluacion del impacto ambiental de este gas y en el desarrollo de sus procesos de abatimiento.

  11. Design and construction of a live insulator washing system for transformers; Diseno y construccion de un sistema de lavado en vivo para los aisladores de transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizama-Camara, Y.A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: yahir_lizama@ieee.org; Mendieta-Antunez, J.A.; Blanco-Brisset, E. [Industrias IEM, Tlalnepantla, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: unamanu@hotmail.com; Olivares Galvan, J.C.; Escarela-Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mails: jolivare_1999@yahoo.com; r.escarela@ieee.org

    2012-04-15

    Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashover s due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the Laguna Verde power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer insulator cleaning methodology, which identifies the main variables to take into account (the voltage level of the transformers, the pollution level of the insulators, determination of the optimal wash time, the amount of water, the optimal pressure of water jet, the maximum conductivity of the water and the wind velocity), reference values are given for these variables. In addition, we present an economic cost analysis when applying a method of this kind in an electric substation. [Spanish] A lo largo de la historia de la industria electrica se han desarrollado diferentes metodos de limpieza para evitar las fallas de los aisladores de los transformadores debido a la contaminacion. Este articulo describe los principales metodos de limpieza aplicables a los aisladores de transformadores, enfatizando el sistema de lavado en vivo tipo fijo con agua a alta presion, metodo que fue aplicado para realizar la limpieza de los aisladores en el banco de transformadores de 900 MVA de la central electrica Laguna Verde, ubicada en el estado de Veracruz, en Mexico. Se propone una metodologia para la limpieza de los aisladores de transformadores, donde se identifican las principales variables a tomar en cuenta (el nivel de tension de los transformadores, nivel de contaminacion de los aisladores, determinacion del tiempo optimo de lavado, cantidad de precipitacion de agua, presion optima del chorro de agua, maxima conductividad del agua y las velocidades de los vientos) y se dan valores de

  12. Orizaba municipality fosters energy efficiency; El municipio de Orizaba impulsa la eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga Alpizar, Eric [ESIME, IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-10-15

    Honoring its promotion effort for electrical energy saving within municipal facilities, the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) carried out an energy saving study in three buildings of the City Council of Orizaba, Veracruz. This energy saving study included the physical inspection of the facilities, an analysis and evaluation of the substations and measuring equipment of the supplying company. It also included an evaluation of consumption, an estimation of the demand and the power factor of the equipment with larger energy consumption, as well as a data summary that allows to technically sustain the three strategic lines of action for energy saving proposed by the FIDE, i.e.: null investment proposal, low investment with substitution of equipment in the lighting system proposal and the high investment with implementation of a fluorescent lamps system proposal. Here the concrete actions taken for the implementation of the chosen proposal are reviewed along with some final comparisons and additional benefits. [Spanish] Como parte de su labor de promocion para el ahorro de energia electrica en las instalaciones municipales, el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (FIDE) realizo un estudio de ahorro energetico en tres inmuebles del Ayuntamiento de Orizaba, Veracruz. Este estudio de ahorro energetico comprendio la inspeccion visual de las instalaciones, el analisis y evaluacion de las subestaciones asi como del equipo de medicion de la compania suministradora, una evaluacion de consumos, una estimacion de la demanda y del factor de potencia de los equipos con mayor consumo energetico, asi como una recopilacion de datos que permite sustentar tecnicamente las tres lineas estrategicas para el ahorro de energia propuestas por el FIDE, i. e. propuesta de nula inversion, propuesta de baja inversion con sustitucion de equipos en el sistema de iluminacion y la propuesta de alta inversion con implementacion de un sistema de lamparas fluorescentes

  13. Environmental impact of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment; Impacto ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire tipo cuarto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [OLADE, Quito (Ecuador)

    2002-09-01

    The present article approaches in a general way the relation that exists between the environment and the saving of electrical energy, especially in the Programs of Demand Side Management (DSM). In particular form the potential environmental impacts are described, derived of the use and the discard of the room type air conditioning equipment, goes deep into the characteristics of their cooling fluids, as well as in the relation that these keep with the protocols of Montreal and Kyoto. Finally, this article comments the incidence which have, the manufacturers as the institutions that implement DSM programs, on the environmental part of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment. In addition it is briefly described, the pilot program developed by Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) as a successful case. [Spanish] En forma general, el presente articulo aborda la relacion que existe entre el medio ambiente y el ahorro de energia electrica, especialmente en los Programas de Administracion por el Lado de la Demanda (ALD). En forma particular se describen los impactos ambientales potenciales, derivados del uso y desecho de los equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto, se ahonda en las caracteristicas de sus refrigerantes, asi como en la relacion que estos guardan con los protocolos de Montreal y Kioto. Finalmente, se comenta la incidencia que tienen, tanto los fabricantes como las instituciones que implementan programas de ALD, sobre la parte ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto. Ademas se describe brevemente, el programa piloto desarrollado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) como un caso exitoso.

