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Sample records for corrects mineralization defects

  1. The PHEX transgene corrects mineralization defects in 9-month-old hypophosphatemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele; Frank, Aaron; Fujimoto, Yukiji; Spevak, Lyudmila; Verdelis, Kostas; Ellis, Bruce; Troiano, Nancy; Philbrick, William; Carpenter, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Hypophosphatemia is an X-linked dominant disorder resulting from a mutation in the PHEX gene. While osteoblast-specific expression of the PHEX transgene has been reported to decrease the phosphate wasting associated with the disease in male hypophosphatemic (HYP) mice, there are reports that the mineralization defect is only partially corrected in young animals. To test the hypothesis that osteoblast-specific expression of the PHEX gene for a longer time would correct the mineralization defect, this study examined the bones of 9-month-old male and female HYP mice and their wild-type controls with or without expression of the transgene under a collagen type I promoter. Serum phosphate levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, and FGF23 levels were also measured. Mineral analyses based on wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and FT-IR imaging confirmed the decreased mineral content and increased mineral crystal size in male HYP humerii compared to wild-type males and females with or without the transgene and in female HYP mice with or without the transgene. There was a significant increase in mineral content and a decrease in crystallinity in the HYP males' bones with the transgene, compared to those without. Of interest, expression of the transgene in wild-type animals significantly increased the mineral content in both males and females without having a detectable effect on crystallinity or carbonate content. In contrast to the bones, based on micro-computed tomography and FT-IR imaging, at 9 months there were no significant differences between the HYP and the WT teeth, precluding analysis of the effect of the transgene.

  2. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  3. Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypoplastic left heart repair; Tetralogy of Fallot repair; Coarctation of the aorta repair; Atrial septal defect repair; ... done in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Coarctation of the aorta repair: Coarctation of the aorta ...

  4. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Th., E-mail: thierry.allard@impmc.upmc.fr [IMPMC, UMR CNRS 7590, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, IRD, IPGP, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Balan, E.; Calas, G.; Fourdrin, C.; Morichon, E.; Sorieul, S. [IMPMC, UMR CNRS 7590, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, IRD, IPGP, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2012-04-15

    Extensive information has been collected on radiation effects on clay minerals over the last 35 years, providing a wealth of information on environmental and geological processes. The fields of applications include the reconstruction of past radioelement migrations, the dating of clay minerals or the evolution of the physico-chemical properties under irradiation. The investigation of several clay minerals, namely kaolinite, dickite, montmorillonite, illite and sudoite, by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has shown the presence of defects produced by natural or artificial radiations. These defects consist mostly of electron holes located on oxygen atoms of the structure. The various radiation-induced defects are differentiated through their nature and their thermal stability. Most of them are associated with a {pi} orbital on a Si-O bond. The most abundant defect in clay minerals is oriented perpendicular to the silicate layer. Thermal annealing indicates this defect in kaolinite (A-center) to be stable over geological periods at ambient temperature. Besides, electron or heavy ion irradiation easily leads to an amorphization in smectites, depending on the type of interlayer cation. The amorphization dose exhibits a bell-shaped variation as a function of temperature, with a decreasing part that indicates the influence of thermal dehydroxylation. Two main applications of the knowledge of radiation-induced defects in clay minerals are derived: (i) The use of defects as tracers of past radioactivity. In geological systems where the age of the clay can be constrained, ancient migrations of radioelements can be reconstructed in natural analogues of high level nuclear waste repositories. When the dose rate may be assumed constant over time, the paleodose is used to date clay populations, an approach applied to fault gouges or laterites of the Amazon basin. (ii) The influence of irradiation over physico-chemical properties of clay minerals. An environmental

  5. Reticle defect sizing of optical proximity correction defects using SEM imaging and image analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrick, Larry S.; Wang, Lantian; Konicek, Paul; Laird, Ellen R.

    2000-07-01

    Sizing of programmed defects on optical proximity correction (OPC) feature sis addressed using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and image analysis techniques. A comparison and analysis of different sizing methods is made. This paper addresses the issues of OPC defect definition and discusses the experimental measurement results obtained by SEM in combination with image analysis techniques.

  6. Detector defect correction of medical images on graphics processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membarth, Richard; Hannig, Frank; Teich, Jürgen; Litz, Gerhard; Hornegger, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    The ever increasing complexity and power dissipation of computer architectures in the last decade blazed the trail for more power efficient parallel architectures. Hence, such architectures like field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and particular graphics cards attained great interest and are consequently adopted for parallel execution of many number crunching loop programs from fields like image processing or linear algebra. However, there is little effort to deploy barely computational, but memory intensive applications to graphics hardware. This paper considers a memory intensive detector defect correction pipeline for medical imaging with strict latency requirements. The image pipeline compensates for different effects caused by the detector during exposure of X-ray images and calculates parameters to control the subsequent dosage. So far, dedicated hardware setups with special processors like DSPs were used for such critical processing. We show that this is today feasible with commodity graphics hardware. Using CUDA as programming model, it is demonstrated that the detector defect correction pipeline consisting of more than ten algorithms is significantly accelerated and that a speedup of 20x can be achieved on NVIDIA's Quadro FX 5800 compared to our reference implementation. For deployment in a streaming application with steadily new incoming data, it is shown that the memory transfer overhead of successive images to the graphics card memory is reduced by 83% using double buffering.

  7. Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Marchand, Nicolas; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    In this study we provide a first estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols. Cref is an empirical constant used to correct the aerosol absorption coefficient measurements for the multiple scattering artefact of the Aethalometer; i.e. the filter fibres on which aerosols are deposited scatter light and this is miscounted as absorption. The Cref at 450 and 660 nm was obtained from the direct comparison of Aethalometer data (Magee Sci. AE31) with (i) the absorption coefficient calculated as the difference between the extinction and scattering coefficients measured by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction analyser (CAPS PMex) and a nephelometer respectively at 450 nm and (ii) the absorption coefficient from a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) at 660 nm. Measurements were performed on seven dust aerosol samples generated in the laboratory by the mechanical shaking of natural parent soils issued from different source regions worldwide. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 450 and 660 nm and the size distribution of the aerosols were also measured. Cref for mineral dust varies between 1.81 and 2.56 for a SSA of 0.85-0.96 at 450 nm and between 1.75 and 2.28 for a SSA of 0.98-0.99 at 660 nm. The calculated mean for dust is 2.09 (±0.22) at 450 nm and 1.92 (±0.17) at 660 nm. With this new Cref the dust absorption coefficient by the Aethalometer is about 2 % (450 nm) and 11 % (660 nm) higher than that obtained by using Cref = 2.14 at both 450 and 660 nm, as usually assumed in the literature. This difference induces a change of up to 3 % in the dust SSA at 660 nm. The Cref seems to be independent of the fine and coarse particle size fractions, and so the obtained Cref can be applied to dust both close to sources and following transport. Additional experiments performed with pure kaolinite minerals and polluted ambient aerosols indicate Cref of 2.49 (±0.02) and 2.32 (±0.01) at 450 and 660 nm (SSA = 0.96-0.97) for

  8. Correction of Hemodynamic Disorders in the Complex Surgical Correction of Acquired Cardiac Valvular Defects

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    A. I. Lenkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the efficiency of using the values of transpulmonary (PiCCO and prepulmonary (Swan-Ganz catheter thermodilution as guides to targeted therapy for hemodynamic disorders in the surgical correction of mixed cardiac valvular defects. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 40 patients operated on for acquired cardiac diseases who were randomized to two matched groups. Hemodynamics was monitored by means of a Swan-Ganz catheter in Group 1 and by transpulmonary thermodilution in Group 2. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fentanyl. Infusion therapy was performed using crystalloid and colloid solutions. Continuous intravenous infusion of inotropic agents was used when heart failure was developed. Hemodynamic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were estimated intraoperatively and within 24 hours postoperatively. Results. The groups did not differ in the degree of baseline heart failure, the duration of an operation and myocardial ischemia, and the length of extracorporeal circulation. In the PiCCO group, postoperative infusion volume was 33% higher than that in the Swan-Ganz group, which ensured increases in stroke volume and oxygen delivery in the early postoperative period (p<0.05. Respiratory support was 26% shorter in the PiCCO group (p<0.04. Conclusion. After surgical interventions for mixed cardiac defects, the targeted therapy algorithm based on transpulmonary thermodilution provided more steady-state values of hemodynamics and oxygen transport, which was followed by the increased scope of infusion therapy and the shorter length of postoperative mechanical ventilation than that based on hemodynamics being corrected from the values of prepul-monary thermodilution. Key words: transpulmonary thermodilution, targeted therapy, prepulmonary ther-modilution, acquired heart disease.

  9. Surface code error correction on a defective lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Shota; Fowler, Austin G.; Horsman, Dominic; Devitt, Simon J.; Van Meter, Rodney

    2017-02-01

    The yield of physical qubits fabricated in the laboratory is much lower than that of classical transistors in production semiconductor fabrication. Actual implementations of quantum computers will be susceptible to loss in the form of physically faulty qubits. Though these physical faults must negatively affect the computation, we can deal with them by adapting error-correction schemes. In this paper we have simulated statically placed single-fault lattices and lattices with randomly placed faults at functional qubit yields of 80%, 90%, and 95%, showing practical performance of a defective surface code by employing actual circuit constructions and realistic errors on every gate, including identity gates. We extend Stace et al's superplaquettes solution against dynamic losses for the surface code to handle static losses such as physically faulty qubits [1]. The single-fault analysis shows that a static loss at the periphery of the lattice has less negative effect than a static loss at the center. The randomly faulty analysis shows that 95% yield is good enough to build a large-scale quantum computer. The local gate error rate threshold is ∼ 0.3 % , and a code distance of seven suppresses the residual error rate below the original error rate at p=0.1 % . 90% yield is also good enough when we discard badly fabricated quantum computation chips, while 80% yield does not show enough error suppression even when discarding 90% of the chips. We evaluated several metrics for predicting chip performance, and found that the average of the product of the number of data qubits and the cycle time of a stabilizer measurement of stabilizers gave the strongest correlation with logical error rates. Our analysis will help with selecting usable quantum computation chips from among the pool of all fabricated chips.

  10. Alterações histológicas e de conteúdo mineral na área de correção de fenda alveolar por distração osteogênica: in vivo = Mineral contents and histological changes of the wound healing in the bone defect area corrected with distraction osteogenesis: in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli, Fernando Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo piloto foi de avaliar as alterações de características histológicas e no conteúdo mineral na área de regeneração entre superfícies ósseas aproximadas por distração osteogênica. Foi criado cirurgicamente defeito alveolar, com 4 mm de largura, 6 mm em comprimento e 10 mm em profundidade, em três suínos jovens Sus scropha. Os distratores foram fixados no palato com a finalidade de transportar o segmento ósseo, delimitado por corticotomia, no sentido do fechamento do defeito criado. A área do defeito foi recoberta subperiostamente com membrana absorvível de colágeno e a ativação do parafuso foi iniciada com 1 mm/dia. Os animais testados foram sacrificados no 27º e 48º de cicatrização e o animal controle, que não passou por procedimento cirúrgico algum, foi sacrificado aos três meses de idade. Análise histológica e de energia dispersiva por raios-X (EDXA revelaram diferenças das características do reparo em relação ao crescimento, observando-se a formação de pontes ósseas entre as superfícies ósseas e deposição gradativa de elementos minerais até os 48 dias de reparo. Ainda, menor densidade mineral foi observada na área de reparo

  11. Efficient defect pixel cluster detection and correction for Bayer CFA image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Touraj

    2011-01-01

    Image sensor arrays may have defect pixels, either originating from manufacturing or being developed over the lifetime of the image sensor array. Continuous defect pixel detection and correction performing during camera runtime is desirable. On-the-fly detection and correction is challenging since edges and high-frequency image content might get identified as defect pixel regions and intact pixels become corrupted during defect pixel replacement. We propose a table-based detection and correction method which by and by fills the non-volatile table during normal camera operation. In this work we model defect pixels and pixel clusters to be stuck to fixed values or at least fixed to a narrow value range whereas the local neighborhood of these pixels indicate a normal behavior. The idea is to temporally observe the value ranges of small group of pixels (e.g. 4x4 pixel blocks) and to decide about their defective condition depending on their variability with respect to their neighbor pixels. Our method is computationally efficient, requires no frame buffer, requires modest memory, and therefore is appropriate to operate in line-buffer based image signal processing (ISP) systems. Our results indicate high reliability in terms of detection rates and robustness against high-frequency image content. As part of the defect pixel replacement system we also propose a simple and efficient defect pixel correction method based on the mean of medians operating on the Bayer CFA image domain.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, possibilities for the correction of bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Mikhailovna Balabanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the causes of osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, including in autoimmune inflammation, during corticosteroid therapy. The role of bisphosphonates in correcting impaired bone mineral density in RA is shown.

  13. 38 CFR 36.4369 - Correction of structural defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the original veteran-borrower but who contracted to assume such borrower's personal obligation... borrower shall not be entitled, as a matter of right, to receive the assistance in the correction of...'s determination of reasonable value. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3703(c)(1), 3727) ...

  14. Morphological Analysis of White Cement Clinker Minerals: Discussion on the Crystallization-Related Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmohamed, Mohamed; Alouani, Rabah; Jmayai, Amel; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Ben Rhaiem, Hafsia

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with a formation of artificial rock (clinker). Temperature plays the capital role in the manufacturing process. So, it is useful to analyze a poor clinker to identify the different phases and defects associated with their crystallization. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the clinker's chemical composition. The amounts of the mineralogical phases are measured by quantitative XRD analysis (Rietveld). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the main phases of white Portland cement clinker and the defects associated with the formation of clinker mineral elements. The results of a study which focused on the identification of white clinker minerals and defects detected in these noncomplying clinkers such as fluctuation of the amount of the main phases (alite (C3S) and belite (C2S)), excess of the free lime, occurrence of C3S polymorphs, and occurrence of moderately-crystallized structures are presented in this paper.

  15. Morphological Analysis of White Cement Clinker Minerals: Discussion on the Crystallization-Related Defects

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    Mohamed Benmohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a formation of artificial rock (clinker. Temperature plays the capital role in the manufacturing process. So, it is useful to analyze a poor clinker to identify the different phases and defects associated with their crystallization. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the clinker’s chemical composition. The amounts of the mineralogical phases are measured by quantitative XRD analysis (Rietveld. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to characterize the main phases of white Portland cement clinker and the defects associated with the formation of clinker mineral elements. The results of a study which focused on the identification of white clinker minerals and defects detected in these noncomplying clinkers such as fluctuation of the amount of the main phases (alite (C3S and belite (C2S, excess of the free lime, occurrence of C3S polymorphs, and occurrence of moderately-crystallized structures are presented in this paper.

  16. Analysis and correction of defects within parts fabricated using powder bed fusion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Morton, Philip A.; Hinojos, Alejandro; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Quality assurance is an important topic for additive manufacturing (AM) and often seen as a requirement for the transition and adoption of the technology toward fabrication of end use applications. As AM technologies are used for production, it is necessary to ensure high quality, repeatable, and reproducible components are manufactured. Various nondestructive examination techniques have been used to evaluate AM-fabricated parts to determine part quality post-fabrication (e.g. scanning and/or microstructural characterization). In situ monitoring methods have been developed for AM technologies to enable defect detection and have potential to be used for in situ monitoring and correction of fabrication anomalies (e.g. undesired temperature gradients and porosity). In this research, defects (e.g. pores) were seeded into parts fabricated using the powder bed fusion AM process, electron beam melting, and monitored using in situ infrared (IR) thermography. Results from layerwise thermography were compared with results obtained using computer tomography (CT) scanning techniques. Although the measured geometry of the seeded defects between IR thermography and CT was substantially different (area difference of ∼60%), the thermographs did provide a good indication of defects present within a fabricated part. Furthermore, defect correction methods were evaluated including post-processing methods such as hot isostatic pressing as well as in situ correction methods such as layer re-melting. Re-melting a porous layer successfully corrected defects and demonstrates a potential method for in situ defect correction if implemented in future systems equipped with automatic feedback control of powder bed fusion processes.

  17. Mineralization defect but no effect on hypercalcemia during clodronate treatment in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, T; Sodemann, B; Nielsen, C; Melsen, F; Kornerup, H J

    1995-09-01

    In four patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment with clodronate caused no decrease in serum calcium. In one of the patients treatment for seven months was associated with a severe mineralization defect which was not caused by aluminium. This lesion was reversible upon termination of clodronate treatment. In a single patient without hyperparathyroidism, a precipitous decrease in serum calcium was observed due to clodronate. However, long-term treatment with clodronate did not ameliorate ectopic calcification in this patient. It is concluded that in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, clodronate does not always decrease serum calcium. Our experience suggest that clodronate like other bisphosphonates may inhibit bone mineralization.

  18. Evaluation of atmospheric corrections on hyperspectral data with special reference to mineral mapping

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    Nisha Rani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral images have wide applications in the fields of geology, mineral exploration, agriculture, forestry and environmental studies etc. due to their narrow band width with numerous channels. However, these images commonly suffer from atmospheric effects, thereby limiting their use. In such a situation, atmospheric correction becomes a necessary pre-requisite for any further processing and accurate interpretation of spectra of different surface materials/objects. In the present study, two very advance atmospheric approaches i.e. QUAC and FLAASH have been applied on the hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. The spectra of vegetation, man-made structure and different minerals from the Gadag area of Karnataka, were extracted from the raw image and also from the QUAC and FLAASH corrected images. These spectra were compared among themselves and also with the existing USGS and JHU spectral library. FLAASH is rigorous atmospheric algorithm and requires various parameters to perform but it has capability to compensate the effects of atmospheric absorption. These absorption curves in any spectra play an important role in identification of the compositions. Therefore, the presence of unwanted absorption features can lead to wrong interpretation and identification of mineral composition. FLAASH also has an advantage of spectral polishing which provides smooth spectral curves which helps in accurate identification of composition of minerals. Therefore, this study recommends that FLAASH is better than QUAC for atmospheric correction and correct interpretation and identification of composition of any object or minerals.

  19. Correction of xeroderma pigmentosum repair defect by basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); W. Vermeulen (Wim); L. Ma (Libin); G. Weeda (Geert); E. Appeldoorn (Esther); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); A.J. van der Eb; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); S. Humbert; L. Schaeffer; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractERCC3 was initially identified as a gene correcting the nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group B (XP-B). The recent finding that its gene product is identical to the p89 subunit of basal transcription factor BTF2(TFIIH), opened the possibil

  20. METHODS FOR CORRECTION OF RHINOPHONIA IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED MAXILLARY DEFECTS

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    E. G. Matyakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech recovery sessions were conducted in 63 patients with acquired maxillary defects. Assessment of speech quality in patients after auditory maxillary resection without a prosthestic has indicated 100 % significant rhinolalia, indistinct articulation. Prosthetic defect replacement completely corrects speech dysfunction and creates conditions for forming correct speech stereotypes. Speech therapy sessions and testing are aimed at increasing the performance of the speech apparatus and at improving the automatizaton of speaking skills. The techniques to remove nasal emission include: – articulation exercises (activation of the muscles of the lips, cheeks, tongue, pharynx, neck, and larynx; – speech respiratory gymnastics; – phonopedic (vocal exercises. The elements of rational psychotherapy have extensive applications during each session and include suggestion, an emotional exposure to correct personality disorders, as well as pedagogical elements. 

  1. Repair of dentin defects from DSPP knockout mice by PILP mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurrohman, H.; Saeki, K.; Carneiro, K.; Chien, Y.C.; Djomehri, S.; Ho, S.P.; Qin, C.; Marshall, S.J.; Gower, L.B.; Marshall, G.W.; Habelitz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) lacks intrafibrillar mineral with severe compromise of dentin mechanical properties. A Dspp knockout (Dspp−/−) mouse, with a phenotype similar to that of human DGI-II, was used to determine if poly-L-aspartic acid [poly(ASP)] in the “polymer-induced liquid-precursor” (PILP) system can restore its mechanical properties. Dentin from six-week old Dspp−/− and wild-type mice was treated with CaP solution containing poly(ASP) for up to 14 days. Elastic modulus and hardness before and after treatment were correlated with mineralization from Micro x-ray computed tomography (Micro-XCT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to compare matrix mineralization and crystallography. Mechanical properties of the Dspp−/− dentin were significantly less than wild-type dentin and recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after PILP-treatment, reaching values comparable to wild-type dentin. Micro-XCT showed mineral recovery similar to wild-type dentin after PILP-treatment. TEM/SAED showed repair of patchy mineralization and complete mineralization of defective dentin. This approach may lead to new strategies for hard tissue repair. PMID:27239097

  2. Defective Mineralization in X-Linked Hypophosphatemia Dental Pulp Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyac, B R; Hoac, B; Chafey, P; Falgayrac, G; Slimani, L; Rowe, P S; Penel, G; Linglart, A; McKee, M D; Chaussain, C; Bardet, C

    2017-09-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disease caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene. Mutated or absent PHEX protein/enzyme leads to a decreased serum phosphate level, which cause mineralization defects in the skeleton and teeth (osteomalacia/odontomalacia). It is not yet altogether clear whether these manifestations are caused solely by insufficient circulating phosphate availability for mineralization or also by a direct, local intrinsic effect caused by impaired PHEX activity. Here, we evaluated the local role of PHEX in a 3-dimensional model of extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. Dense collagen hydrogels were seeded either with human dental pulp cells from patients with characterized PHEX mutations or with sex- and age-matched healthy controls and cultured up to 24 d using osteogenic medium with standard phosphate concentration. Calcium quantification, micro-computed tomography, and histology with von Kossa staining for mineral showed significantly lower mineralization in XLH cell-seeded scaffolds, using nonparametric statistical tests. While apatitic mineralization was observed along collagen fibrils by electron microscopy in both groups, Raman microspectrometry indicated that XLH cells harboring the PHEX mutation produced less mineralized scaffolds having impaired mineral quality with less carbonate substitution and lower crystallinity. In the XLH cultures, immunoblotting revealed more abundant osteopontin (OPN), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) than controls, as well as the presence of fragments of these proteins not found in controls, suggesting a role for PHEX in SIBLING protein degradation. Immunohistochemistry revealed altered OPN and DMP1 associated with an increased alkaline phosphatase staining in the XLH cultures. These results are consistent with impaired PHEX activity having local ECM effects in XLH. Future treatments for XLH should target both systemic and local

  3. Error Detection And Correction Systems For Optical Disk: Issues Of Media Defect Distribution, Defect Growth, Error Management, And Disk Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, William R.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the principal systems of Error Detection and Correction (EDAC) which have been recently proposed as U.S. standards for optical disks and discuss the the two principal methodologies employed: Reed-Solomon Codes and Product Codes, and describe the variations in their operating characteristics and their overhead in disk space. We then present current knowledge of the nature of defect distributions on optical media including bit error rates, the incidence and extents of clustered errors and burst errors, and the controversial aspects of correlation between these forms of error. We show that if such forms are correlated then stronger EDAC systems are needed than if they are not. We discuss the nature of defect growth over time and its likely causes, and present the differing views on the growth of burst errors including nucleation and incubation effects which are not detectable in new media. We exhibit a mathematical model of a currently proposed end-of-life defect distribution for write once media and discuss its implications in EDAC selection. We show that standardization of an EDAC system unifies the data recording process and is permissive to data interchange, but that enhancements in EDAC computation during reading can achieve higher than normal EDAC performance, though sometimes at the expense of decoding time. Finally we examine vendor estimates of disk longevity and possible means of life extension where archival recording is desired.

  4. Electron and chemical reservoir corrections for point-defect formation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freysoldt, Christoph; Lange, Björn; Neugebauer, Jörg; Yan, Qimin; Lyons, John L.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2016-04-01

    Point-defect formation energies calculated within the framework of density functional theory often depend on the choice of the exchange and correlation (xc) functional. We show that variations between the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and hybrid functionals mainly arise from differences in the position of the bulk valence-band maximum, as well as in the reference energies for the chemical potential obtained with distinct xc functionals. We demonstrate for point defects relevant for p -type GaN that these differences can be accounted for by corrections, reducing the maximum disagreement between the different functionals from more than 2 eV to below 0.2 eV. Our correction scheme should be useful for performing high-throughput calculations in cases where full hybrid functional calculations are prohibitively expensive.

  5. Partial correction of defective Cl(-) secretion in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells by an analog of squalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C; Lee, E R; Lane, M B; Xiao, Y F; Harris, D J; Cheng, S H

    2001-11-01

    Defective cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) transport across the apical membrane of airway epithelial cells is implicated in the pathophysiology of CF lungs. A strategy to compensate for this loss is to augment Cl(-) transport through alternative pathways. We report here that partial correction of this defect could be attained through the incorporation of artificial anion channels into the CF cells. Introduction of GL-172, a synthetic analog of squalamine, into CFT1 cells increased cell membrane halide permeability. Furthermore, when a Cl(-) gradient was generated across polarized monolayers of primary human airway or Fischer rat thyroid cells in an Ussing chamber, addition of GL-172 caused an increase in the equivalent short-circuit current. The magnitude of this change in short-circuit current was ~30% of that attained when CFTR was maximally stimulated with cAMP agonists. Patch-clamp studies showed that addition of GL-172 to CFT1 cells also increased whole cell Cl(-) currents. These currents displayed a linear current-voltage relationship and no time dependence. Additionally, administration of GL-172 to the nasal epithelium of transgenic CF mice induced a hyperpolarization response to perfusion with a low-Cl(-) solution, indicating restoration of Cl(-) secretion. Together, these results demonstrate that in CF airway epithelial cells, administration of GL-172 is capable of partially correcting the defective Cl(-) secretion.

  6. Retreatment and surgical repair of the apical third perforation and osseous defect using mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Savitha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of non-healing periapical pathosis in endodontically treated tooth is root perforation. This can occur pathologically by resorption and caries, iatrogenically during endodontic therapy (zip, strip, furcal perforations. Root perforation results in bacterial contamination, periradicular tissue injury, inflammation, and bone resorption. The purpose of this case report is to describe endodontic retreatment and surgical management of a longstanding periapical lesion on maxillary lateral incisor, associated with perforation and osseous defects using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Although the majority of bone support and root dentin was damaged, an attempt was made to repair the defect and restore the tooth. After the surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the perforation was subsequently sealed with MTA. Later, the root was reinforced with composites and the tooth was restored with direct veneer. Conclusion: Four-and-a-half year (54 months recall examination showed no evidence of periodontal breakdown, no symptoms of further deterioration, and complete healing of periradicular lesions when examined by radiography. This case report presents a treatment strategy that could improve the healing process and beneficial outcomes for patients with perforation and osseous defect.

  7. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with Noonan syndrome after corrective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangovski Ljupčo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD closure is considered to be a gold standard for patients with the suitable anatomy as compared to cardiac surgery. Reocurrence of ASD after surgical closure is a very rare late complication which can be successfully managed with transcatheter procedure. Case report. We reported a female patient with Noonan syndrome who presented with hemodinamically significant ASD 37 years after the corrective cardiac surgery. Due to numerous comorbidities which included severe kyphoscoliosis, pectus excavatum and multiple surgeries we decided to perform transcatheter closure of ASD. The procedure itself was very challenging due to the patient’s short stature and heart’s orientation in the chest, but was performed successfully. The subsequent follow-up was uneventful and the patient reported improvement in the symptoms. Conclusion. Transcatheter closure of ASD in a patient with Noonan syndrome with the history of surgically corrected ASD can be performed successfully, despite challenging chest anatomy.

  8. On anharmonic and pressure corrections to the equilibrium isotopic constants for minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Veniamin B.

    1998-09-01

    Specifies of the calculations of the reduced isotopic partition function ratios (β-factor) of minerals are discussed. Comparative calculations in the framework of the fully harmonic, quasi-harmonic, and intrinsic anharmonic approximations show minor anharmonic corrections to the harmonic values of the β-factor. In the case of calcite, the difference between the fully harmonic and intrinsic anharmonic values of 10 3lnβ varies from 0.60 at 300 K to 0.37 at 1200 K and is close to typical values of the anharmonic correction in gas molecules. A new treatment for calculating isotopic effects in molar volumes of minerals and pressure effects on their β-factors is developed on the basis of the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. There is no significant difference between the quasi-harmonic and intrinsic harmonic values of (∂lnβ/∂ P) T. For calcite, the pressure derivative of the β-factor is positive, decreases monotonically with temperature, and becomes small at T ˜ 1000 K (10 3(∂lnβ/ ∂P) T ≈ 0.1-0.15 GPa -1). These results contradict the large anharmonic and pressure effects to the β-factor of calcite calculated by Gillet et al. (1996) as well as their conclusion that the pressure correction to the β-factor of calcite is negative at higher temperatures and increases in its absolute value with increasing temperature.

  9. Analysis of efficient preconditioned defect correction methods for nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    prediction of free-surface wave transformation and accurate wave kinematics in both deep and shallow waters in large marine areas or for predicting the outcome of experiments in large numerical wave tanks. We revisit the classical governing equations are fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow......Robust computational procedures for the solution of non-hydrostatic, free surface, irrotational and inviscid free-surface water waves in three space dimensions can be based on iterative preconditioned defect correction (PDC) methods. Such methods can be made efficient and scalable to enable...... models. Our study is particularly relevant for fast and efficient simulation of non-breaking fully nonlinear water waves over varying bottom topography that may be limited by computational resources or requirements. To gain insight into algorithmic properties and proper choices of discretization...

  10. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Lin, Sheng-Ting; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J; Hartman Iv, John L; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2016-05-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  11. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Veit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cystic fibrosis (CF causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del, results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR at the apical plasma membrane (PM of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670 in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  12. PATIENTS’ PSYCHOSOMATIC STATUS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOPEDIC CORRECTION OF MAXILLOFACIAL DEFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A medicopsychological study of the time course of psychic changes was conducted in 88 cancer patients with defects of facial soft tissues (n = 38 and maxilla (n = 50. Since the patients’ visit to an oncologist, the diagnostic-stage depth of mental disorders was rather various: from mild asthenia to depression. Thus, 88 (100 % patients were found to have an anxious feeling, 16 (18.2 % had affective-shock reactions; 7 (7.9 % had reactive depression. In the postoperative period, anxiety-depressive syndrome gave way to astheno-depressive one. After hospital discharge, the reactive state became less tense during psychosocial readaptation, the characteriological personality changes were increasingly more pronounced in the forefront in the patients. They became anxious, suspicious, unconfident about themselves, sensitive, tried to avoid difficult situations in life. The circle of interests was limited to thoughts on their own health. Combination therapy with psychotropic drugs was used to correct the mental status of patients with acquired maxillary defects in the study group. The dosage of the drugs was individually adjusted according to the degree of psychopathological manifestations. 

  13. Guided periodontal regeneration using bilayered collagen membranes and bovine bone mineral in fenestration defects in the canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Haim; Artzi, Zvi; Moses, Ofer; Nemcovsky, Carlos; Kozlovsky, Avital

    2005-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of deproteinized bovine porous bone mineral (BBM) and BBM-collagen (BBMC) used alone or in combination with a bilayer collagen membrane in guided periodontal regeneration. In 12 dogs, contralateral surgical circular fenestration defects 5 mm in diameter were produced at the midbuccal aspect of the alveolar bone in 24 maxillary canines. Bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum were completely removed. Experimental sites were filled with BBM or BBMC. Bilayered collagen membranes covered half the experimental sites (BBM+M and BBMC+M), and the other half were left uncovered. Control sites remained empty; half were covered with collagen membranes (cont+M) and the underlying space spontaneously filled with blood, and half were left uncovered (cont). Three months postsurgery, undecalcified sections were prepared. Measurements were made using a caliper on a projection microscope, and the surface area of new bone and BBM particles within the healed surgical defect was evaluated using the point-counting method. In the experimental defects, new cementum covered 31% to 67% of the exposed dentin, with a significant difference between defects covered with membranes and defects that were not covered (P tissue in the covered defects than in the uncovered defects (P tissue/bone marrow, and bovine bone particles. New bone area fraction was 23.4% to 25.2% in defects filled with BBMC and BBM, respectively (P = NS). Bone fraction area in membrane-covered defects ranged from 34.4% to 36.8% in experimental defects (P = NS). All membrane-treated defects showed higher values for bone area fraction in comparison to the uncovered control defects. Particle area fraction ranged between 17.4% and 26.2%, with only BBMC and BBM+M defects showing a statistically significant difference (P regeneration than experimental defects filled with BBM or BBMC. Treatment of defects with BBM or BBMC showed similar influences on bone and cementum regeneration in

  14. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  15. 矿物晶体的缺陷%Crystallographic Defect in Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丰; 李雄耀; 王世杰

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline solids have very regular atomic structures. However, most crystalline materials are not per-"fect, the regular pattern of atomic arrangement may be interrupted by crystal defects. The various types of defects are list here:point defects(vacancies; interstitial atoms, substitutional atoms, antisite defects, topological defects, Schottky defects, Frenkel defects), Line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, anti-phase boundaries, stacking faults) , bulk defectsCvoids, precipitates).%晶体具有极其规则的原子结构.然而,大多数晶体物质不是完整的,原子排列的规则图像被晶体缺陷所破坏.本文列举不同类型的缺陷:点缺陷(空位、间隙离子、置换离子、反位缺陷、拓扑缺陷、Schottky缺陷和Frenkel缺陷)、线缺陷(位错)、面缺陷(颗粒边界、小角晶界、反相畴和堆垛层错)和体缺陷(空洞和析出物).

