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Sample records for correia repeat enclosed

  1. Em Knossos, de Hélia Correia. Notas de leitura – I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria António Horster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Como preâmbulo à sua pequena obra Apodera-te de mim, Hélia Correia produz uma reflexão inspirada em Knossos, como ponto de partida para a evolução cultural e social que o teatro e a oposição de géneros representam. A partir de uma distância que a própria cosmogonia determina, a cultura promove, com base na compreensão e no amor, o indispensável encontro.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_22

  2. PROJETO DE CORREIAS TRANSPORTADORAS: UM ESTUDO COMPUTACIONAL DE COMPARAÇÃO DOS MÉTODOS CEMA E PRÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Amâncio Malagoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Para o projeto de correias transportadoras, são comumente empregados dois métodos: Método Prático e Método CEMA (Conveyor Equipment Manufacture Association. O Método Prático, mais simplificado, aplica-se a transportadores simples e de pequena capacidade. Neste, calcula-se primeiramente a potência necessária para o transporte e, a partir desta, as tensões na correia. O método CEMA, mais sofisticado, é aplicável a transportadores de vários lances, curtos ou longos, onde calcula-se inicialmente as tensões em cada lance da correia, e, após isto, calcula-se a potência de acionamento. Com isto, um dos objetivos do presente trabalho foi a criação de um programa computacional, o qual realiza o projeto de correias transportadoras através dos métodos Prático e CEMA. Por meio deste programa, foram realizadas simulações para os materiais: rocha fosfática e minério de ferro (itabiritos para diferentes configurações de correias transportadoras. Como dados de saída do programa, tem-se as seguintes especificações de projeto: largura da correia, distância do material à borda da correia, capacidade mássica, velocidade da correia e potência do motor. Tanto o Método Prático quanto o Método CEMA se mostraram de suma importância para o projeto de correias transportadoras, sendo o primeiro de grande valia na estimativa inicial de um projeto, enquanto o outro, apesar da maior complexidade, é o mais recomendado para o projeto final de correias transportadoras.

  3. Instability of enclosed horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Bernard S

    2013-01-01

    We study the classical massless scalar wave equation on the region of 1+1-dimensional Minkowski space between the two branches of the hyperbola $x^2-t^2=1$ with vanishing boundary conditions on it. We point out that there are initially finite-energy initially, say, right-going waves for which the stress-energy tensor becomes singular on the null-line $t+x=0$. We also construct the quantum theory of this system and show that, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state, there are coherent states built on this for which there is a similar singularity in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in 1+3-dimensional situations with 'enclosed horizons' such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a stationary box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be a similar singularity at the horizon and that would signal an instability when matter perturbations and/or gravity are switched on. Such an instability ...

  4. The transposon-like Correia elements encode numerous strong promoters and provide a potential new mechanism for phase variation in the meningococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Azeem; Buisine, Nicolas; Chalmers, Ronald

    2011-01-20

    Neisseria meningitidis is the primary causative agent of bacterial meningitis. The genome is rich in repetitive DNA and almost 2% is occupied by a diminutive transposon called the Correia element. Here we report a bioinformatic analysis defining eight subtypes of the element with four distinct types of ends. Transcriptional analysis, using PCR and a lacZ reporter system, revealed that two ends in particular encode strong promoters. The activity of the strongest promoter is dictated by a recurrent polymorphism (Y128) at the right end of the element. We highlight examples of elements that appear to drive transcription of adjacent genes and others that may express small non-coding RNAs. Pair-wise comparisons between three meningococcal genomes revealed that no more than two-thirds of Correia elements maintain their subtype at any particular locus. This is due to recombinational class switching between elements in a single strain. Upon switching subtype, a new allele is available to spread through the population by natural transformation. This process may represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for phase variation in the meningococcus. We conclude that the strain-to-strain variability of the Correia elements, and the large number of strong promoters encoded by them, allows for potentially widespread effects within the population as a whole. By defining the strength of the promoters encoded by the eight subtypes of Correia ends, we provide a resource that allows the transcriptional effects of a particular subtype at a given locus to be predicted.

  5. Instability of enclosed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  6. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in the community of Curral Velho, Luís Correia, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairla Lima Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants as medication in the state of Piauí, Brazil, has been a common practice passed from generation to generation. This study aimed to analyze the use of medicinal plants by residents of the community Curral Velho, in the municipality of Luís Correia, northern Piauí, Brazil, contributing to register and preserve the traditional botanical knowledge of the community under study and, as a consequence, the state’s. The survey of plant species used as a therapeutic resource was conducted through interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire applied to 38 informants. The plants were collected for scientific identification. Use value (UV, informant consensus factor (ICF, and relative importance (RI of species were determined. We registered 62 species, belonging to 38 families and 57 genera, and the Fabaceae family stood out. Aristolochia triangularis, Petiveria alliaceae, and Stachytarpheta cayennensis had the highest use values (UV = 3.0, and Turnera subulata was the most versatile. Out of the 10 bodily systems identified, those with higher concentration of medicinal species are related to the most ordinary illnesses as general signs (inflammation, fever, respiratory tract diseases, and genitourinary tract diseases. This survey enabled the identification of some relevant aspects concerning the use and knowledge of medicinal plants in the community under study. The diversity of medicinal plants known and the availability of plants in the very community suggest a correlation between use/knowledge of medicinal plants and their availability.

  7. Enclosing Solutions of Integral Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Caprani, Ole; Stauning, Ole

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for enclosing the solution of an integral equation. It is assumed that a solution exists and that the corresponding integral operator T is a contraction near y. When solving the integral equation by iteration we obtain a result which is normally different from y because...

  8. Enclosing Solutions of Integral Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Caprani, Ole; Stauning, Ole

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for enclosing the solution of an integral equation. It is assumed that a solution exists and that the corresponding integral operator T is a contraction near y. When solving the integral equation by iteration we obtain a result which is normally different from y because...

  9. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently...Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) code being developed in the ONR Ocean Model Development for COAMPS project. This model was first set up on the NPAC

  10. Volume-Enclosing Surface Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schlei, B R

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented here, which allows one to construct triangular surfaces from three-dimensional data sets, such as 3D image data and/or numerical simulation data that are based on regularly shaped, cubic lattices. This novel volume-enclosing surface extraction technique, which has been named VESTA, is guaranteed to always produce surfaces that do not contain any holes, e.g., in contrast to the well-known and very popular Marching Cubes algorithm, which has been developed by W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline in the mid-1980s. VESTA is not template based. In fact, the surface tiles are determined with a fast and robust construction technique. Among other things, VESTA's relationship to the DICONEX algorithm is explained, which -- in a lower-dimensional analogy -- produces contours from two-dimensional data sets, such as 2D gray-level images. In particular, the generation of isosurfaces from initially created VESTA surfaces is demonstrated here for the very first time. A few examples are provided, namely in ...

  11. Gate-enclosed NMOS transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xue; Li Ping; Li Wei; Zhang Bin; Xie Xiaodong; Wang Gang; Hu Bin; Zhai Yahong

    2011-01-01

    In order to quantitatively compare the design cost and performance of various gate styles,NMOS transistors with two-edged,annular and ring gate layouts were designed and fabricated by a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process.By comparing the minimum W/L ratios and transistor areas,it was found that either the annular layout or its ring counterpart incurs a higher area penalty that depends on the W/L ratio of the transistor to be designed.Furthermore,by comparing the output and transfer characteristics of the transistors and analyzing the popular existing methods for extracting the effective W/L ratio,it was shown that the mid-line approximation for annular NMOS could incur an error of more than 10%.It was also demonstrated that the foundry-provided extraction tool needs significant adaptation when being applied to the enclosed-gate transistors,since it is targeted only toward the two-edged transistor.A simple approach for rough extraction of the W/L ratio for the ring-gate NMOS was presented and its effectiveness was confirmed by the experimental results with an error up to 8%.

  12. Device removes hydrogen gas from enclosed spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, W. N.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxidant galvanic cell removes small amounts of hydrogen gas continually released from equipment, such as vented silver-zinc batteries, in enclosed compartments where air venting is not feasible. These cells are used in satellite compartments.

  13. Modelagem não-linear e análise dinâmica de sistemas de transmissão por correias pela formulação de coordenadas nodais absolutas

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Leandro Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Sistemas de acionamento mecânico por correia serpentina são amplamente usados em aplicações automotivas e industriais para transmissão de torque e potência. Tais sistemas estão sujeitos a variações de tensão na correia devido à carga dinâmica nos acessórios, que levam ao desgaste prematuro e redução da vida útil dos componentes. A análise do comportamento dinâmico do conjunto é fundamental na fase de projeto e requer a modelagem não-linear do sistema incluindo polias, auto-tensionador, correi...

  14. Relatório final de estágio pedagógico : relatório final de estágio realizado na Escola EB 2,3 Gaspar Correia

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Ensino da Educação Física nos Ensinos Básico e Secundário Este relatório tem como objetivo analisar e refletir sobre o estágio pedagógico realizado na escola EB 2,3 Gaspar Correia no ano letivo de 2012/2013. Neste analisam-se os efeitos que a experiência formativa teve na formação pessoal e profissional do professor estagiário. A prática letiva foi realizada junto de uma turma de 3ºciclo, caracterizada por ser bastante heterogénea em termos motores e por apresentar bastantes co...

  15. PREDICTION OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT IN ENCLOSED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyan Chen; Zhao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of particle transport in enclosed environment is crucial to the welfare of its occupants. The prediction requires not only a reliable particle model but also an accurate flow model. This paper introduces two categories of flow models - Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equation modeling (RANS modeling) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES); as well as two popular particle models - Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The computed distributions of air velocity, air temperature, and tracer-gas concentration in a ventilated room by the RANS modeling and LES agreed reasonably with the experimental data from the literature. The two flow models gave similar prediction accuracy. Both the Lagrangian and Eulerian methods were applied to predict particle transport in a room. Again, the computed results were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data obtained in an environmental chamber. The performance of the two methods was nearly identical. Finally the flow and particle models were applied to study particle dispersion in a Boeing 767 cabin and in a small building with six rooms. The computed results look plausible.

  16. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  17. Vulnerability of semi-enclosed marine systems to environmental disturbances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    MacCracken, M.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Gilbert, D.; Korotaev, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Perillo, G.M.E.; Rixen, T.; Stanev, E.; Sundby, B.; Thomas, H.; Unger, D.; Urban, E.R.

    Semi-Enclosed Marine Systems to Environmental Disturbances Michael MacCracken t Elva Escobar-Briones t Denis Gilbert, Gennady Korotaev, Wajih Naqvi, Gerardo M.E. Perillo, Tim Rixen, Emil Stanev, Bj0rn Sundby, Helmuth Thomas t Daniela Unger, and Edward R. Urban, Jr.... Introduction Semi-enclosed marine systems (SEMSs) are impacted on time scales ranging from the very short (days orless) to the very long (decades and beyond) by many ofthe same forces and stresses as other components of the Earth system. Like the open ocean...

  18. Segmentally enclosed thrombolysis in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for femoropopliteal occlusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Tønnesen, K H; Nielsen, J D;

    1991-01-01

    Segmentally enclosed thrombolysis (SET) was performed immediately following 34 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) for femoropopliteal occlusions. The dilated segment was sealed off with a double balloon catheter, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) 1 mg/ml and heparin...

  19. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  20. Acoustic firearm discharge detection and classification in an enclosed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Eric; Bruillard, Paul; Prowant, Matthew; Skorpik, James; Hughes, Michael; Child, Scott; Kist, Duane; McCarthy, John E.

    2016-05-01

    Two different signal processing algorithms are described for detection and classification of acoustic signals generated by firearm discharges in small enclosed spaces. The first is based on the logarithm of the signal energy. The second is a joint entropy. The current study indicates that a system using both signal energy and joint entropy would be able to both detect weapon discharges and classify weapon type, in small spaces, with high statistical certainty.

  1. VFT PHASE VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT IN THREE-PHASE ENCLOSED GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建华; 岳子丁; 李洋

    2002-01-01

    The measuring of VFT phase voltage in three-phase enclosed GIS is more complex and difficult than in single-phase ones. There are 3 capacitive sensors in the measuring system, the outputs of which are with a linear relation to the three phase voltages. This linear relation is presented with a factorial matrix. Because each capacitive sensor is coupled with the electric field of three phases (A, B, and C), the electric coupling coefficients are introduced. In order to determine the matrix of electric coupling coefficients, the numerical calculation method can be used. From the discussion on two types of three-phase enclosed GIS bus, i.e. standard arrangement and biased arrangement, the dominant electric coupling coefficients are named, which can be simply and approximately calculated by an analytic expression. Finally, as an example, the waveforms of VFT phase voltage generated on a three-phase enclosed GIS bus model are displayed. When a capacitive sensor is located at the 'shortest point' of phase A (or B, or C), the VFT phase voltage VA (or VB, or VC) can almost be measured by that capacitive sensor alone.

  2. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  3. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  4. Interview with Ana Henriques Correia - Physicist ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    Q. 1. What has it taken to get the LHC project from its beginnings to the verge of first beams? Q. 2. What can be expected to happen on First Beam Day? Q. 3. What happens next in the story? Q. 4. What does this mean to you personally?

  5. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  6. 18 December 2012 -Portuguese President of FCT M. Seabra visiting the Computing Centre with IT Department Head F. Hemmer, ATLAS experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and A. Henriques Correia, in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela, signing an administrative agreement with Director-General R. Heuer; LIP President J. M. Gago and Delegate to CERN Council G. Barreia present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier-Genoud

    2012-01-01

    18 December 2012 -Portuguese President of FCT M. Seabra visiting the Computing Centre with IT Department Head F. Hemmer, ATLAS experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and A. Henriques Correia, in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela, signing an administrative agreement with Director-General R. Heuer; LIP President J. M. Gago and Delegate to CERN Council G. Barreia present.

  7. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L., E-mail: jinliang@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.

  8. Extinguishment of enclosed gas fires with water sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.

    1993-02-01

    Water sprays are widely used for fire fighting in industrial areas, and they are used for fire protection in the process industry and at offshore oil- and gas-production platforms. No real quantification of the effect of water sprays as a fire fighting medium exists. The water delivery is specified through standards and regulations which are based on industrial experience. In process areas, water spray is often used in deluge systems, intended to control the fire until the leakage of fuel has been shut down. For this purpose, there is a need for quantification of the ability a certain spray system has to remove heat from the fire and to reduce the fire load to the construction and process equipment. SINTEF NBL has studied extinguishment and control of enclosed hydrocarbon fires by means of water sprays. A scale model of a module of an offshore platform is used in studies of enclosed liquid hydrocarbon fire development. The model is instrumented to measure heat transfer, fire development, and production of soot and gases from combustion.

  9. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  10. Lyngbya majuscula Blooms in an Enclosed Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Soon Lionel Ng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms are a cause of concern because of their potential impacts on the marine environment. In Sentosa Cove, Singapore, Lyngbya majuscula blooms appeared regularly in the highly enclosed boat canals traversing the seafront residential development. This study investigated whether sediments resuspended by physical disturbance liberated nutrients that contribute to the blooms. Sediment resuspension events were mimicked in containers of sediment collected from the canals. Lyngbya majuscula that were incubated in containers with resuspended sediment attained greater biomass than those in filtered seawater only. Levels of iron, phosphates and nitrites in seawater with resuspended sediments were significantly higher than in those without. The results indicate that recurrent L. majuscula blooms in Sentosa Cove could be attributed to nutrient loading from sediment resuspension.

  11. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.

  12. Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pecanha Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection

  13. Evaluating the Heat Pump Alternative for Heating Enclosed Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Cold Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    AD-A1uG 385 COLD RE61ONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAS HANOVER NH F/e 13/1 EVALUATING THE HEAT PUMP ALTERNATIVE FOR HEATING ENCLOSED WASTE--ETC(U) NAT...1982Enginee Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory Evaluating the heat pump alternative for heating enclosed wastewater treatment facilities in...COVERED EVALUATING; THlE HEAT PUMP ALTERNATIVE FOR HEATING ENCLOSED WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACI~IITIES IN COLD REGIONS 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  14. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M.A. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S. [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  15. 46 CFR 28.340 - Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces. 28... of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces. (a) Applicability. Each vessel with a gasoline outboard engine or gasoline storage tank must comply with the requirements of this section. (b) Ventilation...

  16. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  17. Muscarinic receptor heterogeneity in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Rogelio O; Garay, Edith; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Ionic current responses elicited by acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes (follicles) were studied using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. ACh generated a fast chloride current (Fin) and inhibited K+ currents gated by cAMP (IK,cAMP) following receptor activation by adenosine, follicle-stimulating hormone or noradrenaline. These previously described cholinergic responses were confirmed to be of the muscarinic type, and were independently generated among follicles from different frogs.Inhibition of IK,cAMP was about 100 times more sensitive to ACh than Fin activation; the half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) were 6.6 ± 0.4 and 784 ± 4 nm, respectively.Both responses were blocked by several muscarinic receptor antagonists. Using the respective EC50 concentrations of ACh as standard, the antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide blocked the two effects with very different potencies. Fin was blocked with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.4 ± 0.07 nm, whilst the IC50 for IK,cAMP inhibition was 5.9 ± 0.2 μm.Oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, preferentially stimulated IK,cAMP inhibition (EC50= 15.8 ± 1.4 μm), whilst Fin was only weakly activated. In contrast, oxotremorine inhibited Fin generated by ACh with an IC50 of 2.3 ± 0.7 μm.Fin elicited via purinergic receptor stimulation was not affected by oxotremorine, indicating that the inhibition produced was specific to the muscarinic receptor, and suggesting that muscarinic actions do not exert a strong effect on follicular cell-oocyte coupling.Using reverse transcription-PCR, transcripts of a previously cloned muscarinic receptor from Xenopus (XlmR) were amplified from the RNA of both the isolated follicular cells and the oocyte. The pharmacological and molecular characteristics suggest that XlmR is involved in IK,cAMP inhibition.In conclusion, follicular cells possess two different muscarinic receptors, one resembling the M2 (or M4) subtype

  18. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  19. Target-enclosing control for second-order multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Wei, T. T.

    2015-09-01

    This paper poses the enclosing control problem with identical geometry for a group of targets which are either stationary or moving and offers consensus-based distributed control protocols. An estimator is first introduced to estimate the central position of the targets. We then propose a target-enclosing control law with velocity information based on the centre estimating algorithm and consensus theory. A target-enclosing control law without the velocity information is further designed. The Lyapunov theory and Lasalle's invariance principle are applied to show the convergence of the proposed control algorithms. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategy.

  20. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  1. Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

  2. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  3. INFLUENCE OF NON-PERFORATED SCREEN LOCATION ON HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN BUILDING ENCLOSING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended to have a vapor-proof barrier on the internal side of heat insulation system in multi-layer building enclosing parts in order to ensure protection of a heat-insulation layer against humidification because relative humidity of internal air is generally higher than external one and diffusion of water steam is directed from premises outside. While having a barrier with high vapor permeability a part of moisture can be accumulated in the structure and heat insulation core and difference of actual and maximum possible partial pressures leads to condensate formation. In order to improve thermal properties of enclosing parts the necessity arises to create a vapor-proof protection screen. It complies with the design of a panel with a vapor-proof screen in the form of non-perforated aluminium foil. The given screen located at internal panel layer prevents penetration of water vapor from premises into enclosing part and heat insulation layer. In such a case condensation zones and, consequently, their moistening can occur in some layers of enclosing parts according to their thermal and physical characteristics. The paper contains a calculation of thermal and moisture regime of the enclosing parts with vapor-proof layer (non-perforated aluminium foil located in enclosing part core between various layers. An analysis of thermal and moisture regime diagrams for multi-layer external enclosing part demonstrates that the part of non-perforated screen (aluminium foil located between internal concrete layer and perforated heat insulation layer is considered the most rational one. At the same time other screens between separate layers are perforated.

  4. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in enclosing rock mass surrounding deep tunnels Elasto-plastic analysis of stress field of enclosing rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; ZHANG Ya-dong; GONG Zi-ming

    2009-01-01

    The zonal disintegration phenomenon (ZDP) is a typical phenomenon in deep block rock masses. In order to investigate the mechanism of ZDP, an improved non-linear Hock-Brown strength criterion and a bi-linear constitutive model of rock mass were used to analyze the elasto-plastic stress field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep round tunnel. The radius of the plastic region and stress of the enclosing rock mass were obtained by introducing dimensionless parameters of radial distance. The results show that tunneling in deep rock mass causes a maximum stress zone to appear in the vicinity of the boundary of the elastic and the plas-tic zone in the surrounding rock mass. Under the compression of a large tangential force and a small radial force, the rock mass in the maximum stress zone was in an approximate uniaxial loading state, which could lead to a split failure in the rock mass.

  5. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  6. Study of total ionizing dose radiation effects on enclosed gate transistors in a commercial CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dong-Mei; Wang Zhi-Hua; Huangfu Li-Ying; Gou Qiu-Jing

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the total ionizing dose radiation effects on MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) transistors with normal and enclosed gate layout in a standard commercial CMOS (compensate MOS) bulk process. The leakage current, threshold voltage shift, and transconductance of the devices were monitored before and after γ-ray irradiation.The parameters of the devices with different layout under different bias condition during irradiation at different total dose are investigate. The results show that the enclosedosed layout not only effectively eliminates the leakage but also improves the performance of threshold voltage and transconductance for NMOS (n-type channel MOS) transistors. The experimental results also indicate that analogue bias during irradiation is the worst case for enclosed gate NMOS. There is no evident different behaviour observed between normal PMOS (p-type channel MOS) transistors and enclosed gate PMOS transistors.

  7. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yonggang; He, Haitang; Ye, Hongfei, E-mail: yehf@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ∼0.3 eV/Å to ∼0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  8. Acoustic source identification in an enclosed space using the inverse phased beam tracing at medium frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2008-01-01

    When the source is enclosed by room surfaces, it is not easy, though not totally impossible, to apply conventional modal methods for source identification. This is because there are too many complicated wave interferences and effects of wall impedance, in particular at medium frequencies. The pha...

  9. Inter-observer variation in identifying mammals from their tracks at enclosed track plate stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer

    2009-01-01

    Enclosed track plate stations are a common method to detect mammalian carnivores. Studies rely on these data to make inferences about geographic range, population status and detectability. Despite their popularity, there has been no effort to document inter-observer variation in identifying the species that leave their tracks. Four previous field crew leaders...

  10. Statistical mechanical properties of polymer configurations which enclose a constant area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khandekar, D.C.; Wiegel, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical mechanical properties of plane polymer loops enclosing a constant area are investigated, using a continuous model from the start. For this purpose an analytic expression for the generating functional is obtained, which in turn is used to derive (1) the distribution function for the e

  11. Enclosed outdoor photobioreactors: light regime, photosynthetic efficiency, scale-up, and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Mur, L.R.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Enclosed outdoor photobioreactors need to be developed and designed for large-scale production of phototrophic microorganisms. Both light regime and photosynthetic efficiency were analyzed in characteristic examples of state-of-the-art pilot-scale photobioreactors. In this study it is shown that pro

  12. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  13. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. (a) The minimum pipe size for the initial...

  14. Discharge Diagnosis of Metal-enclosed Switchgear by Using TEV Method%Discharge Diagnosis of Metal-enclosed Switchgear by Using TEV Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ming; DONG Ming; REN Zhong; PENG Hua-dong; LI Hong-jie; QIU Ai-ci

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of TEV (transient earth voltage) utilization, such as single judgment criterion and low reliability of PD detection in HV switchboard, this paper discussed the method on how to make a better utilization of TEV in PD detection of metal-enclosed switchgears. Through discussing the relationship among the temporal phase, number of pulses and threshold of measuring and extracting the features corresponding to different typical defects, test results showed that the needle discharge distributed in 0°-90° and 200°-340° with low appearance probability above high measurement threshold; internal discharge distributed in 0°-90° and 270°-315°, and showed a similar decreasing trend under increasing of the threshold in the two regions; suspended discharge distributed in 0°- 135° and 180°-315° where the PD in negative half periods decreased more seriously than those in positive half with increasing threshold. These results followed the doctrine of consistency with the conclusions that were obtained by using the traditional pulse current method. The possibility of using TEV method to make identification of PD defects has been proved to prepare foriurther research. Key words: metal-enclosed switchgear; identification of defects; transient earth voltage(TEV) ; PD detection

  15. The Effects of Enclosing Cultivated Land on the Physical Properties of Soil in the Loess Hill Region of Ordos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment by returning farmland to forest and grassland through enclosing areas of land to permit regeneration of native flora is being implemented in the Loess hill region of China. Soil physical properties are important components of ecological systems, as comparisons between cultivated and enclosed areas demonstrate. The results showed: the soil moisture content in the enclosed area was 14.6% and that in the cultivated area was 14%; the soil bulk density and soil porosity were respectively 1.45 g/cm3 and 45.28% in the enclosed areas, and respectively 1.46 g/cm3 and 44.79% in cultivated land. The alteration of soil physical properties was not big between cultivated areas and enclosed areas in the short term.

  16. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  17. RESEARCH ON RED TIDE OCCURRENCES USING ENCLOSED EXPERIMENTAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST XIAMEN HARBOR, CHINA--RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIOUS FACTORS AND RED TIDE OCCURRENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of enclosed ecosystem experiments were conducted in a land-based tank near the seaside of West Xiamen Harbor. The results of experiments conducted in different seasons and years showed a repeatable phytoplankton succession. In this relatively stable ecosystem with added nutrients and trace metals, diatoms dominated initially, dinoflagellates dominated in the later stage, and dinoflagellate red tides eventually occurred. Vitamin B12 enrichment may speed up this succession process. Stirring the water column could stop this process. Soluble Mn at a level of 3-4 μg/L in seawater, which also is the existing concentration of soluble Mn in Xiamen Harbor seawater, is sufficient for the multiplication of algae and occurrence of red tide. The present study showed that excessive soluble Mn in Xiamen Harbor cannot cause red tide, and that Fe was one of the important factors causing diatom red tide in this present study.

  18. Radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes regulated by enclosed cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The radial stability and configuration transition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs with enclosed cores have been studied in this paper by using atomistic simulations. We found that an abnormal transition of CNTs from open to collapse can be regulated by enclosing deformable and rigid cores. The energy barrier for the configuration transition can be reduced by nearly one order of magnitude due to the presence of these cores, i.e., from ∼0.3 eV/Å to ∼0.03 eV/Å. These findings may provide guidance for the design of controllable CNT-based carrier systems for the delivery of drug, gene and fluid.

  19. Metal-enclosed, air-insulated traction switchgear - developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    TracFeed {sup registered} TA switchgear series has been extended and successfully type tested under exceptional conditions for the requirements of 15 kV 16,7 Hz traction power supply systems. Therefore, air-insulated, metal-enclosed prefabricated switchgear systems are available for AC power supply with 15 kV 16,7 Hz in one- and two-pole configurations. The new switchgears are now in use in several installations. (orig.)

  20. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) descr...

  1. Flow in a Narrow Gap Along an Enclosed Rotating disk with Through-Flow

    OpenAIRE

    黒川, 淳一; 佐久問, 真人

    1988-01-01

    Flow in a narrow gap along an enclosed rotating disk superimposed with through-flow is studied theoretically and experimentally. When the axial gap is narrow, or a large outward through-flow is imposed, the boundary layers on the rotating and the stationary walls interfere with each other. The present study proposes an analytical model for such interference of gap flow and gives a theoretical analysis which is easily applicable to various boundary conditions. For non-interference of gap flow,...

  2. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  3. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  4. Operation of an enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Richter, Peter R.; Hao, Zongjie; An, Yanjun; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Yongding; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Schuster, Martin; Haag, Ferdinand W.; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Long- term spaceflight needs reliable Biological life support systems (BLSS) to supply astronauts with enough food, fresh air and recycle wasters, but the knowledge about the operation pattern and controlling strategy is rear. For this purpose, a miniaturized enclosed aquatic ecosystem was developed and flown on the Chinese spaceship Shenzhou-8. The system with a total volume of about 60 mL was separated into two chambers by means of a gas transparent membrane. The lower chamber was inoculated with Euglena gracilis cells, and the upper chamber was cultured with Chlorella cells and three snails. After 17.5 days flight, the samples were analyzed. It was found that all snails in the ground module (GM) were alive, while in the flight module (FM) only one snail survived. The total cell numbers, assimilation of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents showed a decrease in FM than in GM. The correlation analysis showed upper chambers of both FM and GM had the same positive and negative correlation factors, while differential correlation was found in lower chambers. These results suggested primary productivity in the enclosed system decreased in microgravity, accompanied with nutrients assimilation. The FM chamber endured lacking of domination species to sustain the system development and GM chamber endured richness in population abundance. These results implied photosynthesis intensity should be reduced to keep the system healthy. More Chlorella but less Euglena might be a useful strategy to sustain system stability. It is the first systematic analysis of enclosed systems in microgravity.