  14. The dynamic of the Poincare's bubble; La dinamica de la burbuja de Poincare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerra Labra, Carlos [Universidad de Talca, Talca (Chile)

    2001-02-01

    In 1966 Israel Nuovo Cimento found an equation of motion for a massive bubble with spherical symmetry in general relativity. The bubble is made out of dust chargeless particles, so that it has a vanishing surface tension. In a later work this author analyzed the dynamics of this bubble in the spacetime many fold defined by the Kruskal line element. Later, in 1988 Lopez extended the solution found by Israel to the case of a charged spherical bubble with surface tension. The new equation of motion was determined by using the formalism of Gauss, Codazzi and Lanczos. The bubble now consists of an infinitely thin shell with a uniform surface distribution of electric charge. To maintain the bubble in equilibrium it was necessary to introduce an isotropic tension (Poincare tensiones) to compensate the Coulomb repulsion. In this paper we studied the dynamics of the Poincare bubble by extending the results of Israel, which were obtained with the Schwarzschild metric, to the Reissner-Nordstreom. Geometry [4]. [Spanish] Israel en 1966 Nuovo Cimento, encontro una ecuacion de movimiento para una burbuja masiva con simetria esferica en relatividad general. Esta burbuja esta constituida por particulas de polvo sin carga electrica, de modo que su tension superficial es nula. En un trabajo posterior este mismo autor, estudio la dinamica de la burbuja en la variedad de espacio tiempo definida por la metrica de Kruska. Lopez en 1988, extendio la solucion de Israel, encontrando una ecuacion de movimiento para una burbuja esferica con carga electrica y tension superficial, usando el formalismo de Gauss, Codazzi y Laczos. Esta burbuja consiste en una cascara infinitamente delgada en donde esta distribuida uniformemente la carga electrica. Para mantener en equilibrio esta burbuja, ya que la repulsion coulumbiana la haria explotar, introdujo ciertas tensiones de Poincare que logran estabilizarla. En el presente trabajo se estudia la dinamica de esta burbuja generalizando los resultados de

  15. Personalidad infantil y memoria auditiva inmediata en un grupo de escolares con rendimiento académico normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La Neurociencia de la Personalidad es un área de investigación de reciente desarrollo. Su objetivo es comprender la estructura y funcionamiento de la personalidad a partir de los desarrollos actuales en Neurociencias. En la actualidad, se han podido establecer relaciones significativas entre los diferentes factores de personalidad y algunos procesos cognitivos y el funcionamiento neuropsicológico en población clínicamente normal. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar las correlaciones entre la personalidad infantil normal y la memoria auditiva inmediata en un grupo de escolares con rendimiento académico normal. Se evaluó un grupo de 36 niños con edades entre 6 y 8 años sin antecedentes personales de enfermedad neurológica, psiquiátrica o neuropsicológica, ni lesión cerebral congénita o adquirida, y sin antecedentes familiares de enfermedad neurológica o psiquiátrica. Se realizó un análisis estadístico de correlaciones y se establecieron los grados de correlaciones entre los tres tipos de memoria auditiva inmediata y cada uno de los 13 factores de personalidad infantil. Las correlaciones que fueron significativas para p < 0.05, R de Pearson, correspondieron a las presentadas entre el factor B (Inteligencia baja-alta y la memoria lógica (.371, el factor C (Emoción inestable-estable y la memoria asociativa (-.400, y el factor G (Despreocupado-Consciente y la memoria numérica (.366. Los resultados del análisis de correlaciones se discuten a partir de algunas propuestas teóricas y conceptuales en Psicología Cognitiva y Neurociencia.

  16. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  17. Análisis de materiales catódicos de estructura perovskita para celdas de combustible de oxido sólido, sofcs

    OpenAIRE

    J. Alvarado-Flores; J. Espino-Valencia; L. Ávalos-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Las celdas de combustible convierten directa y eficientemente la energ´a qu´mica de un combustible en energ´a electrica. De los diversos ´ tipos de celdas de combustible, las de oxido s ´ olido (SOFC), combinan las ventajas en generaci ´ on de energ ´ ´a ambientalmente benigna con la flexibilidad del combustible. Sin embargo, la necesidad de elevadas temperaturas de funcionamiento (800-1000C) se ha traducido en altos costos y grandes retos en relacion a la compatibilidad para los materiales c...

  18. The SLIMITRE system: T-P-CCL registry in high temperature oil wells; El sistema SLIMITRE: registro T-P-CCL en pozos petroleros de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo and others [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), through its Management of Well Productivity of the Subdivision of Technology and Professional Development (GTDP) and of its Active Luna, faced the problematic of carrying out simultaneous recordings of temperature and pressure in high temperature flowing wells. Capitalizing the experience and know-how of the Gerencia de Geotermia (GG) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in this field, it ordered the resolution of the described problematic, by means of the development of appropriate tools. In order to compliment this order, the GG of the IIE developed the SLIMETRE system, in close collaboration with the personnel of PEP involved in the project. This project framed in the Agreement of Collaboration for the rendering of services between PEMEX Exploration and Production and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. In the sections that follow appear the main parameters of design, the architecture of the system is explained, the tools and the subsystem of data acquisition are described; the obtained results are exposed and the conclusions appear. [Spanish] Pemex Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), a traves de su Gerencia de Productividad de Pozos de la Subdireccion de Tecnologia y Desarrollo Profesional (GTDP) y de su Activo Luna, encaro la problematica de efectuar registros simultaneos de temperatura y presion en pozos fluyentes de alta temperatura. Capitalizando la experiencia y know-how de la Gerencia de Geotermia (GG) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en dicho campo, le encargo la resolucion de la problematica descrita, mediante el desarrollo de herramientas apropiadas. Para cumplimentar dicho encargo, la GG del IIE desarrollo el sistema SLIMETRE, en estrecha colaboracion con el personal de PEP involucrado en el proyecto. Este proyecto se enmarco en el Convenio de Colaboracion para la prestacion de servicios entre Pemex Exploracion y Produccion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En

  19. Surges in low voltage distribution networks: some of conducted studies; Surtos em redes de baixa tensao: alguns estudos realizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This article presents an experience conducted by the Brazilian CELESC - Centrais Electricas de Santa Catarina, by installing two low voltage Si C lightning rods, one near of a batch of distribution transformers, and the other in the protection and measurement cabinet. That installation considered the high number of damages in transformers and meters in a region where 118 days of storm are detected. For the study, two regions presented similar climate characteristics and high number of damaged equipment. The low voltage lightning rods were installed only in one of the regions.