  16. A clinical case of single-stage correction of penetration combined orofacial defect with two microsurgical autografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After surgical treatment for locally advanced oral tumors with resection of soft tissues, mucosal membrane, and facial skeletal structures, there are penetration combined defects, removal of which is a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Mandibular repair is one of the problems in the correction of combined oral defects. Surgeons use different grafts to remove mandibular defects. One-flap transplantation does not always solve all reconstruction problems and ensure the repair of the mucosal membrane, a soft-tissue component, skin integuments, and facial skeleton.The authors describe a clinical case of successful single-stage correction of penetration combined orofacial defect after resection of the tongue, mouth floor, en bloc resection of the lower jaw and mental soft tissues, bilateral cervical supramyochoroidal lymphadenectomy, stage LCL CM mandibular defect formation after J. Boyd, by using two microsurgical autografts (a peroneal skin-muscle-skin autograft and a radial skin-fascia one in a 39-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with carcinoma of the left mandibular alveolar ridge mucosa, Stage IVA (T4аN0M0.The Department of Microsurgery, P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Ministry of Health of Russia, has gained experience in comprehensively correcting extensive combined maxillofacial defects with two or more grafts in 27 patients who underwent autografting with a total of 73 flaps. The most functionally incapacitating and life-incompatible defect was removed at Stage 1 of reconstructive treatment. Delayed reconstruction was made after a complex of specialized antitumor therapy and assessment of treatment results in the absence of progressive growth. A great problem during multi-stage defect correction is presented by the lack of recipient vessels after cervical lymphadenectomy, the presence of soft tissue scar changes, trismus, temporomandibular joint ankylosis, contractures and displacement of the edges of the

  17. Closure of the zone of apposition at correction of complete atrioventricular septal defect improves outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, J; Sinzobahamvya, N; Blaschczok, C; Brecher, A M; Grävinghoff, L M; Schmaltz, A A; Urban, A E

    2000-02-01

    Outcome after correction of atrioventricular septal defect depends to a great deal on the postoperative function of the left atrioventricular valve. The related role of the zone of apposition ('cleft') has been debated: should it be closed (bileaflet repair) or should it be left untouched (trileaflet repair)? This study aims to answer the question by comparing the outcome of patients treated according to these two approaches. We reviewed all our patients who underwent repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect from 1984 to 1997 and selected those in whom the closure of the zone of apposition in principle would have been possible. Two groups with similar characteristics were constituted: group I (n=63), where the zone of apposition was deliberately not closed as part of a trileaflet repair (postoperative open zone of apposition) and group II (n=96), where it was electively closed as part of a bileaflet AV valve repair (closed zone of apposition). Since we changed from a trileaflet to a bileaflet repair in 1987, the two groups differ in terms of size and length of follow-up. Outcome was compared with regard to survival and freedom from reoperation for left atrioventricular valve incompetence. Late atrioventricular valve function was evaluated by Echo-Doppler. For statistical analysis, we used Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney test and the log-rank test for comparison of Kaplan-Meier curves. The difference was considered statistically significant with a P-value of 0.05 or less. Early mortality was 9.5% (6/63) in group I and 3.1% (3/96) in group II (P=0.16). Actuarial survival after 1, 4 and 8 years was 80.4, 68.4 and 64.8%, respectively, for group I. Actuarial survival for group II was 94.7, 92.1 and 92.1% (P=0.0002). Freedom from reoperation for left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was 90.2, 85.6 and 77.8% for group I at the same time interval. It was a constant 97.9% for group II (P=0.0016). At reoperation, left atrioventricular valve

  18. Rhomboid cutaneous flap for defect correction after resection of trichoblastoma on dogs' face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Bartolomeu de Araújo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Surgical excision of neoplasms usually requires a large incision with safety margin, resulting in large cutaneous defects. Skin flaps permit closure of extensive cutaneous defects that would not be closed directly. The rhomboid cutaneous flap can be used in places of the body where a rhomboid defect with internal angles of 60 and 120 degrees can be made. The aim of this paper is to report the her use for reconstruction of the defect created after resection of a tumor on dogs' face . Total removal of the tumor and a safety margin was performed, and then the surgical defect was reconstructed with a rhomboid cutaneous flap. The final result was satisfactory, with an esthetically and functional acceptable scar, a without deformities to the oral commissure or eye. The cutaneous flap was considered a viable alternative for reconstruction of large surgical defects, of relatively simple execution and good functional and cosmetic results.

  19. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  20. Progression of colorectal cancer is associated with multiple tumor suppressor gene defects but inhibition of tumorigenicity is accomplished by correction of any single defect via chromosome transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyette, M.C.; Fasching, C.L.; Stanbridge, E.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Cho, K.; Levy, D.B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. (John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine and Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Paraskeva, C. (Univ. of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol (United Kingdom))

    1992-03-01

    Colorectal cancer has been associated with the activation of ras oncogenes and with the deletion of multiple chromosomal regions including chromosomes 5q, 17p, and 18q. The candidate tumor suppressor genes from these regions are, respectively, MCC and/or APC, p53, and DCC. In order to further understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in tumor progression and, thereby, of normal cell growth, it is important to determine whether defects in one or more of these loci contribute functionally in the progression to malignancy in colorectal cancer and whether correction of any of these defects restores normal growth control in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, the authors have utilized the technique of microcell-mediated chromosome transfer to introduce normal human chromosomes 5, 17, and 18 individually into recipient colorectal cancer cells. Additionally, chromosome 15 was introduced into SW480 cells as an irrelevant control chromosome. While the introduction of chromosome 17 into the tumorigenic colorectal cell line SW480 yielded no viable clones, cell lines were established after the introduction of chromosomes 15, 5, and 18. SW480-chromosome 5 hybrids are strongly suppressed for tumorigenicity, while SW480-chromosome 18 hybrids produce slowly growing tumors in some of the animals injected. Hybrids containing the introduced chromosome 5 express the APC gene present on that chromosome as well as the endogenous mutant transcript. Expression of the putative tumor suppressor gene, DCC, was seen in the clones containing the introduced chromosome 18 but was significantly reduced in several of the tumor reconstitute cell lines. Our findings indicate that while multiple defects in tumor suppressor genes seem to be required for progression to the malignant state in colorectal cancer, correction of only a single defect can have significant effects in vivo and/or in vitro.

  1. Effect of GBR in Combination with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on the Healing of Calvarial Defects in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshkhoonejad AA.; Miremadi, A.; Rokn AR.; B. Eslami; Dehghan, M.; H. Kalbassi

    2006-01-01

    Statement of problem: The guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique does not always produce consistent results. Bone filling within the space provided by the membrane can be incomplete.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) in combination with or without deproteinezed bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) on the healing of calvarial defects in rabbits.Materials and Methods: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were used in this randomized single-blind e...

  2. Guided bone regeneration produced by new mineralized and reticulated collagen membranes in critical-sized rat calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Denusa M; Leitão, Renata F C; Figueiró, Sônia D; Góes, Júlio C; Lima, Vilma; Silveira, Charles O; Brito, Gerly A C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regenerative effect of glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking on mineralized polyanionic collagen membranes in critical-sized defects on rat calvarias. Bone calvarial defects were induced in Wistar rats, which were then divided into five groups: a sham group; a control group, which received a commercial membrane; and GA, 25GA, and 75GA groups, which received one of three different polyanionic collagen membranes mineralized by 0, 25, or 75 hydroxyapatite cycles and then cross-linked by GA. Bone formation was evaluated based on digital radiography and computerized tomography. Histological analyses were performed 4 and 12 weeks after the surgical procedure to observe bone formation, membrane resorption, and fibrous tissue surrounding the membranes. Measurement of myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 1beta production was performed 24 h after surgery. The percentage of new bone formation in the GA, 25GA, and 75GA groups was higher compared with the control and sham groups. In the GA and 25 GA groups, the membranes were still in place and were contained in a thick fibrous capsule after 12 weeks. No significant difference was found among the groups regarding myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin 1beta levels, although the GA, 25GA, and 75GA groups presented decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha compared with the control group. These new GA cross-linked membranes accelerated bone healing of the calvarium defects and did not induce inflammation. In addition, unlike the control membrane, the experimental membranes were not absorbed during the analyzed period, so they may offer advantages in large bone defects where prolonged membrane barrier functions are desirable.

  3. Gene Correction of iPSCs from a Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Patient Normalizes the Lymphoid Developmental and Functional Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. Laskowski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the WAS protein (WASp. Here, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were derived from a WAS patient (WAS-iPSC and the endogenous chromosomal WAS locus was targeted with a wtWAS-2A-eGFP transgene using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs to generate corrected WAS-iPSC (cWAS-iPSC. WASp and GFP were first expressed in the earliest CD34+CD43+CD45− hematopoietic precursor cells and later in all hematopoietic lineages examined. Whereas differentiation to non-lymphoid lineages was readily obtained from WAS-iPSCs, in vitro T lymphopoiesis from WAS-iPSC was deficient with few CD4+CD8+ double-positive and mature CD3+ T cells obtained. T cell differentiation was restored for cWAS-iPSCs. Similarly, defects in natural killer cell differentiation and function were restored on targeted correction of the WAS locus. These results demonstrate that the defects exhibited by WAS-iPSC-derived lymphoid cells were fully corrected and suggests the potential therapeutic use of gene-corrected WAS-iPSCs.

  4. Mechanisms by Which Interleukin-12 Corrects Defective NK Cell Anticryptococcal Activity in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Kyei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12 restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown. By examining the sequential steps in NK cell killing of Cryptococcus, we found that NK cells from HIV-infected patients had defective binding of NK cells to C. neoformans. Moreover, those NK cells that bound to C. neoformans failed to polarize perforin-containing granules to the microbial synapse compared to healthy controls, suggesting that binding was insufficient to restore a defect in perforin polarization. We also identified lower expression of intracellular perforin and defective perforin release from NK cells of HIV-infected patients in response to C. neoformans. Importantly, treatment of NK cells from HIV-infected patients with IL-12 reversed the multiple defects in binding, granule polarization, perforin content, and perforin release and restored anticryptococcal activity. Thus, there are multiple defects in the cytolytic machinery of NK cells from HIV-infected patients, which cumulatively result in defective NK cell anticryptococcal activity, and each of these defects can be reversed with IL-12.

  5. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-01

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all

  6. Partial correction of a severe molecular defect in hemophilia A, because of errors during expression of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Inaba, Hiroshi [Tokyo Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Although the molecular defect in patients in a Japanese family with mild to moderately severe hemophilia A was a deletion of a single nucleotide T within an A{sub 8}TA{sub 2} sequence of exon 14 of the factor VIII gene, the severity of the clinical phenotype did not correspond to that expected of a frameshift mutation. A small amount of functional factor VIII protein was detected in the patient`s plasma. Analysis of DNA and RNA molecules from normal and affected individuals and in vitro transcription/translation suggested a partial correction of the molecular defect, because of the following: (i) DNA replication/RNA transcription errors resulting in restoration of the reading frame and/or (ii) {open_quotes}ribosomal frameshifting{close_quotes} resulting in the production of normal factor VIII polypeptide and, thus, in a milder than expected hemophilia A. All of these mechanisms probably were promoted by the longer run of adenines, A{sub 10} instead of A{sub 8}TA{sub 2}, after the delT. Errors in the complex steps of gene expression therefore may partially correct a severe frameshift defect and ameliorate an expected severe phenotype. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  7. The Inguinal Adipodermal Graft: a Single-Stage Technique for Cranial Linear Grove-like Defects Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlajcic, Zlatko; Zic, Rado

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In reconstruction of post-traumatic craniofacial defects Palacos R-40 is mostly used by neurosurgeons and by maxillofacial surgeons after tumor removal with consequently noticeable irregularities on the shape of the cranial region and face. We harvested customized adipodermal (AD) graft in low inguinal region and use it as an inlay autologous graft for surface irregularities correction with a 100% survival and without noticeable reduction of the graft volume. Material and Methods: Between 2009 and 2015, an adipodermal gaft was used in 5 cases of craniofacial post-traumatic defects, 3 of which were due to Palacos R-40 cranial reconstruction and 2 connected to maxillofacial tumor removal and post-traumatic reconstruction. Results: There were no complications and a satisfactory aesthetic result was achieved in all cases. Conclusion: The inguinal inlay autologous AD graft is, due to our best knowledge, an original single-stage procedure for those typical cranial grove-like defects correction. It gives a wide option of different shapes with relatively easy to proceed and predictable result. PMID:27594750

  8. [Diagnostics and surgical correction of postoperative myofascial defects of lateral abdominal wall and lumbar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhov, E I; Iurasov, A V; Gribunov, Iu P; Repin, I G; Alekseev, A K; Cherniaeva, N A; Zhitnikov, G V

    2009-01-01

    Myofascial defects of lateral abdominal wall and lumbar region occur chiefly after lumbotomy--the most popular access in urosurgery. Meanwhile lumbotomy remains one of the most traumatic accesses through the lateral abdominal wall. Myofascial defects were diagnosed in 48,9% of operated patients with lumbotomy. Of them true postoperative hernias were found in 35,3%; neuropathic hernias - in 13,6%. Since 2002 the originally developed method of lateral abdominal wall reconstruction had been used for the treatment of such patients. The immediate and long-term results (maximal follow-up period 5 years) showed no hernia recurrence or complications in 26 operated patients.

  9. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-21

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.

  10. 30 CFR 56.7002 - Equipment defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7002 Equipment defects. Equipment defects affecting safety shall be corrected...

  11. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  12. VX-809 corrects folding defects in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein through action on membrane-spanning domain 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong Yu; Grove, Diane E; De La Rosa, Oxana; Houck, Scott A; Sopha, Pattarawut; Van Goor, Fredrick; Hoffman, Beth J; Cyr, Douglas M

    2013-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal genetic disorder associated with defective hydration of lung airways due to the loss of chloride transport through the CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR). CFTR contains two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs), two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), and a regulatory domain, and its channel assembly requires multiple interdomain contacts. The most common CF-causing mutation, F508del, occurs in NBD1 and results in misfolding and premature degradation of F508del-CFTR. VX-809 is an investigational CFTR corrector that partially restores CFTR function in people who are homozygous for F508del-CFTR. To identify the folding defect(s) in F508del-CFTR that must be repaired to treat CF, we explored the mechanism of VX-809 action. VX-809 stabilized an N-terminal domain in CFTR that contains only MSD1 and efficaciously restored function to CFTR forms that have missense mutations in MSD1. The action of VX-809 on MSD1 appears to suppress folding defects in F508del-CFTR by enhancing interactions among the NBD1, MSD1, and MSD2 domains. The ability of VX-809 to correct F508del-CFTR is enhanced when combined with mutations that improve F508del-NBD1 interaction with MSD2. These data suggest that the use of VX-809 in combination with an additional CFTR corrector that suppresses folding defects downstream of MSD1 may further enhance CFTR function in people with F508del-CFTR.

  13. Histologic evaluation of an allogeneic mineralized bone matrix in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koylass, Jana-Marie; Valderrama, Pilar; Mellonig, James T

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of an allogeneic bone matrix to regenerate new bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament around a previously diseased root surface. Four patients with severe chronic periodontitis and teeth with hopeless periodontal or restorative prognoses participated in this study. One tooth with a severe intraosseous defect was selected per patient. At baseline, measurements of probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level were obtained. Following flap reflection, a root notch was placed at the apical extent of the calculus; the root was debrided, and the allogeneic bone graft material was placed into the defect. After a minimum of 6 months of healing, the teeth were removed en bloc and prepared for histologic examination. Two of four teeth demonstrated regeneration of new bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. One tooth healed by new connective tissue attachment, and another by junctional epthelium.

  14. Perinatal factors associated with neural tube defects (anencephaly [correction of anancephaly], spina bifida and encephalocele).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, A J; Camano, L; Brunoni, D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of risk factors for the occurrence of neural tube defects. Data for 33,535 births which occurred at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo from July 1973 to December 1986 were collected in a prospective manner as recommended by "Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas" (ECLAMC, Collaborative Latin American Study on Congenital Malformations). Twenty-six cases of neural tube defects were detected (0.77/1000 births). Of these, 11 were cases of spina bifida (0.39/1000 births), 9 of anencephaly (0.27/1000 births) and 6 of encephalocele (0.18/1000 births). We observed a higher frequency of polyhydramnios, premature labor, Apgar scores of less than 7 at the first and fifth minutes, low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation.

  15. Quantum Corrections to the Radiation of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter Black Hole with Topological Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yi-Wen; YANG Shu-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    We extend Zhang and Zhao's recent work to the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole with topological defect, whose Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass is no longer identical to its mass parameter. The behavior of the tunneling massive particle is investigated and the emission rate is calculated. The result satisfies an underlying unitary theory and takes the same functional form as that of the mass-less particle.

  16. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  17. Heart rhythm and conduction disturbances in early postoperative period after surgical correction for congenital heart defects in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L. A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study aimed to determine the range of rhythm and conduction disturbances in early postoperative period in infants and prove the prognostic value of some pre- and intraoperative factors for development of such complications. Material and methods. The study included 235 children aged from 1 to 3 years who underwent surgeries for congenital heart diseases (CHD under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Exclusion criteria were: age less than 1 year or more than 3 years, presence of confirmed heart rhythm disturbances before surgery except incomplete or complete right bundle branch block in presence of right ventricular myocardial hypertrophy, left anterior bundle branch block in presence of partial or complete atrioventricular canal defect and sinus tachycardia equal to circulatory failure (CF. Results. Ventricular arrhythmias such as premature ventricular contraction (PVC of different character were frequently seen in early postoperative period after surgical correction of CHD. They were noted in 36% of overall number postoperative arrhythmias. Supraventricular extrasystole occurred in 29% cases, different types of supraventricular tachycardias – in 17%, AV-blocks of different grades – in 10%. We noted the following predictors for postoperative rhythm disturbance development: age more than 25 months at the moment of surgery, prolonged CPB and aortic cross-clamping during ventricular septal defect (VSD (70 and 39 minutes, respectively and Fallot’s tetralogy correction (100 and 60 minutes, respectively and exceeding the critical end-point of aortic cross-clamping during atrial septal defect correction (ASD (24 minutes, presence of IIA and IIb grade for CF before surgery, surgical correction of ASD under hypothermia of less than 32 °C. Exceeding the critical end-points of CPB and aortic clamping in patients with Fallot’s tetralogy and exceeding the critical end-points of aortic clamping in children with VSD and ASD were shown to be the

  18. Consolidating the Bilingual Education in the Major of Finance:Existing Defects and Corrective Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    Under the trend of globalization and international financial integration, Chinese scholars have argued that executing bi-lingual education in the major of finance is necessary to advance the comprehensive quality and competitive ability of college stu-dents. However, universities attempting to implement bilingual education are procrastinated with many obstacles. To resolve this issue, corrective measures are to be given in the aspects of textbook publishing, professor training and curriculum adjustments.

  19. A new bottle design to correct mechanical defect during feeding in cleft lip and palate babies

    OpenAIRE

    Salem Althalab, Fatemah

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Babies with cleft lip and palate which is a common craniofacial deformity suffer from feeding problem which interfere with their growth and development and render the subsequent corrective surgery and also endure their daily suffering during the feeding time. This thesis reports the design of a new bottle feed to overcome this problem. Also a clinical study was preformed to study the patterns ...

  20. Density functional theory study of phase stability and defect thermodynamics in iron-oxyhydroxide mineral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, Nathan Douglas

    Due to their high surface area and reactivity toward a variety of heavy metal and oxyanion species of environmental concern, Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide materials play an important role in the geochemical fate of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in soils, aquifers and surface water environments worldwide. In this research, ab initio simulations describe the bulk structure, magnetic properties, and relative phase stability of major Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide materials, including hematite, goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite.These bulk models are employed in further studies of point defect and alloy/dopant thermodynamics in these materials, allowing construction of a phase stability model that better replicates the structure and composition of real materials. Li + adsorption at the predominant goethite (101) surface is simulated using ab initio methods, offering energetic and structural insight into the binding mechanisms of metal cations over a range of surface protonation conditions.

  1. Defect in urinary acidification in nephrotic syndrome and its correction by furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J; Vallo, A; Castillo, G; Oliveros, R

    1982-01-01

    6 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome were investigated during clinical relapse to examine the interrelation between distal urinary acidification and urinary sodium excretion. Blood and urine studies were initiated 4 h after completion of ammonium chloride loading, prior to and following the intravenous administration of furosemide. Values for plasma bicarbonate before and after furosemide administration were not significantly different. In the control periods, when urinary sodium excretion was very low, a defect in urinary acidification was demonstrated (UPH: 6.09 +/- (SD) 0.27; UTAV and UNH4V: 12.6 +/- 3.1 and 36.4 +/- 15.8 mumol/min/1.73 m2, respectively.) Following furosemide-induced natriuresis UPH fell to 4.81 +/- 0.25 (p less than 0.0005), and UTA2V and UNH4V increased to 46.3 +/- 15.8 and 125.6 +/- 49.5 mumol/min/1.73 m2, respectively (p less than 0.002). No overall correlation existed between urinary acidity, both considered as hydrogen ion concentration and as hydrogen ion excretion, and rate of urinary sodium excretion; but significant correlations were present between hydrogen ion concentration in the urine and both UC1V-UNAV (r = 0.38, p less than 0.05), and UC1V - (UNaV + UKV) (r = 0.64, p less than 0.01). These results indicate that the defect in distal urinary acidification observed in nephrotic syndrome is probably due to decreased delivery of sodium to the distal nephron. The enhanced secretion of hydrogen ion observed after furosemide administration may be related both to increased sodium delivery and to greater sodium than chloride reabsorption in the collecting duct.

  2. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  3. [Analgosedation with fentanyl/midazolam after correction of congenital heart defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Behnke, I; Rothes, A; Hund, F; Huth, R; Wippermann, C F; Schmidt, F X; Oelert, H; Schranz, D

    1995-01-01

    There is no standard therapy in the management of postoperative pain control following corrective cardiac surgery of congenital heart disease. Assessment in the preverbal age is difficult. In a randomized study we compared a combined treatment of fentanyl and midazolam, given as continuous infusion versus single dose application. A pain assessment score was used to measure the effectiveness of analgosedation in addition to recording nurseries observations. Fentanyl and midazolam are an appropriate combination for postoperative pain treatment. Continuous application is considered to be more effective concerning basic anxiety, cumulative dosage and to avoid volume overload in infants and young children, following cardiac surgery; overdosage was not observed.

  4. The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natu, Subodh Shankar; Ali, Iqbal; Alam, Sarwar; Giri, Kolli Yada; Agarwal, Anshita; Kulkarni, Vrishali Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was first described in 1905. The technique did not gain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identified the physiologic and mechanical factors governing successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone. The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgical-orthodontic management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting in less relapse.

  5. Analysis technique for quantifying the effectiveness of optical-proximity-corrected photomasks and its application to defect printability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Graham G.; Martin, Brian

    1999-04-01

    An analysis technique for quantifying the effectiveness of optical proximity corrected (OPC) photomasks is described. The methodology is able to account for reticle manufacturing tolerances and has a number of applications including the optimization of OPC features and, in the examples described, the analysis of defect printability. The results presented here are generated using aerial image measurements from PROLITH/2, but the technique can be directly transferred to resist image measurements using 3D simulation tools such as PROLITH/3D where other factors such as swing curve effects caused by wafer topography could also be analyzed. With inspection tools such as scanning electron or atomic force microscopes and appropriate image processing and analysis software it should also be possible to apply this methodology to practical results.

  6. Correction of defective protein kinesis of human P-glycoprotein mutants by substrates and modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, T W; Clarke, D M

    1997-01-10

    There is growing evidence that abnormal protein folding or trafficking (protein kinesis) leads to diseases. We have used P-glycoprotein as a model protein to develop strategies to overcome defects in protein kinesis. Misprocessed mutants of the human P-glycoprotein are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as core-glycosylated biosynthetic intermediates and rapidly degraded. Synthesis of the mutant proteins in the presence of drug substrates or modulators such as capsaicin, cyclosporin, vinblastine, or verapamil, however, resulted in the appearance of a fully glycosylated and functional protein at the cell surface. These effects were dose-dependent and occurred within a few hours after the addition of substrate. The ability to facilitate processing of the misfolded mutants appeared to be independent of the cell lines used and location of the mutation. P-glycoproteins with mutations in transmembrane segments, extracellular or cytoplasmic loops, the nucleotide-binding domains, or the linker region were processed to the fully mature form in the presence of these substrates. These drug substrates or modulators acted as specific chemical chaperones for P-glycoprotein because they were ineffective on the deltaF508 mutant of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Therefore, one possible strategy to prevent protein misfolding is to carry out synthesis in the presence of specific substrates or modulators of the protein.

  7. The performance of functional methods for correcting non-Gaussian measurement error within Poisson regression: corrected excess risk of lung cancer mortality in relation to radon exposure among French uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Leuraud, Klervi; Rage, Estelle; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-12-30

    A broad variety of methods for measurement error (ME) correction have been developed, but these methods have rarely been applied possibly because their ability to correct ME is poorly understood. We carried out a simulation study to assess the performance of three error-correction methods: two variants of regression calibration (the substitution method and the estimation calibration method) and the simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) method. Features of the simulated cohorts were borrowed from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort in which exposure to radon had been documented from 1946 to 1999. In the absence of ME correction, we observed a severe attenuation of the true effect of radon exposure, with a negative relative bias of the order of 60% on the excess relative risk of lung cancer death. In the main scenario considered, that is, when ME characteristics previously determined as most plausible from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort were used both to generate exposure data and to correct for ME at the analysis stage, all three error-correction methods showed a noticeable but partial reduction of the attenuation bias, with a slight advantage for the SIMEX method. However, the performance of the three correction methods highly depended on the accurate determination of the characteristics of ME. In particular, we encountered severe overestimation in some scenarios with the SIMEX method, and we observed lack of correction with the three methods in some other scenarios. For illustration, we also applied and compared the proposed methods on the real data set from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort study.

  8. Correction

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  9. Early Correction of Common Atrioventricular Septal Defects: A Single-Center 20-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Castaldi, Biagio; Padalino, Massimo A; Milanesi, Ornella; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years our policy has been to electively repair common atrioventricular canal defects (CAVCD) in patients between 8 and 12 weeks of age. We sought to evaluate the results of our past 20-year experience. From January 1992 to April 2014, 159 consecutive patients underwent CAVCD repair (133 patients had complete CAVCD and 26 patients had a transitional form of CAVCD). Surgical repair was accomplished with a double-patch (n = 137 [86%]) or a modified single patch (n = 22 [14%]) technique. Median age at operation was 96 days (interquartile range [IQR], 73-128 days); 90 patients were younger than 3 months of age. There were 3 operative (1.9%) and 12 late (7.7%) deaths. Median follow-up time after repair was 8.2 years (IQR, 3.6-15 years). Twenty patients (13%) required reoperation-16 (10%) for left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) regurgitation. Reoperation on the LAVV was more frequent in patients with a dysplastic LAVV preoperatively (p = 0.01; odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-13.5) and in patients who underwent closure for an absent/incomplete cleft at the time of repair (p = 0.01; OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.4-21). Late LAVV performance (regurgitation greater than or equal to moderate or the need for reoperation), including late deaths and patients who underwent reoperation, was significantly worse in patients older than 3 months at repair (10 of 83 patients [12%] versus 20 of 73 patients [27%]; hazard ratio [HR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.19-6.19) and in patients with LAVV dysplasia (19 of 68 patients [28%] versus 11 of 88 patients [12%]; HR, 3; 95% CI, 1.53-8.51). Individualized early repair of CAVCD is safe and beneficial, with good early and long-term results. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  11. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  12. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  13. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In the article by Quintavalle et al (Quintavalle C, Anselmi CV, De Micco F, Roscigno G, Visconti G, Golia B, Focaccio A, Ricciardelli B, Perna E, Papa L, Donnarumma E, Condorelli G, Briguori C. Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin and contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;8:e002673. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.115.002673.), which published online September 2, 2015, and appears in the September 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed. On page 1, the institutional affiliation for Elvira Donnarumma, PhD, “SDN Foundation,” has been changed to read, “IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.” The institutional affiliation for Laura Papa, PhD, “Institute for Endocrinology and Experimental Oncology, National Research Council, Naples, Italy,” has been changed to read, “Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research, Milan Unit, Milan, Italy” and “Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Italy.” The authors regret this error.

  14. Second-site suppressors of HIV-1 capsid mutations: restoration of intracellular activities without correction of intrinsic capsid stability defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruifeng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disassembly of the viral capsid following penetration into the cytoplasm, or uncoating, is a poorly understood stage of retrovirus infection. Based on previous studies of HIV-1 CA mutants exhibiting altered capsid stability, we concluded that formation of a capsid of optimal intrinsic stability is crucial for HIV-1 infection. Results To further examine the connection between HIV-1 capsid stability and infectivity, we isolated second-site suppressors of HIV-1 mutants exhibiting unstable (P38A or hyperstable (E45A capsids. We identified the respective suppressor mutations, T216I and R132T, which restored virus replication in a human T cell line and markedly enhanced the fitness of the original mutants as revealed in single-cycle infection assays. Analysis of the corresponding purified N-terminal domain CA proteins by NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the E45A and R132T mutations induced structural changes that are localized to the regions of the mutations, while the P38A mutation resulted in changes extending to neighboring regions in space. Unexpectedly, neither suppressor mutation corrected the intrinsic viral capsid stability defect associated with the respective original mutation. Nonetheless, the R132T mutation rescued the selective infectivity impairment exhibited by the E45A mutant in aphidicolin-arrested cells, and the double mutant regained sensitivity to the small molecule inhibitor PF74. The T216I mutation rescued the impaired ability of the P38A mutant virus to abrogate restriction by TRIMCyp and TRIM5α. Conclusions The second-site suppressor mutations in CA that we have identified rescue virus infection without correcting the intrinsic capsid stability defects associated with the P38A and E45A mutations. The suppressors also restored wild type virus function in several cell-based assays. We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the

  15. Transfection of the cloned human excision repair gene ERCC-1 to UV-sensitive CHO mutants only corrects the repair defect in complementation group 2 mutants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Mark); J.H. Janssen; J. de Wit (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.H. Thompson; D. Bootsma (Dirk); A. Westerveld (Andries)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe human DNA-excision repair gene ERCC-1 is cloned by its ability to correct the excision-repair defect of the ultraviolet light- and mitomycin-C-sensitive CHO mutant cell line 43-3B. This mutant is assigned to complementation group 2 of the excision-repair-deficient CHO mutants. In ord

  16. Computer-assisted orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction to correct facial asymmetry and maxillary defects secondary to maxillectomy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hao; Yu, Hong-bo; Yuan, Hao; Shen, Guo-fang; Wang, Xu-dong

    2013-05-01

    Maxillectomy in childhood not only causes composite primary defects but also secondary malformation of the middle and lower face. In the case presented, we introduced computer-assisted planning and simulation of orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction to correct complex craniofacial deformities. Virtual orthognathic surgery and maxillary reconstruction surgery were undertaken preoperatively. LeFort I osteotomy, with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy and lower border ostectomy, was performed to correct malocclusion and facial asymmetry. Maxillary reconstruction was accomplished using a fibular osteomyocutaneous flap. The patient recovered uneventfully with an adequate aesthetic appearance on 3D computed tomography. Our experience indicates that orthognathic surgery combined with fibular osteomyocutaneous flap reconstruction can used to correct complex facial asymmetry and maxillary defects secondary to maxillectomy. Computer-assisted simulation enables precise execution of the reconstruction. It shortens the free flap ischemia time and reduces the risks associated with microsurgery.

  17. Dentin sialophosphoprotein knockout mouse teeth display widened predentin zone and develop defective dentin mineralization similar to human dentinogenesis imperfecta type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, Taduru; Thyagarajan, Tamizchelvi; Hall, Bradford; Longenecker, Glenn; D'Souza, Rena; Hong, Sung; Wright, J Tim; MacDougall, Mary; Sauk, John; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2003-07-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is mainly expressed in teeth by the odontoblasts and preameloblasts. The Dspp mRNA is translated into a single protein, Dspp, and cleaved into two peptides, dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein, that are localized within the dentin matrix. Recently, mutations in this gene were identified in human dentinogenesis imperfecta II (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) accession number 125490) and in dentin dysplasia II (OMIM accession number 125420) syndromes. Herein, we report the generation of Dspp-null mice that develop tooth defects similar to human dentinogenesis imperfecta III with enlarged pulp chambers, increased width of predentin zone, hypomineralization, and pulp exposure. Electron microscopy revealed an irregular mineralization front and a lack of calcospherites coalescence in the dentin. Interestingly, the levels of biglycan and decorin, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, were increased in the widened predentin zone and in void spaces among the calcospherites in the dentin of null teeth. These enhanced levels correlate well with the defective regions in mineralization and further indicate that these molecules may adversely affect the dentin mineralization process by interfering with coalescence of calcospherites. Overall, our results identify a crucial role for Dspp in orchestrating the events essential during dentin mineralization, including potential regulation of proteoglycan levels.