  5. Technical note: concentration and composition of airborne aerobic bacteria inside an enclosed rabbit shed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been conducted to analyse bacterial aerosols in animal houses, which is beneficial for the control of animal diseases. However, little information on aerosols in enclosed rabbit sheds was available. An FA-1 sampler was employed to collect air samples in an enclosed rabbit house in the Qingdao region of China. Concentration, composition, and aerodynamics of bacterial aerosols inside the enclosed rabbit shed were systematically analysed. The concentration of airborne bacteria inside the rabbit shed was 2.11-6.36×104 colony forming unit/m3 (CFU/m3. Seventeen species of bacteria belonging to eight genera were identified. Among these, there were 11 species belonging to 4 genera of gram-positive bacteria, and 6 species belonging to 4 genera of gram-negative bacteria. The dominant species of bacteria were, in descending order, Micrococcus luteus (49.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (25.5%, and Alcaligenes odorans (10.2%. A total of about 76.3% of airborne bacteria was distributed in stages C-F of the FA-1 sampler (that ranges from A to F, with aerodynamic radii <3.3 μm in diameter. These particulates could enter lower respiratory tracks and even alveoli, posing a potential threat to the health of both animals and breeders.

  6. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  7. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  8. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  9. Wireless Power Transfer by Means of Electromagnetic Radiation Within an Enclosed Space

    CERN Document Server

    Moffatt, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, wireless power transfer by means of electromagnetic radiation is investigated. Formulas are derived for the efficiency of the power transfer in free space, in the presence of reflecting surfaces, and within enclosed spaces. It is found that the presence of reflecting surfaces has the capacity to substantially enhance the efficiency of power transfer at long range. An upper limit is also found for the transferred power when constraints are imposed on certain forms of undesired absorption. For the sake of simplicity, only the efficiency of the radiative power transfer is considered. Losses due to resistance in the antenna structures or inefficiencies in RF to DC conversion are neglected.

  10. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  11. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  12. An experimental and numerical investigation of velocity in an enclosed residential complex parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Motlagh, Majid Shafie Pour; Mousavi, Monireh Sadat; Niksokhan, Mohhamad hosein; Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present research is analysis of velocity vector and magnitude in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran. Velocity parameters are key factor and can be helpful in proposing solutions to improve indoor air quality. Since The flow pattern determines that how and where the pollutants propagate. In this research at first, the proportion of vehicular exhaust emissions is estimated and then experimental and numerical analyses are performed. In experimental analysis, a full-scale experiment of parking area has been used; velocity is measured by calibrated measuring devices. Samples were performed in several times. In order to perform numerical calculation, a 3-dimensional model was created by Fluent software that solves flow equations with finite volume method. In this research, the flow condition is assumed to be incompressible and turbulent. Standard k-ɛ scheme was selected as turbulence modeling. In the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique the geometry of parking area is generated in ICEM-CFD software and hexahedral mesh type is used. Velocity vectors and magnitudes in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran are estimated. The findings obtained from numerical simulation are in complete accord with experimental results.

  13. Application test of a Detection Method for the Enclosed Turbine Runner Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Shen, Dingjie; Xie, Yi; Yang, Xiangwei; Long, Yi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    At present, for the existing problems of the testing methods for the key hidden metal components of the turbine runner chamber, such as the poor reliability, the inaccurate locating and the larger detection blind spots of the detection device, under the downtime without opening the cover of the hydropower turbine runner chamber, an automatic detection method based on real-time image acquisition and simulation comparison techniques was proposed. By using the permanent magnet wheel, the magnetic crawler which carry the real-time image acquisition device, could complete the crawling work on the inner surface of the enclosed chamber. Then the image acquisition device completed the real-time collection of the scene image of the enclosed chamber. According to the obtained location by using the positioning auxiliary device, the position of the real-time detection image in a virtual 3D model was calibrated. Through comparing of the real-time detection images and the computer simulation images, the defects or foreign matter fall into could be accurately positioning, so as to repair and clean up conveniently.

  14. Membrane-enclosed multienzyme (MEME) synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestier, Marie; Latousakis, Dimitrios; Bell, Andrew; Tribolo, Sandra; Tailford, Louise E; Colquhoun, Ian J; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Rejzek, Martin; Dedola, Simone; Field, Robert A; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-08-19

    Naturally occurring 2,7-anhydro-alpha-N-acetylneuraminic acid (2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac) is a transglycosylation product of bacterial intramolecular trans-sialidases (IT-sialidases). A facile one-pot two-enzyme approach has been established for the synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid derivatives including those containing different sialic acid forms such as Neu5Ac and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The approach is based on the use of Ruminoccocus gnavus IT-sialidase for the release of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid from glycoproteins, and the conversion of free sialic acid by a sialic acid aldolase. This synthetic method, which is based on a membrane-enclosed enzymatic synthesis, can be performed on a preparative scale. Using fetuin as a substrate, high-yield and cost-effective production of 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac was obtained to high-purity. This method was also applied to the synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Gc. The membrane-enclosed multienzyme (MEME) strategy reported here provides an efficient approach to produce a variety of sialic acid derivatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  16. Location representation in enclosed spaces: what types of information afford young children an advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify location in a square-shaped space, where geometry is uninformative, so long as scale-like information was available on the walls of the space [Huttenlocher, J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2007a). Coding location in enclosed spaces: Is geometry the principle? Developmental Science, 10, 741-746]. Here we build on this work by examining more closely what types of cues afford 18- to 24-month-olds an advantage in locating a target object following disorientation. Their performance was assessed when linear scale-like information was presented either in isolation or in composite form. It was found that, even in isolation, young children searched at the appropriate locations, with added benefit when presented as a composite. We suggest that linear scale-like dimensions, especially when available in composite form, play a critical role in supporting location representation in young children.

  17. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  18. Sound reduction at a target point inside an enclosed cavity using particle dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Shi, Yaogui; Yang, Qiliang; Song, Gangbing

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel structural damping approach to reduce the sound pressure at a target point inside an enclosed cavity. In this approach, particle dampers filled with either metal or nonmetal particles are used. The dissipation mechanisms of such dampers are primarily related to the friction and collision of particle-wall and particle-particle contacts. In this research, each panel contribution was first analyzed to identify the panel that contributes the most to the target point. The proposed particle dampers were then attached to this panel for sound reduction. In the numerical process, a Particle Dampers Cyclic Iterative Method (PDCIM) was proposed for extracting the damping loss factor of the particle dampers to compute the sound pressure of a target point in the cavity with the particle dampers. For further comparative studies, simulation experiments are conducted for three cases: a case with the particle dampers, a case with the empty particle containers and a case with the equivalent mass. The numerical study found that the case with the particle dampers had the best sound reduction effect. Later, model tests were carried out to validate the numerical results. Experimental test results revealed that the particle dampers are remarkably effective for reducing the sound inside the enclosed cavity.

  19. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  20. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  1. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  2. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  3. Coastal upwelling and downwelling forcing of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E. D.; Largier, J. L.; Torres, R.; Sheridan, M.; Trasviña, A.; Souza, A.; Pazos, Y.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-05-01

    Semi-enclosed bays in upwelling regions are exposed to forcing related to winds, currents and buoyancy over the shelf. The influence of this external forcing is moderated by factors such as connectivity to the open ocean, shelter by surrounding topography, dimensions of the bay, and freshwater outflows. Such bays, preferred locations for ports, mariculture, marine industry, recreational activities and coastal settlement, present a range of characteristics, understanding of which is necessary to their rational management. Observations in such a semi-enclosed bay, the Ria de Vigo in Spain, are used to characterize the influence of upwelling and downwelling pulses on its circulation. In this location, near the northern limit of the Iberian upwelling system, upwelling events dominate during a short summer season and downwelling events the rest of the year. The ria response to the external forcing is central to nutrient supply and resultant plankton productivity that supports its high level of cultured mussel production. Intensive field studies in September 2006 and June 2007 captured a downwelling event and an upwelling event, respectively. Data from eight current profiler moorings and boat-based MiniBat/ADCP surveys provided an unprecedented quasi-synoptic view of the distribution of water masses and circulation patterns in any ria. In the outer ria, circulation was dominated by the introduction of wind-driven alongshore flow from the external continental shelf through the ria entrances and its interaction with the topography. In the middle ria, circulation was primarily related to the upwelling/downwelling cycle, with a cool, salty and dense lower layer penetrating to the inner ria during upwelling over the shelf. A warmer, lower salinity and less dense surface layer of coastal waters flowed inward during downwelling. Without external forcing, the inner ria responded primarily to tides and buoyancy changes related to land runoff. Under both upwelling and downwelling

  4. Almost enclosed buckyball joints: synthesis, complex formation, and computational simulations of pentypticene-extended tribenzotriquinacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Stefan; Bredenkötter, Björn; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Bureekaew, Sareeya; Schmid, Rochus; Volkmer, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    We report the synthesis of a tribenzotriquinacene-based (TBTQ) receptor (3) for C60 fullerene, which is extended by pentiptycene moieties to provide an almost enclosed concave ball bearing. The system serves as a model for a self-assembling molecular rotor with a flexible and adapting stator. Unexpectedly, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigations reveal a surprisingly low complex stability constant of K1 =213±37 M(-1) for [C60 ⊂3], seemingly inconsistent with the previously reported TBTQ systems. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted for three different [C60 ⊂TBTQ] complexes to resolve this. Because of the dominating dispersive interactions, the binding energies increase with the contact area between guest and host, however, only for rigid host structures. By means of free-energy calculations with an explicit solvent model it can be shown that the novel flexible TBTQ receptor 3 binds weakly because of hampering entropic contributions.

  5. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  6. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigao Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  7. Numerical Computation of Flow and Heat Transfer from an Enclosed Rotating Disk with Suction and Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Agarwal

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available The Newton Raphson technique has been employed to solve the set of non-linear equations governing the problem of flow and heat transfer from an enclosed rotating disc. /The disc called rotor is subjected to uniform injection while the top of the housing called stator, to an equal suction. The results for small Reynold numbers are found in good agreement to that obtained earlier by series solution. The radial and transverse velocity profiles for large Reynolds have been plotted in the regions of no recirculation. The effect of net radial inflow and outflow on temperature in the no-recirculation region has also been studied. The method is significant in this respect that it yields satisfactory results for large Reynolds numbers.

  8. Effect of enclosed fluid on the dynamic response of inflated torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashish; Mishra, B. K.; Jain, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    Large inflatable structures have been the subject of renewed interest for scientists/engineers in recent years due to their potential space applications such as communication antennas, solar thermal propulsion and space solar power. The major advantages of using inflatable structures in space are their extremely low-weight, on-orbit deployability and inherent low launch volume. An inflated torus is a key component of many inflated space structures such as a thin membrane reflector. In view of their importance, structural static and dynamic behavior of inflated torus need to be investigated. In order to develop a more realistic model, dynamic interaction between the enclosed fluid and the torus has been included in the present work. An appreciable decrease in the modal frequencies is observed when fluid-structure interaction is taken into account. Some additional modes are also obtained. It is concluded that fluid-structure interaction significantly affects the dynamic behavior of inflatable space structures.

  9. "Fluid bearing" effect of enclosed liquids in grooves on drag reduction in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haosheng; Gao, Yang; Stone, Howard A.; Li, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    We report details of the fluid motion formed within and above grooves when a laminar continuous phase fluid flows over a second immiscible fluid enclosed in a grooved microchannel. Vortical structures within the transverse grooves were caused by a slip velocity at the fluid-fluid interface and act as "fluid bearings" on the boundary to lubricate the flow of the continuous phase. We investigated the drag reduction in the laminar flow in the microchannel by measuring slip at the boundaries and calculating an effective slip length, taking into account the influence of the effect of the viscosity ratio of the two fluids on the effective slip length. The "fluid bearing" effect can be used to transport high viscosity fluids using low viscosity fluids trapped in cavities to reduce drag.

  10. Exploring a partially enclosed space by lead-exposed female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, R E; Laughlin, N K

    2001-01-01

    Beginning on Day 8 postpartum, lead acetate was administered to female rhesus monkeys (n=48). Their blood lead levels rose to 35-40 microg/dl (the level maintained for the duration of the study period) by 12 weeks of age. Weekly, these lead-exposed monkeys and their controls (n=23) were placed in a partially enclosed space from the second postnatal week until they escaped three times or were 26 weeks old. The lead-exposed monkeys exhibited more fear, were more likely to be agitated, and climbed more frequently during the first testing session. In subsequent sessions, they more frequently explored the periphery of the test area than the controls. The lead-exposed monkeys also tended to escape sooner although that trend did not consistently reach the.05 level of significance. The increased activity and agitation of the lead-exposed monkeys is suggestive of deficits reported in human children with high blood lead levels.

  11. Physical parameters of high expansion foam used for fire suppression in the enclosed space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol’chenko Dmitriy Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available During proving ground tests there were revealed regularities of fire suppression in enclosed space by high expansion foam using the method of volumetric filling. It is shown that the structure of a dispersed phase, particularly of smoke, has a great influence on the resistance of foam to destruction. The impact mechanism of smoke components on the formation of high expansion foam basing on the condition of integrity preserving of foam agent water solution films is considered. A short description of the interaction of smoke components with foam is given. The influence of concentration and nature of surface-active substances (SAS, concentration and nature of smoke is investigated, as well as electrokinetic parameters of foam on the foam forming process with receiving the foams of a specified structure and with control of such parameters as frequency rate, dispersion, thickness of foam films, capillary pressure in a Plateau Gibbs channels. The results of proving ground tests are presented. It is shown that application of the compositions with the highest fatty alcohols (HFA additives as stabilizers of foam leads to increase of its stability. It is also shown that increase of foam expansion rate and dispersion of foamy bubbles leads to increase of viscoelastic properties of foam. The analysis of the material balance of high expansion foam supplied for fire suppression in enclosed premises, without account for smoke existence in it, is carried out. It is shown that the given formula includes the balance of foam accumulated and destroyed under the influence of flame and hydrostatic pressure of a solution in foamy channels.

  12. RF Exposure Analysis for Multiple Wi-Fi Devices In Enclosed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Rhodes, Bryan A.; deSilva, B. Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.; Keiser, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Wi-Fi devices operated inside a metallic enclosure have been investigation in the recent years. A motivation for this study is to investigate wave propagation inside an enclosed environment such as elevator, car, aircraft, and spacecraft. There are performances and safety concerned that when the RF transmitters are used in the metallic enclosed environments. In this paper, the field distributions inside a confined room were investigated with multiple portable Wi-Fi devices. Computer simulations were performed using the rigorous computational electromagnetics (CEM). The method of moments (MoM) was used to model the mutual coupling among antennas. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was applied for the multiple reflections off the ground and walls. The prediction of the field distribution inside such environment is useful for the planning and deployment of a wireless radio and sensor system. Factors that affect the field strengths and distributions of radio waves in confined space were analyzed. The results could be used to evaluate the RF exposure safety in confined environment. By comparing the field distributions for various scenarios, it was observed that the Wi-Fi device counts, spacing and relative locations in the room are important factors in such environments. The RF Keep Out Zone (KOZ), where the electric field strengths exceed the permissible RF exposure limit, could be used to assess the RF human exposure compliance. As shown in this study, it s possible to maximize or minimize field intensity in specific area by arranging the Wi-Fi devices as a function of the relative location and spacing in a calculated manner.

  13. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  14. Enclosed Laplacian Operator of Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion to Preserve Singularities and Delete Isolated Points in Image Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Liao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion (NAD methods in image smoothing cannot obtain satisfied results near singularities and isolated points because of the discretization errors. In this paper, we propose a new scheme, named Enclosed Laplacian Operator of Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion (ELONAD, which allows us to provide a unified framework for points in flat regions, edge points and corners, even can delete isolated points and spurs. ELONAD extends two diffusion directions of classical NAD to eight or more enclosed directions. Thus it not only performs NAD according to modules of enclosed directions which can reduce the influence of traction errors greatly, but also distinguishes isolated points and small spurs from corners which must be preserved. Smoothing results for test patterns and real images using different discretization schemes are also given to test and verify our discussions.

  15. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  16. Novel Cl- currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone and acetylcholine in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Voltage-clamp techniques were used to study the membrane currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed oocytes of Xenopus laevis (follicles). Both agonists caused complex responses that were more evident when the follicles were in hypotonic Ringer solution (HR; 190.4 mosM). In this medium, currents activated by FSH regularly showed three phases whereas currents activated by ACh displayed three to six phases. At a holding potential of -60 mV, FSH, and ACh responses involved combinations of inward and outward currents. Both FSH and ACh responses included a slow smooth inward component that was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, mainly to Cl- (S(in)). This current was strongly dependent on the osmolarity of the external solution: an increase in osmolarity of the HR solution of 18-20 mosM caused a 50% decrease in S(in). In contrast, a fast and transient Cl- current (F(in)) specifically elicited by ACh was not dependent on osmolarity. Both, F(in) and S(in) currents required the presence of follicular cells, since defolliculation using three different methods abolished all the response to FSH and at least four components of the ACh responses. The membrane channels carrying F(in) and oscillatory Cl- currents elicited by stimulation of ACh or serum receptors, were much more permeable to I- and Br- than Cl-, whereas S(in) channels were equally permeable to these anions. Unlike the oscillatory Cl- currents generated in the oocyte itself, S(in) and F(in) currents in follicle-enclosed oocytes were not abolished by chelation of intracellular Ca2+, either with EGTA or BAPTA, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ does not play a critical role in the activation of these currents. Our experiments show that S(in) and F(in) currents are quite distinct from the previously characterized oscillatory Cl- responses of oocytes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that the FSH and ACh receptors, the Cl- channels

  17. Prolonged binding of radiolabeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator after angioplasty and enclosed thrombolysis of the femoropopliteal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Vinberg, N; Folkenborg, O

    1992-01-01

    The authors measured the binding of indium-111-labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within the recanalized femoropopliteal segment after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and enclosed thrombolysis. In patients with long occlusions (n = 3), 91 micrograms of rt...

  18. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  19. Plane polymer configurations enclosing a fixed area in an electric field: generating functional and statistical mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khandekar, D.C.; Wiegel, F.W.

    1993-01-01

    The statistical mechanical properties of plane polymer configurations which enclose a fixed area and are subject to an external electric field are investigated. For this purpose an exact expression for the generating functional is obtained and subsequently used to derive: (a) the distribution functi

  20. Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets on reduced graphene oxide for formic acid electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Yan, Yucong; Chen, Wenlong; Khan, Yousaf; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2016-12-06

    Single-crystalline Pd square nanoplates enclosed by {100} facets were generated on reduced graphene oxide and exhibited the substantially enhanced properties for the formic acid oxidation reaction. The combination of carbonyl groups formed on the surface of annealed graphene oxide and Br(-) ions played important roles in this synthesis.

  1. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  2. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  3. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  4. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

    2012-02-01

    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare.

  5. Nitric oxide acts through different signaling pathways in maturation of cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abbasi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Nitric oxide (NO have a dual action in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation which depends on its concentration, but the mechanisms by which it influences oocyte maturation has not been exactly clarified. In this study different signaling mechanisms which exist for in vitro maturation of meiosis was examined in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEOs after injection of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG to immature female mice. Methods: The CEOs were cultured in spontaneous maturation and hypoxanthine (HX arrested model. Results: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor, 10mM delayed germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD significantly during the first 5 hrs of incubation and inhibited the formation of first polar body (PB1 at the end of 24 hrs of incubation. SNP (10-5M stimulated the meiotic maturation of oocytes significantly by overcoming the inhibition of HX. Sildenafil (a cGMP stimulator, 100 nM, had a significant inhibitory effects on both spontaneous meiotic maturation and HX-arrested meiotic maturation. Forskolin (an adenylate cyclase stimulator, 6µM and SNP (10mM had the same effects on GVBD. Forskolin reversed the SNP (10-5M stimulated meiotic maturation. Conclusion: These results suggest that differences in pathways are present between SNP-inhibited spontaneous meiotic maturation and SNP-stimulated meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes

  6. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  7. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Xin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1 describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2 present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3 compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4 summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  8. Pollution of PM10 in an underground enclosed loading dock in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualqumboz, M. S.; Mohammed, N. I.; Malakahmad, A.; Nazif, A. N.; Albattniji, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    The enclosed nature of underground loading docks results in accumulation of motor vehicles emissions. Thus, concentration of numerous harmful air pollutants including PM10 particles can increase and reach dangerous levels. This paper aims to study short-term and long-term exposure of PM10 particles inside an underground loading dock located in Malaysia. In addition, the correlation with indoor temperature, relative humidity and vehicles flow will be measured. The concentrations of PM10 were measured for three consecutive weeks using the real-time air quality monitoring instrument AQM60. Series of statistical tests and multiple linear regression analysis were applied on the data using SPSS software and MATLAB R2013a. The results illustrated that PM10 daily average concentration was in compliance with the Malaysian guideline of 150 µg/m3. Actually, 95% of instantaneous PM10 concentration readings were below 75 μg/m3. In addition, significant correlation were found between PM10 concentration and indoor temperature, relative humidity and the previous concentration. The multiple R and R2 were 0.91 and 0.83, respectively. PM10 concentration was also correlated with motor vehicles flow. In conclusion, health effects of long-term exposure to small repetitive doses of air pollutant inside underground facilities should be studied and appropriate control measures need to be implemented.

  9. Trapping of fine sediment in a semi-enclosed bay, Palau, Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Victor, Steven; Wolanski, Eric; Richmond, Robert H.

    2003-08-01

    Airai Bay, Palau, is a small (3 km 2), semi-enclosed, mangrove-fringed, meso-tidal, coral lagoon on the southeast coast of Palau. It drains a small catchment area (26 km 2) of highly erodible soils in an area with high annual rainfall (3.7 m). River floods are short-lived and the sediment load is very large, with suspended fine sediment concentration exceeding 1500 mg l -1. The resulting river plume is about 2 m thick. The brackish water residence time is about 7 days; during this period the plume remains a distinct surface feature even after river runoff has ceased. About 98% of the riverine fine sediment settles in Airai Bay, of which about 15-30% is deposited in the mangroves during river floods. This mud remains trapped in Airai Bay because the bay is protected from ocean swells and the tidal currents and locally generated wind waves are too small to resuspend the mud in quantity. The mud is smothering coral reefs, creating a phase shift from coral to fleshy algae dominance, and is even changing habitats by creating mud banks. The persistence of Airai Bay marine resources may not be possible without improved soil erosion control in the river catchment.

  10. NUMERICAL STUDY OF NATURAL CONVECTION FROM TWO PARALLEL HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS ENCLOSED BY CIRCULAR CYLINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Husain Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical solution is presented for the steady state, two dimensional natural convection heat transfer from two parallel horizontal cylinders enclosed by circular cylinder. The inner cylinders are heated and maintained at constant surface temperature, while the outer cylinder is cooled at constant surface temperature. Boundary fitted coordinate system is used to solve governing equations. The vorticity-stream function and energy equations is solved using explicit finite deference method and stream function equation solved by successive iteration method. (20Deferent cases are studied cover rang of Rayleigh number from (1,000 to (25,000 based on the inner cylinder diameter. These cases study the effect of the  varying inner cylinders position horizontally and vertically within outer cylinder on the heat transfer and buoyancy that causes the flow. Outputs are displayed in terms of streamline, isothermal contours and local and average Nusselt number. The results showed that the position of the inner cylinders highly affects the heat transfer and flow movements in the gap. At low Rayleigh numbers the average Nusselt number increases with increase of horizontal distance between inner cylinders but the state is reversed at high Rayleigh numbers, while the average Nusselt number is increases with inner cylinder moving down at all Rayleigh numbers. The optimal position of inner cylinders for maximum and minimum heat transfer is located at each Rayleigh number so can be employed in isolation process or cooling process.

  11. On the inconsistencies related to prediction of flow into an enclosing hood obstructed by a worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaismail, Ertan; Celik, Ismail

    2010-06-01

    The recirculating flow structures formed in the wake of a worker standing in front of an enclosing fume hood were numerically investigated. Two- and three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar/turbulent computations were performed for a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(5). The standard k-epsilon, Renormalization group (RNG) k-epsilon, and Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-omega models were used in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations, and the results were compared with each other and also with the previous predictions reported in the literature. Numerical issues regarding the grid convergence and the inadequacies of turbulence models that may come into play at low Reynolds numbers were addressed. On the whole, SST k-omega model was found to be promising for qualitatively accurate prediction of both steady and unsteady recirculatory flow patterns in the wake of the worker. On the other hand, the standard and RNG k-epsilon models failed in prediction of anticipated unsteadiness at low Reynolds numbers. In a more realistic three-dimensional simulation with SST k-omega model, the anticipated unsteady and recirculating flow field in the wake of the worker was captured. Present results seem to qualitatively agree with the deductions made from experimental analyses in the literature while conflicting with some aspects of the previously reported numerical results. The apparent inconsistencies observed between the current results and those published in the literature were elucidated.

  12. Large deformation of liquid capsules enclosed by thin shells immersed in the fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Vinh; Tan, Zhijun

    2010-06-01

    The deformation of a liquid capsule enclosed by a thin shell in a simple shear flow is studied numerically using an implicit immersed boundary method. We present a thin-shell model for computing the forces acting on the shell middle surface during the deformation within the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love theory of thin shells. This thin-shell model takes full account of finite-deformation kinematics which allows thickness stretching as well as large deflections and bending strains. For hyperelastic materials, the plane-stress assumption is used to compute the hydrostatic pressure and the incompressibility condition yields the thickness strain component and the corresponding change in the thickness. The stresses developing over the cross-section of the shell are integrated over the thickness to yield the stress and moment resultants which are then used to compute the forces acting on the shell middle surface. The immersed boundary method is employed for calculating the hydrodynamics and fluid-structure interaction effects. The location of the thin shell is updated implicitly using the Newton-Krylov method. The present numerical technique has been validated by several examples including an inflation of a spherical shell and deformations of spherical and oblate spheroidal capsules in the shear flow.

  13. Identification of the breast edge using areas enclosed by iso-intensity contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, J; Alport, M J; Rae, W I D

    2007-09-01

    The segmentation of a mammogram into background and breast is a crucial first step in the computer aided diagnosis of mammograms that has the advantage of simplifying further processing of the image (by eliminating the background) and also provides a reference for the alignment of views when two views are being compared. A novel method of segmenting the breast from the background by analysing the area enclosed by iso-intensity contours is presented. Results are evaluated by comparison with manual borders drawn by three radiologists for a set of 25 mammograms. The effect of different pre-processing methods, on the accuracy of automated borders, is investigated. The best methods yielded average root-mean-square differences between the manual and automated iso-intensity borders of 3.0+/-0.3 mm for the image set containing clear breast edges and 4.8+/-0.5 mm for the image set containing indistinct breast edges compared to 5.1+/-0.8 and 7.9+/-0.9 mm for the two data sets with no pre-processing. Results are also compared to those obtained from global thresholding.

  14. An outbreak of Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Speer, Brian; Wellehan, James F X; Bradway, Daniel S; Wright, Lewis; Reavill, Drury; Barr, Bradd C; Childress, April; Shivaprasad, H L; Chin, Richard P

    2013-11-01

    A total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. Histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a Sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. By immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue cysts in muscle did not react with polyclonal antisera against Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum, or with a monoclonal antibody to S. neurona. Transmission electron microscopy on sarcocyst tissue cyst walls from 2 birds was morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis calchasi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of partial 18S ribosomal RNA from muscle tissue cysts and brain schizonts from 3 birds was consistent with a clade containing S. calchasi and Sarcocystis columbae but could not distinguish these closely related Sarcocystis species. However, PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 RNA segment in the brain from 2 birds and muscle from 2 birds specifically identified the isolates as S. calchasi. The current report documents that multiple psittacine species are susceptible intermediate hosts of S. calchasi, and that infection can cause encephalitis resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in psittacine aviaries.

  15. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  16. Influence of Reclamation Works on the Marine Environment in a Semi-Enclosed Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee M.Ock; Park S.Jin; Kang T.Soon

    2006-01-01

    The flow and seawater exchange rates have been predicted using a two-dimensional numerical model and a Lagrangian method for a semi-enclosed shallow bay where reclaiming and dredging works are scheduled.The wind effect on the flow and material transport has been emphasized, and a thirty-year mean value of wind has been considered in the numerical simulation.As a whole, even after the reclaiming and dredging are conducted, the flow pattern looks similar to the original state.However, velocity variations up to 20% to 100% appear in the vicinity of the construction area.In the case of summer wind forcing, the seawater exchange rate increases from 71.6% to 82.9% after the reclaiming and dredging, as indicated by a particle-tracking method.On the contrary, in the case of winter wind forcing, the seawater exchange rate appears to be 97.2% under natural conditions but decreases slightly to 93.2% after the reclaiming and dredging.Thus, the wind forcing plays an important role in controlling the seawater exchange rates.The seawater exchange rate is further improved by 15% if the dredging is simultaneously carried out with the reclaiming.This suggests thatthe dredging can be an effective means to mitigate the variation of flow.

