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Sample records for correction factors calculation

  1. PTRAC File Utilization for Calculation of Free-Air Ionization Chamber Correction Factors by MCNPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Sochor, Vladimír

    2014-06-01

    A free-air ionization chamber is used as a standard of photon air-kerma. Several correction factors are applied to the air-kerma value. Correction factors for electron loss (kloss) and for additional ionization current caused by photon scatter (ksc), photon fluorescence (kfl), photon transmission through diaphragm edge (kdtr), and photon scatter from the surface of the diaphragm aperture (kdsc) were determined by the MCNPX code utilizing information stored in Particle Track (PTRAC) output files. Individual steps of the procedure are described and the calculated values of the correction factors are presented. The values are in agreement with the correction factors published in a literature for similar free-air chambers.

  2. Derivation of correction factor to be applied for calculated results of PWR fuel isotopic composition by ORIGEN2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murazaki, Minoru [Tokyo Nuclear Service Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, Hiroki [The Japan Research Institute Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    For providing conservative PWR spent fuel compositions from the view point of nuclear criticality safety, correction factors applicable for result of burnup calculation by ORIGEN2 were evaluated. Its conservativeness was verified by criticality calculations using MVP. To calculate these correction factors, analyses of spent fuel isotopic composition data were performed by ORIGEN2. Maximum or minimum value of the ratio of calculation result to experimental data was chosen as correction factor. These factors are given to each set of fuel assembly and ORIGEN2 library. They could be considered as the re-definition of recommended isotopic composition given in Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook. (author)

  3. Calculation of correction factors for ionization chamber measurements with small fields in low-density media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaturo, O; Pachoud, M; Bochud, F O; Moeckli, R

    2012-07-21

    The quantity of interest for high-energy photon beam therapy recommended by most dosimetric protocols is the absorbed dose to water. Thus, ionization chambers are calibrated in absorbed dose to water, which is the same quantity as what is calculated by most treatment planning systems (TPS). However, when measurements are performed in a low-density medium, the presence of the ionization chamber generates a perturbation at the level of the secondary particle range. Therefore, the measured quantity is close to the absorbed dose to a volume of water equivalent to the chamber volume. This quantity is not equivalent to the dose calculated by a TPS, which is the absorbed dose to an infinitesimally small volume of water. This phenomenon can lead to an overestimation of the absorbed dose measured with an ionization chamber of up to 40% in extreme cases. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate correction factors based on the Monte Carlo simulations. These correction factors are obtained by the ratio of the absorbed dose to water in a low-density medium □D(w,Q,V1)(low) averaged over a scoring volume V₁ for a geometry where V₁ is filled with the low-density medium and the absorbed dose to water □D(w,QV2)(low) averaged over a volume V₂ for a geometry where V₂ is filled with water. In the Monte Carlo simulations, □D(w,QV2)(low) is obtained by replacing the volume of the ionization chamber by an equivalent volume of water, according to the definition of the absorbed dose to water. The method is validated in two different configurations which allowed us to study the behavior of this correction factor as a function of depth in phantom, photon beam energy, phantom density and field size.

  4. Calculating correct compilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high-level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers...... falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language features and their combination, including arithmetic expressions, exceptions, state, various forms...

  5. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of

  6. Method of Calculating the Correction Factors for Cable Dimensioning in Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simutkin, M.; Tuzikova, V.; Tlusty, J.; Tulsky, V.; Muller, Z.

    2017-04-01

    One of the main causes of overloading electrical equipment by currents of higher harmonics is the great increasing of a number of non-linear electricity power consumers. Non-sinusoidal voltages and currents affect the operation of electrical equipment, reducing its lifetime, increases the voltage and power losses in the network, reducing its capacity. There are standards that respects emissions amount of higher harmonics current that cannot provide interference limit for a safe level in power grid. The article presents a method for determining a correction factor to the long-term allowable current of the cable, which allows for this influence. Using mathematical models in the software Elcut, it was described thermal processes in the cable in case the flow of non-sinusoidal current. Developed in the article theoretical principles, methods, mathematical models allow us to calculate the correction factor to account for the effect of higher harmonics in the current spectrum for network equipment in any type of non-linear load.

  7. Systematic comparison of beta spectra calculations using improved analytical screening correction with experimental shape factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, X

    2016-03-01

    From a review of the available literature, a database of experimental shape factors from measured beta spectra was created in previous work. Classical assumptions applied in beta spectra calculations which avoid the determination of the electron and nuclear wave functions were tested by comparison with each measured spectrum present in the database. From this systematic comparison, it was demonstrated that the typical assumption λk=1 is inappropriate for all forbidden unique transitions. Moreover, the equally common ξ-approximation was also proved to be incorrect for about half of the listed first forbidden non-unique transitions and for all second non-unique ones. In present work, this study has been performed once again using an improved analytical screening correction. General results from previous study still remain the same. Except for allowed transitions, the mean energies in current nuclear databases are expected to be erroneous. Some selected beta spectra are also given to illustrate these results.

  8. Correction factors for the INER-improved free-air ionization chambers calculated with the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Uei-Tyng; Chu, Chien-Hau

    2006-05-01

    Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the correction factors for electron loss and scattered photons for two improved cylindrical free-air ionization chambers (FACs) constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). The method is based on weighting correction factors for mono-energetic photons with X-ray spectra. The newly obtained correction factors for the medium-energy free-air chamber were compared with the current values, which were based on a least-squares fit to experimental data published in the NBS Handbook 64 [Wyckoff, H.O., Attix, F.H., 1969. Design of free-air ionization chambers. National Bureau Standards Handbook, No. 64. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp. 1-16; Chen, W.L., Su, S.H., Su, L.L., Hwang, W.S., 1999. Improved free-air ionization chamber for the measurement of X-rays. Metrologia 36, 19-24]. The comparison results showed the agreement between the Monte Carlo method and experimental data is within 0.22%. In addition, mono-energetic correction factors for the low-energy free-air chamber were calculated. Average correction factors were then derived for measured and theoretical X-ray spectra at 30-50 kVp. Although the measured and calculated spectra differ slightly, the resulting differences in the derived correction factors are less than 0.02%.

  9. Thermal calculation of ground contact structures: Correction factors of environment- and structure-dependent effects on the heat transfer coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    The heat loss at ground contact structures is taken into consideration in building heat loss calculations. However, the heat loss through the ground depends not only the soil and the building structure, but the environment as well. New calculation methods based on parametrized transient finite element thermal modelling are introduced in the preceding research article [3]. This paper is the further demonstration of the methods’ environment- or structure-depending correction factors which descr...

  10. Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors in proton beams using detailed simulation of ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Andreo, Pedro; Sempau, Josep

    2016-03-01

    This work calculates beam quality correction factors (k Q ) in monoenergetic proton beams using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of ionization chambers. It uses the Monte Carlo code penh and the electronic stopping powers resulting from the adoption of two different sets of mean excitation energy values for water and graphite: (i) the currently ICRU 37 and ICRU 49 recommended {{I}\\text{w}}=75~\\text{eV} and {{I}\\text{g}}=78~\\text{eV} and (ii) the recently proposed {{I}\\text{w}}=78~\\text{eV} and {{I}\\text{g}}=81.1~\\text{eV} . Twelve different ionization chambers were studied. The k Q factors calculated using the two different sets of I-values were found to agree with each other within 1.6% or better. k Q factors calculated using current ICRU I-values were found to agree within 2.3% or better with the k Q factors tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, and within 1% or better with experimental values published in the literature. k Q factors calculated using the new I-values were also found to agree within 1.1% or better with the experimental values. This work concludes that perturbation correction factors in proton beams—currently assumed to be equal to unity—are in fact significantly different from unity for some of the ionization chambers studied.

  11. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Determination of Correction Factors for Small Field Based on Measurement and Numerical Calculation using Cylindrical Ionization Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kwangwoo; Park, Sungho; Choi, Jin Hwa; Park, Suk Won; Bak, Jino

    2015-01-01

    We studied the investigation of volume averaging effect for air-filled cylindrical ionization chambers to determine correction factors in small photon field for the given chamber. As a method, we measured output factors using several cylindrical ionization chambers and calculated with mathematical method similar to deconvolution in which we modeled non-constant and inhomogeneous exposure function in the cavity of chamber. The parameters in exposure function and correction factors were determined by solving a system of equations we developed with measurement data and geometry of the given chamber. Correction factors (CFs) we had found are very similar to that from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. For example, CFs in this study were computed as 1.116 for PTW31010, and 1.0225 for PTW31016, while CFs from MC were reported as approximately between 1.17 and 1.20 for PTW31010, and between 1.02 and 1.06 for PTW31016 in of 6MV photon beam . Furthermore, the result from the method of deconvolution combined with MC for cham...

  13. Gamma self-shielding correction factors calculation for aqueous bulk sample analysis by PGNAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Modern Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University (PNU), Kohandej, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, M. [Isfahan Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRT), Reactor and Accelerators Research and Development School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) was applied to aqueous sample analysis using a relative method. For elemental analysis of an unknown bulk sample, gamma self-shielding coefficient was required. Gamma self-shielding coefficient of unknown samples was estimated by an experimental method and also by MCNP code calculation. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the gamma self-shielding within the sample volume is required.

  14. Accuracy of Spencer-Attix cavity theory and calculations of fluence correction factors for the air kerma formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, D J; Rogers, D W O

    2009-09-01

    EGSnrc calculations of ion chamber response and Spencer-Attix (SA) restricted stopping-power ratios are used to test the assumptions of the SA cavity theory and to assess the accuracy of this theory as it applies to the air kerma formalism for 60Co beams. Consistent with previous reports, the EGSnrc calculations show that the SA cavity theory, as it is normally applied, requires a correction for the perturbation of the charged particle fluence (K(fl)) by the presence of the cavity. The need for K(fl) corrections arises from the fact that the standard prescription for choosing the low-energy threshold delta in the SA restricted stopping-power ratio consistently underestimates the values of delta needed if no perturbation to the fluence is assumed. The use of fluence corrections can be avoided by appropriately choosing delta, but it is not clear how delta can be calculated from first principles. Values of delta required to avoid K(fl) corrections were found to be consistently higher than delta values obtained using the conventional approach and are also observed to be dependent on the composition of the wall in addition to the cavity size. Values of K(fl) have been calculated for many of the graphite-walled ion chambers used by the national metrology institutes around the world and found to be within 0.04% of unity in all cases, with an uncertainty of about 0.02%.

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of monoenergetic electron depth dose distributions in LiF chips: Skin dose correction factors for beta rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S. [Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel); Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby (Canada); Yuen, P.; Wong, P. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1994-10-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 to 4 MeV irradiating LiF chips in both perpendicular and isotropic geometry. This enabled the calculation of skin dose correction factors (beta factors) for typical beta energy spectra as measured with a beta-ray spectrometer at CANDU nuclear generating stations. The correction factors were estimated by averaging the depth dose distributions for the monoenergetic electrons over the experimentally measured beta-ray spectra. The calculations illustrate the large uncertainty in beta factors arising from the unknown angular distribution of the beta-ray radiation field and uncertainties in the shape of the beta-ray spectra below 500 keV. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Determinations of the correction factors for small fields in cylindrical ionization chambers based on measurement and numerical calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangwoo; Choi, Wonhoon; Park, Sungho; Choi, Jin Hwa; Park, Suk Won; Bak, Jino

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the volume averaging effect for air-filled cylindrical ionization chambers to determine the correction factors in a small photon field for a given chamber. We measured output factors with several cylindrical ionization chambers, and by using a mathematical method similar to deconvolution, we modeled the non-constant and inhomogeneous exposure function in the cavity of the chamber. The parameters in the exposure function and the correction factors were determined by solving a system of equations that we had developed by using the measured data and the geometry of the given chamber. The correction factors (CFs) were very similar to those obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For example, the CFs in this study were found to be 1.116 for PTW31010 and 1.0225 for PTW31016 while the CFs obtained from MC simulations were reported as being approximately between 1.17 and 1.20 for PTW31010 and between 1.02 and 1.06 for PTW31016 in a 6-MV photon beam of 1 × 1 cm2. Furthermore, the method of deconvolution combined with the MC result for the chamber's response function showed a similar CF for PTW 30013, which was reported as 2.29 and 1.54 for a 1 × 1 cm2 and a 1.5 × 1.5 cm2 field size, respectively. The CFs from our method were similar, 2.42 and 1.54. In addition, we report CFs for PTW30013, PTW31010, PTW31016, IBA FC23-C, and IBA CC13. As a consequence, we suggest the use of our method to measure the correct output factor by using the fact that an inhomogeneous exposure causes a volume averaging effect in the cavity of air-filled cylindrical ionization chamber. The result obtained by using our method is very similar to that obtained from MC simulations. The method we developed can easily be applied in clinics.

  17. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  18. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors; Adaptation du code Monte Carlo penelope pour la metrologie de la dose absorbee: caracterisation des faisceaux de photons X de haute energie et calcul de facteurs de correction de dosimetres de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurier, J

    1999-05-28

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  19. Comparison between measured tissue phantom ratio values and calculated from percent depth doses with and without peak scatter correction factor in a 6 MV beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Narayanasamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of calculated tissue phantom ratio (TPR data with measured TPR values of a 6MV photon beam. TPR was calculated from the measured percent depth dose (PDD values using 2 methods – with and without correcting for the differences in peak scatter fraction (PSF. Mean error less than 1% was observed between the measured and calculated TPR values with the PSF correction, for all clinically relevant field sizes and depths. When not accounting for the PSF correction, mean difference between the measured and calculated TPR values was larger than 1% for square field sizes ranging from 3 cm to 10 cm.

  20. Calculation of Loudspeaker Cabinet Diffraction and Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Yi; SHEN Yong; XIA Jie

    2011-01-01

    A method of calculating the cabinet edge diffractions for loudspeaker driver when mounted in an enclosure is proposed,based on the extended Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin model.Up to the third order,cabinet diffractions are discussed in detail and the diffractive effects on the radiated sound field of the loudspeaker system are quantitatively described,with a correction function built to compensate for the diffractive interference.The method is applied to a practical loudspeaker enclosure that has rectangular facets.The diffractive effects of the cabinet on the forward sound radiation are investigated and predictions of the calculations show quite good agreements with experimental measurements.Most loudspeaker systems employ box-like cabinets.The response of a loudspeaker mounted in a box is much rougher than that of the same driver mounted on a large baffle.Although resonances in the box are partly responsible for the lack of smoothness,a major contribution is the diffraction of the cabinet edges,which aggravates the final response performance.Consequently,an analysis of the cabinet diffraction problem is required.%A method of calculating the cabinet edge diffractions for loudspeaker driver when mounted in an enclosure is proposed, based on the extended Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin model. Up to the third order, cabinet diffractions are discussed in detail and the diffractive effects on the radiated sound field of the loudspeaker system are quantitatively described, with a correction function built to compensate for the diffractive interference. The method is applied to a practical loudspeaker enclosure that has rectangular facets. The diffractive effects of the cabinet on the forward sound radiation are investigated and predictions of the calculations show quite good agreements with experimental measurements.

  1. The output factor correction as function of the photon beam field size - direct measurement and calculation from the lateral dose response functions of gas-filled and solid detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Daniela; Delfs, Björn; Meyners, Jutta; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Looe, Hui Khee

    2017-08-28

    The first aim of this study has been to extend the systematic experimental study of the field size dependence of the output factor correction for three micro-ionization chambers (PTW 31014, PTW 31022 and IBA Razor chamber), two silicon diodes (PTW 60017 and IBA Razor Diode) and the synthetic diamond detector microDiamond (PTW 60019) in a 6 MV photon beam down to an effective field side length of 2.6mm, and to summarize the present knowledge of this factor by treating it as a function of the dosimetric field size. In order to vary the dosimetric field size over this large range, output factors measurements were performed at source-to-surface distances of 60cm and 90cm. Since the output factors obtained with the organic scintillation detector Exradin W1 (Standard Imaging, Middleton, USA) at all field sizes closely agreed with those measured by EBT3 radiochromic films (ISP Corp, Wayne, USA), the scintillation detector served as the reference detector. The measured output correction factors reflect the influences of the volume averaging and density effects upon the uncorrected output factor values. In case of the microDiamond detector these opposing influences result in output factor correction values less than 1 for moderately small field sizes and larger than 1 for very small field sizes. Our results agree with most of the published experimental as well as Monte-Carlo simulated data within detector-specific limits of uncertainty. The dosimetric field side length has been identified as a reliable determinant of the output factor correction, and typical functional curve shapes of the field-size dependent output factor correction vs. dosimetric field side length have been associated with gas-filled, silicon diode and synthetic diamond detectors. The second aim of this study has been a novel, semi-empirical approach to calculate the field-size dependent output correction factors of small photon detectors by convolving film measured true dose profile data with measured

  2. SU-E-T-552: Monte Carlo Calculation of Correction Factors for a Free-Air Ionization Chamber in Support of a National Air-Kerma Standard for Electronic Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, M; Bergstrom, P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To use Monte Carlo radiation transport methods to calculate correction factors for a free-air ionization chamber in support of a national air-kerma standard for low-energy, miniature x-ray sources used for electronic brachytherapy (eBx). Methods: The NIST is establishing a calibration service for well-type ionization chambers used to characterize the strength of eBx sources prior to clinical use. The calibration approach involves establishing the well-chamber’s response to an eBx source whose air-kerma rate at a 50 cm distance is determined through a primary measurement performed using the Lamperti free-air ionization chamber. However, the free-air chamber measurements of charge or current can only be related to the reference air-kerma standard after applying several corrections, some of which are best determined via Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a detailed geometric model of the Lamperti chamber was developed in the EGSnrc code based on the engineering drawings of the instrument. The egs-fac user code in EGSnrc was then used to calculate energy-dependent correction factors which account for missing or undesired ionization arising from effects such as: (1) attenuation and scatter of the x-rays in air; (2) primary electrons escaping the charge collection region; (3) lack of charged particle equilibrium; (4) atomic fluorescence and bremsstrahlung radiation. Results: Energy-dependent correction factors were calculated assuming a monoenergetic point source with the photon energy ranging from 2 keV to 60 keV in 2 keV increments. Sufficient photon histories were simulated so that the Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty of the correction factors was less than 0.01%. The correction factors for a specific eBx source will be determined by integrating these tabulated results over its measured x-ray spectrum. Conclusion: The correction factors calculated in this work are important for establishing a national standard for eBx which will help ensure that dose

  3. Pressure Correction in Density Functional Theory Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S H

    2008-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been widely used in studies of the structural, thermoelastic, rheological, and electronic properties of earth-forming materials. The exchange-correlation term, however, is implemented based on various approximations, and this is believed to be the main reason for discrepancies between experiments and theoretical predictions. In this work, by using periclase MgO as a prototype system we examine the discrepancies in pressure and Kohn-Sham energy that are due to the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. For instance, we choose local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation. We perform extensive first-principles calculations at various temperatures and volumes and find that the exchange-correlation-based discrepancies in Kohn-Sham energy and pressure should be independent of temperature. This implies that the physical quantities, such as the equation of states, heat capacity, and the Gr\\"{u}neisen parameter, estimat...

  4. CALCULATION OF THE RELATIVISTIC CORRECTION ENERGIES OF Ne-LIKE IONS WITH ORBITAL POLARIZATION CORRECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIANG-DONG; TAN MING-LIANG; YI YOU-GEN; SHENG YONG; JIANG GANG; ZHANG ZHI-HONG; ZHU ZHENG-HE; ZHAO YONG-KUAN

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the theoretical calculation of Breit, self-energy, and vacuum polarization corrections in the Ne like system using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method with the orbital polarization. The relations of these corrections with the atomic number and the orbital symmetries are shown and the calculated correction energies are compared with other calculated results. Our Breit correction energies are all smaller by leV as maximum than the other theoretical Breit correction energies and the differences reveal systematical relation with atomic number. It is found that the configuration interactions have great effect on Breit corrections while the orbital polarization has much smaller effect on Breit corrections. The self-energy and vacuum polarization obtained by our calculation are much different from that in previous literatures for some transitions.

  5. Automatic Power Factor Correction Using Capacitive Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Anant Kumar Tiwari,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The power factor correction of electrical loads is a problem common to all industrial companies. Earlier the power factor correction was done by adjusting the capacitive bank manually [1]. The automated power factor corrector (APFC using capacitive load bank is helpful in providing the power factor correction. Proposed automated project involves measuring the power factor value from the load using microcontroller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction is to ensure the entire power system always preserving unity power factor. The software and hardware required to implement the suggested automatic power factor correction scheme are explained and its operation is described. APFC thus helps us to decrease the time taken to correct the power factor which helps to increase the efficiency.

  6. Automated numerical calculation of Sagnac correction for photonic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlapák, Martin; Vojtěch, Josef; Velc, Radek

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic effects must be taken into account for highly accurate time and frequency transfers. The most important is the Sagnac correction which is also source of non-reciprocity in various directions of any transfer in relation with the Earth rotation. In this case, not all important parameters as exact trajectory of the optical fibre path (leased fibres) are known with sufficient precision thus it is necessary to estimate lower and upper bounds of computed corrections. The presented approach deals with uncertainty in knowledge of detailed fibre paths, and also with complex paths with loops. We made the whole process of calculation of the Sagnac correction fully automated.

  7. Empirically corrected HEAT method for calculating atomization energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Holmann V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to increase the accuracy ofthe most recent variants ofthe HEAT method for calculating atomization energies of molecules by means ofextremely simple empirical corrections that depend on stoichiometry and the number ofunpaired electrons in the molecule. Our corrections reduce the deviation from experiment for all the HEAT variants. In particular, our corrections reduce the average absolute deviation and the root-mean-square deviation ofthe 456-QP variant to 0.18 and 0.23 kJoule/mol (i.e., 0.04 and 0.05 kcallmol), respectively.

  8. Calculation of thermal neutron self-shielding correction factors for aqueous bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Km. 6, Ravand Road, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mnnasri@kashanu.ac.ir; Jalali, M. [Isfahan Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Km. 6, Ravand Road, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    In this work thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing materials is studied using bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) with the MCNP code. The code was used to perform three dimensional simulations of a neutron source, neutron detector and sample of various material compositions. The MCNP model was validated against experimental measurements of the neutron flux performed using a BF{sub 3} detector. Simulations were performed to predict thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing solutes. In practice, the MCNP calculations are combined with experimental measurements of the relative thermal neutron flux over the sample's surface, with respect to a reference water sample, to derive the thermal neutron self-shielding within the sample. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the average thermal neutron flux within the sample volume is required.

  9. ART and SIRT correction factors in geotomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, C. A.; Hill, H. W.; Freeland, K. A.

    1983-04-01

    The ART and SIRT image reconstruction techniques are introduced and a correction factor which provides high resolution images is presented. The techniques were tested using synthetic measurements. In order to examine the manner in which each reconstruction progresses, the Euclidean distance for the reconstructions were plotted, versus iteration number. Results indicate that ART produces better reconstructed profiles than the SIRT (using identical correction factors).

  10. Calculator for the correction of the experimental specific migration for comparison with the legislative limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Hoekstra, Eddo J.

    The EURL-NRL-FCM Taskforce on the Fourth Amendment of the Plastic Directive 2002/72/EC developed a calculator for the correction of the test results for comparison with the specific migration limit (SML). The calculator calculates the maximum acceptable specific migration under the given...... experimental conditions in food or food stimulant and indicates whether the test result is in compliance with the legislation. This calculator includes the Fat Reduction Factor, the simulant D Reduction Factor and the factor of the difference in surface-to-volume ratio between test and real food contact....

  11. Calculation of the relativistic Bloch correction to stopping power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Bloch's technique of joining the nonrelativistic Bethe and Bohr stopping-power expressions by taking into account wave-packet effects for close collisions is extended to the relativistic case. It is found that Bloch's nonrelativistic correction term must be modified and that charge asymmetric terms appear. Excellent agreement is observed by comparing the results of these calculations to recent data on the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions.