  18. Synergistic intrafibrillar/extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen scaffolds based on a biomimetic strategy to promote the regeneration of bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yao Wang,1 Ngo Van Manh,1,2 Haorong Wang,1 Xue Zhong,1 Xu Zhang,1 Changyi Li1 1School of Dentistry, Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Thaibinh University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thaibinh, Vietnam Abstract: The mineralization of collagen scaffolds can improve their mechanical properties and biocompatibility, thereby providing an appropriate microenvironment for bone regeneration. The primary purpose of the present study is to fabricate a synergistically intra- and extrafibrillar mineralized collagen scaffold, which has many advantages in terms of biocompatibility, biomechanical properties, and further osteogenic potential. In this study, mineralized collagen scaffolds were fabricated using a traditional mineralization method (ie, immersed in simulated body fluid as a control group and using a biomimetic method based on the polymer-induced liquid precursor process as an experimental group. In the polymer-induced liquid precursor process, a negatively charged polymer, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC, was used to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP to form nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP. Collagen scaffolds mineralized based on the polymer-induced liquid precursor process were in gel form such that nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP can easily be drawn into the interstices of the collagen fibrils. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the porous micromorphology and synergistic mineralization pattern of the collagen scaffolds. Compared with simulated body fluid, nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP significantly increased the modulus of the collagen scaffolds. The results of in vitro experiments showed that the cell count and differentiated degrees in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group. Histological staining and micro-computed tomography showed that the amount of new bone regenerated in the experimental group was larger than that in the

  19. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with nanocr......The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...

  20. Improving the accuracy of mass-lumped finite-elements in the first-order formulation of the wave equation by defect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamasundar, R.; Mulder, W. A.

    2016-10-01

    Finite-element discretizations of the acoustic wave equation in the time domain often employ mass lumping to avoid the cost of inverting a large sparse mass matrix. For the second-order formulation of the wave equation, mass lumping on Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points does not harm the accuracy. Here, we consider a first-order formulation of the wave equation. In that case, the numerical dispersion for odd-degree polynomials exhibits super-convergence with a consistent mass matrix but mass lumping destroys that property. We consider defect correction as a means to restore the accuracy, in which the consistent mass matrix is approximately inverted using the lumped one as preconditioner. For the lowest-degree element on a uniform mesh, fourth-order accuracy in 1D can be obtained with just a single iteration of defect correction. The numerical dispersion curve describes the error in the eigenvalues of the discrete set of equations. However, the error in the eigenvectors also play a role, in two ways. For polynomial degrees above one and when considering a 1-D mesh with constant element size and constant material properties, a number of modes, equal to the maximum polynomial degree, are coupled. One of these is the correct physical mode that should approximate the true eigenfunction of the operator, the other are spurious and should have a small amplitude when the true eigenfunction is projected onto them. We analyze the behaviour of this error as a function of the normalized wavenumber in the form of the leading terms in its series expansion and find that this error exceeds the dispersion error, except for the lowest degree where the eigenvector error is zero. Numerical 1-D tests confirm this behaviour. We briefly analyze the 2-D case, where the lowest-degree polynomial also appears to provide fourth-order accuracy with defect correction, if the grid of squares or triangles is highly regular and material properties are constant.

  1. Simplified correction of a meningomyelocele-like defect in the ovine fetus Correção simplificada de um defeito semelhante à meningomielocele em fetos de ovelha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Chaccur Abou-Jamra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a simplified technique for antenatal correction of a meningomyelocele -like defect in fetal sheep to allow direct skin closure. METHODS: A spinal defect was surgically created at 75 days of gestation in the fetuses of 36 pregnant sheep, 23 survived the surgery. At 102 days gestation, the defect was corrected in 14 cases (9 were left untreated. Skin surrounding the defect was dissected below the dermis to permit its edges to be approximated and sutured, without interposing any material to its edges. An interface material intended to protect the neural tissue from skin adhesion was used and the skin defect was completely closed over it. Pregnancy was allowed to continue up to 138 days gestation, the fetuses were submitted to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. RESULTS: The defect was successfully corrected in 90.9% in the experimental group, and spontaneous closure occurred in 22.3% in the control group (p OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma técnica simplificada de correção pré-natal de defeito semelhante à mielomeningocele em fetos de ovelha permitindo um fechamento direto da pele. MÉTODOS: Um defeito espinhal foi cirurgicamente criado com 75 dias de gestação, em 36 fetos de ovelha, 23 sobreviveram à cirurgia. Após 102 dias de gestação, o defeito foi corrigido em 14 casos (9 não foram tratados. A pele em volta do defeito foi dissecada abaixo da derme para permitir a aproximação direta das bordas através de sutura, sem a interposição de nenhum material entre a pele. Um material de interface foi colocado entre o tecido neural exposto e a pele, com o objetivo de evitar a adesão da medula à pele, que foi completamente fechada sobre o defeito. A gravidez foi mantida até 138 dias, os fetos foram submetidos a análises macroscópicas e microscópicas. RESULTADOS: O defeito foi corrigido em 90.9% no grupo experimental, e o fechamento espontâneo ocorreu em 22.3% no grupo controle (p < 0.05. A taxa de sobrevivência ap

  2. Repair of Rat Segmental Defects with Mineralized Collagen Grafts Combined with or without Mesenchymal Stem Cells and BMP-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the bone formation capacity with three different grafts. Four millimeter segmental defects were created in adult rat tibias and were either left empty(control defects) or implanted with (1) nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/PLA (nHAC/PLA) composite, (2)nHAC/ PLA composite added with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ( BMSCs ), (3) nHAC/PLA composite added with bone morphogenetic protein 2 ( BMP- 2). Radiographs of the defects were taken weekly post-surgery.After 1 or 2 months, the rats were euthanized. Histologic analyses were performed on the harvested tissue.nHAC/ PLA composite could enhance the repair of rat tibia segmental defects. Addition of BMSCs or BMP- 2 to nHAC/ PLA led to an increase in osteogenesis. nHAC/ PLA composite could be an ideal alternative bone-graft material and it could also be used as an ideal carrier of BMSCs or BMP- 2.

  3. MERISTEM-DEFECTIVE, an RS domain protein, is required for the correct meristem patterning and function in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Stuart A; Topping, Jennifer F; Lindsey, Keith

    2009-03-01

    Plant growth and development is dependent on the specification and maintenance of pools of stem cells found in the meristems. Mutations in the Arabidopsis MERISTEM-DEFECTIVE (MDF) gene lead to a loss of stem cell and meristematic activity in the root and vegetative shoot. MDF encodes a putative RS domain protein with a predicted role in transcription or RNA processing control. mdf mutants exhibit decreased levels of PINFORMED2 (PIN2) and PIN4 mRNAs, which is associated with a reduction in PIN:GFP levels, and with a defective auxin maximum in the basal region of the developing mdf embryo and seedling root meristem. Seedling roots also exhibit reduced PLETHORA (PLT), SCARECROW and SHORTROOT gene expression, a loss of stem cell activity, terminal differentiation of the root meristem and defective cell patterning. MDF expression is not defective in the bodenlos, pin1 or eir1/pin2 auxin mutants, and is not modulated by exogenous auxin. plt1 plt2 double mutants have unaffected levels of MDF RNA, indicating that MDF acts upstream of PIN and PLT gene expression. Differentiation of the shoot stem cell pool also occurs in mdf mutants, associated with a reduced WUSCHEL (WUS) expression domain and expanded CLAVATA3 (CLV3) domain. Overexpression of MDF leads to the activation of markers of embryonic identity and ectopic meristem activity in vegetative tissues. These results demonstrate a requirement for the MDF-dependent pathway in regulating PIN/PLT- and WUS/CLV-mediated meristem activity.

  4. Adsorption of hydrazine on the perfect and defective copper (111) surface: A dispersion-corrected DFT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafreshi, Saeedeh S.; Roldan, Alberto; Dzade, Nelson Y.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of hydrazine (N2H4) on perfect and defect-containing copper (111) surfaces by first-principles calculations. The long-range interactions are included in the geometry optimization through the application of the generalised gradient approximation with dispersion cor

  5. Roscovitine is a proteostasis regulator that corrects the trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR by a CDK-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norez, C; Vandebrouck, C; Bertrand, J; Noel, S; Durieu, E; Oumata, N; Galons, H; Antigny, F; Chatelier, A; Bois, P; Meijer, L; Becq, F

    2014-11-01

    The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), F508del, causes defects in trafficking, channel gating and endocytosis of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Because CF is an orphan disease, therapeutic strategies aimed at improving mutant CFTR functions are needed to target the root cause of CF. Human CF airway epithelial cells were treated with roscovitine 100 μM for 2 h before CFTR maturation, expression and activity were examined. The mechanism of action of roscovitine was explored by recording the effect of depleting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) on the F508del-CFTR/calnexin interaction and by measuring proteasome activity. Of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors investigated, roscovitine was found to restore the cell surface expression and defective channel function of F508del-CFTR in human CF airway epithelial cells. Neither olomoucine nor (S)-CR8, two very efficient CDK inhibitors, corrected F508del-CFTR trafficking demonstrating that the correcting effect of roscovitine was independent of CDK inhibition. Competition studies with inhibitors of the ER quality control (ERQC) indicated that roscovitine acts on the calnexin pathway and on the degradation machinery. Roscovitine was shown (i) to partially inhibit the interaction between F508del-CFTR and calnexin by depleting ER Ca(2+) and (ii) to directly inhibit the proteasome activity in a Ca(2+) -independent manner. Roscovitine is able to correct the defective function of F508del-CFTR by preventing the ability of the ERQC to interact with and degrade F508del-CFTR via two synergistic but CDK-independent mechanisms. Roscovitine has potential as a pharmacological therapy for CF. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Cardiac Resynchronization for Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries with Systemic Right Ventricle Failure after Tricuspid Valve Replacement and Ventricle Septal Defect Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fujii, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man developed systemic right ventricular (RV heart failure after ventricular septal defect (VSD closure and tricuspid valve replacement for corrected transposition of the great arteries with VSD and Ebstein anomaly. He subsequently experienced RV failure with wide QRS and atrial fibrillation (AF. Because corrective surgery for this condition seemed over risky, we decided to perform cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D. After CRT-D device implantation, the patient showed improved performance status in terms of New York Heart Association functional class, B-type brain natriuretic peptide levels, RV ejection fraction and cardiac electrical rhythm. CRT-D implantation is a useful approach for systemic RV failure with wide QRS duration showing right bundle branch block and AF.

  7. Superiority of DFT+U with non-linear core correction for open-shell binary rare-earth metal oxides: a case study of native point defects in cerium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bolong

    2014-09-01

    We successfully proposed a newly corrected density functional theory plus Hubbard U parameter (DFT + U) based on partial core correction on the orbitals within norm-conserving lanthanide atomic pseudopotentials. A related and comprehensive investigation of native point defects in cerium oxides has also been performed as an examine by practice.

  8. Use of high-granularity CdZnTe pixelated detectors to correct response non-uniformities caused by defects in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Eger, J.; Emerick, A.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Soldner, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm3 pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixel sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors correct the cholesterol storage defect in most Niemann-Pick C1 mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipalia, Nina H; Subramanian, Kanagaraj; Mao, Shu; Ralph, Harold; Hutt, Darren M; Scott, Samantha M; Balch, William E; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to excessive storage of cholesterol and other lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes. The large majority of NPC disease is caused by mutations in NPC1, a large polytopic membrane protein that functions in late endosomes. There are many disease-associated mutations in NPC1, and most patients are compound heterozygotes. The most common mutation, NPC1(I1061T), has been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the NPC1 protein. Treatment of patient-derived NPC1(I1061T) fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) vorinostat or panobinostat increases expression of the mutant NPC1 protein and leads to correction of the cholesterol storage. Here, we show that several other human NPC1 mutant fibroblast cell lines can also be corrected by vorinostat or panobinostat and that treatment with vorinostat extends the lifetime of the NPC1(I1061T) protein. To test effects of HDACi on a large number of NPC1 mutants, we engineered a U2OS cell line to suppress NPC1 expression by shRNA and then transiently transfected these cells with 60 different NPC1 mutant constructs. The mutant NPC1 did not significantly reduce cholesterol accumulation, but approximately 85% of the mutants showed reduced cholesterol accumulation when treated with vorinostat or panobinostat. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Use of high-granularity CdZnTe pixelated detectors to correct response non-uniformities caused by defects in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A.E., E-mail: bolotnik@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States); Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States); Eger, J.; Emerick, A. [eV Products Inc., Saxonburg, PA 16056 (United States); Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States); Soldner, S. [eV Products Inc., Saxonburg, PA 16056 (United States); Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R.B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm{sup 3} pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixel sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices. - Highlights: • We investigated performances of 3D position sensitive CdZnTe pixelated detectors. • We employed the readout electronics based on H3D ASIC and data processing. • We demonstrated the feasibility of correcting response nonuniformities in CdZnTe pixelated detectors.

  11. An aberration-corrected STEM study of structural defects in epitaxial GaN thin films grown by ion beam assisted MBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitz, David; Lotnyk, Andriy; Gerlach, Jürgen W; Lenzner, Jörg; Grundmann, Marius; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Ion-beam assisted molecular-beam epitaxy was used for direct growth of epitaxial GaN thin films on super-polished 6H-SiC(0001) substrates. The GaN films with different film thicknesses were studied using reflection high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence and primarily aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. Special attention was devoted to the microstructural characterization of GaN thin films and the GaN-SiC interface on the atomic scale. The results show a variety of defect types in the GaN thin films and at the GaN-SiC interface. A high crystalline quality of the produced hexagonal GaN thin films was demonstrated. The gained results are discussed.

  12. Correction of bone defects by tissue Engineering Corrección de defectos óseos en el área de Ingeniería tisular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Yobanny Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, bone defects cases represent a major impact on health due to how often they oc­cur because of trauma, fractures, congenital or degenerative diseases. Now, bone implants to large volume are severely restricted because of the diffusion limitations in the interaction with the environment of the host for nutrients, gas exchange and waste disposal. That is why the correction of bone defects has become very important in the field of tissue engi­neering looking to improve clinical strategies for treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the development of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration, showing the progress made in the in vitro and in vivo in recent decadesHoy en día, los defectos óseos representan uno de los casos de mayor impacto en la salud debido a la frecuencia con que éstos ocurren a causa de traumatismos, fracturas, enferme­dades congénitas o degenerativas. En la actualidad, los implantes de tejido óseo de gran volumen se encuentran severamente restringidos a causa de las limitaciones de difusión en la interacción con el ambiente del huésped para los nutrientes, intercambio gaseoso y eliminación de desechos. Es por ello que la corrección de los defectos óseos ha cobrado gran importancia en el área de Ingeniería tisular buscando mejorar las estrategias clínicas para su tratamiento. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un panorama general del desarrollo de andamios para la regeneración de tejido óseo, mostrando los avances logrados en los ensayos in vitro e in vivo en la última década.

  13. 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor blockade prevents tau protein hyperphosphorylation and corrects the defect in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by a combination of environmental stressors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Di Pietro, Paola; Riozzi, Barbara; Traficante, Anna; Biagioni, Francesca; Nisticò, Robert; Fornai, Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bruno, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to multimodal sensory stressors is an everyday occurrence and sometimes becomes very intense, such as during rave parties or other recreational events. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong environmental stressors might cause neuronal dysfunction on their own in addition to their synergistic action with illicit drugs. Mice were exposed to a combination of physical and sensory stressors that are reminiscent of those encountered in a rave party. However, this is not a model of rave because it lacks the rewarding properties of rave. A 14-h exposure to environmental stressors caused an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory, and an enhanced phosphorylation of tau protein in the CA1 and CA3 regions. These effects were transient and critically depended on the activation of 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, which are highly expressed in the CA1 region. Acute systemic injection of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, RS-102,221 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 2 min prior the onset of stress), prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and also corrected the defects in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory. These findings suggest that passive exposure to a combination of physical and sensory stressors causes a reversible hippocampal dysfunction, which might compromise mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and spatial memory for a few days. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors might protect the hippocampus against the detrimental effect of environmental stressors.

  14. Self-attenuation artifacts and correction factors of light element measurements by X-ray analysis: Implication for mineral dust composition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Klaver, A.; Lafon, S.; Mazzei, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.

    2010-01-01

    On a global scale, mineral dust is one of the major components of atmospheric aerosols and has important effects on the radiative budget of the atmosphere and thus on climate forcing. An accurate measurement of the concentration of crustal elements, namely Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe, is mandatory for the study of desert aerosols. The concentration of light elements, when measured by X-ray emission techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), can be underestimated owing to self-absorption of the emitted soft X-rays inside aerosol particles. In this work, we analyzed dust samples collected in field campaigns and samples produced in the laboratory using dust of known composition. Measurements have been conducted with PIXE and energy-dispersive XRF (ED-XRF), together with an attenuation-free technique such as particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and attenuation corrected wavelength-dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) by internal standard calibration. We focus on the determination of Al and present results of a PIXE versus PIGE intercomparison. Aluminum concentration was measured with both techniques in dust samples collected by aircraft sampling over western Africa during winter 2006 and summer 2007. An underestimation of the Al concentration determined by PIXE was observed (up to 40%), and it was compared with the results of a simple calculation using basic physics and the size distribution of the collected aerosol. Similar attenuation was observed for Mg, Al, and Si in the laboratory samples analyzed by ED-XRF and WD-XRF. In order to use concentration ratios involving light elements as tracers of the region of emission of the sampled dust, these artifacts (i.e., underestimation of the concentration of light elements) induced by self-attenuation should be properly considered and corrected.

  15. Effects of composition of biocomposite materials implanted into hole defects of the metaphysis on the reparative regeneration and mineralization of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneva, S N; Talashova, I A; Osipova, E V; Nakoskin, A N; Emanov, A A

    2013-12-01

    We carried out a comparative analysis of morphological pattern and element composition of regenerated bone tissue forming in the metaphysis defects after substitution of these defects with calcium phosphate substance containing low-molecular non-collagen bone proteins with various affinities to ion exchangers. We have found that regenerated tissue in the defects grew from the edges to the center and its element composition depended on the maturity of newly formed bone tissue. Implantation material containing non-collagen bone proteins with various affinities to ion exchangers induced no significant changes in the content of analyzed elements of bone tissue around the defect. The content of analyzed elements in the areas distant from the defect area did not change during the experiment.

  16. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria: prolonged high-level expression and correction of the heme biosynthetic defect by retroviral-mediated gene transfer into porphyric and erythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, R; Glass, I A; Aizencang, G; Astrin, K H; Atweh, G F; Desnick, R J

    1998-09-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the deficient activity of the heme biosynthetic enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS). Severely affected patients are transfusion dependent and have mutilating cutaneous manifestations. Successful bone marrow transplantation has proven curative, providing the rationale for stem cell gene therapy. Toward this goal, two retroviral MFG vectors containing the UROS cDNA were constructed, one with the wild-type sequence (MFG-UROS-wt) and a second with an optimized Kozak consensus sequence (MFG-UROS-K). Following transduction of CEP fibroblasts, the MFG-UROS-wt and MFG-UROS-K vectors increased the endogenous activity without selection to levels that were 18- and 5-fold greater, respectively, than the mean activity in normal fibroblasts. Notably, the MFG-UROS-wt vector expressed UROS activity in CEP fibroblasts at these high levels for over 6 months without cell toxicity. Addition of either delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or ferric chloride did not affect expression of the transduced UROS gene nor did the increased concentrations of uroporphyrin isomers or porphyrin intermediates affect cell viability. Similarly, transduction of CEP lymphoblasts with the MFG-UROS-wt vector without G418 selection increased the endogenous UROS activity by 7-fold or almost 2-fold greater than that in normal lymphoblasts. Transduction of K562 erythroleukemia cells by cocultivation with the MFG-UROS-wt producer cells increased their high endogenous UROS activity by 1.6-fold without selection. Clonally isolated K562 cells expressed UROS for over 4 months at mean levels 4.7-fold greater than the endogenous activity without cell toxicity. Thus, the prolonged, high-level expression of UROS in transduced CEP fibroblasts and lymphoblasts, as well as in transduced K562 erythroid cells, demonstrated that the enzymatic defect in CEP cells could be corrected by retroviral-mediated gene therapy without

  17. Comparative clinical and radiographic evaluation of mineralized cancellous bone allograft (puros®) and autogenous bone in the treatment of human periodontal intraosseous defects: 6-months follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Ravinder; Sudhakar, J.; Rajesh, Nichenametla; Sandeep, V.; Reddy, Y. Muralidhar; Gnana Sagar, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Several materials have been introduced as bone grafts, i.e., autografts, allograft, xenografts, and alloplastic grafts, and studies have shown them to produce greater clinical bone defect fill than open flap debridement alone. The aim of this clinical and radiological 6-month study was to compare and evaluate the clinical outcome of deep intraosseous defects following reconstructive surgery with the use of mineralized cancellous bone allograft (Puros®) or autogenous bone. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with 12 sites exhibiting signs of moderate generalized chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. The investigations were confined to two and three-walled intra bony defects with a preoperative probing depth of ≥5 mm. Six of these defects were treated with Puros® (group A) the remaining six were treated with autogenous bone graft (group B). Allocation to the two groups was randomized. The clinical parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bone fill, were recorded at different time intervals at the baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Intraoral radiographs were taken using standardized paralleling cone technique at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analysis was done by using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey highly significant difference. Results: Both groups resulted in decrease in probing depth (group A, 3.0 mm; group B, 2.83 mm) and gain in clinical attachment level (group A, 3.33 mm; group B, 3.0 mm) over a period of 6 months, which was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that both mineralized cancellous bone allograft (Puros®) or autogenous bone result in significant clinical improvements. PMID:28217545

  18. The Need for Accurate Geometric and Radiometric Corrections of Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Data for Mineral Exploration: MEPHySTo—A Toolbox for Pre-Processing Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drone-borne hyperspectral imaging is a new and promising technique for fast and precise acquisition, as well as delivery of high-resolution hyperspectral data to a large variety of end-users. Drones can overcome the scale gap between field and air-borne remote sensing, thus providing high-resolution and multi-temporal data. They are easy to use, flexible and deliver data within cm-scale resolution. So far, however, drone-borne imagery has prominently and successfully been almost solely used in precision agriculture and photogrammetry. Drone technology currently mainly relies on structure-from-motion photogrammetry, aerial photography and agricultural monitoring. Recently, a few hyperspectral sensors became available for drones, but complex geometric and radiometric effects complicate their use for geology-related studies. Using two examples, we first show that precise corrections are required for any geological mapping. We then present a processing toolbox for frame-based hyperspectral imaging systems adapted for the complex correction of drone-borne hyperspectral imagery. The toolbox performs sensor- and platform-specific geometric distortion corrections. Furthermore, a topographic correction step is implemented to correct for rough terrain surfaces. We recommend the c-factor-algorithm for geological applications. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of the corrected dataset for lithological mapping and mineral exploration.

  19. Five-year results of a prospective, randomized, controlled study evaluating treatment of intra-bony defects with a natural bone mineral and GTR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Schwarz, F.; Chiantella, G.C.; Donos, N.; Arweiler, N.B.; Brecx, M.; Becker, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with a natural bone mineral (NBM) and a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to promote periodontal regeneration. However, until now there are only very limited data on the long-term clinical results following this regenerative technique. AIM: To present the 5-year r

  20. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on the healing of intra-bony defects treated with a natural bone mineral and a collagen membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dori, F.; Huszar, T.; Nikolidakis, D.; Arweiler, N.B.; Gera, I.; Sculean, A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regenerative periodontal therapy with a combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)+a natural bone mineral (NBM)+guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to result in significantly higher probing depth reductions and clinical attachment-level gains compared with treatment with open

  1. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on the healing of intrabony defects treated with an anorganic bovine bone mineral and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dori, F.; Huszar, T.; Nikolidakis, D.; Arweiler, N.B.; Gera, I.; Sculean, A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regenerative periodontal therapy with a combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) + an anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) + guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been shown to result in significantly higher probing depth reductions and clinical attachment level gains compared to treatme

  2. A mutation correcting the DNA interaction defects of a mutant phage lambda terminase, gpNu1 K35A terminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y; Feiss, M

    1999-12-20

    Terminase, the DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage lambda, is a heteromultimer composed of gpNu1 (181 aa) and gpA (641 aa) subunits, encoded by the lambda Nu1 and A genes, respectively. Similarity between the deduced amino acid sequences of gpNu1 and gpA and the nucleotide binding site consensus sequence suggests that each terminase subunit has an ATP reactive center. Terminase has been shown to have two distinct ATPase activities. The gpNu1 subunit has a low-affinity ATPase stimulated by nonspecific DNA and gpA has a high-affinity ATPase. In previous work, a mutant terminase, gpNu1 K35A holoterminase, had a mild defect in interactions with DNA, such that twofold increased DNA concentrations were required both for full stimulation of the low-affinity ATPase and for saturation of the cos cleavage reaction. In addition, the gpNu1 K35A terminase exhibited a post-cleavage defect in DNA packaging that accounted for the lethality of the Nu1 K35A mutation [Y. Hwang and M. Feiss (1997) Virology 231, 218-230]. In the work reported here, a mutation in the turn of the putative helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain has been isolated as a suppressor of the gpNu1 K35A change. This suppressor mutation causes the change A14V in gpNu1. A14V reverses the DNA-binding defects of gpNu1 K35A terminase, both for stimulation of the low-affinity ATPase and for saturation of the cos cleavage defect. A14V suppresses the post-cleavage DNA packaging defect caused by the gpNu1 K35A change.

  3. Defective NKT cell activation by CD1d+ TRAMP prostate tumor cells is corrected by interleukin-12 with α-galactosylceramide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nowak

    Full Text Available Numerical and functional defects of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT have been documented in human and mouse cancers, resulting in a defect in IFN production in several malignancies. iNKT cells recognize glycolipids presented on CD1d molecules by dendritic and related cells, leading to their activation and thereby regulating immune reactions. Activated iNKT cells cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity can inhibit existing and spontaneous tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. We have identified functional iNKT cell defects in the murine TRAMP prostate cancer model. We found that iNKT cells show the ability to migrate into TRAMP prostate tumors. This infiltration was mediated through CCL2: CCR5 chemokine: receptor interaction. Prostate tumor cells expressing CD1d partially activated iNKT cells, as appreciated by up-regulation of CD25, PD-1 and the IL-12R. However, despite inducing up-regulation of these activation markers and, hence, delivering positive signals, prostate tumor cells inhibited the IL-12-induced STAT4 phosphorylation in a cell-cell contact dependent but CD1d-independent manner. Consequently, tumor cells did not induce secretion of IFNgamma by iNKT cells. Blocking the inhibitory Ly49 receptor on iNKT cells in the presence of alpha-GalCer restored their IFNgamma production in vivo and in vitro. However, Ly49 blockade alone was not sufficient. Importantly, this defect could be also be reversed into vigorous secretion of IFNgamma by the addition of both IL-12 and the exogenous CD1d ligand alpha-galactosylceramide, but not by IL-12 alone, both in vivo and in vitro. These data underscore the potential to optimize iNKT-based therapeutic approaches.

  4. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  5. Detection of single atoms and buried defects in three dimensions by aberration-corrected electron microscope with 0.5-A information limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielowski, C; Freitag, B; Bischoff, M; van Lin, H; Lazar, S; Knippels, G; Tiemeijer, P; van der Stam, M; von Harrach, S; Stekelenburg, M; Haider, M; Uhlemann, S; Müller, H; Hartel, P; Kabius, B; Miller, D; Petrov, I; Olson, E A; Donchev, T; Kenik, E A; Lupini, A R; Bentley, J; Pennycook, S J; Anderson, I M; Minor, A M; Schmid, A K; Duden, T; Radmilovic, V; Ramasse, Q M; Watanabe, M; Erni, R; Stach, E A; Denes, P; Dahmen, U

    2008-10-01

    The ability of electron microscopes to analyze all the atoms in individual nanostructures is limited by lens aberrations. However, recent advances in aberration-correcting electron optics have led to greatly enhanced instrument performance and new techniques of electron microscopy. The development of an ultrastable electron microscope with aberration-correcting optics and a monochromated high-brightness source has significantly improved instrument resolution and contrast. In the present work, we report information transfer beyond 50 pm and show images of single gold atoms with a signal-to-noise ratio as large as 10. The instrument's new capabilities were exploited to detect a buried Sigma3 {112} grain boundary and observe the dynamic arrangements of single atoms and atom pairs with sub-angstrom resolution. These results mark an important step toward meeting the challenge of determining the three-dimensional atomic-scale structure of nanomaterials.

  6. Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD Pico mineral óseo y factores asociados a la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas de 9 a 24 años de edad usando densidad mineral ósea corregida

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Torres-Mejía; Rubén Guzmán Pineda; Martha María Téllez-Rojo; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of peak bone mass (PBM) in Mexican women and factors associated with both BMDa and corrected BMD (BMDcorr) at the femoral neck and the spine (L2-L4). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. An interview was performed and height and weight were measured. BMDa was measured by a densitometer and BMDcorr by the method proposed by Kröger et al. (1992). RESULTS: PBM at the spine (L2-L4) was observed later than at the femoral neck....

  7. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  8. The effect of SDF-1α on low dose BMP-2 mediated bone regeneration by release from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix scaffolds in a murine critical size bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Langanke, Robert; Vater, Corina; Lee, Geoffrey; Niederlohmann, Eik; Sensenschmidt, Markus; Jacobi, Angela; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Muders, Michael; Rammelt, Stefan; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Goodman, Stuart B; Stiehler, Maik

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of critical size bone defects represents a challenge. The growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is clinically established but has potentially adverse effects when used at high doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate if stromal derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) and BMP-2 released from heparinized mineralized collagen type I matrix (MCM) scaffolds have a cumulative effect on bone regeneration. MCM scaffolds were functionalized with heparin, loaded with BMP-2 and/or SDF-1α and implanted into a murine critical size femoral bone defect (control group, low dose BMP-2 group, low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group, and high dose BMP-2 group). After 6 weeks, both the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (5.8 ± 0.6 mm³, p = 0.0479) and the high dose BMP-2 group (6.5 ± 0.7 mm³, p = 0.008) had a significantly increased regenerated bone volume compared to the control group (4.2 ± 0.5 mm³). There was a higher healing score in the low dose BMP-2 + SDF-1α group (median grade 8; Q1-Q3 7-9; p = 0.0357) than in the low dose BMP-2 group (7; Q1-Q3 5-9) histologically. This study showed that release of BMP-2 and SDF-1α from heparinized MCM scaffolds allows for the reduction of the applied BMP-2 concentration since SDF-1α seems to enhance the osteoinductive potential of BMP-2. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2126-2134, 2016.

  9. Low bone mineral density as a risk factor for osteoporosis and ways of its correction in male patients with ankylosing spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pirogova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate bone mineral density (BMD in men with ankylosing spondylosis (AS.Subjects and methods. Seventy-two male patients (mean age 43.2±9.1 years diagnosed with extended- or late-stage AS (according to the 1984 modified New York criteria (a study group were followed up. A control group consisted of 70 apparently healthy men of the same age (46.7±1.9 years with neither a history of bone fractures and no complains about osteoporosis (OP. In the study and control groups, BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Results. The patients with AS were found to have statistically significantly lower BMD in the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In the study group, osteopenic syndrome (OPS was identified in 44 (61.1%: osteopenia (OPe in 16 (22.2% and OP in 28 (38.9%. In the control group, OPS was detected in 16 (21.62% patients, OPe in 12 (16.21%, and OP in 4 (5.40%. Lower BMD was noted in both the femoral neck and lumbar spine in the extended stage of AS and only in the femoral neck in its late stage.

  10. Low bone mineral density as a risk factor for osteoporosis and ways of its correction in male patients with ankylosing spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pirogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate bone mineral density (BMD in men with ankylosing spondylosis (AS.Subjects and methods. Seventy-two male patients (mean age 43.2±9.1 years diagnosed with extended- or late-stage AS (according to the 1984 modified New York criteria (a study group were followed up. A control group consisted of 70 apparently healthy men of the same age (46.7±1.9 years with neither a history of bone fractures and no complains about osteoporosis (OP. In the study and control groups, BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Results. The patients with AS were found to have statistically significantly lower BMD in the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In the study group, osteopenic syndrome (OPS was identified in 44 (61.1%: osteopenia (OPe in 16 (22.2% and OP in 28 (38.9%. In the control group, OPS was detected in 16 (21.62% patients, OPe in 12 (16.21%, and OP in 4 (5.40%. Lower BMD was noted in both the femoral neck and lumbar spine in the extended stage of AS and only in the femoral neck in its late stage.