  20. América Latina: energía y desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sánchez S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available EI autor del presente articulo es Ingeniero Electricista de laUniversidad Nacional de Colombia y Master en Anlliisis deSistemas de Potencia del Renssetaer Polytecnic Institute. hasido Protesor y Director del Departamento de IngenieriaElectrica. Director del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigaciónde la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Jete de la Divisiónde Energia del Departamento Nacional de Planeación yCoordinador de Planificación Energetica de la OrganizaciónLatinoamericana de Energia, OLADE.

  1. Development of a prototype of a Master Central Unit (MCU) for the automation of Distribution Control Centers; Desarrollo de un prototipo de Unidad Central Maestra (UCM) para la automatizacion de Centros de Control de Distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe Blanco, Carlos Eduardo; Mata Almanza, Rafael; Picasso Blanquel, Cuitlahuac [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the strategic plan and to the improvement of productivity and competitiveness levels, the Federal Electric Commission (CFE, Spanish acronym) is making a significant investment in human resources and materials to modernize electric energy supply systems, including monitoring, protection and automatic control for operating all the elements of the electrical process, from generating plants to transmission lines, distribution systems and commercial applications. With this modernization, the CFE is also creating the infrastructure for the interoperability and interconnectivity of the above systems, in such a way to enable it to broaden, continue and complement the functional integration of the linked institutional systems of the latest generation. The total integration of the systems will allow the CFE to move toward Intelligent Electric Networks. Therefore, the CFE requested help from the Electric Research Institute (IIE, Spanish acronym) to develop part of the infrastructure to modernize the automation of distribution. This consists of the development of a prototype of the supervision and control system, using interoperable open technology owned by the CFE which enables using the functions of a SCADA system (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) to supervise and control electric distribution networks. [Spanish] Con el proposito de contribuir al plan estrategico y mejoramiento de los niveles de productividad y competitividad, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) esta invirtiendo fuertemente en recursos humanos y materiales para la modernizacion de los sistemas de suministro de energia electrica, incluyendo el monitoreo, proteccion y control automatico para la operacion de todos los elementos del proceso electrico, desde los centros de generacion hasta las lineas de transmision, los sistemas de distribucion y las aplicaciones de comercializacion. Con dicha modernizacion, la CFE tambien esta generando la infraestructura para la

  2. 10. international conference on innovation and technological development; 10. congreso internacional sobre innovacion y desarrollo tecnologico (CIINDET 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The conference held in the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, from March 13 to 15, 2013 presented several papers related to the areas of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, control systems, computer systems, electronics and instrumentation and alternate energies, with a focus on innovation and technology development [Spanish] En este congreso celebrado en la ciudad de Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, del 13 al 15 de marzo de 2013, se presentan diversas ponencias relacionadas con las areas de ingenieria mecanica, ingenieria electrica, sistemas de control, sistemas computacionales, electronica e instrumentacion y energias alternas, con un enfoque hacia la innovacion y el desarrollo tecnologico.

  3. 8. international conference on innovation and technological development; 8. congreso internacional sobre innovacion y desarrollo tecnologico (CIINDET 2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In this conference in the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, from 24 to 26 November 2010, there are several papers related to the areas of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, control systems, computer systems, electronics and instrumentation and energies alternating with a focus on innovation and technological development. [Spanish] En este congreso celebrado en la ciudad de Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, del 24 al 26 de noviembre de 2010, se presentan diversas ponencias relacionadas con las areas de ingenieria mecanica, ingenieria electrica, sistemas de control, sistemas computacionales, electronica e instrumentacion y energias alternas con un enfoque hacia la innovacion y el desarrollo tecnologico.

  4. State of the art of technologies thermosolar to concentration; Estado del arte de las tecnologias termosolares a concentracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berume, Carlos; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M; Medrano Vaca, M. Consolacion [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays Research and Development activities on Solar Thermal Power Generating Systems are supported by some countries around the world. Because of their thermal nature each of these plants can be operated only with solar energy or can be hybridized (solar/fossil fuel) and also with thermal storage systems. These types of solar thermal power plants are: Central Receiver, a circular field of tracking mirrors called helisotats reflects the solar energy onto receiver mounted on top of a central tower. Parabolic Trough, use linear parabolic concentrators to reflect sunlight to a receiver along the focal line (metallic pipe). Inside the pipe solar energy is absorbed in a working fluid with temperatures up to 390 Celsius degrees, which is then piped to a central location to power a conventional steam turbine and Parabolic Dish uses a parabolic dish concentrator to focus solar energy to a receiver and a heat engine/generator, located at the focus of the dish, to generate electrical power. In this document, we present the current status of technologies. A description of market opportunities, cost and technological perspectives are also included. [Spanish] Actualmente la Investigacion and Desarrollo para la generacion de potencia electrica mediante el aprovechamiento de la energia solar por la ruta termodinamica esta siendo apoyada por varios paises. Debido a su naturaleza termica estas pueden operar bajo esquemas de operacion solo con energia solar o en forma de plantas hibridas (solar-combustible fosil) y en algunos casos adaptadas con sistemas de almacenamiento termico. Los tipos de plantas solares de generacion electrica son: Receptor Central (RC), utilizan un campo colector con dispositivos llamados heliostatos arreglados en un campo circular y reflejando la radiacion solar sobre un receptor montado en la parte mas alta de una torre. Canal Parabolica (CP), estas plantas utilizan espejos curvados en forma de una parabola que redirigen los rayos del sol sobre su linea