  12. Calculation and Analysis of Differential Corrections for BeiDou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sainan; Chen, Junping; Zhang, Yize

    2015-04-01

    BeiDou Satellite Navigation System has been providing service forAsia-Pacific area. BeiDou uses observations of regional monitoring network to determine satellite orbit, which limits the satellite orbit accuracy. And the satellite clock error is produced by time synchronization system. The time synchronization delay of antenna device is general obtained through prior Calibration, and the residual calibration error is included in the satellite clock, which affects the prediction accuracy of satellite clock error. In this paper, we study the algorithms of Beidou differential corrections to improve the accuracy of satellite signals to improve the user positioning accuracy. In this algorithm, both pseudo-range and phase observations are used to calculate differential corrections. We process pseudo-range observations to obtain equivalent satellite clock error, which include satellite clock errors and orbit radial errors, as well as the average projection of orbit tangential and normal errors in combination. And the epoch-difference of phase observations are processed to eliminate the ambiguity which simplifies algorithms and ensure the relative accuracy (corrections variety between the epochs). Observations more than 10 stations in China are processed, and the equivalent clock error calculation results are analyzed, which shows that the satellite UDRE are significantly reduced and user location accuracy improves when the equivalent clock error corrections are applied. The residuals deducting equivalent satellite clock error contains the projection difference of satellite orbit error in all station (tangential and normal errors are main). We utilize the residuals to solve the tangential and normal orbit errors which cause the projection difference. The same observation data is processed. The results show that after calculating three-dimensional corrections, the satellite UDRE doesn't improve significantly compared to equivalent satellite clock error corrections and user

  13. Communication: Finite size correction in periodic coupled cluster theory calculations of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ke; Grüneis, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to correct for finite size errors in coupled cluster theory calculations of solids. The outlined technique shares similarities with electronic structure factor interpolation methods used in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. However, our approach does not require the calculation of density matrices. Furthermore we show that the proposed finite size corrections achieve chemical accuracy in the convergence of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled cluster singles and doubles correlation energies per atom for insulating solids with two atomic unit cells using 2 × 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 × 3 k-point meshes only.

  14. Calculating NMR parameters in aluminophosphates: evaluation of dispersion correction schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Scott; Dawson, Daniel M; Pickard, Chris J; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2014-02-14

    Periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations have recently emerged as a popular tool for assigning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. However, in order for the calculations to yield accurate results, accurate structural models are also required. In many cases the structural model (often derived from crystallographic diffraction) must be optimised (i.e., to an energy minimum) using DFT prior to the calculation of NMR parameters. However, DFT does not reproduce weak long-range "dispersion" interactions well, and optimisation using some functionals can expand the crystallographic unit cell, particularly when dispersion interactions are important in defining the structure. Recently, dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D) has been extended to periodic calculations, to compensate for these missing interactions. Here, we investigate whether dispersion corrections are important for aluminophosphate zeolites (AlPOs) by comparing the structures optimised by DFT and DFT-D (using the PBE functional). For as-made AlPOs (containing cationic structure-directing agents (SDAs) and framework-bound anions) dispersion interactions appear to be important, with significant changes between the DFT and DFT-D unit cells. However, for calcined AlPOs, where the SDA-anion pairs are removed, dispersion interactions appear much less important, and the DFT and DFT-D unit cells are similar. We show that, while the different optimisation strategies yield similar calculated NMR parameters (providing that the atomic positions are optimised), the DFT-D optimisations provide structures in better agreement with the experimental diffraction measurements. Therefore, it appears that DFT-D calculations can, and should, be used for the optimisation of calcined and as-made AlPOs, in order to provide the closest agreement with all experimental measurements.

  15. Self-interaction corrected local spin density calculations of actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z

    2010-01-01

    We use the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation in order to describe localization-delocalization phenomena in the strongly correlated actinide materials. Based on total energy considerations, the methodology enables us to predict the ground-state valency configuration...... of the actinide ions in these compounds from first principles. Here we review a number of applications, ranging from electronic structure calculations of actinide metals, nitrides and carbides to the behaviour under pressure of intermetallics, and O vacancies in PuO2....

  16. Factors of Addiction: New Jersey Correctional Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, James P.; Liu, Tongyin; Hedgpeth, G. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Most state inmates incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Department of Corrections are driven to crimes by drug abuse. Understanding the factors contributing to addiction is the first step in developing strategies for successful inmate reintegration. This study presents an analysis of inmate addiction and factor association using…

  17. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  18. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR HYDROCYCLONES CORRECTED CUT SIZE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocyclones are devices worldwide used in mineral processing for desliming, classification, selective classification, thickening and pre-concentration. A hydrocyclone is composed by one cylindrical and one conical section joint together, without any moving parts and it is capable of perform granular material separation in pulp. The mineral particles separation mechanism acting in a hydrocyclone is complex and its mathematical modelling is usually empirical. The most used model for hydrocyclone corrected cut size is proposed by Plitt. Over the years many revisions and corrections to Plitt´s model were proposed. The present paper shows a modification in the Plitt´s model constant, obtained by exponential regression of simulated data for three different hydrocyclones geometry: Rietema, Bradley and Krebs. To validate the proposed model literature data obtained from phosphate ore using fifteen different hydrocyclones geometry are used. The proposed model shows a correlation equals to 88.2% between experimental and calculated corrected cut size, while the correlation obtained using Plitt´s model is 11.5%.

  19. Tensile force correction calculation method for prestressed construction of tension structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin ZHUO; Guo-fa ZHANG; Koichiro ISHIKAWA; Dao-an LOU

    2008-01-01

    Factors such as errors during the fabrication or construction of structural components and errors of calculation assumption or calculation methods,are very likely to cause serious deviation of many strings'actual prestressing forces from the designed values during tension structure construction or service period,and further to threaten the safety and reliability of the structure.Aiming at relatively large errors of the prestressing force of strings in a tension structure construction or service period,this paper proposes a new finite element method(FEM),the"tensile force correction calculation method".Based on the measured prestressing forces of the strings,this new method applies the structure from the zero prestressing force status approach to the measured prestressing force status for the first phase,and from the measured prestressing force status approach to the designed prestressing force status for the second phase.The construction tensile force correction value for each string can be obtained by multi-iteration with FEM.Using the results of calculation,the strings'tensile force correction by group and in batch will be methodic,simple and accurate.This new calculation method Can be applied to the prestressed correction construction simulation analysis for tension structures.

  20. Self-absorption correction factor for a sample excited by the bremsstrahlung radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, A C; Mitra, D; Sarkar, M; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    A method of calculating the self-absorption correction factor for fluorescent X-rays from a sample excited by the bremsstrahlung has been described. As a typical example, the correction factors for K subalpha of Si and Cu for different tube voltages have been calculated. Polynomial fit of the correction factor against the tube voltage in the range 10-100 kV has been given for both the elements.

  1. Amplitude Correction Factors of KVN Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3 and NRAO~512, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We found that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combinat...

  2. Power Factor Correction to Mitigate Harmonic Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Gary

    Many direct current (DC) devices must receive their power from the alternating current (AC) grid. Rectifiers use diodes to create DC for these devices. Due to diodes' non-linear nature however, harmonics are created and these travel back into the grid. A significant presence of harmonics causes component heating and possible malfunction. A harmonic mitigation procedure is needed. With the correct usage of transistors, the current drawn by a rectifier can be manipulated to remove almost all harmonics. This process is called power factor correction (PFC), and formally acts to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current. To investigate this, a three phase active rectifier was computer simulated and a controller was designed to provide switching signals for the transistors. Finally, the device was constructed in the laboratory to drive a DC motor, verifying its operating principle outside of the idealities of simulation.

  3. Model correction factor method for system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Johannesen, Johannes M.

    2000-01-01

    The Model Correction Factor Method is an intelligent response surface method based on simplifiedmodeling. MCFM is aimed for reliability analysis in case of a limit state defined by an elaborate model. Herein it isdemonstrated that the method is applicable for elaborate limit state surfaces on which...... severallocally most central points exist without there being a simple geometric definition of the corresponding failuremodes such as is the case for collapse mechanisms in rigid plastic hinge models for frame structures. Taking as simplifiedidealized model a model of similarity with the elaborate model...... surface than existing in the idealized model....

  4. TFR for males in Denmark: Calculation and tempo-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Nordfalk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends and tempo corrections of fertility have focused on female rather than male fertility; one reason being that the necessary detailed data are more widely available for mothers than for fathers. Objective: The objective is to present a demographic overview of the fertility trends of Danish men and women from 1980 to 2010. We review the differences in male and female fertility and perform separate tempo corrections for fathers and mothers. Methods: The material for this study consisted of basic data on male and female fertility. The data included all children born in the period, specified by birth year of the child and age and parity of the mother and father, respectively. We used standard demographic measurements of fertility, primarily the total fertility rate (TFR and the tempo-corrections as proposed by Bongaarts and Feeney (1998. Results: The female fertility rates were generally higher than those for males, but the TFRs of both Danish men and women generally increased over the period. The unadjusted and the adjusted fertility rates had similar patterns for men and women. A negative tempo-effect was more evident for women than for men, and a vanishing effect for men at the end of the period was not similarly observed for women. Conclusions: We have exemplified tempo corrections for male as well as female fertility, and have discussed specific problems in this context. Our study indicates that the postponement of childbearing is about to end for Danish men.

  5. Calculation of Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, D B; Dolgov, D S; Eicker, N; Lippert, T; Negele, J W; Pochinsky, A V; Schilling, K; Lippert, Th.

    2002-01-01

    The fomalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit.

  6. Algorithms for calculating mass-velocity and Darwin relativistic corrections with n-electron explicitly correlated Gaussians with shifted centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Monika; Palikot, Ewa; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms for calculating the leading mass-velocity (MV) and Darwin (D) relativistic corrections are derived for electronic wave functions expanded in terms of n-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers and without pre-exponential angular factors. The algorithms are implemented and tested in calculations of MV and D corrections for several points on the ground-state potential energy curves of the H2 and LiH molecules. The algorithms are general and can be applied in calculations of systems with an arbitrary number of electrons.

  7. AN ACCURATE MODEL FOR CALCULATING CORRECTION OF PATH FLEXURE OF SATELLITE SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYanxing; HuXinkang; ShuaiPing; ZhangZhongfu

    2003-01-01

    The propagation path of satellite signals in the atmosphere is a curve thus it,is very difficult to calculate its flexure correction accurately, a strict calculating expressions has so far not been derived. In this study, the flexure correction of the refraction curve is divided into two parts and their strict calculating expressions are derived. By use of the standard atmospheric model, the accurate flexure correction of the refraction curve is calculated for different zenith distance Z. On this basis, a calculation model is structured. This model is very simple in structure, convenient in use and high in accuracy. When Z is smaller than 85°,the accuracy of the correction exceeds 0.06mm. The flexure correction is basically proportional to tan2Z and increases rapidly with the increase of Z When Z>50°,the correction is smaller than 0.5 mm and can be neglected. When Z>50°, the correction must be made. When Z is 85°, 88° and 89° , the corrections are 198mm, 8.911m and 28.497 km, respectively. The calculation results shows that the correction estimate by Hopfield is correct when Z≤80°, but too small when Z=89°. The expression in this paper is applicable to any satellite.

  8. AN ACCURATE MODEL FOR CALCULATING CORRECTION OF PATH FLEXURE OF SATELLITE SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanxing; Hu Xinkang; Shuai Ping; Zhang Zhongfu

    2003-01-01

    The propagation path of satellite signals in the atmosphere is a curve thus it.is very difficult to calculate its flexure correction accurately, a strict calculating expressions has so far not been derived. In this study, the flexure correction of the refraction curve is divided into two parts and their strict calculating expressions are derived. By use of the standard atmospheric model, the accurate flexure correction of the refraction curve is calculated for different zenith distance Z. On this basis, a calculation model is structured. This model is very simple in structure, convenient in use and high in accuracy. When Z is smaller than 85°, the accuracy of the correction exceeds 0.06 mm. The flexure correction is basically proportional to tan2Z and increases rapidly with the increase of Z When Z>50°,the correction is smaller than 0.5 mm and can be neglected.When Z>50°, the correction must be made. When Z is 85° , 88° and 89° , the corrections are 198mm, 8. 911 m and 28. 497 km, respectively. The calculation results shows that the correction estimate by Hopfield is correct when Z≤80 °, but too small when Z=89°. The expression in this paper is applicable to any satellite.

  9. Correction factors for gravimetric measurement of peritumoural oedema in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, B A; Smith, M A; Tocher, J L; Miller, J D

    1987-01-01

    The water content of samples of normal and oedematous brain in lobectomy specimens from 16 patients with cerebral tumours has been measured by gravimetry and by wet and dry weighing. Uncorrected gravimetry underestimated the water content of oedematous peritumoural cortex by a mean of 1.17%, and of oedematous peritumoural white matter by a mean of 2.52%. Gravimetric correction equations calculated theoretically and from an animal model of serum infusion white matter oedema overestimate peritumoural white matter oedema in man, and empirical gravimetric error correction factors for oedematous peritumoural human white matter and cortex have therefore been derived. These enable gravimetry to be used to accurately determine peritumoural oedema in man.

  10. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Method of Time-Delay Calculating and Correcting to Control Spin-Stabilized Satellite Synchronously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangTianshe; LiJisheng; HuangYongxuan

    2005-01-01

    The key to control Spin-Stabilized Satellites Synchronously is to determine the models for calculating and correcting of time-delay at the different situations. Based on the principle of Synchronous-Control mode, the methods of determining the models of calculating and correcting of time-delay are proposed. The methods have been proved to be effective in real satellite control engineering.

  12. Analytical Calculation of Radiative Corrections of a THDM Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a closed form effective potential at the one-loop level of a Two Higgs Doublet Model. Through the loop expansion we reproduce the expression presented by Weinberg and Coleman, showing explicitly every step involved in the calculation. The formalism is then extended to include interaction terms between two scalar doublets and a final expression of the one-loop level contributions is presented.

  13. Correct fair market value calculation needed to avoid regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M O

    1997-09-01

    In valuing a physician practice for acquisition, it is important for buyers and sellers to distinguish between fair market value and strategic value. Although many buyers would willingly pay for the strategic value of a practice, tax-exempt buyers are required by law to consider only the fair market value in setting a bid price. Valuators must adjust group earnings to exclude items that do not apply to any willing seller and include items that do apply to any willing seller to arrive at the fair market value of the practice. In addition, the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), which becomes the discount rate in the valuation model, is critical to the measure of value of the practice. Small medical practices are assumed to have few hard assets and little long-term debt, and the WACC is calculated on the basis of those assumptions. When a small practice has considerable debt, however, this calculated WACC may be inappropriate for valuing the practice. In every case, evidence that shows that a transaction has been negotiated "at arm's length" should stave off any regulatory challenge.

  14. CALCULATION OF KAON ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHI-GANG; WAN SHAO-LONG; WANG KE-LIN

    2001-01-01

    The kaon meson electromagnetic form factor is calculated in the framework of coupled Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter formulation in simplified impulse approximation (dressed vertex) with modified fiat-bottom potential,which is a combination of the flat-bottom potential taking into consideration the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic behaviours of the effective quark-gluon coupling. All the numerical results give a good fit to experimental values.

  15. Calculation and Spectra Analysis of Horizontal Acceleration Correction (HACC) for Airborne Gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Pan; SUN Zhongmiao; XIAO Yun

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a sinusoidal model of the disturbed horizontal acceleration, the spectrum characteristics of misaligned angle and horizontal acceleration correction are analyzed. In an airborne gravimetry test, the misaligned angle of platform and horizontal acceleration correction are calculated. They are 5'and 3 mGal, respectively, when the flight is stable.

  16. GPC-HPLC法测定南极磷虾油中虾青素及校正因子计算%Determination of astaxanthin in antarctic krill oil by GPC-high performance liquid chromatography and calculation of correction factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟红; 冷凯良; 邢丽红; 朱敏; 翟毓秀; 苗均魁; 朱兰兰

    2013-01-01

    Taking health products, antarctic krill oil, as the object in the paper, an analytical method based on gel permeation chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (GPC-HPLC ) has been developed for the determination of astaxanthin in antarctic krill oil. The sample was purified by gel permeation chromatography, saponified by sodium hydroxide-methanol solution, and separated by a C30 liquid chromatographic column. In this paper, we established the purification conditions of gel permeation chromatography, the collection time of astaxanthin and astaxanthin easter was 7. 48 ~ 12. 60 min. The conditions of saponification were researched by exploring the solvents, volume of sodium hydroxide-methanol solution and saponification time on saponification efficiency of astaxanthin in antarctic krill oil. The results show that methylene chloride: methanol as saponification solvent had the best effect than other solvents, the most suitable volume for 0. 2 mol/L sodium hydroxide-methanol solution was 1 mL, and the best saponification time was 12 h by comparing among 1~18h at 4℃. We also investigated the effect of pH on stability of astaxanthin in antarctic krill oil, the content of astaxanthin had less influence on neutral environment among 0 ~ 12 h, but the content in serious decline and isomerization on alkaline environment. The contents of isomers of astaxanthin in antarctic krill oil were calculated by calibration factor, the calibration factor of 13-cis-astaxanthin to trans-astaxanthin was 1.3, and 9-cis-astaxanthin to trans-astaxanthin was 1.1, so we got the quantitative method of astaxanthin in krill oil. The limits of quantification for astaxanthin in antarctic krill oil were 0. 5 mg/kg. There were good linear relationship between the chromatographic peak area and the concentration in the range of 0. 1 mg/L ~ 5 mg/L with correlation coefficient over 0.999. The average recoveries were between 96.0% and 98.5%, and the precision of the method were 3. 0% ~5. 6

  17. On the correction of calculated vibrational frequencies for the effects of the counterions - α,ω-diamine dihydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, S M; Silva, T M; Marques, M P M; de Carvalho, L A E Batista; Amado, A M

    2015-10-01

    The present work provides sets of correction factors to adjust the calculated vibrational frequencies of a series of α,ω-diamines hydrochloride salts to account for the intermolecular interactions with the counterion. The study was performed using different theory levels for predicting the vibrational data of isolated dicationic α,ω-diamines and their hydrochloride forms, with and without the explicit account of the interactions with the chloride counterions. Different sets of correction factors were determined for each theory level considering the four smallest elements for the α,ω-diamines series, while their transferability and reliability was evaluated considering the larger elements of the series. The theory level simplification was also evaluated and was found to neither compromise the vibrational frequencies estimates nor the magnitude and accuracy of the pre-defined scaling factors. This suggests that transferability of the correction factors is possible not only for different diamines but also between different levels of theory with the averaged group correction factor, ζ g (a) , being the best choice to account for the effects of the N-H · · · Cl interactions. The possibility of simplifying the theory level without compromising efficiency and accuracy is additionally of utmost importance. This computational approach can constitute a valuable tool in the future for studying the hydrochloride forms of larger and more complex diamine systems. Graphical Abstract A computational approach that may constitute a valuable tool for studying the hydrochloride forms of large and complex diamine systems. Correction factors to adjust the vibrational frequencies calculated for isolated dicationic primary diamines for the effects of the interactions with chloride counterions, without their explicit account in the calculations, are presented and evaluated for eficiency.

  18. Error Correction of EMTDC Line and Cable Series Impedance Calculations Compared to Traditional Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stefan; Nielsen, Hans Ove

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present comparison of different line and cable series impedance calculation methods, where the correction of a discovered PSCAD/EMIDC v.3.0.8 calculation error of the cable series impedance results n deviation under 0.1% instead of the previous method which gave approximately 10%...

  19. Using a correction factor to correct for overreporting in a food-frequency questionnaire does not improve biomarker-assessed validity of estimates for fruit and vegetable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Westerterp, K.R.; Kester, A.D.M.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Bast, A.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2003-01-01

    To correct for overreporting of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in a food-frequency questionnaire, summary questions about consumption of main FV groups are often used to calculate correction factors. This study compared the ability to rank people according to their FV intake of those summary q

  20. Calculation of power sources for heat pumps. Getting correct general CO{sub 2}- or primary energy factors; Berechnung des Strommix fuer Waermepumpen. Allgemeine CO{sub 2}-oder Primaerenergiefaktoren korrekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, Markus [Eon Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-05-17

    The contribution investigates the ecological assessment methods for heat pumps, with the conclusion that the use of CO2 or primary energy factors in accordance with the average energy mix in Germany is appropriate. Two current issues are discussed, i.e. whether the time of power consumption is important and whether the additional energy consumption of heat pumps can be assigned to a certain type of power plant. (orig.) [German] In dem Aufsatz wurde hergeleitet, dass fuer die oekologische Bewertung von Waermepumpen die Verwendung der CO{sub 2}- oder Primaerenergiefaktoren entsprechend dem allgemeinen Strommix im Jahresmittel in Deutschland sachgerecht ist. Dazu wurden die beiden in diesem Zusammenhang haeufig diskutierten Fragen untersucht, inwieweit der Zeitpunkt des Strombezuges eine Rolle spielt und der zusaetzlich entstehende Verbrauch fuer Waermepumpen einem bestimmten Kraftwerkstyp zugeordnet werden kann. (orig.)

  1. MRI-Based Computed Tomography Metal Artifact Correction Method for Improving Proton Range Calculation Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Schreibmann, Eduard; Roper, Justin; Elder, Eric; Crocker, Ian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Fox, Tim [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California (United States); Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Dhabaan, Anees, E-mail: anees.dhabaan@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) artifacts can severely degrade dose calculation accuracy in proton therapy. Prompted by the recently increased popularity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the radiation therapy clinic, we developed an MRI-based CT artifact correction method for improving the accuracy of proton range calculations. Methods and Materials: The proposed method replaces corrupted CT data by mapping CT Hounsfield units (HU number) from a nearby artifact-free slice, using a coregistered MRI. MRI and CT volumetric images were registered with use of 3-dimensional (3D) deformable image registration (DIR). The registration was fine-tuned on a slice-by-slice basis by using 2D DIR. Based on the intensity of paired MRI pixel values and HU from an artifact-free slice, we performed a comprehensive analysis to predict the correct HU for the corrupted region. For a proof-of-concept validation, metal artifacts were simulated on a reference data set. Proton range was calculated using reference, artifactual, and corrected images to quantify the reduction in proton range error. The correction method was applied to 4 unique clinical cases. Results: The correction method resulted in substantial artifact reduction, both quantitatively and qualitatively. On respective simulated brain and head and neck CT images, the mean error was reduced from 495 and 370 HU to 108 and 92 HU after correction. Correspondingly, the absolute mean proton range errors of 2.4 cm and 1.7 cm were reduced to less than 2 mm in both cases. Conclusions: Our MRI-based CT artifact correction method can improve CT image quality and proton range calculation accuracy for patients with severe CT artifacts.

  2. Extreme Wind Calculation Applying Spectral Correction Method – Test and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kelly, Mark C; Rathmann, Ole Steen; Berg, Jacob; Bechmann, Andreas; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a test and validation of extreme wind calculation applying the Spectral Correction method as implemented in the WAsP Engineering 4 software package. The test and validation is based on four sites located in Denmark, one site located in the Netherlands and one site located in the USA. Calculations have been carried out using wind data from on-site meteorological masts as well as long-term reference wind data.

  3. Calculation of Radiative Corrections to E1 matrix elements in the Neutral Alkalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

    2004-09-28

    Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkalis but significantly larger for the heavier alkalis, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

  4. A screening-corrected additivity rule for the calculation of electron scattering from macro-molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas. Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pacobr@fis.ucm.es

    2009-07-28

    A simplified form of the well-known screening-corrected additivity rule procedure for the calculation of electron-molecule cross sections is proposed for the treatment of some very large macro-molecules. While the comparison of the standard and simplified treatments for a DNA dodecamer reveals very similar results, the new treatment presents some important advantages for large molecules.

  5. Extreme Wind Calculation Applying Spectral Correction Method – Test and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole Steen; Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present a test and validation of extreme wind calculation applying the Spectral Correction (SC) method as implemented in a DTU Wind Condition Software. This method can do with a short-term(~1 year) local measured wind data series in combination with a long-term (10-20 years) reference modelled...

  6. Improved SIRT correction factors and redistribution in geotomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, C. A.; Hill, H. W.; Freeland, K. A.

    In this paper revised correction factors are introduced which improve the profile of a geophysical environment reconstructed using the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). These factors are based not only on the distances a given ray passes through the cells, as was assumed in the past, but also on the existing values (from a previous iteration) of the electrical properties of the cells through which a ray traverses. In addition, redistribution of the correction factors is utilized whenever the updated value of the electrical parameter of a given cell falls below a physically realizable or an a priori minimum value.