  11. Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD Pico mineral óseo y factores asociados a la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres mexicanas de 9 a 24 años de edad usando densidad mineral ósea corregida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Torres-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of peak bone mass (PBM in Mexican women and factors associated with both BMDa and corrected BMD (BMDcorr at the femoral neck and the spine (L2-L4. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. An interview was performed and height and weight were measured. BMDa was measured by a densitometer and BMDcorr by the method proposed by Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTS: PBM at the spine (L2-L4 was observed later than at the femoral neck. Both BMDa and BMDcorr at the lumbar spine correlate with age, socio-economic status, body fat percentage and height. BMDa at the femoral neck correlates with overweight and obesity, body fat percentage, height and moderate physical activity; the same variables were associated with BMDcorr except for height. CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed by Kröger et al. was more precise at the femoral neck than at the spine.OBJETIVO: Determinar la edad del pico de masa ósea (PMO y los factores asociados a DMOa y a DMOcorr del cuello femoral y de la columna vertebral (L2-L4 en mujeres mexicanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de 461 mujeres de 9 a 24 años de edad. La DMO se midió mediante un densitómetro y la DMOcorr mediante el método propuesto por Kröger et al. (1992. RESULTADOS: El PMO en la columna vertebral (L2-L4 se observó más tarde que en el cuello femoral. A la DMOa y DMOcorr de la columna se asociaron: edad, estado socio económico, porcentaje de grasa corporal y la talla. A DMOa del cuello femoral se asociaron: sobrepeso y obesidad, porcentaje de grasa corporal, talla y actividad física moderada; las mismas variables se asociaron con la DMOcorr excepto talla. CONCLUSIONES: El método propuesto por Kröger et al. fue más preciso para el cuello femoral que para la columna.

  12. 压延帘布扒皮掉胶质量缺陷分析及解决措施%Root Cause Analysis of Calendered Cord Defect of Detached Rubber and Corrective Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 徐云慧

    2015-01-01

    对压延帘布扒皮掉胶质量问题进行分析,并提出了解决措施。通过严格控制压延机干燥辊温度、压延主机辊筒表面温度、压延主机辊筒间堆积胶量、压延帘布胶质量稳定性、压延机主机辊筒间距、压延机主机辊筒预弯压力,以及严格按照帘布压延工艺标准操作,解决了压延帘布扒皮掉胶问题,大幅提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本。%In this paper, the root causes of cord defect detached rubber issue, were analyzed and corrective actions were put forward. It was found that processing parameters had to be under strict control, for example temperature of drying roll, temperature of the main calender roll, the amount of rubber between rolls, quality of rubber compound, gap of calender rolls and stress on the calender roll. With the process improvement, the production efficiency increased and production cost was reduced.

  13. Partial correction of the CNS lysosomal storage defect in a mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis by neonatal CNS administration of an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 vector expressing the human CLN3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, Dolan; Scott, Emma C; Chen, Alvin; Hackett, Neil R; Wong, Andrew M S; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Nelvagal, Hemanth R; Pearse, Yewande; Cotman, Susan L; Cooper, Jonathan D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or CLN3 disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations in the CLN3 gene that encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. The disease primarily affects the brain with widespread intralysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent material and fibrillary gliosis, as well as the loss of specific neuronal populations. As an experimental treatment for the CNS manifestations of JNCL, we have developed a serotype rh.10 adeno-associated virus vector expressing the human CLN3 cDNA (AAVrh.10hCLN3). We hypothesized that administration of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the Cln3(Δex7/8) knock-in mouse model of JNCL would reverse the lysosomal storage defect, as well as have a therapeutic effect on gliosis and neuron loss. Newborn Cln3(Δex7/8) mice were administered 3 × 10(10) genome copies of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the brain, with control groups including untreated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice and wild-type littermate mice. After 18 months, CLN3 transgene expression was detected in various locations throughout the brain, particularly in the hippocampus and deep anterior cortical regions. Changes in the CNS neuronal lysosomal accumulation of storage material were assessed by immunodetection of subunit C of ATP synthase, luxol fast blue staining, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. For all parameters, Cln3(Δex7/8) mice exhibited abnormal lysosomal accumulation, but AAVrh.10hCLN3 administration resulted in significant reductions in storage material burden. There was also a significant decrease in gliosis in AAVrh.10hCLN3-treated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice, and a trend toward improved neuron counts, compared with their untreated counterparts. These data demonstrate that AAVrh.10 delivery of a wild-type cDNA to the CNS is not harmful and instead provides a partial correction of the neurological lysosomal storage defect of a disease caused by a lysosomal membrane protein, indicating that this may be an effective therapeutic strategy for JNCL and

  14. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  15. Casting defects analysis by the Pareto method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Borowiecki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of receive results formed of diagram Pareto Lorenz. On the basis of receive graph it affirmed, that for 70% general number casting defects answered 3 defects (9 contribution – 100% defects. For 70% general number defects of influence it has three type of causes: sand holes, porosity and slaginclusions. Thedefects show that it is necessary to take up construction gatingsystem. The remaining 8 causes have been concerned only 25%, with general number of casting defects. Analysis of receive results permit to determine of direction of correct actions in order to eliminate or to limit the most defects.

  16. Developmental Defects of Enamel : an increasing reality in the everyday practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental defects of enamel (DDE are daily encountered in clinical practice. DDE are alteration in quality and quantity of the enamel, caused by disruption and/or damage to the enamel organ during the amelogenesis process. Several clinical indices have been developed to categorize enamel defects based on their nature, appearance, microscopic features or their cause. The aetiology of DDE is not completely clear. Enamel fluorosis is a hypo-mineralization of enamel characterised by subsurface porosity as a result of excess fluoride intake during the period of enamel formation. Several types of treatment have been reported, related to the degree of enamel defect. Correct diagnosis according to lesion depth and prognosis of the technique are fundamental factors in the treatment decision-making process.

  17. 30 CFR 57.7002 - Equipment defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7002 Equipment defects. Equipment defects affecting...

  18. Paravaginal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenholt, Louise T S; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Glavind, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    , arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP), pubocervical fascia, and uterosacral/cardinal ligaments. Studies conclude that physical examination is inconsistent in detecting paravaginal defects. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to describe patterns in the appearance...

  19. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  20. Expert Network for Die Casing Defect Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiadi WANG; Yongfeng JIANG; Chen LU; Wenjiang DING

    2003-01-01

    Due to the competition and high cost associated with die casting defects, it is urgent to adopt a rapid and effective method for defect analysis. In this research, a novel expert network approach was proposed to avoid some disadvantages of rulebased expert system. The main objective of the system is to assist die casting engineer in identifying defect, determining the probable causes of defect and proposing remedies to eliminate the defect. 14 common die casting defects could be identified quickly by expert system on the basis of their characteristics. BP neural network in combination with expert system was applied to map the complex relationship between causes and defects, and further explained the cause determination process.Cause determination gives due consideration to practical process conditions. Finally, corrective measures were recommended to eliminate the defect and implemented in the sequence of difficulty.

  1. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  2. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... fluctuations in activity, illustrated by the example of Vulcano where the high-temperature association appears intermittently. A full survey of the mineral groups and species is given in respect to their importance and appearance in fumarolic associations....

  3. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  4. Corrective Physical Education. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

    This guide, prepared to assist students who have postural and other remedial defects, is divided into four sections. Section one outlines the organization and administration of a remedial physical education program and gives information concerning the administration of alignment tests and corrections. Section two discusses anteroposterior…

  5. Speech Correction in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenson, Jon; Ogilvie, Mardel

    An introduction to the problems and therapeutic needs of school age children whose speech requires remedial attention, the text is intended for both the classroom teacher and the speech correctionist. General considerations include classification and incidence of speech defects, speech correction services, the teacher as a speaker, the mechanism…

  6. A computational framework for automation of point defect calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Anuj; Gorai, Prashun; Peng, Haowei; Lany, Stephan; Stevanović, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    A complete and rigorously validated open-source Python framework to automate point defect calculations using density functional theory has been developed. The framework provides an effective and efficient method for defect structure generation, and creation of simple yet customizable workflows to analyze defect calculations. The package provides the capability to compute widely-accepted correction schemes to overcome finite-size effects, including (1) potential alignment, (2) image-charge correction, and (3) band filling correction to shallow defects. Using Si, ZnO and In2O3 as test examples, we demonstrate the package capabilities and validate the methodology.

  7. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  8. Aberration Correction in Electron Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald H

    2005-01-01

    The resolution of conventional electron microscopes is limited by spherical and chromatic aberrations. Both defects are unavoidable in the case of static rotationally symmetric electromagnetic fields (Scherzer theorem). Multipole correctors and electron mirrros have been designed and built, which compensate for these aberrations. The principles of correction will be demonstrated for the tetrode mirror, the quadrupole-octopole corrector and the hexapole corrector. Electron mirrors require a magnetic beam separator free of second-order aberrations. The multipole correctors are highly symmetric telescopic systems compensating for the defects of the objective lens. The hexapole corrector has the most simple structure yet eliminates only the spherical aberration, whereas the mirror and the quadrupole-octopole corrector are able to correct for both aberrations. Chromatic correction is achieved in the latter corrector by cossed electric and magnetic quadrupoles acting as first-order Wien filters. Micrographs obtaine...

  9. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  10. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    -floor hydrothermal processes involving free circulation of seawater through ocean crust as convection. Heat flow, seafloor fracturing, permeability and fluid composition are the parameters governing the type and extent of mineralization. The chimney like... stream_size 23365 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt stream_source_info Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8...

  11. Ventricular septal defect (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in ... wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other ...

  12. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  13. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  14. The Surface Groups and Active Site of Fibrous Mineral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Fa-qin; WAN Pu; FENG Qi-ming; SONG Gong-bao; PENG Tong-jiang; LI Ping; LI Guo-wu

    2004-01-01

    The exposed and transformed groups of fibrous brucite,wollastonite,chrysotile asbestos,sepiolite,palygorskite,clinoptilolite,crocidolite and diatomaceous earth mineral materials are analyzed by IR spectra after acid and alikali etching,strong mechanical and polarity molecular interaction.The results show the active sites concentrate on the ends in stick mineral materials and on the defect or hole edge in pipe mineral materials.The inside active site of mineral materials plays a main role in small molecular substance.The shape of minerals influence their distribution and density of active site.The strong mechanical impulsion and weak chemical force change the active site feature of minerals,the powder process enables minerals exposed more surface group and more combined types.The surface processing with the small polarity molecular or the brand of middle molecular may produce ionation and new coordinate bond,and change the active properties and level of original mineral materials.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  16. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  17. Development of Cloud Based Casting Defects Categorization System (CDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sata Amit V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects affect the properties and behavior of the casting during its service life. Since the defects can occur due to different reasons, they must be correctly identified and categorized, to enable applying the appropriate remedial measures. several different approaches for categorizing casting defects have been proposed in technical literature. They mainly rely on physical description, location, and formation of defects. There is a need for a systematic approach for classifying investment casting defects, considering appropriate attributes such as their size, location, identification stage, inspection method, consistency, appearance of defects. A systematic approach for categorization of investment casting defects considering multiple attributes: detection stage, size, shape, appearance, location, consistency and severity of occurrence. Information about the relevant attributes of major defects encountered in investment casting process has been collected from an industrial foundry. This has been implemented in a cloud-based system to make the system freely and widely accessible.

  18. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  19. EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS RATES AND SOIL CORRECTIVES ON NUTRITIONAL EFFICIENCY OF Stylosanthes guianensis CALAGEM, SILICATAGEM E DOSES DE FÓSFORO NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO MINERAL DE ESTILOSANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardoso Pinto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    In tropical soils, soil acidity can increase the efficiency of phosphated fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two soil correctives and phosphorus rates on nutritional efficiency of Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Department of Soil Science, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A randomized blocks design was used in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five P rates (50 mg dm-3, 100 mg dm-3, 200 mg dm-3, 400 mg dm-3, and 800 mg dm-3 of soil and two soil correctives (lime and Ca and Mg silicate, with three replicates. The use of silicate for soil correction provided higher accumulation of Mineirão dry matter rates, from 50 mg dm-3 to 420 mg dm-3 of P. When phosphorus was associated with Ca and Mg silicate, the nutrients P, N, Ca, Mg, and Zn increased their use efficiency, resulting in a higher conversion rate of nutrients into biomass produced, except for the application of 800 mg dm3, due to nutritional imbalance in supplies of P and Zn. The Ca and Mg silicate provided greater recovery of applied P and should be used for pasture formation and management where Mineirão is used.

    KEY-WORDS: Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão; Ca

  20. Defective cerebrovascular autoregulation after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid endartere...

  1. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  2. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that ... function, even though there are normal platelet numbers. Most ...

  3. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the ... and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your ...

  4. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor See your doctor if you or your child develops signs or symptoms of atrioventricular canal defect. Atrioventricular canal defect occurs before birth when a baby's heart is developing. Some factors, such as Down syndrome, might increase the risk of atrioventricular canal defect. ...

  5. Controlling defectiveness in a complex product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.L.

    1976-09-01

    A common practice when measuring defectiveness in a complicated product is to assign ''demerit'' points to each defect in proportion to the seriousness of the fault. A plan is presented for monitoring defectives by using a modified demerit per unit control chart. The statistics presented are basic to control charts for demerits. What is different is the chart format which has the advantage of minimum effort for daily updates and independence from required sample sizes. Basically, the charts were designed for simplicity of use where product quantities are not large. Emphasis is placed on maintaining perspective between plotting data and completing the circle of defect reporting, analysis and corrective action feedback.

  6. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M D; Yadav, M C; Foster, B L; Somerman, M J; Farquharson, C; Millán, J L

    2013-08-01

    Phosphatases are involved in bone and tooth mineralization, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) regulates inhibitory extracellular pyrophosphate through its pyrophosphatase activity to control mineral propagation in the matrix; mice without TNAP lack acellular cementum, and have mineralization defects in dentin, enamel, and bone. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase found within membrane-bounded matrix vesicles in mineralized tissues, and double ablation of Alpl and Phospho1 in mice leads to a complete absence of skeletal mineralization. Here, we describe mineralization abnormalities in the teeth of Phospho1(-/-) mice, and in compound knockout mice lacking Phospho1 and one allele of Alpl (Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) ). In wild-type mice, PHOSPHO1 and TNAP co-localized to odontoblasts at early stages of dentinogenesis, coincident with the early mineralization of mantle dentin. In Phospho1 knockout mice, radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, and transmission electron microscopy all demonstrated mineralization abnormalities of incisor dentin, with the most remarkable findings being reduced overall mineralization coincident with decreased matrix vesicle mineralization in the Phospho1(-/-) mice, and the almost complete absence of matrix vesicles in the Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) mice, whose incisors showed a further reduction in mineralization. Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization.

  7. Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jinhua

    2015-02-19

    Defects usually play an important role in tailoring various properties of two-dimensional materials. Defects in two-dimensional monolayer molybdenum disulphide may be responsible for large variation of electric and optical properties. Here we present a comprehensive joint experiment-theory investigation of point defects in monolayer molybdenum disulphide prepared by mechanical exfoliation, physical and chemical vapour deposition. Defect species are systematically identified and their concentrations determined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, and also studied by ab-initio calculation. Defect density up to 3.5 × 10 13 cm \\'2 is found and the dominant category of defects changes from sulphur vacancy in mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition samples to molybdenum antisite in physical vapour deposition samples. Influence of defects on electronic structure and charge-carrier mobility are predicted by calculation and observed by electric transport measurement. In light of these results, the growth of ultra-high-quality monolayer molybdenum disulphide appears a primary task for the community pursuing high-performance electronic devices.

  8. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  9. Mineral resources of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  10. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  11. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  12. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  13. ILT based defect simulation of inspection images accurately predicts mask defect printability on wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Prakash; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    At advanced technology nodes mask complexity has been increased because of large-scale use of resolution enhancement technologies (RET) which includes Optical Proximity Correction (OPC), Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) and Source Mask Optimization (SMO). The number of defects detected during inspection of such mask increased drastically and differentiation of critical and non-critical defects are more challenging, complex and time consuming. Because of significant defectivity of EUVL masks and non-availability of actinic inspection, it is important and also challenging to predict the criticality of defects for printability on wafer. This is one of the significant barriers for the adoption of EUVL for semiconductor manufacturing. Techniques to decide criticality of defects from images captured using non actinic inspection images is desired till actinic inspection is not available. High resolution inspection of photomask images detects many defects which are used for process and mask qualification. Repairing all defects is not practical and probably not required, however it's imperative to know which defects are severe enough to impact wafer before repair. Additionally, wafer printability check is always desired after repairing a defect. AIMSTM review is the industry standard for this, however doing AIMSTM review for all defects is expensive and very time consuming. Fast, accurate and an economical mechanism is desired which can predict defect printability on wafer accurately and quickly from images captured using high resolution inspection machine. Predicting defect printability from such images is challenging due to the fact that the high resolution images do not correlate with actual mask contours. The challenge is increased due to use of different optical condition during inspection other than actual scanner condition, and defects found in such images do not have correlation with actual impact on wafer. Our automated defect simulation tool predicts

  14. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects in the indi......An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects...... in the indicator film and unevenness of light, as well as additive signals from detector bias, external light sources, etc. When properly corrected a better measurement of the local magnetic field can be made, even in the case of heavily damaged films. For superconductors the magnetic field distributions may...

  15. Mineral Supply Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  16. Morgagni Hernia with Partial A-V Canal Defect; A Rare Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a rare diaphragmatic hernia usually due to congenital defects in the diaphragm. It is rarely associated with cardiac anomalies, most commonly atrial (ostium secundum or ventricular septal defects. We report a rare case of Morgagni hernia occurring in association with partial atrio-ventricular septal defect (ostium primum, and its successful surgical correction.

  17. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  18. Imaging defects and dopants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Philipp Ebert

    2003-06-01

    With the invention of the transistor, a revolution in the development of semiconductor-based electronic devices began. However, even in the very early stages, the importance of defects and dopant atoms became obvious. In fact, if one incorporates the right defects and dopant atoms into semiconductor materials, one can tune their electrical properties such that optimal device characteristics are achieved. Unfortunately, counteractive defects are often also formed unintentionally during semiconductor processing, leading to unfavorable electronic properties. Considerable research efforts have, therefore, focused on understanding the nanoscale physics that governs the formation of point defects, the incorporation behavior of impurities, and their respective electronic properties.

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws and ... Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by ...

  20. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  1. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  2. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  3. Corrected transposition of great arteries; Skorygowane przelozenie wielkich pni tetniczych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erecinski, J.; Aleszewicz-Baranowska, J.; Chojnicki, M.; Sabiniewicz, R. [Inst. Pediatrii, Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    20 patients with the diagnosis of congenital corrected transposition of great arteries were analyzed. The diagnosis was based on routine clinical examination, echocardiography and in certain cases on heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In the most cases c-TGA coexists with additional heart defects. The commonest coexisting defects were: ventricular septal defect (60%), pulmonary stenosis (50%), atrio-ventricular valve regurgitation, predominantly systemic (tricuspid 45%). In the most cases 2D Doppler echo examination was sufficient for morphological assessment. In order to quality to cardiosurgical treatment heart catheterization and angiocardiography were necessary. 5 children were treated surgically. 3 of them underwent palliative procedures, one - Rastelli procedure and one had corrective surgery with bad result. Clinical picture of corrected transposition of great arteries is determined by coexisting additional heart defects. (author) 15 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  4. Effect of friction stir welding parameters on defect formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, S. Yu.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Eliseev, A. A.; Kolubaev, E. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welding is a perspective method for manufacturing automotive parts, aviation and space technology. One of the major problems is the formation of welding defects and weld around the welding zone. The formation of defect is the main reason failure of the joint. A possible way to obtain defect-free welded joints is the selection of the correct welding parameters. Experimental results describing the effect of friction stir welding process parameters on the defects of welded joints on aluminum alloy AMg5M have been shown. The weld joint defects have been characterized using the non-destructive radioscopic and ultrasound phase array methods. It was shown how the type and size of defects determine the welded joint strength.

  5. Defects in Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    By tracing the defects of society back to the defects of human nature, humanity's essence is proved to be inherent evil. Man's natural tendency to do evil remain harnessed through the controls and conventions imposed by civilization, however, when rules or civilization are weakened, man' s dark side is unleashed.

  6. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  7. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  8. Cosmic defects and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Joao; Brandenberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical overview of defect models of structure formation. We first introduce the concept of topological defect, and describe how to classify them. We then show how defects might be produced in phase transitions in the Early Universe and approach non-pathological scaling solutions. A very heuristic account of structure formation with defects is then provided, following which we introduce the tool box required for high precision calculations of CMB and LSS power spectra in these theories. The decomposition into scalar vector and tensor modes is reviewed, and then we introduce the concept of unequal-time correlator. We use isotropy and causality to constrain the form of these correlators. We finally show how these correlators may be decomposed into eigenmodes, thereby reducing a defect problem to a series of ``inflation'' problems. We conclude with a short description of results in these theories and how they fare against observations. We finally describe yet another application of topological d...

  9. Automated Defect Inspection Systems by Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual inspection and classification of cigarettes packaged in a tin container is very important in manufacturing cigarette products that require high quality package presentation. For accurate automated inspection and classification, computer vision has been deployed widely in manufacturing. We present the detection of the defective packaging of tins of cigarettes by identifying individual objects in the cigarette tins. Object identification information is used for the classification of the acceptable cases (correctly packaged tins or defective cases (incorrectly packaged tins. This paper investigates the problem of identifying the individual cigarettes and a paper spoon in the packaged tin using image processing andmorphology operations. The segmentation performance was evaluated on 500 images including examples of both good cases and defective cases.

  10. Performance model to predict overall defect density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Venkatesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Management by metrics is the expectation from the IT service providers to stay as a differentiator. Given a project, the associated parameters and dynamics, the behaviour and outcome need to be predicted. There is lot of focus on the end state and in minimizing defect leakage as much as possible. In most of the cases, the actions taken are re-active. It is too late in the life cycle. Root cause analysis and corrective actions can be implemented only to the benefit of the next project. The focus has to shift left, towards the execution phase than waiting for lessons to be learnt post the implementation. How do we pro-actively predict defect metrics and have a preventive action plan in place. This paper illustrates the process performance model to predict overall defect density based on data from projects in an organization.

  11. Comparison between two surgical techniques for prenatal correction of meningomyelocele in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera,Silvia Rejane Fontoura; Leme,Ricardo José de Almeida; Valente, Paulo Roberto [UNIFESP; Caldini,Élia Garcia; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the classical neurosurgical technique with a new simplified technique for prenatal repair of a myelomeningocelelike defect in sheep. METHODS: A myelomeningocele-like defect (laminectomy and dural excision) was created in the lumbar region on day 90 of gestation in 9 pregnant sheep. Correction technique was randomized. In Group 1 the defect was corrected using the classic neurosurgical technique of three-layer suture (dura mater, muscle and skin closure) performed by a ne...

  12. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  13. The Effect of Postural Correction and Subsequent Balloon Inflation in Deformity Correction of Acute Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Cong; Shang, Ping; Shen, Yue; Xu, Hua-zi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine deformity correction by postural correction and subsequent balloon inflation in acute vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) and to examine the effect of bone mineral density on deformity correction. Methods A totol of 50 acute OVCFs received balloon kyphoplasty. Lateral radiographs were taken and analyzed at five different time points : 1) preoperative, 2) after placing the patient in prone hyperextended position, 3) after balloon inflation, 4) after deposition of the...

  14. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  15. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects are ...

  16. What Are Congenital Heart Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Congenital Heart Defects? Congenital (kon-JEN-ih-tal) heart defects are problems ... carry blood to the heart or the body Congenital heart defects change the normal flow of blood through the ...

  17. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  18. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  19. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  20. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  2. Surgical correction of truncus arteriosus in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, H; Sulayman, R; Replogle, R; Arcilla, R A

    1976-07-01

    An 8 week old infant with severe heart failure from type 1 truncus arteriosus underwent successful corrective surgery employing the Rastelli procedure with use of deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest. Postoperative hemodynamic studies showed complete closure of the septal defect, disappearance of truncal stenosis, but presence of mild porcine valve stenosis. This procedure is possible even in very small subjects and is preferable to palliative pulmonary arterial banding.

  3. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  4. [Enamel: a unique self-assembling in mineral world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Guilhem; de la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    Enamel is a unique tissue in vertebrates, acellular, formed on a labile scaffolding matrix and hypermineralized. The ameloblasts are epithelial cells in charge of amelogenesis. They secrete a number of matrix proteins degraded by enzymes during enamel mineralization. This ordered cellular and extracellular events imply that any genetic or environmental perturbation will produce indelible and recognizable defects. The specificity of defects will indicate the affected cellular process. Thus, depending on the specificity of alterations, the teratogenic event can be retrospectively established. Advances in the field allow to use enamel defects as diagnostic tools for molecular disorders. The multifunctionality of enamel peptides is presently identified from their chemical roles in mineralization to cell signaling, constituting a source of concrete innovations in regenerative medicine.

  5. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  6. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  7. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  8. Error Correction in Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. Grace Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Error correction is an important issue in foreign language acquisition. This paper investigates how students feel about the way in which error correction should take place in a Chinese-as-a foreign-language classroom, based on empirical data of a large scale. The study shows that there is a general consensus that error correction is necessary. In terms of correction strategy, the students preferred a combination of direct and indirect corrections, or a direct only correction. The former choice indicates that students would be happy to take either so long as the correction gets done.Most students didn't mind peer correcting provided it is conducted in a constructive way. More than halfofthe students would feel uncomfortable ifthe same error they make in class is corrected consecutively more than three times. Taking these findings into consideration, we may want to cncourage peer correcting, use a combination of correction strategies (direct only if suitable) and do it in a non-threatening and sensitive way. It is hoped that this study would contribute to the effectiveness of error correction in a Chinese language classroom and it may also have a wider implication on other languages.

  9. Myocardial defect detection using PET-CT: phantom studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene S Mananga

    Full Text Available It is expected that both noise and activity distribution can have impact on the detectability of a myocardial defect in a cardiac PET study. In this work, we performed phantom studies to investigate the detectability of a defect in the myocardium for different noise levels and activity distributions. We evaluated the performance of three reconstruction schemes: Filtered Back-Projection (FBP, Ordinary Poisson Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OP-OSEM, and Point Spread Function corrected OSEM (PSF-OSEM. We used the Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO for the task of myocardial defect detection. We found that the detectability of a myocardial defect is almost entirely dependent on the noise level and the contrast between the defect and its surroundings.

  10. Myocardial defect detection using PET-CT: phantom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene S; El Fakhri, Georges; Schaefferkoetter, Joshua; Bonab, Ali A; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that both noise and activity distribution can have impact on the detectability of a myocardial defect in a cardiac PET study. In this work, we performed phantom studies to investigate the detectability of a defect in the myocardium for different noise levels and activity distributions. We evaluated the performance of three reconstruction schemes: Filtered Back-Projection (FBP), Ordinary Poisson Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OP-OSEM), and Point Spread Function corrected OSEM (PSF-OSEM). We used the Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) for the task of myocardial defect detection. We found that the detectability of a myocardial defect is almost entirely dependent on the noise level and the contrast between the defect and its surroundings.

  11. Improve mask inspection capacity with Automatic Defect Classification (ADC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Crystal; Ho, Steven; Guo, Eric; Wang, Kechang; Lakkapragada, Suresh; Yu, Jiao; Hu, Peter; Tolani, Vikram; Pang, Linyong

    2013-09-01

    As optical lithography continues to extend into low-k1 regime, resolution of mask patterns continues to diminish. The adoption of RET techniques like aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features combined with the requirements to detect even smaller defects on masks due to increasing MEEF, poses considerable challenges for mask inspection operators and engineers. Therefore a comprehensive approach is required in handling defects post-inspections by correctly identifying and classifying the real killer defects impacting the printability on wafer, and ignoring nuisance defect and false defects caused by inspection systems. This paper focuses on the results from the evaluation of Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) product at the SMIC mask shop for the 40nm technology node. Traditionally, each defect is manually examined and classified by the inspection operator based on a set of predefined rules and human judgment. At SMIC mask shop due to the significant total number of detected defects, manual classification is not cost-effective due to increased inspection cycle time, resulting in constrained mask inspection capacity, since the review has to be performed while the mask stays on the inspection system. Luminescent Technologies Automated Defect Classification (ADC) product offers a complete and systematic approach for defect disposition and classification offline, resulting in improved utilization of the current mask inspection capability. Based on results from implementation of ADC in SMIC mask production flow, there was around 20% improvement in the inspection capacity compared to the traditional flow. This approach of computationally reviewing defects post mask-inspection ensures no yield loss by qualifying reticles without the errors associated with operator mis-classification or human error. The ADC engine retrieves the high resolution inspection images and uses a decision-tree flow to classify a given defect. Some identification mechanisms adopted by ADC to

  12. Detection and correction of probe-level artefacts on microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Tobias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent large-scale analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO data found frequent evidence for spatial defects in a substantial fraction of Affymetrix microarrays in the GEO. Nevertheless, in contrast to quality assessment, artefact detection is not widely used in standard gene expression analysis pipelines. Furthermore, although approaches have been proposed to detect diverse types of spatial noise on arrays, the correction of these artefacts is mostly left to either summarization methods or the corresponding arrays are completely discarded. Results We show that state-of-the-art robust summarization procedures are vulnerable to artefacts on arrays and cannot appropriately correct for these. To address this problem, we present a simple approach to detect artefacts with high recall and precision, which we further improve by taking into account the spatial layout of arrays. Finally, we propose two correction methods for these artefacts that either substitute values of defective probes using probeset information or filter corrupted probes. We show that our approach can identify and correct defective probe measurements appropriately and outperforms existing tools. Conclusions While summarization is insufficient to correct for defective probes, this problem can be addressed in a straightforward way by the methods we present for identification and correction of defective probes. As these methods output CEL files with corrected probe values that serve as input to standard normalization and summarization procedures, they can be easily integrated into existing microarray analysis pipelines as an additional pre-processing step. An R package is freely available from http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/artefact-correction.

  13. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  14. [Health effects of artificial mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; De Vuyst, P

    1998-06-15

    Data from mortality studies in cohorts of workers employed in the production of man-made mineral fibres, where levels of exposure were generally low, show an excess of mortality by lung cancer, although the role of the fibres themselves remains unclear in this excess. Standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer was lower in glass-wool production workers than in rock-slag-wool workers. Preliminary data for refractory ceramic fibres-exposed workers suggest the occurrence of benign pleural diseases and obstructive functional defects. Attention should be paid to levels of exposure to various man-made mineral fibres encountered by end-users commonly exposed to peaks of fibre concentrations higher than production workers.

  15. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  16. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  17. Discrete torsion defects

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Ilka; Plencner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Orbifolding two-dimensional quantum field theories by a symmetry group can involve a choice of discrete torsion. We apply the general formalism of `orbifolding defects' to study and elucidate discrete torsion for topological field theories. In the case of Landau-Ginzburg models only the bulk sector had been studied previously, and we re-derive all known results. We also introduce the notion of `projective matrix factorisations', show how they naturally describe boundary and defect sectors, and we further illustrate the efficiency of the defect-based approach by explicitly computing RR charges. Roughly half of our results are not restricted to Landau-Ginzburg models but hold more generally, for any topological field theory. In particular we prove that for a pivotal bicategory, any two objects of its orbifold completion that have the same base are orbifold equivalent. Equivalently, from any orbifold theory (including those based on nonabelian groups) the original unorbifolded theory can be be obtained by orbifo...

  18. Mask Blank Defect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A; Sommargren, G E

    2000-02-04

    Mask blanks are the substrates that hold the master patterns for integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are semiconductor devices, such as microprocessors (mPs), dynamic random access memory (DRAMs), and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that are central to the computer, communication, and electronics industries. These devices are fabricated using a set of master patterns that are sequentially imaged onto light-sensitive coated silicon wafers and processed to form thin layers of insulating and conductive materials on top of the wafer. These materials form electrical paths and transistors that control the flow of electricity through the device. For the past forty years the semiconductor industry has made phenomenal improvements in device functionality, compactness, speed, power, and cost. This progress is principally due to the exponential decrease in the minimum feature size of integrated circuits, which has been reduced by a factor of {radical}2 every three years. Since 1992 the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has coordinated the efforts of producing a technology roadmap for semiconductors. In the latest document, ''The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: 1999'', future technology nodes (minimum feature sizes) and targeted dates were specified and are summarized in Table 1. Lithography is the imaging technology for producing a de-magnified image of the mask on the wafer. A typical de-magnification factor is 4. Mask blank defects as small as one-eighth the equivalent minimum feature size are printable and may cause device failure. Defects might be the result of the surface preparation, such as polishing, or contamination due to handling or the environment. Table 2 shows the maximum tolerable defect sizes on the mask blank for each technology node. This downward trend puts a tremendous burden on mask fabrication, particularly in the area of defect detection and reduction. A new infrastructure for mask

  19. Assessing EUV mask defectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Tchikoulaeva, Anna; Ackmann, Paul; Wood, Obert; La Fontaine, Bruno; Bubke, Karsten; Holfeld, Christian; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Kini, Sumanth; Watson, Sterling; Lee, Isaac; Mu, Bo; Lim, Phillip; Raghunathan, Sudhar; Boye, Carol

    2010-04-01

    This paper assesses the readiness of EUV masks for pilot line production. The printability of well characterized reticle defects, with particular emphasis on those reticle defects that cause electrical errors on wafer test chips, is investigated. The reticles are equipped with test marks that are inspected in a die-to-die mode (using DUV inspection tool) and reviewed (using a SEM tool), and which also comprise electrically testable patterns. The reticles have three modules comprising features with 32 nm ground rules in 104 nm pitch, 22 nm ground rules with 80 nm pitch, and 16 nm ground rules with 56 nm pitch (on the wafer scale). In order to determine whether specific defects originate from the substrate, the multilayer film, the absorber stack, or from the patterning process, the reticles were inspected after each fabrication step. Following fabrication, the reticles were used to print wafers on a 0.25 NA full-field ASML EUV exposure tool. The printed wafers were inspected with state of the art bright-field and Deep UV inspection tools. It is observed that the printability of EUV mask defects down to a pitch of 56 nm shows a trend of increased printability as the pitch of the printed pattern gets smaller - a well established trend at larger pitches of 80 nm and 104 nm, respectively. The sensitivity of state-of-the-art reticle inspection tools is greatly improved over that of the previous generation of tools. There appears to be no apparent decline in the sensitivity of these state-of-the-art reticle inspection tools for higher density (smaller) patterns on the mask, even down to 56nm pitch (1x). Preliminary results indicate that a blank defect density of the order of 0.25 defects/cm2 can support very early learning on EUV pilot line production at the 16nm node.