  5. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  6. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  7. Instalación eléctrica de baja tensión para nave industrial destinada a la fabricación de postes de farolas de fibra de vidrio

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, José Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    El objeto del presente Proyecto de la INSTALACION ELECTRICA DE BAJA TENSIÓN PARA NAVE INDUSTRIAL DESTINADA A LA FABRICACION DE POSTES DE FAROLAS DE FIBRA DE VIDRIO, es la definición, cálculo y valoración de los elementos necesarios para llevar a cabo la ejecución de las Instalaciones Eléctricas de Baja Tensión en la Nave mencionada, propiedad de FAROLAS CARAVACA, en Caravaca de la Cruz (Murcia). Es a su vez objeto del presente proyecto, definir las características y condi...

  8. Technical and economical assessment of the options for energy saving in the library of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco; Evaluacion tecnico economica de opciones para el ahorro de energia en la biblioteca de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu, N.; Campero, E.; Dorantes, R.; Fuentes, V.; Figueroa, A.; Garcia, R.; Zekkour, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents a diagnosis of the electrical energy consumption in the library of the Azcapotzalco Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, to determine the actions that can be implemented for energy conservation. This without disturbing the lighting and thermal comfort. The analysis showed that, by changing the reflecting surfaces of the lighting lamps, the number of units can be reduced, without lowering the illumination level below the recommended values. The saving was estimated for replacement of the fluorescent lamps for others of metallic halogenides in the areas where the ceiling is high; for the installation of switches to improve the selectivity in turning on and turning off the lamps, achieving this way a better usage of the natural light; for the reduction of the electric load of the air conditioning units which will be obtained in incorporating induced draft shafts; and for an improvement in the electric and ballast installation. For the actions that turned out to be redeemable in three years the assistance of the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has been available. It is expected that the execution of the modifications will be carried out in the November and December months of 1993, and the results will be evaluated in 1994. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un diagnostico del consumo de energia electrica en la biblioteca de la Unidad Azcapotzalco de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana para determinar las acciones que se pueden llevar a cabo para ahorrar energia electrica. Esto sin deteriorar el confort luminico y termico. El analisis mostro que, cambiando las superficies reflectoras de las luminarias, se puede reducir el numero de lamparas, sin que el nivel de iluminacion quede debajo de los valores recomendados. Se estimaron ahorros: por la sustitucion de las lamparas fluorescentes por otras de halogenuros metalicos en las partes donde el

  9. Electrocardiografo por computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Hernandez, Rosanna; Paredes Bejarano, Margarita; Romero Chaglia, Norman; Yapur Auad, Miguel Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata sobrees el diseño y la implementación de un graficador de señales cardiacas por computadora, para lo cual diseñamos un circuito electrónico capaz de recibir la senal analógica proveniente de la actividad electrica del corazón , amplificarla, y luego convertirla en una señal digital para ser procesada por software y finalmente ser graficada, siendo posible así observar la señal cardiaca en el monitor de un computador como un tren de pulsos. Cabe destacar que par...

  10. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  11. Jõulujazz alustab heaga / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Aita alustada elu!" Kaarli kirikus 28. nov., Soome multiinstrumentalisti Sakari Kukko trio kontserdist 5. dets. Niguliste muuseum-kontserdisaalis, ameerika vokaalansambli M-Pact kontserdist 7. dets. Pärnu kontserdimajas, Raivo Tafenau-Meelis Vindi koosmusitseerimisest tšiili löökpillimängija Ricardo Padillaga 11. dets. Niguliste muuseum-kontserisaalis, Helin-Mari Arderi kontserdist "Sajab esimest lund" 15. dets. Niguliste muuseum-kontserisaalis, rootsi ansambli Bossa Electrica esinemiset 16. dets. Rock Café's, ansambli Eesti Keeled kontserdist "Vaiksel ööl" 17. dets. Tallinnas Sokos Hotell Virus

  12. Jõulujazz alustab heaga / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Aita alustada elu!" Kaarli kirikus 28. nov., Soome multiinstrumentalisti Sakari Kukko trio kontserdist 5. dets. Niguliste muuseum-kontserdisaalis, ameerika vokaalansambli M-Pact kontserdist 7. dets. Pärnu kontserdimajas, Raivo Tafenau-Meelis Vindi koosmusitseerimisest tšiili löökpillimängija Ricardo Padillaga 11. dets. Niguliste muuseum-kontserisaalis, Helin-Mari Arderi kontserdist "Sajab esimest lund" 15. dets. Niguliste muuseum-kontserisaalis, rootsi ansambli Bossa Electrica esinemiset 16. dets. Rock Café's, ansambli Eesti Keeled kontserdist "Vaiksel ööl" 17. dets. Tallinnas Sokos Hotell Virus

  13. Generación sistemática de un modelo de gestión y control de ensayos de máquinas eléctricas para la determinación de sus parámetros característicos y su implementación en un entorno industrial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral constituye una herramienta para la determinación sistemática de parámetros de los modelos que caracterizan las diferentes máquinas electricas presentes en los procesos industriales. El avance de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) ha permitido la incorporación de nuevos elementos para el análisis y estudio de las máquinas eléctricas. Estos nuevos elementos se han obtenido mediante un estudio del estado de la técnica con el fin de incorporar a la ...