  7. Extreme Wind Calculation Applying Spectral Correction Method – Test and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kelly, Mark C.

    This report presents a test and validation of extreme wind calculation applying the Spectral Correction method as implemented in the WAsP Engineering 4 software package. The test and validation is based on four sites located in Denmark, one site located in the Netherlands and one site located in ...... in the USA. Calculations have been carried out using wind data from on-site meteorological masts as well as long-term reference wind data.......This report presents a test and validation of extreme wind calculation applying the Spectral Correction method as implemented in the WAsP Engineering 4 software package. The test and validation is based on four sites located in Denmark, one site located in the Netherlands and one site located...

  8. Varactor Modelling for Power Factor Correction in a Varying Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agwu D. D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : For efficient system operation, it is desirable to keep the power factor at, or very close to unity. One of the very often used methods is application of suitable power factor correction technology. Capacitors are good candidate for constant load power factor correction due to suitability and cost effectiveness. However for varying loads, synchronous condensers are preferred despite having high initial cost as a result of their being able to supply varying leading or lagging reactive power; according to their field excitation. Due to the high acquisition and operation cost of synchronous condensers, this paper presents varactors as a possible alternative for power factor correction. These are diodes that vary their capacitances and leading reactive power according to supply voltage. Applying this involves looking at variation of power factor with supply voltage; and the option of aggregating and harnessing the junction capacitance of varactors for power factor correction of varying loads at low voltage AC levels. This innovation may lead to great improvement in distribution systems requiring quality power supply

  9. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2017-02-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (ke) and photon scattering correction factor (ksc) are needed. ke factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and ksc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work ke and ksc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the ke and ksc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  10. Relativistic and QED corrections to the g factor of Li-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazov, D. A.; Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Volotka, A. V.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2004-12-01

    Calculations of various corrections to the g factor of Li-like ions are presented, which result in a significant improvement of the theoretical accuracy in the region Z=6-92 . The configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock method is employed for the evaluation of the interelectronic-interaction correction of order 1/Z2 and higher. This correction is combined with the 1/Z interelectronic-interaction term derived within a rigorous QED approach. The one-electron QED correction of first order in α is obtained by employing our recent results for the self-energy term and by evaluating the vacuum-polarization contribution. The screening of QED corrections is taken into account to the leading orders in αZ and 1/Z .

  11. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  12. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  13. A Bartlett correction factor for tests on the cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Likelihood ratio tests for restrictions on cointegrating vectors are asymptotically [chi]2 distributed. For some values of the parameters this asymptotic distribution does not give a good approximation to the finite sample distribution. In this paper we derive the Bartlett correction factor...

  14. Radiative corrections in nucleon time-like form factors measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Jacques [Universite de Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Ong, Saro [Universite de Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France)

    2013-02-15

    The completely general radiative corrections to lowest order, including the final- and initial-state radiations, are studied in proton-antiproton annihilation into an electron-positron pair. Numerical estimates have been made in a realistic configuration of the PANDA detector at FAIR for the proton time-like form factors measurements. (orig.)

  15. [Determination of dimethyl ether correction factors in gas chromatography with TCD and FID].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhang, L; Yang, L; Cai, G

    1997-05-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) correction factors in gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and flame ionization detector (FID) by using H2 as carrier gas were determined in this work. The homemade DME gas was quantitatively absorbed in ice-cold water. With ethanol as standard, the aqueous mixture was injected into a gas chromatograph, equipped with serially-connected TCD and FID. The weight correction factors of DME based on methanol were 0.86 and 0.55 for TCD and FID respectively. The result for TCD was also confirmed by calculation based on the stoichiometrical transformation of methanol into DME in reaction gas chromatography.

  16. Effect of precipitation bias correction on water budget calculation in Upper Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baisheng; Yang, Daqing; Ma, Lijuan

    2012-06-01

    This study quantifies the effect of precipitation bias corrections on basin water balance calculations for the Yellow River Source region (YRS). We analyse long-term (1959-2001) monthly and yearly data of precipitation, runoff, and ERA-40 water budget variables and define a water balance regime. Basin precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff are high in summer and low in winter. The basin water storage change is positive in summer and negative in winter. Monthly precipitation bias corrections, ranging from 2 to 16 mm, do not significantly alter the pattern of the seasonal water budget. The annual bias correction of precipitation is about 98 mm (19%); this increase leads to the same amount of evapotranspiration increase, since yearly runoff remains unchanged and the long-term storage change is assumed to be zero. Annual runoff and evapotranspiration coefficients change, due to precipitation bias corrections, from 0.33 and 0.67 to 0.28 and 0.72, respectively. These changes will impact the parameterization and calibration of land surface and hydrological models. The bias corrections of precipitation data also improve the relationship between annual precipitation and runoff.

  17. First-order corrections to random-phase approximation GW calculations in silicon and diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummels, R. T. M.; Bobbert, P. A.; van Haeringen, W.

    1998-05-01

    We report on ab initio calculations of the first-order corrections in the screened interaction W to the random-phase approximation polarizability and to the GW self-energy, using a noninteracting Green's function, for silicon and diamond. It is found that the first-order vertex and self-consistency corrections to the polarizability largely compensate each other. This does not hold, however, for the first-order corrections to the GW gap. For silicon the compensation between the first-order vertex and self-consistency correction contributions to the gap is only about 35%, while for diamond it is even absent. The resulting gap values are significantly and systematically too large, the direct gaps for silicon and diamond being 0.4 eV and 0.7 eV larger than their GW values, respectively. The success of GW in predicting electronic properties of, e.g., silicon and diamond can therefore apparently not be understood in terms of ``small'' corrections to GW to first order in W using a noninteracting Green's function.

  18. What Factors Affect Intraocular Lens Power Calculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayette, Rose M; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining precise postoperative target refraction is of utmost importance in today's modern cataract and refractive surgery. Emerging literature has linked postoperative surprises to corneal curvature, axial length, and estimation of the effective IOL position. As demonstrated in this case presentation, an inaccuracy in the axial length measurement can lead to a myopic surprise. A review of the literature has demonstrated that prevention of postoperative refractive surprises requires highly experienced nurses, technicians, and/ or biometrists to take meticulous measurements using biometry devices, and surgeons to re-evaluate these calculations prior to the surgery.

  19. Guiding Principles in Selecting AC To DC Converters For Power Factor Corrections in AC Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibekwe B.E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ac to dc converters’ power factors correction in ac transmission system were investigated. The studies include: phase-controlled converter; pulse width modulated (PWM converter and ac input current shaped converter. Using Fourier series, power factors of these converters were calculated and simulated using MATLAB. The resulting curves are displayed in the hard copies for practical guides in the choice of converters; and comparatively, current shaped type is the best.

  20. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  1. A slide rule for calculating the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Ji

    2007-07-01

    A slide rule has been designed to calculate the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens. The slide rule makes the calculation itself easier to perform than with traditional methods and is easily applicable in a clinical setting. In the slide rule, there are 3 scales indicating the power of the spectacle lens, the viewing distance, and the ocular accommodation. The most accurate accommodative unit was used to design the slide rule. The ocular accommodation is the product of the accommodative unit and the dioptric viewing distance. The calculating results are accurate from +21 diopters to all minus powers of the spectacle lens. In a clinical setting, the patients can be advised how much accommodation they exert before and after the refractive surgeries.

  2. Calculating corrections in F-theory from refined BPS invariants and backreacted geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretschkin, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    This thesis presents various corrections to F-theory compactifications which rely on the computation of refined Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) invariants and the analysis of backreacted geometries. Detailed information about rigid supersymmetric theories in five dimensions is contained in an index counting refined BPS invariants. These BPS states fall into representations of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R}, the little group in five dimensions, which has an induced action on the cohomology of the moduli space of stable pairs. In the first part of this thesis, we present the computation of refined BPS state multiplicities associated to M-theory compactifications on local Calabi-Yau manifolds whose base is given by a del Pezzo or half K3 surface. For geometries with a toric realization we use an algorithm which is based on the Weierstrass normal form of the mirror geometry. In addition we use the refined holomorphic anomaly equation and the gap condition at the conifold locus in the moduli space in order to perform the direct integration and to fix the holomorphic ambiguity. In a second approach, we use the refined Goettsche formula and the refined modular anomaly equation that govern the (refined) genus expansion of the free energy of the half K3 surface. By this procedure, we compute the refined BPS invariants of the half K3 from which the results of the remaining del Pezzo surfaces are obtained by flop transitions and blow-downs. These calculations also make use of the high symmetry of the del Pezzo surfaces whose homology lattice contains the root lattice of exceptional Lie algebras. In cases where both approaches are applicable, we successfully check the compatibility of these two methods. In the second part of this thesis, we apply the results obtained from the calculation of the refined invariants of the del Pezzo respectively the half K3 surfaces to count non-perturbative objects in F-theory. The first application is given by BPS states of the E

  3. Deriving time discounting correction factors for TTO tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2014-04-01

    The Time Trade-off (TTO) method is a popular method for valuing health state utilities and is frequently used in economic evaluations. However, this method produces utilities that are distorted by several biases. One important bias entails the failure to incorporate time discounting. This paper aims to measure time discounting for health outcomes in a sample representative for the general population. In particular, we estimate TTO scores alongside time discounting in order to derive a set of correction factors that can be employed to correct raw TTO scores for the downward bias caused by time discounting. We find substantial positive correction factors, which are increasing with the severity of the health state. Furthermore, higher discounting is found when using more severe health states in the discounting elicitation task. More research is needed to further develop discount rate elicitation procedures and test their validity, especially in general public samples. Moreover, future research should investigate the correction of TTO values for other biases as well, such as loss aversion, and to develop a criterion to test the external validity of TTO scores.

  4. Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Mazur, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); KozLowska, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Karpinska, M. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Przylibski, T.A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Mamont-Ciesla, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Grzadziel, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stawarz, O. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Dorda, J. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zebrowski, A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Olszewski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Hovhannisyan, H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Dohojda, M. [Institute of Building Technology (ITB), Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warszawa (Poland); KapaLa, J. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Chmielewska, I. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); KLos, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Mnich, S. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); KoLodziej, R. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The method for the calculation of correction factors is presented, which can be used for the assessment of the mean annual radon concentration on the basis of 1-month or 3-month indoor measurements. Annual radon concentration is an essential value for the determination of the annual dose due to radon inhalation. The measurements have been carried out in 132 houses in Poland over a period of one year. The passive method of track detectors with CR-39 foil was applied. Four thermal-precipitation regions in Poland were established and correction factors were calculated for each region, separately for houses with and without basements. - Highlights: > Using radon concentration results in houses we calculated the correction factors. > Factors were calculated for each month, 2 house types in different regions in Poland. > They enable the evaluation of average annual radon concentration in the house. > Annual average radon concentration basing on 1 or 3 months detector exposure.

  5. QCD factorization for hadronic B decays: Proofs and higher-order corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecjak, Benjamin Dale

    Several issues related to the QCD factorization approach to exclusive hadronic B decays are discussed. This includes a proof of factorization in B → K*gamma using the soft-collinear effective theory, and an examination of higher-order corrections to QCD factorization for two-body decays into heavy-light states, such as B → Dpi, and light-light final states, such as B → Kpi,pipi. The proof of factorization in B → K*gamma is arguably the most complicated QCD factorization formula proven so far. It is shown that reparameterization invariance in the intermediate effective theory restricts the appearance of transverse momentum components and 3-particle Fock states to operators that can be absorbed into the QCD from factor. This proof also includes an extension of SCET to deal with two collinear directions. The examination of higher-order corrections to QCD factorization has implications for using this technique to extract CP violating weal; phases from data taken at the B factories. The renormalon calculus is used to calculate the b0a2s contributions to the hard scattering kernels, and also to analyze the strength of power corrections due to soft gluon exchange. It is shown that while power corrections are generally small, the higher-order perturbative contributions to the hard scattering kernels have much larger imaginary parts than those at next-to-leading order (NLO). This significantly enhances some CP asymmetries compared to the NLO results, which is an effect that would survive a two-loop calculation unless there were large multi-loop corrections not related to the b0a2s terms of the perturbative expansion.

  6. Experimental determination of wall correction factors. Pt. 2; NACP and Markus plane-parallel ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittkaemper, F.W.; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Aalbers, A.H.L. (Netherlands Measurements Inst., Bilthoven (Netherlands))

    1992-04-01

    The formalism to derive the absorbed dose to water from ionization chamber measurements in a phantom includes several wall correction factors depending on shape, size and composition of the chamber. Wall correction factors have been measured for a number of NACP and PTW/Markers Chambers. Significant deviations from calculated values occur due to uncertainties in the contribution to the total ionization from the different materials of these inhomogeneous ionization chambers. The discrepancies illustrate the need for the development of a homogeneous plane-parallel chamber. In addition, detailed Monte Carlo calculations, taking the different wall materials into account, are required to quantitatively predict the response of heterogeneous plane-parallel chambers in photon beams. (UK).

  7. MONOTONIC DERIVATIVE CORRECTION FOR CALCULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOWS WITH SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Numerical solution methods of gas dynamics problems based on exact and approximate solution of Riemann problem are considered. We have developed an approach to the solution of Euler equations describing flows of inviscid compressible gas based on finite volume method and finite difference schemes of various order of accuracy. Godunov scheme, Kolgan scheme, Roe scheme, Harten scheme and Chakravarthy-Osher scheme are used in calculations (order of accuracy of finite difference schemes varies from 1st to 3rd. Comparison of accuracy and efficiency of various finite difference schemes is demonstrated on the calculation example of inviscid compressible gas flow in Laval nozzle in the case of continuous acceleration of flow in the nozzle and in the case of nozzle shock wave presence. Conclusions about accuracy of various finite difference schemes and time required for calculations are made. Main Results. Comparative analysis of difference schemes for Euler equations integration has been carried out. These schemes are based on accurate and approximate solution for the problem of an arbitrary discontinuity breakdown. Calculation results show that monotonic derivative correction provides numerical solution uniformity in the breakdown neighbourhood. From the one hand, it prevents formation of new points of extremum, providing the monotonicity property, but from the other hand, causes smoothing of existing minimums and maximums and accuracy loss. Practical Relevance. Developed numerical calculation method gives the possibility to perform high accuracy calculations of flows with strong non-stationary shock and detonation waves. At the same time, there are no non-physical solution oscillations on the shock wave front.

  8. Self-attenuation correction factors for bioindicators measured by gamma spectrometry for energies <100keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduci, L., E-mail: manduci@orange.f [EAMEA, Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, Bureau Courrier Regional Marine Cherbourg cc19, 50115 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Tenailleau, L. [GEA, Groupe d' Etudes Atomiques, Bureau Courrier Regional Marine Cherbourg cc19, 50115 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Trolet, J.L. [EAMEA, Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, Bureau Courrier Regional Marine Cherbourg cc19, 50115 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); De Vismes, A. [EAMEA, Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, Bureau Courrier Regional Marine Cherbourg cc19, 50115 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); IRSN/DEI/STEME/LMRE, Bois des Rames Bt 501, 91400 Orsay (France); Lopez, G.; Piccione, M. [EAMEA, Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, Bureau Courrier Regional Marine Cherbourg cc19, 50115 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2010-01-21

    The mass attenuation coefficients for a number of marine and terrestrial bioindicators were measured using gamma spectrometry for energies between 22 and 80 keV. These values were then used to find the correction factor k for the apparent radioactivity. The experimental results were compared with a Monte Carlo simulation performed using PENELOPE in order to evaluate the reliability of the simplified calculation and to determine the correction factors.

  9. Sequence correction of random coil chemical shifts: correlation between neighbor correction factors and changes in the Ramachandran distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2011-01-01

    use random coil peptides containing glutamine instead of glycine to determine the random coil chemical shifts and the neighbor correction factors. The resulting correction factors correlate to changes in the populations of the major wells in the Ramachandran plot, which demonstrates that changes...

  10. QCD Factorization and PDFs from Lattice QCD Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, we review a QCD factorization based approach to extract parton distribution and correlation functions from lattice QCD calculation of single hadron matrix elements of quark-gluon operators. We argue that although the lattice QCD calculations are done in the Euclidean space, the nonperturbative collinear behavior of the matrix elements are the same as that in the Minkowski space, and could be systematically factorized into parton distribution functions with infrared safe matching coefficients. The matching coefficients can be calculated perturbatively by applying the factorization formalism on to asymptotic partonic states.

  11. Nonlinear Phenomena in Buck-Boost Power Factor Correction Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Vatani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buck-Boost Power-Factor-Correction (PFC converter with Average-Current-Model (ACM control is a nonlinear circuit because of the multiplier using and large change in the duty cycle, so its stability analysis must be studied by nonlinear model. In this paper double averaging method is used for describing the model of this converter. By this model we would be able to explain the low frequency dynamics of the system and identify stability boundaries according to circuit parameters and also nonlinear phenomena of this converter are detected.

  12. The Guayas Estuary and sea level corrections to calculate flooding areas for climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, H. R.; Paredes, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Guayas estuary is the inner area of the Gulf of Guayaquil, it holds a water body of around 5000 km2 and the Puna island divides the water flow in two main streams : El Morro and Estero Salado Channel (length: 90 Km.) and Jambeli and Rio Guayas Channel (length: 125km.). The geometry of the estuarine system with the behavior of the tidal wave (semidiurnal) makes tidal amplitude higher at the head than at the mouth, whereas the wave crest at the head is delayed from one and a half to two hours from that at the mouth and sea level recorded by gages along the estuary are all different because of the wave propagation and mean sea level (msl) calculated for each gage show differences with that of La Libertad which is the base line for all altitudes on land (zero level). A leveling and calculations were made to correct such differences in a way that all gages (msl) records were linked to La Libertad and this in turn allowed a better estimates of flooding areas and draw them on topographic maps where zero level corresponds to the mean sea level at La Libertad. The procedure and mathematical formulation could be applied to any estuary or coastal area and it is a useful tool to calculate such areas especially when impacts are on people or capital goods and related to climate change scenarios.

  13. Dose calculation algorithm of fast fine-heterogeneity correction for heavy charged particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    This work addresses computing techniques for dose calculations in treatment planning with proton and ion beams, based on an efficient kernel-convolution method referred to as grid-dose spreading (GDS) and accurate heterogeneity-correction method referred to as Gaussian beam splitting. The original GDS algorithm suffered from distortion of dose distribution for beams tilted with respect to the dose-grid axes. Use of intermediate grids normal to the beam field has solved the beam-tilting distortion. Interplay of arrangement between beams and grids was found as another intrinsic source of artifact. Inclusion of rectangular-kernel convolution in beam transport, to share the beam contribution among the nearest grids in a regulatory manner, has solved the interplay problem. This algorithmic framework was applied to a tilted proton pencil beam and a broad carbon-ion beam. In these cases, while the elementary pencil beams individually split into several tens, the calculation time increased only by several times with the GDS algorithm. The GDS and beam-splitting methods will complementarily enable accurate and efficient dose calculations for radiotherapy with protons and ions. Copyright © 2010 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The wall correction factor for a spherical ionization chamber used in brachytherapy source calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piermattei, A [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Azario, L [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Fidanzio, A [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Viola, P [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Dell' Omo, C [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Iadanza, L [Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata-Rionero in Vulture, Pz (Italy); Fusco, V [Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata-Rionero in Vulture, Pz (Italy); Lagares, J I [Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Medicina, Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Sevilla (Spain); Capote, R [Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Medicina, Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-12-21

    The effect of wall chamber attenuation and scattering is one of the most important corrections that must be determined when the linear interpolation method between two calibration factors of an ionization chamber is used. For spherical ionization chambers the corresponding correction factors A{sub w} have to be determined by a non-linear trend of the response as a function of the wall thickness. The Monte Carlo and experimental data here reported show that the A{sub w} factors obtained for an Exradin A4 chamber, used in the brachytherapy source calibration, in terms of reference air kerma rate, are up to 1.2% greater than the values obtained by the linear extrapolation method for the studied beam qualities. Using the A{sub w} factors derived from Monte Carlo calculations, the accuracy of the calibration factor N{sub K,Ir} for the Exradin A4, obtained by the interpolation between two calibration factors, improves about 0.6%. The discrepancy between the new calculated factor and that obtained using the complete calibration curve of the ion-chamber and the {sup 192}Ir spectrum is only 0.1%.

  15. Determination of small-field correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers using a semiempirical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangwoo; Bak, Jino; Park, Sungho; Choi, Wonhoon; Park, Suk Won

    2016-02-07

    A semiempirical method based on the averaging effect of the sensitive volumes of different air-filled ionization chambers (ICs) was employed to approximate the correction factors for beam quality produced from the difference in the sizes of the reference field and small fields.We measured the output factors using several cylindrical ICs and calculated the correction factors using a mathematical method similar to deconvolution; in the method, we modeled the variable and inhomogeneous energy fluence function within the chamber cavity. The parameters of the modeled function and the correction factors were determined by solving a developed system of equations as well as on the basis of the measurement data and the geometry of the chambers. Further, Monte Carlo (MC) computations were performed using the Monaco® treatment planning system to validate the proposed method.The determined correction factors () were comparable to the values derived from the MC computations performed using Monaco®. For example, for a 6 MV photon beam and a field size of 1  ×  1 cm2, was calculated to be for a PTW 31010 chamber and for a PTW 31016 chamber. On the other hand, the values determined from the MC computations were 1.121 and 1.031, respectively; the difference between the proposed method and the MC computation is less than 2%. In addition, we determined the values for PTW 30013, PTW 31010, PTW 31016, IBA FC23-C, and IBA CC13 chambers as well.We devised a method for determining from both the measurement of the output factors and model-based mathematical computation. The proposed method can be useful in case the MC simulation would not be applicable for the clinical settings.

  16. Average hydrodynamic correction for the Brownian dynamics calculation of flocculation rates in concentrated dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Villalba, German; García-Sucre, Máximo; Toro-Mendoza, Jhoan

    2003-12-01

    In order to account for the hydrodynamic interaction (HI) between suspended particles in an average way, Honig et al. [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 36, 97 (1971)] and more recently Heyes [Mol. Phys. 87, 287 (1996)] proposed different analytical forms for the diffusion constant. While the formalism of Honig et al. strictly applies to a binary collision, the one from Heyes accounts for the dependence of the diffusion constant on the local concentration of particles. However, the analytical expression of the latter approach is more complex and depends on the particular characteristics of each system. Here we report a combined methodology, which incorporates the formula of Honig et al. at very short distances and a simple local volume-fraction correction at longer separations. As will be shown, the flocculation behavior calculated from Brownian dynamics simulations employing the present technique, is found to be similar to that of Batchelor’s tensor [J. Fluid. Mech. 74, 1 (1976); 119, 379 (1982)]. However, it corrects the anomalous coalescence found in concentrated systems as a result of the overestimation of many-body HI.

  17. Limitations of Significance Testing in Clinical Research: A Review of Multiple Comparison Corrections and Effect Size Calculations with Correlated Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Morey, Timothy E; Dhatariya, Ketan; Rice, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    Modern clinical research commonly uses complex designs with multiple related outcomes, including repeated-measures designs. While multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations are needed to more accurately assess an intervention's significance and impact, understanding the limitations of these methods in the case of dependency and correlation is important. In this review, we outline methods for multiple comparison corrections and effect size calculations and considerations in cases of correlation and summarize relevant simulation studies to illustrate these concepts.