  20. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are insufficient at this time concerning neoplastic diseases in refractory ceramic fibres.

  1. Minerals in environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  2. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  3. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minerals your body needs. But if you're skipping meals, dieting, or if you're concerned that ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Healthy Breakfast Planner Nutrition & Fitness Center Vitamin D Figuring Out ...

  4. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  5. Supersymmetric k-defects

    CERN Document Server

    Koehn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In supersymmetric theories, topological defects can have nontrivial behaviors determined purely by whether or not supersymmetry is restored in the defect core. A well-known example of this is that some supersymmetric cosmic strings are automatically superconducting, leading to important cosmological effects and constraints. We investigate the impact of nontrivial kinetic interactions, present in a number of particle physics models of interest in cosmology, on the relationship between supersymmetry and supercurrents on strings. We find that in some cases it is possible for superconductivity to be disrupted by the extra interactions.

  6. Fatigue damage accumulation and lifetime prediction of defective C35 steel subjected to block loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallem Haifa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of both defect and loading sequence on fatigue damage accumulation of C35 steel containing artificial defects. Tests were carried out using fatigue samples with artificial spherical defects introduced at the surface. Tests were performed using two blocks loading under increasing and decreasing magnitude. The experimental results were compared to the damage calculated by the Miner rule. In the case of defective material; it is shown in both cases a minor influence of sequence’s effect. A lifetime prediction method is then developed to assess the residual lifetime of damaged defective material. The method is based on a multiaxial endurance criterion used to calculate the equivalent local stress distribution around the defect and to inject it in an uniaxial damage cumulative rule. Finally a comparison between experimental and theoretical results is performed. It is observed that the Mesmacque sequential law gives the most accurate lifetime prediction of defective specimens.

  7. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  8. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  9. Metric-based method of software requirements correctness improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremchuk Svitlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work highlights the most important principles of software reliability management (SRM. The SRM concept construes a basis for developing a method of requirements correctness improvement. The method assumes that complicated requirements contain more actual and potential design faults/defects. The method applies a newer metric to evaluate the requirements complexity and double sorting technique evaluating the priority and complexity of a particular requirement. The method enables to improve requirements correctness due to identification of a higher number of defects with restricted resources. Practical application of the proposed method in the course of demands review assured a sensible technical and economic effect.

  10. Keratoprotection treatment after excimerlaser vision correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Korotkikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational study of patients after excimerlaser vision correction by LASEK method.Purpose: to estimate efficacy HILOZAR-COMOD® solution in patients after excimerlaser vision correction.Patients and methods: We examined 80 eyes (40 patients after excimer laser correction by LASIK method. All patients were divided in 2 groups. The patients from the first group were treated with by standard drug’s scheme, included deprotein izing the dialysate from the blood of healthy dairy calves (Solkoseryl® eye gel. HILOZAR-COMOD ® was prescribed as cornea protector in the 2 group of patients.Results: In the first group complete cornea epitalization by biomicroscopy in 70 % eyes after 48 hours of excimerlaser vision correction was found. Minimal unepitalization areas were diagnosed in 30 % (12 eyes. In the second group complete cornea epitalization was found in 82,5 % eyes (33 eyes in the same term after excimerlaser correction. Cornea epitelium defects in optical area were diagnosed in the17,5 % eyes. The difference between number of patients with cornea epitelium defects first and second groups was 12,5 %. 97,5 % patients (39 eyes of second group (HILOZAR-COMOD ® had complete cornea epitelization after 72 hours of excimer laser correction. In the same term unepitelization areas were found in 3 eyes (7,5 % in patients of first group. It was to 5 % more than in the first group, where dexpantenol and hyaluronic acid was used (complete cornea epitalization in first group was found in 37 eyes.Conclusions: The combined medicine included dexpantenol and hyaluronic acid decreases intensity of the dry eye symptoms, stimulate quick and full cornea healing and decrease the risk of postoperative complications risk.

  11. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  12. Defect detection for end surface of ferrite magnetic tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayuan; Wang, Yuwei; Wang, Keyi

    2016-09-01

    A visual automatic detection method is proposed for defect detection on end surface of ferrite magnetic tile to tackle the disadvantages generated by human work which has low efficiency and unstable accuracy. Because the defects on end surface of ferrite magnetic tile with dark colors and low contrasts are negative for defect detection, uniform illumination is provided by LED light source and a dedicated optical system is designed to extract defects conveniently. The approach uses comparison of the fitting and actual edge curves to detect defects mainly with most defects located on the edge. Firstly improved adaptive median filter is used as the image preprocessing. Subsequently the appropriate threshold is calculated by Otsu algorithm based on the extreme points in the gray-level histogram to segment the preprocessing image. Then the Sobel operator can be used to extract the edge of end surface precisely. Finally through comparing the ideal fitting and actual edge curves of end surface, to detect the defects with some relevant features. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme could detect defects on the end surface of ferrite magnetic tile efficiency and accurately with 93.33% accuracy rate, 2.30% false acceptance rate and 8.45% correct rejection rate.

  13. Congenital Heart Defects in Adults : A Field Guide for Cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romfh, Anitra; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Porayette, Prashob; Valente, Anne Marie; Sanders, Stephen P

    2012-06-15

    Advances in cardiology and cardiac surgery allow a large proportion of patients with congenital heart defects to survive into adulthood. These patients frequently develop complications characteristic of the defect or its treatment. Consequently, adult cardiologists participating in the care of these patients need a working knowledge of the more common defects. Occasionally, patients with congenital heart defects such as atrial septal defect, Ebstein anomaly or physiologically corrected transposition of the great arteries present for the first time in adulthood. More often patients previously treated in pediatric cardiology centers have transitioned to adult congenital heart disease centers for ongoing care. Some of the more important defects in this category are tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, functionally single ventricle defects, and coarctation. Through this field guide, we provide an overview of the anatomy of selected defects commonly seen in an adult congenital practice using pathology specimens and clinical imaging studies. In addition, we describe the physiology, clinical presentation to the adult cardiologist, possible complications, treatment options, and outcomes.

  14. Point Defect Phenomena of Crystalline Structure in Some Common Structural Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Yu-Zhong; WU Ren-Ping; YU Yan

    2005-01-01

    The existence and its movement rule of crystalline structure defect are closely related to the diffusion, solid phase reaction, sintering, phase transformation as well as the physical and chemical properties of materials. Point defect theory has been widely applied in material mineralization research, unfavorable transformation controlling, material modification,the research and development of new materials and so on. Point defect theory is one of the important theories for new material research and development. Herein we mainly discuss the application of point defect theory in some structural material researches.

  15. Diophantine Correct Open Induction

    CERN Document Server

    Raffer, Sidney

    2010-01-01

    We give an induction-free axiom system for diophantine correct open induction. We relate the problem of whether a finitely generated ring of Puiseux polynomials is diophantine correct to a problem about the value-distribution of a tuple of semialgebraic functions with integer arguments. We use this result, and a theorem of Bergelson and Leibman on generalized polynomials, to identify a class of diophantine correct subrings of the field of descending Puiseux series with real coefficients.

  16. Magnetic Resonance of Defects in Heteroepitaxial Semiconductor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-11

    Resistivity of Low-Temperature MBE GaAs," in: Semi-Insulating II/V Materials 1990, Eds. A.G. Milnes and C.J. Miner ( Adam Hilger, Bristol 1990), p. 111. 6...Resistivity of Low-Temperature MBE GaAs," in: Semi-Insulating III/V Materials 1990, Eds. A.G. Milnes and C.J. Miner ( Adam Hilger, Bristol 1990), p...and Temperature on the Structure of Low-Temperature GaAs, Z Liliental- Weber, A. Claverie, P. Werner, W. Schaff , and E. R. Weber, in: Defects in

  17. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  18. Expression of Phosphate Transporters during Dental Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merametdjian, L; Beck-Cormier, S; Bon, N; Couasnay, G; Sourice, S; Guicheux, J; Gaucher, C; Beck, L

    2017-09-01

    The importance of phosphate (Pi) as an essential component of hydroxyapatite crystals suggests a key role for membrane proteins controlling Pi uptake during mineralization in the tooth. To clarify the involvement of the currently known Pi transporters (Slc17a1, Slc34a1, Slc34a2, Slc34a3, Slc20a1, Slc20a2, and Xpr1) during tooth development and mineralization, we determined their spatiotemporal expression in murine tooth germs from embryonic day 14.5 to postnatal day 15 and in human dental samples from Nolla stages 6 to 9. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and X-gal staining, we showed that the expression of Slc17a1, Slc34a1, and Slc34a3 in tooth germs from C57BL/6 mice were very low. In contrast, Slc34a2, Slc20a1, Slc20a2, and Xpr1 were highly expressed, mostly during the postnatal stages. The expression of Slc20a2 was 2- to 10-fold higher than the other transporters. Comparable results were obtained in human tooth germs. In mice, Slc34a2 and Slc20a1 were predominantly expressed in ameloblasts but not odontoblasts, while Slc20a2 was detected neither in ameloblasts nor in odontoblasts. Rather, Slc20a2 was highly expressed in the stratum intermedium and the subodontoblastic cell layer. Although Slc20a2 knockout mice did not show enamel defects, mutant mice showed a disrupted dentin mineralization, displaying unmerged calcospherites at the mineralization front. This latter phenotypical finding raises the possibility that Slc20a2 may play an indirect role in regulating the extracellular Pi availability for mineralizing cells rather than a direct role in mediating Pi transport through mineralizing plasma cell membranes. By documenting the spatiotemporal expression of Pi transporters in the tooth, our data support the possibility that the currently known Pi transporters may be dispensable for the initiation of dental mineralization and may rather be involved later during the tooth mineralization scheme.

  19. The effect of postural correction and subsequent balloon inflation in deformity correction of acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Cong; Shang, Ping; Shen, Yue; Xu, Hua-Zi

    2014-06-01

    To determine deformity correction by postural correction and subsequent balloon inflation in acute vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) and to examine the effect of bone mineral density on deformity correction. A totol of 50 acute OVCFs received balloon kyphoplasty. Lateral radiographs were taken and analyzed at five different time points : 1) preoperative, 2) after placing the patient in prone hyperextended position, 3) after balloon inflation, 4) after deposition of the cement, and 5) postoperative. All fractures were analyzed for height restoration of anterior (Ha), middle (Hm) and posterior (Hp) vertebra as well as Cobb angle and Kyphotic angle. The bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. According to the T-score, the patients were divided into two groups which were osteoporosis group and osteopenia group. Postoperative measurements of Ha, Hm and the Cobb angle demonstrated significant reduction of 4.62 mm, 3.66 mm and 5.34° compared with the preoperative measurements, respectively (each pPostural correction significantly increased Ha by 5.51 mm, Hm by 4.35 mm and improved the Cobb angle by 8.32° (each pPostural correction led to greater improvements of Ha, Hm and Cobb angle in osteoporosis group than osteopenia group (each ppostural correction rather than deformity correction by balloon inflation. BMD affected deformity correction in the process of postural correction.

  20. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  1. Calcium sulphate as a bone substitute for various osseous defects in conjunction with apicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Y; Yoshikawa, G; Wadachi, R; Sawada, N; Suda, H

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium sulphate on various osseous defects when used in conjunction with apicectomy. Mandibular third and fourth premolars of 11 beagle dogs were used. After root-canal treatment and apicectomy, three types of osseous defects were prepared on both sides of the mandible as follows: type 1, osseous defect communicating with the gingival sulcus: type 2, large osseous defect including two roots; type 3, 'through and through' osseous defect. The experimental side was allocated randomly, and the osseous defects were filled with medical grade calcium sulphate. The defects on the opposite side were left unfilled as controls. The dogs were sacrificed at 8 and 16 weeks postoperatively. Undemineralized sections were obtained and examined histomorphometrically. In type 1 defects, bone was not observed on the buccal side of the root on either experimental or control side at 8 and 16 weeks. In both type 2 and 3 defects, bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) values on the experimental side were significantly higher than those on the control side (P < 0.01), and mineral apposition rate (MAR) values on the experimental side were significantly higher than those on the control side (P < 0.01). The use of calcium sulphate was effective in bone regeneration on both large osseous defects and 'through and through' osseous defects. It was less effective in osseous defects communicating with the gingival sulcus.

  2. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  3. Horizontal right axillary minithoracotomy: aesthetic and effective option for atrial and ventricular septal defect repair in infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana da Fonseca da Silva; José Pedro da Silva; Turquetto,Aida L R; Sonia Meiken Franchi; Cascudo,Cybelle M; Rodrigo Moreira Castro; Walter José Gomes; Christian Schreiber

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Congenital heart defects treatment shows progressive reduction in morbidity and mortality, however, the scar, resulting from ventricular (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD) repair, may cause discomfort. Right axillary minithoracotomy approach, by avoiding the breast growth region, is an option for correction of these defects that may provide better aesthetic results at low cost. Since October 2011, we have been using this technique for repairing VSD and ASD defects as well as as...

  4. Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis for Hyperopic Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Novoa Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: currently, LASIK is one of the most common surgical procedures for refractive disorders, including hyperopic defects. Objective: to assess the results of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis for the treatment of hyperopic defects. Methods: an ambispective study was conducted in 31 eyes (16 patients operated on for hyperopia and simple and compound hyperopic astigmatism in the Refractive Surgery Unit of the Ophthalmology Department of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. Visual acuity with and without optical correction, spherical and astigmatic component before and after surgery and intra- and postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: patients aged 40 to 49 years predominated; compound hyperopic astigmatism was the most frequent defect; the mean uncorrected visual acuity improved and remained stable up to six months after surgery; the average values were 0.87 for moderate defects and 0.79 for high defects with optical correction. The mean sphero-cylindrical component decreased. The efficacy and safety rates were acceptable for moderate and high degrees of the defects and predictability was 100 % for all degrees of ametropia. Conclusion: LASIK is a safe, effective and predictable procedure to treat patients with moderate and high degrees hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism.

  5. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors.

  6. Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.

  7. Appositional bone formation in marginal defects at implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, Daniele; Berglundh, Tord; Buser, Daniel; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-02-01

    In a previous experiment, it was demonstrated that a wide marginal defect around an implant can heal with a high degree of osseointegration. The present experiment was performed to evaluate the degree and quality of de novo bone formation and osseointegration in marginal defects adjacent to submerged titanium implants. All mandibular premolars and 1st molars were extracted in four Labrador dogs. Four experimental sites were identified in the right side of the mandible. In two sites, custom-made implants with a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface were installed without further ostectomy (control sites). In the two remaining sites (test sites), a specially designed step drill was used to widen the marginal 5 mm of the canal. A barrier membrane was used to cover the implants in the defect sites. All implants were submerged. One month later, an identical procedure, including site preparation and implant installation, was performed in the left side of the mandible. Two months following the first implant installation procedure, biopsies were collected and prepared for sectioning. Ostectomy and implant installation in the control location resulted in a series of bone tissue alterations which eventually allowed newly formed bone to establish contact with the SLA surface. The marginal defect lateral to the implant in the test locations gradually became filled with newly formed bone. De novo bone formation started within the walls of the surgically prepared defect. Bone-to-implant contact was first established in the apical portion of the gap. This new bone tissue was in the coronal direction continuous with a dense, non-mineralized 'implant attached' soft tissue which, over time, also became mineralized to increase the height of the zone of bone-to-implant contact. The results suggest that healing of a wide marginal defect around an implant is characterized by appositional bone growth from the lateral and apical bone walls of the defect.

  8. Pullulan/dextran/nHA macroporous composite beads for bone repair in a femoral condyle defect in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Schlaubitz

    Full Text Available The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300-500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site.

  9. CORRECTING WRITTEN WORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction During the teaching and learning process, teachers often check how much students have understood through written assignments. In this article I’d like to describe one method of correcting students’ written work by using a variety of symbols to indicate where students have gone wrong, then asking students to correct their work themselves.

  10. Thorium in mineral products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  11. Laparoscopic repair of a small bowel herniation through a broad ligament defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buero, Agustín; Silberman, Ezequiel A.; Medina, Pablo; Morra, Matias E.; Bogetti, Diego J.; Porto, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old female presented with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction from unknown origin. Laparoscopy revealed herniation of small bowel trough a defect in the left broad ligament. After reduction, the defect was corrected laparoscopically. The post operative recovery was uneventful. PMID:25013338

  12. Laparoscopic repair of a small bowel herniation through a broad ligament defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Buero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 44-year-old female presented with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction from unknown origin. Laparoscopy revealed herniation of small bowel trough a defect in the left broad ligament. After reduction, the defect was corrected laparoscopically. The post operative recovery was uneventful.

  13. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F caused by a defect in a structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sijbers (Anneke); W.L. de Laat (Wouter); R.A. Ariza (Rafael); M. Biggerstaff (Maureen); Y-F. Wei; J.G. Moggs (Jonathan); K.C. Carter (Kenneth); B.K. Shell (Brenda); E. Evans (Elizabeth); M.C. de Jong (Mariska); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); J.D. de Rooij (Johan); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.D. Wood (Richard)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair, which is defective in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), involves incision of a DNA strand on each side of a lesion. We isolated a human gene homologous to yeast Rad1 and found that it corrects the repair defects of XP group F as well as rodent groups 4 and 11. Causa

  14. Laparoscopic repair of a small bowel herniation through a broad ligament defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buero, Agustín; Silberman, Ezequiel A; Medina, Pablo; Morra, Matias E; Bogetti, Diego J; Porto, Eduardo A

    2014-07-01

    A 44-year-old female presented with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction from unknown origin. Laparoscopy revealed herniation of small bowel trough a defect in the left broad ligament. After reduction, the defect was corrected laparoscopically. The post operative recovery was uneventful.

  15. Defects and boundary RG flows in $\\mathbb{C}/\\mathbb{Z}_d$

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Melanie; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We show that topological defects in the language of Landau-Ginzburg models carry information about the RG flow between the non-compact orbifolds $\\mathbb{C}/\\mathbb{Z}_d$. We show that such defects correctly implement the bulk-induced RG flow on the boundary.

  16. 7 CFR 1924.265 - Eligibility for compensation for construction defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards in effect at the time the loan was approved or the conditional commitment was issued, or (iv) The... pay for repairs; (ii) To compensate the owner for repairs; (iii) To pay emergency living or other... obligation of the contractor to correct the defect(s) under a contractor's warranty must have expired, or...

  17. Types of Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart develops. Examples of Simple Congenital Heart Defects Holes in the Heart (Septal Defects) The septum is ... Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US National Institutes of Health ...

  18. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Aug 29,2017 ... the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: Adults with ...

  19. The influence of chain defects on the crystallisation behaviour of isotactic polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. van der Meer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of the α-, β-and γ-phases of isotactic polypropylene were studied for welldefined and fully characterized polymers with varying amounts of stereo- and regio-defects. The specimens enabled us to study separately the influence of the type of chain defect and the concentration of defects on the parameters of interest. A combined defect fraction (CDF was introduced to describe arbitrary iPP samples with a varying amount of stereo- and regio-defects and a combination thereof. Crystal growth rates were found to decrease linearly with the defect fraction and were substantially stronger influenced by regio-defects as compared with stereo-defects. The deceleration of the growth rate of the β-phase is higher compared to the α-phase with increasing defect fraction. We also found a critical defect fraction, (Xcrit for which the growth rates of the α- and β-phases are equal. Analysis of the crystallization was performed using the model of Sanchez and Eby. Results of the analysis are in good agreement with the results found for the samples with a variation in the number of stereo-defects. The excess free energy for incorporating a stereo-defect into the trigonal crystal lattice of the β-phase is lower as compared with the α-phase. The theory correctly predicts the critical defect fraction, for which the growth rate of the α- and β-phase is equal.

  20. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  1. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  2. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taking a multivitamin important before and during pregnancy? Prenatal vitamin supplements contain the recommended amounts of the vitamins and minerals you will need during your pregnancy, such as vitamins A, C, and D; folic acid ; and minerals ...

  3. Wetting on smooth micropatterned defects

    OpenAIRE

    Debuisson, Damien; Dufour, Renaud; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model which predicts the contact angle hysteresis introduced by smooth micropatterned defects. The defects are modeled by a smooth function and the contact angle hysteresis is explained using a tangent line solution. When the liquid micro-meniscus touches both sides of the defect simultaneously, depinning of the contact line occurs. The defects are fabricated using a photoresist and experimental results confirm the model. An important point is that the model is scale-independent,...

  4. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  5. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Congenital Heart Defects KidsHealth > For Parents > Congenital Heart Defects A A A What's in this article? How ... a Problem en español Anomalías cardíacas congénitas A congenital heart defect is a problem in the heart's structure that ...

  6. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Rohold, A.; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin...

  7. Nanofiltration renovation of mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodzek Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO42- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2, recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO42- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L. As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO42- ions was obtained (79-98.7%, while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88% and magnesium (84-89% has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from

  8. Dermal graft correction of extraordinary chordee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, S J; Reda, E F; Smey, P L; Levitt, S B

    1983-11-01

    Severe degrees of primary chordee and persistent or recurrent chordee following previous surgical attempts at correction present a challenging problem. Inadequate resection of involved tissues, which may involve all layers of the penile investiture, or recurrent scarring of the ventral skin, Buck's fascia and tunica albuginea is usually the cause. Reoperation to achieve penile straightening often is unsuccessful unless all chordee-bearing tissue is resected extensively. Excision of large segments of tunica albuginea or wide separation of the margins creates a defect that tends to heal by dense scarring unless the defect is bridged by a graft. Various autogenous materials have been used, including blood vessel, fascia, free fat graft, dermis and tunica albuginea, as well as prosthestic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, with varying results. A series of patients with extensive chordee is presented in whom tunical resection was necessary to achieve penile straightening. The results of free dermal graft replacement of the tunica are reported.

  9. Metabolic correction for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A biochemical-physiological therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikirova NA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: This investigation was undertaken to determine the reference values of specific biochemical markers that have been have been associated with behavior typical of ADHD in a group of patients before and after metabolic correction.Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD affects approximately two million American children, and this condition has grown to become the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, the cause of the condition, once called hyperkinesis, is not known.The cause of ADHD is generally acknowledged to be multifactorial, involving both biological and environmental influence. Molecular, genetic, and pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of the neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Polymorphic variants in several genes involved in regulation of dopamine have been identified, and related neurotransmitter pathways alterations are reported to be associated with the disease.Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in fatty acids (EPA, DHA, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Materials/Methods: This study was based on data extracted from our patient history database covering a period of over ten years. We performed laboratory tests in 116 patients 2.7-25 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD. Sixty-six percent (66% of patients were males. Patients were followed from 3 month to 3 years. We compared the distributions of fatty acids, essential metals, and the levels of metabolic stress factors with established reference ranges before and after interventions. In addition, we analyzed the association between toxic metal concentrations and the levels of essential metals.Results: This study was based

  10. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  11. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  12. Mixtures and mineral reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, S.; Ganguly, J.

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a basis of such analysis, with examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems.

  13. Bioleaching of Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  14. Quantum Corrections to Scattering Amplitude in Conical Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the vacuum polarization of zero-point field arises around a conical singularity generated by an infinite, straight cosmic string. In this paper we study quantum electromagnetic corrections to the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect around a cosmic string. We find the scattering amplitude from a conical defect for charged Klein-Gordon field.

  15. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting protein from Calf Thymus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.M. Eker (André); W. Vermeulen (Wim); N. Miura; K. Tanaka (Kiyoji); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA proteinous factor was purified from calf thymus and HeLa cells, which specifically corrects the excision repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) cells. Recovery of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis after microinjection of XP-A cells was used as a quanti

  16. Caesarean section in a parturient with Carpenter syndrome and corrected Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, M; Grange, C

    2013-07-01

    Carpenter syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder characterized by craniofacial malformations, syndactyly, cardiac defects and obesity. Even after surgical correction of cardiac abnormalities, intrapartum care of a parturient with this condition can be challenging because of progression of residual cardiac defects compounded by the haemodynamic changes of pregnancy. We describe the anaesthetic management for caesarean section of a parturient with Carpenter syndrome and corrected Tetralogy of Fallot. Additional complicating issues included worsening cardiac function, asthma, needle-phobia and osteoarthritis.

  17. Probabilistic quantum error correction

    CERN Document Server

    Fern, J; Fern, Jesse; Terilla, John

    2002-01-01

    There are well known necessary and sufficient conditions for a quantum code to correct a set of errors. We study weaker conditions under which a quantum code may correct errors with probabilities that may be less than one. We work with stabilizer codes and as an application study how the nine qubit code, the seven qubit code, and the five qubit code perform when there are errors on more than one qubit. As a second application, we discuss the concept of syndrome quality and use it to suggest a way that quantum error correction can be practically improved.

  18. Wetting on smooth micropatterned defects

    CERN Document Server

    Debuisson, Damien; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model which predicts the contact angle hysteresis introduced by smooth micropatterned defects. The defects are modeled by a smooth function and the contact angle hysteresis is explained using a tangent line solution. When the liquid micro-meniscus touches both sides of the defect simultaneously, depinning of the contact line occurs. The defects are fabricated using a photoresist and experimental results confirm the model. An important point is that the model is scale-independent, i.e. the contact angle hysteresis is dependent on the aspect ratio of the function, not on its absolute size; this could have implications for natural surface defects.

  19. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  1. Defect Recognition in Thermosonic Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dapeng; WU Naiming; ZHANG Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This work is aimed at developing an effective method for defect recognition in thermosonic imaging.The heat mechanism of thermosonic imaging is introduced,and the problem for defect recognition is discussed.For this purpose,defect existing in the inner wall of a metal pipeline specimen and defects embedded in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate are tested.The experimental data are processed by pulse phase thermography (PPT) method to show the phase images at different frequencies,and the characteristic of phase angle vs frequency curve of thermal anomalies and sound area is analyzed.A binary image,which is based on the characteristic value of defects,is obtained by a new recognition algorithm to show the defects.Results demonstrate good defect recognition performance for thermosonic imaging,and the reliability of this technique can be improved by the method.

  2. Chronic Kidney Disease Impairs Bone Defect Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqing; Kang, Ning; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Dong, Yuliang; Zhou, Liyan; Lin, Yunfeng; Ye, Ling; Liang, Xing; Yuan, Quan

    2016-03-09

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a risk for bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CKD on bone defect repair in rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal renal ablation, and serum levels of BUN and PTH were significantly elevated four weeks after the second renal surgery. Calvarial defects of 5-mm diameter were created and implanted with or without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM). Micro-CT and histological analyses consistently revealed a decreased newly regenerated bone volume for CKD rats after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, 1.4-mm-diameter cortical bone defects were established in the distal end of femora and filled with gelatin sponge. CKD rats exhibited significantly lower values of regenerated bone and bone mineral density (BMD) within the cortical gap after 2 and 4 weeks. Moreover, histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in both osteoblast number (N.Ob/B.Pm) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/B.Pm) in CKD groups due to hyperparathyroidism. Notably, collagen maturation was delayed in CKD rats as verified by Masson's Trichrome staining. These data indicate that declined renal function negatively affects bone regeneration in both calvarial and femoral defects.

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  4. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  5. Corrected Age for Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  6. [The endovascular correction of aortic coarctation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkov, E D; Silin, V A; Sukhov, V K

    1992-03-01

    The endovascular balloon dilatation of the aorta coarctation performed on indications and at the optimal terms is the radical correction of the defect with a pronounced positive effect in 90% of 43 patients. No aneurysms and restenoses were found. Retained collaterals allow avoidance of the abdominal syndrome and paradoxical hypertension. Contraindications for catheter angioplasty are thought to include agenesia or considerable hypoplasia of the aorta, the absence of the aorta lumen in the zone of coarctation, its considerable length and the presence of prestenotic aneurysms. A short and noncomplicated postoperative period makes the method sufficiently economical.

  7. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  8. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  9. Correctness is not enough

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The usual aim of spreadsheet audit is to verify correctness. There are two problems with this: first, it is often difficult to tell whether the spreadsheets in question are correct, and second, even if they are, they may still give the wrong results. These problems are explained in this paper, which presents the key criteria for judging a spreadsheet and discusses how those criteria can be achieved

  10. Adaptable DC offset correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  11. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  12. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Elisa; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  13. Topological defect lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Knitter, Sebastian; Xiong, Wen; Guy, Mikhael I; Solomon, Glenn S; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate topological defect lasers in a GaAs membrane with embedded InAs quantum dots. By introducing a disclination to a square-lattice of elliptical air holes, we obtain spatially confined optical resonances with high quality factor. Such resonances support powerflow vortices, and lase upon optical excitation of quantum dots, embedded in the structure. The spatially inhomogeneous variation of the unit cell orientation adds another dimension to the control of a lasing mode, enabling the manipulation of its field pattern and energy flow landscape.

  14. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  15. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    The sea floor of the continental margins of India is covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous, and chemogenous mineral deposits. Terrigenous heavy mineral placers containing ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, zircon, and rutile are reported...

  16. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  17. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  18. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  19. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  20. Dipole defects in beryl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R, E-mail: bruna.holanda@usp.br, E-mail: renan.cordeiro@usp.br, E-mail: anablak@if.usp.br

    2010-11-15

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 18}) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  1. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  2. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  3. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  4. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    by mechanical concentration and natural gravity separation of mineral particles derived from weathered rocks. The formation of placers requires factors such as: climate, source rock, weathering, transport, deposition, concentration, high specific gravity... and transport of the rocks. For example, in cold and glaciated regions, there would be limited physical weathering and less concentration and more dispersion of the weathered material and placers would not FE AT U R E FE AT U R E A RT IC LE form...

  5. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  6. Characterization of mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Biraja P; Silva, Emilio; Van Vliet, Krystyn; Gibson, Lorna J

    2008-05-01

    Mineralized collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds designed for bone regeneration have been synthesized via triple co-precipitation in the absence of a titrant phase. Here, we characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of these newly developed scaffolds with 50 and 75 wt.% mineral content. The 50 wt.% scaffold had an equiaxed pore structure with isotropic mechanical properties and a Ca-P-rich mineral phase comprised of brushite; the 75 wt.% scaffold had a bilayer structure with a pore size varying in the through-thickness direction and a mineral phase comprised of 67% brushite and 33 wt.% monetite. The compressive stress-strain response of the scaffolds was characteristic of low-density open-cell foams with distinct linear elastic, collapse plateau and densification regimes. The elastic modulus and strength of individual struts within the scaffolds were measured using an atomic force microscopy cantilevered beam-bending technique and compared with the composite response under indentation and unconfined compression. Cellular solids models, using the measured strut properties, overestimated the overall mechanical properties for the scaffolds; the discrepancy arises from defects such as disconnected pore walls within the scaffold. As the scaffold stiffness and strength decreased with increasing overall mineral content and were less than that of natural, mineralized collagen scaffolds, these microstructural/mechanical relations will be used to further improve scaffold design for bone regeneration applications.

  7. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  8. Polymer-mediated mesoscale mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShaoFeng; YU ShuHong

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-controlled mineralization in aqueous solution or in a mixed solvent media, as well as its com-bination with the interface of air-water can lead to the formation of minerals with unique structures and morphologies, which sheds light on the possibility to mimic the detailed structures of the natural min-erals.

  9. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  10. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  11. Fabric defect detection using the wavelet transform in an ARM processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. A.; Orjuela, S. A.; Álvarez, J.; Philips, W.

    2012-01-01

    Small devices used in our day life are constructed with powerful architectures that can be used for industrial applications when requiring portability and communication facilities. We present in this paper an example of the use of an embedded system, the Zeus epic 520 single board computer, for defect detection in textiles using image processing. We implement the Haar wavelet transform using the embedded visual C++ 4.0 compiler for Windows CE 5. The algorithm was tested for defect detection using images of fabrics with five types of defects. An average of 95% in terms of correct defect detection was obtained, achieving a similar performance than using processors with float point arithmetic calculations.

  12. Application of Thermoluminescence Techniques to Mineral Exploration-Principles and Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The phenomena of TL are connected with the defect structures of the atomic lattice of the material concerned, and hence are very sensitive to changes in defection of the country rocks status as induced by the mineralizing solution. In other words, the TL of the country rocks from the mineralized area should be quite different from that in the intact barren area. Besides the high sensitivity as mentioned above, advantages of the application of TL techniques to the mineral exploration the easiness in accessing to proper samples, the easy preparation of samples and the quickness in sample processing all amount to convenience and economy of the techniques, indicating the high competitiveness of the TL mineral exploration method, especially during the development stage of mining operations.