  17. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  18. Fully enclosed hybrid electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator to scavenge vibrational energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Quan; Ya Yang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fully enclosed hybrid nanogenerator consisting of five electromagnetic generators (EMGs) and four triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs).Under a vibration frequency of 15.5 Hz,one TENG can deliver a high output voltage of approximately 24 V and a low output current of approximately 24 μA,whereas one EMG can deliver a low output voltage of approximately 0.8 V and a high output current of approximately 0.5 mA.By integrating five rectified EMGs in series and four rectified TENGs in parallel,the hybrid nanogenerator can be used to charge a home-made Li-ion battery from 1 to 1.9 V in 6.3 h.By using the hybrid nanogenerator to scavenge the vibrational energy produced by human hands,a temperature-humidity sensor can be sustainably powered by the nanogenerator,which is capable of charging the 200 μF system power capacitor from 0 to 2 V in 15 s,and sustainably power the sensor in 29 s.

  19. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen

    2014-12-01

    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 全封闭条形煤场与全封闭圆形煤场的比较%Comparision of Enclosed Strip Coal Yard and Enclosed Circular Coal Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢佰淼

    2014-01-01

    介绍了目前大型燃煤电厂贮煤场的设计形式以及条形煤场和全封闭圆形煤场常用堆取料设备,即悬臂式斗轮堆取料机和圆形煤场堆取料机。结合北方某大型燃煤电厂的工程设计实例,对该工程贮煤场采用全封闭条形煤场及采用同容量的全封闭圆形煤场的2种贮煤形式进行了技术性能和经济性比较,给出了2种贮煤形式的适用情况,即在地质条件较好情况下,2种贮煤方案总投资相当,但在地质条件较差情况下全封闭圆形煤场总投资要高于全封闭条形煤场。结合该电厂的实际情况,最终选用全封闭条形煤场。%The design forms of coal yard in large-scale coal-fired power plant is introduced, and the operation way is described about the common stacking and reclaiming equipment applying on the strip coal yard and enclosed circular coal yard, i.e. cantilever-type bucket wheel stacker-reclaimer and circular stacker-reclaimer. According to the design of a power plant in North China, compared the enclosed strip coal yard with the enclosed circular coal yard from technical and economical, applicability of two kinds of coal yard is analyzed. In the case of the geological conditions are better, the investment of two kinds of schemes is equivalent. But in the poor geological conditions, the total investment of the enclosed circular coal yard is higher than the total investment of enclosed strip coal yard. According to the actual situation of the power plant, the enclosed strip coal yard is adopted.

  1. Evolution Characteristics of Saturated Hydrocarbons of Enclosed Organic Matter in Carbonate Minerals in Tieling Limestone Under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解启来; 陆明勇; 等

    2000-01-01

    The enclosed organic matter chiefly releases lower carbon-number n-alkanes under high temperature and high pressure,while the kerogen mainly produces higher carbon-number n-alkanes.The rsidual hydrocarbons generated by both kerogen and enclosed organic matter in the Tieling limestone contain abundant tricyclic terpanes,pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes,but the contents of tetracyclic terpanes and 25-norhopane are lower.The residual enclosed orgainc matter shows the same distribution characteristics of n-alkanes,steranes and terpanes as that of the original bitumaen A,i.e.,the higher contents of triterpanes and tetracyclic terpanes,the higher ratios of 25-norhopanes over regular hopanes and markedly degraded steranes.By comparing the residual hydrocarbon.residual enclosed orgainc matter and original enclosed orgainc matter.it can be concluded that steranes and terpanes in the residual hydrocarbons are produced mainly by the kerogen and subordinately by the residual enclosed organic matter,the steranes and terpanes do not enter into the residual enclosed organic matter,and the thermal evolution of the residual enclosed organic matter maintains its unique character.Furthermore,pressure retards the pyrolysis of higher carbon-number alkanes and influences the isomerization ratios of C29-steranes,making 20S/(20S+20R) lower under the higher pressure than that under lower pressure,Higher pressure retards the thermal evolution of organic matter.

  2. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of the behavior of nitromethanes enclosed inside carbon nanotube containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Se Won; Cho, Soo Gyeong

    2016-07-01

    We utilized molecular dynamics (MD) to investigate the behavior of nitromethane molecules (NMs) enclosed inside carbon nanotube (CNT) containers sealed with buckybowl caps. Two different sizes of CNT containers, i.e., (10,10) and (20,20), were employed to contain the energetic NMs. After loading the NMs into these containers, MD simulations were carried out at different loading densities. The loading density was changed from 0.4 to 2.0 g/cc. At low loading densities, NMs preferentially resided near the surface of the CNT wall (orienting themselves in the cylindrical direction) and near the buckybowl caps (orienting themselves in the principal-axis direction). This behavior suggests the buckybowl caps and the CNT wall have attractive interactions with the NMs. The distribution of the NMs inside the containers did not change upon increasing the temperature from ambient to 100 °C. However, the positional preference of the NMs found at ambient temperature to 100 °C was not the same as that observed at 1000 °C due to the increased thermal motions of the NMs. The size of the CNT container had a significant effect on the fluidity of the NMs. From 25 to 100 °C, the NMs inside the (10,10) CNT container were only mobile at low loading densities. On the other hand, in the (20,20) CNT container, the NMs showed good mobility up to a loading density of 1.6 g/cc. Graphical Abstract Attractive interactions between the nitromethanes and the buckybowl caps as well as the carbon nanotube wall.

  4. Assessment of hydrodynamics, biochemical parameters and eddy diffusivity in a semi-enclosed Ionian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-11-01

    In the framework of the Italian flagship Project RITMARE, during December 2013 a meteo-oceanographic station was installed in the Mar Grande basin, a semi-enclosed bay in Southern Italy, connected to the Ionian Sea. Due to the presence of coastal heavy industry and anthropic pressure, this marine system has experienced environmental degradation over the last decades. Therefore, much monitoring of hydrodynamics and water quality indicators is required. In fact, this monitoring makes it possible to check the real-time biochemical status of the basin and therefore promptly intervene when accidental spills occur, and to create a dataset necessary to calibrate and validate modelling systems providing forecasts. The present paper aims to analyze and discuss the long term and continuous recordings of hydrodynamic and biochemical data collected by this station, available for the period from January 2014 up to December 2014. In detail, hourly measurements of wind, waves, current velocity, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and turbidity concentrations were archived in monthly time-series and processed in frequency domain, using the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), to both delineate the reciprocal effects of drivers and deduce some correlations between parameters (De Serio and Mossa, 2013). Following this, monthly surface current data were processed in order to obtain time-averaged values of the turbulent velocity components, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent time scales. Based on these calculated turbulent parameters, the horizontal eddy diffusivity was computed with the hypothesis of homogeneous turbulence using two methods, which provided results with the same order of magnitude. These results are of interest for numerical dispersion models. Finally, only referring to the month of December 2014, the time series of the crude oil concentration was available at the station and was examined in depth. The field data enabled us to conclude that the crude oil dispersion

  5. INVESTIGATING MASS IMAGING LEAD FREE MATERIALS USING ENCLOSED PRINT HEAD TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CliveAshmore; RickGoldsmith

    2003-01-01

    Within the Surface Mount Assembly (S.M.A.) process, solder paste is primarily used as a mechanical and electrical connection. Solder paste is generally deposited using a mass imaging process, such as squeegees, however this paper will utilise the enclosed print head technology. The process associated with mass imaging is a critical and demanding stage in the soldering phase of S.M.A. It has been documented many times that this process contributes more than 60% of all S.M.A faults; This being the case it illustrates the requirement to have a full comprehension of the mass imaging process. With legal and commercial pressure put on to remove lead from within the electronics sector, the solder paste alloy is obviously under review. Much work is being carried out on the metallurgical properties of these lead free solder pastes such as joint strength and compatibility within the manufacturing process. However, this paper will focus on investigating the process window for mass imaging of lead-free materials. The major influences within the mass imaging process have been documented in numerous studies using lead rich materials. However, the material used to replace the Pb component changes the solder paste properties and therefore the characteristics of the print medium. Therefore to conduct this study a two level three factor Design of Experiments with center points will be utilised .The factors investigated in this paper will be print speed, paste pressure and separation speed. Three material suppliers will be used to ensure the results givea broad representation of the significant effects on the process window. Comparison to a lead rich material will also be carried out to allow an evaluation to be concluded. Each pate will be tested for paste release transfer efficiency using the optimum setting concluded from the characterization stage.

  6. The turbulent flow in an enclosed corotating disk pair: axisymmetric numerical simulation and Reynolds stress modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randriamampianina, A.; Schiestel, R. [UMR CNRS, Marseille (France). Institut de Recherche sur les Phenomenes; Wilson, M. [University of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    We present axisymmetric numerical simulation and modelling of the turbulent flow between corotating disks with a stationary outer casing, the enclosed corotating disk pair configuration. This follows previous work on laminar flow for an identical geometry defined by a gap ratio G=0.6 (=s/(b-a)) and a/b=0.5, where a and b are the inner and outer radii, and s is the inter-disk distance [J. Fluid Mech. 434 (2001) 39]. The rotation rate considered in the present case is equivalent to Re=1.46 x 10{sup 5}, where Re (={omega}b{sup 2}/{nu}) is the rotational Reynolds number. This corresponds to a value at which mean flow measurements have been obtained for the same configuration [Flow in a rotating cavity with a peripheral inlet and outlet of cooling air, in: ASME Int. Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Cong., paper 96-GT-309, Birmingham]. In computed laminar regimes, it was found previously for this aspect ratio that the flow structure is first characterized by a shift-and-reflect symmetry at lower values of Re before bifurcating to symmetry breaking at higher rotation rates. For the rotation rate under consideration here, the flow is turbulent and shows an unsteady behaviour in the mean, characterized by flapping of the flow between the two disks, inducing symmetry breaking with respect to the inter-disk midplane. Similarities are observed between the centripetal flow coming from the stationary casing and an impinging jet in a cavity. Comparisons are made between the computed results from the axisymmetric numerical simulation (ANS), a Reynolds Stress Transport Model (RSM) and the available experimental data. The RSM predictions are in close agreement with the mean flow measurements. The ANS results give a more detailed description of the flow characteristics, but suffer from the axisymmetry assumption that is not compatible with the three-dimensional turbulence. (author)

  7. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  8. Quantitative Microwave Imaging of Realistic Numerical Breast Phantoms Using an Enclosed Array of Multiband, Miniaturized Patch Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    We present a 3-D microwave breast imaging study in which we reconstruct the dielectric profiles of MRI-derived numerical breast phantoms from simulated array measurements using an enclosed array of multiband, miniaturized patch antennas. The array is designed to overcome challenges relating to the ill-posed nature of the inverse scattering system. We use a multifrequency formulation of the distorted Born iterative method to image four normal-tissue breast phantoms, each corresponding to a different density class. The reconstructed fibroglandular distributions are very faithful to the true distributions in location and basic shape. These results establish the feasibility of using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multiband patch antennas for quantitative microwave breast imaging.

  9. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  10. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  11. Temporal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and their responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恒龙; MIN; Gi-Sik; CHOI; Joong-Ki; AL-RASHEID; Khaled; A.; S.; 林晓凤; 朱明壮

    2010-01-01

    Variations in physical-chemical factors, species composition, abundance and biomass of nano-and micro-phytoplankton assemblages, as well as their responses to environmental factors, were investigated over a complete cycle (6 months) in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, northern China. The aim was to establish the temporal patterns of phytoplankton communities and to evaluate protists as suitable bioindicators to water quality in mariculture systems. A total of 34 taxa with nine dominant spec...

  12. Predicting transient particle transport in enclosed environments with the combined computational fluid dynamics and Markov chain method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Lin, C-H; Long, Z; Chen, Q

    2014-02-01

    To quickly obtain information about airborne infectious disease transmission in enclosed environments is critical in reducing the infection risk to the occupants. This study developed a combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Markov chain method for quickly predicting transient particle transport in enclosed environments. The method first calculated a transition probability matrix using CFD simulations. Next, the Markov chain technique was applied to calculate the transient particle concentration distributions. This investigation used three cases, particle transport in an isothermal clean room, an office with an underfloor air distribution system, and the first-class cabin of an MD-82 airliner, to validate the combined CFD and Markov chain method. The general trends of the particle concentrations vs. time predicted by the Markov chain method agreed with the CFD simulations for these cases. The proposed Markov chain method can provide faster-than-real-time information about particle transport in enclosed environments. Furthermore, for a fixed airflow field, when the source location is changed, the Markov chain method can be used to avoid recalculation of the particle transport equation and thus reduce computing costs.

  13. 3D modelling of the transport and fate of riverine fine sediment exported to a semi-enclosed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Lewis, Stephen; Legat, Vincent; Deleersnijder, Eric; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of suspended sediment exported by rivers is crucial for the management of sensitive marine ecosystems. Sediment transport and fate can vary considerably depending on the geophysical characteristics of the offshore environment (i.e. open, semi-enclosed and enclosed systems and the nature of the continental shelf). In this presentation, we focus on a semi-enclosed setting in the Great Barrier Reef, NE Australia. In this system, the large tropical Burdekin River discharges to a long and narrow continental shelf containing numerous headlands and embayments. Using a new 3D sediment model we developed and SLIM 3D, a Finite Element 3D model for coastal flows, we highlight the key processes of sediment transport for such a system. We validate the model with available measured data from the region. Wind direction and speed during the high river flows are showed to largely control the dynamics and final fate of the sediments. Most (71%) of the sediment load delivered by the river is deposited and retained near the river mouth. The remaining sediment is transported further afield in riverine freshwater plumes. The suspended sediment transported longer distances in the freshwater plumes can reach sensitive marine ecosystems. These results are compared to previous studies on the Burdekin River sediment fate and differences are analysed. The model suggests that wind-driven resuspension events will redistribute sediments within an embayment but have little influence on transporting sediments from bay to bay.

  14. Do individual Spitzer young stellar object candidates enclose multiple UKIDSS sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Esteban F. E.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We analyze United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) observations of a sample of 8325 objects taken from a catalog of intrinsically red sources selected in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Given the differences in angular resolution (factor >2 better in UKIDSS), our aim is to investigate whether there are multiple UKIDSS sources that might all contribute to the GLIMPSE flux, or whether there is only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart. We then study possible corrections to estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) based on counts of GLIMPSE young stellar objects (YSOs). This represents an exploratory work toward the construction of a hierarchical YSO catalog. Methods: After performing PSF fitting photometry in the UKIDSS data, we implemented a technique to recognize the dominant UKIDSS sources automatically by evaluating their match with the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the associated GLIMPSE red sources. This is a generic method that could be robustly applied for matching SEDs across gaps at other wavelengths. Results: We found that most (87.0 ± 1.6%) of the candidate YSOs from the GLIMPSE red source catalog have only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart that matches the mid-infrared SED (fainter associated UKIDSS sources might still be present). Although at first sight this could seem surprising, given that YSOs are typically in clustered environments, we argue that within the mass range covered by the GLIMPSE YSO candidates (intermediate to high masses), clustering with objects with comparable mass is unlikely at the GLIMPSE resolution. Indeed, by performing simple clustering experiments based on a population synthesis model of Galactic YSOs, we found that although 60% of the GLIMPSE YSO enclose at least two UKIDSS sources, in general only one dominates the flux. Conclusions: No significant corrections are needed for estimates of the SFR of the Milky Way based on the assumption that the GLIMPSE YSOs

  15. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  16. Assessment of current effect on waves in a semi-enclosed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2012-04-01

    The wave-current interaction process in the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is studied using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is used to exchange data fields between the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The 2-way data transfer between circulation and wave models is synchronous with ROMS providing current fields, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. In particular, the 3-D current profiles are averaged using a formulation that integrates the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wave number. This coupling procedure is carried out up to coastal areas by means of an offline grid nesting. The parent grid covers the whole Adriatic Sea and has a horizontal resolution of 2.0 km, whereas the child grid resolution increases to 0.5 km but it is limited to the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Venice), where the current effect on waves is investigated. The most frequent winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea are the so-called Bora and Sirocco which cause high waves in the Adriatic Sea, although Bora waves are generally fetch-limited. In fact, Bora winds blow orthogonal to the main basin axis (approximately aligned with the NW-SE direction), while Sirocco has large spatial scale being a southeasterly wind. For the numerical simulations, the meteorological forcings are provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7, which is the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium. During the analysis period, the simulated wind, current and wave are compared with observations at the ISMAR oceanographic tower located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds are also compared with satellite-derived data. To account for the variability of sea states during a storm, the expected maximum individual wave height in a sea storm with a given history is also

  17. The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-12-01

    Wind and waves play a major role in important ocean dynamical processes, such as the exchange of heat, momentum and gases between atmosphere and ocean, that greatly contributes to the earth climate and marine lives. Knowledge on wind and wave weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet to be fully explored. Because of the scarcity of waves data in the Red Sea, numerical models become crucial and provide very powerful tools to extrapolate wind and wave data in space, and backward and forward in time. Unlike open oceans, enclosed basins wave have different characteristics, mainly because of their local generation processes. The complex orography on both sides of the Red Sea makes the local wind, and consequently wave, modeling very challenging. This thesis considers the modeling of wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea, including their climate variability and trends using state-of-the-art numerical models and all available observations. Different approaches are investigated to model and understand the general and unusual wind and wave conditions in the basin using standard global meteorological products and customised regional wind and wave models. After studying and identifying the main characteristics of the wind-wave variability in the Red Sea, we demonstrate the importance of generating accurate atmospheric forcing through data assimilation for reliable wave simulations. In particular, we show that the state-of-the-art physical formulation of wave models is not suitable to model the unique situation of the two opposing wind-waves systems in the Red Sea Convergence Zone, and propose and successfully test a modification to the input and white-capping source functions to address this problem. We further investigate the climate variability and trends of wind

  18. Adsorption properties of technetium and rhenium for hybrid microcapsules enclosing Toa extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Mimura, H.; Niibori, Y. [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 Japan (Japan); Koyama, S.; Ohnishi, T., E-mail: yanwu@cyric.tohoku.ac.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, O-arai Research and Development Center, Fuels and Materials Department, Alpha-Gamma Section, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 Japan (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Special attention has been given to the separation and recovery of the VII-group elements Tc and Re, in relation to the partitioning of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) generated from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process. In this study, a tertiary amine (tri-n-octylamine Toa), which is effective for the extraction of oxo anions, was encapsulated in a calcium alginate gel polymer (CaALG), and the adsorption behaviours of TcO{sub 4} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} in the presence of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid were examined by using calcium alginate microcapsules (M Cs) enclosing Toa extractant (Toa-CaALG M Cs). The order of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} for different oxo anions at 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} was ReO{sub 4}{sup -}> WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}> CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} {approx} MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}>> SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Toa-CaALG still exhibited high uptake ability for ReO{sub 4}{sup -} even after irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (dose: 17.6 kGy). Uptake of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the presence of 1 M HNO{sub 3} was readily attained within 3 h. Relatively large K{sub d} values above 10{sup 2} cm{sup 3}/g were obtained for Toa-CaALG in the presence of 0.01 {approx} 1 M HNO{sub 3}. All of the TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was successfully adsorbed by Toa-CaALG from the simulated HLLW. The adsorbed TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was then effectively eluted with 5 M or 7 M HNO{sub 3} solution. Further, the selective uptake of ReO{sub 4}{sup -} (a chemical analogue of TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) was confirmed by using actual HLLW (Fbr, Joyo, JAEA), and uptake (%) above 99% was obtained. Toa-CaALG was thus effective for the selective separation and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} from waste solutions containing highly concentrated HNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Microencapsulation techniques with alginate gel polymer can be applied to other ion exchangers and extractants, and the M Cs immobilizing these adsorbents are effective for the advanced separation of various radionuclides, rare metals and

  19. Dynamics of Air Temperature, Velocity and Ammonia Emissions in Enclosed and Conventional Pig Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig’s growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH. Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05. These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were

  20. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  1. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  2. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  3. Large climate-moderating envelopes for enclosed structures: a preliminary evaluation of energy conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.; Giles, G.E.; Park, J.E.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was made of the basic impacts of putting a large secondary enclosure around a number of functions and thereby creating a Large Climate Moderating Envelope (LCME). This study is a preliminary estimate of the energy conservation benefits of an LCME. A hypothetical LMCE design was chosen and a coupled fluid dynamic and energy transport analysis was performed to estimate the energy conservation potential of this design. The heat transfer models included insolation, outside air temperature and wind, thermal radiation exchange with the sky, and between the fabric and ground and thermal storage in the earth mass beneath the LCME. The energy transported within the fluid by the buoyancy driven circulation was modeled as an incompressible fluid utilizing the Boussinesq approximation. The climatic conditions were assumed to vary in smooth repeating daily cycles. The numerical simulation of climatic variation was continued until the results within the LCME achieved a repeating daily cycle. The results for selected seasonally characteristic days were utilized to estimate the annual energy consumption of structures within an LCME relative to similar structures exposed to the exterior environment. The relative annual energy savings for summer-dominated climates was estimated to be approx. 70%. The energy savings for a winter-dominated climate LCME were estimated to be somewhat smaller but the LCME concept could offer significant benefits for agricultural applications for this type of climate.

  4. A parametric study of dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffoni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche S. Teresa, La Spezia (Italy). Dipt. di Innovazione; Bellucci, A.; Zambianchi, E. [Istituto Universitario Navale, Neapel (Italy); Griffa, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, La Spezia (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins with stationary flows have been studied by means of an Eulerian advection-diffusion model. Special interest have been given to quantities which characterize the macroscopic state of the system: the normalized total quantity C(t) (C (0) = 1) of a tracer inside the basin, and its residence time T. Also the principal eigenvalue {tau}{sub 0} of the advection-diffusion problem has been considered, since for stationery flows C (t) attains, for time t long enough, an exponential decay shape C{sub 0}exp (-t/{tau}{sub 0} ). The focus is one the comparison between cases where the flow is rotational with re circulations, represented by a flow with a gyre at the outflow. The sensitivity of the results to a number of parameters, including initial and boundary conditions and the eddy diffusivity coefficient, have been studied. It is found that for small Peclet numbers, when the flow is highly diffusive, the results do not depend strongly on the flow structure. {tau}{sub 0} tends to a constant limit (dependent on the boundary conditions) at decreasing Peclet number, and T is approximated by T asymptotically equal to {tau}{sub 0}. For high Peclet numbers, instead, the rotational and irrotational cases are qualitatively different. For rotational flows, {tau}{sub 0}, tends to zero at increasing Peclet number, and T tends toward the advective time scale. For flows with re circulations, in which the tracer tends to be trapped inside the gyre, {tau}{sub 0} increases at increasing Peclet numbers and T asymptotically equal to {tau}{sub 0}, for all initial and boundary conditions. The values of T and {tau}{sub 0} do not change significantly in the range of realistic Peclet numbers considered. This suggests that, for flows with re circulations, the macroscopic dispersion properties depend only weakly on the eddy diffusion coefficient. [Italian] Processi di dispersione in bacini semi-chiusi caratterizzati da flussi stazionari sono stati

  5. A parametric study of dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffoni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche S. Teresa, La Spezia (Italy). Dipt. di Innovazione; Bellucci, A.; Zambianchi, E. [Istituto Universitario Navale, Neapel (Italy); Griffa, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, La Spezia (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins with stationary flows have been studied by means of an Eulerian advection-diffusion model. Special interest have been given to quantities which characterize the macroscopic state of the system: the normalized total quantity C(t) (C (0) = 1) of a tracer inside the basin, and its residence time T. Also the principal eigenvalue {tau}{sub 0} of the advection-diffusion problem has been considered, since for stationery flows C (t) attains, for time t long enough, an exponential decay shape C{sub 0}exp (-t/{tau}{sub 0} ). The focus is one the comparison between cases where the flow is rotational with re circulations, represented by a flow with a gyre at the outflow. The sensitivity of the results to a number of parameters, including initial and boundary conditions and the eddy diffusivity coefficient, have been studied. It is found that for small Peclet numbers, when the flow is highly diffusive, the results do not depend strongly on the flow structure. {tau}{sub 0} tends to a constant limit (dependent on the boundary conditions) at decreasing Peclet number, and T is approximated by T asymptotically equal to {tau}{sub 0}. For high Peclet numbers, instead, the rotational and irrotational cases are qualitatively different. For rotational flows, {tau}{sub 0}, tends to zero at increasing Peclet number, and T tends toward the advective time scale. For flows with re circulations, in which the tracer tends to be trapped inside the gyre, {tau}{sub 0} increases at increasing Peclet numbers and T asymptotically equal to {tau}{sub 0}, for all initial and boundary conditions. The values of T and {tau}{sub 0} do not change significantly in the range of realistic Peclet numbers considered. This suggests that, for flows with re circulations, the macroscopic dispersion properties depend only weakly on the eddy diffusion coefficient. [Italian] Processi di dispersione in bacini semi-chiusi caratterizzati da flussi stazionari sono stati

  6. A Short-review: Semi-enclosed Coastal Seas in the Southeast Asia : From the Viewpoint of Water Mass Residence Time

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of remnant function and residence time are reviewd. Then, the characteristics of semi-enclosed coastal seas in the Southeast Asia such as Hurun Bay in Indonesia, the Banpakong estuary in Thailand, and the Sulu Sea in the Philippines are discussed based on the concept of water mass residence time. The concept of residence time is very useful to investigate the environmental problems such as eutrophication in the semi-enclosed coastal sea.

  7. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  8. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  9. Well-posedness of a model for structural acoustic coupling in a cavity enclosed by a thin cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A fully coupled mathematical model describing the interactions between a vibrating thin cylindrical shell and enclosed acoustic field is presented. Because the model will ultimately be used in control applications involving piezoceramic actuators, the loads and material contributions resulting from piezoceramic patches bonded to the shell are included in the discussion. Theoretical and computational issues lead to the consideration of a weak form of the modeling set of partial differential equations (PDE's) and through the use of a semigroup formulation, well-posedness results for the system model are obtained.

  10. Metal-enclosed air-insulated switchgear for the use in railway power supply systems; Metallgekapselte, luftisolierte Bahnstromschaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany); Blecher, U. [Ritter Starkstromtechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Geschaeftsbereich Anlagen und Werk fuer Schaltanlagen, Olfen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The medium-voltage switchgear of type TracFeed TAC has been designed for the use in standard, booster (1AC) and autotransformer (2AC) 25 kV 50/60 Hz railway power supply systems. This railway switchgear is of metal-enclosed air-insulated design and has been type tested according to EN 62271-200. It meets the special requirements described in the paper entitled ''Requirements on medium-voltage switchgear for railway power supply'' published in No. 10/2003. (orig.)

  11. A 29.3-GHz cavity-enclosed aperture-coupled circular-patch antenna for microwave circuit integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio A.; Chang, Kai; Tolleson, Joseph; Sanzgiri, Shashi; Lee, R. Q.

    1991-01-01

    A circular patch antenna fed by an aperture-coupled microstrip line has been demonstrated at 29.3 GHz. The patch was enclosed by a cavity to reduce surface-wave interactions in an array environment and to improve heat dissipation when using active devices. The antenna exhibited a 2:1 input VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio) over a bandwidth of 12 percent from 27.52 to 30.95 GHz. The antenna should have applications in conformal phased arrays at millimeter-wave frequencies.

  12. Can multiple fish farms be integrated within a semi-enclosed bay without causing acute ecosystem degradation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Puhr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the possibility that multiple fish farms (FFs containing sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream (Sparus aurata can be successfully integrated within a semi-enclosed bay in the Croatian Adriatic. The research focuses on determining principal environmental factors (EFs that control the integration and attempts to estimate their individual and synergic ability to influence deposition and removal of organic matter (OM and trace elements (TE from the system. The complexity of the designated tasks demanded a comprehensive number of various datasets and samples to be used in the analysis. The ADCP data revealed strong wind induced currents forming within the research domain resulting in high system flushing efficiency (3.5–6 days. The sediment samples from all stations contained relatively inert minerals which contributed to overall low OM and TE concentrations and very limited variability found across the entire bathymetric range. The thermal advection effect recorded at two stations was attributed to specific seabed topography and the hydrodynamic response formed during Maestral wind episodes. The results indicate that a successful integration of four FFs has taken place within the research site (semi enclosed bay, and that the key EFs responsible for its success are strong wind induced hydrodynamics, favorable seabed topography and sediment mineral composition. The synergy of the principal EFs that formed within the system was found to have an attenuating effect regarding FFs chemical influence (OM and TE and an amplifying one regarding spatial footprint which extended to ≈2000 m distance.

  13. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in 4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium.

  14. How immunocontraception can contribute to elephant management in small, enclosed reserves: Munyawana population as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen C Druce

    Full Text Available Immunocontraception has been widely used as a management tool to reduce population growth in captive as well as wild populations of various fauna. We model the use of an individual-based rotational immunocontraception plan on a wild elephant, Loxodonta africana, population and quantify the social and reproductive advantages of this method of implementation using adaptive management. The use of immunocontraception on an individual, rotational basis stretches the inter-calving interval for each individual female elephant to a management-determined interval, preventing exposing females to unlimited long-term immunocontraception use (which may have as yet undocumented negative effects. Such rotational immunocontraception can effectively lower population growth rates, age the population, and alter the age structure. Furthermore, such structured intervention can simulate natural process such as predation or episodic catastrophic events (e.g., drought, which regulates calf recruitment within an abnormally structured population. A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown.