  18. The "X-Factor" index: a new parameter for the assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu Qing; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Wong, Yat Wa; Luk, Keith D K

    2011-01-01

    The correction rate (CR) and fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI) based on the fulcrum bending radiograph (FBR) were parameters introduced to measure the curve correcting ability; however, such parameters do not account for contributions by various, potential extraneous "X-Factors" (e.g. surgical technique, type and power of the instrumentation, anesthetic technique, etc.) involved in curve correction. As such, the purpose of the following study was to propose the concept of the "X-Factor Index" (XFI) as a new parameter for the assessment of the correcting ability of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A historical cohort radiographic analysis of the FBR in the setting of hook systems in AIS patients (Luk et al. in Spine 23:2303-2307, 1998) was performed to illustrate the concept of XFI. Thirty-five patients with AIS of the thoracic spine undergoing surgical correction were involved in the analysis. Plain posteroanterior (PA) plain radiographs were utilized and Cobb angles were obtained for each patient. Pre- and postoperative PA angles on standing radiograph and preoperative fulcrum bending angles were obtained for each patient. The fulcrum flexibility, curve CR, and FBCI were determined for all patients. The difference between the preoperative fulcrum bending angle and postoperative PA angle was defined as Angle(XF), which accounted for the correction contributed by "X-Factors". The XFI, designed to measure the curve correcting ability, was calculated by dividing Angle(XF) by the fulcrum flexibility. The XFI was compared with the curve CR and FBCI by re-evaluating the original data in the original paper (Luk et al. in Spine 23:2303-2307, 1998). The mean standing PA and FBR alignments of the main thoracic curve were 58.3° and 24.5°, respectively. The mean fulcrum flexibility was 58.8%. The mean postoperative standing PA alignment was 24.7°. The mean curve CR was 58.0% and the mean FBCI was 101.1%. The mean XFI was noted as 1.03%. The CR was significantly

  19. Incorporating Corrections for the Head-Holder and Compensation Filter when Calculating Skin Dose during Fluoroscopically-Guided Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay K.; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded illustration of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures for immediate feedback to the interventionist. To improve the accuracy of dose calculation, we now have incorporated two additional important corrections (1) for the holder used to immobilize the head in neuro-interventions and (2) for the built-in compensation filters used for beam equalization. Both devices have been modeled in the DTS software so that beam intensity corrections can be made. The head-holder is modeled as two concentric hemi-cylindrical surfaces such that the path length between those surfaces can be determined for rays to individual points on the skin surface. The head-holder on the imaging system we used was measured to attenuate the primary x-rays by 10 to 20% for normal incidence, and up to 40% at non-normal incidence. In addition, three compensation filters of different shape are built into the collimator apparatus and were measured to have attenuation factors ranging from 58% to 99%, depending on kVp and beam filtration. These filters can translate and rotate in the beam and their motion is tracked by the DTS using the digital signal from the imaging system. When it is determined that a ray to a given point on the skin passes through the compensation filter, the appropriate attenuation correction is applied. These corrections have been successfully incorporated in the DTS software to provide a more accurate determination of skin dose. PMID:26819488

  20. Incorporating corrections for the head-holder and compensation filter when calculating skin dose during fluoroscopically guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay K.; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2015-03-01

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded illustration of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures for immediate feedback to the interventionist. To improve the accuracy of dose calculation, we now have incorporated two additional important corrections (1) for the holder used to immobilize the head in neuro-interventions and (2) for the built-in compensation filters used for beam equalization. Both devices have been modeled in the DTS software so that beam intensity corrections can be made. The head-holder is modeled as two concentric hemi-cylindrical surfaces such that the path length between those surfaces can be determined for rays to individual points on the skin surface. The head-holder on the imaging system we used was measured to attenuate the primary x-rays by 10 to 20% for normal incidence, and up to 40% at non-normal incidence. In addition, three compensation filters of different shape are built into the collimator apparatus and were measured to have attenuation factors ranging from 58% to 99%, depending on kVp and beam filtration. These filters can translate and rotate in the beam and their motion is tracked by the DTS using the digital signal from the imaging system. When it is determined that a ray to a given point on the skin passes through the compensation filter, the appropriate attenuation correction is applied. These corrections have been successfully incorporated in the DTS software to provide a more accurate determination of skin dose.

  1. Incorporating Corrections for the Head-Holder and Compensation Filter when Calculating Skin Dose during Fluoroscopically-Guided Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay K; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R

    2015-03-18

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded illustration of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures for immediate feedback to the interventionist. To improve the accuracy of dose calculation, we now have incorporated two additional important corrections (1) for the holder used to immobilize the head in neuro-interventions and (2) for the built-in compensation filters used for beam equalization. Both devices have been modeled in the DTS software so that beam intensity corrections can be made. The head-holder is modeled as two concentric hemi-cylindrical surfaces such that the path length between those surfaces can be determined for rays to individual points on the skin surface. The head-holder on the imaging system we used was measured to attenuate the primary x-rays by 10 to 20% for normal incidence, and up to 40% at non-normal incidence. In addition, three compensation filters of different shape are built into the collimator apparatus and were measured to have attenuation factors ranging from 58% to 99%, depending on kVp and beam filtration. These filters can translate and rotate in the beam and their motion is tracked by the DTS using the digital signal from the imaging system. When it is determined that a ray to a given point on the skin passes through the compensation filter, the appropriate attenuation correction is applied. These corrections have been successfully incorporated in the DTS software to provide a more accurate determination of skin dose.

  2. Study on neural network model for calculating subsidence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The major factors influencing subsidence factor were comprehensively analyzed. Then the artificial neural network model for calculating subsidence factor was set up with the theory of artificial neural network (ANN). A large amount of data from observation stations in China was collected and used as learning and training samples to train and test the artificial neural network model. The calculated results of the ANN model and the observed values were compared and analyzed in this paper. The results demonstrate that many factors can be considered in this model and the result is more precise and closer to observed values to calculate the subsidence factor by the ANN model. It can satisfy the need of engineering.

  3. The non-uniformity correction factor for the cylindrical ionization chambers in dosimetry of an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Bishnu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to derive the non-uniformity correction factor for the two therapy ionization chambers for the dose measurement near the brachytherapy source. The two ionization chambers of 0.6 cc and 0.1 cc volume were used. The measurement in air was performed for distances between 0.8 cm and 20 cm from the source in specially designed measurement jig. The non-uniformity correction factors were derived from the measured values. The experimentally derived factors were compared with the theoretically calculated non-uniformity correction factors and a close agreement was found between these two studies. The experimentally derived non-uniformity correction factor supports the anisotropic theory.

  4. Calculation of Accurate Hexagonal Discontinuity Factors for PARCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounders. J., Bandini, B. R. , Xu, Y, and Downar, T. J.

    2007-11-01

    In this study we derive a methodology for calculating discontinuity factors consistent with the Triangle-based Polynomial Expansion Nodal (TPEN) method implemented in PARCS for hexagonal reactor geometries. The accuracy of coarse-mesh nodal methods is greatly enhanced by permitting flux discontinuities at node boundaries, but the practice of calculating discontinuity factors from infinite-medium (zero-current) single bundle calculations may not be sufficiently accurate for more challenging problems in which there is a large amount of internodal neutron streaming. The authors therefore derive a TPEN-based method for calculating discontinuity factors that are exact with respect to generalized equivalence theory. The method is validated by reproducing the reference solution for a small hexagonal core.

  5. A dose calculation algorithm with correction for proton-nucleus interactions in non-water materials for proton radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Sato, S.; Kohno, R.

    2016-01-01

    In treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, the dose measured in water is applied to the patient dose calculation with density scaling by stopping power ratio {ρ\\text{S}} . Since the body tissues are chemically different from water, this approximation may cause dose calculation errors, especially due to differences in nuclear interactions. We proposed and validated an algorithm for correcting these errors. The dose in water is decomposed into three constituents according to the physical interactions of protons in water: the dose from primary protons continuously slowing down by electromagnetic interactions, the dose from protons scattered by elastic and/or inelastic interactions, and the dose resulting from nonelastic interactions. The proportions of the three dose constituents differ between body tissues and water. We determine correction factors for the proportion of dose constituents with Monte Carlo simulations in various standard body tissues, and formulated them as functions of their {ρ\\text{S}} for patient dose calculation. The influence of nuclear interactions on dose was assessed by comparing the Monte Carlo simulated dose and the uncorrected dose in common phantom materials. The influence around the Bragg peak amounted to  -6% for polytetrafluoroethylene and 0.3% for polyethylene. The validity of the correction method was confirmed by comparing the simulated and corrected doses in the materials. The deviation was below 0.8% for all materials. The accuracy of the correction factors derived with Monte Carlo simulations was separately verified through irradiation experiments with a 235 MeV proton beam using common phantom materials. The corrected doses agreed with the measurements within 0.4% for all materials except graphite. The influence on tumor dose was assessed in a prostate case. The dose reduction in the tumor was below 0.5%. Our results verify that this algorithm is practical and accurate for proton radiotherapy treatment planning, and

  6. Calculation of astrophysical S factor at low energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andic, Halil Ibrahim; Ozer, Okan

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear reactions are very important for the structure, evolution, nucleosynthesis and various observational manifestations of main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. For astrophysical applications, one needs to know value of S-factor for many reactions at low energies. The experimental measurements of cross-sections at such low energies are essentially not easily available since the Coulomb barrier. Theoretical calculations are model dependent, so that nuclear physics uncertainties of calculated S-factor can be substantial. Using the supersymmetric quantum mechanics one can obtain the supersymmetric partner potential that can vary by several orders of magnitude in the energy range of a given reaction in the calculation of S factor. Since the determination of reaction rates requires accurate values of cross sections at very low energies, then in order to eliminate the main part of the energy dependence of these cross sections one makes use of the astrophysical S-factor in Taylor Expansion series about zero-energy.

  7. Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, K; Mazur, J; Kozłowska, B; Karpińska, M; Przylibski, T A; Mamont-Cieśla, K; Grządziel, D; Stawarz, O; Wysocka, M; Dorda, J; Zebrowski, A; Olszewski, J; Hovhannisyan, H; Dohojda, M; Kapała, J; Chmielewska, I; Kłos, B; Jankowski, J; Mnich, S; Kołodziej, R

    2011-10-01

    The method for the calculation of correction factors is presented, which can be used for the assessment of the mean annual radon concentration on the basis of 1-month or 3-month indoor measurements. Annual radon concentration is an essential value for the determination of the annual dose due to radon inhalation. The measurements have been carried out in 132 houses in Poland over a period of one year. The passive method of track detectors with CR-39 foil was applied. Four thermal-precipitation regions in Poland were established and correction factors were calculated for each region, separately for houses with and without basements.

  8. Electron fluence correction factors for various materials in clinical electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M; DeBlois, F; Podgorsak, E B; Seuntjens, J P

    2001-08-01

    Relative to solid water, electron fluence correction factors at the depth of dose maximum in bone, lung, aluminum, and copper for nominal electron beam energies of 9 MeV and 15 MeV of the Clinac 18 accelerator have been determined experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure depth doses in these materials. The measured relative dose at dmax in the various materials versus that of solid water, when irradiated with the same number of monitor units, has been used to calculate the ratio of electron fluence for the various materials to that of solid water. The beams of the Clinac 18 were fully characterized using the EGS4/BEAM system. EGSnrc with the relativistic spin option turned on was used to optimize the primary electron energy at the exit window, and to calculate depth doses in the five phantom materials using the optimized phase-space data. Normalizing all depth doses to the dose maximum in solid water stopping power ratio corrected, measured depth doses and calculated depth doses differ by less than +/- 1% at the depth of dose maximum and by less than 4% elsewhere. Monte Carlo calculated ratios of doses in each material to dose in LiF were used to convert the TLD measurements at the dose maximum into dose at the center of the TLD in the phantom material. Fluence perturbation correction factors for a LiF TLD at the depth of dose maximum deduced from these calculations amount to less than 1% for 0.15 mm thick TLDs in low Z materials and are between 1% and 3% for TLDs in Al and Cu phantoms. Electron fluence ratios of the studied materials relative to solid water vary between 0.83+/-0.01 and 1.55+/-0.02 for materials varying in density from 0.27 g/cm3 (lung) to 8.96 g/cm3 (Cu). The difference in electron fluence ratios derived from measurements and calculations ranges from -1.6% to +0.2% at 9 MeV and from -1.9% to +0.2% at 15 MeV and is not significant at the 1sigma level. Excluding the data for Cu, electron

  9. [A simple method to correct genetic distance between linked genes and a correction of calculating data in tetrad analysis in Neurospora crassa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Zeng

    2003-05-01

    The present paper is dealing with a simple method to correct the distance of linked genes in tetrad analysis in Neurospora crassa. It is suggested that the data of 4-thread double crossing over should be added in two single crossing over respectively in centromere maping when calculating crossover value of the two genes locating across the centromere.

  10. Progress in the Calculation of Nucleon Transition form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2016-10-01

    We give a brief account of the Dyson-Schwinger and Faddeev-equation approach and its application to nucleon resonances and their transition form factors. We compare the three-body with the quark-diquark approach and present a quark-diquark calculation for the low-lying nucleon resonances including scalar, axialvector, pseudoscalar and vector diquarks. We also discuss the timelike structure of transition form factors and highlight the advantages of form factors over helicity amplitudes.

  11. Progress in the calculation of nucleon transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    We give a brief account of the Dyson-Schwinger and Faddeev-equation approach and its application to nucleon resonances and their transition form factors. We compare the three-body with the quark-diquark approach and present a quark-diquark calculation for the low-lying nucleon resonances including scalar, axialvector, pseudoscalar and vector diquarks. We also discuss the timelike structure of transition form factors and highlight the advantages of form factors over helicity amplitudes.

  12. A Contrast Transfer Function approach for image calculations in standard and aberration-corrected LEEM and PEEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, S.M., E-mail: schramm@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Pang, A.B. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Altman, M.S. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tromp, R.M. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We introduce an extended Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) approach for the calculation of image formation in low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM). This approach considers aberrations up to fifth order, appropriate for image formation in state-of-the-art aberration-corrected LEEM and PEEM. We derive Scherzer defocus values for both weak and strong phase objects, as well as for pure amplitude objects, in non-aberration-corrected and aberration-corrected LEEM. Using the extended CTF formalism, we calculate contrast and resolution of one-dimensional and two-dimensional pure phase, pure amplitude, and mixed phase and amplitude objects. PEEM imaging is treated by adapting this approach to the case of incoherent imaging. Based on these calculations, we show that the ultimate resolution in aberration-corrected LEEM is about 0.5 nm, and in aberration-corrected PEEM about 3.5 nm. The aperture sizes required to achieve these ultimate resolutions are precisely determined with the CTF method. The formalism discussed here is also relevant to imaging with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduce an extended Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) approach for the calculation of image formation in low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider aberrations up to fifth order, appropriate for image formation in state-of-the-art aberration-corrected LEEM and PEEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We derive Scherzer defocus values for both weak and strong phase objects, as well as for pure amplitude objects, in non-aberration-corrected and aberration-corrected LEEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that the ultimate resolution in aberration-corrected LEEM is about 0.5 nm, and in aberration-corrected PEEM about 3.5 nm.

  13. Two-Photon Exchange Corrections to Precise Measurements of Proton Electroweak Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei

    2004-10-01

    Higher-order QED effects play an important role for extracting information on proton form factors from electron scattering data. For the electric form factor of the proton, a previously neglected two-photon-exchange correction reconciles an observed discrepancy between Rosenbluth and polarization techniques [1]. We use a similar approach based on General Parton Distributions to compute additional radiative corrections to parity-violating electron scattering. [1] Y.C. Chen, A. Afanasev, S.J. Brodsky, C.E. Carlson and M. Vanderhaeghen, ``Partonic calculation of the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron proton scattering at large momentum transfer,`` arXiv:hep-ph/0403058, to appear in Phys.Rev.Lett.

  14. Shear correction factors for layered plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruttmann, F.; Wagner, W.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper layered composite shells subjected to static loading are considered. The theory is based on a multi-field functional, where the associated Euler-Lagrange equations include besides the global shell equations formulated in stress resultants, the local in-plane equilibrium in terms of stresses and a constraint which enforces the correct shape of warping through the thickness. Within representative volume elements warping displacements are interpolated with layerwise cubic functions in thickness direction and constant shape throughout the reference surface. Elimination of warping and Lagrange parameters by static condensation leads to a material matrix for the stress resultants and to shear correction factors for layered plates and shells. For linear elasticity the computation can be done once in advance. The condensed material matrix is used in displacement based elements along with the enhanced strain method or in mixed hybrid elements with the usual 5 or 6 nodal degrees of freedom. This allows standard geometrical boundary conditions and the elements are applicable also to shell intersection problems. The interlaminar shear stresses are evaluated via the constitutive law by back substitution of the eliminated parameters. The computed transverse shear stresses are automatically continuous at the layer boundaries and zero at the outer surfaces. Furthermore, the integrals of the shear stresses coincide exactly with the shear forces without introduction of further constraints.

  15. Shear correction factors for layered plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruttmann, F.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper layered composite shells subjected to static loading are considered. The theory is based on a multi-field functional, where the associated Euler-Lagrange equations include besides the global shell equations formulated in stress resultants, the local in-plane equilibrium in terms of stresses and a constraint which enforces the correct shape of warping through the thickness. Within representative volume elements warping displacements are interpolated with layerwise cubic functions in thickness direction and constant shape throughout the reference surface. Elimination of warping and Lagrange parameters by static condensation leads to a material matrix for the stress resultants and to shear correction factors for layered plates and shells. For linear elasticity the computation can be done once in advance. The condensed material matrix is used in displacement based elements along with the enhanced strain method or in mixed hybrid elements with the usual 5 or 6 nodal degrees of freedom. This allows standard geometrical boundary conditions and the elements are applicable also to shell intersection problems. The interlaminar shear stresses are evaluated via the constitutive law by back substitution of the eliminated parameters. The computed transverse shear stresses are automatically continuous at the layer boundaries and zero at the outer surfaces. Furthermore, the integrals of the shear stresses coincide exactly with the shear forces without introduction of further constraints.

  16. Calculating osmotic pressure according to nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wang, Xiaolan; Tan, Xiaoying; Guo, Yiping; Li, Chengrong

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The osmotic pressure of NaCl solutions was determined by the air humidity in equilibrium (AHE) method. The relationship between the osmotic pressure and the concentration was explored theoretically, and the osmotic pressure was calculated according to the nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor (N-Wilson-NRF) model from the concentration. The results indicate that the calculated osmotic pressure is comparable to the measured one.

  17. Quark number density and susceptibility calculation under one-loop correction in the mean-field potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S SOMORENDRO SINGH; G SAXENA

    2017-06-01

    We calculate quark number density and susceptibility under one-loop correction in the mean-field potential. The calculation shows continuous increase in the number density and susceptibility up to the temperature $T = 0.4 \\rm{GeV}$. Then the values of number density and susceptibility approach the very weakly result with higher values of temperature. The result indicates that the calculated values fit well with increase in temperature to match the lattice QCD simulations of the same quantities.

  18. False positive and false negative radon measurement results due to uncertainties in seasonal correction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff, K.D.; Miles, J.C.H.; Naismith, S.P. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Data from the UK national survey of radon in 2300 homes has been re-analysed to determine the uncertainty in seasonal correction factors applied to measurements of less than 1 year. The required correction factor for each six-month result was calculated from the known annual average for the appropriate home. The seasonal correction factors derived for each month were found to be approximately log-normally distributed, with an average geometric standard deviation of 1.36. Following this initial survey, radon measurements have been made in more than 80,000 homes in southwest England to determine whether they are above the UK radon Action Level of 2000 Bq.m{sup -3}. The measurements were carried out over three months in each case using etched track detectors in two locations in each home, and the results were corrected for the average seasonal variation found in the original UK study of radon in homes. Because of the uncertainty in the seasonal correction factors, households with between 130 and 300 Bq.m{sup -3} were advised to have a second three-month measurement in a different season before deciding whether or not to take remedial action. More than 7000 homes were remonitored for this purpose. The results are analysed to show the number of false positive and false negative results that would have been reported if advice had been based solely on the initial measurement. It is shown that the present scheme results in extremely small numbers of false positive and false negative results. (author).

  19. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Employee is a 32-year-old male. The audiometric history for his right ear is shown in decibels below... age correction). Table F-1—Age Correction Values in Decibels for Males Years Audiometric test... Correction Values in Decibels for Females Years Audiometric test frequencies(Hz) 1000 2000 3000 4000 6000...

  20. An examination on the correction of attenuation for calculating the renal RI accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, Koichi; Tachibana, Keizo; Maeda, Yoshihiro; Yanoo, Sanae; Morishita, Etsuko; Kawanaka, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan). Hospital

    1999-10-01

    An examination was made on the attenuation coefficients for calculation of true renal accumulation rate together with the precision of measurement of depth in the kidney. Kidney phantom for attenuation coefficients was a 20 x 20 cm cube where water was filled and radioactivity source of {sup 99m}Tc was placed at various depths. Radioactivity was measured by four kinds of scinti-camera with the collimator LEGP and LEHR. The phantom for radioactivity accumulation in the kidney was a 10 x 5 x 1, 3 or 5 cm box where {sup 99m}Tc solution of the standard 30 MBq was filled, and subjected to radioactivity measurement from various angles. Phantom radioactivity was found corrected by the effective attenuation coefficient, 0.131 cm, within the range of 98-114% of the standard counts. The precision of measurement of the depth was examined in sideways scintigrams obtained in clinical practice and was found to have the deviation of 1.1 cm as the mean of maximum ones and the variation coefficient of 7.1%. Measured depth was found to be well correlated with estimated ones by the method of Tonnesen or Ito which had the maximum deviation of 5.4 or 3.5 cm, respectively. (K.H.)

  1. Calculation and experimental test of the cooling factor of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütterich, T.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Whiteford, A. D.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Summers, H. P.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-02-01

    The cooling factor of W is evaluated using state of the art data for line radiation and an ionization balance which has been benchmarked with experiment. For the calculation of line radiation, level-resolved calculations were performed with the Cowan code to obtain the electronic structure and excitation cross sections (plane-wave Born approximation). The data were processed by a collisional radiative model to obtain electron density dependent emissions. These data were then combined with the radiative power derived from recombination rates and bremsstrahlung to obtain the total cooling factor. The effect of uncertainties in the recombination rates on the cooling factor was studied and was identified to be of secondary importance. The new cooling factor is benchmarked, by comparisons of the line radiation with spectral measurements as well as with a direct measurement of the cooling factor. Additionally, a less detailed calculation using a configuration averaged model was performed. It was used to benchmark the level-resolved calculations and to improve the prediction on radiation power from line radiation for ionization stages which are computationally challenging. The obtained values for the cooling factor validate older predictions from the literature. Its ingredients and the absolute value are consistent with the existing experimental results regarding the value itself, the spectral distribution of emissions and the ionization equilibrium. A table of the cooling factor versus electron temperature is provided. Finally, the cooling factor is used to investigate the operational window of a fusion reactor with W as intrinsic impurity. The minimum value of nTτE, for which a thermonuclear burn is possible, is increased by 20% for a W concentration of 3.0 × 10-5 compared with a plasma without any impurities, except for the He ash which is considered in both cases.

  2. Structural uncertainty in air mass factor calculation for NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente Delgado, Alba; Folkert Boersma, K.; Yu, Huan; Dörner, Steffen; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Liu, Mengyao; Lamsal, Lok N.; Barkley, Michael; Smedt, De Isabelle; Roozendael, Van Michel; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas; Beirle, Steffen; Lin, Jin Tai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Stammes, Piet; Wang, Ping; Eskes, Henk J.; Krol, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Air mass factor (AMF) calculation is the largest source of uncertainty in NO2 and HCHO satellite retrievals in situations with enhanced trace gas concentrations in the lower troposphere. Structural uncertainty arises when different retrieval methodologies are applied within the scientific community

  3. Numerical method for angle-of-incidence correction factors for diffuse radiation incident photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill

    2017-05-01

    A numerical method is provided for solving the integral equation for the angle-of-incidence (AOI) correction factor for diffuse radiation incident photovoltaic (PV) modules. The types of diffuse radiation considered include sky, circumsolar, horizon, and ground-reflected. The method permits PV module AOI characteristics to be addressed when calculating AOI losses associated with diffuse radiation. Pseudo code is provided to aid users in the implementation, and results are shown for PV modules with tilt angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. Diffuse AOI losses are greatest for small PV module tilt angles. Including AOI losses associated with the diffuse irradiance will improve predictions of PV system performance.

  4. Multiconfiguration calculations of electronic isotope shift factors in Al I

    CERN Document Server

    Filippin, Livio; Ekman, Jörgen; Fritzsche, Stephan; Godefroid, Michel; Jönsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports results from systematic multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of electronic isotope shift factors for a set of transitions between low-lying states in neutral aluminium. These electronic quantities together with observed isotope shifts between different pairs of isotopes provide the changes in mean-square charge radii of the atomic nuclei. Two computational approaches are adopted for the estimation of the mass- and field shift factors. Within these approaches, different models for electron correlation are explored in a systematic way to determine a reliable computational strategy and estimate theoretical uncertainties of the isotope shift factors.