  13. Learning-Based Topological Correction for Infant Cortical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shijie; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Meng, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of topologically correct and accurate cortical surfaces from infant MR images is of great importance in neuroimaging mapping of early brain development. However, due to rapid growth and ongoing myelination, infant MR images exhibit extremely low tissue contrast and dynamic appearance patterns, thus leading to much more topological errors (holes and handles) in the cortical surfaces derived from tissue segmentation results, in comparison to adult MR images which typically have good tissue contrast. Existing methods for topological correction either rely on the minimal correction criteria, or ad hoc rules based on image intensity priori, thus often resulting in erroneous correction and large anatomical errors in reconstructed infant cortical surfaces. To address these issues, we propose to correct topological errors by learning information from the anatomical references, i.e., manually corrected images. Specifically, in our method, we first locate candidate voxels of topologically defected regions by using a topology-preserving level set method. Then, by leveraging rich information of the corresponding patches from reference images, we build region-specific dictionaries from the anatomical references and infer the correct labels of candidate voxels using sparse representation. Notably, we further integrate these two steps into an iterative framework to enable gradual correction of large topological errors, which are frequently occurred in infant images and cannot be completely corrected using one-shot sparse representation. Extensive experiments on infant cortical surfaces demonstrate that our method not only effectively corrects the topological defects, but also leads to better anatomical consistency, compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rchard D. Miles

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta, tamanho da partícula, interações com outros minerais e nutrientes, agentes quelantes, inibidores, estado fisiológico do animal, qualidade da água, condições de processamento ao qual ingredientes individuais ou uma dieta completa foram expostos e, é óbvio, a idade e a espécie animal. Quando um mineral-traço é ingerido, sua biodisponibilidade é influenciada por propriedades específicas do mineral da maneira como está incluído na dieta. Por exemplo, sua valência e forma molecular (orgânica versus inorgânica são importantes. Por causa dessas propriedades específicas, o mineral pode formar complexos com outros componentes no intestino, o que pode dificultar ou facilitar a absorção pela mucosa, o transporte ou o metabolismo do mineral no organismo. É bem conhecido que certos minerais em sua forma inorgânica competem com outros minerais por sítios de ligação e por absorção no intestino. O conhecimento sobre a biodisponibilidade dos minerais-traço nos ingredientes e fontes suplementares é importante para a formulação econômica de uma ração para garantir ótimo desempenho animal. A biodisponibilidade deve ser entendida como um valor “estimado” que reflete a absorção e a utilização do mineral sobre condições de um experimento específico e não de uma propriedade inerente e específica de um ingrediente ou suplemento de ração. Com a tecnologia disponível, a determinação da biodisponibilidade dentro de

  15. CORRECTING STUDENTS’ HOMEWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionI have been teaching English for ten years and like many other teachers in middle schools.I teach threebig classes each year.Before I had the opportunity to further my study in the SMSTT project run jointlyby the British Council and the State Education Commission of China at Southwest China TeachersUniversity.I found it somewhat difficult to correct students homework since I had so many students.Now I still have three big classes.but I have found it casier to correct students homework since I havebeen combining the techniques learned in the project with my own successful experience.In this article.I attempt to discuss my approach to correcting students homework.I hope that it will be of some use tothose who have not vet had the opportunity to further their training.

  16. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  17. Defects in new protective aprons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaze, S.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Bushong, S.C.

    1984-07-01

    Upon careful examination, several defects have been detected in new protective aprons. The nature of the defects is identified and described. Although the occurrence of such defects has not exceeded 5%, they are significant enough to warrant return of the lead apron to the supplier. It is recommended that the integrity of all new protective aprons be verified upon receipt as well as at yearly intervals.

  18. Quantitative Characterization Guidelines of Erionite Series Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, A.; Dogan, M.

    2013-05-01

    Erionite is a major health problem where contaminates an environment, which human population exists. Erionite - mesothelioma relationship was first observed in Turkey in 1980's and now the problem is emerging in other places in the world including Mexico. In the past, there have been in vivo or in vitro biological experiments performed using "not correctly characterized" erionite minerals. In addition, in 1997, the erionite was elevated to series status and new erionite minerals - erionite-Na, -K, -Ca - have been proposed. In 2008, erionite characterization guidelines have been proposed (Dogan and Dogan, 2008) and using these criteria, published data was re-evaluated and re-classified; and new mean chemical formula of erionite-Na, -K, -Ca was proposed. If data do not pass the E% and Mg-tests, then any reference to them in the literature is proposed to be disregarded. In some cases, different results have been reported for erionites from the same location by different authors. In these cases, if data do pass both tests but are characterized as from more than one type of erionite, then the mineral should be classified as "undifferentiated" until further clarification. Therefore, we propose (i) Erionite should be correctly characterized using proposed "positive" identification guidelines. (ii) Erionite species (whether it is -Na or -K or -Ca) should be correctly identified. (iii) There should be a close collaboration between medical community researchers and mineralogists in this field so that animal and cell experiments should be performed only with minerals that have passed "positive" identification tests. (iv) An international data bank should be established at one of the mineralogical societies and new data must be evaluated rigorously before being accepted. (v) Regulatory Agencies should ensure that the proposed guidelines for "positive" identification of erionite series minerals, both for a single fiber and a bulk mineral, are followed closely. (vi) Finally, the

  19. Correction of ocular dystopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, I P

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine results with elective surgical correction of enophthalmos. The study was a retrospective assessment in a university-based referral practice. A consecutive sample of 10 patients who developed ocular dystopia following orbital trauma was examined. The main outcome measures were a subjective evaluation by patients and objective measurements of patients' eye position. The intervention was three-dimensional orbital reconstruction with titanium plates. It is concluded that satisfactory correction of enophthalmos and ocular dystopia can be achieved with elective surgery using titanium plates. In addition, intraoperative measurements of eye position in three planes increases the precision of surgery.

  20. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  1. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    and with other experimental methods (in particular transmission electron microscopy) forms the basis for the use of PAS to quantitatively characterize defects and defect complexes, both visible and invisible is transmission electron microscopes: this is illustrated by some examples. Finally, the advantages...

  2. [Usefulness of attenuation correction with transmission source in myocardial SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Keizo; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Sago, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi

    2006-01-20

    Attenuation correction in SPECT has been used for uniformly absorptive objects like the head. On the other hand, it has seldom been applied to nonuniform absorptive objects like the heart and surrounding lungs because of the difficulty and inaccuracy of data processing. However, since attenuation correction using a transmission source recently became practical, we were able to apply this method to a nonuniform absorptive object. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of this attenuation correction system with a transmission source in myocardial SPECT. The dose linearity, defect/normal ratio using a myocardial phantom, and myocardial count distribution in clinical cases was examined with and without the attenuation correction system. We found that all data processed with attenuation correction were better than those without attenuation correction. For example, in myocardial count distribution, while there was a difference between men and women without attenuation correction, which was considered to be caused by differences in body shape, after processing with attenuation correction, myocardial count distribution was almost the same in all cases. In conclusion, these results suggested that attenuation correction with a transmission source was useful in myocardial SPECT.

  3. Background Defect Density Reduction Using Automated Defect Inspection And Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirauch, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    Yield maintenance and improvement is a major area of concern in any integrated circuit manufacturing operation. A major aspect of this concern is controlling and reducing defect density. Obviously, large defect excursions must be immediately addressed in order to maintain yield levels. However, to enhance yields, the subtle defect mechanisms must be reduced or eliminated as well. In-line process control inspections are effective for detecting large variations in the defect density on a real time basis. Examples of in-line inspection strategies include after develop or after etch inspections. They are usually effective for detecting when a particular process segment has gone out of control. However, when a process is running normally, there exists a background defect density that is generally not resolved by in-line process control inspections. The inspection strategies that are frequently used to monitor the background defect density are offline inspections. Offline inspections are used to identify the magnitude and characteristics of the background defect density. These inspections sample larger areas of product wafers than the in-line inspections to allow identification of the defect generating mechanisms that normally occur in the process. They are used to construct a database over a period of time so that trends may be studied. This information enables engineering efforts to be focused on the mechanisms that have the greatest impact on device yield. Once trouble spots in the process are identified, the data base supplies the information needed to isolate and solve them. The key aspect to the entire program is to utilize a reliable data gathering mechanism coupled with a flexible information processing system. This paper describes one method of reducing the background defect density using automated wafer inspection and analysis. The tools used in this evaluation were the KLA 2020 Wafer Inspector, KLA Utility Terminal (KLAUT), and a new software package developed

  4. Refraction corrections for surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  5. Renormalons and Power Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Beneke, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Even for short-distance dominated observables the QCD perturbation expansion is never complete. The divergence of the expansion through infrared renormalons provides formal evidence of this fact. In this article we review how this apparent failure can be turned into a useful tool to investigate power corrections to hard processes in QCD.

  6. Radiative Corrections and Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Radiative corrections to parity violating deep inelastic electron scattering are reviewed including a discussion of the renormalization group evolution of the weak mixing angle. Recently obtained results on hypothetical Z' bosons - for which parity violating observables play an important role - are also presented.

  7. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  8. ERRORS AND CORRECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    To err is human . Since the 1960s, most second language teachers or language theorists have regarded errors as natural and inevitable in the language learning process . Instead of regarding them as terrible and disappointing, teachers have come to realize their value. This paper will consider these values, analyze some errors and propose some effective correction techniques.

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may be dramatically enhanced as a result of their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on ...

  10. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or jaw joint (TMJ) ...

  11. Corrections for collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1953-01-01

    In the ”Directions and Hints” for collaborators in Flora Malesiana, which has been forwarded to all collaborators, two corrections should be made, viz: 1) p. 12; Omit the explanatory notes under Jamaica Plain, Mass., and Cambridge, Mass. 2) p. 13; Add as number 12a; Stockholm, Paleobotaniska Avdelni

  12. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  13. Strategic Minerals of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Wadia

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of disequilibrium in the country's mineral economy may not be harmful in time of international peace, but is a source of double danger to national security in a war emergency, when imports of essential commodities, e.g., petroleum may be jeopardised and the off-take of credit earning exports may be stopped. A healthy economy can be achieved by balancing as near as possible, the surpluses against deficits through building up civilian industrial power of production of substitute for some deficient and sub-marginal commodities and stockpiling of others.

  14. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  15. Reinforcing the mineral layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pishchulin, V.V.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Seryy, A.M.; Shirokov, A.P.

    1980-05-15

    A way of reinforcing the mineral layer includes drilling holes and putting in anchors that are longer than the width of the layer strip being extracted. It also includes shortening the anchors as the strip is mined and reinforcing the remaining part of the anchor in the mouth of the hole. To increase the productivity and safety of the work, the anchors are shortened by cutting them as the strip is mined and are reinforced through wedging. The device for doing this has auxilliary lengthwise grooves in the shaft located along its length at an interval equal to the width of the band being extracted.

  16. Engineering autonomous error correction in stabilizer codes at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C. Daniel; Herdman, C. M.; Whaley, K. B.

    2017-07-01

    We present an error-correcting protocol that enhances the lifetime of stabilizer code-based qubits which are susceptible to the creation of pairs of localized defects (due to stringlike error operators) at finite temperature, such as the toric code. The primary tool employed is periodic application of a local, unitary operator, which exchanges defects and thereby translates localized excitations. Crucially, the protocol does not require any measurements of stabilizer operators and therefore can be used to enhance the lifetime of a qubit in the absence of such experimental resources.

  17. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  18. Calculating charged defects using CRYSTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christine L.; Liborio, Leandro; Mallia, Giuseppe; Tomić, Stanko; Harrison, Nicholas M.

    2010-07-01

    The methodology for the calculation of charged defects using the CRYSTAL program is discussed. Two example calculations are used to illustrate the methodology: He+ ions in a vacuum and two intrinsic charged defects, Cu vacancies and Ga substitution for Cu, in the chalcopyrite CuGaS2.

  19. Facts about Atrial Septal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Atrial Septal Defect Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  20. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  1. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  2. Bone tissue ultrastructural defects in a mouse model for osteogenesis imperfecta: a Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsoching; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2004-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is genetic defect in which the genes that code for the α1(I) or α2(I) chains of type I collagen are defective. The defects often result in substitution of a bulky amino acid for glycine, causing formation of collagen that can not form the normal triple helix. Depending on the details of the defects, the outcomes range from controllable to lethal. This study focuses on OI type IV, a more common and moderately severe form of the disease. People with the disease have a substantial increase in the risk and rate of fracture. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of these defects, using a mouse model (BRTL) that mimics OI type IV. We compare Raman images from tibial cortical tissue of wild-type mice and BRTL mice with single copy of mutation and show that both mineral to matrix ratios and collagen inter-fibril cross-links are different in wild-type and mutant mice.

  3. Mineral fibres and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C

    1984-04-01

    A synthesis is presented of the salient findings to date from laboratory and epidemiological research, on the health effects of asbestos and other natural and man-made mineral fibres. Experimental evidence suggests that all mineral fibres are capable of causing fibrosis and malignancy, with chrysotile at least as pathogenic as other fibres. However, penetration, retention and phagocytosis are affected by size and shape and reactivity and durability by physico-chemical properties. Thus it is not surprising that in man the results of exposure vary considerably with fibre type and industrial process. A considerable body of evidence suggests that chrysotile has seldom, if ever, caused peritoneal mesothelioma and that the great majority of pleural mesotheliomas are also attributable to crocidolite or amosite. Without more reliable information on intensity and duration of exposure by fibre type, the epidemiological evidence on this point cannot be wholly conclusive. There are stronger grounds from a limited number of cohort studies for believing that in relation to estimated exposure, the risk of lung cancer has been much higher in textile plants than in fibre production or in the manufacture of friction products, with asbestos-cement plants somewhere in between. The data on man-made fibre production remains equivocal. It is concluded that attempts to regulate asbestos without regard for fibre type, although perhaps adequate for lung cancer and fibrosis, may do little to reduce the risk of mesothelioma. The search for safe fibre substitutes for asbestos will remain difficult until the parameters of pathogenicity are better understood.

  4. Holographic Chern-Simons Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Meyer, Rene; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7-branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for two-dimensional QCD.

  5. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L. into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S McDonald

    Full Text Available Field peas (Pisum sativum L. are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  7. A review of the fundamental studies of the copper activation mechanisms for selective flotation of the sulfide minerals, sphalerite and pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A P; Gerson, A R

    2009-01-30

    A review of the considerable, but often contradictory, literature examining the specific surface reactions associated with copper adsorption onto the common metal sulfide minerals sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, and pyrite (FeS(2)), and the effect of the co-location of the two minerals is presented. Copper "activation", involving the surface adsorption of copper species from solution onto mineral surfaces to activate the surface for hydrophobic collector attachment, is an important step in the flotation and separation of minerals in an ore. Due to the complexity of metal sulfide mineral containing systems this activation process and the emergence of activation products on the mineral surfaces are not fully understood for most sulfide minerals even after decades of research. Factors such as copper concentration, activation time, pH, surface charge, extent of pre-oxidation, water and surface contaminants, pulp potential and galvanic interactions are important factors affecting copper activation of sphalerite and pyrite. A high pH, the correct reagent concentration and activation time and a short time delay between reagent additions is favourable for separation of sphalerite from pyrite. Sufficient oxidation potential is also needed (through O(2) conditioning) to maintain effective galvanic interactions between sphalerite and pyrite. This ensures pyrite is sufficiently depressed while sphalerite floats. Good water quality with low concentrations of contaminant ions, such as Pb(2+)and Fe(2+), is also needed to limit inadvertent activation and flotation of pyrite into zinc concentrates. Selectivity can further be increased and reagent use minimised by opting for inert grinding and by carefully choosing selective pyrite depressants such as sulfoxy or cyanide reagents. Studies that approximate plant conditions are essential for the development of better separation techniques and methodologies. Improved experimental approaches and surface sensitive techniques with high spatial

  8. Platelet rich fibrin and xenograft in treatment of intrabony defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For complete periodontal regeneration, delivery of growth factors in the local environment holds a great deal in adjunct to bone grafts. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF is considered as second generation platelet concentrate, consisting of viable platelets, releasing various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral in the treatment of intra bony defects. Intrabony defect was treated with autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral. A decrease in probing pocket depth, gain in clinical attachment level and significant bone fill was observed at end of 6 months. The result obtained with the use of PRF may be attributed to the sustained and simultaneous release of various growth factors over a period of 7 days. In this case report, the positive clinical impact of additional application of PRF with xenogenic graft material in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defect was seen.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving reticle defect disposition via fully automated lithography simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Raunak; Goodman, Eliot; Lao, Keith; Ha, Steven; Vacca, Anthony; Fiekowsky, Peter; Fiekowsky, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Most advanced wafer fabs have embraced complex pattern decoration, which creates numerous challenges during in-fab reticle qualification. These optical proximity correction (OPC) techniques create assist features that tend to be very close in size and shape to the main patterns as seen in Figure 1. A small defect on an assist feature will most likely have little or no impact on the fidelity of the wafer image, whereas the same defect on a main feature could significantly decrease device functionality. In order to properly disposition these defects, reticle inspection technicians need an efficient method that automatically separates main from assist features and predicts the resulting defect impact on the wafer image. Analysis System (ADAS) defect simulation system[1]. Up until now, using ADAS simulation was limited to engineers due to the complexity of the settings that need to be manually entered in order to create an accurate result. A single error in entering one of these values can cause erroneous results, therefore full automation is necessary. In this study, we propose a new method where all needed simulation parameters are automatically loaded into ADAS. This is accomplished in two parts. First we have created a scanner parameter database that is automatically identified from mask product and level names. Second, we automatically determine the appropriate simulation printability threshold by using a new reference image (provided by the inspection tool) that contains a known measured value of the reticle critical dimension (CD). This new method automatically loads the correct scanner conditions, sets the appropriate simulation threshold, and automatically measures the percentage of CD change caused by the defect. This streamlines qualification and reduces the number of reticles being put on hold, waiting for engineer review. We also present data showing the consistency and reliability of the new method, along with the impact on the efficiency of in

  12. Radiative corrections to DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2008-01-01

    Early deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments at SLAC discovered partons, identified them as quarks and gluons, and restricted the set of the candidate theories for strong interactions to those exhibiting the asymptotic freedom property. The next generation DIS experiments at FNAL and CERN confirmed the predictions of QCD for the size of the scaling violation effects in the nucleon structure functions. The QCD fits to their data resulted in determining the momentum distributions of the point-like constituents of nucleons. Interpretation of data coming from all these experiments and, in the case of the SLAC experiments, even an elaboration of the running strategies, would not have been possible without a precise understanding of the electromagnetic radiative corrections. In this note I recollect the important milestones, achieved in the period preceding the HERA era, in the high precision calculations of the radiative corrections to DIS, and in the development of the methods of their experimental control. ...

  13. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  14. [Restoration of speech function in oncological patients with maxillary defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiakin, E G; Chuchkov, V M; Akhundov, A A; Azizian, R I; Romanov, I S; Chuchkov, M V; Agapov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Speech quality was evaluated in 188 patients with acquired maxillary defects. Prosthetic treatment of 29 patients was preceded by pharmacopsychotherapy. Sixty three patients had lessons with a logopedist and 66 practiced self-tuition based on the specially developed test. Thirty patients were examined for the quality of speech without preliminary preparation. Speech quality was assessed by auditory and spectral analysis. The main forms of impaired speech quality in the patients with maxillary defects were marked rhinophonia and impaired articulation. The proposed analytical tests were based on a combination of "difficult" vowels and consonants. The use of a removable prostheses with an obturator failed to correct the affected speech function but created prerequisites for the formation of the correct speech stereotype. Results of the study suggest the relationship between the quality of speech in subjects with maxillary defects and their intellectual faculties as well as the desire to overcome this drawback. The proposed tests are designed to activate the neuromuscular apparatus responsible for the generation of the speech. Lessons with a speech therapist give a powerful emotional incentive to the patients and promote their efforts toward restoration of speaking ability. Pharmacopsychotherapy and self-control are another efficacious tools for the improvement of speech quality in patients with maxillary defects.

  15. Correcting Duporcq's theorem☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawratil, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In 1898, Ernest Duporcq stated a famous theorem about rigid-body motions with spherical trajectories, without giving a rigorous proof. Today, this theorem is again of interest, as it is strongly connected with the topic of self-motions of planar Stewart–Gough platforms. We discuss Duporcq's theorem from this point of view and demonstrate that it is not correct. Moreover, we also present a revised version of this theorem. PMID:25540467

  16. Congenitally corrected transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debich-Spicer Diane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenitally corrected transposition is a rare cardiac malformation characterized by the combination of discordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections, usually accompanied by other cardiovascular malformations. Incidence has been reported to be around 1/33,000 live births, accounting for approximately 0.05% of congenital heart malformations. Associated malformations may include interventricular communications, obstructions of the outlet from the morphologically left ventricle, and anomalies of the tricuspid valve. The clinical picture and age of onset depend on the associated malformations, with bradycardia, a single loud second heart sound and a heart murmur being the most common manifestations. In the rare cases where there are no associated malformations, congenitally corrected transposition can lead to progressive atrioventricular valvar regurgitation and failure of the systemic ventricle. The diagnosis can also be made late in life when the patient presents with complete heart block or cardiac failure. The etiology of congenitally corrected transposition is currently unknown, and with an increase in incidence among families with previous cases of congenitally corrected transposition reported. Diagnosis can be made by fetal echocardiography, but is more commonly made postnatally with a combination of clinical signs and echocardiography. The anatomical delineation can be further assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and catheterization. The differential diagnosis is centred on the assessing if the patient is presenting with isolated malformations, or as part of a spectrum. Surgical management consists of repair of the associated malformations, or redirection of the systemic and pulmonary venous return associated with an arterial switch procedure, the so-called double switch approach. Prognosis is defined by the associated malformations, and on the timing and approach to palliative surgical care.

  17. Speech defect and orthodontics: a contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Umal Hiralal; Bhad-Patil, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    In conjunction with the lips, tongue, and oropharynx, the teeth play an important role in the articulation of consonants via airflow obstruction and modification. Therefore, along with these articulators, any orthodontic therapy that changes their position may play a role in speech disorders. This paper examines the relevant studies and discusses the difficulties of scientific investigation in this area. The ability of patients to adapt their speech to compensate for most handicapping occlusion and facial deformities is recognized, but the mechanism for this adaptation remains incompletely understood. The overall conclusion is that while certain malocclusions show a relationship with speech defects, this does not appear to correlate with the severity of the condition. There is no direct cause-and-effect relationship. Similarly, no guarantees of improvement can be given to patients undergoing orthodontic or orthognathic correction of malocclusion.

  18. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  19. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  20. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  1. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  2. Software Defect Detection with Rocus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jiang; Ming Li; Zhi-Hua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Software defect detection aims to automatically identify defective software modules for efficient software test in order to improve the quality of a software system. Although many machine learning methods have been successfully applied to the task, most of them fail to consider two practical yet important issues in software defect detection. First, it is rather difficult to collect a large amount of labeled training data for learning a well-performing model; second, in a software system there are usually much fewer defective modules than defect-free modules, so learning would have to be conducted over an imbalanced data set. In this paper, we address these two practical issues simultaneously by proposing a novel semi-supervised learning approach named Rocus. This method exploits the abundant unlabeled examples to improve the detection accuracy, as well as employs under-sampling to tackle the class-imbalance problem in the learning process. Experimental results of real-world software defect detection tasks show that Rocgs is effective for software defect detection. Its performance is better than a semi-supervised learning method that ignores the class-imbalance nature of the task and a class-imbalance learning method that does not make effective use of unlabeled data.

  3. Correcting Acidosis during Hemodialysis: Current Limitations and a Potential Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Sherman, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious catabolic and pro-inflammatory effects of acidosis in hemodialysis (HD) patients and the importance of its correction for limiting mineral bone disease (MBD) are well known. Although oral base therapy could be a solution for correcting acidosis in HD patients, it increases their already enormous medication load and sodium intake; this approach is not used commonly. Therefore, we need to rely more on correcting acidosis during the HD procedure, which is difficult to achieve, in part, because HD is an intermittent therapy. The currently used fixed dialysate bicarbonate concentrations are associated with pre-HD acidosis and intra-dialytic alkalosis. We suggest that a decreasing dialysate bicarbonate concentration from an initially high concentration be considered as a means of correcting acidosis with limited intra-dialytic alkalosis. Some evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, supports such an approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Beam hardening correction algorithm in microtomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Erika S.; Lima, Inaya C.B.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: esales@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Quantification of mineral density of bone samples is directly related to the attenuation coefficient of bone. The X-rays used in microtomography images are polychromatic and have a moderately broad spectrum of energy, which makes the low-energy X-rays passing through a sample to be absorbed, causing a decrease in the attenuation coefficient and possibly artifacts. This decrease in the attenuation coefficient is due to a process called beam hardening. In this work the beam hardening of microtomography images of vertebrae of Wistar rats subjected to a study of hyperthyroidism was corrected by the method of linearization of the projections. It was discretized using a spectrum in energy, also called the spectrum of Herman. The results without correction for beam hardening showed significant differences in bone volume, which could lead to a possible diagnosis of osteoporosis. But the data with correction showed a decrease in bone volume, but this decrease was not significant in a confidence interval of 95%. (author)

  5. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  6. Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects. ...

  7. Applications of Natural Radiation-Induced Paramagnetic Defects in Quartz to Exploration in Sedimentary Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Y M; Botis S; Nokhrin S

    2006-01-01

    Quartz grains in contact with uranium-bearing minerals or fluids are characterized by natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects (e. G. , oxygen vacancy centers, silicon vacancy centers, and peroxy radicals), which are amenable to study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.These natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects, except for the oxygen vacancy centers, in quartz are concentrated in narrow bands penetrated by α particles: (1) in halos around U- and Th-bearing mineral inclusions and (2) in outer rims or along fractures. The second type of occurrence provides information about uranium mineralization or remobilization (I. E. , sources of uranium, timing of mineralization or remobilization, pathways of uranium-bearing fluids). It can also be used to evaluate sedimentary basins for potential of uranium mineralization. In particular, the peroxy radicals are stable up to 800℃and, therefore, are useful for evaluating metasedimentary rocks (e. G. , Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences in the central zone of the North China craton). EPR study of the Changcheng Series can focus on quartz from the sediment-basement unconformity and faults to determine the presence and types of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects, with which to identify and prioritize uranium anomalies. Other potential applications of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in quartz include uranium-bearing hydrocarbon deposits in sedimentary basins. For example, the Junggar, Ordos, and Tarim basins in northwestern China all contain important oil and natural gas fields and are well known for elevated uranium concentrations, including economic sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. Therefore,systematic studies on the distribution of natural radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in quartz from host sedimentary sequences are expected to provide information about the migration of oil and natural gas in those basins.

  8. Retinoic Acid Excess Impairs Amelogenesis Inducing Enamel Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkmued, Supawich; Laugel-Haushalter, Virginie; Mathieu, Eric; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Dollé, Pascal; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Niederreither, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities of enamel matrix proteins deposition, mineralization, or degradation during tooth development are responsible for a spectrum of either genetic diseases termed Amelogenesis imperfecta or acquired enamel defects. To assess if environmental/nutritional factors can exacerbate enamel defects, we investigated the role of the active form of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Robust expression of RA-degrading enzymes Cyp26b1 and Cyp26c1 in developing murine teeth suggested RA excess would reduce tooth hard tissue mineralization, adversely affecting enamel. We employed a protocol where RA was supplied to pregnant mice as a food supplement, at a concentration estimated to result in moderate elevations in serum RA levels. This supplementation led to severe enamel defects in adult mice born from pregnant dams, with most severe alterations observed for treatments from embryonic day (E)12.5 to E16.5. We identified the enamel matrix proteins enamelin (Enam), ameloblastin (Ambn), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (Odam) as target genes affected by excess RA, exhibiting mRNA reductions of over 20-fold in lower incisors at E16.5. RA treatments also affected bone formation, reducing mineralization. Accordingly, craniofacial ossification was drastically reduced after 2 days of treatment (E14.5). Massive RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on E14.5 and E16.5 lower incisors. Reductions in Runx2 (a key transcriptional regulator of bone and enamel differentiation) and its targets were observed at E14.5 in RA-exposed embryos. RNA-seq analysis further indicated that bone growth factors, extracellular matrix, and calcium homeostasis were perturbed. Genes mutated in human AI (ENAM, AMBN, AMELX, AMTN, KLK4) were reduced in expression at E16.5. Our observations support a model in which elevated RA signaling at fetal stages affects dental cell lineages. Thereafter enamel protein production is impaired, leading to permanent enamel alterations. PMID:28111553

  9. Chicago aberration correction work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, V.D., E-mail: vnlbeck@earthlink.net [1 Hobby Drive, Ridgefield, CT 06877-01922 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crewe and his group made significant advances in aberration correction and reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A deeper understanding of the quadrupole octopole corrector was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A scheme to correct spherical aberration using hexapoles was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromatic aberration was corrected using a uniform field mirror.

  10. HOW CORRECTION CAN MOTIVATE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionMistakes and their correction generally follow one another in the language classroom.Most teachersthink that correction is a necessary part of teaching;while most students agree that making mistakesis a necessary part of learning.Although both teachers and students maintain that correction andmistakes are necessary,we often find that some correction helps students’ learning and some does not.Correction can make students lose confidence and interest in learning.In order to try and find outmore about why this happens I surveyed students attitudes towards mistakes and correction.

  11. Experimental repetitive quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Philipp; Barreiro, Julio T; Monz, Thomas; Nebendahl, Volckmar; Nigg, Daniel; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer

    2011-05-27

    The computational potential of a quantum processor can only be unleashed if errors during a quantum computation can be controlled and corrected for. Quantum error correction works if imperfections of quantum gate operations and measurements are below a certain threshold and corrections can be applied repeatedly. We implement multiple quantum error correction cycles for phase-flip errors on qubits encoded with trapped ions. Errors are corrected by a quantum-feedback algorithm using high-fidelity gate operations and a reset technique for the auxiliary qubits. Up to three consecutive correction cycles are realized, and the behavior of the algorithm for different noise environments is analyzed.

  12. Calculating correct compilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high-level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers...... falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language features and their combination, including arithmetic expressions, exceptions, state, various forms...

  13. [Correction of hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M

    1998-12-01

    A thorough evaluation of both urethral and penile malformation are mandatory for the choice of the best surgical treatment of patients with hypospadias. The site and the size of the urethral meatus, the presence of a chordee and of a velamentous distal urethra must be carefully assessed. In distal (glandular and coronal) hypospadias, the meatal advancement with glanduloplasty is the treatment of choice. In proximal hypospadias with chordee, the transverse preputial island flap according to the Duckett's technique allows a one-stage hypospadias repair. The awareness of the possible psychologic impact of genital malformations in childhood recommends an early correction of hypospadias, if possible during the first year of life.

  14. [Correction of paralytic lagophthalmos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskusnykh, N S; Grusha, Y O

    2015-01-01

    Current options for correction of paralytic lagophthalmos are either temporary (external eyelid weight placement, hyaluronic acid gel or botulinum toxin A injection) or permanent (various procedures for narrowing of the palpebral fissure, upper eyelid weights or spring implantation). Neuroplastic surgery (cross-facial nerve grafting, nerve anastomoses) and muscle transposition surgery is not effective enough. The majority of elderly and medically compromised patients should not be considered for such complicated and long procedures. Upper eyelid weight implantation thus appears the most reliable and simple treatment.

  15. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  16. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... opportunity to improve a company's existing risk management and supply chain management, stimulating... Minerals Already in the Supply Chain a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on the Proposed Rules c. Final Rule 6... Content and Supply Chain Due Diligence 1. Content of the Conflict Minerals Report a. Proposed Rules...

  17. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  18. Mineral Atlas of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  19. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  20. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  1. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  2. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly sexual- and gender-based violence... conflict free,'' the facilities used to process the conflict minerals, the country of origin of the conflict minerals, and ``the efforts to determine the mine or location of origin with the greatest...

  3. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to ... septal defect (VSD) — sometimes referred to as a hole in the heart — is a type of congenital ...

  4. Defective Autophagy Initiates Malignant Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-05-19

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Park et al. (2016) elegantly demonstrate that a partial defect in autophagy supports malignant transformation as it favors the production of genotoxic reactive oxygen species by mitochondria.

  5. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21 (Down syndrome) . Other trisomies include trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) . A monosomy is ... which there is an extra chromosome. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome): A genetic disorder that causes serious heart defects ...

  6. Atrial Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... septal defect (pronounced: AY-tree-ul SEP-tul DEE-fekt), or ASD for short, is sometimes referred ... can be treated with cardiac catheterization (pronounced: CAR-dee-ack cath-uh-turr-ih-ZAY-shun), in ...

  7. Low quantum defect laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Low quantum defect lasers are possible using near-resonant optical pumping. This paper examines the laser material performance as the quantum defect of the laser is reduced. A steady-state model is developed, which incorporates the relevant physical processes in these materials and predicts extraction efficiency and waste heat generation. As the laser quantum defect is reduced below a few percent, the impact of fluorescence cooling must be included in the analysis. The special case of a net zero quantum defect laser is examined in detail. This condition, referred to as the radiation balance laser (RBL), is shown to provide two orders of magnitude lower heat generation at the cost of roughly 10% loss in extraction efficiency. Numerical examples are presented with the host materials Yb:YAG and Yb:Silica. The general conditions, which yield optimal laser efficiency, are derived and explored.