  15. Theoretical study on the top- and enclosed-contacted single-layer MoS2 piezotronic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yongli; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the piezotronic effect has been observed in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 materials, which have potential applications in force and pressure triggered or controlled electronic devices, sensors, and human-machine interfaces. However, classical theory faces the difficulty in explaining the mechanism of the piezotronic effect for the top- and enclosed-contacted MoS2 transistors, since the piezoelectric charges are assumed to exist only at the edge of the MoS2 flake that is far from the electronic transport pathway. In the present study, we identify the piezoelectric charges at the MoS2/metal-MoS2 interface by employing both the density functional theory and finite element method simulations. This interface is on the transport pathway of both top- and enclosed-contacted MoS2 transistors, thus it is capable of controlling their transport properties. This study deepens the understanding of piezotronic effect and provides guidance for the design of two-dimensional piezotronic devices.

  16. Temporal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and their responses to environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Joong-Ki; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Mingzhuang

    2010-03-01

    Variations in physical-chemical factors, species composition, abundance and biomass of nano- and micro-phytoplankton assemblages, as well as their responses to environmental factors, were investigated over a complete cycle (6 months) in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, northern China. The aim was to establish the temporal patterns of phytoplankton communities and to evaluate protists as suitable bioindicators to water quality in mariculture systems. A total of 34 taxa with nine dominant species were identified, belonging to six taxonomic groups (dinoflagellates, diatoms, cryptophyceans, chlorophyceans, euglenophyceans and chrysophyceans). A single peak of protist abundance occurred in October, mainly due to chlorophyceans, diatoms and chrysophyceans. Two biomass peaks in July and October were primarily due to dinoflagellates and diatoms. Temporal patterns of the phytoplankton communities significantly correlated with the changes in nutrients, temperature and pH, especially phosphate, either alone or in combination with NO3-N and NH3-N. Species diversity, evenness and richness indices were clearly correlated with water temperature and/or salinity, whereas the biomass/abundance ratio showed a significant correlation with NO3-N. The results suggest that phytoplankton are potentially useful bioindicators to water quality in semi-enclosed mariculture systems.

  17. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  18. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  19. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic characterization of the natural circulation of air between two vertical cylinders enclosed in a rectangular cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo Payan-Rodriguez, Luis; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos Ivan; Villarreal-Garcia, Salvador; Garcia-Cuellar, Alejadro Javier; Ramirez-Tijerina, Ramon

    2008-11-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental analysis focused on the characterization of the natural circulation of air in the vicinity of two vertical cylinders. A three dimensional cavity encloses each cylinder, where one of them is a heat source and the other is a heat sink. A wall with two holes of variable diameter delimits and connects the two enclosures in order to restrict the air flow exchanged between them. The distance between the center lines of the cylinders was varied with the purpose of measuring the effect of the surrounding walls on the natural circulation. All configurations were tested for different heat generation rates. A Particle Image Velocimeter was used to obtain the flow patterns and a set of thermocouples was installed to measure the temperature field. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed.

  1. A curve shortening flow rule for closed embedded plane curves with a prescribed rate of change in enclosed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a problem from fluid mechanics, we consider a generalization of the standard curve shortening flow problem for a closed embedded plane curve such that the area enclosed by the curve is forced to decrease at a prescribed rate. Using formal asymptotic and numerical techniques, we derive possible extinction shapes as the curve contracts to a point, dependent on the rate of decreasing area; we find there is a wider class of extinction shapes than for standard curve shortening, for which initially simple closed curves are always asymptotically circular. We also provide numerical evidence that self-intersection is possible for non-convex initial conditions, distinguishing between pinch-off and coalescence of the curve interior.

  2. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%, vegetative matter (24.38%, Chital (21.61%, Nilgai (9.57%, rodent (1.54%, birds (1.23%, Sambar (0.62% and Wild Pig (0.31% were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential prey killed by jackals, 89.4kg came from Chital and 10.6kg came from Nilgai calves.  The impact that predation can have on the ungulate population in an enclosed area is discussed. 

  3. Water age, exposure time, and local flushing time in semi-enclosed, tidal basins with negligible freshwater inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; Defina, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of tidally flushed, semi-enclosed basins with negligible freshwater inflow, and under steady periodic flow conditions, three frequently used local transport time scales to quantify the efficiency of water renewal, namely water age, exposure time, and local flushing time are studied and compared to each other. In these environments, water renewal is strongly controlled by diffusion, and it is significantly affected by the return flow (i.e., the fraction of effluent water that returns into the basin on each flood tide). The definition of water age is here modified to account for the return flow, in analogy with exposure time and local flushing time. We consider approximate time scales, whose accuracy is analyzed, in order to overcome problems related to the size of the computational domain and to reduce the computational effort. A new approximate procedure is introduced to estimate water age, which is based on the water aging rate. Also, the concept of local flushing time as a relevant time scale is introduced. Under steady periodic conditions, we demonstrate that the local flushing time quantitatively corresponds to water age, and well approximates exposure time when the flow is dominated by diffusion. Since the effort required to compute water age and exposure time is greater than that required to compute the local flushing time, the present results can also have a practical interest in the assessment of water renewal efficiency of semi-enclosed water basins. The results of a modeling study, in which the lagoon of Venice is used as a benchmark, confirm the substantial quantitative equivalence between these three transport time scales in highly diffusive environments.

  4. Planktonic protist communities in semi-enclosed mariculture waters: temporal dynamics of functional groups and their responses to environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Henglong; WARREN Alan; AL-RASHEID Khaled A S; ZHU Mingzhuang; SONG Weibo

    2010-01-01

    The functional groups of planktonic protist communities and their responses to the changes of environmental conditions were investigated in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond in Qingdao,Shandong Province,China,during a six-month study period(a complete shrimp-culture cycle)from May to October 2002.The results reveal that:(1)the protist communities represented five trophic and functional groups of the species identified,about 60% were photoautotrophs,20% algivores,12%bacterivores,5% raptors and about 3% non-selectives;(2)the photoautotrophs,algivores and bacterivores were the primary contributors to the changes in the protist communities in short temporal scales,the succession of dominance typically being bacterivores→photoautotrophs→algivores,with the raptors dominating the protist communities in a single sample(early June);(3)the photoautotrophs and non-selectives were the primary contributors to the peak of protist abundance in early October whereas the photoautotrophs,bacterivores,raptors and non-selectives mainly gave rise to two bimodal peaks of biomass in July and October respectively;(4)five functional groups of protist communities represented significant correlations with water nutrients(i.e.,NH3-N,NO3-N,and PO4),either alone or in combination with temperature,of which algivores and raptors were strongly correlated with phosphate and the concentration of Chl a,while bacterivores were strongly related to nitrogen and the concentration of bacteria.These findings confirm that planktonic protists are potentially useful bioindicators of water quality in the semi-enclosed mariculture system.

  5. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  6. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  7. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  8. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  9. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  10. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  12. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  13. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  15. Turbulence characteristics of the B\\"{o}dewadt layer in a large enclosed rotor-stator system

    CERN Document Server

    Randriamampianina, A; Randriamampianina, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulation is combined with a laboratory study to describe the turbulent flow in an enclosed annular rotor-stator cavity characterized by a large aspect ratio G=(b-a)/h=18.32 and a small radius ratio a/b=0.152, where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. The rotation rate Omega under consideration is equivalent to the rotational Reynolds number Re=Omegab2/nu=9.5 x 104, where nu is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. This corresponds to a value at which an experiment carried out at the laboratory has shown that the stator boundary layer is turbulent, whereas the rotor boundary layer is still laminar. Comparisons of the 3D computed solution with velocity measurements have given good agreement for the mean and turbulent fields. The results enhance evidence of weak turbulence at this Reynolds number, by comparing the turbulence properties with available data in the literature. An approximately self-similar boundary la...

  16. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows around a fin-tube heat exchanger enclosed by a compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Changkeun; Song, Simon; Lee, Jeesoo; Kang, Seongwon

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of the present study is to analyze heat transfer and flow characteristics of a heat exchanger in an industrial application using high-fidelity simulation techniques. Large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to investigate the turbulent flows around a fin-tube heat exchanger enclosed by a compartment. The complex geometry of the compartment poses a difficulty in a simulation as the local Re number is about two orders of different magnitude, and generates various scales of the 3-D vortices and complex flow patterns. Careful tests with both grid resolution and turbulent inflow boundary condition were performed in order to compare our results to the measured data from a MRV experiment as well as the results from RANS simulations. From interaction of the flow structures such as the 3-D vortices, a few interesting flow phenomena were observed which are different from a plain fin-tube heat exchanger, such as helical flows and a jet stream observed behind the fin-tube region. Also, performance of the heat exchanger was analyzed using the data from plain fin-tube heat exchangers. Based on this analysis, a numerical technique for heat exchanger was devised and tested to show a possibility of reducing the computational cost significantly, using a porous media model.

  17. Study of Hot Air Maintenance of Enclosed Busbar%封闭母线热风保养的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德志

    2015-01-01

    针对封闭母线的具体情况,提出了用加热风对封闭母线进行保养的方法(简称封闭母线热风保养),并对典型环境值选定设备参数进行了露点温度计算和分析,还提出了以PLC作为的自动控制核心的热风保养设备,实现对封闭母线的自动保养。%According to the specific condition of closed busbar,this paper proposes a method of heating wind maintenance of closed bus bar,and makes a dew point temperature calculation and analysis of selected parameters of typical environment values. It also puts forward the automatic maintenance of enclosed busbar with PLC as the core of the automatic control of hot air maintenance equipment.

  18. Engineering tissues with a perfusable vessel-like network using endothelialized alginate hydrogel fiber and spheroid-enclosing microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for constructing an internal perfusable vascular network is a challenging issue in fabrication of dense three-dimensional tissues in vitro. Here, we report a method for realizing it. We assembled small tissue (about 200 μm in diameter-enclosing hydrogel microcapsules and a single hydrogel fiber, both covered with human vascular endothelial cells in a collagen gel. The microcapsules and fiber were made from alginate and gelatin derivatives, and had cell adhesive surfaces. The endothelial cells on the hydrogel constructs sprouted and spontaneously formed a network connecting the hydrogel constructs with each other in the collagen gel. Perfusable vascular network-like structure formation after degrading the alginate-based hydrogel constructs by alginate lyase was confirmed by introducing solution containing tracer particles of about 3 μm in diameter into the lumen templated by the alginate hydrogel fiber. The introduced solution flowed into the spontaneously formed capillary branches and passed around the individual spherical tissues.

  19. Evaluation of a New Thermal Fog Machine for Control of Adult Aedes albopictus in a Large Enclosed Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De; Ren, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Testing of the PSO BASDKA-AC1200 multifunction ultrafine particle atomization machine, a thermal fog machine, with Aqualuer 20-20(®) (permethrin 20.6%, piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) was conducted against Aedes albopictus. The machine was set at a 40 sec maximum burst interval dispersing 36 ml of chemical with an average droplet volume of 50%. Female adult Ae. albopictus were placed into cylindrical paper cages and adhered to poles at 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 m from the center point of the machine. Control cages consisted of 1 cage placed at 5, 10, and 25 m. Control and treatment groups were left in the experiment area for 15 min. Initial knockdown after 15 min and 24 h mortality were documented. At 15 min post-treatment, Ae. albopictus displayed less than 50% knockdown. After 24 h, all treatment cages displayed greater than 90% mortality. Further bottle bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest chemical dose possible to achieve a lethal dose of 90%. A 1% dilution (10 ml Aqualuer 20-20 to 1,000 ml of polyether) of Aqualuer showed high mortality in the laboratory. However, after running 3 repetitions of a 1% dilution, there was no significant difference between the mortality of the mosquitoes at any of the distances 24 h post-treatment. This study indicates that the test machine would be an applicable and suitable machine for control of Ae. albopictus in enclosed spaces.

  20. A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelin, Hu; Qin, Chen; Wang, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a unique role in extreme hurricane events. The impact of wetlands on storm surge depends on multiple factors including vegetation, landscape, and storm characteristics. The Delft3D model, in which vegetation effects on flow and turbulence are explicitly incorporated, was applied to the semi-enclosed Breton Sound (BS) estuary in coastal Louisiana to investigate the wetland impact. Guided by extensive field observations, a series of numerical experiments were conducted based on variations of actual vegetation properties and storm parameters from Hurricane Isaac in 2012. Both the vegetation-induced maximum surge reduction (MSR) and maximum surge reduction rate (MSRR) increased with stem height and stem density, and were more sensitive to stem height. The MSR and MSRR decreased significantly with increasing wind intensity. The MSRR was the highest with a fast-moving weak storm. It was also found that the MSRR varied proportionally to the expression involving the maximum bulk velocity and surge over the area of interest, and was more dependent on the maximum bulk surge. Both MSR and MSRR appeared to increase when the area of interest decreased from the whole BS estuary to the upper estuary. Within the range of the numerical experiments, the maximum simulated MSR and MSRR over the upper estuary were 0.7 m and 37%, respectively.

  1. Effects of dam construction on sediment phosphorus variation in a semi-enclosed bay of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangzhe; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Amano, Atsuko; Saito, Mitsuyo; Shimizu, Yuta; Satou, Takaharu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of dam construction on sediment phosphorus concentrations in a semi-enclosed bay in western Japan. Long sediment core samples spanning over 100 years were collected from the bay, and their P fractions were analyzed. Sediment P concentrations and the P accumulation rate in an artificial lake increased after the construction of a coastal dam in 1959. The amount of P accumulated in the 60 years after the dam construction was ˜1.7 times that prior to the dam construction. Moreover, concentrations of mobile forms of P, primarily redox-sensitive P species, were higher in freshwater sediments above the dam than in saline sediments below the dam. The redox-sensitive forms of P in freshwater sediments increased sharply after the dam construction, from 100 to ˜900 μg/g, accompanied by a decrease in chloride (Cl-) concentrations to 1980s, the lake still has a high trophic level. The presently high mobile P concentrations in surface sediments may lead to high-magnitude P releases with environmental changes in the future.

  2. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: arguments for a vacuum building in which to enclose a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    Fusion reactors as presently contemplated are excessively complicated, are virtually inaccessible for some repairs, and are subject to frequent loss of function. This dilemma arises in large part because the closed surface that separates the ''hard'' vacuum of the plasma zone from atmospheric pressure is located at the first wall or between blanket and shield. This closed surface is one containing hundreds to thousands of linear meters of welds or mechanical seals which are subject to radiation damage and cyclic fatigue. In situ repair is extremely difficult. This paper examines the arguments favoring the enclosing of the entire reactor in a vacuum building and thus changing the character of this closed surface from one requiring absolute vacuum integrity to one of high pumping impedance. Two differentially pumped vacuum zones are imagined, one clean zone for the plasma and one for the balance of the volume. Both would be at substantially the same pressure. Other advantages for the vacuum enclosure are also cited and discussed.

  3. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  4. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  5. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  6. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  7. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  8. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  9. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  10. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  11. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  12. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  13. Urban future: enclosed neighbourhoods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available is the perception of safety versus actual reports of crime in these areas. CSIR Building and Construction Technology has been conducting research on crime prevention through environmental design for the past three years and is currently engaged... by. It is only those who do not have a choice that are left to live their lives in these derelict and dangerous areas. The city has been taken over by the many private micro-governments and the poor, the homeless and the unfortunate are left...

  14. Status of Golden Jackal Canis aureus and ungulates in a small enclosed area- Van Vihar National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We estimated densities of Golden Jackals and five ungulate species in Van Vihar National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India.  It is an enclosed area of about 4.45km², out of which 3.5km² is available for free ranging animals.  Twenty-six transects with a combined length of 22.6km and an effort of 50.2km were walked.  A total of 1079 animal detections belonging to six different species were made.  The density of jackals was (17±3.8SE/km2. Among the ungulates, chital had the highest density (118±18.8SE/km2 followed by Sambar (34.1±6.9 SE/km2, Nilgai (13.1±2.8SE/km2, Blackbuck (6.6±1.5 SE/km2 and Wild Pig (3.7±0.8 SE/km2.  The ungulate biomass was found to be (12979.2±2463.26 SEkg/km2.  Chital biomass was the highest at (5574.2±886.58 SEkg/km2, followed by Sambar biomass of (4569.4±913.75 SEkg/km2, Nilgai (2358±523.24 SEkg/km2, Blackbuck (211.2±66.18 SEkg/km2 and Wild Pig (118.4±28.37 SEkg/km2.  The sex ratio was calculated and most ungulates had female-biased adult sex ratio. 

  15. Annual benthic metabolism and organic carbon fluxes in a semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay dominated by the macroalgae Caulerpa prolifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas play an important role on carbon cycling. Elucidating the dynamics on the production, transport and fate of organic carbon is relevant to gain a better understanding of the role coastal areas play in the global carbon budget. Here, we assess the metabolic status and associated organic carbon fluxes of a semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay supporting a meadow of Caulerpa prolifera. We test whether the EDOC pool is a significant component of the organic carbon pool and associated fluxes in this ecosystem. The Bay of Portocolom was in net metabolic balance on a yearly basis, but heterotrophic during the summer months. Community respiration (CR was positively correlated to C. prolifera biomass, while net community production (NCP had a negative correlation. The benthic compartment represented, on average, 72.6 ± 5.2 % of CR and 86.8 ± 4.5 % of gross primary production (GPP. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC production peaked in summer and was always positive, with the incubations performed in the dark almost doubling the flux of those performed in the light. Exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, however, oscillated between production and uptake, being completely recycled within the system and representing around 14% of the DOC flux. The pools of bottom and surface DOC were high for an oligotrophic environment, and were positively correlated to the pool of EDOC. Thus, despite being in metabolic balance, this ecosystem acted as a conduit for organic carbon (OC, as it is able to export OC to adjacent areas derived from allochtonous inputs during heterotrophic conditions. These inputs likely come from groundwater discharge, human activity in the watershed, delivered to the sediments through the high capacity of C. prolifera to remove particles from the water column, and from the air-water exchange of EDOC, demonstrating that these communities are a major contributor to the cycling of OC in coastal embayments.

  16. Trophic resource use by macrozoobenthic primary consumers within a semi-enclosed coastal ecosystem: Stable isotope and fatty acid assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sophie; Blanchet, Hugues; Garcia, Aurélie; Massé, Marjorie; Galois, Robert; Grémare, Antoine; Charlier, Karine; Guillou, Gaël; Richard, Pierre; Savoye, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    The diet of different macrozoobenthic trophic groups was investigated in the Arcachon Bay-a semi-enclosed macrotidal ecosystem that shelters the largest Zostera noltei seagrass meadow in Europe-in early spring and late summer 2009, using stable isotopes and fatty acids. Fatty acid profiles and literature information about the biology and physiology of benthic consumers were combined to identify the main organic matter sources for the benthic primary consumers. An isotope mixing model was then run to evaluate the contribution of each organic matter source to each identified trophic group (suspension feeders, sub-surface deposit feeders, micro-and macrograzers, suspension-oriented interface feeders and deposit-oriented interface feeders). Variations in organism' diets with respect to both habitats (intertidal seagrass meadows, intertidal bare sediments and subtidal bare sediments) and study periods were also investigated. At the scale of this study, it appeared that the diet of macrozoobenthos primary consumers was based exclusively on autochthonous material (no use of terrestrial organic matter): mainly microphytobenthos, seagrasses and their epiphytes, and phytoplankton. In addition, the different trophic groups relied on different organic matter pools: for instance, suspension feeders mainly fed on microphytobenthos and phytoplankton, whereas subsurface deposit feeders fed on microphytobenthos, decayed seagrasses and bacteria, and grazers mainly fed on microphytobenthos, and seagrasses and their epiphytes. The same pattern was observed in both early spring and late summer, indicating a stability of the benthic system at a six-month time scale. Finally our results showed that, in Arcachon Bay, the seagrass meadow directly or indirectly (through detritus) plays a significant role in the diet of most benthic consumers.

  17. Phosphorus mass balance in a highly eutrophic semi-enclosed inlet near a big metropolis: a small inlet can contribute towards particulate organic matter production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2011-01-01

    Terrigenous loading into enclosed water bodies has been blamed for eutrophic conditions marked by massive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia due to decomposition of dead algal cells. This study aims to describe the eutrophication and hypoxia processes in a semi-enclosed water body lying near a big metropolis. Phosphorus mass balance in a small inlet, Ohko Inlet, located at the head of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, was quantified using a numerical model. Dissolved inorganic phosphorous inflow from Kaita Bay next to the inlet was five times higher than that from terrigenous load, which may cause an enhancement of primary production. Therefore, it was concluded that not only the reduction of material load from the land and the suppression of benthic flux are needed, but also reducing the inflow of high phosphorus and oxygen depleted water from Kaita Bay will form a collective alternative measure to remediate the environmental condition of the inlet.

  18. A brief review on the application of nanoparticle enclosed herbal medicine for the treatment of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Mehrdad; Eatemadi, Ali; Soleimaninejad, Maryam; Hammed, Aiyelabegan T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicines have been routinely employed all over the world dated back from the ancient time and have been identified by patients and physicians for their excellent therapeutic value as they have lower adverse effects when compared with the modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics requires a scientific technique to deliver the active herbal extract in a controlled manner to avoid repeated administration and increase patient compliance. This can be reached by fabricating a novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal components. NDDSs does not only decrease the repeated dose to overcome ineffectiveness, but also help to increase potency by decreasing toxicity and elevating drug bioavailability. Nano-sized DDS of herbal drugs have a potential application for improving the activity and countering the problems related to herbal medicines. Hence, application of nanocarriers as an NDDS in the traditional herbal medicine system is important to treat more chronic diseases like infectious endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The generalized second law in irreversible thermodynamics for the interacting dark energy in a non-flat FRW universe enclosed by the apparent horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law in irreversible thermodynamics in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting dark energy with cold dark matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon. We show that for the present time, the generalized second law in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the energy transfer constants.

  20. The generalized second law of thermodynamics for the interacting polytropic dark energy in non-flat FRW universe enclosed by the apparent horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-03

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting polytropic dark energy with cold dark matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon. We show that for this model under thermal equilibrium with the Hawking radiation, the generalized second law is always satisfied throughout the history of the universe for any spatial curvature, independently of the deceleration parameter.

  1. Fuzzy Minimal Enclosing Ball Support Vector Machine%模糊最小包含球支持向量机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 龚松杰

    2013-01-01

    为提高支持向量机的模式分类性能,综合模糊支持向量机和球形支持向量机等方法,提出一种模糊最小包含球(FMEB)支持向量机,对于模式分类问题,通过引入模糊隶属度,寻找2个分别包含二类模式的同心最小包含球,使类间间隔最大化,同时二类模式类内分布最小化,从而增强泛化性和鲁棒性.实验结果证明FMEB的模式分类性能优于其他方法.%In order to improve the classification performance of hypersphere Support Vector Machine(SVM), this paper proposes Fuzzy Minimum Enclosing Ball(FMEB) SVM by integrating several state-of-art classification methods such as Fuzzy Support Vector Machine(FSVM) and Hypersphere Support Vector Machine(HSVM). For pattern classification problem, the basic idea of FMEB is to find two optimal minimum enclosing hyperspheres by introducing fuzzy membership, so that each binary class is enclosed by them respectively, and the margin between one class pattern and the enclosing hypersphere is maximized, thus improving the generalization performance and robustness of hypersphere SVM. Experimental results prove that FMEB is more effective than other methods.

  2. Temporal population dynamics of dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and its relationship to environmental factors and protozoan grazers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恒龙; MIN; Gi-Sik; CHOI; Joong-Ki; 朱明壮; 姜勇; AL-RASHEID; Khaled; A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The ecological processes and interrelationships between protists,either autotrophic or heterotrophic,and environmental factors in mariculture ponds are largely unknown.This study investigated the temporal dynamics of potentially harmful dinoflagellate,Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller,and its relationship to physico-chemical factors and protozoan grazers over a complete cycle in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao,Northern China.P.minimum occurred frequently in low numbers from June to ...

  3. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  4. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  5. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  6. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  7. A phytoplankton tool for water quality assessment in semi-enclosed coastal lagoons: Open vs closed regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Brito, Ana C.; Pereira, Patrícia; Gonçalves, André S.; Moita, Maria Teresa

    2012-09-01

    The Atlantic western coast of Portugal includes several shallow coastal lagoons, such as Óbidos, Albufeira and Santo André, that are intermittently closed to the ocean by sand barriers. Their physico-chemical characteristics, as well as their residence time and tidal influence, are highly dependent on the open/closed periods and on the inter-annual raining/dry season's variability with important impacts on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and dynamics. Furthermore, the number of coastal ecosystems with identified eutrophication symptoms is increasing worldwide due to the increasing anthropogenic pressures. Eutrophication is one of the greatest threats to water quality in coastal lagoons and a major concern for the European water quality regulators. One of the first symptoms of eutrophication is enhanced algal biomass. Thus, phytoplankton is generally one of the most important biological indicator of these processes. In this study, all available phytoplankton (chlorophyll and taxa blooms) and nutrient data from a period of more than 50 years were gathered. During the periods of closure, these lagoons have favoring conditions for phytoplankton growth, which can reach high levels of chlorophyll a (chl a, 290 μg L-1), as observed in Óbidos lagoon during the 80's. At that time, during the open periods, the highest chl a concentration registered was about one fifth lower (64 μg L-1). At present, this lagoon is artificially maintained open during almost all the time and the highest observed chl a concentration was 7 μg L-1. Comparatively, the lagoon of Albufeira still presents high phytoplankton biomass levels during the closed periods (e.g. 55 μg L-1, during winter 2004). In these semi-enclosed systems, phytoplankton blooms are recurrent and HAB species are frequently observed. Significant linear relationships were found between nutrient and chlorophyll concentration, during the open and closed periods, for the lagoon of Óbidos. This assessment

  8. Determining the Contribution of Gas Emissions from Cars and Estimating the Distribution of CO Emissions in Enclosed Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, contribution of exhaust emission and CO distribution was estimated in enclosed residential complex parking. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive - analytical study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the emission contribution of vehicles was determined. In order to determine the contribution of exhaust gas emissions, through gas species, only four species CO, O2, CO2, and N2 were measured. Concentration of CO, O2, and CO2 was estimated using data obtained from the vehicle emissions monitoring system. The amount of N2 was estimated from sum ratio of all species, which equals to 1. Then, using computational methods, the amount of the emission contribution from vehicles. In the second phase, to measure the distribution of CO pollutant, gas sampling and collecting was performed using sampling bags made of inert materials with a volume of 10 l at six points. Sampling was conducted in accordance with the requirements of OSHA ID 210. The Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS Ver.16 software and Pearson statistical test (P > 0.05 means there was no significant difference. Results: Maximum contribution was estimated for Pride with amount of 44.4 g/s and minimum contribution was estimated for Tiba with amount of 0.3 g/s. The minimum and maximum distribution value of CO concentration was achieved 3.6 and 69.48 ppm respectively. It was found that no significant relationship was observed between the values of exhaust emissions and CO distribution. However, the distribution of concentration was associated with locations and the number of openings, the number and type of vehicle, time of operation of the vehicle, the vehicle performance, and environmental factors. Conclusion: Measuring vehicles CO emission indicated  that the concentration was beyond the permissible level recommended by the World Health Organization at some. Moreover, it was indicated that natural air conditioning is an effective

  9. Observed and modeled patterns of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo (NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilczynski, Krzysztof; Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Barton, Des; Souto Torres, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Ría de Vigo, as a semi-enclosed bay, belonging to the area so-called Rias Baixas, located at the northern tip of the Iberian coastal upwelling system. The circulation of the Ria de Vigo, being one of the major areas of mussels production, has become the subject of intensive research. The Ria de Vigo behaves as a partially-mixed estuary with a two-layered residual circulation, and is influenced by water exchange with the surrounding ocean. During northerly (upwelling favorable) winds, water enters into the Ria through the northern mouth and leaves through the surface layer of the southern mouth, in a double layer circulation at this mouth. Nearly opposed situation occours during downwelling favourable wind periods. Numerical models have become useful tools to study the hydrology and circulation of the Ria de Vigo. In this research we used the ROMS - AGRIF model. The implementation of several nested domains to increase the spatial resolution (up to 150m resolution) allowed solving the interactions between Ria de Vigo and surrounding coastal ocean in a realistic way. We have obtained a detailed description of the circulation with good agreement between observational data (ADCP moorings at both mouths, and weekly hydrological cruises) and predicted currents, salinity and temperature fields. Two new patterns of circulation in the Ria are revealed by our research: -In particular conditions associated with northerly wind relaxation, there are two-layer circulation occurs in both mouths of the Ria, consisting of outflow and inflow though the surface and bottom layers. This situation happens in the absence of stratification during winter. -Also during winter, one-layer circulation in the southern mouth of the Ria (typically there are two layers) can occur during long periods of persistent and strong upwelling-favourable wind. Our research has provided a detailed study of the circulation and hydrology of the Ria de Vigo, explaining specifically different mechanisms of

  10. High resolution modelling and observation of wind-driven surface currents in a semi-enclosed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, S.; Hartnett, M.; McKinstry, A.; Ragnoli, E.; Nagle, D.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Firstly, the wind data used in hydrodynamic models is usually measured on land and can be quite different in magnitude and direction from offshore winds. Secondly, surface winds are spatially-varying but due to a lack of data it is common practice to specify a non-varying wind speed and direction across the full extents of a model domain. These problems can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In the present research, a wind forecast model is coupled with a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of surface wind data resolution on model accuracy. High resolution and low resolution wind fields are specified to the model and the computed surface currents are compared with high resolution surface current measurements obtained from two high frequency SeaSonde-type Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radars (CODAR). The wind forecast models used for the research are Harmonie cy361.3, running on 2.5 and 0.5km spatial grids for the low resolution and high resolution models respectively. The low-resolution model runs over an Irish domain on 540x500 grid points with 60 vertical levels and a 60s timestep and is driven by ECMWF boundary conditions. The nested high-resolution model uses 300x300 grid points on 60 vertical levels and a 12s timestep. EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) is used for the hydrodynamic model. The Galway Bay model has ten vertical layers and is resolved spatially and temporally at 150m and 4 sec respectively. The hydrodynamic model is run for selected hindcast dates when wind fields were highly energetic. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind data is provided by

  11. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  12. Optimization of an enclosed gas analyzer sampling system for measuring eddy covariance fluxes of H2O and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Stefan; Burba, George; Burns, Sean P.; Blanken, Peter D.; Li, Jiahong; Luo, Hongyan; Zulueta, Rommel C.