  5. Calculation of the Q factor for case 2 waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimwell, Susan J.; Wernand, Marcel R.; Boxall, Simon R.

    1997-02-01

    An intensive data collection campaign has been conducted in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea during which a variety of marine optical parameters have ben measured. This has enabled the angular distribution factor of spectral radiance or Q factor to be calculated from in situ measurements. The Q factor relates upwelled spectral radiance to upwelled spectral irradiance and its precise determination is of importance in ocean color remote sensing. Previous modeling studies, often based on the optical properties of case I waters, have proposed a value of 5 for Q. However, this study suggest that more turbid coastal waters may approach the Lambertian case of Q close to (pi) .

  6. First-principles calculations of electronic structure on (Ti,Co)O{sub 2} within self-interaction-corrected LDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizaki, H., E-mail: hkizaki@aquarius.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 567-8531 (Japan); Toyoda, M.; Sato, K. [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 567-8531 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Electronic structure of TiO{sub 2} (rutile) based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are investigated within self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (SIC-LDA) from first-principles calculation. These results are compared with those calculated within standard LDA. It is found that the calculated band-gap energy in the host TiO{sub 2} is different within the LDA and the SIC-LDA. We find that high-spin state is predicted within the SIC-LDA with oxygen vacancy. The calculated density of states within SIC-LDA is in good agreement with photoemission results.

  7. The importance of background correction during calculation of the major salivary gland function in salivary gland scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Taşdemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the parotid (P and submandibular (SM glands uptake and excretion ratios of 99mTc-pertechnetate, which were calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas. Methods: Ninety-eight P and 98 SM glands of totally 48 patients were included in the study. 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in all patients. Oral stimulation with lemon juice was made at 15th minute of the imaging. The 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands were calculated separately without using any background, and by using the backgrounds drawn on wide frontal, narrow frontal, temporal, cervical and shoulder regions. These values were statistically compared with each other in pairwise manner. Results: The radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated without using any background correction were statistically different from that calculated by using any background correction. In addition, the radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas were mostly found statistically different from each other (p<0.05. Conclusion: Background correction is important during the calculation of the uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands. This study demonstrates that calculated uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands may differ according to the used background area.

  8. piggyBac-mediated phenotypic correction of factor VIII deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Staber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A, caused by a deficiency in factor VIII (FVIII, is the most severe inherited bleeding disorder. Hemophilia A is an attractive gene therapy candidate because even small increases in FVIII levels will positively alter the phenotype. While several vectors are under investigation, gene addition from an integrated transgene offers the possibility of long term expression. We engineered the DNA transposon-based vector, piggyBac (PB, to carry a codon-optimized B-domain deleted human FVIII cDNA. Evaluation of gene transfer efficiency in FVIII null mice demonstrated that PB containing the FVIII cDNA, delivered via hydrodynamic injection to immunocompetent hemophilia mice, conferred persistent gene expression, attaining mean FVIII activity of approximately 60% with 3/19 developing inhibitors. In addition to efficacious expression, a goal of gene transfer-based therapies is to develop vectors with low toxicity. To assess endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes stably expressing the transgene, we evaluated levels of ER stress markers via qPCR and found no evidence of cell stress. To evaluate phenotypic correction, a tail clip assay performed at the end of the study revealed reduced blood loss. These data demonstrate that PB can be used to achieve sustained FVIII expression and long-term therapeutic benefit in a mouse model.

  9. Calculation of dose conversion factors for thoron decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tokonami, Shinji [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nemeth, Csaba [Pannon University, 10 Egyetem St, 8201 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2007-12-15

    The dose conversion factors for short-lived thoron decay products were calculated using a dosimetric approach. The calculations were based on a computer program LUDEP, which implements the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model. The dose per equilibrium equivalent concentration for thoron (EETC) was calculated with respect to (1) equivalent dose to each region of the lung tissues (bronchial, bronchiolar and alveolar), (2) weighted equivalent dose to organs other than lung, and (3) effective dose. The calculations indicated that (1) the most exposed region of the lung tissues was the bronchial for the unattached fraction and the bronchiolar for the attached fraction, (2) the effective dose is dominated by the contribution of lung dose, and (3) the effective dose per EETC was about four times larger than the effective dose per equilibrium equivalent concentration for radon (EERC). The calculated dose conversion factors were applied to the comparative dosimetry for some thoron-enhanced areas where the EERC and EETC have been measured. In the case of a spa in Japan, the dose from thoron decay products was larger than the dose from radon decay products.

  10. Calculation of dose conversion factors for thoron decay products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Nemeth, Csaba

    2007-12-01

    The dose conversion factors for short-lived thoron decay products were calculated using a dosimetric approach. The calculations were based on a computer program LUDEP, which implements the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model. The dose per equilibrium equivalent concentration for thoron (EETC) was calculated with respect to (1) equivalent dose to each region of the lung tissues (bronchial, bronchiolar and alveolar), (2) weighted equivalent dose to organs other than lung, and (3) effective dose. The calculations indicated that (1) the most exposed region of the lung tissues was the bronchial for the unattached fraction and the bronchiolar for the attached fraction, (2) the effective dose is dominated by the contribution of lung dose, and (3) the effective dose per EETC was about four times larger than the effective dose per equilibrium equivalent concentration for radon (EERC). The calculated dose conversion factors were applied to the comparative dosimetry for some thoron-enhanced areas where the EERC and EETC have been measured. In the case of a spa in Japan, the dose from thoron decay products was larger than the dose from radon decay products.

  11. Correction

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  12. Determination of small-field correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers using a semiempirical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangwoo; Bak, Jino; Park, Sungho; Choi, Wonhoon; Park, Suk Won

    2016-02-01

    A semiempirical method based on the averaging effect of the sensitive volumes of different air-filled ionization chambers (ICs) was employed to approximate the correction factors for beam quality produced from the difference in the sizes of the reference field and small fields. We measured the output factors using several cylindrical ICs and calculated the correction factors using a mathematical method similar to deconvolution; in the method, we modeled the variable and inhomogeneous energy fluence function within the chamber cavity. The parameters of the modeled function and the correction factors were determined by solving a developed system of equations as well as on the basis of the measurement data and the geometry of the chambers. Further, Monte Carlo (MC) computations were performed using the Monaco® treatment planning system to validate the proposed method. The determined correction factors (k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} ) were comparable to the values derived from the MC computations performed using Monaco®. For example, for a 6 MV photon beam and a field size of 1  ×  1 cm2, k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} was calculated to be 1.125 for a PTW 31010 chamber and 1.022 for a PTW 31016 chamber. On the other hand, the k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} values determined from the MC computations were 1.121 and 1.031, respectively; the difference between the proposed method and the MC computation is less than 2%. In addition, we determined the k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} values for PTW 30013, PTW 31010, PTW 31016, IBA FC23-C, and IBA CC13 chambers as well. We devised a method for determining k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} from both the measurement of the output factors and model-based mathematical computation. The proposed method can be useful in case the MC simulation would not be applicable for the clinical settings.

  13. Geometric correction factor for transepithelial electrical resistance measurements in transwell and microfluidic cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, J.; Illa, X.; Gutiérrez, C.; Solé, M.; Guimerà, A.; Villa, R.

    2016-09-01

    Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements are regularly used in in vitro models to quantitatively evaluate the cell barrier function. Although it would be expected that TEER values obtained with the same cell type and experimental setup were comparable, values reported in the literature show a large dispersion for unclear reasons. This work highlights a possible error in a widely used formula to calculate the TEER, in which it may be erroneously assumed that the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement. In this study, we have numerically calculated this error in some cell cultures previously reported. In particular, we evidence that some TEER measurements resulted in errors when measuring low TEERs, especially when using Transwell inserts 12 mm in diameter or microfluidic systems that have small chamber heights. To correct this error, we propose the use of a geometric correction factor (GCF) for calculating the TEER. In addition, we describe a simple method to determine the GCF of a particular measurement system, so that it can be applied retrospectively. We have also experimentally validated an interdigitated electrodes (IDE) configuration where the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement, and it also implements minimal electrode coverage so that the cells can be visualized alongside TEER analysis.

  14. Calculation of the π Meson Electromagnetic Form Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 汪克林; 完绍龙

    2001-01-01

    The modified flat-bottom potential (MFBP) is given by the combination of the flat-bottom potential with considerations for the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic behaviour of the effective quark-gluon coupling. The πmeson electromagnetic form factor is calculated in the framework of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation andthe Bethe-Salpeter equation in the simplified impulse approximation (dressed vertex) with the MFBP. All ournumerical results give a good fit to experimental values.

  15. A model-free method for mass spectrometer response correction. [for oxygen consumption and cardiac output calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E.; Swanson, Harvey T.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for correction of mass spectrometer output signals is described. Response-time distortion is reduced independently of any model of mass spectrometer behavior. The delay of the system is found first from the cross-correlation function of a step change and its response. A two-sided time-domain digital correction filter (deconvolution filter) is generated next from the same step response data using a regression procedure. Other data are corrected using the filter and delay. The mean squared error between a step response and a step is reduced considerably more after the use of a deconvolution filter than after the application of a second-order model correction. O2 consumption and CO2 production values calculated from data corrupted by a simulated dynamic process return to near the uncorrupted values after correction. Although a clean step response or the ensemble average of several responses contaminated with noise is needed for the generation of the filter, random noise of magnitude not above 0.5 percent added to the response to be corrected does not impair the correction severely.

  16. Validity of Viscous Core Correction Models for Self-Induced Velocity Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoydonck, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Viscous core correction models are used in free wake simulations to remove the infinite velocities at the vortex centreline. It will be shown that the assumption that these corrections converge to the Biot-Savart law in the far field is not correct for points near the tangent line of a vortex segment. Furthermore, the self-induced velocity of a vortex ring with a viscous core is shown to converge to the wrong value. The source of these errors in the model is identified and an improved model is presented that rectifies the errors. It results in correct values for the self-induced velocity of a viscous vortex ring and induced velocities that converge to the values predicted by the Biot-Savart law for all points in the far field.

  17. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  18. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  19. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  20. The need for seasonal correction functions when calculating the annual electricity use of appliances based on shorter period measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennich, Peter (Testlab, The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Oefverholm, Egil; Bjoern, Torgny (The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Norstedt, Inger (The Swedish Consumer Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Along with the increasing number of smart electricity meters in the homes - both meters installed by the utilities and simpler ones installed by the household owners themselves - the interest in reliable methods for scaling up data measured during a limited time of the year to annual values, will most likely increase. For example, by measuring some specific loads for some time in a home, an inhabitant may assess possible annual savings when replacing old appliances with new ones. However, a straight forward scaling up calculation to annual values is not always appropriate. An obvious example is lighting, which displays a clear seasonal effect due to the difference in daylight: annual values based on measured summer data will strongly underestimate the annual consumption whereas winter data will lead to an overestimate. Another example going in the opposite direction is cold appliances, where the increase in ambient temperature during the summer increases the electricity consumption. This paper discusses an analysis of a set of appliances which nearly all display different seasonal effects. Apart from lighting and cold appliances, also washing machines, dish washers, TVs and PCs are analysed. Factors influencing the seasonality are discussed; either it is due to behaviour and/or technical parameters as well. Our analysis is based on 10 min measurements of appliances in 400 randomly selected households in Sweden. 40 households were measured during a full year and provided data for establishing seasonal correction functions. (See Appendix 1 for more details on the methodology.)

  1. Isotope effects on nuclear magnetic shieldings calculated by including zero-point vibration corrections: the VMF approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dransfeld, Alk

    2004-03-08

    As a minimal dynamic correction the 'zero-point vibration', ZPV, was included in the ab initio calculation of the isotropic magnetic shielding of {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P, and {sup 35}Cl in some molecules including the references of NMR spectroscopy (f.i. CFCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}-NO{sub 2}, and TMS). In contrast to most previous works the ZPV correction is not based on gradients of internal coordinates, but uses derivatives obtained by 'vibration mode following' (VMF, the coordinates of the gradients describing the magnetic shielding hypersurface are the normal coordinates of the ground state vibration motion). The vibrational corrections obtained at the applied DFT level of theory are slightly smaller than those reported for MP2 calculations. Isotope effects computed with the ZPV/VMF correction are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. Contributions from individual vibration modes to the zero-point correction show that rotational motions have a large effect.

  2. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In the article by Quintavalle et al (Quintavalle C, Anselmi CV, De Micco F, Roscigno G, Visconti G, Golia B, Focaccio A, Ricciardelli B, Perna E, Papa L, Donnarumma E, Condorelli G, Briguori C. Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin and contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;8:e002673. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.115.002673.), which published online September 2, 2015, and appears in the September 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed. On page 1, the institutional affiliation for Elvira Donnarumma, PhD, “SDN Foundation,” has been changed to read, “IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.” The institutional affiliation for Laura Papa, PhD, “Institute for Endocrinology and Experimental Oncology, National Research Council, Naples, Italy,” has been changed to read, “Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research, Milan Unit, Milan, Italy” and “Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Italy.” The authors regret this error.

  3. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  4. SU-E-J-175: Proton Dose Calculation On Scatter-Corrected CBCT Image: Feasibility Study for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Winey, B; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate feasibility of proton dose calculation on scattercorrected CBCT images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: Two CBCT image sets were acquired from a prostate cancer patient and a thorax phantom using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. 2-D scatter maps were estimated using a previously introduced CT-based technique, and were subtracted from each raw projection image. A CBCT image set was then reconstructed with an open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK). Conversion from the CBCT number to HU was performed by soft tissue-based shifting with reference to the plan CT. Passively scattered proton plans were simulated on the plan CT and corrected/uncorrected CBCT images using the XiO treatment planning system. For quantitative evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) was compared in those treatment plans. Results: The scatter correction method significantly improved image quality and HU accuracy in the prostate case where large scatter artifacts were obvious. However, the correction technique showed limited effects on the thorax case that was associated with fewer scatter artifacts. Mean absolute WEPL errors from the plans with the uncorrected and corrected images were 1.3 mm and 5.1 mm in the thorax case and 13.5 mm and 3.1 mm in the prostate case. The prostate plan dose distribution of the corrected image demonstrated better agreement with the reference one than that of the uncorrected image. Conclusion: A priori CT-based CBCT scatter correction can reduce the proton dose calculation error when large scatter artifacts are involved. If scatter artifacts are low, an uncorrected CBCT image is also promising for proton dose calculation when it is calibrated with the soft-tissue based shifting.

  5. Sequence correction of random coil chemical shifts: correlation between neighbor correction factors and changes in the Ramachandran distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming M., E-mail: fmpoulsen@bio.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    Random coil chemical shifts are necessary for secondary chemical shift analysis, which is the main NMR method for identification of secondary structure in proteins. One of the largest challenges in the determination of random coil chemical shifts is accounting for the effect of neighboring residues. The contributions from the neighboring residues are typically removed by using neighbor correction factors determined based on each residue's effect on glycine chemical shifts. Due to its unusual conformational freedom, glycine may be particularly unrepresentative for the remaining residue types. In this study, we use random coil peptides containing glutamine instead of glycine to determine the random coil chemical shifts and the neighbor correction factors. The resulting correction factors correlate to changes in the populations of the major wells in the Ramachandran plot, which demonstrates that changes in the conformational ensemble are an important source of neighbor effects in disordered proteins. Glutamine derived random coil chemical shifts and correction factors modestly improve our ability to predict {sup 13}C chemical shifts of intrinsically disordered proteins compared to existing datasets, and may thus improve the identification of small populations of transient structure in disordered proteins.

  6. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  7. Correction factors for estimating potassium concentrations in samples with in vitro hemolysis: a detriment to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mai M H; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Kazmierczak, Steven C

    2009-06-01

    Correction factors have been proposed for estimating true potassium concentrations in blood samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis. We used 2 different models of true (ie, nonsimulated) in vitro hemolysis to evaluate the clinical utility of correction factors for estimating potassium concentrations in samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis. Potassium correction factors were derived using 2 different models. In model 1, potassium and plasma hemoglobin were measured with the Hitachi 747 analyzer in 132 paired blood samples, with each pair consisting of 1 sample with evidence of hemolysis and 1 without, collected during the same phlebotomy procedure. The change in measured potassium concentration was plotted versus the change in plasma hemoglobin concentration for each pair of samples. In model 2, the potassium levels of 142 784 blood samples and the corresponding hemolytic index values were measured with the Beckman LX20 analyzer. Potassium concentrations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles were calculated for each hemolysis index category. From our 2 models, we derived correction factors expressing an increase in potassium concentration of 0.51 and 0.40 mEq/L for every increase in plasma hemoglobin concentration of 0.1 g/dL. These correction factors are much higher than those reported in studies that simulated in vitro hemolysis by freeze-thaw lysis or osmotic disruption of whole blood. Use of correction factors for estimating the true potassium concentration in samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis is not recommended. Derivation of correction factors by using samples with nonsimulated in vitro hemolysis suggests that the actual increase in potassium in hemolyzed samples is much higher than that reported in previous studies that produced hemolysis with artificial means.

  8. Investigation of correction factors for non-reference conditions in ion chamber photon dosimetry with Monte-Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, Joerg [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS), Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany); Heverhagen, Johannes T. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Karle, Heiko [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radioonkologie sowie Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS), Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Current dosimetry protocols require geometrical reference conditions for the determination of absorbed dose in external radiotherapy. Whenever these geometrical conditions cannot be maintained the application of additional corrections becomes necessary, in principle. The current DIN6800-2 protocol includes a corresponding factor k{sub NR}, but numerical values are lacking and no definite information about the magnitude of this correction is available yet. This study presents Monte-Carlo based calculations within the 6 MV-X photon field of a linear accelerator for a common used ion chamber (PTW31010) employing the EGSnrc code system. The linear accelerator model was matched to measurements, showing good agreement and is used as a realistic source. The individual perturbation correction factors as well as the resulting correction factor k{sub NR} were calculated as a function of depth for three field sizes, as a function of central axis distance for the largest field and within the build-up region. The behaviour of the ion chamber was further investigated for an idealized hypothetical field boundary. Within the field of the linear accelerator where charged particle equilibrium is achieved the factor k{sub NR} was generally below {proportional_to}0.5%. In the build-up region a depth dependent correction of up to 2% was calculated when positioning the chamber according to DIN6800-2. Minimizing the depth dependence of the corrections in the build-up region lead to a slightly different positioning of the ion chamber as currently recommended. In regions of the hypothetical field boundary with missing charged particle equilibrium and high dose gradients, the ion chamber response changed by up to {proportional_to}40%, caused by the comparatively large volume (0.125 cm{sup 3}) of the investigated chamber. (orig.)

  9. Geometrical form factor calculation using Monte Carlo integration for lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Li, Jun

    2012-06-01

    We proposed a geometrical form factor (GFF) calculation using Monte Carlo integration (GFF-MC) for lidar that is practical and can be applied to any laser intensity distribution. Theoretical results have been calculated with our method based on the functions of measured, uniform and Gaussian laser intensity distribution. Two experimental GFF traces on clear days are obtained to verify the validity of the theoretical results. The results indicated that the measured distribution function outperformed the Gaussian and uniform functions. That means that the deviation of the measured laser intensity distribution from an ideal one can be too large to neglect. In addition, the theoretical GFF of the uniform distribution had a larger error than that of the Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, the effects of the inclination angle of the laser beam and the central obstruction of the support structure of the second mirror of the telescope are discussed in this study.

  10. Lattice calculation of composite dark matter form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, T; Buchoff, M I; Cheng, M; Cohen, S D; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S N; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Wasem, J

    2013-01-01

    Composite dark matter candidates, which can arise from new strongly-coupled sectors, are well-motivated and phenomenologically interesting, particularly in the context of asymmetric generation of the relic density. In this work, we employ lattice calculations to study the electromagnetic form factors of electroweak-neutral dark-matter baryons for a three-color, QCD-like theory with Nf = 2 and 6 degenerate fermions in the fundamental representation. We calculate the (connected) charge radius and anomalous magnetic moment, both of which can play a significant role for direct detection of composite dark matter. We find minimal Nf dependence in these quantities. We generate mass-dependent cross-sections for dark matter-nucleon interactions and use them in conjunction with experimental results from XENON100, excluding dark matter candidates of this type with masses below 10 TeV.

  11. [Diffusion factor calculation for TIP4P model of water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlenko, D V

    2012-01-01

    A molecular dynamics study has been undertaken for a model of liquid TIP4P water. Thermal dependencies of water density and radial distribution functions were calculated for model verification. Three methods have been used for calculation of diffusion factor thermal dependencies. Their sensitivity to molecular system size and length of used trajectory has been analyzed. It has been shown that Green-Kubo formula-based approach which associates diffusion factor with speed autocorrelation function integral is preferred in case of short MD simulations. The second approach based on Einstein equation which associates mean square displacement of molecule with time is preferred in case of long simulations. It has been also demonstrated that it is possible to modify the second approach to make it more stable and reliable. This modification is to use a slope of the graph of the mean square displacement on time as the estimation of the diffusion factor instead of the ratio of molecule mean square displacement and time.

  12. Analysis of related factors on the deformity correction of balloon kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Liu, H-X; Xu, H-Z

    2014-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive surgical approach for treating vertebral compression fractures, including osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of balloon inflation and postural reduction on balloon kyphoplasty for the deformity correction of vertebral compression fractures and to explore the correlative factors affecting the deformity correction. A retrospective study of 72 patients (75 levels) who had undergone balloon kyphoplasty was conducted. Imaging data and clinical features were collected and analyzed. Independent-samples t test analysis was used to find the possible factors affecting deformity correction. Postural correction in the overextending position significantly increased anterior middle vertebral height, kyphotic angle, and Cobb angle (each P postural reduction and balloon dilation (each P > .05). The improvement on the Visual Analog Scale was notable (P correction. The deformity correction was attributed to postural reduction with cement strengthening. The most significant factors affecting deformity correction were the fracture type and bone cement injected volume.

  13. Proposal for a Correction to the Temporal Correlation Coefficient Calculation for Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pigott, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the topological overlap of two graphs becomes important when assessing the changes between temporally adjacent graphs in a time-evolving network. Current methods depend on the fraction of nodes that have persisting edges. This breaks down when there are nodes with no edges, persisting or otherwise. The following outlines a proposed correction to ensure that correlation metrics have the expected behavior.

  14. THE PERMANENT DETECTION OF SHIFTS IN THE PROBLEM OF CALCULATION AUTOMATION OF THE CORRECTION RAIL CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lahuta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical method of solution of a differential equation of railway shifts is presented allowing to calculate the quantity of shifts in any point of a railway curve during its straightening. Shifts calculated between the points of measurement of bend arrows can be used as control ones.

  15. Generalized Solutions for the joint replenishment problem with correction factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give a complete analysis of the joint replenishment problem (JRP) under constant demands and continuous time. We present a solution method for the JRP when a correction is made for empty replenishments, and we test the solution procedures with real data. We show that the

  16. Complex Orbitals, Multiple Local Minima, and Symmetry Breaking in Perdew-Zunger Self-Interaction Corrected Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Susi; Head-Gordon, Martin; Jónsson, Hannes

    2016-07-12

    Implentation of seminumerical stability analysis for calculations using the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction is described. It is shown that real-valued solutions of the Perdew-Zunger equations for gas phase atoms are unstable with respect to imaginary orbital rotations, confirming that a proper implementation of the correction requires complex-valued orbitals. The orbital density dependence of the self-interaction corrected functional is found to lead to multiple local minima in the case of the acrylic acid, H6, and benzene molecules. In the case of benzene, symmetry breaking that results in incorrect ground state geometry is found to occur, erroneously leading to alternating bond lengths in the molecule.

  17. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we invest...... and qualitatively different from that found from calculations employingU-corrected (semi)local functionals.However we also find that the+U term cannot be used to correct the RPA’s poor description of the heat of formation of NiO....... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...