  8. Painless causality in defect calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, C; Cheung, Charlotte; Magueijo, Joao

    1997-01-01

    Topological defects must respect causality, a statement leading to restrictive constraints on the power spectrum of the total cosmological perturbations they induce. Causality constraints have for long been known to require the presence of an under-density in the surrounding matter compensating the defect network on large scales. This so-called compensation can never be neglected and significantly complicates calculations in defect scenarios, eg. computing cosmic microwave background fluctuations. A quick and dirty way to implement the compensation are the so-called compensation fudge factors. Here we derive the complete photon-baryon-CDM backreaction effects in defect scenarios. The fudge factor comes out as an algebraic identity and so we drop the negative qualifier ``fudge''. The compensation scale is computed and physically interpreted. Secondary backreaction effects exist, and neglecting them constitutes the well-defined approximation scheme within which one should consider compensation factor calculatio...

  9. Dextrocardia with corrected transposition of large arteries in scintigraphic picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsky, S.; Lepej, J.; Hutka, Z. (Komenskeho Univ., Martin (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1982-07-01

    A case report is presented of a patient with dextrocardia complicated with corrected transposition of the large arteries. For comparison, some findings in another patient with isolated dextrocardia are presented. Scintigrams of the heart cavities and the large vessels performed by the method of radioisotope first flow cardioangiography are shown. The ease and simplicity are pointed out of this noninvasive method in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dextrocardia and congenital heart defects in general.

  10. Using Online Annotations to Support Error Correction and Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn

    2009-01-01

    Giving feedback on second language (L2) writing is a challenging task. This research proposed an interactive environment for error correction and corrective feedback. First, we developed an online corrective feedback and error analysis system called "Online Annotator for EFL Writing". The system consisted of five facilities: Document Maker,…

  11. Stable line defects in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dibyajyoti; Parida, Prakash; Pati, Swapan K.

    2015-11-01

    Line defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials greatly modulate various properties of their pristine form. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, we investigate the structural reconstructions of different kinds of grain boundaries in the silicene sheets. It is evident that depending upon the presence of silicon adatoms and edge shape of grain boundaries (i.e., armchair or zigzag), stable extended line defects (ELDs) can be introduced in a controlled way. Further studies show the stability of these line-defects in silicene, grown on Ag(111) surface at room-temperature. Importantly, unlike most of the 2D sheet materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, 5-5-8 line defects modify the nonmagnetic semimetallic pristine silicene sheet to spin-polarized metal. As ferromagnetically ordered magnetic moments remain strongly localized at the line defect, a one-dimensional spin channel gets created in silicene. Interestingly, these spin channels are quite stable because, unlike the edge of nanoribbons, structural reconstruction or contamination cannot destroy the ordering of magnetic moments here. Zigzag silicene nanoribbons with a 5-5-8 line defect also exhibit various interesting electronic and magnetic properties depending upon their width as well as the nature of the magnetic coupling between edge and defect spin states. Upon incorporation of other ELDs, such as 4-4-4 and 4-8 defects, 2D sheets and nanoribbons of silicene show a nonmagnetic metallic or semiconducting ground state. Highlighting the controlled formation of ELDs and consequent emergence of technologically important properties in silicene, we propose new routes to realize silicene-based nanoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  12. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  13. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  14. Topological Defects from the Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly e...

  15. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  16. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mica, Isabella [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.mica@st.com; Polignano, Maria Luisa [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Marco, Cinzia De [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes.

  17. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-...

  18. Aesthetic enhancement with periodontal plastic procedure in a class 3 alveolar ridge defect

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Localised alveolar ridge defect refers to volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic which provid...

  19. Aurora B prevents chromosome arm separation defects by promoting telomere dispersion and disjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Céline; Serrurier, Céline; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of centromeres and telomeres at mitosis is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent the formation of aneuploid cells, a phenotype frequently observed in cancer. Mitotic instability arises from chromosome segregation defects, giving rise to chromatin bridges at anaphase. Most of these defects are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of mitosis in a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe a new role for Aurora B in telomer...

  20. Defect reduction for semiconductor memory applications using jet and flash imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhengmao; Luo, Kang; Irving, J. W.; Lu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wei; Fletcher, Brian; Liu, Weijun; Xu, Frank; LaBrake, Dwayne; Resnick, Douglas; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FIL) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Acceptance of imprint lithography for manufacturing will require demonstration that it can attain defect levels commensurate with the defect specifications of high end memory devices. Typical defectivity targets are on the order of 0.10/cm2. In previous studies, we have focused on defects such as random non-fill defects occurring during the resist filling process and repeater defects caused by interactions with particles on the substrate. In this work, we attempted to identify the critical imprint defect types using a mask with NAND Flash-like patterns at dimensions as small as 26nm. The two key defect types identified were line break defects induced by small particulates and airborne contaminants which result in local adhesion failure. After identification, the root cause of the defect was determined, and corrective measures were taken to either eliminate or reduce the defect source. As a result, we have been able to reduce defectivity levels by more than three orders of magnitude in only 12 months and are now achieving defectivity adders as small as 2 adders per lot of wafers.

  1. Comparative study between polypropylene and polypropylene/poliglecaprone meshes used in the correction of abdominal wall defect in rats Estudo comparativo entre as telas de polipropileno e polipropileno/poliglecaprone utilizadas na correção de defeito na parede abdominal ventral de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Lima Utrabo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing process of a defect in the ventral abdominal wall of rats, comparing the polypropylene and polypropylene/poliglecaprone meshes on the 30th and 60th postoperative day. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar rats were submitted to a ventral abdominal wall defect, with integrity of the parietal peritoneum. In the repair, were used polypropylene (group A and polypropylene/poliglecaprone (group B meshes. The groups were subdivided into four subgroups of eight animals euthanized on the 30th (A30 and B30 and 60th postoperative day (A60 and B60. Fragments of the abdominal wall of the animals were submitted to macroscopic, tensiometric and histological evaluations. RESULTS: The tensiometry on subgroup A30 showed a mean average break point of 0.78 MPa and in A60, 0.66 Mpa. In subgroup B30 it was 0.84 MPa and in B60, 1.27 Mpa. The score of the inflammatory process showed subacute phase on A30 and B30 sub-groups and chronic inflammatory process in subgroups A30 and 60B. CONCLUSIONS: The tensile strength was higher on the wall repaired by polypropylene/poliglecaprone mesh in the 60th post-operative day. Histology showed higher concentration of fibrosis on the surface of the polypropylene mesh with a tendency to encapsulation. In polypropylene/poliglecaprone subgroups the histology showed higher concentration of fibrosis on the surface of mesh filaments.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a cicatrização de um defeito, na parede abdominal ventral de ratos, comparando-se as telas de polipropileno e polipropileno/poliglecaprone no 30º e 60º dia do pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar foram submetidos à produção de defeito na parede abdominal ventral, com integridade do peritônio parietal. Na correção foram utilizadas as telas de polipropileno (grupo A e polipropileno/poliglecaprone (grupo B. Houve subdivisão em quatro subgrupos (A30, A60, B30 e B60 de oito animais que foram submetidos à eutanásia no 30º e 60º dia do p

  2. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  3. The carbon-substitutional-carbon-interstitial (CsCi) defect pair in silicon from hybrid functional calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ouma, CNM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available supercell correction was done according to the scheme of Freysoldt et al.[36,37]. The defect formation energies were calculated according to the Zhang and Northup formalism.[38] Within this formalism, the formation energy of the defect in this case, the Cs..., FE is the Fermi level, referenced to the valence-band maximum (VBM) VE and FNVCorrE is the Freysoldt, Neugebauer, and Van de Walle (FNV) correction term that accounts both for the potential alignment between the charged defect and bulk a point far...

  4. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  5. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  6. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  7. Defects formation and wave emitting from defects in excitable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Xu, Ying; Tang, Jun; Wang, Chunni

    2016-05-01

    Abnormal electrical activities in neuronal system could be associated with some neuronal diseases. Indeed, external forcing can cause breakdown even collapse in nervous system under appropriate condition. The excitable media sometimes could be described by neuronal network with different topologies. The collective behaviors of neurons can show complex spatiotemporal dynamical properties and spatial distribution for electrical activities due to self-organization even from the regulating from central nervous system. Defects in the nervous system can emit continuous waves or pulses, and pacemaker-like source is generated to perturb the normal signal propagation in nervous system. How these defects are developed? In this paper, a network of neurons is designed in two-dimensional square array with nearest-neighbor connection type; the formation mechanism of defects is investigated by detecting the wave propagation induced by external forcing. It is found that defects could be induced under external periodical forcing under the boundary, and then the wave emitted from the defects can keep balance with the waves excited from external forcing.

  8. 78 FR 34245 - Miscellaneous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... office, correcting and adding missing cross-references, correcting grammatical errors, revising language... the name of its human capital office, correcting and adding missing cross-references,...

  9. Power corrections, renormalons and resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M.

    1996-08-01

    I briefly review three topics of recent interest concerning power corrections, renormalons and Sudakov resummation: (a) 1/Q corrections to event shape observables in e(+)e(-) annihilation, (b) power corrections in Drell-Yan production and (c) factorial divergences that arise in resummation of large infrared (Sudakov) logarithms in moment or `real` space.

  10. Radiation camera motion correction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  11. 75 FR 16516 - Dates Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Office of the Federal Register Dates Correction Correction In the Notices section... through 15499, the date at the top of each page is corrected to read ``Monday, March 29, 2010''....

  12. Correcting mitochondrial fusion by manipulating mitofusin conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonietta; Kitsis, Richard N.; Fleischer, Julie A.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Kornfeld, Opher S.; Gong, Guohua; Biris, Nikolaos; Benz, Ann; Qvit, Nir; Donnelly, Sara K; Chen, Yun; Mennerick, Steven; Hodgson, Louis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Dorn, Gerald W

    2017-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, remodeling and exchanging contents during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations of mitofusin (Mfn) 2 interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition, Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is incompletely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive molecular conformation directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated by targeting these conformational transitions. Based on this model we engineered a cell-permeant minipeptide to destabilize fusion-constrained mitofusin and promote the fusion-permissive conformation, reversing mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured fibroblasts and neurons harboring CMT2A gene defects. The relationship between mitofusin conformational plasticity and mitochondrial dynamism uncovers a central mechanism regulating mitochondrial fusion whose manipulation can correct mitochondrial pathology triggered by defective or imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:27775718

  13. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  14. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  15. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  16. Anomaly corrected heterotic horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, A.; Gutowski, J. B.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider supersymmetric near-horizon geometries in heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We identify the conditions for the horizons to admit enhancement of supersymmetry. We show that solutions which undergo supersymmetry enhancement exhibit an {s}{l}(2,{R}) symmetry, and we describe the geometry of their horizon sections. We also prove a modified Lichnerowicz type theorem, incorporating α' corrections, which relates Killing spinors to zero modes of near-horizon Dirac operators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are no AdS2 solutions in heterotic supergravity up to second order in α' for which the fields are smooth and the internal space is smooth and compact without boundary. We investigate a class of nearly supersymmetric horizons, for which the gravitino Killing spinor equation is satisfied on the spatial cross sections but not the dilatino one, and present a description of their geometry.

  17. Anomaly Corrected Heterotic Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanella, A; Papadopoulos, G

    2016-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric near-horizon geometries in heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We identify the conditions for the horizons to admit enhancement of supersymmetry. We show that solutions which undergo supersymmetry enhancement exhibit an sl(2,R) symmetry, and we describe the geometry of their horizon sections. We also prove a modified Lichnerowicz type theorem, incorporating $\\alpha'$ corrections, which relates Killing spinors to zero modes of near-horizon Dirac operators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are no AdS2 solutions in heterotic supergravity up to second order in $\\alpha'$ for which the fields are smooth and the internal space is smooth and compact without boundary. We investigate a class of nearly supersymmetric horizons, for which the gravitino Killing spinor equation is satisfied on the spatial cross sections but not the dilatino one, and present a description of their geometry.

  18. Catalytic quantum error correction

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, T; Hsieh, M H; Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting (EAQEC) codes, a generalization of the stabilizer formalism to the setting in which the sender and receiver have access to pre-shared entanglement. Conventional stabilizer codes are equivalent to dual-containing symplectic codes. In contrast, EAQEC codes do not require the dual-containing condition, which greatly simplifies their construction. We show how any quaternary classical code can be made into a EAQEC code. In particular, efficient modern codes, like LDPC codes, which attain the Shannon capacity, can be made into EAQEC codes attaining the hashing bound. In a quantum computation setting, EAQEC codes give rise to catalytic quantum codes which maintain a region of inherited noiseless qubits. We also give an alternative construction of EAQEC codes by making classical entanglement assisted codes coherent.

  19. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  20. Weak scratch detection and defect classification methods for a large-aperture optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xian; Xu, De; Zhang, Zheng-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xi-Long; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2017-03-01

    Surface defects on optics cause optic failure and heavy loss to the optical system. Therefore, surface defects on optics must be carefully inspected. This paper proposes a coarse-to-fine detection strategy of weak scratches in complicated dark-field images. First, all possible scratches are detected based on bionic vision. Then, each possible scratch is precisely positioned and connected to a complete scratch by the LSD and a priori knowledge. Finally, multiple scratches with various types can be detected in dark-field images. To classify defects and pollutants, a classification method based on GIST features is proposed. This paper uses many real dark-field images as experimental images. The results show that this method can detect multiple types of weak scratches in complex images and that the defects can be correctly distinguished with interference. This method satisfies the real-time and accurate detection requirements of surface defects.

  1. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  2. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  3. Nacre extract restores the mineralization capacity of subchondral osteoarthritis osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, A; Zhang, G; Dossot, M; Moby, V; Dumas, D; Hupont, S; Piet, M H; Bianchi, A; Mainard, D; Galois, L; Gillet, P; Rousseau, M

    2015-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of joint chronic pain and involves the entire joints. Subchondral osteoarthritic osteoblasts present a mineralization defect and, to date, only a few molecules (Vitamin D3 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein2) could improve the mineralization potential of this cell type. In this context, we have tested for the first time the effect of nacre extract on the mineralization capacity of osteoblasts from OA patients. Nacre extract is known to contain osteogenic molecules which have demonstrated their activities notably on the MC3T3 pre-osteoblastic cell line. For this goal, molecules were extracted from nacre (ESM, Ethanol Soluble Matrix) and tested on osteoblasts of the subchondral bone from OA patients undergoing total knee replacement and on MC3T3 cells for comparison. We chose to investigate the mineralization with Alizarin Red staining and with the study of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and composition. In a complementary way the structure of the ECM secreted during the mineralization phase was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG). Nacre extract was able to induce the early presence (after 7 days) of precipitated calcium in cells. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy showed the presence of nanograins of an early crystalline form of calcium phosphate in OA osteoblasts ECM and hydroxyapatite in MC3T3 ECM. SHG collagen fibers signal was present in both cell types but lower for OA osteoblasts. In conclusion, nacre extract was able to rapidly restore the mineralization capacity of osteoarthritis osteoblasts, therefore confirming the potential of nacre as a source of osteogenic compounds.

  4. BMP-silk composite matrices heal critically sized femoral defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker-Head, C; Karageorgiou, V; Hofmann, S; Fajardo, R; Betz, O; Merkle, H P; Hilbe, M; von Rechenberg, B; McCool, J; Abrahamsen, L; Nazarian, A; Cory, E; Curtis, M; Kaplan, D; Meinel, L

    2007-08-01

    Clinical drawbacks of bone grafting prompt the search for alternative bone augmentation technologies such as use of growth and differentiation factors, gene therapy, and cell therapy. Osteopromotive matrices are frequently employed for the local delivery and controlled release of these augmentation agents. Some matrices also provide an osteoconductive scaffold to support new bone growth. In this study, silkworm-derived silk fibroin was evaluated as an osteoconductive matrix for healing critical sized mid-femoral segmental defects in nude rats. Four treatment groups were assessed over eight weeks: silk scaffolds (SS) with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSC) that had been pre-differentiated along an osteoblastic lineage ex vivo (Group I; pdHMSC/rhBMP-2/SS); SS with rhBMP-2 and undifferentiated HMSCs (Group II; udHMSC/rhBMP-2/SS); SS and rhBMP-2 alone (Group III; rhBMP-2/SS); and empty defects (Group IV). Bi-weekly radiographs revealed a progressive and similar increase in Group I-III mean defect mineralization through post-operative week (POW) 8. Radiographs, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and micro-computed tomography confirmed that Groups I-III exhibited similar substantial and significantly (pwoven and lamellar bone bridging islands of silk matrix in Groups I and III. Group II defects possessed comparatively less new bone which was most abundant adjacent to the parent bone margins. Elsewhere the silk matrix was more often enveloped by poorly differentiated loose fibrous connective tissue. Group IV defects showed minimal new bone formation. None of the treatment groups attained the mean mineralization or the mean biomechanical strength of identical defects implanted with SS and pdHMSCs alone in a previous study. However, addition of rhBMP-2 to SS prompted more bone than was previously generated using udHMSC/SS or SS alone. These data imply the clinical potential of silk scaffolds and rhBMP-2 as composite osteopromotive

  5. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  6. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  7. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  8. Short-and Mid-term Follow-up Study on Tricuspid Valve Detachment in Correction of Ventricular Septal Defect%三尖瓣适当切开修补室间隔缺损的近中期随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁伟; 罗金文; 刘剑; 黄鹏; 曾德斌; 刘平波; 周文武

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨三尖瓣适当切开技术(tricuspid valve detachment,TVD)在室间隔缺损(ventricular septal defect,VSD)修补手术中的临床价值. 方法 回顾性分析我院2006年1月~2010年12月行VSD修补的1 021例患者的临床资料,其中211例采用TVD技术(TVD组),810例未采用TVD技术(非TVD组).所有患者在术前与术后3d、1个月、6个月及1年行超声心动图观察心脏结构,评估三尖瓣返流(tricuspic regurgitation,TR)情况. 结果 695例补片修补VSD,其中TVD组209例(128例使用单独缝线修补瓣叶切口,81例使用VSD补片缝线),非TVD组486例;另326例直接缝合VSD,其中TVD 组2例(使用VSD补片缝线直接修补瓣叶切口),非TVD组324例.671例进行了合并畸形手术,其中TVD组115例(占TVD组54.5%),非TVD组556例(占非TVD组68.6%).两组CPB时间、主动脉阻断时间及术后住院时间比较,均无统计学差异(P>0.05).两组均无围手术期死亡病例.TVD组无完全性房室传导阻滞出现,非TVD组出现3例,均于术后10 d内恢复窦性.术后3 d VSD残余漏11例,其中TVD组3例,非TVD组8例;TVD组轻度以上的TR病例14例,非TVD组有47例.两组均无因TR和残余漏而再手术者.两组术后并发症发生率比较无统计学差异(8.1% VS 7.2%,P>0.05).所有病人随访1年,无远期死亡病例,均无残余漏需远期再手术者.术后1年TVD组无轻度以上TR,非TVD组有8例轻度以上TR,组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组均无因TR再手术者.结论 TVD是一种安全、有效的技术,能改善VSD的暴露,与传导阻滞、手术时间延长以及TR无相关性.TVD能保护三尖瓣瓣叶结构,减少术后严重TR的发生.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of temporary tricuspid valve detachment (TVD) in the correlation of ventricular septal defect (VSD). Methods A total of 1 021 VSD patients admitted January 2006 to December 2010 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively, including 211 of TVD

  9. Some new trends in the ionoluminescence of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo del Castillo, H; Ruvalcaba, J L; Calderón, T

    2007-02-01

    Ionoluminescence (IL) has mainly been used to detect impurities or defects inside synthetic materials. This paper gives a summary of new applications of IL to natural minerals that might be found in ancient pieces of jewellery or decorative artefacts (affreschi, stucchi, mosaics). Some relevant examples of its use for archaeometrical purposes are given to highlight the potential of the technique. Chemical information can be obtained by luminescent characterization of minerals. IL spectra act as digital imprint for elements or defects inside each material, enabling differentiation of natural specimens from imitations and/or synthetic analogues. Crystal field theory indicates it is the coordination number of the emitter inside the crystalline structure that gives information on its valence. Historical confusion between rubies and red spinel can easily be resolved by analysis of IL spectra. Modern synthetic diamonds can also be discriminated and blue sapphire can be distinguished from blue kyanite, a silicate that is currently being sold as its imitation. The technique can also differentiate between the synthetic and the natural gems. Polymorphs can be identified, and it is possible to recognize minerals from isomorphic series (from the same chemical group with the same structure) even when they share the same light emitter (e.g. Mn(2+), in carbonates). High-quality glasses (e.g. laser glasses) which are normally used for faking gemstones can be also detected. We fully believe IL will, in the future, be a powerful technique for determining the crystallinity of solids. This paper gives an overview of possible applications of IL to archaeometry for mineral characterization; this is a new application that still requires further study.

  10. Distribution of Topological Defects on Axisymmetric Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Tie-Yan; DUAN Yi-Shi

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general method of determining the distribution of topological defects on axisymmetric surface,and study the distribution of topological defects on biconcave-discoid surface, which is the geometric configuration of red blood cell. There are three most possible cases of the distribution of the topological defects on the biconcave surface:four defects charged with 1/2, two defects charged with +1, or one defect charged with 2. For the four defect charged with 1/2, they sit at the vertices of a square imbedded in the equator of biconcave surface.

  11. Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; McKee, Marc D; Lanske, Beate

    2014-03-01

    Excessive FGF23 has been identified as a pivotal phosphaturic factor leading to renal phosphate-wasting and the subsequent development of rickets and osteomalacia. In contrast, loss of FGF23 in mice (Fgf23(-/-) ) leads to high serum phosphate, calcium, and 1,25-vitamin D levels, resulting in early lethality attributable to severe ectopic soft-tissue calcifications and organ failure. Paradoxically, Fgf23(-/-) mice exhibit a severe defect in skeletal mineralization despite high levels of systemic mineral ions and abundant ectopic mineralization, an abnormality that remains largely unexplained. Through use of in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and immunogold labeling coupled with electron microscopy of bone samples, we discovered that expression and accumulation of osteopontin (Opn/OPN) was markedly increased in Fgf23(-/-) mice. These results were confirmed by qPCR analyses of Fgf23(-/-) bones and ELISA measurements of serum OPN. To investigate whether elevated OPN levels were contributing to the bone mineralization defect in Fgf23(-/-) mice, we generated Fgf23(-/-) /Opn(-/-) double-knockout mice (DKO). Biochemical analyses showed that the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia observed in Fgf23(-/-) mice remained unchanged in DKO mice; however, micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed a significant improvement in total mineralized bone volume. The severe osteoidosis was markedly reduced and a normal mineral apposition rate was present in DKO mice, indicating that increased OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice are at least in part responsible for the osteomalacia. Moreover, the increased OPN levels were significantly decreased upon lowering serum phosphate by feeding a low-phosphate diet or after deletion of NaPi2a, indicating that phosphate levels contribute in part to the high OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice. In summary, our results suggest that increased OPN is an important pathogenic factor mediating the mineralization defect and the

  12. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  13. Use of steerable delivery catheter to successfully deliver a Ceraflex septal occluder to close an atrial septal defect in a child with interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, İlker K; Ballı, Şevket; Küçük, Mehmet; Çelebi, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    The closure of a secundum atrial septal defect through the jugular vein in a child with interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation by steerable delivery catheter is described in the present report. The steerable catheter can be used to correct the perpendicular position of the device over the margins of the defect, and is particularly useful in cases of large defects.

  14. Mineralized collagen scaffolds induce hMSC osteogenesis and matrix remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Daniel W; Caliari, Steven R; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-03-01

    Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering must be able to instruct cell behavior in the presence of the complex biophysical and biomolecular environments encountered in vivo. While soluble supplementation strategies have been identified to enhance osteogenesis, they are subject to significant diffusive loss in vivo or the need for frequent re-addition in vitro. This investigation therefore explored whether biophysical and biochemical properties of a mineralized collagen-GAG scaffold were sufficient to enhance human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) osteogenic differentiation and matrix remodeling in the absence of supplementation. We examined hMSC metabolic health, osteogenic and matrix gene expression profiles, as well as matrix remodeling and mineral formation as a function of scaffold mineral content. We found that scaffold mineral content enhanced long term hMSC metabolic activity relative to non-mineralized scaffolds. While osteogenic supplementation or exogenous BMP-2 could enhance some markers of hMSC osteogenesis in the mineralized scaffold, we found the mineralized scaffold was itself sufficient to induce osteogenic gene expression, matrix remodeling, and mineral formation. Given significant potential for unintended consequences with the use of mixed media formulations and potential for diffusive loss in vivo, these findings will inform the design of instructive biomaterials for regenerative repair of critical-sized bone defects, as well as for applications where non-uniform responses are required, such as in biomaterials to address spatially-graded interfaces between orthopedic tissues.

  15. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  16. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  17. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  18. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  19. Atomistic stimulation of defective oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Minervini, L

    2000-01-01

    defect processes. The predominant intrinsic disorder reaction and the mechanism by which excess oxygen is accommodated are established. Furthermore, the most favourable migration mechanism and pathway for oxygen ions is predicted. Chapters 7 and 8 investigate pyrochlore oxides. These materials are candidates for solid oxide fuel cell components and as actinide host phases. Such applications require a detailed understanding of the defect processes. The defect energies, displayed as contour maps, are able to account for structure stability and, given an appropriate partial charge potential model, to accurately determine the oxygen positional parameter. In particular, the dependence of the positional parameter on intrinsic disorder is predicted. It is demonstrated, by radiation damage experiments, that these results are able to predict the radiation performance of pyrochlore oxides. Atomistic simulation calculations based on energy minimization techniques and classical pair potentials are used to study several i...

  20. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiol, Bartomeu, E-mail: bfiol@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  1. Congenital heart defects and medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehin, Connie; Ragsdale, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Radiologic technologists perform imaging studies that are useful in the diagnosis of congenital heart defects in infants and adults. These studies also help to monitor congenital heart defect repairs in adults. This article describes the development and functional anatomy of the heart, along with the epidemiology and anatomy of congenital heart defects. It also discusses the increasing population of adults who have congenital heart defects and the most effective modalities for diagnosing, evaluating, and monitoring congenital heart defects.

  2. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111673 Cao Ban(Zhejiang Institute of Geological & Mineral Resources,Hangzhou 310007,China);Ma Jun Determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence-Ultraviolet Detector(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(5),2010,p.539-542,2 illus.,4 tables,15 refs.)Key words:liquid chromatography,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,fluorescence analysis

  3. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  4. Comparative study of defect transition energy calculation methods: The case of oxygen vacancy in In2O3 and ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Ma, Jie; Wei, Su-Huai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Yan, Yanfa

    2012-07-01

    Theoretical calculation of defect properties, especially transition energy levels, is typically done by first-principles density-functional theory calculation using supercells with finite size. So far, three approaches—band-filling corrections (BFC), band-edge corrections (BEC), and no corrections (NC)—have been applied to deal with the potential inaccuracy caused by the finite size. In this paper, we compare these three approaches by calculating the (0/2+ ionization energies of the oxygen vacancy (VO) in In2O3 and ZnO. We find that a correction must be included whether or not the defect level is deep or shallow, especially when the defect band has a large dispersion. The BFC approach gives the best correction. The BEC approach works well in GGA calculations only for certain systems in which the band gap underestimation is partially corrected by choosing effective band edges.

  5. Correcting Reflux Laparoscopically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Poulin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Most operations in the abdominal cavity and chest can be performed using minimally invasive techniques. As yet it has not been determined which laparoscopic procedures are preferable to the same operations done through conventional laparotomy. However, most surgeons who have completed the learning curves of these procedures believe that most minimally invasive techniques will be scientifically recognized soon. The evolution, validation and justification of advanced laparoscopic surgical methods seem inevitable. Most believe that the trend towards procedures that minimize or eliminate the trauma of surgery while adhering to accepted surgical principles is irreversible. The functional results of laparoscopic antireflux surgery in the seven years since its inception have been virtually identical to the success curves generated with open fundoplication in past years. Furthermore, overall patient outcomes with laparoscopic procedures have been superior to outcomes with the traditional approach. Success is determined by patient selection and operative technique. Patient evaluation should include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, barium swallow, 24 h pH study and esophageal motility study. Gastric emptying also should be evaluated. Patients who have abnormal propulsion in the esophagus should not receive a complete fundoplication (Nissen because it adds a factor of obstruction. Dor or Toupet procedures are adequate alternatives. Prokinetic agents, dilation or pyloroplasty are used for pyloric obstruction ranging from little to more severe. Correcting reflux laparoscopically is more difficult in patients with obesity, peptic strictures, paraesophageal hernias, short esophagus, or a history of previous upper abdominal or antireflux surgery.

  6. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  7. Atrial – Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Panagiotopoulos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atrial and ventricular septal defect constitute the most common congenital heart disease.Aim: Τhe aim of the present retrospective study was to record data and factors that affect atrial and ventricular septal defect.Method and material: The sample study included patients of both sexes who were hospitalized with diagnosis atrial and ventricular septal defect in a Cardiac Surgery hospital of Athens. A specially constructed printed form was used for data collection, where were recorded the demographic and personal variables, the pathological, surgical, cardiology and obstetric history, the habits of adults, as well as the personal characteristics of mothers. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistical analysis.Results: The sample study consisted of 101 individuals with diagnosis atrial or ventricular Septal Defect, of which 40% were boys and 60% girls. The 70% of the sample study suffered from atrial Septal Defect and the 30% suffered from ventricular Septal Defect. Regarding age, 12% of the sample study was 0-1 years old, 35% was >1 years old, 8% was >12-18 years old and 45% over than 18 years old. Regarding educational status of the adult participants, 9% was of 0-6 years education, 22%>6 -12 years, 13%>12 years. 14% of the adult paticipants smoked, 4% consumed alcohol and 5% smoked in conjunction with alcohol. In terms of the obstetric history of the sample studied, 32% of the cases had normal birth, 4% had a twin birth and 1% had a triplet one. According to the variables related to mothers, the mean age of the mother was 30 years and 3 months, 10% were smokers at pregnancy and 3% used chemical substance and mainly hair color. Also, the results of the present study showed that individuals of 12-18 and >18 years old did not suffer from ventricular Septal Defect, whereas the infants 0-1 years old did not suffer from Atrial Septal Defect. The mean value of age at the admission in intensive care unit was 7 months (12% for the infants

  8. [Ankle joint prosthesis for bone defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C

    2011-11-01

    Large defects of the talus, i.e. due to tumors, large areas of osteolysis in total ankle replacement (TAR) and posttraumatic talus body necrosis are difficult to manage. The gold standard in these circumstances is still tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with all the negative aspects of a completely rigid hindfoot. We started 10 years ago to replace the talus by a custom-made, all cobalt-chrome implant (laser sintering). The first patient with a giant cell tumor did very well but the following patients showed all subsidence of the metal talus into the tibia due to missing bony edges. Therefore, we constructed a custom-made talus (mirrored from the healthy side) and combined it with a well functioning total ankle prosthesis (Hintegra). So far we have implanted this custom-made implant into 3 patients: the first had a chondrosarcoma of the talus (1 year follow-up), the second had massive osteolysis/necrosis of unknown origin (6 months follow-up) and the third massive osteolysis following a correct TAR (2 months follow-up). The results are very encouraging as all of the patients are practically pain free and have a good range of movement (ROM): D-P flexion 15°-0-20° but less motion in the lower ankle joint: ROM P-S 5°-0-5°. No subsidence was detected in the tibia or the calcaneus. The custom-made talus combined with the Hintegra total ankle replacement will probably be an interesting alternative to a tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis in selected cases with massive defects of the talus.

  9. Facts about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Defects Atrial Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great ... Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy ...

  10. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  11. Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Despite the success of surface complexation models (SCMs) to interpret the adsorptive properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and/or physical constraints, and thus, casts doubts on the physical-chemical significance of the derived model parameters. In this paper, we address the definition of primary surface sites (i.e., adsorption units) at hydrated carbonate mineral surfaces and discuss its implications to the formulation and calibration of surface equilibria for these minerals. Given the abundance of experimental and theoretical information on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleavage calcite surface, this mineral was chosen for a detailed theoretical analysis of critical issues relevant to the definition of primary surface sites. Accordingly, a single, generic charge-neutral surface site ( tbnd CaCO 3·H 2O 0) is defined for this mineral whereupon mass-action expressions describing adsorption equilibria were formulated. The one-site scheme, analogous to previously postulated descriptions of metal oxide surfaces, allows for a simple, yet realistic, molecular representation of surface reactions and provides a generalized reference state suitable for the calculation of sorption equilibria for rhombohedral carbonate minerals via Law of Mass Action (LMA) and Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approaches. The one-site scheme is extended to other rhombohedral carbonate minerals and tested against published experimental data for magnesite and dolomite in aqueous solutions. A simplified SCM based on this scheme can successfully reproduce surface charge, reasonably simulate the electrokinetic behavior of these minerals, and predict surface speciation agreeing with available spectroscopic data. According to this model, a truly amphoteric behavior is displayed by these surfaces across the pH scale but at circum-neutral pH (5.8-8.2) and relatively high ΣCO 2 (⩾1 mM), proton/bicarbonate co

  12. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction...... exchanges. Through detailed multimodal analysis of participants’ actions, it is shown how instructors systematically elaborate their corrective instructions to include relevant information about the trouble and remedial action – a practice we refer to as unpacking corrections. It is proposed...... that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  13. Gravitational Correction to Vacuum Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.