    2016-03-01

    Several initiatives are currently emerging to observe the exchange of energy and matter between the earth's surface and atmosphere standardized over larger space and time domains. For example, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS) are set to provide the ability of unbiased ecological inference across ecoclimatic zones and decades by deploying highly scalable and robust instruments and data processing. In the construction of these observatories, enclosed infrared gas analyzers are widely employed for eddy covariance applications. While these sensors represent a substantial improvement compared to their open- and closed-path predecessors, remaining high-frequency attenuation varies with site properties and gas sampling systems, and requires correction. Here, we show that components of the gas sampling system can substantially contribute to such high-frequency attenuation, but their effects can be significantly reduced by careful system design. From laboratory tests we determine the frequency at which signal attenuation reaches 50 % for individual parts of the gas sampling system. For different models of rain caps and particulate filters, this frequency falls into ranges of 2.5-16.5 Hz for CO2, 2.4-14.3 Hz for H2O, and 8.3-21.8 Hz for CO2, 1.4-19.9 Hz for H2O, respectively. A short and thin stainless steel intake tube was found to not limit frequency response, with 50 % attenuation occurring at frequencies well above 10 Hz for both H2O and CO2. From field tests we found that heating the intake tube and particulate filter continuously with 4 W was effective, and reduced the occurrence of problematic relative humidity levels (RH > 60 %) by 50 % in the infrared gas analyzer cell. No further improvement of H2O frequency response was found for heating in excess of 4 W. These laboratory and field tests were reconciled using resistor-capacitor theory, and NEON's final gas sampling system was developed on this

  13. Complex complete quadratic combination method for damped system with repeated eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruifang; Zhou, Xiyuan; Abduwaris, Abduwahit

    2016-09-01

    A new response-spectrum mode superposition method, entirely in real value form, is developed to analyze the maximum structural response under earthquake ground motion for generally damped linear systems with repeated eigenvalues and defective eigenvectors. This algorithm has clear physical concepts and is similar to the complex complete quadratic combination (CCQC) method previously established. Since it can consider the effect of repeated eigenvalues, it is called the CCQC-R method, in which the correlation coefficients of high-order modal responses are enclosed in addition to the correlation coefficients in the normal CCQC method. As a result, the formulas for calculating the correlation coefficients of high-order modal responses are deduced in this study, including displacement, velocity and velocity-displacement correlation coefficients. Furthermore, the relationship between high-order displacement and velocity covariance is derived to make the CCQC-R algorithm only relevant to the high-order displacement response spectrum. Finally, a practical step-by-step integration procedure for calculating high-order displacement response spectrum is obtained by changing the earthquake ground motion input, which is evaluated by comparing it to the theory solution under the sine-wave input. The method derived here is suitable for generally linear systems with classical or non-classical damping.

  14. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  15. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  16. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  17. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  18. Distributions of mesophilic archaeotal membrane lipids and TEX86 thermometry in the modern enclosed shallow coastal anoxic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, K.; Kuwae, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Kunihiro, T.; Onishi, H.; Hamaoka, H.; Saito, M.; Sagawa, T.; Shibata, J.; Fujii, N.; Yoshie, N.; Omori, K.; Takeoka, H.

    2012-04-01

    It is widely accepted that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is rapidly increasing over the last 200 years. Global average surface temperature has been increased by 0.74 ° C in the last 100 years. While a large number of studies have also documented the annual sea surface temperature (SST) and global mean sea level rising, global warming effect on enclosed coastal seas, such as Seto Inland Sea or Chesapeake Bay, is less understood. Since ecosystems of those shallow coastal basins would be severely altered in the near future, we need to gather and understand archives of climate change and ecosystem responses in these few hundred years. In this point of view, Beppu Bay in Seto Inland Sea would provide one of archetypal records, because sediments in Beppu Bay yields exquisitely preserved fish scales indicative of a historical record of macro faunal abundance1). On the other hand, since systematic and precise instrumental SST data for 200 years are very scarce in Seto Inland Sea, we need to use a certain SST proxy for identifying the past SST records. However, paleothermometry in the shallow coastal basin is quite difficult because carbonate microfossils typically used for paleotemperature proxies are practically absent in the shallow ocean. On the contrary, organic compound based paleo-temperature proxies, such as TEX86, can be utilized even in the shallow coastal sea. However, since TEX86 thermometry has rarely been used for such shallow marine sediments, applicability of TEX86 in the coastal ocean is still uncertain. Here we test potential ability of TEX86 paleothermometry in shallow coastal anoxic basin. We collected particulate organic matters (POM) from the water column of Beppu Bay (~70m deep) at every 10 m. We collected an additional sample at the depth showing chlorophyll maximum. Then the vertical depth profile of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GTGTs) distribution within the anoxic and oxygen-enriched water columns was determined. We also

  19. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  20. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  1. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  2. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  3. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  4. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  6. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  7. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  8. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  9. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  10. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  11. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  12. Results of first field tests of the improved open-path and enclosed models of CO2 and H2O flux measurements systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, Israel; Fratini, Gerardo; Griessbaum, Frank; Kathilankal, James; Xu, Liukang; Franz, Daniela; Joseph, Everett; Larmanou, Eric; Miller, Scott; Papale, Dario; Sabbatini, Simone; Sachs, Torsten; Sakai, Ricardo; McDermitt, Dayle; Burba, George

    2016-04-01

    In 2014-2015, improved open-path and enclosed-path flux measurement systems were developed, based on established LI-7500A and LI-7200 gas analyzer models, with the focus on improving stability in the presence of contamination, refining temperature control and compensation, and providing more accurate gas concentration measurements. In addition to optical and electronic redesign, both systems incorporate automated on-site flux calculations using EddyPro® software run by a weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs. The ultimate goal of such development was to reduce errors in CO2 and H2O hourly fluxes and in long-term carbon and water budgets. Field tests of both systems were conducted over six periods, each 5-14 months long, at 6 sites with diverse environments, setups, and types of contamination, using 26 gas analyzers. The open-path LI-7500RS system performed significantly better than the original LI-7500A model in terms of contamination-related drifts in mean concentrations. Improvements in CO2 drifts were strong, with RS models often drifting few-to-tens of times less than the original. Improvements in H2O contamination-related drifts were particularly significant, with modified models often drifting many tens of times less than the original. The enclosed-path LI-7200RS system performed substantially better than the original LI-7200 in terms of the drifts in H2O, sometimes drifting few-to-tens of times less than the original. Improvements in CO2 contamination-related drifts were modest, being similar or just a bit better than the original. Results from field tests suggest that both RS systems can help improve flux data coverage and potentially reduce site maintenance: (i) Frequency of cleaning and site visits for service and maintenance should decrease, especially for the open-path design (ii) Amount of highest quality data with smallest error bars on fluxes is expected to increase for both open-path and enclosed

  13. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  14. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  15. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  16. Modeling the dispersion of viable and total Escherichia coli cells in the artificial semi-enclosed bathing area of Santa Marinella (Latium, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S; Madonia, A; Borsellino, C; Stefanì, C; Caruso, G; De Pasquale, F; Piermattei, V; Zappalà, G; Marcelli, M

    2015-06-15

    Coastal areas are strongly affected by episodes of fecal contamination due to polluted water inflows from inadequately treated sewages. The present study aims to investigate the dispersion of Escherichia coli in the artificial semi-enclosed bathing area of Santa Marinella (Latium, Italy) through in situ samplings carried out in summer 2012 and the application of a dynamic model. Collected samples were analyzed by the Culture-Based technique and the Fluorescent Antibody method in order to estimate both the viable culturable cells and the total E. coli population, respectively. The in situ datasets were used to test the proposed modeling approach and simulate the behavior of bacteria as particles subjected, or not, to decay. Next, the flushing time and the computation of the Microbiological Potential Risk Area allowed the evaluation of the contribution of physical and biological processes to coliform dispersion and the related potential risk for bathers.

  17. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  18. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  19. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  20. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  1. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  2. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  3. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  4. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  5. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  6. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  7. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  8. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  9. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  10. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  11. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  12. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  13. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  14. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  15. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  16. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  17. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  18. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  19. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  20. Risk Analysis on the Young Children Occupant in Enclosed Vehicle%幼童滞留车内风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李济民; 刘英炎

    2015-01-01

    分析了幼童滞留车内主要的风险有:受到热伤害、汽车自身释放的有害气体伤害、有害霉菌伤害、人体呼出的二氧化碳及其他有害气体污染。进行了人员滞留车内二氧化碳浓度随时间变化的测试,结果表明3min 后,在关闭的小轿车内部,CO2浓度就达到了0.1%的限量值,16min 后达到了0.2%,36min 达到了0.3%,人员滞留在静止封闭的汽车内,受到人体自身污染的伤害十分明显。%The main risks on the young children occupant in enclosed vehicle were analyzed .They were thermal damage, harmful gas damage emitted from vehcile inside ,harmful mold damage, carbon dioxide and other harmful gas pollution exhaled by human body.Carbon dioxide concentration change relative to time was test within enclosed vehicle with one person.Results indicate that in a closed vehicle interior , carbon dioxide concentration reached 0.1% in 3 minutes, reached 0.2% in 16 minutes, reached 0.3% in 36 minutes.Person gets hurt obviously from the body ˊs own pollution damage in a stationary closed vehicle .

  1. Geomorphological evolution of Mediterranean enclosed depressions in the Late glacial and Holocene: The example of Canohès (Roussillon, SE France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, Jean-Michel; Llubes, Muriel; Danu, Mihaela; Faure, Elodie; Carozza, Laurent; David, Mélodie; Manen, Claire

    2016-11-01

    The origin and evolution of the enclosed depressions (pans) of southern France during the period from the Late Glacial to the Holocene are discussed on the basis of new stratigraphical, geophysical and chronological (14C) data from the Canohès depression (Roussillon, Southern of France) and its nearby environment. The Canohès depression is non-karstic, excavated from Pliocene arkosic sands that were shaped by eolian erosion during cold stages of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene. The timing and controlling factors of eolian carving of the depression are discussed on the basis of geomorphological data, surrounding alluvial terrace chronology, preserved ledge within the depression and alluvial infill of the depression. Formation of the depression was controlled, locally, by climate variability and its consequences on vegetation and water table position and, regionally, by the sea base level. The enclosed depression probably started to form during MIS 6, reaching its maximum depth during MIS 2. Climate variability in the region is recorded in the depression's infill. The basal deposits are of fluvial origin and record the increase of moisture and temperature during the Early Late-Glacial. The first lacustrine deposits are observed during the Bölling/GI-1e stage, while continental sedimentation and drying occurred during the Alleröd and Younger Dryas stages. During the Early and Middle Holocene, lacustrine conditions prevailed, except during short periods of drying. The specific evolution of the Canohès depression as regards other such formations is discussed in light of regional deglaciation and climate chronology. A regional synthesis of eolian erosion is proposed.

  2. 气体二氧化氯用于空间消毒的评价%Evaluation of gaseous chlorine dioxide fumigation for enclosed space decontamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海泉; 张宗兴; 祁建城; 吴金辉; 衣颖; 张恩雷; 张金明; 李艳菊; 赵明; 郝丽梅; 林松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the fumigation parameters required for gaseous chlorine dioxide( CD ) to sterilize space using commercially available bioindicators and to investigate the effect environmental humidity, organic burden and material types of contents surface on the results of gaseous chlorine CD for enclosed space biodecontamination. Methods Self-made or commercially available coupons inoculated with spores of Bacillus subtilis var nigery ATCC9372 ) were used as bioindicators to qualitatively evaluate the biodecontamination consequence of microenvironmental laboratories by gaseous CD with various fumigation parameters and under various experimental conditions. Results The ability of gaseous CD to inactivate spores was enhanced with environmental humidity. However, too high concentration vapor was liable to condense on the slick surface and there was a slight corrosion mark on the metal surface. According to the results indicated by commercially available bioindicators, enclosed space could be sterilized by 3 hours of fumigation of 300 parts per million volume ( ppmv ) gaseous CD. Albumin could well protect spores from gasous CD killing. 300 ppm gaseous CD fumigation for 4 hours could sterilize filter paper coupons, while 1000 ppm gaseous CD for 4 hours still failed to biodecontaminate steel coupons or cloth coupons completely. Conclusion The relative humidity of enclosed space should be maintained at about 75% for enclosed space fumigation with gaseous CD. Commercially available bioindicators fail to indicate accurately the decontamination of enclosed space with gaseous CD. CD concentration or docontamination time should be increased according to surface material types and the absence or presence of organic burdens in disinfection objects in enclosed space.%目的 用商品化的生物指示剂确定气体二氧化氯达到空间灭菌水平所需消毒参数,同时评价环境湿度、有机干扰物、物体表面材料对气体二氧化

  3. Comparing the Influences of the D/H Ratio, Size, and Facade Design of an Enclosed Square on Its Perceptual Qualities as a Sustainable Urban Space in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaecheol Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dominance of the D/H ratio as a design element for an enclosed urban square, long claimed by numerous urban designers. It claims that like the D/H ratio, other design elements significantly affect the perceptual quality of an enclosed square, but their impacts differ according to the context in which they are applied. The study reviews the literature pertaining to enclosures as an urban design strategy and design elements for an enclosed urban square. Then it presents a comparative analysis of the impact of the D/H ratio and other design elements such as the size of the square and the facade design using a visual assessment survey with computer-simulated images of urban squares. Results of the analysis support the argument that like the D/H ratio, the square size and its facade design have a considerable but distinctly different influence on users’ perceptions of urban squares.

  4. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  5. Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior ofSeismic-damaged Lateral Joints in CompositeFrame Consisting of CFSST Columns and SteelBeams Strengthened with Enclosed ReinforcedConcrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    A new composite strengthening method of seismic-damaged lateral joints in composite frame consisting of Concrete-Filled SquareSteel Tubes (CFSST) columns and steel beams strengthened with enclosed Reinforced Concrete (RC) at the ends of columns andwelding steel plates at the ends of beams was presented. Based on the current design specifications, one half scaled models of 4lateral joints in composite frame consisting of CFSST columns and steel beams were designed and manufactured. One model wasoriginal control specimen, one was strengthened by enclosed RC, and the others were strengthened after pre-damage. The destructiontests under lateral cyclic load on the models were carried. The effectiveness of seismic-damaged joints strengthened with enclosedRC and the reinforcement effect on different levels of seismic damage were studied. The test results show that seismic- damagedjoints in composite frame consisting of CFSST columns and steel beams strengthened with enclosed RC meets the strongcolumn-weak beam joints requirement of seismic design, and the failure modes are of all joints are the bending failure of steel beam.The reinforcement with enclosed RC has a significant on increasing the ultimate capacity and the seismic behaviors of joints. Thestudy indicated the rehabilitated joints recover the level of their original seismic performances before seismic damage in a certainextent damage level. Based on the test data, namely the ultimate capacity, limit displacement, ductility, the energy consumptioncoefficient, limit displacementthe strengthening method of seismic-damaged joints by strengthened with enclosed RC is an effectivemethod for seismic strengthening.

  6. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  7. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  8. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  9. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  10. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  11. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  12. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  13. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  14. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  15. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  16. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  17. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  18. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  19. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  1. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  2. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  3. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  4. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  5. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  6. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  7. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  8. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  9. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  10. Petrological evolution of subducted rodingite from seafloor metamorphism to dehydration of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite (Cerro del Almirez massif, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda-López, Casto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Rodingites are common rocks associated with serpentinites in exhumed terrains that experienced subduction and high pressure metamorphism. However, the response of these rocks to devolatilization and redox reactions in subduction settings is not well constrained. In the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (southern Spain) rodingites constitute about 1-2% of the total volume of exposed rocks. Metarodingites are enclosed in antigorite-serpentinite and chlorite-harzburgite separated by a transitional zone that represents the front of prograde serpentinite-dehydration in a paleo-subduction setting (Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011). Metarodingites occur as boudin lenses, 1 to 20 m in length and 30 cm to 2 m in thickness. During serpentinization of peridotite host rocks, dolerites and basalts precursor of rodingites underwent intense seafloor metasomatism, causing the enrichment in Ca and remobilization of Na and K. Subsequent metamorphism during subduction transformed the original igneous and seafloor metamorphic mineralogy into an assemblage of garnet (Ti-rich hydrogrossular), diopside, chlorite, and epidote. During prograde metamorphism, garnet composition changed towards higher andradite contents. High-pressure transformation of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite released fluids which induced breakdown of garnet to epidote in metarodingites. Ti liberation by this latter reaction produced abundant titanite. Released fluids also triggered the formation of amphibole by alkalis addition. Highly recrystallized metarodingites in chlorite-harzburgite present a new generation of idiomorphic garnet with composition equal to 10-30% pyrope, 30-40% grossular and 35-55% almandine + spessartine. This garnet has titanite inclusions in the core and rutile inclusions in the rim. The contact between metarodingites and ultramafic rocks consists of a metasomatic zone (blackwall) with variable thickness (7 to 40 cm) constituted by chlorite, diopside, and titanite

  11. TNT密闭环境中能量释放特性研究%Research on TNT Energy Release Characteristics in Enclosed Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朋刚; 郭炜; 任松涛; 王建灵; 高赞; 李鸿宾

    2014-01-01

    为了研究TNT在密闭空间中的能量释放特性,依据量热法原理测量了TNT炸药在不同环境中(真空、0.1 MPa空气、0.1 MPa氧气)的爆热;同时在自行设计的密闭爆炸仓内,采用PCB压力传感器和K型热电偶分别测量了TNT炸药在不同气氛(空气、氮气、纯氧气)中爆炸后的准静态压力和爆炸场温度。爆热测试试验结果表明,当环境中氧含量增加时,爆热也随之增加;密闭空间中爆炸参数测量结果表明,随着密闭环境中氧含量的增加,准静态压力和爆炸场温度均有所增加。这说明实际应用中TNT爆炸反应完全性较低,有大量能量未释放,密闭条件可以提高TNT爆炸能量释放率。%In order to study the energy release characteristics of TNT in enclosed condition, the detonation heat of TNT in different environments(vacuum,0. 1MPa air or 0. 1MPa oxygen) was tested by the calorimetric method. And the quasi-static pressure and explosion temperature of TNT in different air condition ( air, N2 and O2 ) were measured respec-tively using PCB company piezoelectric pressure sensors and thermocouple of type K. The detonation heat test results show that when the oxygen content of gas condition increases,the detonation heat of TNT also increases. The quasi-static pres-sure and explosion temperature tests also show that the same results. All of these indicate that in the practical application the completion of the TNT explosive reaction is much low, where there is a lot of energy is unable to be released, but the enclosed condition can improve the ratio of TNT energy released in explosion.

  12. 封闭域UCT算法的实现及其性能测试%Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Fully-Enclosed-Region UCT Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霖; 邓超; 陈磊; 袁梅宇; 江虹

    2014-01-01

    UCT算法在9×9棋盘上的水平,已经接近最优秀的专业棋手,但在19×19棋盘上还不尽人意.一种可能的改进是用多个并行的局部UCT搜索来替代全局UCT搜索,以期用同样的计算资源来达到更深的有效搜索深度.本文力图沿着此研究思路做一些初步的尝试.我们通过改写Fuego的全局UCT搜索算法,本文实现了封闭域UCT搜索算法,并在64个封闭域围棋死活问题上进行了测试.初步结果表明,封闭域UCT算法能够在不使用任何领域知识的情况下,把给定问题的初始分支系数从5~16降低到2.3以下.从正确率和速度两项指标来看,多个并行的局部UCT搜索的研究思路具备可行性.%While the playing performance of UCT algorithm is nearly the same as that of top professionals on a 9 ×9 Go board,its performance on 19 ×19 board still needs great improvements.One possible way is to use mul-tiple local UCT searches in parallel,which could use the same computing resources to reach deeper depth.This paper tries to do some tentative work on this direction.After modifying Fuego’s implementation of global UCT search algorithm,we implement a fully-enclosed-region UCT local search algorithm and test it by using 64 standard tsume go problems.Present results show that fully-enclosed region UCT can reduce original branching factors from 5—16 to 2. 3 without using any domain knowledge on Go.Judged by accuracy of testing results and computing speed,it looks that it is promising to do further research on running multiple local UCT searches in parallel.

  13. Miniaturization of SF6 Gas-insulated Metal-enclosed Switchgear Design and Development%小型化SF6气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备的设计与研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬翰; 郭云鹏; 杨升

    2015-01-01

    SF6 gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear is also known as SF6 gas enclosed electric; it is widely used in more than 72.5 kV power systems. From the SF6 gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear basic content is analyzed using numerical analysis and simulation software to optimize measures miniaturization SF6 gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear designed to provide a reference for related research.%SF6气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备又被称为SF6气体封闭式组合电器,它被广泛应用于72.5 kV以上的电力系统中。从 SF6气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备的基本内容出发,分析了采用数值分析和仿真软件实现小型化 SF6气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备设计的优化措施,以期为相关研究提供一定的参考。

  14. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  15. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 福建传统土楼围合形态适应环境的不规则衍变%The Irregular Evolution on Adaptation to Environmental Changes of the Enclosed Form of Tulou, Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思声; 刘梅琴

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that ,there is a fuzzy binary contradictory behavior on the traditional Fujian Tulou enclosed form,in the process of adaptation to the environment . On the one hand, there is a gestalt Earthen enclosed ideal, on the other hand, because of the micro changes in environmental factors, enclosed gestalt ideal in reality often being deconstructed by realities force. Thus, there is also a variety of rich and diverse Evolution on Fujian Tulou enclosed form of the traditional history. Because of its record of complex adaptation Earthen information on the ecological environment, these Fujian Tulou enclosed form with rich and varied tradition, has a high educational value of ecological protection and cultural tourism.%文章认为,福建传统土楼围合形态在适应环境的过程中,存在着二元矛盾的模糊行为。一方面存在着土楼围合的完形理想,另一方面,由于环境因素的微变化,围合的完形理想在现实当中常常被各种现实力量所解构。由此,也在历史上衍变出各种丰富多样的福建传统土楼围合形态。这些丰富多样的福建传统土楼围合形态,由于其记录着复杂的土楼对环境的生态适应信息,也具有较高的生态文化保护和旅游教育价值。

  17. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  18. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  19. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  20. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  1. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  2. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  3. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  4. A fully enclosed, compact standard lightning impulse generator for testing ultra-high-voltage-class gas-insulated switchgears with high capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tao; Zhang, Qiaogen; Zhang, Lingli; Zhao, Junping; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Xiaoang; Guo, Can; You, Haoyang; Chen, Weijiang; Yin, Yu; Shi, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    At present, conducting standard lightning impulse (LI) tests in the field for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) equipment is difficult because of the high capacitance of the test equipment and large circuit inductance of traditional impulse devices, which leads to a wavefront time Tf ≥ 2.5 μs. A novel fully enclosed, compact standard LI generator for testing ultra-high-voltage-class GIS equipment with high capacitance is presented to solve the problem of Tf exceeding the standard during LI voltage tests for actual large-sized equipment. The impulse generator is installed in a metal vessel filled with SF6 or SF6/N2 gas mixture at a pressure of 0.3-0.5 MPa, providing a more compact structure and a lower series inductance. A newly developed conical voltage sensor is used to accurately measure the output voltage waveform. Two test modes (via bushing docking and direct docking) for the GIS test based on the impulse generator are introduced. Calculation results show that the impulse generator can generate an LI test waveform following the present IEC standard for the test of equipment with capacitance >10 000 pF.

  5. 半封闭螺旋输送机运动量及几何参数确定%Semi-enclosed Screw Conveyor Exercise and Geometric Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 薛风

    2013-01-01

      Based on the closed spiral conveyor within a single material as the research object, this paper carries on the analysis, obtains the granular material parameter design criterion and the formula for calculation and checking, providing the way for selecting and determining semi-enclosed screw conveyor operating parameters and geometric parameters, to be conduce to semi hermetic screw conveyor design and application.%  通过对半封闭螺旋输送机内单颗物料为研究对象进行分析,得出了输送散体物料过程中主要参数设计准则及其计算和校验公式,为半封闭螺旋输送机的工作参数和几何参数的选择和确定提供了方法,有助于半封闭螺旋输送机的设计和应用。

  6. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks.

  7. Influence of co-culture with denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation on fertilization and developmental competence of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Ruth; Somfai, Tamás; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Co-culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes (DOs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) was reported to improve the developmental competence of oocytes via oocyte-secreted factors in cattle. The aim of the present study was to investigate if addition of DOs during IVM can improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) results for oocytes in a defined in vitro production system in pigs. The maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium supplemented with gonadotropins, dbcAMP and β-mercaptoethanol. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured without DOs or with DOs in different ratios (9 COC, 9 COC+16 DO and 9 COC+36 DO). Consequently; oocytes were subjected to IVF as intact COCs or after denudation to examine if DO addition during IVM would affect cumulus or oocyte properties. After fertilization, penetration and normal fertilization rates of zygotes were not different between all tested groups irrespective of denudation before IVF. When zygotes were cultured for 6 days, no difference could be observed between all treatment groups in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and cell number per blastocyst. In conclusion, irrespective of the ratio, co-culture with DOs during IVM did not improve fertilization parameters and embryo development of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

  8. Insulin improves in vitro survival of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue and reduces reactive oxygen species production after culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, F L N; Lunardi, F O; Lima, L F; Rocha, R M P; Bruno, J B; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cibin, F W S; Rodrigues, A P R; Gastal, M O; Gastal, E L; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of insulin concentration on the in vitro culture of equine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. Ovarian tissue samples were immediately fixed (noncultured control) or cultured for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM(+) supplemented with 0 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, or 10 μg/mL insulin. Ovarian tissues were processed and analyzed by classical histology. Culture medium samples were collected after 1 and 7 days of culture for steroid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analyses. The percentage of morphologically normal follicles was greater (P culture; likewise, more (P culture in medium supplemented with 10-ng/mL insulin. Furthermore, an increase (P culture was observed only with the 10-ng/mL insulin treatment. ROS production after 1 or 7 days of culture was lower (P culture; however, treatments did not differ in steroid production. In conclusion, the use of a physiological concentration (10 ng/mL) of insulin rather than the previously reported concentration (10 μg/mL) for in vitro culture of equine preantral follicles improved follicular survival and growth and lowered oxidative stress. Results from this study shed light on new perspectives for producing an appropriate medium to improve equine preantral follicle in vitro survival and growth.