  14. Control system modernization of a turbo-gas unit of CFE in the Comarca Lagunera; Modernizacion del sistema de control de una unidad turbogas de la CFE en la Comarca Lagunera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; De Lara J, Salvador; Hernandez Muniz, Alfredo [Industria SIGRAMA, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Cabello, Raymundo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    At the present time, the turbo-gas units (TGU) make an important contribution in the development and growth of the national power sector, since this type of units pertaining to the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) contributes with the 6.23% of the national production, that is to say, 2600 MW approx. The turbo-gas units are aero-derivative gas turbines used for power generation, pumping and compression. Generally, they are used to support urgent requests in the demand of electricity or, for the permanent supply of electrical energy in isolated zones. In addition, they are used to quickly get into and get out of operation, which requires high availability, trustworthiness and flexibility. In this sense, and with the intention of improving the operation of the TGUs, the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) (Management of Control and Instrumentation) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), has developed a control technology for this type of units, able to replace the original control systems of units with even 30 years of continuous operation or to be installed in new units. [Spanish] En la actualidad, las unidades de turbogas (UTG) tienen una importante contribucion en el desarrollo y crecimiento del sector energetico nacional, pues este tipo de unidades pertenecientes a la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) aportan el 6.23% de la produccion nacional, es decir, 2600 MW aproximadamente. Las unidades turbogas son turbinas de gas aeroderivativas empleadas para la generacion electrica, bombeo y compresion. Por lo general, son utilizadas para apoyar solicitudes urgentes en la demanda de electricidad o bien, para el suministro permanente de energia electrica en zonas aisladas. Ademas, se usan para entrar y salir rapidamente en operacion, lo que requiere alta disponibilidad, confiabilidad y flexibilidad. En este sentido, y con la intencion de mejorar las UTG, la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones

  15. System programs design of motors; Sistema de programas de diseno de motores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Gonzalez Palomas, Oscar; Ciprian Avila, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This paper describes the objective of creating the program system for induction motors design SIPRODIMO, its scope, its general characteristics, its structure and the results obtained with its application, as well as the service capacity developed by the Motors Area of the Instituto de Investigaciones Elctricas. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el objetivo de crear el sistema de programas de diseno de motores de induccion, Siprodimo, su alcance, sus caracteristicas generales, su estructura y los resultados obtenidos con su aplicacion, asi como la capacidad de servicio desarrollada por el area de motores, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

  16. Integral system for computer aided design of power line transmission towers; Sistema integral para el diseno asistido por computadora de torres de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagore, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The profitable use of the advantages offered by the computer aided design, through the integral system for the structural design of power transmission towers (SIDETT) will contribute to facilitate and improve the design of the structures that link the electric power generation centers with the consumers. [Espanol] El aprovechamiento de las ventajas que ofrece el diseno asistido por computadora, a traves del sistema integral para el diseno estructural de torres de transmision (SIDETT), contribuira a agilizar y mejorar el diseno de las estructuras que enlazan los centros de generacion de energia electrica con los consumidores.

  17. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de [Red Electrica de Espana, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author). 4 refs.

  18. Integrating of renewable energy in operation system: the Special Regime Control Centre (CECRE); Integracion de la energia renovable en la operacion del sistema: El Centro de Control de regimen especial (CECRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Division, M.

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of Red Electrica de Espana Special Regime Control Centre (CECRE) has demonstrated the Spanish System Operators commitment of integrating the maximum possible wind power generation into the electrical system compatible with secure operation. With this leadership initiative,for the first time in the world, a System Operator Control Centre (CECRE) has succeeded in sending power control instructions to wind power generators over the country through Generation Control Centres (CGC) to which these generators must be connected complying with the Spanish Rules. (Author)

  19. Renewable energies in the national power supply; Energias renovables en la oferta energetica nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Mexico is a country endowed with abundant power resources. By the magnitude of its reserves and the installed production capacity. This article presents the different nonconventional energy resources which Mexico has, with the purpose of using them for the generation of electric energy. [Spanish] Mexico es un pais dotado de abundantes recursos energeticos. Por la magnitud de sus reservas y por la capacidad instalada de produccion. Este articulo presenta los diferentes recursos energeticos no convencionales con los que cuenta Mexico, con el fin de utilizarlos para la generacion de energia electrica.

  20. Experimental modal tests applied to rotor balancing; Pruebas modales experimentales aplicadas al balanceo de rotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Munoz Quezada, Rodolfo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-01-01

    At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), the experimental modal tests were initiated in order to validate the numerical models used by computer programs for the study of the rotor dynamic behavior. In order to contribute to the application of the rotor balancing methods based in the calculation of their modal forms, currently the capacity to determine these modal forms and the natural frequencies of turbogenerator rotors, is being developed, through experimental modal tests. In this paper a short description is made of the technique and the results of its application in an experimental rotor and in one of the rotors of a turbogenerator, are presented. [Espanol] En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), las pruebas modales experimentales se iniciaron con la finalidad de validar los modelos numericos empleados por programas de computo para el estudio del comportamiento dinamico de rotores. Con objeto de contribuir a la aplicacion de los metodos de balanceo de rotores basados en el calculo de sus formas modales, actualmente esta desarrollandose la capacidad para determinar esas formas modales y las frecuencias naturales de rotores de turbogeneradores, a traves de las pruebas modales experimentales. En este trabajo se describe brevemente la tecnica y se presentan los resultados de su aplicacion en un rotor experimental y en uno de los tres rotores de un turbogenerador.