  14. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective...... management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  15. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  16. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  18. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  19. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  20. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  1. Processor register error correction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  2. Comparison of Topographic Correction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Richter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of topographic correction methods is conducted for Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+, and SPOT-5 imagery from different geographic areas and seasons. Three successful and known methods are compared: the semi-empirical C correction, the Gamma correction depending on the incidence and exitance angles, and a modified Minnaert approach. In the majority of cases the modified Minnaert approach performed best, but no method is superior in all cases.

  3. Hamiltonian monodromy as lattice defect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhilinskii, B.

    2003-01-01

    The analogy between monodromy in dynamical (Hamiltonian) systems and defects in crystal lattices is used in order to formulate some general conjectures about possible types of qualitative features of quantum systems which can be interpreted as a manifestation of classical monodromy in quantum finite particle (molecular) problems.

  4. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  5. Brane Inflation and Defect Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A C; Van de Bruck, C

    2008-01-01

    Brane inflation and the production of topological defects at the end of the inflationary phase are discussed. After a description of the inflationary setup we discuss the properties of the cosmic strings produced at the end of inflation. Specific examples of brane inflation are described: $D-\\bar D$ inflation, $D3/D7$ inflation and modular inflation

  6. Nuclear Pasta: Topology and Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Caplan, Matt; Briggs, Christian

    2015-04-01

    A layer of complex non-uniform phases of matter known as nuclear pasta is expected to exist at the base of the crust of neutron stars. Using large scale molecular dynamics we study the topology of some pasta shapes, the formation of defects and how these may affect properties of neutron star crusts.

  7. Genetic defects of iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, R M

    1976-09-01

    Five genetic traits in man and laboratory animals have major effects on iron transport. The heterogeneous condition, hemochromatosis, in some families appears to segregate as a Mendelian trait, and is associated with defective control of intestinal iron absorption. In the very rare human autosomal recessive trait, atransferrinemia, there is an almost total lack of transferrin and gross maldistribution of iron through the body. In mice, sex-linked anemia (an X-linked recessive trait) causes iron deficiency through defective iron absorption, at the "exit" step; a similar defect probably exists in placental iron transfer. In microcytic anemia of mice, an autosomal recessive trait, iron absorption is also impaired because of a defect of iron entry into cells, which is probably generalized. Belgrade rat anemia, less understood at present, also may involve a major disorder of iron metabolism. Study of these mutations has provided new knowledge of iron metabolism and its genetic control Their phenotypic interaction with nutritional factors, especially the form and quantity of iron in the diet, may provide new insights for the study of nutrition.

  8. A Remark on the Effective Description of Topological Defects

    CERN Document Server

    París, J; Jordi París; Roca, Jaume

    1998-01-01

    We subject the methodology used to derive the effective dynamics of topological defects to a critical reappraisal, using the two-dimensional kink as an illustrative example. Special care is taken on how the zero modes should be handled in order to avoid overcounting of degrees of freedom. This is an issue that has been overriden in many recent contributions on the derivation of domain wall effective actions. We show that, unless such redundancy is completely removed by means of a sort of gauge-fixing, the expression obtained for the effective action will not be consistent. We readdress some earlier calculations over the existence of curvature corrections in the light of the previous discussion and briefly comment on the application of this method to higher dimensional topological defects.

  9. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective mana......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  10. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  11. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  12. [Perspectives in the management of congenital heart defects in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartyánszky, István; Varga, Sándor; Havasi, Kálmán; Babik, Barna; Katona, Márta; Bogáts, Gábor

    2015-01-18

    Due to improving results in congenital heart surgery, the number of adult patients with congenital heart defect is increasing. The question is: what kind of problems can be managed in this patient-group? The authors review the different problems of management of congenital heart defects in adults based on national and international literature data. Simple defects recognised in adults, postoperative residual problems, changing of small grafts and valves, correction of primary or operated coarctation aortae can be usually managed without problems. A very close follow-up is necessary to establish the correct period for heart transplantation in patients with transposition of great arteries with Senning/Mustard operation, and univentricular heart corrected with "Fontan-circulation" type surgical procedure. The authors conclude that although the number of patients increases, only a few congenital heart diseases may cause problems. It seems important (1) to monitor asymptomatic patient who underwent operation (Fallot-IV, Ross procedure, etc.), (2) follow up regularly patients who underwent Senning/Mustard procedure (magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, brain natriuretic peptide measurement), (3) define the proper period of preparation for heart transplantation of patients with a univentricular heart, with special attention to the possibility of multiorgan (lung, liver, etc.) failure. Due to the improvement of foetal diagnosis of congenital heart defects, the number of patients with complex congenital heart defects is decreasing. The standard management of these patients could be primary heart transplantation in infancy.

  13. Evaluation of Respiratory Motion Effect on Defect Detection in Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; He, Xin; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of respiratory motion (RM) on defect detection in Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) using a phantom population that includes patient variability. Three RM patterns are included, namely breath-hold, slightly enhanced normal breathing, and deep breathing. For each RM pattern, six 4-D NCAT phantoms were generated, each with anatomical variations. Anterior, lateral and inferior myocardial defects with different sizes and contrasts were inserted. Noise-free SPECT projections were simulated using an analytical projector. Poisson noise was then added to generate noisy realizations. The projection data were reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with 1 and 4 subsets/iteration and at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 iterations. Short-axis images centered at the centroid of the myocardial defect were extracted, and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was applied for the detection of the defect. The CHO results show that the value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) is affected by the RM amplitude. For all the defect sizes and contrasts studied, the highest or optimal AUC values indicate maximum detectability decrease with the increase of the RM amplitude. With no respiration, the ranking of the optimal AUC value in decreasing order is anterior then lateral, and finally inferior defects. The AUC value of the lateral defect drops more severely as the RM amplitude increases compared to other defect locations. Furthermore, as the RM amplitude increases, the AUC values of the smaller defects drop more quickly than the larger ones. We demonstrated that RM affects defect detectability of MPS imaging. The results indicate that developments of optimal data acquisition methods and RM correction methods are needed to improve the defect detectability in MPS.

  14. Ambulatory Anesthesia in an Adult Patient with Corrected Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Knautz

    2012-01-01

    congenital heart defects are surviving into adulthood and presenting for noncardiac surgeries. We describe one such example of a 26-year-old patient with corrected hypoplastic left heart syndrome presenting for knee arthroscopy and performed under general anesthesia with preoperative ultrasound guided saphenous nerve block. In this case, we review the anesthetic implications of corrected single ventricle physiology, anesthetic implications, as well as discuss the technique and role of saphenous nerve block in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy.

  15. Effect of mineral processing wastewater on flotation of sulfide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ming; LIU Run-qing; SUN Wei; QIU Guan-zhou

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mineral processing wastewater on sulfide minerals were investigated by flotation, infrared spectrometry and electrochemistry test. The results show that lead-concentrate water can improve the flotation of galena, while the sulfur-concentrate water has negative effect on flotation of galena compared with distilled water. The flotation behavior of pyrite is contrary to that of galena in three kinds of water. Infrared spectra indicate that the residual collector in the lead-concentrate water is beneficial to the formation of lead xanthate on the surface of galena. Electrochemistry results indicate that electrochemistry reaction on galena surface has apparent change. The anode polarization is improved and cathode polarization is depressed.

  16. The influence of clay minerals on acoustic properties of sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Olav

    1997-12-31

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of the relationship between the acoustic properties and the petrophysical/mineralogical properties in sand-prone rock. It emphasizes the influence of clay minerals. The author develops a method to deposit clay minerals/mineral aggregates in pore space of a rigid rock framework. Kaolinite aggregates were flushed into porous permeable Bentheimer sandstone to evaluate the effect of pore filling minerals on porosity, permeability and acoustic properties. The compressional velocity was hardly affected by the clay content and it was found that the effect of minor quantities of pore filling minerals may be acoustically modelled as an ideal suspension, where the pore fluid bulk modulus is modified by the bulk modulus of the clay minerals. The influence of clays on acoustic velocities in petroleum reservoir rocks was investigated through ultrasonic measurements of compressional- and shear-waves on core material from reservoir and non-reservoir units on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The measured velocities decrease as the porosity increases, but are not strongly dependent on the clay content. The measured velocities are less dependent on the petrophysical and lithological properties than indicated by previous authors and published mathematical models, and stiffness reduction factors are introduced in two of the models to better match the data. Velocities are estimated along the wellbores based on non-sonic well logs and reflect well the actual sonic log well measurements. In some wells the compressional velocity cannot be modelled correctly by the models suggested. Very high compressional wave anisotropy was measured in the dry samples at atmospheric conditions. As the samples were saturated, the anisotropy was reduced to a maximum of about 30% and decreases further upon pressurization. Reservoir rocks retrieved from 2500 m are more stress dependent than those retrieved from less than 200 m depth. 168 refs., 117 figs., 24

  17. Independent Modulation of Omnidirectional Defect Modes in Single-Negative Materials Photonic Crystal with Multiple Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; YAN Chang-Chun; ZHANG Ling-Ling; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ Single-negative materials based on photonic crystal with multiple defect layers are designed and the free modulation of defect modes is studied. The results show that the multi-defect structure can avoid the interference between the defect states. Therefore, the designed double defect modes in the zero effective-phase gap can be adjusted independently by changing the thickness of different defect layers. In addition, the two tunable defect modes have the omnidirectional characteristics. This multi-defect structure with above-mentioned two advantages has potential applications in modern optical devices such as tunable omnidirectional filters.

  18. Cardiac defect with diaphragmatic hernia and left lung agenesis--heart disease and other anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G; Giordano, R; Russolillo, V; Vosa, C

    2010-10-01

    This report describes a rare case of left pulmonary agenesis associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and congenital heart disease in a 2-year-old child with pulmonary hypertension. We performed direct radical correction of the congenital heart defect. The postoperative course was challenging but without major complications.

  19. Atrioventricular septal defect : advanced imaging from early development to long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to review the current knowledge on atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (Part 1), to study the pathogenesis of AVSD (Part 2) and finally to analyze cardiac outcome long-term after AVSD correction (Part 3). Studies are performed with novel imaging techniques. In part 2 it

  20. Comparison of ordered subsets expectation maximization and Chang's attenuation correction method in quantitative cardiac SPET: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, D; Slomka, P J; Hahn, L J; Kloiber, R

    1998-12-01

    Photon attenuation is one of the primary causes of artifacts in cardiac single photon emission tomography (SPET). Several attenuation correction algorithms have been proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm and Chang's non-uniform attenuation correction method on quantitative cardiac SPET. We performed SPET scans of an anthropomorphic phantom simulating normal and abnormal myocardial studies. Attenuation maps of the phantom were obtained from computed tomographic images. The SPET projection data were corrected for attenuation using OSEM reconstruction, as well as Chang's method. For each defect scan and attenuation correction method, we calculated three quantitative parameters: average radial maximum (ARM) ratio of the defect-to-normal area, maximum defect contrast (MDC) and defect volume, using automated three-dimensional quantitation. The differences between the two methods were less than 4% for defect-to-normal ARM ratio, 19% for MDC and 13% for defect volume. These differences are within the range of estimated statistical variation of SPET. The calculation times of the two methods were comparable. For all SPET studies, OSEM attenuation correction gave a more correct activity distribution, with respect to both the homogeneity of the radiotracer and the shape of the cardiac insert. The difference in uniformity between OSEM and Chang's method was quantified by segmental analysis and found to be less than 8% for the normal study. In conclusion, OSEM and Chang's attenuation correction are quantitatively equivalent, with comparable calculation times. OSEM reconstruction gives a more correct activity distribution and is therefore preferred.

  1. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lene; Broth, Mathias; Cromdal, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchan...

  2. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  3. Point defects in crystals (including grouped defects). Report No. 4548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, D.N.

    1981-08-01

    The fundamental properties of point defects, vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, in pure fcc and bcc metals is reviewed. Point defects created by both thermally-activated and irradiation processes are considered. The roles played by vacancies and self-interstitial atoms in thermal equilibrium are discussed and the best values of the enthalpy of formation of these point defects, in a number of metals, are given. Methods for obtaining fundamental properties of vacancies, such as activation volumes, mobilities, and binding enthalpies are discussed. Selected best values of mobilities and binding enthalpies of vacancies, as deduced from recovery experiments on a number of different quenched metals are listed. The problem of the production of single self-interstitial atoms and their configuration(s) is discussed. The clustering of single self-interstitials into small clusters is also considered. The physical origin of the extremely high low-temperature mobility of self-interstitials in the so-called Stage I recovery regime is also discussed.

  4. Time course of an X-ray picture following operation for the ventricular septal defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khenynya, R.L.; Latsis, A.T.; Rubene, M.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    An x-ray picture was studied over time in 80 pediatric patients by hemodynamic groups in accordance with the classification adopted in the A.I. Bakulev Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery, USSR AMS. Of them in 15 patients in addition to the ventricular septal defect, stenosis of the pulmonary artery was revealed, in 11 concomitant insufficiency of the tricuspid valve. The best results after radical correction of the defect were achieved in patients with insignificant or moderate disorder of the pulmonary hemodynamics; positive results in patients with a high pulmonary hypertension were observed over time later. X-ray studies on the regression of disorders of the pulmonary hemodynamics emphasize the necessity of early diagnosis of the ventricular septal defect followed by surgical correction.

  5. Clay minerals in pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateo, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Argille, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Clay minerals are fundamental constituents of life, not only as possible actors in the development of life on the Earth (Cairns-Smith and Hartman, 1986), but mainly because they are essential constituents of soils, the interface between the solid planet and the continental biosphere. Many, many authors have devoted themselves to the study of clays and clay minerals since the publication of the early modern studies by Grim (1953, 1962) and Millot (1964). In those years two very important associations were established in Europe (Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles, AIPEA) and in the USA (Clay Mineral Society, CMS). The importance of these societies is to put together people that work in very different fields (agronomy, geology, geochemistry, industry, etc.), but with a common language (clays), very useful in scientific work. Currently excellent texts are being published, but introductory notes are also available on the web (Schroeder, 1998).

  6. Surgical correction of joint deformities and hyaline cartilage regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Александрович Винокуров

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine a method of extra-articular osteochondral fragment formation for the improvement of surgical correction results of joint deformities and optimization of regenerative conditions for hyaline cartilage. Materials and Methods. The method of formation of an articular osteochondral fragment without penetration into the joint cavity was devised experimentally. More than 30 patients with joint deformities underwent the surgery. Results. During the experiments, we postulated that there may potentially be a complete recovery of joint defects because of hyaline cartilage regeneration. By destructing the osteochondral fragment and reforming it extra-articularally, joint defects were recovered in all patients. The results were evaluated as excellent and good in majority of the patients. Conclusion. These findings indicate a novel method in which the complete recovery of joint defects due to dysplastic genesis or osteochondral defects as a result of injuries can be obtained. The devised method can be used in future experiments for objectification and regenerative potential of hyaline cartilage (e.g., rate and volume of the reformed joints that regenerate, detection of cartilage elements, and the regeneration process.

  7. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  8. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Information For… Media Policy Makers National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... NBDPS is one of the largest studies on birth defects ever undertaken in the United States. This ...

  9. Cellular Defect May Be Linked to Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160862.html Cellular Defect May Be Linked to Parkinson's: Study Abnormality might apply to all forms of ... that may be common to all forms of Parkinson's disease. The defect plays a major role in ...

  10. A Monte Carlo analysis of health risks from PCB-contaminated mineral oil transformer fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenroeder, A Q; Faeder, E J

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this study is the estimation of health hazards due to the inhalation of combustion products from accidental mineral oil transformer fires. Calculations of production, dispersion, and subsequent human intake of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) provide us with exposure estimates. PCDFs are believed to be the principal toxic products of the pyrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sometimes found as contaminants in transformer mineral oil. Cancer burdens and birth defect hazard indices are estimated from population data and exposure statistics. Monte Carlo-derived variational factors emphasize the statistics of uncertainty in the estimates of risk parameters. Community health issues are addressed and risks are found to be insignificant.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of Class II furcation defects: a histometrical study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Ferreira Suaid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the potential adjunctive benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP when used with guided-tissue regeneration (GTR and bioactive glass (BG in the treatment of Class II furcation lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral Class II furcation lesions were surgically created and allowed to become chronic in the mandibular third premolars of 9 dogs. The defects were randomly assigned to: A GTR+BG and B GTR+BG+PRP. Similar defects were created in the maxillary third premolars and received the same treatments after 45 days. Dogs were sacrificed 90 days after the first treatment. The histometric parameters evaluated were: connective tissue adaptation, new cementum, new bone, mineralized bone area, non-mineralized bone area, and residual BG particle area. RESULTS: Data analysis showed a superior length of new cementum and a greater mineralized bone area for group B in both periods (p<0.05. The non-mineralized bone area was greater in the control group (p<0.05 in both periods. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the use of PRP in the treatment of Class II furcation defects may enhance the amount of new cementum and provide a more mineralized bone in a shorter period of time.

  12. Automatic classification of blank substrate defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettiger, Tom; Buck, Peter; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Ronald, Rob; Rost, Dan; Samir, Bhamidipati

    2014-10-01

    Mask preparation stages are crucial in mask manufacturing, since this mask is to later act as a template for considerable number of dies on wafer. Defects on the initial blank substrate, and subsequent cleaned and coated substrates, can have a profound impact on the usability of the finished mask. This emphasizes the need for early and accurate identification of blank substrate defects and the risk they pose to the patterned reticle. While Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) is a well-developed technology for inspection and analysis of defects on patterned wafers and masks in the semiconductors industry, ADC for mask blanks is still in the early stages of adoption and development. Calibre ADC is a powerful analysis tool for fast, accurate, consistent and automatic classification of defects on mask blanks. Accurate, automated classification of mask blanks leads to better usability of blanks by enabling defect avoidance technologies during mask writing. Detailed information on blank defects can help to select appropriate job-decks to be written on the mask by defect avoidance tools [1][4][5]. Smart algorithms separate critical defects from the potentially large number of non-critical defects or false defects detected at various stages during mask blank preparation. Mechanisms used by Calibre ADC to identify and characterize defects include defect location and size, signal polarity (dark, bright) in both transmitted and reflected review images, distinguishing defect signals from background noise in defect images. The Calibre ADC engine then uses a decision tree to translate this information into a defect classification code. Using this automated process improves classification accuracy, repeatability and speed, while avoiding the subjectivity of human judgment compared to the alternative of manual defect classification by trained personnel [2]. This paper focuses on the results from the evaluation of Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) product at MP Mask

  13. Correlation functions on conical defects

    CERN Document Server

    Smolkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We explore the new technique developed recently in \\cite{Rosenhaus:2014woa} and suggest a correspondence between the $N$-point correlation functions on spacetime with conical defects and the $(N+1)$-point correlation functions in regular Minkowski spacetime. This correspondence suggests a new systematic way to evaluate the correlation functions on spacetimes with conical defects. We check the correspondence for the expectation value of a scalar operator and of the energy momentum tensor in a conformal field theory and obtain the exact agreement with the earlier derivations for cosmic string spacetime. We then use this correspondence and do the computations for a generic scalar operator and a conserved vector current. For generic unitary field theory we compute the expectation value of the energy momentum tensor using the known spectral representation of the $2$-point correlators of stress-energy tensor in Minkowski spacetime.

  14. Cooperation and defection in ghetto

    CERN Document Server

    Kulakowski, K

    2006-01-01

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  15. Defects of mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase γ in concert with accessory proteins such as the mitochondrial DNA helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein, topoisomerase, and initiating factors. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism can cause mitochondrial genetic diseases due to mitochondrial DNA deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These genetic diseases include mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes such as Alpers or early infantile hepatocerebral syndromes, and mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. This review focuses on our current knowledge of genetic defects of mitochondrial DNA replication (POLG, POLG2, C10orf2, and MGME1) that cause instability of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial disease.

  16. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  17. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR HYDROCYCLONES CORRECTED CUT SIZE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocyclones are devices worldwide used in mineral processing for desliming, classification, selective classification, thickening and pre-concentration. A hydrocyclone is composed by one cylindrical and one conical section joint together, without any moving parts and it is capable of perform granular material separation in pulp. The mineral particles separation mechanism acting in a hydrocyclone is complex and its mathematical modelling is usually empirical. The most used model for hydrocyclone corrected cut size is proposed by Plitt. Over the years many revisions and corrections to Plitt´s model were proposed. The present paper shows a modification in the Plitt´s model constant, obtained by exponential regression of simulated data for three different hydrocyclones geometry: Rietema, Bradley and Krebs. To validate the proposed model literature data obtained from phosphate ore using fifteen different hydrocyclones geometry are used. The proposed model shows a correlation equals to 88.2% between experimental and calculated corrected cut size, while the correlation obtained using Plitt´s model is 11.5%.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF MAIN MINERAL WATER ROMANIAN MARKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOME TOXICOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiana TAMBA - BEREHOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze 15 Romanian brands of mineral waters and in this purpose therey were bought from a hypermarket. The content of nitrates, nitrites and pH have been determined for each of the 15 mineral waters using the modern known techniques. A number of two-thirds (66.67% of the producers did not specify the nitrates content of mineral waters on the label. The firms which mentioned the content of nitrates on the label have not been correct as the tested value of nitrates was higher than the one stated on the label. The mean of nitrates in the tested mineral waters was 5.89 ± 2.88 mg/l, well below the maximum limits (50 mg/l. The fact that most producers do not specify the mineral waters nitrites content, this is not a health issue for consumers, because the research results showed that the presence of nitrites in the Romanian mineral waters is extremely low, somewhere besides the detection limits of the analytical method used. The nitrites content of tested mineral waters was significantly lower in waters with a greater pH. In fact, the increasing the pH of mineral waters by one unit, determined the reducing of nitrites amount by about 32% (r = 0.57 *. As a practical conclusion, consumers could use this criterion in choosing the type of water they want to drink.

  19. Adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm for IRFPA based on PCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Bad pixels and response non-uniformity are the primary obstacles when IRFPA is used in different thermal imaging systems. The bad pixels of IRFPA include fixed bad pixels and random bad pixels. The former is caused by material or manufacture defect and their positions are always fixed, the latter is caused by temperature drift and their positions are always changing. Traditional radiometric calibration-based bad pixel detection and compensation algorithm is only valid to the fixed bad pixels. Scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is the effective way to eliminate these two kinds of bad pixels. Currently, the most used scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is based on adaptive median filter (AMF). In this algorithm, bad pixels are regarded as image noise and then be replaced by filtered value. However, missed correction and false correction often happens when AMF is used to handle complex infrared scenes. To solve this problem, a new adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is proposed. Potential bad pixels are detected by PCNN in the first step, then image sequences are used periodically to confirm the real bad pixels and exclude the false one, finally bad pixels are replaced by the filtered result. With the real infrared images obtained from a camera, the experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Confining crack propagation in defective graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina

    2015-03-11

    Crack propagation in graphene is essential to understand mechanical failure in 2D materials. We report a systematic study of crack propagation in graphene as a function of defect content. Nanoindentations and subsequent images of graphene membranes with controlled induced defects show that while tears in pristine graphene span microns length, crack propagation is strongly reduced in the presence of defects. Accordingly, graphene oxide exhibits minor crack propagation. Our work suggests controlled defect creation as an approach to avoid catastrophic failure in graphene.

  1. Diabetic angiopathy and angiogenic defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ling

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes is one of the most serious health problems in the world. A major complication of diabetes is blood vessel disease, termed angiopathy, which is characterized by abnormal angiogenesis. In this review, we focus on angiogenesis abnormalities in diabetic complications and discuss its benefits and drawbacks as a therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications. Additionally, we discuss glucose metabolism defects that are associated with abnormal angiogenesis in atypical diabetic complications such as cancer.

  2. Algorithms for defects in nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.-L.; Tiago, Murilo L. [Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Chelikowsky, James R. [Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Departments of Physics and Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)], E-mail: jrc@ices.utexas.edu

    2007-12-15

    We illustrate recent progress in developing algorithms for solving the Kohn-Sham problem. Key ingredients of our algorithm include pseudopotentials implemented on a real space grid and the use of damped-Chebyshev polynomial filtered subspace iteration. This procedure allows one to predict electronic properties for many materials across the nano-regime, i.e., from atoms to nanocrystals of sufficient size to replicate bulk properties. We will illustrate this method for large silicon quantum dots doped with phosphorus defect.

  3. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructur...... because building material is available at step sites. The strands on TiO2(110) represent point defects that are densely packed into ordered adstructures....

  4. Electricity Surcharges: Defects and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since 1980s, the government has decided to levy certain surcharges attached to electricity tariff collected by power grid corporations as government revenue for specific social public welfare purposes. These surcharges presently include the Three Gorges construction fund, urban construction surcharge, rural power grid debt service fund, as well as the newly-added post supporting fund for water reservoirs immigrants and renewable energy surcharge, etc. Yet the legal defects on surcharge policy have brought about operational risks on power grid enterprises.

  5. Water concentrations in mantle peridotite minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    exceptions are Ol and Cpx in Pali Aike, which have decreasing concentrations towards the rims, as previously observed by Demouchy et al. (2006). The lack of zonation can either indicate that diffusive loss or hydrothermal addition have not affected water concentrations, or that concentrations have been completely altered. We suggest that the former interpretation is correct, based on the observation that most grains are optically transparent and give consistent values for multiple analyses. In contrast, visibly altered grains yield poor quality analytical points and anomalously high concentrations, suggesting that these grains have undergone hydroxyl addition related to alteration. Assuming that pyroxenes provide accurate estimates of mantle water content, we assess the implications for mantle composition and for melting systematics. We examine the difference in water contents among different samples and the degree to which water concentrations correlate with indicators of mantle depletion, such as trace element concentrations and mineral modes. The low water content of the SWIR pyroxenite veins may indicate that they originated as garnet pyroxenites, as garnets store minimal amounts of water.

  6. Photonic crystals with topological defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Knitter, Sebastian; Xiong, Wen; Cao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    We introduce topological defects to a square lattice of elliptical cylinders. Despite the broken translational symmetry, the long-range positional order of the cylinders leads to a residual photonic band gap in the local density of optical states. However, the band-edge modes are strongly modified by the spatial variation of the ellipse orientation. The Γ -X band-edge mode splits into four regions of high intensity and the output flux becomes asymmetric due to the formation of crystalline domains with different orientation. The Γ -M band-edge mode has the energy flux circulating around the topological defect center, creating an optical vortex. By removing the elliptical cylinders at the center, we create localized defect states, which are dominated by either clockwise or counterclockwise circulating waves. The flow direction can be switched by changing the ellipse orientation. The deterministic aperiodic variation of the unit cell orientation adds another dimension to the control of light in photonic crystals, enabling the creation of a diversified field pattern and energy flow landscape.

  7. Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth

    2014-07-15

    A balanced and varied diet is the best source of essential vitamins and minerals; however, nutrient deficiencies occur, including in populations with bountiful food supplies and the means to procure nutrient-rich foods. For example, the typical American diet bears little resemblance to what experts recommend for fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, which serve as important sources of an array of vitamins and minerals. With time, deficiencies in one or more micronutrients may lead to serious health issues. A common reason people take multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements is to maintain or improve health, but research examining the effectiveness of MVMs in the prevention of certain chronic conditions is ongoing. In addition to the utility of MVMs for filling in relatively small but critical nutritional gaps, which may help prevent conditions such as anemia, neural tube defects, and osteoporosis, some evidence supports possible benefits of MVM supplementation with regard to cancer prevention (particularly in men) and prevention or delay of cataract, as well as some aspects of cognitive performance. Unlike some single-vitamin supplements, MVM supplements are generally well tolerated and do not appear to increase the risk of mortality, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. The potential benefits of MVM supplements likely outweigh any risk in the general population and may be particularly beneficial for older people.

  8. Updating quasar bolometric luminosity corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Runnoe, Jessie C; Shang, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    Bolometric corrections are used in quasar studies to quantify total energy output based on a measurement of a monochromatic luminosity. First, we enumerate and discuss the practical difficulties of determining such corrections, then we present bolometric luminosities between 1 \\mu m and 8 keV rest frame and corrections derived from the detailed spectral energy distributions of 63 bright quasars of low to moderate redshift (z = 0.03-1.4). Exploring several mathematical fittings, we provide practical bolometric corrections of the forms L_iso=\\zeta \\lambda L_{\\lambda} and log(L_iso)=A+B log(\\lambda L_{\\lambda}) for \\lambda= 1450, 3000, and 5100 \\AA, where L_iso is the bolometric luminosity calculated under the assumption of isotropy. The significant scatter in the 5100 \\AA\\ bolometric correction can be reduced by adding a first order correction using the optical slope, \\alpha_\\lambda,opt. We recommend an adjustment to the bolometric correction to account for viewing angle and the anisotropic emission expected fr...

  9. Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects? Many congenital heart defects cause few or no signs and symptoms. A ... lips, and fingernails) Fatigue (tiredness) Poor blood circulation Congenital heart defects don't cause chest pain or other painful ...

  10. Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Oct 26,2015 Not all people with ... supports you in your pursuit of heart health. Congenital Heart Defects • Home • About Congenital Heart Defects • The Impact of ...

  11. Assessing climate model software quality: a defect density analysis of three models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pipitone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A climate model is an executable theory of the climate; the model encapsulates climatological theories in software so that they can be simulated and their implications investigated. Thus, in order to trust a climate model, one must trust that the software it is built from is built correctly. Our study explores the nature of software quality in the context of climate modelling. We performed an analysis of defect reports and defect fixes in several versions of leading global climate models by collecting defect data from bug tracking systems and version control repository comments. We found that the climate models all have very low defect densities compared to well-known, similarly sized open-source projects. We discuss the implications of our findings for the assessment of climate model software trustworthiness.

  12. Bone Regeneration of Rat Tibial Defect by Zinc-Tricalcium Phosphate (Zn-TCP Synthesized from Porous Foraminifera Carbonate Macrospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera carbonate exoskeleton was hydrothermally converted to biocompatible and biodegradable zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP as an alternative biomimetic material for bone fracture repair. Zn-TCP samples implanted in a rat tibial defect model for eight weeks were compared with unfilled defect and beta-tricalcium phosphate showing accelerated bone regeneration compared with the control groups, with statistically significant bone mineral density and bone mineral content growth. CT images of the defect showed restoration of cancellous bone in Zn-TCP and only minimal growth in control group. Histological slices reveal bone in-growth within the pores and porous chamber of the material detailing good bone-material integration with the presence of blood vessels. These results exhibit the future potential of biomimetic Zn-TCP as bone grafts for bone fracture repair.

  13. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria De-Regil, Luz; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Dowswell, Therese; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been reported that neural tube defects can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. Objectives This review updates and expands a previous Cochrane Review assessing the effects of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid to reduce neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined whether folate supplementation before and during early pregnancy can reduce neural tube and other birth defects (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes for mothers or babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (July 2010). Additionally, we searched the international clinical trials registry platform and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Data collection and analysis We assessed trials for methodological quality using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, one author extracted data and a second checked for accuracy. Main results Five trials involving 6105 women (1949 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 4156 with no history of NTDs) were included. Overall, the results are consistent in showing a protective effect of daily folic acid supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) in preventing NTDs compared with no interventions/placebo or vitamins and minerals without folic acid (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.52). Only one study assessed the incidence of NTDs and the effect was not statistically significant (RR 0.08, 95

  14. Anesthetic management of a child with corrected transposition of great vessels undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Shaji; Umesh, Goneppanavar; Arun Kumar, Handigodu Duggappa; Srinivasan, Nataraj Madagondapalli

    2013-04-01

    We describe the successful anesthetic management of a 14-year-old child, a corrected case of transposition of great vessels in childhood and presently with residual atrial septal defect, peripheral cyanosis, and neurological deficit of lower limb presented for tendoachillis lengthening.

  15. CORRECTION OF VIOLATION TEMPLE-LOWER-JAW JOINT IN MESIAL DISPLACEMENT OF LOWER JAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Fischev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of temple-lower-jaw joints was provided among patients with defects of teeth row, complicated with mesial displacement of lower jaw. The defenite changes of temple-lower-jaw joint were found and the possibility of correction of these changes was defined.

  16. Optimal correction of distinct CFTR folding mutants in rectal cystic fibrosis organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Gogorza Gondra, Ricardo A; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte M; Janssens, Hettie M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule therapies that restore defects in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating (potentiators) or trafficking (correctors) are being developed for cystic fibrosis (CF) in a mutation-specific fashion. Options for pharmacological correction of CFTR-p.Phe508del (F508d

  17. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150874Chen Haidong(Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration,Hohhot 010010,China);Li Jiao Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Hypersthene-Plagioclase Granulite in Liangcheng Area of Central Inner Mongolia and Its Geological Significance(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,41(4),2014,p.1136-1142,

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152386 Hao Yuanfang(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,CGS,Shenyang 110032,China);Xu Yingkui Determination of Calcium Oxide in Nickel Ores with EDTA Titration(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,23(6),2014,p.580-582,2tables,6 refs.)

  20. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814