  9. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  10. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  11. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  12. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  13. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  14. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  15. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  16. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  17. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  18. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  19. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  20. CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene: Size matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); G.J. Levenga (Josien); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe FMR1 gene contains a CGG repeat present in the 5'-untranslated region which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full

  1. Impact of mega-scale sand extraction on tidal dynamics in semi-enclosed basins: an idealized model study with application to the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Wiebe P.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stolk, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Long-term considerations of repeated and increasing sand extraction on the Netherlands Continental Shelf (North Sea) may lead to the creation of a mega-scale extraction trench in front of the Dutch coast (length hundreds of km, width over 10 km, depth several m). We investigate the impact of such a

  2. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  3. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  4. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  5. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  6. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  7. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  8. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  9. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  10. Specific protein kinase C isoforms α and βI are involved in follicle-stimulating hormone-induced mouse follicle-enclosed oocytes meiotic resumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Wang

    Full Text Available Protein kinase C (PKC is involved in gonadotrophin-induced oocyte maturation. In the present study, we investigated the role of specific PKC isoforms in the process of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-induced oocyte meiotic resumption. Small antral follicles (200-300 µm in diameter were isolated from immature mice and cultured in vitro. FSH significantly induced follicle-enclosed oocytes (FEOs meiotic resumption after 8 hr culture. However, the induced effect of FSH was dose-dependently inhibited by the specific PKC α and βI inhibitor Gö6976, and 100 nM Gö6976 completely blocked FSH function in oocyte meiotic resumption. Furthermore, FSH dramatically induced the expression of transcripts encoding epidermal growth factor (EGF-like growth factors Areg, Btc, and Ereg mRNA levels, and up-regulated tyrosine phosphorylation level of EGF receptor (EGFR in granulosa cells. Blocking the function of EGFR by AG1478 eliminated the effect of FSH-induced FEOs meiotic resumption, suggesting that FSH induced oocyte maturation through the activation of EGFR. FSH-induced phosphorylation of EGFR could also be inhibited by Gö6976. Next, we examined the effect of FSH on the expression and phosphorylation PKC α and βI. FSH induced the expression of PKC α at mRNA and protein level, and also up-regulated its phosphorylation level in granulosa cells after 8 hr culture. However, FSH had no effect on the expression of PKC βI but down-regulated its phosphorylation level. In conclusion, FSH-induced activation of PKC α alone, or together with the inactivation of PKC βI in granulosa cells, participates in mouse oocyte meiotic resumption, possibly by the activation of EGFR signaling pathway.

  11. Three-dimensional structure of the enveloped bacteriophage phi12: an incomplete T = 13 lattice is superposed on an enclosed T = 1 shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage phi12 is a member of the Cystoviridae, a unique group of lipid containing membrane enveloped bacteriophages that infect the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The genomes of the virus species contain three double-stranded (dsRNA segments, and the virus capsid itself is organized in multiple protein shells. The segmented dsRNA genome, the multi-layered arrangement of the capsid and the overall viral replication scheme make the Cystoviridae similar to the Reoviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present structural studies of cystovirus phi12 obtained using cryo-electron microscopy and image processing techniques. We have collected images of isolated phi12 virions and generated reconstructions of both the entire particles and the polymerase complex (PC. We find that in the nucleocapsid (NC, the phi12 P8 protein is organized on an incomplete T = 13 icosahedral lattice where the symmetry axes of the T = 13 layer and the enclosed T = 1 layer of the PC superpose. This is the same general protein-component organization found in phi6 NC's but the detailed structure of the entire phi12 P8 layer is distinct from that found in the best classified cystovirus species phi6. In the reconstruction of the NC, the P8 layer includes protein density surrounding the hexamers of P4 that sit at the 5-fold vertices of the icosahedral lattice. We believe these novel features correspond to dimers of protein P7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, we have determined that the phi12 NC surface is composed of an incomplete T = 13 P8 layer forming a net-like configuration. The significance of this finding in regard to cystovirus assembly is that vacancies in the lattice could have the potential to accommodate additional viral proteins that are required for RNA packaging and synthesis.

  12. Discussion of External Fasteners Selection of Outdoor Gas Insulated Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Gas Chamber%户外GIS气室外用紧固件的选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伯荣; 俞慧忠; 周庆清; 黄志强

    2014-01-01

    针对户外气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备气室外用紧固件的生锈问题,分析了现阶段碳钢紧固件常用的三种表面防锈防腐处理措施热浸镀锌和达克罗特性及不锈钢材质紧固件的特性,讨论了紧固件设计安装时应注意的事项,并比较了这三类紧固件的防锈防腐特性,综合考虑成本等因素后,给出了户外气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备气室外用紧固件比较经济合理的选用方案。%Aiming at the rust problems of external fasteners of outdoor gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear (GIS) gas chamber, this paper analyzed hot dip galvanizing, the surface rust and corrosion prevention measure commonly used for the existing carbon steel fasteners and the characteristics of Dacromet and stainless steel fasteners. This paper discussed the caution items of fastener design and installation and compared the rust and corrosion prevention characteristics of three kinds of fasteners. Combined with con-sideration of cost etc factors, this paper gives the economic and reasonable selection plan of external fasteners of GIS gas chamber.

  13. Enclosing the commons: reasons for the adoption and adaptation of enclosures in the arid and semi-arid rangelands of Chepareria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairore, John N; Mureithi, Stephen M; Wasonga, Oliver V; Nyberg, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and adaptation of enclosures in the arid and semi-arid rangelands of sub-Saharan Africa is driven and sustained by a combination of factors. However, reviews indicate that these factors cannot be generalized, as they tend to be case specific. A study was therefore conducted to explore the history and reasons for enclosure establishment in Chepareria, a formerly degraded communal rangeland in north-western Kenya. While Vi-Agroforestry Organization accounting for 52.5 % was the main source of knowledge on enclosure establishment; it has now emerged that rangeland enclosures among the Pokot pastoral community existed prior to land management interventions by Vi- Agroforestry. Results indicated that there are three categories of enclosures which were established for boundary demarcation, provide grazing reserves, enable proper land management, facilitate crop cultivation in a pastoral setup and to curb land degradation. The role of self-trigger [accounting for most of the spontaneous enclosures (73.5 %)] indicates the continued establishment and expansion of areas under enclosure management as private land ownership accounting for 51.7 % of enclosure tenure continues to gain momentum in Chepareria. While rangeland enclosures in Chepareria were mainly established for boundary demarcation, to alleviate pasture scarcity and enable proper management of formerly degraded areas; they have facilitated land restoration and rehabilitation by increasing flexibility in land, fodder and livestock management amongst agro-pastoralists in Chepareria over the last three decades. To ensure that rehabilitated areas do not revert to their previously degraded state; technical interventions are needed to allow for a more intensive use of rangeland resources within enclosed areas.

  14. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  15. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  16. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  17. Safety design for enclosed ground flare at gas transportation station%封闭式地面火炬在天然气长输管道站场中的安全设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of enclosed ground flare are introduced in this paper along with the risks in accidents. The design for safety facilities of it are discussed as well.%介绍了封闭式地面火炬的特点、事故状态下可能存在的风险,并针对封闭式地面火炬的主要安全设施设计进行了分析和探讨.

  18. REPdenovo: Inferring De Novo Repeat Motifs from Short Sequence Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chu

    Full Text Available Repeat elements are important components of eukaryotic genomes. One limitation in our understanding of repeat elements is that most analyses rely on reference genomes that are incomplete and often contain missing data in highly repetitive regions that are difficult to assemble. To overcome this problem we develop a new method, REPdenovo, which assembles repeat sequences directly from raw shotgun sequencing data. REPdenovo can construct various types of repeats that are highly repetitive and have low sequence divergence within copies. We show that REPdenovo is substantially better than existing methods both in terms of the number and the completeness of the repeat sequences that it recovers. The key advantage of REPdenovo is that it can reconstruct long repeats from sequence reads. We apply the method to human data and discover a number of potentially new repeats sequences that have been missed by previous repeat annotations. Many of these sequences are incorporated into various parasite genomes, possibly because the filtering process for host DNA involved in the sequencing of the parasite genomes failed to exclude the host derived repeat sequences. REPdenovo is a new powerful computational tool for annotating genomes and for addressing questions regarding the evolution of repeat families. The software tool, REPdenovo, is available for download at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/REPdenovo.

  19. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  20. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  1. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  2. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  3. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  4. Fjord water circulation patterns and dysoxic/anoxic conditions in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed embayment in the Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferentinos, George; Papatheodorou, George; Geraga, Maria; Iatrou, Margarita; Fakiris, Elias; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Dimitriou, Evagelos; Koutsikopoulos, Constantin

    2010-08-01

    Oceanographic research in the Amvrakikos Gulf in Western Greece, a semi-enclosed embayment isolated from the Ionian Sea by a narrow, shallow sill, has shown that it is characterised by a fjord-like oceanographic regime. The Gulf is characterised by a well-stratified two layer structure in the water column made up of a surface layer and a bottom layer that are separated by a strong pycnocline. At the entrance over the sill, there is a brackish water outflow in the surface water and a saline water inflow in the near-bed region. This morphology and water circulation pattern makes the Amvrakikos Gulf the only Mediterranean Sea fjord. The investigations have also shown that the surface layer is well oxygenated, whereas in the pycnocline, the dissolved oxygen (DO) declines sharply and finally attains a value of zero, thus dividing the water column into oxic, dysoxic and anoxic environments. At the dysoxic/anoxic interface, at a depth of approximately 35 m, a sharp redox cline develops with Eh values between 0 and 120 mV occurring above and values between 0 and -250 mV occurring below, where oxic and anoxic biochemical processes prevail, respectively. On the seafloor underneath the anoxic waters, a black silt layer and a white mat cover resembling Beggiatoa-like cells are formed. The dysoxic/anoxic conditions appeared during the last 20 to 30 years and have been caused by the excessive use of fertilisers, the increase in animal stocks, intensive fish farming and domestic effluents. The inflicted dysoxia/anoxia has resulted in habitat loss on the seafloor over an area that makes up just over 50% of the total Gulf area and approximately 28% of the total water volume. Furthermore, anoxia is also considered to have been responsible for the sudden fish mortality which occurred in aquaculture rafts in the Gulf in February 2008. Therefore, anoxic conditions can be considered to be a potential hazard to the ecosystem and to the present thriving fishing and mariculture industry in

  5. NanoSIMS mapping and LA-ICP-MS chemical and U-Th-Pb data in monazite from a xenolith enclosed in andesite (Central Slovakia Volcanic Field)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, A.; Bosse, V.; Bouloton, J.; Mostefaoui, S.; Viala, M.; Paquette, J. L.; Devidal, J. L.; Duhamel, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we use NanoSIMS element and isotope ratio mapping and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements to elucidate the origins of monazites from a restitic xenolith enclosed in a 13.5 ± 0.3 Ma andesitic lava (Slovakia). The xenolith/lava interaction is mainly characterized by the growth of a plagioclase-bearing corona around the xenolith and magmatic garnet overgrowths on primary metamorphic garnets within the xenolith. NanoSIMS images (89Y, 139La, 208Pb, 232Th and 238U) and trace element analyses indicate that variations of HREE, Y and Eu contents in the monazite are correlated with the resorption and the following overgrowth of garnet and plagioclase in the xenolith. Three domains are distinguished in the monazite grains: the inherited Variscan core at ca. 310 Ma (M1 domain) characterized by low Y and HREE contents and a weak negative Eu anomaly; the inner rim (M2 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase magmatic corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and the resorption of metamorphic garnet (high HREE and Y contents); and the external rim (M3 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and during the crystallization of magmatic garnet (low Y, HREE contents) at ~13 Ma, i.e. the age of the andesitic lava. The age and chemical zonation of the monazites attest to the preservation of primary monazite in the xenolith despite the interaction with the andesite lava. NanoSIMS imaging provides high-quality sub-µm scale images of the monazite that reveals chemical domains that were not distinguishable on WDS X-ray maps, especially for depleted elements such as U and Pb. Owing to its small size, the M2 domain could not be accurately dated by the LA-ICP-MS method. However, NanoSIMS isotopic maps reveal that the M2 domain has similar 208Pb/232Th isotope ratios to the M3 domain and thus similar ages. These results support the hypothesis that melt-assisted partial dissolution-precipitation in monazite

  6. Fabrication of a SU-8-based polymer-enclosed channel with a penetrating UV/ozone-modified interior surface for electrokinetic separation of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Yang, Chung-Shi; Lan, Li-Hua; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2010-11-01

    This paper introduces electrokinetic separation inside fully cross-linked epoxy-based polymer channels that were batch modified on the inner surfaces using a penetrating UV/ozone treatment from the outside. The treatment can employ either a 254 nm UV source in an ozone-rich environment or a stand-alone 172 nm UV source to directly generate C=O hydrophilic functional groups on the embedded polymer channel wall surfaces. Short-wavelength UV radiation was employed to break polymer surface bonds inside the channel. Ozone generated directly from air or supplied externally oxidized the reaction site on the activated polymer surface to generate the desired functional groups. An epoxy-based photoresist compound, SU-8 (MicroChem, MA), which is widely used in microfluidic systems, was employed to demonstrate the surface modification. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) were employed to characterize the functional groups that formed after the UV/ozone surface modification and to confirm the formation of O-H functional groups from the phenol group covalently bonded to the SU-8 surface, attributed mostly to the surface hydrophilicity modification. Water contact angles on the modified surface ranged from 72° to 12° depending on the processing time, UV power and ozone concentration. These angles were retained for at least 4 weeks after the process. Finally, the inner wall surfaces of the SU-8-enclosed channels were successfully modified using this technology, and rapid water transportation and EOF pumping were visualized inside the channel after surface modification. Successful electrokinetic separation of 10 mM BSA and 10 mM anti-rabbit IgG labeled with FITC inside the channel was also carried out. The polymer channel revealed a surface charge density of 75% of the zeta potential on a microslide glass surface, indicating the potential for molecule separation using polymer channels instead of glass channels

  7. High Efficient Technology of Enclosed Weeding in Hemp Field%大麻高效除草(封闭)技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪友

    2012-01-01

    本文利用不同除草剂进行播后苗前(封闭)处理,对大麻生产期田间杂草综合防治效果进行了研究.研究结果表明:采用65%异丙甲草胺乳油3L/hm2封闭除草,对禾本科杂草防效可达55.6%,对阔叶杂草龙葵、藜、蓼、苋的防治效果分别达到66.7%、37.5%、88.9%、89.5%,对阔叶杂草蓼、苋防治效果比较理想;采用40%施田扑乳油3L/hm2封闭除草,对禾本科杂草防效可达63.9%,对阔叶杂草龙葵、藜、蓼、苋的防治效果分别达到75.0%、75.0%、66.7%、57.9%,阔叶杂草龙葵、藜比较理想.两种除草剂对禾本科杂草均较好的抑制生长效果.%In this paper, we had a study on the weeding efficiencies of two herbicides in hemp field, the herbicides were sprayed after sowing but before seedling emerging (enclosed weeding). The results were: Using 65% of EC (dosage was SL/hm2), the control efficiency of the grass family weed could be 55.6%, and the control efficiencies of the broad leaf weed including nightshade, lamb's -quarters, knotweed and amaranth were 66.7%, 37.5%, 88.9% and 89.5% respectively. This herbicide had good control for knotweed and amaranth. Using 40% of Phendimethalin (dosage was dUhm2), the control efficiency of the grass family weed could be 63.9%, and the control efficiencies of the broad leaf weed including nightshade, lamb's-quarters, knotweed and amaranth were 75%, 75%, 66.7% and 57.9% respectively. This herbicide had good control for nightshade and lamb's-quarters. Both the herbicides had good control for the grass family weed.

  8. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  9. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  10. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  11. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  12. Zinc-finger directed double-strand breaks within CAG repeat tracts promote repeat instability in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, David; Moye, Christopher; Morton, Jason; Sykoudis, Kristen; Lin, Yunfu; Carroll, Dana; Wilson, John H

    2009-06-16

    Expanded triplet repeats have been identified as the genetic basis for a growing number of neurological and skeletal disorders. To examine the contribution of double-strand break repair to CAG x CTG repeat instability in mammalian systems, we developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that recognize and cleave CAG repeat sequences. Engineered ZFNs use a tandem array of zinc fingers, fused to the FokI DNA cleavage domain, to direct double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a site-specific manner. We first determined that the ZFNs cleave CAG repeats in vitro. Then, using our previously described tissue culture assay for identifying modifiers of CAG repeat instability, we found that transfection of ZFN-expression vectors induced up to a 15-fold increase in changes to the CAG repeat in human and rodent cell lines, and that longer repeats were much more sensitive to cleavage than shorter ones. Analysis of individual colonies arising after treatment revealed a spectrum of events consistent with ZFN-induced DSBs and dominated by repeat contractions. We also found that expressing a dominant-negative form of RAD51 in combination with a ZFN, dramatically reduced the effect of the nuclease, suggesting that DSB-induced repeat instability is mediated, in part, through homology directed repair. These studies identify a ZFN as a useful reagent for characterizing the effects of DSBs on CAG repeats in cells.

  13. Modelization of combustion field and plume characteristics for enclosed ground flare%封闭式地面火炬燃烧场及烟羽性质的建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦巍; 项曙光

    2015-01-01

    Currently, safety application of ground flare is lack of theoretical basis. Aimed to obtain source term of combustion field for enclosed ground flare and determine its hazards of plume diffusion and heat radiation, modelization of combustion field and plume characteristics for enclosed ground flare is developed in this work. Treating the whole ground flare as object, it is divided into three modules of fuel/air, combustion gas, plume orderly. Theoretical model of these modules are established by theoretical analysis separately. MATLAB is used to make program to solve the equations numerically, which is applied in a case study of typical enclosed ground flare. The result shows that the provided model can obtain the parameters of exit of enclosed ground flare, and determine key parameters of plume, such as velocity, temperature, density and composition in static wind condition, which can provide reliable source term to calculate hazards of plume diffusion and heat radiation for enclosed ground flare.%针对地面火炬安全应用缺乏理论依据的现状,为获取封闭式地面火炬燃烧场源项,以确定其扩散和热辐射危害,开展封闭式地面火炬燃烧场及烟羽性质的建模方法研究.以地面火炬整体为对象,将其有序分解为原料气/空气、燃烧、烟羽三部分,通过理论分析分别形成理论化模型.应用 MATLAB 编程求解模型,应用于典型封闭式地面火炬实例,结果表明该模型能够有效获取地面火炬出口参数,并在静风条件下确定任意高度时烟羽半径、温度、密度、组成等关键参数分布,为封闭式地面火炬烟羽扩散和热辐射危害提供可靠的源项和基础数据.

  14. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  15. Neuropathological diagnosis and CAG repeat expansion in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Xuereb, J H; MacMillan, J C; Snell, R; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To correlate the degree of CAG repeat expansion with neuropathological findings in Huntington's disease. METHODS--The CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a large series of brain samples from 268 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease in which full neuropathological data was available. RESULTS--Analysis by polymerase chain reaction was successful in 63% of samples (169 of 268). Repeat expansions were detected in 152 of 153 (99%) samples with a neuropathologic...

  16. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  17. Repeated fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Abe, Jun; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Hosoi, Kenji; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy, who was subsequently treated successfully with repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The patient was steroid dependent despite several infliximab treatments, and colectomy was proposed to improve quality of life. After repeated FMT, she was able to maintain remission with on minimal dose of steroid. Although her fecal microbiota was dysbiotic before FMT, it was restored to a similar pattern as the donor after repeated FMT.

  18. Artificial leucine rich repeats as new scaffolds for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabur-Cohen, Hemda; Dayalan, Subashini; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2011-04-15

    The leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif that participates in many biomolecular recognition events in cells was suggested as a general scaffold for producing artificial receptors. We describe here the design and first total chemical synthesis of small LRR proteins, and their structural analysis. When evaluating the tertiary structure as a function of different number of repeating units (1-3), we were able to find that the 3-repeats sequence, containing 90 amino acids, folds into the expected structure.

  19. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  20. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  1. Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Jürgen; Arning, Larissa; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kraus, Peter H; Gold, Ralf; Saft, Carsten

    2008-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polymorphic stretch of CAG repeats in the coding 5' part of the HD gene on chromosome 4p. Expansions of CAG blocks beyond 35 repeats are associated with the clinical presentation of HD. There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units.

  2. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  3. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    Short regularly spaced repeats (SRSRs) occur in multiple large clusters in archaeal chromosomes and as smaller clusters in some archaeal conjugative plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. The sequence, size, and spacing of the repeats are generally constant within a cluster but vary between clusters...... that are identical in sequence to one of the repeat variants in the S. solfataricus chromosome. Repeats from the pNOB8 cluster were amplified and tested for protein binding with cell extracts from S. solfataricus. A 17.5-kDa SRSR-binding protein was purified from the cell extracts and sequenced. The protein is N...... terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...

  4. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  5. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  6. On Multiple Repeating Point of Parameter Curve%关于参数曲线的多重点讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张府柱

    2014-01-01

    由参数方程表示的曲线在积分学中占有重要地位,它和定积分的换元积分法的密切联系。在求由参数曲线所围平面图形面积时,积分限的确定是一个难点,它与参数曲线的多重点息息相关。%The curve shown by the parameter equation, which is closely bound up with integration by substitu-tion of definite integral, plays an important part in integral calculus. When calculating the area of plane en-closed by the parameter curve,one may find it is a difficult point to fix the integral bounds, which is vitally in-terrelated with multiple repeating point of parameter curve. This paper concerns a superficial understanding of multiple repeating point of parameter curve.

  7. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  8. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  9. Repeatable mechanochemical activation of dynamic covalent bonds in thermoplastic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imato, Keiichi; Kanehara, Takeshi; Nojima, Shiki; Ohishi, Tomoyuki; Higaki, Yuji; Takahara, Atsushi; Otsuka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-18

    Repeated mechanical scission and recombination of dynamic covalent bonds incorporated in segmented polyurethane elastomers are demonstrated by utilizing a diarylbibenzofuranone-based mechanophore and by the design of the segmented polymer structures. The repeated mechanochemical reactions can accompany clear colouration and simultaneous fading.

  10. PCR-free digital minisatellite tandem repeat genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchao; Seo, Tae Seok

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept for novel minisatellite tandem repeat typing, called PCR-free digital VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) typing, which is composed of three steps: a ligation reaction instead of PCR thermal cycling, magnetic bead-based solid-phase capture for purification, and an elongated sample stacking microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) for sensitive digital coding of repeat number. We designed a 16-bp fluorescently labeled ligation probe which is complementary to a repeat unit of a biotinylated synthetic template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus and is randomly hybridized with the minisatellite tandem repeats. A quick isothermal ligation reaction was followed to link the adjacent ligation probes on the DNA templates, and then the ligated products were purified by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After a denaturing step, a large amount of ligated products whose size difference was equivalent to the repeat unit were released and recovered. Through the elongated sample stacking μCE separation on a microdevice, the fluorescence signal of the ligated products was generated in the electropherogram and the peak number was directly counted which was exactly matched with the repeat number of VNTR locus. We could successfully identify the minisatellite tandem repeat number with only 5 fmol of DNA template in 30 min.

  11. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  12. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  13. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  14. Effect of Repeated Simulations by Standardized Patients on Intercase Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study using five Southern Illinois University senior medical school classes (n=350 students) investigated whether having a standardized patient simulate a case repeatedly in postclerkship medical student evaluation affects the measure's reliability. Results suggest that repeated simulation had little or no effect on intercase reliability of…

  15. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  16. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain : Effects on Emotional Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, V.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar

  17. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  18. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  19. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  20. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr

  1. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  2. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used ... social sigma24, repeat abortion may be as well, perhaps even .... 0.1198. aIncludes hostess, cleaner, waitress, housemaid, commercial sex worker, and cook ..... be made to support the process by strengthening.

  3. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution.

  4. Rapid sedimentation of iron oxyhydroxides in an active hydrothermal shallow semi-enclosed bay at Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island, Kagoshima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Ueshiba, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity is common in the fishing port of Nagahama Bay, a small semi-enclosed bay located on the southwest coast of Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island (38 km south of Kyushu Island, Japan). The bay contains red-brown iron oxyhydroxides and thick deposits of sediment. In this work, the high concentration and sedimentation rates of oxyhydroxide in this bay were studied and the sedimentary history was reconstructed. Since dredging work in 1998, a thickness of 1.0-1.5 m of iron oxyhydroxide-rich sediments has accumulated on the floor of the bay. To estimate the volume of iron oxyhydroxide sediments and the amount discharged from hydrothermal vents, sediment traps were operated for several years and 13 sedimentary core samples were collected to reconstruct the 10-year sedimentary history of Nagahama Bay. To confirm the timing of sedimentary events, the core data were compared with meteorological records obtained on the island, and the ages of characteristic key beds were thus identified. The sedimentation rate of iron oxyhydroxide mud was calculated, after correcting for sediment input from other sources. The sediments in the 13 cores from Nagahama Bay consist mainly of iron oxyhydroxide mud, three thick tephra beds, and a topmost thick sandy mud bed. Heavy rainfall events in 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004-2005 coincide with tephra beds, which were reworked from Iwo-Dake ash deposits to form tephra-rich sediment. Strong typhoon events with gigantic waves transported outer-ocean-floor sediments and supplied quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and albite sands to Nagahama Bay. These materials were redeposited together with bay sediments as the sandy mud bed. Based on the results from the sediment traps and cores, it is estimated that the iron oxyhydroxide mud accumulated in the bay at the relatively rapid rate of 33.3 cm/year (from traps) and 2.8-4.9 cm/year (from cores). The pore water contents within the sediment trap and core sediments are 73%-82% and 47%-67%, respectively

  5. Effects of 3-repeat tau on taxol mobility through microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Fygenson, Deborah; Kim, Mahn Won

    2005-03-01

    Both the anti-cancer drug taxol and the microtubule-associated protein tau suppress dynamics of microtubules (MT). We have observed taxol mobility with full-length 3-repeat tau, one of six tau isoforms, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on MTs and compare with earlier results on recombinant full-length adult 4-repeat tau. Taxol mobility becomes highly sensitive to taxol concentration in the presence of 3-repeat tau (up to 1:1 molar ratio) as it does in the presence of 4-repeat tau, but is 2 to 3 times faster at low taxol concentrations. Fitting to a mean-field binding reaction model [J.L. Ross et.al, PNAS 101:12910-5 (2004)] suggests that the presence of 3-repeat tau enhances taxol movement through pores in the MT walls.

  6. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  7. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Repeatability Evaluation of Finger Tapping Device with Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    We tested the repeatability of a finger tapping device with magnetic sensors to determine its reliability. This device, which was developed to assist in the diagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and strokes, measures the distance between the first and index fingers during finger tapping movements (opening and closing the fingers repeatedly). We evaluated three types of repeatability based on ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Welch's test (test for equal means in a oneway layout): repeatability when measured at different times, when using different devices, and when using different measurers. We calculated these three types for three finger tapping tasks on both hands for 21 characteristics calculated from finger tapping waveforms. Results demonstrated that the repeatability when using different devices is high regardless of the task or hand. The repeatability when measuring at different times and when using different measurers is high at some tasks, but not all. One of the finger tapping tasks (finger tapping movement with the largest amplitude and highest velocity), which is used in a conventional PD diagnosis method (UPDRS), does not have enough repeatability, while other tasks show high repeatability. Results also showed that five characteristics have the highest repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.5 or significance probability of Welch's test ≥ 5% in all tasks): “total moving distance,” “average of local minimum acceleration in opening motion,” “average of local minimum acceleration in closing motion,” “average of local maximum distance” and “average of local minimum velocity”. These results clearly demonstrate the strong repeatability of this device and lead to more precise diagnosis of movement disorders.

  9. Strategy When Faced with Failure: Persistence and Degree Attainment of Course Repeaters versus Non-Repeaters. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen S.

    Graduation and persistence rates were compared for 184 students, 92 of whom had repeated multiple courses or at least 1 course 3 times. A control group of 92 nonrepeating students was drawn from the remaining 303 students of the entire 1996 cohort. There was no difference between the graduation rate of repeaters and nonrepeaters. The persistence…

  10. The Practice and Suggestions of Enclosed Residential in Shanghai Lingang Limited-price Housing Project%上海市临港围合式住宅规划实践探索与对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌

    2014-01-01

    上海临港限价商品房项目为上海市2011年推进的围合式住宅规划试点项目,采用“总体控制先行、规划制定导则、多家设计参与”的组织模式,从规划设计到项目实施整个过程中对围合式住宅开展了深入研究和实践探索。依托该项目实践,总结围合式住宅的设计构思和具体做法,并针对后期项目实施中围合式住宅遇到的朝向、日照、物业管理、安全技术防范以及市场接受度等问题展开具体分析和方向性的对策建议,为围合式住宅的规划设计与实施提供借鉴。%The Lingang limited-price housing is the pilot project of enclosed residential planning in Shanghai in 2011. The project takes the "overal control in advance, planning making the guidelines, several design teams involved " model, and makes intensive study and practical exploration through the whole process from design to implementation. Base on the practices of the project, the article explores the design ideas and specific practices of enclosed residential, and analyzes and countermeasures towards the problems of orientations such as sunshine, property management, security technology and market acceptance of enclosed residential.

  11. Repeating earthquakes recorded by Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WU Zhong-liang; JIANG Chang-sheng; LI Guang-ping

    2008-01-01

    In the list of 'repeating pairs' or 'doublets' of earthquakes in China identified by Schaff and Richards using tele-seismic waveform cross-correlation, there were 23 repeating pairs located in Liaoning Province. In this study the waveforms of these events were cross-correlated using records from Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network (LRSN), and the 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation were obtained. The result was compared with that of Schaff and Richards and was used for the assessment of the seismic phase picking and event location practice of LRSN. The result shows that 'repeating events' in the sense of teleseismic waveform cross-correlation and those in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation have significant difference, al-though with some overlap. However, the overall assessment of the location accuracy and the phase pick errors of LRSN by using these two sets of 'repeating events', respectively, provides similar results, while 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation seem to be better performing in such an assessment. With the assumption that the separation between the 'repeaters' be less than 1 km, the uncertainty in routine earthquake location of LRSN is estimated to be below 5 km, with the average of 2 km. In the observational bulletins of LRSN the time error in phase picking is estimated to be within±Is for 94% Pg readings and for 88% Sg readings.