  18. Correction factors to convert microdosimetry measurements in silicon to tissue in 12C ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolst, David; Guatelli, Susanna; Tran, Linh T.; Chartier, Lachlan; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2017-03-01

    Silicon microdosimetry is a promising technology for heavy ion therapy (HIT) quality assurance, because of its sub-mm spatial resolution and capability to determine radiation effects at a cellular level in a mixed radiation field. A drawback of silicon is not being tissue-equivalent, thus the need to convert the detector response obtained in silicon to tissue. This paper presents a method for converting silicon microdosimetric spectra to tissue for a therapeutic 12C beam, based on Monte Carlo simulations. The energy deposition spectra in a 10 μm sized silicon cylindrical sensitive volume (SV) were found to be equivalent to those measured in a tissue SV, with the same shape, but with dimensions scaled by a factor κ equal to 0.57 and 0.54 for muscle and water, respectively. A low energy correction factor was determined to account for the enhanced response in silicon at low energy depositions, produced by electrons. The concept of the mean path length to calculate the lineal energy was introduced as an alternative to the mean chord length because it was found that adopting Cauchy’s formula for the was not appropriate for the radiation field typical of HIT as it is very directional. can be determined based on the peak of the lineal energy distribution produced by the incident carbon beam. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the thickness of the SV along the direction of the incident 12C ion beam can be adopted as . The tissue equivalence conversion method and were adopted to determine the RBE10, calculated using a modified microdosimetric kinetic model, applied to the microdosimetric spectra resulting from the simulation study. Comparison of the RBE10 along the Bragg peak to experimental TEPC measurements at HIMAC, NIRS, showed good agreement. Such agreement demonstrates the validity of the developed tissue equivalence correction factors and of the determination of .

  19. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) F3 and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor F2 due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the C P -violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for F3. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  20. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) $F_3$ and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor $F_2$ due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the CP-violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for $F_3$. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  1. Precise measurement and calculation of coincidence summing corrections for point and linear sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Octavian; Arnold, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Point sources of (60)Co, (133)Ba, (134)Cs and (152)Eu, calibrated at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt were measured in 13 positions on the axis of a 50% relative efficiency p-type detector. The peak and total efficiencies were calibrated using single photon emitting nuclides. Precise experimental values of the coincidence summing corrections were evaluated in each geometry. Synthetic linear source data, as well as the corresponding peak and total efficiency curves, were prepared using the dependence of the count rates on the position of the emitting point. The coincidence summing corrections for the linear sources were computed, analyzed with respect to different approximations and compared with simulations carried out with GESPECOR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relativistically corrected electric field gradients calculated with the normalized elimination of the small component formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-08-07

    Based on the analytic derivatives formalism for the spin-free normalized elimination of the small component method, a new computational scheme for the calculation of the electric field gradient at the atomic nuclei was developed and presented. The new computational scheme was tested by the calculation of the electric field gradient at the mercury nucleus in a series of Hg-containing inorganic and organometallic compounds. The benchmark calculations demonstrate that the new formalism is capable of reproducing experimental and theoretical reference data with high accuracy. The method developed can be routinely applied to the calculation of large and very large molecules and holds considerable promise for the interpretation of the experimental data of biologically relevant compounds containing heavy elements.

  3. Validation of experimental molecular crystal structures with dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Streek, Jacco; Neumann, Marcus A

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the validation of a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (d-DFT) method for the purpose of assessing the correctness of experimental organic crystal structures and enhancing the information content of purely experimental data. 241 experimental organic crystal structures from the August 2008 issue of Acta Cryst. Section E were energy-minimized in full, including unit-cell parameters. The differences between the experimental and the minimized crystal structures were subjected to statistical analysis. The r.m.s. Cartesian displacement excluding H atoms upon energy minimization with flexible unit-cell parameters is selected as a pertinent indicator of the correctness of a crystal structure. All 241 experimental crystal structures are reproduced very well: the average r.m.s. Cartesian displacement for the 241 crystal structures, including 16 disordered structures, is only 0.095 Å (0.084 Å for the 225 ordered structures). R.m.s. Cartesian displacements above 0.25 A either indicate incorrect experimental crystal structures or reveal interesting structural features such as exceptionally large temperature effects, incorrectly modelled disorder or symmetry breaking H atoms. After validation, the method is applied to nine examples that are known to be ambiguous or subtly incorrect.

  4. Correction factors for source strength determination in HDR brachytherapy using the in-phantom method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubrich, Frank; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Wulff, Joerg [University of Applied Sciences (THM) Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection (IMPS); Zink, Klemens [University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; University of Applied Sciences (THM) Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection (IMPS)

    2014-09-01

    For the purpose of clinical source strength determination for HDR brachytherapy sources, the German society for Medical Physics (DGMP) recommends in their report 13 the usage of a solid state phantom (Krieger-phantom) with a thimble ionization chamber. In this work, the calibration chain for the determination of the reference air-kerma rate K{sub a,100} and reference dose rate to water D{sub w,1} by ionization chamber measurement in the Krieger-phantom was modeled via Monte Carlo simulations. These calculations were used to determine global correction factors k{sub tot}, which allows a user to directly convert the reading of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, into the desired quantity K{sub a,100} or D{sub w,1}. The factor k{sub tot} was determined for four available {sup 192}Ir sources and one {sup 60}Co source with three different thimble ionization chambers. Finally, ionization chamber measurements on three μSelectron V2 HDR sources within the Krieger-phantom were performed and K{sub a,100} was determined according to three different methods: (1) using a calibration factor in terms of absorbed dose to water wth the global correction factor (k{sub tot}){sub K{sub a{sub ,{sub 1{sub 0{sub 0}}}}}} according DGMP 13 (2) using a global correction factor calculated via Monte Carlo (3) using a direct reference air-kerma rate calibration factor determined by the national metrology institute PTB. The comparison of Monte Carlo based (k{sub tot}){sub K{sub a{sub ,{sub 1{sub 0{sub 0}}}}}} with those from DGMP 13 showed that the DGMP data were systematically smaller by about 2-2.5%. The experimentally determined (k{sub tot}){sub K{sub a{sub ,{sub 1{sub 0{sub 0}}}}}}, based on the direct K{sub a,100} calibration were also systematically smaller by about 1.5%. Despite of these systematical deviations, the agreement of the different methods was in almost all cases within the 1σ level of confidence of the interval of their respective

  5. A correction factor to f-chart predictions of active solar fraction in active-passive heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. L.; Beckman, W. A.; Duffie, J. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Klein, S. A.

    1983-11-01

    The extent to which a passive system degrades the performance of an active solar space heating system was investigated, and a correction factor to account for these interactions was developed. The transient system simulation program TRNSYS is used to simulate the hour-by-hour performance of combined active-passive (hybrid) space heating systems in order to compare the active system performance with simplified design method predictions. The TRNSYS simulations were compared to results obtained using the simplified design calculations of the f-Chart method. Comparisons of TRNSYS and f-Chart were used to establish the accuracy of the f-Charts for active systems. A correlation was then developed to correct the monthly loads input into the f-Chart method to account for controller deadbands in both hybrid and active only buildings. A general correction factor was generated to be applied to the f-Chart method to produce more accurate and useful results for hybrid systems.

  6. Fluence correction factors for graphite calorimetry in a low-energy clinical proton beam: I. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, H; Al-Sulaiti, L; Andreo, P; Shipley, D; Lühr, A; Bassler, N; Martinkovič, J; Dobrovodský, J; Rossomme, S; Thomas, R A S; Kacperek, A

    2013-05-21

    The conversion of absorbed dose-to-graphite in a graphite phantom to absorbed dose-to-water in a water phantom is performed by water to graphite stopping power ratios. If, however, the charged particle fluence is not equal at equivalent depths in graphite and water, a fluence correction factor, kfl, is required as well. This is particularly relevant to the derivation of absorbed dose-to-water, the quantity of interest in radiotherapy, from a measurement of absorbed dose-to-graphite obtained with a graphite calorimeter. In this work, fluence correction factors for the conversion from dose-to-graphite in a graphite phantom to dose-to-water in a water phantom for 60 MeV mono-energetic protons were calculated using an analytical model and five different Monte Carlo codes (Geant4, FLUKA, MCNPX, SHIELD-HIT and McPTRAN.MEDIA). In general the fluence correction factors are found to be close to unity and the analytical and Monte Carlo codes give consistent values when considering the differences in secondary particle transport. When considering only protons the fluence correction factors are unity at the surface and increase with depth by 0.5% to 1.5% depending on the code. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factor is about 0.5% lower than unity at shallow depths predominantly due to the contributions from alpha particles and increases to values above unity near the Bragg peak. Fluence correction factors directly derived from the fluence distributions differential in energy at equivalent depths in water and graphite can be described by kfl = 0.9964 + 0.0024·zw-eq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.2%. Fluence correction factors derived from a ratio of calculated doses at equivalent depths in water and graphite can be described by kfl = 0.9947 + 0.0024·zw-eq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.3%. These results are of direct relevance to graphite calorimetry in low-energy protons but given that the fluence

  7. Correction factors for ionization chamber dosimetry in CyberKnife: Machine-specific, plan-class, and clinical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Arias, Araceli; Antolin, Elena; Fayos-Ferrer, Francisco; Simon, Rocio; Gonzalez-Castano, Diego M.; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Gomez, Faustino; Pardo-Montero, Juan [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Fisica Medica, Hospital Ruber Internacional, Madrid 28034 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782, Spain and Laboratorio de Radiofisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middx TW11 OLW (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782, Spain and Laboratorio de Radiofisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna 15782 (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the application of the formalism for ionization chamber reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields [R. Alfonso, P. Andreo, R. Capote, M. S. Huq, W. Kilby, P. Kjaell, T. R. Mackie, H. Palmans, K. Rosser, J. Seuntjens, W. Ullrich, and S. Vatnitsky, 'A new formalism for reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields,' Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)] to the CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery system. Correction factors for intermediate calibration fields, a machine-specific reference field (msr) and two plan-class specific reference fields (pcsr), have been studied. Furthermore, the applicability of the new formalism to clinical dosimetry has been analyzed through the investigation of two clinical treatments. Methods: PTW31014 and Scanditronix-Wellhofer CC13 ionization chamber measurements were performed for the fields under investigation. Absorbed dose to water was determined using alanine reference dosimetry, and experimental correction factors were calculated from alanine to ionization chamber readings ratios. In addition, correction factors were calculated for the intermediate calibration fields and one of the clinical treatment fields using the Monte Carlo method and these were compared with the experimental values. Results: Overall correction factors deviating from unity by approximately 2% were obtained from both measurements and simulations, with values below and above unity for the studied intermediate calibration fields and clinical fields for the ionization chambers under consideration. Monte Carlo simulations yielded correction factors comparable with those obtained from measurements for the machine-specific reference field, although differences from 1% to 3.3% were observed between measured and calculated correction factors for the composite intermediate calibration fields. Dose distribution inhomogeneities are thought to be responsible for such discrepancies. Conclusions: The differences found between

  8. Communication: The correct interpretation of surface hopping trajectories: How to calculate electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Brian R.; Falk, Martin J.; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 S. 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    In a recent paper, we presented a road map for how Tully's fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) algorithm can be derived, under certain circumstances, from the mixed quantum-classical Liouville equation. In this communication, we now demonstrate how this new interpretation of surface hopping can yield significantly enhanced results for electronic properties in nonadiabatic calculations. Specifically, we calculate diabatic populations for the spin-boson problem using FSSH trajectories. We show that, for some Hamiltonians, without changing the FSSH algorithm at all but rather simply reinterpreting the ensemble of surface hopping trajectories, we recover excellent results and remove any and all ambiguity about the initial condition problem.

  9. Geometrical correction for the inter- and intramolecular basis set superposition error in periodic density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Alessio, Maristella; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Peintinger, Michael F; Bredow, Thomas; Grimme, Stefan

    2013-09-26

    We extend the previously developed geometrical correction for the inter- and intramolecular basis set superposition error (gCP) to periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We report gCP results compared to those from the standard Boys-Bernardi counterpoise correction scheme and large basis set calculations. The applicability of the method to molecular crystals as the main target is tested for the benchmark set X23. It consists of 23 noncovalently bound crystals as introduced by Johnson et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 054103) and refined by Tkatchenko et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 024705). In order to accurately describe long-range electron correlation effects, we use the standard atom-pairwise dispersion correction scheme DFT-D3. We show that a combination of DFT energies with small atom-centered basis sets, the D3 dispersion correction, and the gCP correction can accurately describe van der Waals and hydrogen-bonded crystals. Mean absolute deviations of the X23 sublimation energies can be reduced by more than 70% and 80% for the standard functionals PBE and B3LYP, respectively, to small residual mean absolute deviations of about 2 kcal/mol (corresponding to 13% of the average sublimation energy). As a further test, we compute the interlayer interaction of graphite for varying distances and obtain a good equilibrium distance and interaction energy of 6.75 Å and -43.0 meV/atom at the PBE-D3-gCP/SVP level. We fit the gCP scheme for a recently developed pob-TZVP solid-state basis set and obtain reasonable results for the X23 benchmark set and the potential energy curve for water adsorption on a nickel (110) surface.

  10. Structure-based sampling and self-correcting machine learning for accurate calculations of potential energy surfaces and vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dral, Pavlo O.; Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Thiel, Walter

    2017-06-01

    We present an efficient approach for generating highly accurate molecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) using self-correcting, kernel ridge regression (KRR) based machine learning (ML). We introduce structure-based sampling to automatically assign nuclear configurations from a pre-defined grid to the training and prediction sets, respectively. Accurate high-level ab initio energies are required only for the points in the training set, while the energies for the remaining points are provided by the ML model with negligible computational cost. The proposed sampling procedure is shown to be superior to random sampling and also eliminates the need for training several ML models. Self-correcting machine learning has been implemented such that each additional layer corrects errors from the previous layer. The performance of our approach is demonstrated in a case study on a published high-level ab initio PES of methyl chloride with 44 819 points. The ML model is trained on sets of different sizes and then used to predict the energies for tens of thousands of nuclear configurations within seconds. The resulting datasets are utilized in variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels of CH3Cl. By using both structure-based sampling and self-correction, the size of the training set can be kept small (e.g., 10% of the points) without any significant loss of accuracy. In ab initio rovibrational spectroscopy, it is thus possible to reduce the number of computationally costly electronic structure calculations through structure-based sampling and self-correcting KRR-based machine learning by up to 90%.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction for calculation of lithospheric mantle density from gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how uncertainties in seismic and density structure of the crust propagate to uncertainties in mantle density structure. The analysis is based on interpretation of residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies which are calculated by subtracting (stripping) the gravitational effect of the...

  12. TauFactor: An open-source application for calculating tortuosity factors from tomographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Cooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TauFactor is a MatLab application for efficiently calculating the tortuosity factor, as well as volume fractions, surface areas and triple phase boundary densities, from image based microstructural data. The tortuosity factor quantifies the apparent decrease in diffusive transport resulting from convolutions of the flow paths through porous media. TauFactor was originally developed to improve the understanding of electrode microstructures for batteries and fuel cells; however, the tortuosity factor has been of interest to a wide range of disciplines for over a century, including geoscience, biology and optics. It is still common practice to use correlations, such as that developed by Bruggeman, to approximate the tortuosity factor, but in recent years the increasing availability of 3D imaging techniques has spurred interest in calculating this quantity more directly. This tool provides a fast and accurate computational platform applicable to the big datasets (>108 voxels typical of modern tomography, without requiring high computational power.

  13. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C.; Joyce, Kevin P.; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing (R=0.98 for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining R=0.73 compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to R=0.93. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple pK_{ {a}} correction improved agreement with experiment from R=0.54 to R=0.66, despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  14. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-01

    We investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2×N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long-range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more significant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.

  15. The first self-consistent calculation of quadrupole moments of odd semi-magic nuclei accounting for phonon-induced corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Saperstein, E.; Kamerdzhiev, S.; Krepish, D. S.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Voitenkov, D.

    2017-06-01

    The self-consistent model, developed previously to describe phonon coupling (PC) effects in magnetic moments of odd magic and semi-magic nuclei, is extended to quadrupole moments. It is based on the theory of finite Fermi systems with the use of the perturbation theory in g L 2, where g L is the vertex creating the L-phonon. Accounting for the phonon tadpole diagrams is an important ingredient of this model. The calculation scheme is based on the Fayans energy density functional DF3-a and does not contain any adjusted parameters. The odd In and Sb isotopes are considered, which are the proton-odd neighbors of even tin nuclei. The {2}1+ phonon is taken into account in which the quadrupole moment is one ingredient of the calculation scheme. The corresponding values were found by us previously. Two main PC corrections, due to the phonon Z-factor and due to the phonon-induced interaction, have opposite signs and strongly cancel each other, leaving room for other ‘small’ corrections, so that the resulting PC correction is much lower than the absolute values of each of the two main ones. However, it remains noticeable, making the overall agreement with the data significantly better.

  16. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a boost converter configuration, control scheme and design of single phase power factor controller for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. PMBLDC motors are the latest choice of researchers, due to the high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high...... reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...... with supply voltage. It uses a boost converter to obtain unity power factor with improved performance. The system includes a speed controller for PMBLDC drive and a voltage controller for boost converter.. The voltage or speed controllers can be realized using proportional integral (PI) controller...

  17. Correction factors for 13C-labelled substrate oxidation at whole-body and muscle level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids can be measured by quantifying the rate of excretion of labelled CO2 following administration of 14C- or 13C-labelled substrates at whole-body and tissue level. However, there is a theoretical need to correct the oxidation rates...... for the proportion of labelled CO2 that is produced via oxidation but not excreted. Furthermore, depending on the substrate and position of the C label(s), there may also be a need to correct for labelled C from the metabolized substrate that does not appear as CO2, but rather becomes temporarily fixed in other...... metabolites. The bicarbonate correction factor is used to correct for the labelled CO2 not excreted. Recently, an acetate correction factor has been proposed for the simultaneous correction of CO2 not excreted and label fixed in other metabolites via isotopic exchange reactions, mainly in the tricarboxylic...

  18. A web based application to estimate wildlife fatality: from the bias correction factors to the corrected fatality estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bispo, Regina; Huso, Manuela; Palminha, Gustavo; Som, Nicholas; Ladd, Lew; Bernardino, Joana; Marques, Tiago A.; Pestana, Dinis

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In monitoring studies at wind farms, the estimation of bird and bat mortality caused by collision has crucial importance. The estimates of annual fatalities provide information about direct impacts by particular projects, allow comparisons between research studies, enable impact trend studies, provide a basis for legislation and enable the comparison with the impacts caused by other human activities. In order to estimate the mortality rate correctly, the observed number of carcasses must be adjusted both for scavenging removal and for search efficiency. To diminish estimation bias, recent studies advise new statistical procedures regarding the scavenging correction factor (Bispo et al., 2010) and the estimator of fatality (Huso 2010). In this context, the complexity associated with the procedure may hinder its use. Consequently to help final users in applying the proposed methodologies we present an application that provides a friendly interface for the implementation of the statistical procedure in the R Environment for Statistical Computing that ultimately leads to the estimation of fatality. The user must provide the carcass persistence trial data, the searcher efficiency trial data and the gathered carcass data. From those, the application estimates the scavenging removal correction factor based on the best fitted parametric survival model (Bispo et al 2010), and the final output provides fatality estimates using the estimator proposed by Huso (2010). During the conference a laptop will be available to promote participants. hands-on contact with the software. (Author)

  19. A GPU-based finite-size pencil beam algorithm with 3D-density correction for radiotherapy dose calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xuejun; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-01-01

    Targeting at developing an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on GPU. This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework [Gu et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97, 2009]. Dosimetric evaluations against MCSIM Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on 10 IMRT treatment plans with heterogeneous treatment regions (5 head-and-neck cases and 5 lung cases). For head and neck cases, when cavities exist near the target, the improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm is significant. However, when there are high-density dental filling materials in beam paths, the improvement is small and the accuracy of the new algorithm is still unsatisfactory. On the other hand, significant improvement of dose calculation accuracy is observed in all lung cases. Especially when the target is in the m...

  20. Experimental determination of field factors ([Formula: see text]) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-07

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1 cm × 1 cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%-with the exception of the IBA-PFD-for field sizes between 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm and 5 cm × 5 cm. For the 1 cm × 1 cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated [Formula: see text] is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1 cm × 1 cm for the dosimeters used in this work.

  1. Enabling accurate first-principle calculations of electronic properties with a corrected k dot p scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Berland, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    A computationally inexpensive kp-based interpolation scheme is developed that can extend the eigenvalues and momentum matrix elements of a sparsely sampled k-point grid into a densely sampled one. Dense sampling, often required to accurately describe transport and optical properties of bulk materials, can be computationally demanding to compute, for instance, in combination with hybrid functionals within the density functional theory (DFT) or with perturbative expansions beyond DFT such as the GW method. The scheme is based on solving the k$\\cdot$p method and extrapolating from multiple reference k points. It includes a correction term that reduces the number of empty bands needed and ameliorates band discontinuities. We show that the scheme can be used to generate accurate band structures, density of states, and dielectric functions. Several examples are given, using traditional and hybrid functionals, with Si, TiNiSn, and Cu as test cases. We illustrate that d-electron and semi-core states, which are partic...

  2. Individualized correction for maternal weight in calculating the risk of chromosomal abnormalities with first-trimester screening data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, E; Thode, C; Eiben, B; Faber, R; Hackelöer, B J; Huesgen, G; Pruggmaier, M; Wellek, S

    2011-02-01

    In the algorithm developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) Germany designed to evaluate the findings of routine first-trimester screening, the false-positive rate (FPR) was determined for the entire study group without stratification by maternal weight. Based on the data received from the continuous audit we were able to identify an increase in the FPR for the weight-related subgroups of patients, particularly for patients with extremely high body weights. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the variability of the FPR can be reduced through adjusting the concentrations of free β-HCG and PAPP-A measured in the maternal serum by means of a nonlinear regression function modeling the dependence of these values on maternal weight. The database used to establish a version of the algorithm enabling control of the FPR over the whole range of maternal weight consisted of n = 123 546 pregnancies resulting in the birth of a child without chromosomal anomalies. The group with positive outcomes covered n = 500 cases of trisomy 21 and n = 159 trisomies 13 or 18. The dependency of the serum parameters free β-HCG and PAPP-A on maternal weight was analyzed in the sample of negative outcomes by means of nonlinear regression. The fitted regression curve was of exponential form with negative slope. Using this model, all individual measurements were corrected through multiplication with a factor obtained as the ratio of the concentration level predicted by the model to belong to the average maternal body weight of 68.2 kg, over the ordinate of that point on the regression curve which belongs to the weight actually measured. Subsequently, the totality of all values of free β-HCG and PAPP-A corrected for deviation from average weight were used as input data for carrying out the construction of diagnostic discrimination rules described in our recent paper for a database to which no corrections for over- or under-weight had been applied. This entailed in particular the

  3. Fluence correction factor for graphite calorimetry in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Rossomme, S.; Renaud, J.; Kanai, T.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and adapt a formalism to determine absorbed dose to water from graphite calorimetry measurements in carbon-ion beams. Fluence correction factors, {{k}\\text{fl}} , needed when using a graphite calorimeter to derive dose to water, were determined in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed in a 290 MeV/n carbon-ion beam with a field size of 11  ×  11 cm2, without modulation. In order to sample the beam, a plane-parallel Roos ionization chamber was chosen for its small collecting volume in comparison with the field size. Experimental information on fluence corrections was obtained from depth-dose measurements in water. This procedure was repeated with graphite plates in front of the water phantom. Fluence corrections were also obtained with Monte Carlo simulations through the implementation of three methods based on (i) the fluence distributions differential in energy, (ii) a ratio of calculated doses in water and graphite at equivalent depths and (iii) simulations of the experimental setup. The {{k}\\text{fl}} term increased in depth from 1.00 at the entrance toward 1.02 at a depth near the Bragg peak, and the average difference between experimental and numerical simulations was about 0.13%. Compared to proton beams, there was no reduction of the {{k}\\text{fl}} due to alpha particles because the secondary particle spectrum is dominated by projectile fragmentation. By developing a practical dose conversion technique, this work contributes to improving the determination of absolute dose to water from graphite calorimetry in carbon-ion beams.