  1. Three fuzzy reasoning models as a decision suport aid, to find an electrical energy tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a laboratory-work developed as an example of approximate (fuzzy reasoning for students, possible to be used as a decision – support to estimate an electrical energy (EE price for consumers. The three fuzzy tariff estimation models that are developed, integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A.-single-supplier rate position, but and some (social constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. Although is possible, the paper not refer to a partial-price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy, etc. This “laboratory-work-paper” shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A. and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model, until can obtain an acceptable and true price. In this aim, the three fuzzy models use different rules for pricing: conservative, aggressive, and different order of words concerning the rules respectively, finally doing a comparation among prices and models. The paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, with certitude, can create a discussion base, about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a modality to find and to refine an EE price.

  2. FUZZY MODELS AS DECISION-SUPPORT APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY TARIFFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a decision – support application which design and use two fuzzy models to estimation an electrical energy tariff, as it to be sell at consumers. The fuzzy tariff estimation model integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A. rate position, but and some constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE, beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. The paper not refer to a price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy – EE, etc. The paper shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model until we obtain an acceptable price. Much more: the two fuzzy models use different rules (conservative and aggressive, with hedge operators, respectively for pricing. Finally, the paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, can create a discussion base about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a decision-support application to find a new EE price.

  3. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Cr/CrN NANO-MULTILAYERS PRODUCED BY THE UNBALANCED MAGNETRON SPUTTERING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA MARITZA MARULANDA CARDONA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peliculas de nitruro de cromo (CrN se han aplicado como recubrimientos protectores contra el desgaste y la corrosion debido a sus excelentes propiedades mecanicas y alta resistencia a la corrosion, y en el campo electronico debido a su baja resistividad. Sin embargo, se ha encontrado que las multicapas que combinan peliculas metal/ceramico podrian mejorar las propiedades en comparacion a sus contrapartes en monocapa debido al aumento e interaccion entre interfaces. En este trabajo se produjeron nano-multicapas de Cr/CrN a traves de la tecnica de sputtering con magnetron desbalanceado con tres grados de desbalanceo diferentes para estudiar la influencia de este parametro en las propiedades electricas. Se crecieron multicapas con un espesor total de aproximadamente 1 microm y un periodo de bicapa (A de 200 nm, 100 nm y 20 nm. Las multicapas se produjeron a temperatura ambiente sobre acero H13 y silicio (100 y se estudio su microestructura y las propiedades electricas en funcion del campo magnetico. La formacion de fases se caracterizo a traves de Difraccion de Rayos X y los resultados muestran las orientaciones (111 y (200 para todas las multicapas. Se obtuvieron imagenes de la seccion transversal a traves de Microscopia Electronica de Barrido y los resultados muestran la formacion de una estructura en multicapas.

  4. Expansion plan of the electrical sector; Plan de expansion del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristerna Ocampo, Rafael [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    An analysis of the Mexican electrical market in the year 1994 as far as sales of electrical energy and types of users who utilized that energy, is presented. In addition, an analysis is made of the options for the future supply, where the installed electrical capacity in Mexico in 1994 is described. Also the requirements of additional capacity of power generation, from year 1995 to year 2004 are analyzed. In the internal supply of primary energy in Mexico, the hydrocarbons represent 83%, the diversified sources (nuclear, geothermal, hydro and coal) represent 7% and the biomass as well as complementary coal, the 10% balance of the primary energy. Finally an expansion plan of the transmission network of the Mexican electrical system is described. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis del mercado electrico mexicano en el ano de 1994 en cuanto a ventas de energia electrica y los tipos de usuarios que utilizaron esa energia. Se hace un analisis ademas, de las opciones para la oferta futura, donde se describe la capacidad electrica instalada de Mexico en 1994. Tambien se analizan los requerimientos de capacidad adicional de generacion de 1995 al 2004. En la oferta interna de energia primaria en Mexico, los hidrocarburos representan el 83%, las fuentes diversificadas (nuclear, geotermia, hidro y carboelectrica) representan el 7% y la biomasa asi como el carbon complementario, el 10% restante de la energia primaria. Finalmente se describe un plan de expansion de la red de transmision del sistema electrico mexicano.

  5. A comparative performance study of a photovoltaic concentrator system with discrete mirror and continuos profile for two different absorber shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Saiful; Rezau, K.M [University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Profiles of parabolic concentrators of discrete mirror and continuos surface mirror have been designed for combined electrical thermal photovoltaic systems. In the design the changes of concentration ratio, effect of reflection, angle of incidence over the absorber have been taken into account for maximum energy collection. The performances of the system are studied for solar cells of modified grid finger for illuminations from 1-10 sun. The local concentration ratio (LCR) distribution over the absorbers for both the concentrator, the optical efficiency, thermal efficiency, electrical and thermal power output and overall efficiency have been evaluated for different values of beam radiation concentration ratio and focal distance. [Spanish] Se han disenado perfiles de concentradores parabolicos de espejo discreto y de superficie continua para sistemas fotovoltaicos combinados electricos y termicos. En el diseno los cambios de la proporcion de concentracion, del efecto de la reflexion, del angulo de incidencia sobre el observador se han tenido en cuenta para una maxima recoleccion de energia. Los rendimientos del sistema se han estudiado para celdas solares de parrilla modificada para iluminaciones solares de 1-10. Han sido evaluados para diferentes valores de la proporcion de la concentracion de la radiacion en el rayo y la distancia focal la proporcion de concentracion local (LCR) de la distribucion en los absorbedores, para el concentrador la eficiencia optica, la eficiencia termica, electrica, la produccion de energia termica y electrica y la eficiencia total.