  12. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  13. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  14. ACCA phosphopeptide recognition by the BRCT repeats of BRCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hind; Moreau, Karen; Dizin, Eva; Callebaut, Isabelle; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2006-06-16

    The tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 encodes a 220 kDa protein that participates in multiple cellular processes. The BRCA1 protein contains a tandem of two BRCT repeats at its carboxy-terminal region. The majority of disease-associated BRCA1 mutations affect this region and provide to the BRCT repeats a central role in the BRCA1 tumour suppressor function. The BRCT repeats have been shown to mediate phospho-dependant protein-protein interactions. They recognize phosphorylated peptides using a recognition groove that spans both BRCT repeats. We previously identified an interaction between the tandem of BRCA1 BRCT repeats and ACCA, which was disrupted by germ line BRCA1 mutations that affect the BRCT repeats. We recently showed that BRCA1 modulates ACCA activity through its phospho-dependent binding to ACCA. To delineate the region of ACCA that is crucial for the regulation of its activity by BRCA1, we searched for potential phosphorylation sites in the ACCA sequence that might be recognized by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using sequence analysis and structure modelling, we proposed the Ser1263 residue as the most favourable candidate among six residues, for recognition by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using experimental approaches, such as GST pull-down assay with Bosc cells, we clearly showed that phosphorylation of only Ser1263 was essential for the interaction of ACCA with the BRCT repeats. We finally demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of ACCA in cells, that the whole BRCA1 protein interacts with ACCA when phosphorylated on Ser1263.

  15. Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-07-01

    To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.

  16. Instability of trinucleotidic repeats during chromatin remodeling in spermatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Olivier; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Arguin, Mélina; Brazeau, Marc-André; Leduc, Frédéric; Marois, Isabelle; Richter, Martin V; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2014-11-01

    Transient DNA breaks and evidence of DNA damage response have recently been reported during the chromatin remodeling process in haploid spermatids, creating a potential window of enhanced genetic instability. We used flow cytometry to achieve separation of differentiating spermatids into four highly purified populations using transgenic mice harboring 160 CAG repeats within exon 1 of the human Huntington disease gene (HTT). Trinucleotic repeat expansion was found to occur immediately following the chromatin remodeling steps, confirming the genetic instability of the process and pointing to the origin of paternal anticipation observed in some trinucleotidic repeats diseases.

  17. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  18. Frequency Bandwidth of Half-Wave Impedance Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dvorsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article brings in the second part general information about half-wave impedance repeater. The third part describes the basic functional principles of the half-wave impedance repeater using Smith chart. The main attention is focused in part four on the derivation of repeater frequency bandwidth depending on characteristics and load impedance of unknown feeder line. Derived dependences are based on the elementary features of the feeder lines with specific length. The described functionality is proved in part 4.3 by measurement of transformed impedance using vector several unbalanced feeder lines and network analyzer VNWA3+.

  19. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  20. Highly Informative Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers for Fingerprinting Hazelnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite markers have many applications in breeding and genetic studies of plants, including fingerprinting of cultivars and investigations of genetic diversity, and therefore provide information for better management of germplasm collections. They are repeatab...

  1. On the role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, L; Dür, W; Kraus, B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an o...

  2. Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Genomes of Rhizobia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-mei; HAN Yi-qiang; TANG Hui; SUN Dong-mei; WANG Yan-jie; WANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, as genetic markers, are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. The analysis of SSR in rhizobia genome provides useful information for a variety of applications in population genetics of rhizobia. We analyzed the occurrences, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs, the most common in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti genomes se-quenced in the microorganisms tandem repeats database, and SSRs in the three species genomes were compared with each other. The result showed that there were 1 410, 859, and 638 SSRs in B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti genomes, respectively. In the genomes of B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats were more abundant and indicated higher mutation rates in these species. The least abundance was mononucleotide repeat. The SSRs type and distribution were similar among these species.

  3. simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 ... mean (UPGMA) with each cluster representing a particular Vigna species. ..... were reported to be more frequent than the compound.

  4. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... back cross breeding; SSRs, simple sequence repeats; PIC, polymorphism ..... PIC values were reported in barley wheat and rice (Gu et ... doubled-haploid rice population. Theor. ... Grover A, Aishwarya V, Sharma PC (2007).

  5. Markerless modification of trinucleotide repeat loci in BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzow, Kellie A; Koob, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Transcription and splicing of human genes are regulated by nucleotide sequences encoded across large segments of our genome, and trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations can have both profound and subtle effects on these processes. In the course of our work to understand the impact of the Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 8 (SCA8) CTG repeat expansion on the transcription and splicing of the RNAs encoded near the SCA8 locus, we have developed a set of reagents and protocols for modifying large genomic BAC clones of this region. We describe the two-step procedure that allows us to precisely replace unexpanded trinucleotide repeats with expanded variants of these repeat sequences without leaving any exogenous sequences in the final constructs, and we discuss how this approach can be adapted to make other desired sequence changes to these genomic clones.

  6. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  7. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Joris; Klugkist, I.G.; Schoot, Rens van de; Meeus, W.H.J.; Selfhout, Maarten; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between

  8. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823031; Klugkist, I.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/27330089X; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; van Zalk, M.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836214; Hoijtink, H.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075184427

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between groups,

  9. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  10. The Pathogenic Role of Low Range Repeats in SCA17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwan Shin

    Full Text Available SCA17 is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with expansion of the CAG/CAA trinucleotide repeats in the TATA-binding protein (TBP gene. SCA17 can have various clinical presentations including parkinsonism, ataxia, chorea and dystonia. SCA17 is diagnosed by detecting the expanded CAG repeats in the TBP gene; however, in the literature, pathologic repeat numbers as low as 41 overlap with normal repeat numbers.The subjects in this study included patients with involuntary movement disorders such as cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism, chorea and dystonia who visited Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2006 and Apr. 2014 and were screened for SCA17. Those who were diagnosed with other genetic diseases or nondegenerative diseases were excluded. DNA from healthy subjects who did not have a family history of parkinsonism, ataxia, psychiatric symptoms, chorea or dystonia served as the control. In total, 5242 chromosomes from 2099 patients and 522 normal controls were analyzed.The total number of patients included in the analysis was 2099 (parkinsonism, 1706; ataxia, 345; chorea, 37; and dystonia, 11. In the normal control, up to 44 repeats were found. In the 44 repeat group, there were 7 (0.3% patients and 1 (0.2% normal control. In 43 repeat group, there were 8 (0.4% patients and 2 (0.4% normal controls. In the 42 repeat group, there were 16 (0.8% patients and 3 (0.6% normal controls. In 41 repeat group, there were 48 (2.3% patients and 8 (1.5% normal controls. Considering the overlaps and non-significant differences in allelic frequencies between the patients and the normal controls with low-expansions, we could not determine a definitive cutoff value for the pathologic CAG repeat number of SCA17.Because the statistical analysis between the normal controls and patients with low range expansions failed to show any differences so far, we must consider that clinical cases with low range expansions could be idiopathic movement disorders showing

  11. Does office space occupation matter? The role of the number of persons per enclosed office space, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction in the physical and mental health of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, B; Schneider, A; Nowak, D

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effects of office space occupation, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction on physical and mental health of office workers in small-sized and open-plan offices as well as possible underlying mechanisms. Office space occupation was characterized as number of persons per one enclosed office space. A total of 207 office employees with similar jobs in offices with different space occupation were surveyed regarding their work situation (psychosocial work characteristics, satisfaction with privacy, acoustics, and control) and health (psychosomatic complaints, irritation, mental well-being, and work ability). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses as well as bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to determine associations and underlying mechanisms. Employee health was significantly associated with all work characteristics. Psychosocial work stressors had the strongest relation to physical and mental health (OR range: 1.66-3.72). The effect of office space occupation on employee health was mediated by stressors and environmental satisfaction, but not by psychosocial work resources. As assumed by sociotechnical approaches, a higher number of persons per enclosed office space was associated with adverse health effects. However, the strongest associations were found with psychosocial work stressors. When revising office design, a holistic approach to work (re)design is needed.

  12. Production of endothelial cell-enclosing alginate-based hydrogel fibers with a cell adhesive surface through simultaneous cross-linking by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction in a hydrodynamic spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2012-09-01

    We developed an alginate-based hydrogel fiber enabling to enclose endothelial cells, degradable on-demand by alginate lyase, and having a cell adhesive surface. The hydrogel fiber was obtained by extruding an aqueous solution of 4% (w/v) alginate derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (Alg-Ph) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into a flow of aqueous solution containing 0.3 mM H(2)O(2) and gelatin derivative possessing Ph moieties (Gelatin-Ph). In the process, cross-linking of Alg-Ph resulting in a hydrogel fiber and immobilization of Gelatin-Ph on the surface of the hydrogel fiber were simultaneously accomplished by an HRP-catalyzed cross-linking reaction between Ph moieties. The diameter of the hydrogel fiber and the quantity of immobilized Gelatin-Ph on the fiber were controllable by changing the flow rates of the solutions and the concentration of HRP in the Alg-Ph-containing solution, respectively. The viability of the human endothelial cells enclosed in the hydrogel fibers obtained by 10 s of flowing in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution was 87.1%. In addition, the cells harvested from the hydrogel fibers through degradation using alginate lyase grew on tissue culture dishes in the same fashion as the cells seeded by a conventional subculture protocol. Human smooth muscle cells adhered, grew and achieved confluence on the surface of the hydrogel fibers. By degrading the hydrogel fibers using alginate lyase, a tubular cell construct was successfully obtained.

  13. Evaluation of Mammalian Interspersed Repeats to investigate the goat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the repeated sequences present in most eukaryotic genomes, SINEs (Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements are widely used to investigate evolution in the mammalian order (Buchanan et al., 1999. One family of these repetitive sequences, the MIR (Mammalian Interspersed Repeats; Jurka et al., 1995, is ubiquitous in all mammals.MIR elements are tRNA-derived SINEs and are identifiable by a conserved core region of about 70 nucleotides.

  14. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  15. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DSR-Based Selective Repeat ARQ Protocol in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全新; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The efficient route algorithms involved in mobile ad hoc network(MANET) are studied. An arrangement of a combination of the traditional dynamic source routing(DSR) protocol is put forward and the selective repeat ARQ protocol is put forward by analyzing and studying them in detail and providing the scheme. In networks, especially in wireless networks, the nodes are capable to process data much faster than transmission, the DSR-based selective repeat ARQ protocol has real meanings in MANET.

  17. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  18. A note on renegotiation in repeated Bertrand duopolies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2007-01-01

    Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome......Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome...

  19. Repeated nondiagnostic result of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiańska, Klaudia; Kopczyński, Janusz; Kowalska, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate and cost-effective method to evaluate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, but approximately 1-24% of FNABs generate a nondiagnostic result (ND-FNAB). The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors of a repeated nondiagnostic result of FNAB. A total of 4018 FNABs performed in a territorial referral centre were analysed, of which 288 (7.17%) were nondiagnostic. Medical records were available for 245 biopsies performed in 228 patients. The retrospective analysis of factors that may influence a repeat ND-FNAB, including demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics, was performed. A repeat FNAB was performed in 159 nodules giving a diagnostic result in 79.2% of cases. The time between the biopsies ranged from 1 to 611 days (mean 154.4, median 119). The timing of a repeat FNAB did not significantly alter the diagnostic output (p = 0.29). In the univariate analysis, significant predictors of a repeat ND-FNAB were older patient age (p = 0.02), L-thyroxine supplementation (p = 0.05), and a history of (131)I therapy (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, only a history of (131)I therapy was a statistically significant risk factor for a repeat ND-FNAB (p = 0.002). Patients with a history of (131)I therapy and ND-FNAB should undergo periodic ultrasonographic assessment rather than a repeat biopsy. The interval between repeated FNABs recommended by guidelines does not affect the diagnostic output.

  20. Linking SNPs to CAG repeat length in Huntington's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanzhao; Kennington, Lori A; Rosas, H Diana; Hersch, Steven; Cha, Jang-Ho; Zamore, Phillip D; Aronin, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing using small interfering RNAs targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising therapy for human trinucleotide repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Linking SNP identities to the two HTT alleles, normal and disease-causing, is a prerequisite for allele-specific RNA interference. Here we describe a method, SNP linkage by circularization (SLiC), to identify linkage between CAG repeat length and nucleotide identity of heterozygous SNPs using Huntington's disease patient peripheral blood samples.

  1. Failure Characteristic of Laser Cladding Samples on Repeated Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-hong; ZHENG Qi-guang; FU Ge-yan; ZHANG Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    Using self-made impact fatigue test instruments and related analytic devices,the mechanical components with laser cladding layer have been attempted.It is found that,on repeated impact force,several failure modes of the components include the surface cracks,surface plastic deformation,corrosive pitting and coat collapse,etc.The paper reported the test method and initial analysis conclusions about the unique failure characteristics of the mechanical components on repeated impact load.

  2. Memory-based quantum repeater in quantum information communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiang-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the quantum repeater in quantum information communication. We propose to introduce the photon buffer mechanism for storing photons, which uses fibre delay loops as photon memories and a programmable 1 × N switcher for distributing photon delay time. Meanwhile, we also consider entanglement purification and entanglement swapping restoration at an entanglement purification or entanglement swapping failure and introduce a protection link mechanism that allows the photonic quantum repeater of a broken connection to initiate a connection restoration process.

  3. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  4. Considerations on repeated repairing of weldments in Inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcilwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of repeated weld repairs on the metallurgical characteristics, high cycle fatigue (HCF), and tensile properties of Inconel 718 butt weld joints were determined. A 1/4 in thick plate and a 1/2 in thick plate were used as well as tungsten inert gas welding, and Inconel 718 filler wire. Weld panels were subjected to 2, 6, and 12 repeated repairs and were made in a highly restrained condition. Post weld heat treatments were also conducted with the welded panel in the highly restrained condition. Results indicate that no significant metallurgical anomaly is evident as a result of up to twelve repeated weld repairs. No degradation in fatigue life is noted for up to twelve repeated repairs. Tensile results from specimens which contained up to twelve repeated weld repairs revealed no significant degradation in UTS and YS. However, a significant decrease in elongation is evident with specimens (solution treated and age hardened after welding) which contained twelve repeated repairs. The elongation loss is attributed to the presence of a severe notch on each side (fusion line) of the repair weld bead reinforcement.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  6. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.

  7. Ising Model Reprogramming of a Repeat Protein's Equilibrium Unfolding Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millership, C; Phillips, J J; Main, E R G

    2016-05-08

    Repeat proteins are formed from units of 20-40 aa that stack together into quasi one-dimensional non-globular structures. This modular repetitive construction means that, unlike globular proteins, a repeat protein's equilibrium folding and thus thermodynamic stability can be analysed using linear Ising models. Typically, homozipper Ising models have been used. These treat the repeat protein as a series of identical interacting subunits (the repeated motifs) that couple together to form the folded protein. However, they cannot describe subunits of differing stabilities. Here we show that a more sophisticated heteropolymer Ising model can be constructed and fitted to two new helix deletion series of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (CTPRs). This analysis, showing an asymmetric spread of stability between helices within CTPR ensembles, coupled with the Ising model's predictive qualities was then used to guide reprogramming of the unfolding pathway of a variant CTPR protein. The designed behaviour was engineered by introducing destabilising mutations that increased the thermodynamic asymmetry within a CTPR ensemble. The asymmetry caused the terminal α-helix to thermodynamically uncouple from the rest of the protein and preferentially unfold. This produced a specific, highly populated stable intermediate with a putative dimerisation interface. As such it is the first step in designing repeat proteins with function regulated by a conformational switch. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  9. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  10. 不同封育年限宁夏荒漠草原土壤种子库研究%A Study on soil Seed Bank in Desert Steppe of Different Enclosing Years in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 蒋齐; 王占军; 潘占兵

    2011-01-01

    针对宁夏天然草原实施禁牧封育的现状,采用种子萌发法对不同封育年限的荒漠草原土壤种子库进行了研究。结果表明:种子萌发主要集中在0-5cm土层中,6-10cm土层种子萌发较少,0-5cm土层中,随封育年限的增加,一年生草本植物逐渐减少,多年生草本植物增加,半灌木或灌木逐渐增加;在垂直分布上,随土层深度的增加单位面积的种子数量减少;土壤种子库的密度随封育时间的增加而增加;在0-5cm土层中,封育使土壤种子库的物种多样性和丰富度明显增加;在0-5cm土层和6-10cm土层中,土壤种子库和地上植被的相似性都较低,在0-5cm土层,随封育年限的增加土壤种子库与地上植被的相似性程度逐渐增加。%According to the present situation of Ningxia natural grassland enclosure,the method of seed germination was used to study soil seed bank in desert steppe of different enclosing years.The result shows: seed germination mainly occurred in 0-5 cm soil,seed germination in 6-10 cm soil was less.In 0-5 cm soil,annual herbs gradually reduce,the perennial herbs increase,half shrubs or shrubs increase gradually with the increase of the enclosing year.In vertical distribution,along with the increase of soil depth,the seeds decreased in the number of unit area.The density of the soil seed bank increased with increase of enclosing year.In 0-5 cm soil,enclosing made the species diversity of the soil seed bank and abundant degree increase.In 0-5 cm and 6-10 cm soil,the soil seed bank and the similarity of above-ground vegetation are low.In 0-5 cm soil layer,with the increasing of enclosing year,soil seed banks and the similarity degree of above-ground vegetation increase gradually.

  11. DNA methylation and triplet repeat stability: New proposals addressing actual questions on the CGG repeat of fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehrle, D.; Schwemmle, S.; Steinbach, P. [Univ. of Ulm (Germany)

    1996-08-09

    Methylation of expanded CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene may well have different consequences. One is that methylation, extending into upstream regulatory elements, could lead to gene inactivation. Another effect of methylation, which we have obtained evidence for, could be stabilization of the repeat sequence and even prevention of premutations from expansion to full mutation. The full mutation of the fragile X syndrome probably occurs in an early transitional stage of embryonic development. The substrate is a maternally inherited premutation. The product usually is a mosaic pattern of full mutations detectable in early fetal life. These full mutation patterns are mitotically stable as, for instance, different somatic tissues of full mutation fetuses show identical mutation patterns. This raised the following questions: What triggers repeat expansion in that particular stage of development and what causes subsequent mitotic stability of expanded repeats? 21 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Filamin repeat segments required for photosensory signalling in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Afsar U

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamin is an actin binding protein which is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and its basic structure is well conserved – an N-terminal actin binding domain followed by a series of repeated segments which vary in number in different organisms. D. discoideum is a well established model organism for the study of signalling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton and as such makes an excellent organism in which to study filamin. Ddfilamin plays a putative role as a scaffolding protein in a photosensory signalling pathway and this role is thought to be mediated by the unusual repeat segments in the rod domain. Results To study the role of filamin in phototaxis, a filamin null mutant, HG1264, was transformed with constructs each of which expressed wild type filamin or a mutant filamin with a deletion of one of the repeat segments. Transformants expressing the full length filamin to wild type levels completely rescued the phototaxis defect in HG1264, however if filamin was expressed at lower than wild type levels the phototaxis defect was not restored. The transformants lacking any one of the repeat segments 2–6 retained defective phototaxis and thermotaxis phenotypes, whereas transformants expressing filaminΔ1 exhibited a range of partial complementation of the phototaxis phenotype which was related to expression levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that filamin lacking any of the repeat segments still localised to the same actin rich areas as wild type filamin. Ddfilamin interacts with RasD and IP experiments demonstrated that this interaction did not rely upon any single repeat segment or the actin binding domain. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that wild type levels of filamin expression are essential for the formation of functional photosensory signalling complexes and that each of the repeat segments 2–6 are essential for filamins role in phototaxis. By contrast, repeat segment 1 is not essential provided the mutated

  13. REPEATED RHYME AND REPEATED REDIF IN GAZELS / GAZELDE İKİLEME REDİF VE İKİLEME KAFİYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yaşar AYDEMİR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meter and rhyme are indispensable elements forClassical Turkish poem. Usually rhyme together withredif (repeated voice/ word after the rhyme is used inClassical Turkish poem. One of the way of using rhymeand redif is "repeated rhyme and repeated redif" in poem.In this paper, "repeated rhyme and repeatedredif" was studied.

  14. Who Repeats Algebra I, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated? REL 2015-059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony B.; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This REL West study explores the prevalence of students repeating Algebra I, who is most likely to repeat the course, and the level of improvement for students who repeat. Using six years of data from a cohort of 3,400 first-time seventh grade students in a California school district, authors found that 44 percent of students repeated algebra I.…

  15. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by dominant inheritance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and diverse extracerebellar symptoms. A subgroup of the ataxias is caused by unstable CAG-repeat expansions in their respective ...... of paternal germ-line repeat sequence instability of the expanded SCA2 locus.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.231....

  16. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  17. Automated Detection of Trinucleotide Repeats in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan; Tynan; Fenwick; Leon

    1997-12-01

    Background: The conventional method for diagnosis of fragile X syndrome has been amplification of the trinucleotide repeat region of the FMR-1 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis to detect full expansion and hypermethylation. "Stuttering" resulting from incomplete amplification is still observed in the PCR products despite the use of reagents that reduce the secondary structure of the GC-rich template. In addition, PCR products can be detected by autoradiography only after 1 to 2 days of exposure. By combination of a recently reported amplification protocol with fluorescence detection of PCR products in an automated DNA sequencer, the PCR protocol for amplification of trinucleotide repeats was simplified. This modified protocol is highly reproducible, more accurate, and less costly than the conventional protocol because of the elimination of radioisotopes from the PCR. Methods and Results: PCRs were conducted with betaine and Pfu DNA polymerase. This improved PCR protocol allowed immediate detection of PCR products in agarose gels containing ethidium bromide. Stuttering was completely eliminated and fragments of up to 1kb ( approximately 250 repeats) were visible in agarose gels. PCR products were automatically detected by laser fluorescence in an automated DNA sequencer by inclusion of a fluorescently-labeled primer in the PCR reaction. A short electrophoresis run of 100 minutes in denaturing acrylamide gels was sufficient to give high resolution of fragments with higher accuracy and sensitivity than conventional detection by autoradiography. Conclusions: A simple, nonradioactive protocol that is more rapid and less expensive than the conventional PCR protocol for the detection of trinucleotide repeats has been developed. By use of this detection protocol, fragment sizes containing up to 100 repeats could be detected, alleles differing by one trinucleotide repeat were clearly resolved, and heterogeneous repeat patterns such as those

  18. Intra-genomic variation in the ribosomal repeats of nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    Full Text Available Ribosomal loci represent a major tool for investigating environmental diversity and community structure via high-throughput marker gene studies of eukaryotes (e.g. 18S rRNA. Since the estimation of species' abundance is a major goal of environmental studies (by counting numbers of sequences, understanding the patterns of rRNA copy number across species will be critical for informing such high-throughput approaches. Such knowledge is critical, given that ribosomal RNA genes exist within multi-copy repeated arrays in a genome. Here we measured the repeat copy number for six nematode species by mapping the sequences from whole genome shotgun libraries against reference sequences for their rRNA repeat. This revealed a 6-fold variation in repeat copy number amongst taxa investigated, with levels of intragenomic variation ranging from 56 to 323 copies of the rRNA array. By applying the same approach to four C. elegans mutation accumulation lines propagated by repeated bottlenecking for an average of ~400 generations, we find on average a 2-fold increase in repeat copy number (rate of increase in rRNA estimated at 0.0285-0.3414 copies per generation, suggesting that rRNA repeat copy number is subject to selection. Within each Caenorhabditis species, the majority of intragenomic variation found across the rRNA repeat was observed within gene regions (18S, 28S, 5.8S, suggesting that such intragenomic variation is not a product of selection for rRNA coding function. We find that the dramatic variation in repeat copy number among these six nematode genomes would limit the use of rRNA in estimates of organismal abundance. In addition, the unique pattern of variation within a single genome was uncorrelated with patterns of divergence between species, reflecting a strong signature of natural selection for rRNA function. A better understanding of the factors that control or affect copy number in these arrays, as well as their rates and patterns of evolution

  19. Diagnosis of repeated/intermittent failures in discrete event systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, S.; Kumar, R.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the notion of repeated failure diagnosability for diagnosing the occurrence of a repeated number of failures in discrete event systems. This generalizes the earlier notion of diagnosability that was used to diagnose the occurrence of a failure, but from which the information regarding the multiplicity of the occurrence of the failure could not be obtained. It is possible that in some systems the same type of failure repeats a multiple number of times. It is desirable to have a diagnoser which not only diagnoses that such a failure has occurred but also determines the number of times the failure has occurred. To aide such analysis we introduce the notions of K-diagnosability (K failures diagnosability), [1,K]-diagnosability (1 through K failures diagnosability), and [1,1]-diagnosability (1 through 1 failures diagnosability). Here the rst (resp., last) notion is the weakest (resp., strongest) of all three, and the earlier notion of diagnosability is the same as that of K-diagnosability or that of [1,K]- diagnosability with K = 1. We give polynomial algorithms for checking these various notions of repeated failure diagnosability, and also present a procedure of polynomial complexity for the on-line diagnosis of repeated failures.

  20. Value of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greloni, G; Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Lancioni, E; Quiroz, C; Zacariaz, J; De la Iglesia Niveyro, P; Christiansen, S; Pierangelo, M A; Varela, C F; Rosa-Diez, G J; Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Renal flares are common in lupus nephritis (LN), and class switch is thought to be characteristic. There is no agreement on indications for performing a repeat renal biopsy. Our objective was to retrospectively review patients who had more than one renal biopsy performed on clinical indications, and analyse clinical, pathological and treatment changes after successive biopsies. Methods Forty-five patients with LN and one or more repeat renal biopsies were included, with a total of 116 biopsies. Results Of the 71 repeat biopsies, pathological transition occurred in 39 (54.9%). When having a previous biopsy with a proliferative lesion, class switch occurred in 55.6%, with 24.4% evolving into non-proliferative classes. When previous biopsy was class V, transition to other classes occurred in 58.3% and changes were all into proliferative classes. Conversion from one pure proliferative form to another (class III to class IV or vice versa) happened in 11.3% of the rebiopsies, with 62 rebiopsies (87.3%) leading to a change in the treatment regimen. Conclusions Histological transformations were common, and they occurred when the previous biopsy had non-proliferative lesions as well as when lesions were proliferative. Treatments were modified after repeat renal biopsy in the majority of patients. In this experience, kidney repeat biopsies were useful in guiding treatment of LN flares. PMID:25396056

  1. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  2. Discrepancy variation of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huan; Cai, Shengli; Yan, Binlun; Chen, Baiyao; Yu, Fei

    2009-01-01

    To address whether there are differences of variation among repeat motif types and among taxonomic groups, we present here an analysis of variation and correlation of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in eukaryotic genomes. Ten taxonomic groups were compared, those being primates, mammalia (excluding primates and rodentia), rodentia, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles, insects, molluscs, plants and fungi, respectively. The data used in the analysis is from the literature published in the Journal of Molecular Ecology Notes. Analysis of variation reveals that there are no significant differences between AC and AG repeat motif types. Moreover, the number of alleles correlates positively with the copy number in both AG and AC repeats. Similar conclusions can be obtained from each taxonomic group. These results strongly suggest that the increase of SSR variation is almost linear with the increase of the copy number of each repeat motif. As well, the results suggest that the variability of SSR in the genomes of low-ranking species seem to be more than that of high-ranking species, excluding primates and fungi.

  3. Physiological consequences of repeated exposures to conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Strong, Paul V; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-06-01

    Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days) to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT). Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing) and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction). Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  4. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Thompson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT. Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction. Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  5. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  6. Age, CAG repeat length, and clinical progression in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam; Kumar, Brahma V; Mo, Alisa; Welsh, Claire S; Margolis, Russell L; Ross, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to further explore the effect of CAG repeat length on the rate of clinical progression in patients with Huntington's disease. The dataset included records for 569 subjects followed prospectively at the Baltimore Huntington's Disease Center. Participants were seen for a mean of 7.1 visits, with a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. Subjects were evaluated using the Quantified Neurologic Examination and its Motor Impairment subscale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Huntington's disease Activities of Daily Living Scale. By itself, CAG repeat length showed a statistically significant but small effect on the progression of all clinical measures. Contrary to our previous expectations, controlling for age of onset increased the correlation between CAG repeat length and progression of all variables by 69% to 159%. Graphical models further supported the idea that individuals with smaller triplet expansions experience a more gradual decline. CAG repeat length becomes an important determinant of clinical prognosis when accounting for age of onset. This suggests that the aging process itself influences clinical outcomes in Huntington's disease. Inconsistent results in prior studies examining CAG repeat length and progression may indeed reflect a lack of age adjustment.