  4. Structural uncertainty in air mass factor calculation for NO2 and HCHO satellite retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Alba; Folkert Boersma, K.; Yu, Huan; Dörner, Steffen; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Liu, Mengyao; Lamsal, Lok N.; Barkley, Michael; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas; Beirle, Steffen; Lin, Jin-Tai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Stammes, Piet; Wang, Ping; Eskes, Henk J.; Krol, Maarten

    2017-03-01

    Air mass factor (AMF) calculation is the largest source of uncertainty in NO2 and HCHO satellite retrievals in situations with enhanced trace gas concentrations in the lower troposphere. Structural uncertainty arises when different retrieval methodologies are applied within the scientific community to the same satellite observations. Here, we address the issue of AMF structural uncertainty via a detailed comparison of AMF calculation methods that are structurally different between seven retrieval groups for measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We estimate the escalation of structural uncertainty in every sub-step of the AMF calculation process. This goes beyond the algorithm uncertainty estimates provided in state-of-the-art retrievals, which address the theoretical propagation of uncertainties for one particular retrieval algorithm only. We find that top-of-atmosphere reflectances simulated by four radiative transfer models (RTMs) (DAK, McArtim, SCIATRAN and VLIDORT) agree within 1.5 %. We find that different retrieval groups agree well in the calculations of altitude resolved AMFs from different RTMs (to within 3 %), and in the tropospheric AMFs (to within 6 %) as long as identical ancillary data (surface albedo, terrain height, cloud parameters and trace gas profile) and cloud and aerosol correction procedures are being used. Structural uncertainty increases sharply when retrieval groups use their preference for ancillary data, cloud and aerosol correction. On average, we estimate the AMF structural uncertainty to be 42 % over polluted regions and 31 % over unpolluted regions, mostly driven by substantial differences in the a priori trace gas profiles, surface albedo and cloud parameters. Sensitivity studies for one particular algorithm indicate that different cloud correction approaches result in substantial AMF differences in polluted conditions (5 to 40 % depending on cloud fraction and cloud pressure, and 11 % on average) even for low

  5. Modal analysis and simulation on effect of correction factor (cf) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    correction factor and face contact model of teeth method is used for finite .... Lower values reduce the endurance and upper ones have the risk to not finish the .... Involute spur gear template development by parametric technique using CAD, ...

  6. Correction of calculation method for boresight on aerial remote sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hui; Mu, Sheng-bo; Chen, Jia-yi

    2012-10-01

    The boresight of the aerial remote sensing camera (ARSC) need to be elicited to the reference coordinate system of the satellite after the assemblage of the whole satellite. Because it is difficult to aim the boresight after finish fixing the camera to the satellite, the boresight must be elicited by a cube before the fixing. So the cube coordinate system can be transited to the reference coordinate system. The boresight of the camera is measured by a theodolite. The orientation of the boresight can be solved through measuring four angles of the CCD, the top left corner, the bottom left corner, the top right corner, and the bottom right corner, and then the spatial angle of the boresight can be solved. According to the traditional methods of the data processing after boresight measuring, the limitation has been analyzed by using the Mat lab software. The trace of motion of the theodolite is provided, while it is rotating horizontally with a vertical angle around the vertical axis and rotating vertically with a horizontal angle around the horizontal axis. Based on the vector combination theory, the normalized vector of the boresight can be obtained, so the spatial angle of the boresight can also be calculated. At last, this paper shows two applications in factual measuring.

  7. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  8. Analytic calculation of two-loop QCD corrections to b → sl+l- in the high q2 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, C.; Pilipp, V.; Schüpbach, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present our results for the NNLL virtual corrections to the matrix elements of the operators O1 and O2 for the inclusive process b → sl+l- in the kinematical region q2 > 4mc2, where q2 is the invariant mass squared of the lepton-pair. This is the first analytic two-loop calculation of these matrix elements in the high q2 region. We give the matrix elements as an expansion in mc/mb and keep the full analytic dependence on q2. Making extensive use of differential equation techniques, we fully automatize the expanding of the Feynman integrals in mc/mb. In coincidence with an earlier work where the master integrals were obtained numerically [1], we find that in the high q2 region the αs corrections to the matrix elements langlesl+l-|O1,2|brangle calculated in the present paper lead to a decrease of the perturbative part of the q2-spectrum by 10%-15% relative to the NNLL result in which these contributions are put to zero and reduce the renormalization scale uncertainty to ~ 2%.

  9. Technical Note: Contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Leonard H.; Zhang Miao; Howell, Roger W.; Yue, Ning J.; Khan, Atif J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. Results: The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. Conclusions: The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

  10. Self-interaction corrected density functional calculations of Rydberg states of molecular clusters: N,N-dimethylisopropylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur [Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences VR-III, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M. [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Jónsson, Hannes [Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences VR-III, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-12-21

    Theoretical calculations of Rydberg excited states of molecular clusters consisting of N,N-dimethylisopropylamine molecules using a Perdew-Zunger self-interaction corrected energy functional are presented and compared with results of resonant multiphoton ionization measurements. The binding energy of the Rydberg electron in the monomer is calculated to be 2.79 eV and 2.27 eV in the 3s and 3p state, respectively, which compares well with measured values of 2.88 eV and 2.21 eV. Three different stable configurations of the dimer in the ground state were found using an energy functional that includes van der Waals interaction. The lowest ground state energy conformation has the two N-atoms widely separated, by 6.2 Å, while the Rydberg state energy is lowest for a configuration where the N-atoms of the two molecules come close together, separated by 3.7 Å. This conformational change is found to lower the Rydberg electron binding energy by 0.2 eV. The self-interaction corrected functional gives a highly localized hole on one of the two molecules, unlike results obtained using the PBE functional or the hybrid B3LYP functional which give a delocalized hole. For the trimer, the self-interaction corrected calculation gives a Rydberg electron binding energy lowered further by 0.13 eV as compared with the dimer. The calculated results compare well with trends observed in experimental measurements. The reduction of the Rydberg electron binding energy with cluster size can be ascribed to an effective delocalization of the positive charge of the hole by the induced and permanent dipole moments of the neighboring molecules. A further decrease observed to occur on a time scale of tens of ps can be ascribed to a structural rearrangement of the clusters in the Rydberg state where molecules rotate to orient their dipoles in response to the formation of the localized hole.

  11. Theoretical determination of gamma spectrometry systems efficiency based on probability functions. Application to self-attenuation correction factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Manuel; Suarez-Llorens, Alfonso; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Alonso, José J.; Vidal, Juan

    2017-05-01

    A generic theoretical methodology for the calculation of the efficiency of gamma spectrometry systems is introduced in this work. The procedure is valid for any type of source and detector and can be applied to determine the full energy peak and the total efficiency of any source-detector system. The methodology is based on the idea of underlying probability of detection, which describes the physical model for the detection of the gamma radiation at the particular studied situation. This probability depends explicitly on the direction of the gamma radiation, allowing the use of this dependence the development of more realistic and complex models than the traditional models based on the point source integration. The probability function that has to be employed in practice must reproduce the relevant characteristics of the detection process occurring at the particular studied situation. Once the probability is defined, the efficiency calculations can be performed in general by using numerical methods. Monte Carlo integration procedure is especially useful to perform the calculations when complex probability functions are used. The methodology can be used for the direct determination of the efficiency and also for the calculation of corrections that require this determination of the efficiency, as it is the case of coincidence summing, geometric or self-attenuation corrections. In particular, we have applied the procedure to obtain some of the classical self-attenuation correction factors usually employed to correct for the sample attenuation of cylindrical geometry sources. The methodology clarifies the theoretical basis and approximations associated to each factor, by making explicit the probability which is generally hidden and implicit to each model. It has been shown that most of these self-attenuation correction factors can be derived by using a common underlying probability, having this probability a growing level of complexity as it reproduces more precisely

  12. Correction of Gauge Factor for Strain Gauges Used in Polymer Composite Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zike, Sanita; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2014-01-01

    error is found on the strain measurements obtained by the strain gauges. This is documented both experimentally and numerically. A stiffness, also test sample and strain gauge geometry dependent correction coefficient of the gauge factor is proposed. A correction coefficient covers material stiffnesses......Strain gauges are used together with the corresponding gauge factor to relate the relative electrical resistance change of the strain gauge with the strain of the underlying material. The gauge factor is found from a calibration on a stiff material - steel. Nevertheless, the gauge factor depends...

  13. Corrections to traditional methods of verifying tangential-breast 3D monitor-unit calculations: use of an equivalent triangle to estimate effective fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Karl L; Kirsner, Steven M; Erice, Rolly C

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for correctly estimating the effective field size of tangential-breast fields. The method uses an "equivalent triangle" to verify intact breast tangential field monitor-unit settings calculated by a 3D planning system to within 2%. The effects on verification calculations of loss of full scatter due to beam oblique incidence, proximity to field boundaries, and reduced scattering volumes are handled properly. The methodology is validated by comparing calculations performed by the 3D planning system with the respective verification estimates. The accuracy of this technique is established for dose calculations both with and without heterogeneity corrections.

  14. Correction model for flow calculation of plain river network%平原区河网水流计算校正模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓玲; 向小华; 李菲菲; 王船海

    2012-01-01

    Complex water movement and fewer measuring points are the unfavorable factors in improving the accuracy of flow calculation of river networks. For this reason, a correction model for a plain river network was developed based on the three-step method in dealing with the water levels at key nodes of a looping river network, with the coefficients in the equation considered to be the media carrying the correction information. The correction information of the model errors at observation stations was transmitted to the other cross sections of the river network to correct the forecasted values of water levels and discharges at the cross sections of neighboring rivers. A case study was conducted in the river network of the Chengtong section of the Yangtze River. Hydrological data in September 2004 were selected for model calculation. The results show that the proposed model can effectively transmit the correction information of model errors in a certain spatial range and has practical significance in improving the accuracy of forecasts for river networks.%为提高平原河网水流计算的精度,针对其中交错相连的复杂河网水流运动以及测点又相对较少的情况,提出以环状河网节点水位三级解法为基础、河段方程系数为载体的平原河网校正模型.将观测位置上的模型系统误差校正信息由测点向河网其他断面传播,修正相邻河道断面的水位、流量预报值.选择长江澄通段河网进行实例分析,选用2004年9月的水文资料进行演算.结果表明,该方法能在一定空间范围内有效地传播误差修正量,对提高河网水流预报精度具有实用意义.

  15. Assessment of ionization chamber correction factors in photon beams using a time saving strategy with PENELOPE code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C Q M; Nicolucci, P

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Monte Carlo-based perturbation and beam quality correction factors for ionization chambers in photon beams using a saving time strategy with PENELOPE code. Simulations for calculating absorbed doses to water using full spectra of photon beams impinging the whole water phantom and those using a phase-space file previously stored around the point of interest were performed and compared. The widely used NE2571 ionization chamber was modeled with PENELOPE using data from the literature in order to calculate absorbed doses to the air cavity of the chamber. Absorbed doses to water at reference depth were also calculated for providing the perturbation and beam quality correction factors for that chamber in high energy photon beams. Results obtained in this study show that simulations with phase-space files appropriately stored can be up to ten times shorter than using a full spectrum of photon beams in the input-file. Values of kQ and its components for the NE2571 ionization chamber showed good agreement with published values in the literature and are provided with typical statistical uncertainties of 0.2%. Comparisons to kQ values published in current dosimetry protocols such as the AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS-398 showed maximum percentage differences of 0.1% and 0.6% respectively. The proposed strategy presented a significant efficiency gain and can be applied for a variety of ionization chambers and clinical photon beams.

  16. The application of correction factors on serum retinol of Indonesia school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drupadi Dillon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin A deficiency among children is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Serum/plasma retinol concentration is the best indicator in assessing vitamin A status. However, there is growing concern that infection/ inflammation lowers serum  retinol concentration, thus creating potential misinterpretation of vitamin A status, which could affect policy makers in planning suitable nutrition programs targeted at community. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of applying correction factors, to better interpret serum retinol as a nutritional statusbiomarker.Methods: A cross sectional study involving 54 apparently healthy school children was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara. Height, body weight, concentrations of serum retinol, CRP and AGP were assessed. Based on concentrations of serum CRP and AGP, four infl ammation groups were determined, namely reference,  incubation, early convalescence and late convalescence groups. Correction factor was obtained by dividing serum retinol  concentration of reference group by that of the other three groups. Correction factors were then used to correct serum retinol concentration without any  influence of infection/ inflammation.Results: The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 43% and 22% respectively, but there was no wasting among the school children. Applying correction factor lowered the prevalence of vitamin A defi ciency from 20.4% to 18.5%; thus changing vitamin A defi ciency from a severe public health problem to a moderate public health problem.Conclusion: Correcting serum retinol concentration for the infl uence of infection reduced the apparent severity of vitamin A deficiency. This could affect policy for planning nutrition programs designed for communities. (Med J Indones 2010;  19:258-63Keywords: correction factor, infection, school children, serum retinol

  17. Analysing a Numerical Calculation Adequacy of the Recovery Factor for Various Problem Statement Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kliukvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a recovery temperature distribution in a turbulent boundary layer of the compressible gas in a rectangular heat-insulated channel in supersonic flow mode using the numerical methods of gas dynamics. The software package ANSYS Fluent was used for calculation.In the numerical simulation were used SST and k-epsilon turbulence models with two types of thermal boundary conditions on the channel wall: the standard adiabatic condition, provided by the software package, as well as the user boundary condition (UDF based on the empirical dependence of the recovery factor in a turbulent boundary layer on the Prandtl number of the medium.A data analysis showed that an application of the standard boundary condition of a heatinsulated wall, in some cases, results in recovery factor values on the wall, corresponding to the laminar rather than turbulent boundary layer.For all options of the numerical model under consideration was found a non-zero value of the heat flow to the adiabatic wall. In the case of setting the user boundary conditions, this fact is due to the approximate nature of the dependence of the recovery factor on the Prandtl number.For standard boundary condition of an adiabatic wall the most likely explanation for this result is a feature of the numerical solution scheme, according to which, to set the zero heat flow, is used a number of ghost cells, which can lead to the heat pattern distortion in the computational domain in the vicinity of the wall.Correction of boundary conditions using an empirical relationship for the recovery factor enabled us to reduce the heat flows and have a better approximation of the adiabatic boundary condition.Thus, it follows from the data obtained that the calculation of heat exchange in a turbulent boundary layer by means of ANSYS Fluent software physically yet does not provide the adequate results, and for its update at the moment the third party experimental data are required.

  18. Corrections to the bag factor in B- anti B-mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozin, Andrey G. [BINP, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Klein, Rebecca; Mannel, Thomas; Pivovarov, Alexei A. [Universitaet Siegen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    B- anti B-Mixing is parameterized by the matrix elements of local operators O{sub i}. For the computation of these matrix elements a bag factor B{sub i} can be introduced left angle anti B vertical stroke O{sub i} vertical stroke B right angle =B{sub i} left angle anti B vertical stroke O{sub i} vertical stroke B right angle {sup fac}, which is unity in naive factorization. Any deviation from unity describes the accuracy of the naive factorization prescription. Corrections to B{sub i} emerge from QCD radiative corrections and from nonperturbative contributions at order 1/m{sub b}. We present the current status of these corrections to B{sub i}.

  19. Model correction factor method for reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals...... are considered to be Gaussian. Conventional FORM analysis yields the linearization point of the idealized limit-state surface. A model correction factor is then introduced to push the idealized limit-state surface onto the actual limit-state surface. A few iterations yield a good approximation of the reliability...... reliability method; Model correction factor method; Nataf field integration; Non-Gaussion random field; Random field integration; Structural reliability; Pile foundation reliability...

  20. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorriaux, J [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche experimentale et Clinique, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Departement of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J [Departement of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Bertrand, D [Ion Beam Applications S.A, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Orban de Xivry, J. [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Lee, J [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche experimentale et Clinique, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Palmans, H [EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Vynckier, S [Departement de radiotherapie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Sterpin, E [Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institut de recherche experimentale et Clinique, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 ± 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  1. Resistance moisture meter correction factors for four tropical wood species. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, W.T.

    1994-03-01

    Connection factors were determined for an electrical resistance-type moisture meter for African celtis (Celtis sp.), dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum), ramon (Brosimun alicastrum), and danto (Vatairea lundellii). For all species, correction factors were negative for most of the moisture content range, meaning that the meter readings were generally greater than the true moisture content. The 95-percent confidence intervals for true moisture content as a function of meter reading are given. The time drift of the true moisture content estimated from the corrected meter readings is also given.

  2. Target mass corrections for spin-dependent structure functions in collinear factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, A

    2008-01-01

    We derive target mass corrections (TMC) for the spin-dependent nucleon structure function g1 and polarization asymmetry A1 in collinear factorization at leading twist. The TMCs are found to be significant for g1 at large xB, even at relatively high Q^2 values, but largely cancel in A1. A comparison of TMCs obtained from collinear factorization and from the operator product expansion shows that at low Q^2 the corrections drive the proton A1 in opposite directions.

  3. Integrals of random fields treated by the model correction factor method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals...... are considered to be Gaussian. Conventional FORM analysis yields the linearization point of the idealized limit-state surface. A model correction factor is then introduced to push the idealized limit-state surface onto the actual limit-state surface. A few iterations yield a good approximation of the reliability...

  4. Contribution to the G{sup 0} experiment about parity violation: calculation and simulation of radiative corrections, study of the background noise; Contribution a l'experience G{sup 0} de violation de la parite: calcul et simulation des corrections radiatives et etude de bruit de fond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guler, H

    2003-12-01

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics, the nucleon is made of three valence quarks surrounded by a sea of gluons and quark-antiquark pairs. Only the only lightest quarks (u, d and s) contribute significantly to the nucleon properties. In G{sup 0} we use the property of weak interaction to violate parity symmetry, in order to determine separately the contributions of the three types of quarks to nucleon form factors. The experiment, which takes place at Thomas Jefferson laboratory (USA), aims at measuring parity violation asymmetry in electron-proton scattering. By doing several measurements at different momentum squared of the exchanged photons and for different kinematics (forward angle when the proton is detected and backward angle it will be the electron) will permit to determine separately strange quarks electric and magnetic contributions to nucleon form factors. To extract an asymmetry with small errors, it is necessary to correct all the beam parameters, and to have high enough counting rates in detectors. A special electronics was developed to treat information coming from 16 scintillator pairs for each of the 8 sectors of the G{sup 0} spectrometer. A complete calculation of radiative corrections has been done and Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT program has permitted to determine the shape of the experimental spectra including inelastic background. This work will allow to do a comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the Standard Model. (author)

  5. Contribution to the G0 violation of parity experience: calculation and simulation of radiative corrections and the background noise study; Contribution a l'experience G0 de violation de la parite : calcul et simulation des corrections radiatives et etude du bruit de fond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guler, Hayg [Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France)

    2003-12-17

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics, the nucleon is made of three valence quarks surrpounded by a sea of gluons and quark-antiquark pairs. Only the only lightest quarks (u, d and s) contribute significantly to the nucleon properties. In Go we using the property of weak interaction to violate parity symmetry, in order to determine separately the contributions of the three types of quarks to nucleon form factors. The experiment, which takes place at Thomas Jefferson laboratory (USA), aims at measuring parity violation asymmetry in electron-proton scattering. By doing several measurements at different momentum squared of the exchanged photons and for different kinematics (forward angle when the proton is detected and backward angle it will be the electron) will permit to determine separately strange quarks electric and magnetic contributions to nucleon form factors. To extract an asymmetry with small errors, it is necessary to correct all the beam parameters, and to have high enough counting rates in detectors. A special electronics was developed to treat information coming from 16 scintillator pairs for each of the 8 sectors of the Go spectrometer. A complete calculation of radiative corrections has been clone and Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT program has permitted to determine the shape of the experimental spectra including inelastic background. This work will allow to do a comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the Standard Model.

  6. Impact of heterogeneity-corrected dose calculation using a grid-based Boltzmann solver on breast and cervix cancer brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hofbauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze the impact of heterogeneity-corrected dose calculation on dosimetric quality parameters in gyne¬cological and breast brachytherapy using Acuros, a grid-based Boltzmann equation solver (GBBS, and to evaluate the shielding effects of different cervix brachytherapy applicators. Material and methods: Calculations with TG-43 and Acuros were based on computed tomography (CT retrospectively, for 10 cases of accelerated partial breast irradiation and 9 cervix cancer cases treated with tandem-ring applicators. Phantom CT-scans of different applicators (plastic and titanium were acquired. For breast cases the VCalculations with TG-43 overestimated the dose for all dosimetric indices investigated. For breast, a decrease of ~8% was found for D 10cm³ to the skin and 5% for D 2cm³ to rib, resulting in a difference ~ –1.5 Gy EQD2 for overall treatment. Smaller effects were found for cervix cases with the plastic applicator, with up to –2% (–0.2 Gy EQD2 per fraction for organs at risk and –0.5% (–0.3 Gy EQD2 per fraction for CTV HR . The shielding effect of the titanium applicator resulted in a decrease of 2% for D 2cm³ to the organ at risk versus 0.7% for plastic. Conclusions : Lower doses were reported when calculating with Acuros compared to TG-43. Differences in dose parameters were larger in breast cases. A lower impact on clinical dose parameters was found for the cervix cases. Applicator material causes

  7. Developing a Repeatable Methodology to Calculate Retrograde Planning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. RAND is nonprofit , nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. RAND’s publications do not...appendixes, which include data definitions , tables of organizational elements, and detailed planning factors. This research was sponsored by the Deputy...xxi   Class of Supply Definitions

  8. 47 CFR 36.604 - Calculation of the rural growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of the rural growth factor. 36.604 Section 36.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... § 36.604 Calculation of the rural growth factor. The Rural Growth Factor (RGF) is equal to the sum of...

  9. Dipole factorization for DIS at NLO I: Loop correction to the photon to quark-antiquark light-front wave-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The one-loop QCD corrections to the light-front wave-function for the quark-antiquark Fock state inside a transverse or longitudinal off-shell photon are explicitly calculated, both in full momentum space and in mixed space (a.k.a. dipole space). These results provide one of the main contributions to virtual NLO corrections to many DIS observables (inclusive or not) in the dipole factorization formalism at low Bjorken x. In a follow-up article, these one-loop corrections are combined with earlier results on the wave-function for the quark-antiquark-gluon Fock state, in order to get the full set of NLO corrections to the DIS structure functions $F_2$ and $F_L$ in the dipole factorization formalism, valid at low Bjorken x.

  10. Factorization in large-scale many-body calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Calvin W; Krastev, Plamen G

    2013-01-01

    One approach for solving interacting many-fermion systems is the configuration-interaction method, also sometimes called the interacting shell model, where one finds eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in a many-body basis of Slater determinants (antisymmeterized products of single-particle wavefunctions). The resulting Hamiltonian matrix is typically very sparse, but for large systems the nonzero matrix elements can nonetheless require terabytes or more of storage. An alternate algorithm, applicable to a broad class of systems with symmetry, in our case rotational invariance, is to exactly factorize both the basis and the interaction using additive/multiplicative quantum numbers; such an algorithm can reduce the storage requirements by an order of magnitude or more. We discuss factorization in general as well as in the context of a specific configuration-interaction code, BIGSTICK, which runs both on serial and parallel machines.

  11. Conduction Losses and Common Mode EMI Analysis on Bridgeless Power Factor Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a review of Bridgeless Boost power factor correction (PFC) converters is presented at first. Performance comparison on conduction losses and common mode electromagnetic interference (EMI) are analyzed between conventional Boost PFC converter and members of Bridgeless PFC family....... Experiment results are given to validate the efficiency analysis and EMI model building....

  12. Correction factor for continuous monitoring of wood smoke fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Marcy L; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

    2011-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated a handful of instruments as Federal Reference or Federal Equivalency Methods (FRM and FEM, respectively) for the monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). More commonly used for indoor exposure assessment studies are optical scanning devices such as the DustTrak (TSI) due to the their portability and affordability. It is recommended by the manufacturer of these instruments that a "correction factor" be applied when assessing source-specific conditions. In this study, DustTraks were collocated with multiple samplers in various environments in an effort to establish an indoor, wood smoke-source specific correction factor. The DustTrak was found to report PM2.5 levels on average 1.6 times higher than a filter based method in two indoor sampling programs. The DustTrak also reported indoor PM2.5 concentrations 1.7 times higher than a FRM sampler during a regional forest fire event. These real-world scenarios give a correction factor within a reasonable range of the results of a controlled laboratory experiment in which DustTraks reported PM2.5 approximately 2 times higher than a FEM. Our indoor wood smoke-specific correction factor of 1.65 will allow for DustTraks to be confidently used in quantifying PM2.5 exposures within indoor environments predominantly impacted by wood smoke.