  6. Starting of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant, using predictive control based in a neuronal model; Arranque del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica, usando control predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Dominguez, Tonatiuh

    2004-09-15

    In this thesis work it is presented the design and implementation of a simulator of total scope of a predictive controller based in the neuronal model of the temperature in two stages of the heating of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant. An implemented control scheme is detailed, as well as the methodology for the identification of a neuronal model utilized for the control. Finally the results of the implementation in the simulator located at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are shown to be satisfactory. This control structure is not applied directly in closed circuit, but provides the value of the control actions to a human operator. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno e implementacion, en un simulador de alcance total, de un controlador predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal para el control de la temperatura en dos etapas del calentamiento del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica. Se detalla el esquema de control implementado, asi como la metodologia de identificacion de un modelo neuronal utilizado para la sintesis del control. Finalmente se muestran los resultados de la implementacion en el simulador que se encuentra en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); dichos resultados fueron satisfactorios. Esta estructura de control no se aplica directamente en lazo cerrado, sino que provee el valor de las acciones de control a un operador humano.

  7. Turbomachinery; Turbomaquinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The fossil fuel power stations have a large number of rotary equipment that faces diverse problems that do necessary to improve the present practices of operation and maintenance. In this article are presented the main systems that the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) offers nowadays for the predictive maintenance of rotary equipment in fossil fuel power plants developed by the Management of Turbomachinery. The systems that are described are: the Portable one, the SICAD (Computerized System for Dynamic Analysis), the SMC (Continuous Monitoring System) and finally the SIMPER (Computer Information System for the Predictive Maintenance of Rotary Equipment) [Spanish] Las centrales termoelectricas cuentan con una gran cantidad de equipo rotatorio que enfrenta diversos problemas que hacen necesario mejorar las practicas actuales de operacion y mantenimiento. En este articulo se presentan los principales sistemas que ofrece actualmente el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para el mantenimiento predictivo de equipos rotatorios en centrales termoelectricas desarrollados en la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria. Los sistemas que se describen son; el Portil, el Sicad ( Sistema Computarizado para Analisis Dinamico), el SMC ( Sistema de Monitoreo Continuo) y por ultimo el SIMPER (Sistema Informatico para el mantenimiento Predictivo de Equipo Rotatorio)

  8. The technological course in the Mexican electric sector; La trayectoria tecnologica en el sector electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Diaz, Ricardo [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the historical background of the electric power generation in Mexico and the different types of generation. The area of central control is described, its importance, function and availability. Statistical graphs are shown on the evolution of the electric generation in Mexico, as well as tables with data on the annual installed capacity since 1937 until 1995, and also the maximum demand. Mention is made of the increment needs in the electric power generation in the central control area and a preliminary assessment of the new generation projects in Hydro and fossil power stations is presented [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se presentan los antecedentes historicos de la generacion electrica en Mexico y los diferentes tipos de generacion. Se describe el area de control central, su importancia, funcion y su disponibilidad. Se muestran graficas estadisticas de la evolucion de la generacion electrica en Mexico, de igual manera se muestran tablas con datos de la capacidad instalada anual desde 1937 hasta 1995, asi como la demanda maxima. Se mencionan las necesidades de incremento de la generacion en el area de control central y se muestra una evaluacion preliminar de los proyectos de nueva generacion en centrales hidroelectricas y termoelectricas

  9. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. A.; Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  10. Substation automation. Integration of applications of the SICLE; Automatizacion de subestaciones. Integracion de aplicaciones sobre el SICLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Gustavo; Vega, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the first applications developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the infrastructure of the SICLE (Sistema de Informacion y Control Local de la Estacion) (Station Information and Local Control System), that Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is now acquiring in order to automate its transmission substations. A computer infrastructure was obtained similar to the existing in the substation for the development of program testing at the IIE; the personnel of the same was trained; the applications in conjunction with the CFE specialists were defined; the agreed developments were made and installed at the Temascal II Substation. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se presentan las primeras aplicaciones desarrolladas por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre la infraestructura del SICLE (Sistema de Informacion y Control Local de Estacion) que esta adquiriendo la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) a fin de automatizar sus subestaciones de transmision. Se obtuvo una infraestructura de computo similar a la existente en la subestacion para el desarrollo de prueba de programas en el IIE; se capacito al personal en la misma; se definieron las aplicaciones conjuntamente con los especialistas de la CFE; se hicieron los desarrollos acordados y se instalaron en la subestacion Temascal II.

  11. Estimated losses of energy in a power system using a semi-statistical methodology; Estimacion de perdidas de energia en un sistema electrico de potencia mediante una metodologia semi-estadistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martinez, D [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: david_2mtz@hotmail.com; Martinez Lendech, J.F [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores del Oriente del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: mrtzlendech@hotmail.com; Garcia Herrera, C; Olvera Ricano, J.G. [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: cozobi_garcia@yahoo.com.mx; jgolverar@uaemex.mx

    2013-03-15

    Determination of electrical losses is one of the most important tasks for any enterprise dedicated to generation, transmission, transformation and/or distribution of electric energy. Any enterprise dedicated to these activities does continuously energy balances in order to estimate whole electrical losses of specific processes. However, it is necessary to classify the whole electrical losses into technical and non-technical losses. This paper presents a proposal for estimating technical and non-technical losses in an electrical power system. [Spanish] La determinacion de las perdidas de energia electrica es una de las labores mas importantes en cualquier empresa dedicada a la generacion, transmision, transformacion y/o distribucion de energia electrica. Es indudable que toda empresa dedicada a cualquiera de las actividades mencionadas anteriormente realiza periodicamente balances de energia que permiten estimar el valor de las perdidas totales de energia del proceso considerado. No obstante, para poder realizar un mejor analisis de la problematica de las perdidas de energia, es necesario separar el valor total de perdidas obtenido mediante un balance de energia, en perdidas tecnicas y perdidas no tecnicas. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta para la estimacion de perdidas tecnicas y no tecnicas en un sistema electrico de potencia.