  7. Repeat Sequences and Base Correlations in Human Y Chromosome Palindromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-zhi Jin; Zi-xian Liu; Yan-jiao Qi; Wen-yuan Qiu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of information theory and statistical methods, we use mutual information, n-tuple entropy and conditional entropy, combined with biological characteristics, to analyze the long range correlation and short range correlation in human Y chromosome palindromes. The magnitude distribution of the long range correlation which can be reflected by the mutual information is P5>P5a>P5b (P5a and P5b are the sequences that replace solely Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats with random uncorrelated sequences in human Y chromosome palindrome 5, respectively); and the magnitude distribution of the short range correlation which can be reflected by the n-tuple entropy and the conditional entropy is P5>P5a>P5b>random uncorrelated sequence. In other words, when the Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats replace with random uncorrelated sequence, the long range and short range correlation decrease gradually. However, the random uncorrelated sequence has no correlation. This research indicates that more repeat sequences result in stronger correlation between bases in human Y chromosome. The analyses may be helpful to understand the special structures of human Y chromosome palindromes profoundly.

  8. Tracking a closing volcanic system using repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, H.; West, M. E.; Grapenthin, R.

    2011-12-01

    Repeating, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were recorded at the end of the explosive phase of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. The events cluster into several families which exhibit cross-correlation values greater than 0.8 and are distributed between 0-10 km below the edifice. The earthquake magnitudes decline gradually with time, and the events also appear to shallow as the sequence progresses. This activity continued for over 2 months and accompanied steady dome growth, which halted around the same time that the last of the repeating VTs were recorded. The repetitive nature of these earthquakes, their relatively deep locations and their occurrence following 3 weeks of major explosive eruptions suggest that they are related to changes around the conduit system and/or the magma storage area as the last of the magma was removed from the mid-crustal storage area. Geodetic data indicate that the deflation of the edifice, which had been continuous throughout the explosive activity, ceased coincident with the onset of the repeating VT earthquakes. We use evidence from earthquake relocations and earthquake focal mechanisms to investigate the source for the repeating VT earthquakes. We propose a model in which the repeating earthquakes are closely related to the adjustment of the conduit system and mid crustal storage area in response to the last of the ascending magma.

  9. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Ladd, Thaddeus D.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network.

  10. Positional Repeatability Measurements Of Stepper Motors At Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Hall, Michael S.; Bartko, Frank; Houck, James R.

    1983-08-01

    Stepper motors operating at liquid helium temperature have multiple applications in cryogenically-cooled telescopes such as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). These SIRTF applications include driving cryogen flow valves, operating the Multiple Instrument Chamber (MIC) beam splitter mechanism, and operating filters and grating wheel mechanisms in the scientific instruments. The positional repeatability of the beam splitter drive mechanism is especially critical since it feeds the optical beam to the scien-tific instruments. Despite these important applications, no significant data on the positional repeatability of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures has been available. Therefore, we conducted a series of measurements to determine the positional repeatability of a modified, off-the-shelf Berger/Lahr stepper motor (model RDM 253/25, step angle 3.6°) which had demonstrated excellent performance in previous endurance testing at LHe temperature. These test results indicated that the positional repeatability of the motor was excellent at all temperatures, with somewhat better performance at cryogenic temperatures. Another important result was that the motor could be repeatedly turned off and on while still accurately retaining its rotor position.

  11. The diversity and evolution of Wolbachia ankyrin repeat domain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Siozios

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes are common in the eukaryotic and viral domains of life, but they are rare in bacteria, the exception being a few obligate or facultative intracellular Proteobacteria species. Despite having a reduced genome, the arthropod strains of the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia contain an unusually high number of ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes ranging from 23 in wMel to 60 in wPip strain. This group of genes has attracted considerable attention for their astonishing large number as well as for the fact that ankyrin proteins are known to participate in protein-protein interactions, suggesting that they play a critical role in the molecular mechanism that determines host-Wolbachia symbiotic interactions. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the wMel-related ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes present in different Drosophila-Wolbachia associations. Our results show that the ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes change in size by expansion and contraction mediated by short directly repeated sequences. We provide examples of intra-genic recombination events and show that these genes are likely to be horizontally transferred between strains with the aid of bacteriophages. These results confirm previous findings that the Wolbachia genomes are evolutionary mosaics and illustrate the potential that these bacteria have to generate diversity in proteins potentially involved in the symbiotic interactions.

  12. Crowd Density Monitoring System within Enclosed Spaces Based on Temperature and Humidity Sensor%基于温湿度传感器的封闭空间人群密度监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵星博; 王双唯; 宫姗; 王东芳; 梁士利

    2016-01-01

    Objective body temperature and breathing out gas has a great influence on the temperature and humidity in enclosed spaces. We use the temperature and humidity sensors to collect temperature and humidity information in enclosed spaces. Fusion process the collected information,calibration of enclosed space crowd density level,the actual monitoring data to compare with the calibration data. And through curve fitting,build number and linear relationship of temperature and humidity vector norm. Estimate the crowd density in the current space effectively,revealing monitoring data on the labview regulatory interface,set the crowd density level threshold,flash and sound alarm function. After test,the system design is reasonable and practical,and has a good stability,and suitable for confined space the crowd density monitoring.%为提高人群密度的监测效能,利用人体的体温和呼吸出的气体对封闭空间中的温湿度有较大影响的特点,通过温湿度传感器对封闭空间温湿度信息进行有效采集。将采集的温湿度信息进行融合处理,标定出封闭空间人群密度等级,对实际监测的数据与标定数据进行比较,并通过曲线拟合人数和温湿度矢量模的线性关系,可有效估计当前空间人群密度情况。利用Labview虚拟器编辑监管平台,对监测数据进行可视化显示,并通过设定人群密度等级阈值,可实现闪灯及响声听视觉双重报警功能。实验测试结果表明,该系统设计合理且实用性强,具有良好的稳定性和测量精度。

  13. DNA profiling of extended tracts of primitive DNA repeats: Direct identification of unstable simple repeat loci in complex genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogaeva, E.A.; Korovaitseva, G.; St. George-Hyslop, P. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The most simple DNA repetitive elements, with repetitive monomer units of only 1-10 bp in tandem tracts, are an abundant component of the human genome. The expansion of at least one type of these repeats ((CCG)n and (CTG)n) have been detected for a several neurological diseases with anticipation in successive generations. We propose here a simple method for the identification of particularly expanded repeats and for the recovery of flanking sequences. We generated DNA probes using PCR to create long concatamers (n>100) by amplification of the di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeat oligonucleotide primer pairs. To reduce the complexity of the background band pattern, the genomic DNA was restricted with a mixture of at least five different endonucleases, thereby reducing the size of restriction fragments containing short simple repeat arrays while leaving intact the large fragments containing the longer simple repeats arrays. Direct blot hybridization has shown different {open_quotes}DNA fingerprint{close_quotes} patterns with all arbitrary selected di-hexa nucleotide repeat probes. Direct hybridization of the (CTG)n and (CCG)n probes revealed simple or multiple band patterns depending upon stringency conditions. We were able to detect the presence of expanded unstable tri-nucleotide alleles by (CCG)n probe for some FRAXA subjects and by (CTG)n probe for some myotonic dystrophy subjects which were not present in the parental DNA patterns. The cloning of the unstable alleles for simple repeats can be performed by direct recover from agarose gels of the aberrant unstable bands detected above. The recovered flanking regions can be cloned, sequenced and used for PCR detection of expanded alleles or can be used to screen cDNA. This method may be used for testing of small families with diseases thought to display clinical evidence of anticipation.

  14. Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Mitchell, Jerry T; Cutter, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 had extensive consequences for the state of Mississippi in the United States. Widespread infrastructure and property damage, massive social dislocation, and ecological loss remain among the many challenges faced by communities as they work towards 'normalcy'. This study employs repeat photography to understand differential recovery from Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. Revealing change with conventional landscape photography, a process known as repeat photography, is common in the natural sciences. Simply stated, repeat photography is the practice of re-photographing the same scene as it appears in an earlier photograph. Photographs were taken at 131 sites every six months over a three-year period. Each photograph was assigned a recovery score and a spatially interpolated recovery surface was generated for each time period. The mapped and graphed results show disparities in the progression of recovery: some communities quickly entered the rebuilding process whereas others have lagged far behind.

  15. Chloride permeability of concrete under static and repeated compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Ishimori, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    The chloride permeability of normal weight concrete subjected to static and repeated compressive loading was evaluated by using the AASHTO T277 test method. The results of concrete under static loading showed that the application of loads up to 90% of the ultimate strength had little effect on the chloride permeability. It was found from the results of concrete under repeated loading that load repetitions at the maximum stress levels of 60% or more caused the chloride permeability to increase significantly. The test results also indicated that the chloride permeability of concrete subjected to static and repeated loading increased at an increasing rate with its residual strain. The relation between the chloride permeability obtained and the cracking behavior of concrete previously reported was discussed.

  16. Coevolution between simple sequence repeats (SSRs and virus genome size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiangyan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relationship between the level of repetitiveness in genomic sequence and genome size has been investigated by making use of complete prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, but relevant studies have been rarely made in virus genomes. Results In this study, a total of 257 viruses were examined, which cover 90% of genera. The results showed that simple sequence repeats (SSRs is strongly, positively and significantly correlated with genome size. Certain repeat class is distributed in a certain range of genome sequence length. Mono-, di- and tri- repeats are widely distributed in all virus genomes, tetra- SSRs as a common component consist in genomes which more than 100 kb in size; in the range of genome  Conclusions We conducted this research standing on the height of the whole virus. We concluded that genome size is an important factor in affecting the occurrence of SSRs; hosts are also responsible for the variances of SSRs content to a certain degree.

  17. Assessing agreement with repeated measures for random observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Cheng; Barnhart, Huiman X

    2011-12-30

    Agreement studies are often concerned with assessing whether different observers for measuring responses on the same subject or sample can produce similar results. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a popular index for assessing the closeness among observers for quantitative measurements. Usually, the CCC is used for data without and with replications based on subject and observer effects only. However, we cannot use this methodology if repeated measurements rather than replications are collected. Although there exist some CCC-type indices for assessing agreement with repeated measurements, there is no CCC for random observers and random time points. In this paper, we propose a new CCC for repeated measures where both observers and time points are treated as random effects. A simulation study demonstrates our proposed methodology, and we use vertebral body data and image data for illustrations.

  18. A Novel Algorithm for Finding Interspersed Repeat Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Li; Zhengzhi Wang; Qingshan Ni

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of repeats in the DNA sequences is an important subject in bioinformatics. In this paper, we propose a novel projection-assemble algorithm to find unknown interspersed repeats in DNA sequences. The algorithm employs random projection algorithm to obtain a candidate fragment set, and exhaustive search algorithm to search each pair of fragments from the candidate fragment set to find potential linkage, and then assemble them together. The complexity of our projection-assemble algorithm is nearly linear to the length of the genome sequence, and its memory usage is limited by the hardware. We tested our algorithm with both simulated data and real biology data, and the results show that our projection-assemble algorithm is efficient. By means of this algorithm, we found an un-labeled repeat region that occurs five times in Escherichia coli genome, with its length more than 5,000 bp, and a mismatch probability less than 4%.

  19. A PLL Synthesizer with Learning Repeatable Fluctuation of Input Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes a high frequency PLL (Phase Locked Loop) synthesizer with a function of learning then eliminating repeatable fluctuation of timing intervals on series input pulses. Typical spindle encoder generates digital pulses according to the revolution speed. The intervals of each pulse have repeatable fluctuation every revolution by eccentricity or warpage of the encoder scale disk. This method provides a programmable counter for the loop counter of PLL circuit and an interval counter with memory in order to learn the repeatable fluctuation. After the learning process, the PLL generates very pure tone clock signal based on the real flutter components of the spindle revolution speed without influenced by encoder errors. This method has been applied to a hard disk test system in order to generate 3GHz read/write clock.

  20. The effects of repeated idea elaboration on unconscious plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa-Jayne; Perfect, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs in a recall task when someone presents someone else's idea as his or her own. Recent research has shown that the likelihood of such an error is inflated if the idea is improved during the retention interval, but not if it is imagined. Here, we explore the effects of repeating the elaboration phase during the retention interval. Participants in a group first generated alternate uses to common objects before elaborating the ideas either by imagining them or by improving them. This elaboration phase occurred once, twice, or not at all. Later, they attempted to recall their original ideas and generate new ideas. Repeated imagery did not inflate unconscious plagiarism on either task. In contrast, repeating the improvement phase increased plagiarism to dramatically high levels in the recall task. The latter effect might be particularly pertinent to real-world cases of plagiarism in which the ideas under dispute have been the subject of creative development over many occasions.

  1. Repeated Games With Intervention: Theory and Applications in Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yuanzhang; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    In communication systems where users share common resources, users' selfish behavior usually results in suboptimal resource utilization. There have been extensive works that model communication systems with selfish users as one-shot games and propose incentive schemes to achieve Pareto optimal action profiles as non-cooperative equilibria. However, in many communication systems, due to strong negative externalities among users, the sets of feasible payoffs in one-shot games are nonconvex. Thus, it is possible to expand the set of feasible payoffs by having users choose convex combinations of different payoffs. In this paper, we propose a repeated game model generalized by intervention. First, we use repeated games to convexify the set of feasible payoffs in one-shot games. Second, we combine conventional repeated games with intervention, originally proposed for one-shot games, to achieve a larger set of equilibrium payoffs and loosen requirements for users' patience to achieve it. We study the problem of maxi...

  2. Archery performance level and repeatability of event-related EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, A R; Ertan, H; Korkusuz, F

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the repeatability of electromyographic linear envelopes (LE) of archery groups. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals of musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (MFDS) and extensor digitorum (MED) of 23 participants (seven skilled, six beginner archers and ten non-archers) were recorded during archery shooting. Two-second periods (clicker falls at first second) of 12 shots' EMG data were recorded, full-wave rectified and filtered (60 ms moving-average filter) for each participant's drawing arm. Repeatability was investigated by using a statistical criterion, variance ratio (VR). Archers' performances were evaluated in terms of FITA scores. The results showed that FITA scores were significantly correlated to the VRs of MFDS and MED. EMG LEs were more repeatable among archers than non-archers. Therefore, we inferred that VRs of MFDS and MED might be important variables for (a) assessing shooting techniques, (b) evaluation of archers' progress, and (c) selection of talented archers.

  3. Plumb line deflection varied with time obtained by repeated gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28 and 39 campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.12 and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.022.②PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.012 by the modeling based on the precession of repeated gravimetry. This implies that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③There exist some common and different characteristics for the different places and different components. It may provide a new approach for the study on the local or global geodynamic by using repeated gravimetry.

  4. A Brief Review of Short Tandem Repeat Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Fan; Jia-You Chu

    2007-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences that involve a repetitive unit of 1-6 bp. Because of their polymorphisms and high mutation rates, STRs are widely used in biological research. Strand-slippage replication is the predominant mutation mechanism of STRs, and the stepwise mutation model is regarded as the main mutation model. STR mutation rates can be influenced by many factors. Moreover, some trinucleotide repeats are associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. In order to deepen our knowledge of these diseases and broaden STR application, it is essential to understand the STR mutation process in detail. In this review, we focus on the current known information about STR mutation.

  5. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  6. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  7. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 × 10-4 and 5.1 × 10-5 per generation for the alternative models. Conclusions This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  8. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  9. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, M E

    2001-01-01

    Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs) exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 x 10(-4) and 5.1 x 10(-5) per generation for the alternative models. This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  10. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kevin P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards and lake systems (for example, African cichlids. Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.

  11. Cloning, characterization, and properties of seven triplet repeat DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, K; Kang, S; Larson, J E; Wells, R D

    1996-07-12

    Several neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are caused by genetically unstable triplet repeat sequences (CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, or AAG.CTT) in or near the responsible genes. We implemented novel cloning strategies with chemically synthesized oligonucleotides to clone seven of the triplet repeat sequences (GTA.TAC, GAT.ATC, GTT.AAC, CAC.GTG, AGG.CCT, TCG.CGA, and AAG.CTT), and the adjoining paper (Ohshima, K., Kang, S., Larson, J. E., and Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16784-16791) describes studies on TTA.TAA. This approach in conjunction with in vivo expansion studies in Escherichia coli enabled the preparation of at least 81 plasmids containing the repeat sequences with lengths of approximately 16 up to 158 triplets in both orientations with varying extents of polymorphisms. The inserts were characterized by DNA sequencing as well as DNA polymerase pausings, two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, and chemical probe analyses to evaluate the capacity to adopt negative supercoil induced non-B DNA conformations. AAG.CTT and AGG.CCT form intramolecular triplexes, and the other five repeat sequences do not form any previously characterized non-B structures. However, long tracts of TCG.CGA showed strong inhibition of DNA synthesis at specific loci in the repeats as seen in the cases of CTG.CAG and CGG.CCG (Kang, S., Ohshima, K., Shimizu, M., Amirhaeri, S., and Wells, R. D.(1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27014-27021). This work along with other studies (Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 2875-2878) on CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, and TTA.TAA makes available long inserts of all 10 triplet repeat sequences for a variety of physical, molecular biological, genetic, and medical investigations. A model to explain the reduction in mRNA abundance in Friedreich's ataxia based on intermolecular triplex formation is proposed.

  12. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  13. Repeat workers' compensation claims: risk factors, costs and work disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collie Alex

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000 and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p lower costs and work disability than the repeat claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers.

  14. Repeatability of locomotor performance and morphology-locomotor performance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Cara; Walker, Jeffrey A; Perna, Catherine; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-09-15

    There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate the among-individual variation for selection to act on are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed-model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit was significantly repeatable (r=0.55; 95% CI: 0.45-0.64). Performance differences between the sexes (males 12% faster than females) and changes with age (decreasing 0.07% per day) both contributed to variation in Ucrit and, therefore, the repeatability estimate. Accounting for mean differences between sexes within the model decreased the estimate of Ucrit repeatability to 21% below the naïve estimate, while fitting age in the models increased the estimate to 14% above the naïve estimate. Greater consideration of factors such as age and sex is therefore necessary for the interpretation of performance repeatability in wild populations. Body shape significantly predicted Ucrit in both sexes in both assays, with the morphology-performance relationship significantly repeatable at the population level. However, morphology was more strongly predicative of performance in older fish, suggesting a change in the contribution of morphology relative to other factors such as physiology and behaviour. The morphology-performance relationship changed with age to a greater extent in males than females.

  15. 基于LBFGS的求解最小闭包球的光滑化方法%A SMOOTHING ALGORITM FOR SMALLEST ENCLOSING BALL PROBLEMS BASED ON LIMITED MEMORY BFGS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶峰; 刘三阳; 刘红卫; 周水生

    2013-01-01

    考虑在n维空间中求m个球的最小闭包球(the Smallest Enclosing Ball,SEB)问题,首先将SEB问题转化为一个含有函数max(0,z)的等价无约束非光滑凸优化问题,然后利用光滑化技巧和有限内存BFGS方法来求解高维空间中的SEB问题,并分析了方法的收敛性,数值实验结果表明文中给出的算法是有效的.

  16. Numerical simulation of viscoelastic flow due to rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with large axial clearance; Kaiten enban ni yoru nendansei ryutai no yokinai nagare no suchi simulation (jikuhoko clearance ga hiroi baai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Moroi, T. [Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Toda, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-25

    Numerical simulations by a finite-difference method have been made for a viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with large axial clearance. The Giesekus model with a single relaxation time was applied as a constitutive equation. We could simulate some typical secondary flow patterns for viscoelastic fluids which were different from Newtonian fluids; e.g., a secondary flow of which circulation direction at very low Reynolds number is reversed compared with that for a Newtonian fluid and a double-cell flow structure which Escudier et. all observed at relatively high Reynolds number. We show that the double-cell flow structure relates to nonlinear terms of the constitutive equation. The secondary flow patterns are characterized by the elasticity number (=Weissenberg number/Reynolds number) from low to high Reynolds numbers. 16 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing. Numerical simulation and experiment; Kaiten enban ni yoru nendansei ryutai no yokinai nagare. Suchi simulation to jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroi, T. [Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Ito, M.; Fujita, K. [Nagoya Institue of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    Numerical simulations by a finite-difference method have been made for a viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with relatively large axial clearance. The Giesekus model, modified Giesekus modal and Phan Thien-Tanner model were applied as the constitutive equations. Using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), the effects of rheological properties on the distribution of the velocity component V{sub {theta}} and the secondary flow were clarified. By comparing the experimental results with the numerical simulations the validity of the respective viscoelastic fluid models were examined. The secondary flow patters observed by flow visualizations were characterized by the elasticity number (= Weissenberg number/Reynolds number). It was confirmed experimentally that near the rotating axis there was a place where the tangential velocity component was negative for the cases of 0.3 wt% and 1 wt% polyacrylamide aqueous solutions. (author)

  18. Mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability during human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Cynthia T

    2010-11-01

    Trinucleotide expansion underlies several human diseases. Expansion occurs during multiple stages of human development in different cell types, and is sensitive to the gender of the parent who transmits the repeats. Repair and replication models for expansions have been described, but we do not know whether the pathway involved is the same under all conditions and for all repeat tract lengths, which differ among diseases. Currently, researchers rely on bacteria, yeast and mice to study expansion, but these models differ substantially from humans. We need now to connect the dots among human genetics, pathway biochemistry and the appropriate model systems to understand the mechanism of expansion as it occurs in human disease.

  19. Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single......-photon states are produced and grown into superpositions of coherent states, known as two-mode cat states. The entanglement is then distributed using homodyne detection. To improve the protocol, we replace the time-consuming nonlocal growth of cat states with local growth of single-mode cat states, eliminating...

  20. Experimental realization of entanglement concentration and a quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2003-05-23

    We report an experimental realization of entanglement concentration using two polarization-entangled photon pairs produced by pulsed parametric down-conversion. In the meantime, our setup also provides a proof-in-principle demonstration of a quantum repeater. The quality of our procedure is verified by observing a violation of Bell's inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. The high experimental accuracy achieved in the experiment implies that the requirement of tolerable error rate in multistage realization of quantum repeaters can be fulfilled, hence providing a useful toolbox for quantum communication over large distances.

  1. Evaluation of pulsed RFI effects on digital satellite repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Braun, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for assessing the effect of pulsed RFI on the error probability of a coherent phase-shift keyed signal through a nonlinear satellite repeater. The RFI is assumed to affect the uplink channel and to consist of CW pulses with random power levels and arriving randomly in time with a Poisson distribution. A model to approximate the effect of intermodulation products is introduced and the error probability conditioned on the output of the satellite repeater is computed. The classical moment technique is then used as an efficient method of averaging the conditional error probability over the numerous random parameters associated with the uplink signal.

  2. Eigenvector derivatives of repeated eigenvalues using singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Ghaemmaghami, Peiman

    1989-01-01

    An explicit formula is obtained for the first-order eigenvector derivative that corresponds to the eigenvector of a repeated eigenvalue, in the case of the nonself-adjoint eigenvalue problem. This method applies to the class of nondefective problems whose first eigenvalue derivatives of the repeated eigenvalues are distinct. A singular-value decomposition approach is used to compute four requisite bases for eigenspaces, as well as to keep track of the dimensions of state variables and the conditioning of the state equations.

  3. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  4. Practical repeaters for ultralong-distance quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Scott E.; Kok, Pieter

    2017-05-01

    Quantum repeaters enable long-range quantum communication in the presence of attenuation. Here we propose a method to construct a robust quantum repeater network using only existing technology. We combine the ideas of brokered graph-state construction with double-heralded entanglement generation to form a system that is able to perform all parts of the procedure in a way that is highly tolerant to photon loss and imperfections in detectors. We show that when used in quantum key distribution this leads to secure kilohertz bit rates over intercontinental distances.

  5. Comparison of clinical outcome between vitrification with enclosed carrier and automatic program slow freezing%封闭式载杆玻璃化冷冻和程序化冷冻的临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺吉; 陆长富; 唐小成; 张硕屏; 卢光琇; 林戈

    2013-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析封闭式玻璃化冷冻技术与程序化冷冻技术在胚胎冷冻解冻及移植临床效果的差异. 方法 首先比较2010年11~12月采用三种开放式载杆和一种封闭式载杆对卵裂期胚胎进行的玻璃化冷冻.然后对2010年11月至2011年11月采用封闭式载杆行玻璃化冷冻和2009年1月至2010年12月采用程序化冷冻的数据进行对比,比较两组的复苏率、着床率和临床妊娠率等. 结果 三种开放式载杆与封闭式载杆的复苏率及着床率、临床妊娠率无显著性差异(P>0.05).封闭式玻璃化冷冻和程序化冷冻两种冷冻方法比较显示:卵裂期胚胎采用玻璃化冷冻共2,619周期,解冻6,627枚胚胎,复苏6,276枚,复苏率为94.7%(6,276/6,627),1,522枚胚胎着床,着床率为24.3%(1,522/6,276),共1,135周期获得临床妊娠,移植妊娠率为43.3%(1,135/2,619),均显著高于程序冷冻组(P<0.05),后者的复苏率、着床率和移植妊娠率分别为59.9%(7,797/13,016),20.6%(1,603/7,797)和39.3%(1,224/3,117).玻璃化冷冻囊胚共331周期,解冻677枚胚胎,复苏589枚,复苏率为87.0%(589/677),214枚胚胎着床,着床率为36.3%(214/589),168周期获得临床妊娠,移植妊娠率为50.8%(168/331),均显著高于程序冷冻组(P<0.05),后者共114周期,解冻217枚胚胎,140枚复苏,复苏率为64.5%(140/217),着床率为22.1%(31/140),妊娠率23.7%(27/114). 结论 采用封闭式载杆玻璃化冷冻胚胎是一种较程序化冷冻更有效、更安全的胚胎冷冻方法.%Objective:To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome between vitrification of cleavage stage embryos with enclosed carrier and automatic program slow freezing.Methods:The clinical outcomes of three kinds of open carriers and one kind of enclosed carrier for vitrification of cleavage stage embryos from Nov.to Dec.2010 were compared.And then the data of vitrification of embryo with enclosed carrier from Nov.2010 to Nov.2011

  6. Mixture Models for the Analysis of Repeated Count Data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, M.A.J.; Böckenholt, U

    1995-01-01

    Repeated count data showing overdispersion are commonly analysed by using a Poisson model with varying intensity parameter. resulting in a mixed model. A mixed model with a gamma distribution for the Poisson parameter does not adequately fit a data set on 721 children's spelling errors. An

  7. Repeated Prolonged Exercise Decreases Maximal Fat Oxidation in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Thomas; Rosenkilde, Mads; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were...

  8. Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peretz, Chava

    2004-01-01

    Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estima

  9. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  10. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  11. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Computerized Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carsten; Baylor, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a constructivist approach for teaching game theory, on the basis, in part, of Axelrod's research approach. Using the Axelrod tournament multi-user system (ATMUS) software, students create strategies for a repeated prisoner's dilemma (RPD). Later, these strategies are matched with those of their classmates' in a classroom…

  12. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  13. Beyond Repeat after Me: Teaching Pronunciation to English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Marla Tritch

    2016-01-01

    This engaging text clearly presents essential concepts that teachers need to guide their students toward clearly intelligible pronunciation and more effective communication skills. Based on a sound theoretical background, the book presents practical, imaginative ways to teach and practice pronunciation that go beyond simple "Repeat after…

  14. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were

  15. Repeated treatments of drooling with botulinum toxin B in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eigild; Daugaard, Dorthe; Holm, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy, saliva flow, and composition in repeated BoNT-B treatments of drooling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen neurological patients (median 66 years), referred for treatment of drooling participated in this observational study. Median total doses of 4000 units...

  16. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  17. Repeated Reading Intervention Effects in Kindergartners with Partial Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Karly; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The direct, transfer and retention effects of a repeated reading intervention study of single CVC (consonant in the onset and a vowel and consonant in the rime) words in kindergartners with partial letter knowledge were examined. A total of 26 second-year kindergartners participated in this study. Participants were divided over two feedback…

  18. Properties of Forested Loess Soils After Repeated Prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Moehring; C.X. Grano; J.R. Bassett

    1966-01-01

    Nine annual burns have had little effect on the nutrient content and structure of the surface 4 inches of loess soils on flat terrain.Because prescribed burns must often be repeated to obtain desired results, many foresters are apprehensive about the possible deleterious effects on soils. In 1954 the Timber Management Laboratory at Crossett, Arkansas, in co-...

  19. Repeated Instant Self-healing Shape Memory Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. C.; Ding, Z.; Purnawali, H.; Huang, W. M.; Fan, H.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present a shape memory composite which is made of two types of shape memory materials, namely shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory hybrid. This composite has repeated instant self-healing function by means of not only shape recovery but also strength recovery (over 80%). The activation of the self-healing function is triggered by joule heating the embedded SMA.

  20. Statistical analysis of repeated outcomes of different types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musoro, Z.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on analyzing data with multiple outcome variables. The motivating data sets comprised longitudinal markers of patients’ disease state (e.g. B cells and CD4+ T cell) as well as information on the time to an event (e.g. death) or (multiple) recurrent event times (e.g. repeated