  12. Experimental study on fuel oil combustion in circulating fluidized bed; Estudio experimental sobre la combustion de combustoleo en lecho fluidizado circulante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rangel, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a circulating fluidized bed combustor of 0.5 thermal MW unique in its type in Latin America. The Bachelor`s thesis entitled ``Experimental Study on Fuel Oil Combustion in Circulating Fluidized Bed`` was performed operating this combustor with the purpose of determining the feasibility of burning heavy fuel oil in a stable and sustained form, as well as the effect of the addition of calcium carbonate to the combustor. The results of the experimental trials showed heavy fuel oil can be burned in a circulating fluidized bed, with low sulfur dioxide emissions. During the conduction of the experiments a sulfur retention of 43% was achieved with a Ca/S relationship of 4.5. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un combustor de lecho fluidizado circulante de 0.5 MW termicos de potencia, unico en su tipo en Latinoamerica. La tesis de licenciatura titulada Estudio Experimental sobre la Combustion de Combustoleo en Lecho Fluidizado Circulante se realizo operando dicho combustor, con el proposito de determinar la factibilidad de quemar combustoleo pesado en forma estable y autosostenida, asi como la influencia que tiene la adicion de carbonato de calcio al lecho. Los resultados de los ensayos experimentales mostraron que se puede quemar combustoleo pesado en un lecho fluidizado circulante, con bajas emisiones de bioxido de azufre. Durante la experimentacion se logro una retencion de azufre del 43%, con una relacion Ca/S de 4.5.

  13. Smart transmission grids - benefits and risks; Redes de transmision inteligente. Beneficios y riesgos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Ramirez, E.; Angeles-Camacho, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mails: TVelascoR@iingen.unam.mx; CAngelesC@ii.unam.mx; Garcia-Martinez, M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: mgarciam@ittoluca.edu.mx

    2013-01-15

    Nowadays the Power Systems are working near their stability limits, for this reason it is necessary and essential a transition to new transmission systems that ensure efficient delivery of electrical energy, with the objective to prevent blackouts that cause significant losses in the economy of any country in the world. This paper analyzes important elements to consider having a healthy and efficient transition from a power grid vertically integrated into a smart transmission grid. A comparative analysis in the model, development, benefits and risks of the implementation of these systems, between two of the main marc of references of smart grids, the EU and the USA is presented. [Spanish] Actualmente los sistemas electricos operan cada vez mas cercanos a sus limites de estabilidad, es por ello que se hace necesaria y primordial la transicion hacia nuevos sistemas de transmision que garanticen la eficiente entrega de la energia electrica, evitando con ello cortes de energia que generan importantes perdidas en la economia de cualquier pais del mundo. En este documento se realiza un analisis de los elementos necesarios para una sana y eficiente transicion de una red de transmision electrica verticalmente, integrada hacia una red de transmision inteligente. Se presenta un analisis comparativo entre dos de los marcos de referencia mas importantes, el de la UE y el de EUA, en el modelo, desarrollo, beneficios y riesgos en la implementacion de estos sistemas.

  14. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  15. Normalization of the energy efficiency in pumping systems; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R.A.; Buendia Dominguez, E.H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) has prepared the preliminary project of the norm of energetic efficiency for pumping systems, specifically for the agricultural sector. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the issue of a norm and is about to be published as a Mexican Official Norm of energetic efficiency. In this paper mention is made of the results in the analysis of the pumping systems in operation, the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that sustain the norm project, indicating besides the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en sistemas de bombeo, especificamente para el sector agricola. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, y esta proximo a publicarse como norma oficial mexicana de eficiencia energetica. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de los sistemas de bombeo en operacion, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  16. Development and fabrication process for ZnO based varistors for medium voltage arresters 13000 V to 34000 V; Desarrollo y produccion de varistores de ZnO dopados para media tension 13000 V a 34000 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rolon, B.; Ireta Moreno, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Electrica y Electronica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: barbara@salamanca.ugto.mx; fireta@salamanca.ugto.mx

    2011-04-15

    The fabrication process for ZnO doped varistor blocks with Sb2O3/ Bi2O3 to medium tension of 13000 V to 34000 V, and was optimised in terms of a starting composition and firing temperatures with amounts for Sb2O3/ Bi2O3 ratios of 1.7 by dry pressing, and fired in the temperature 1150 degrees Celsius {+-}2 degrees Celsius. The microstructure characteristics were analysed across the surface of the varistor blocks in order to evaluate their microstructure homogeneity. Their current-voltage I-V and energy handling capabilities were also determined. Characteristics and electrical properties of the varistor blocks are discussed. [Spanish] El proceso de fabricacion para varistores de media tension de 13000 V a 34000 V de ZnO consistio en dopar con Sb2O3, Bi2O3 y optimizarlos en terminos de la composicion de inicio, con una relacion de Sb2O3/Bi2O3 de 1.7, y el uso de aditivos para ceramicas, la temperatura de sinterizado fue de 1150 grados centigrados {+-}2 grados centigrados. Se investigo la homogeneidad de la microestructura. Se determinaron las propiedades electricas mediante la determinacion de la grafica I-V. Las caracteristicas electricas son discutidas.

  17. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a pressurizer spray valve inadverted fully opening transient and recovery by natural circulation in Jose Cabrera Nuclear Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, R.; Rebollo, L. [Union Electrica, SA, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-06-01