  13. Correction of xeroderma pigmentosum repair defect by basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); W. Vermeulen (Wim); L. Ma (Libin); G. Weeda (Geert); E. Appeldoorn (Esther); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); A.J. van der Eb; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); S. Humbert; L. Schaeffer; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractERCC3 was initially identified as a gene correcting the nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group B (XP-B). The recent finding that its gene product is identical to the p89 subunit of basal transcription factor BTF2(TFIIH), opened the possibil

  14. Research on Power Factor Correction Boost Inductor Design Optimization – Efficiency vs. Power Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, efficiency and power density are the most important issues for Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters development. However, it is a challenge to reach both high efficiency and power density in a system at the same time. In this paper, taking a Bridgeless PFC (BPFC) as an example...

  15. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  16. Low Capacitive Inductors for Fast Switching Devices in Active Power Factor Correction Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines different winding strategies for reduced capacitance inductors in active power factor correction circuits (PFC). The effect of the parasitic capacitance is analyzed from an electro magnetic compatibility (EMI) and efficiency point of views. The purpose of this work is to inves...

  17. A Novel Bridgeless Power Factor Correction with Interleaved Boost Stages in Continous Current Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    The operation and trade-off of Bridgeless Power Factor Correction (BPFC) circuit with interleaved Boost stages are investigated. By using interleaved BPFC, an overall reduction of the size of EMI filter can be achieved without increasing the switching frequency of the converter. And higher...

  18. An effective method to accurately calculate the phase space factors for $\\beta^- \\beta^-$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates, and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  19. Advanteges of using Two-Switch Forward in Single-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-Stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (Discontinues Conduction Mode). This will insure the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit parameters and therefore...... power supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency and power factor are about 87% and 0.96 respectively....

  20. Some physical factors influencing the accuracy of convolution scatter correction in SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaki, P; Axelsson, B; Larsson, S A

    1989-03-01

    Some important physical factors influencing the accuracy of convolution scatter correction techniques in SPECT are presented. In these techniques scatter correction in the projection relies on filter functions, QF, evaluated by Fourier transforms, from measured scatter functions, Qp, obtained from point spread functions. The spatial resolution has a marginal effect on Qp. Thus a single QF can be used in the scatter correction of SPECT measurements acquired with the low energy high resolution or the low energy general purpose collimators and over a wide range of patient-collimator distances. However, it is necessary to examine the details of the shape of point spread functions during evaluation of Qp. QF is completely described by scatter amplitude AF, slope BF and filter sum SF. SF is obtained by summation of the values of QF occupying a 31 x 31 pixels matrix. Regardless of differences in amplitude and slope, two filter functions are shown to be equivalent in terms of scatter correction ability, whenever their sums are equal. On the basis of filter sum, the observed small influence of ellipticity on QF implies that an average function can be used in scatter correcting SPECT measurements conducted with elliptic objects. SF is shown to increase with a decrease in photon energy and with an increase in window size. Thus, scatter correction by convolution may be severely hampered by photon statistics when SPECT imaging is done with low-energy photons. It is pointless to use unnecessarily large discriminator windows, in the hope of improving photon statistics, since most of the extra events acquired will eventually be subtracted during scatter correction. Regardless of the observed moderate reduction in SF when a lung-equivalent material replaces a portion of a water phantom, further studies are needed to develop a technique that is capable of handling attenuation and scatter corrections simultaneously. Whenever superficial and inner radioactive distributions coexist the

  1. Factorization for Power Corrections to B->Xs gamma and B-> Xu e nu

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K S M; Lee, Keith S. M.; Stewart, Iain W.

    2004-01-01

    We derive factorization theorems for Lambda_QCD/mb power corrections to inclusive B-decays in the endpoint region, where mX^2 ~mb Lambda_QCD. In B-> Xu e nu our results are for the full triply differential rate. A complete enumeration of Lambda_QCD/mb corrections is given. We point out the presence of new Lambda_QCD/mb-suppressed shape functions, which arise at tree level with a $4 pi$-enhanced coefficient, and show that these previously neglected terms induce an additional large uncertainty for current inclusive methods of measuring |Vub| that depend on the endpoint region of phase space.

  2. Comparison of Different Numerical Methods for Quality Factor Calculation of Nano and Micro Photonic Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed.......Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed....

  3. Three Phase Two Leg Neutral Point Clamped Converter with output DC Voltage Regulation and Input Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogimi Sirisha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-phase two leg neutral point clamped (NPC converter is presented for power factor correction and dc-link voltage regulation. The adopted converter has simpler circuit configuration and less number of power switches compared to three-level PWM converter. In this circuit configuration, only eight power switches and four clamping diodes with voltage stress of half the dc bus voltage are used. A simplified space vector pulse width modulation scheme (SVPWM is also adopted to track the line current commands. A reference voltage vector is generated on the ac terminal for drawing the sinusoidal line currents with unity power factor. This algorithm reduces the time required to calculate the switching time durations of voltage vectors. The simulation results have been presented to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  4. Correction of measured Gamma-Knife output factors for angular dependence of diode detectors and PinPoint ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hršak, Hrvoje; Majer, Marija; Grego, Timor; Bibić, Juraj; Heinrich, Zdravko

    2014-12-01

    Dosimetry for Gamma-Knife requires detectors with high spatial resolution and minimal angular dependence of response. Angular dependence and end effect time for p-type silicon detectors (PTW Diode P and Diode E) and PTW PinPoint ionization chamber were measured with Gamma-Knife beams. Weighted angular dependence correction factors were calculated for each detector. The Gamma-Knife output factors were corrected for angular dependence and end effect time. For Gamma-Knife beams angle range of 84°-54°. Diode P shows considerable angular dependence of 9% and 8% for the 18 mm and 14, 8, 4 mm collimator, respectively. For Diode E this dependence is about 4% for all collimators. PinPoint ionization chamber shows angular dependence of less than 3% for 18, 14 and 8 mm helmet and 10% for 4 mm collimator due to volumetric averaging effect in a small photon beam. Corrected output factors for 14 mm helmet are in very good agreement (within ±0.3%) with published data and values recommended by vendor (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). For the 8 mm collimator diodes are still in good agreement with recommended values (within ±0.6%), while PinPoint gives 3% less value. For the 4 mm helmet Diodes P and E show over-response of 2.8% and 1.8%, respectively. For PinPoint chamber output factor of 4 mm collimator is 25% lower than Elekta value which is generally not consequence of angular dependence, but of volumetric averaging effect and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. Diodes P and E represent good choice for Gamma-Knife dosimetry.

  5. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A. V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron $g$ factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron $g$ factor in highly charged ions.

  6. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefiodov, A V; Plunien, G; Soff, G

    2002-08-19

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron g factor in highly charged ions.

  7. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A.V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron $g$ factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron $g$ factor in highly charged ions.

  8. Correction factor for real-time determination of wood dust mass concentration by photometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čavlović

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wood dust were collected in the working environment of wood machining processes for the purpose of determining correction factors for measuring mass concentration of wood dust by photometric method. According to the NIOSH 0600 Norm and NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods for photometric measurement, correction factor must be determined before measuring mass concentration of different types of dust. The correction factor is defined as the ratio of mass concentration obtained by the gravimetric method and mass concentration obtained by the photometric method. The correction factor should be determined because of the influence of particle size distribution, density, particle shape and refractive index on values obtained by the photometric method. The aim of the research was to investigate the possibility of using photometric method for the determination of mass concentration of inhalable fraction of airborne wood dust. Sampling was conducted in several woodworking plants during the machining of wet and dry beech-wood, wet and dry oak-wood, wet fir-wood and particleboard. There is a significant correlation between the results obtained by the photometric method and values obtained by the gravimetric method (R2=0.88 and this is the base for using the photometric method in determining mass concentration of airborne wood dust. According to the results of this research, correction factors must be determined and used for measuring mass concentration of inhalable wood dust during the machining of different wood species and wood with different moisture content. The best corresponding results of photometric and gravimetric methods are obtained for the samples collected during machining of wet fir-wood (k=1. The largest correction factor should be used in determining workers exposure to wood dust during machining of dry oak-wood (k=4.4 and particleboard (k=4.5. Only the results of 8-hour measurements of mass concentration by gravimetric methods can

  9. Calculated Rotational and Vibrational g Factors of LiH X (1)Sigma(+) and Evaluation of Parameters in Radial Functions from Rotational and Vibration-Rotational Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, I.; Oddershede, J.

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational g factor, that is, the nonadiabatic correction to the vibrational reduced mass, of LiH has been calculated for internuclear distances over a wide range. Based on multiconfigurational wave functions with a large complete active space and an extended set of gaussian type basis...... functions, these calculations yielded also the rotational g factor, the electric dipolar moment, and its gradient with internuclear distance for LiH in its electronic ground state X (1)Sigma(+). The vibrational g factor g(v) exhibits a pronounced minimum near internuclear distance R = 3.65 x 10(-10) m...... state A (1)Sigma(+). The irreducible contribution g(r)(irr)(R) to the rotational g factor increases monotonically over the calculated domain, whereas the irreducible contribution g(v)(irr)(R) to the vibrational g factor has a minimum at the same location as that of g(v) itself. From these calculated...

  10. A transient, Hex-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors. Volume 1: The transient nodal code; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatilla, Y.A.M.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    This document constitutes Volume 1 of the Final Report of a three-year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. The original motivation for the work was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor. Thus, part of the funding was by way of pass-through money from the Savannah River Laboratory. With this intent in mind, a three-dimensional (Hex-Z), general-energy-group transient, nodal code was created, programmed, and tested. In order to improve accuracy, correction terms, called {open_quotes}discontinuity factors,{close_quotes} were incorporated into the nodal equations. Ideal values of these factors force the nodal equations to provide node-integrated reaction rates and leakage rates across nodal surfaces that match exactly those edited from a more exact reference calculation. Since the exact reference solution is needed to compute the ideal discontinuity factors, the fact that they result in exact nodal equations would be of little practical interest were it not that approximate discontinuity factors, found at a greatly reduced cost, often yield very accurate results. For example, for light-water reactors, discontinuity factors found from two-dimensional, fine-mesh, multigroup transport solutions for two-dimensional cuts of a fuel assembly provide very accurate predictions of three-dimensional, full-core power distributions. The present document (volume 1) deals primarily with the specification, programming and testing of the three-dimensional, Hex-Z computer program. The program solves both the static (eigenvalue) and transient, general-energy-group, nodal equations corrected by user-supplied discontinuity factors.

  11. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-12-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  12. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Aaron S; Kronfeld, Andreas S; Li, Ruizi; Simone, James N

    2016-01-01

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  13. Determination of the self-attenuation correction factor for environmental samples analysis in gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete; Knupp, Eliana A.N.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: arnoheeren@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Gamma spectrometry technique has been used in order to obtain the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples of different origins, compositions and densities. These samples characteristics may influence the calibration condition by the self-attenuation effect. The sample density has been considered the most important factor. For reliable results, it is necessary to determine self-attenuation correction factor which has been subject of great interest due to its effect on activity concentration. In this context, the aim of this work is to show the calibration process considering the correction by self-attenuation in the evaluation of the concentration of each radionuclide to a gamma HPGEe detector spectrometry system. (author)

  14. A High Efficiency Power Factor Correction Using Interleaved Boost Converter With Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.BHUVANESWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents interleaved front end boost converter to perform better power factor correction to store energy for electric vehicles. The interleaved boost converter increases reliability, decreased stress on critical components, improves efficiency and more flexibility. The parallel connection of two boost converters reduces the input ripple current of the converter. The interleaved boost converter with coupled inductors reduces the volume and copper usage of the magnetic components and also achieves high power density. The coupled inductor delivers continuous current to improve the efficiency. The boost power factor correction (PFC converter with auxiliary circuit optimizes the amount of reactive current during light load condition. In addition the control system regulates the amount of reactive current to guarantee zero voltage switching (ZVS during line cycle for different load conditions. The proposed interleaved boost converter with coupled inductor was modeled and its performance is simulated and analyzed in Mat lab/Simulink environment.

  15. Evaluation on correction factor for in-line X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mingli; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ran [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Yunfu; Wang, Zhenchang [Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China). Medical Imaging Center; Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics

    2011-07-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast computed tomography (CT) is an effective nondestructive tool, providing 3D distribution of the refractive index of weakly absorbing low-Z object with high resolution and image contrast, especially with high-brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Modified Bronnikov's algorithm (MBA), one of the in-line phase contrast CT reconstruction algorithms, can reconstruct the refractive index distribution of a pure phase object with a single computed tomographic data set. The key idea of the MBA is to use a correction factor in the filter function to stabilize the behavior at low frequencies. In this paper, we evaluate the influences of the correction factor to the final reconstruction results of the absorption-phase-mixed objects with analytical simulation and actual experiments. The limitations of the MBA are discussed finally. (orig.)

  16. PLATON SQUEEZE: a tool for the calculation of the disordered solvent contribution to the calculated structure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    The completion of a crystal structure determination is often hampered by the presence of embedded solvent molecules or ions that are seriously disordered. Their contribution to the calculated structure factors in the least-squares refinement of a crystal structure has to be included in some way. Traditionally, an atomistic solvent disorder model is attempted. Such an approach is generally to be preferred, but it does not always lead to a satisfactory result and may even be impossible in cases where channels in the structure are filled with continuous electron density. This paper documents the SQUEEZE method as an alternative means of addressing the solvent disorder issue. It conveniently interfaces with the 2014 version of the least-squares refinement program SHELXL [Sheldrick (2015). Acta Cryst. C71. In the press] and other refinement programs that accept externally provided fixed contributions to the calculated structure factors. The PLATON SQUEEZE tool calculates the solvent contribution to the structure factors by back-Fourier transformation of the electron density found in the solvent-accessible region of a phase-optimized difference electron-density map. The actual least-squares structure refinement is delegated to, for example, SHELXL. The current versions of PLATON SQUEEZE and SHELXL now address several of the unnecessary complications with the earlier implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure that were a necessity because least-squares refinement with the now superseded SHELXL97 program did not allow for the input of fixed externally provided contributions to the structure-factor calculation. It is no longer necessary to subtract the solvent contribution temporarily from the observed intensities to be able to use SHELXL for the least-squares refinement, since that program now accepts the solvent contribution from an external file (.fab file) if the ABIN instruction is used. In addition, many twinned structures containing disordered solvents are now also

  17. Determination of ion recombination correction factors for a liquid ionization chamber in megavoltage photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum-Bae; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seonghoon; Huh, Hyun Do

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ion recombination correction factor for a liquid ionization chamber in a high energy photon beam by using our experimental method. The ion recombination correction factors were determined by using our experimental method and were compared with theoretical and experimental methods proposed by using the theoretical method (Greening, Johansson) and the two-dose rate method in a cobalt beam and a high energy photon beam. In order to apply the liquid ionization chamber in a reference and small field dosimetry, we acquired the absorbed dose to water correction coefficient, the beam quality correction factor, and the influence quantities for the microLion chamber according to the TRS-398 protocol and applied the results to a high energy photon beam used in clinical fields. As a result, our experimental method for ion recombination in a cobalt beam agreed with the results from the heoretical method (Greening theory) better than it did with the results from the two-dose rate method. For high energy photon beams, the two-dose rate and our experimental methods were in good agreement, less than 2% deviation, while the theoretical general collection efficiency (Johansson et al.) deviated greatly from the experimental values. When we applied the factors for the absorbed dose to water measurement, the absorbed dose to water for the microLion chamber was in good agreement, within 1%, compared with the values for the PTW 30013 chamber in 6 and 10 MV Clinac iX and 6 and 15 MV Oncor impression. With these results, not only can the microLion ionization chamber be used to measure the absorbed dose to water in a reference condition, it can also be used to a the chamber for small, non-standard field dosimetry.

  18. Totem-Pole Power-Factor-Correction Converter under Critical-Conduction-Mode Interleaved Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Eka; Tomioka, Satoshi; Abe, Seiya; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    This paper proposes a new power-factor-correction (PFC) topology, and explains its operation principle, its control mechanism, related application problems followed by experimental results. In this proposed topology, critical-conduction-mode (CRM) interleaved technique is applied to a bridgeless PFC in order to achieve high efficiency by combining benefits of each topology. This application is targeted toward low to middle power applications that normally employs continuous-conduction-mode boost converter.

  19. High Efficiency Three-phase Power Factor Correction Rectifier using Wide Band-Gap Devices

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Improving the conversion efficiency of power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers has become compelling due to their wide applications such as adjustable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs). The attention to PFCs has increased even more since grid regulations have become stricter in terms of injected harmonic and power quality. Therefore, improving the efficiency and the power quality of PFCs are the main objectives of this PhD wo...

  20. Development of Tissue to Total Mass Correction Factor for Porites divaricata in Calcification Rate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannone, T. C.; Kelly, S. K.; Foster, K.

    2013-05-01

    One anticipated result of ocean acidification is lower calcification rates of corals. Many studies currently use the buoyant weights of coral nubbins as a means of estimating skeletal weight during non-destructive experiments. The objectives of this study, conducted at the Little Cayman Research Centre, were twofold: (1) to determine whether the purple and yellow color variations of Porites divaricata had similar tissue mass to total mass ratios; and (2) to determine a correction factor for tissue mass based on the total coral mass. T-test comparisons indicated that the tissue to total mass ratios were statistically similar for purple and yellow cohorts, thus allowing them to be grouped together within a given sample population. Linear regression analysis provided a correction factor (r2 = 0.69) to estimate the tissue mass from the total mass, which may eliminate the need to remove tissue during studies and allow subsequent testing on the same nubbins or their return to the natural environment. Additional work is needed in the development of a correction factor for P. divaricata with a higher prediction accuracy.

  1. Correction factor based double model fuzzy logic control strategy of arc voltage in pulsed MIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Meng Yongmin

    2005-01-01

    According to the feature of arc voltage control in welding steel using pulsed MIG welding, a correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was developed to realize the arc voltage control by means of arc voltage feedback.When the error of peak arc voltage was great, a coarse adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed,in the controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the wire feeding speed by means of arc voltage feedback. When the error of peak arc voltage was small, a fine adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed, in this controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the background time by means of arc voltage feedback. The FLC was realized in a Look-Up Table ( LUT) method. Experiments had been carried out aiming at implementing the control strategy to control the arc length change in welding process. Experimental results show that the controller proposed enables the consistency of arc length and the stabolity of arc voltage and welding process to be achieved in pulsed MIG welding process.

  2. CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURALLOGIC DIAGRAM PRODUCTION AUTOMATION EXPERT STUDY ON THE ISSUE OF CORRECTNESS OF CALCULATION OF THE TAX ON PROFIT OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Ishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of automation of an expert study on the questionof correctness of tax calculation profi t organization. Considered are the problemsof formalization of the expert research inthis field, specify the structure of imprisonment. The author proposes a conceptual structural-logic diagram automation expertresearch in this area.

  3. A Method of Time-Intensity Curve Calculation for Vascular Perfusion of Uterine Fibroids Based on Subtraction Imaging with Motion Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Wu, Ruoyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Dawei; Shan, Xin; Wang, Puling; Peng, Song; Li, Faqi; Wu, Baoming

    2016-12-01

    The time-intensity curve (TIC) from contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequence of uterine fibroids provides important parameter information for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of efficacy of treatment such as high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery. However, respiration and other physiological movements inevitably affect the process of CEUS imaging, and this reduces the accuracy of TIC calculation. In this study, a method of TIC calculation for vascular perfusion of uterine fibroids based on subtraction imaging with motion correction is proposed. First, the fibroid CEUS recording video was decoded into frame images based on the record frame rate. Next, the Brox optical flow algorithm was used to estimate the displacement field and correct the motion between two frames based on warp technique. Then, subtraction imaging was performed to extract the positional distribution of vascular perfusion (PDOVP). Finally, the average gray of all pixels in the PDOVP from each image was determined, and this was considered the TIC of CEUS image sequence. Both the correlation coefficient and mutual information of the results with proposed method were larger than those determined using the original method. PDOVP extraction results have been improved significantly after motion correction. The variance reduction rates were all positive, indicating that the fluctuations of TIC had become less pronounced, and the calculation accuracy has been improved after motion correction. This proposed method can effectively overcome the influence of motion mainly caused by respiration and allows precise calculation of TIC.

  4. Detector to detector corrections: a comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azangwe, Godfrey; Grochowska, Paulina; Georg, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially u...... measurements, the authors recommend the use of detectors that require relatively little correction, such as unshielded diodes, diamond detectors or microchambers, and solid state detectors such as alanine, TLD, Al2O3:C, or scintillators.......Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially...... useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm2 to 4.2 × 4.2 cm2 and the measurements were extended to larger fields...

  5. A Sheath Collision Model with Thermionic Electron Emission and the Schottky Correction Factor for Work Function of Wall Material

    CERN Document Server

    Pekker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model that expands Godyak's collisional sheath model to the case of hot electrodes (anode or cathode) with thermionic electron emission. In the model, the electrodes are assumed to be made from refractory metals and, consequently, the erosion of the electrodes is small and can be neglected. In the frame of two temperature thermal plasma modeling, this model allows self-consistent calculation of the sheath potential drop, the Schottky correction factor for the work function of the wall material, the thermionic electron current density, and the heat fluxes of the charged particles from the plasma to the wall. The model is applied to the cathode spot at the tungsten cathode in argon. It is shown that the Shottky correction factor plays a crucial role in modeling high-intensity arcs. It is demonstrated that a virtual cathode can be formed in the atmospheric pressure argon plasma at the cathode surface temperature of 4785 K if the cathode current density is sufficiently small. The heat flux t...

  6. SU-E-T-101: Determination and Comparison of Correction Factors Obtained for TLDs in Small Field Lung Heterogenous Phantom Using Acuros XB and EGSnrc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, R [Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Lee, J [National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Harianto, F [Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine and compare the correction factors obtained for TLDs in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in lung heterogenous phantom using Acuros XB (AXB) and EGSnrc. Methods: This study will simulate the correction factors due to the perturbation of TLD-100 chips (Harshaw/Thermoscientific, 3 × 3 × 0.9mm{sup 3}, 2.64g/cm{sup 3}) in small field lung medium for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). A physical lung phantom was simulated by a 14cm thick composite cork phantom (0.27g/cm{sup 3}, HU:-743 ± 11) sandwiched between 4cm thick Plastic Water (CIRS,Norfolk). Composite cork has been shown to be a good lung substitute material for dosimetric studies. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with field size 2 × 2cm{sup 2} was simulated. Depth dose profiles were obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system Acuros XB (AXB) and independently from DOSxyznrc, EGSnrc. Correction factors was calculated by the ratio of unperturbed to perturbed dose. Since AXB has limitations in simulating actual material compositions, EGSnrc will also simulate the AXB-based material composition for comparison to the actual lung phantom. Results: TLD-100, with its finite size and relatively high density, causes significant perturbation in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in a low lung density phantom. Correction factors calculated by both EGSnrc and AXB was found to be as low as 0.9. It is expected that the correction factor obtained by EGSnrc wlll be more accurate as it is able to simulate the actual phantom material compositions. AXB have a limited material library, therefore it only approximates the composition of TLD, Composite cork and Plastic water, contributing to uncertainties in TLD correction factors. Conclusion: It is expected that the correction factors obtained by EGSnrc will be more accurate. Studies will be done to investigate the correction factors for higher energies where perturbation may be more pronounced.

  7. Asymptotic correction approach to improving approximate exchange-correlation potentials: Time-dependent density-functional theory calculations of molecular excitation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Mark E.; Salahub, Dennis R.

    2000-11-01

    The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation of excitation spectra places certain demands on the DFT exchange-correlation potential, vxc, that are not met by the functionals normally used in molecular calculations. In particular, for high-lying excitations, it is crucial that the asymptotic behavior of vxc be correct. In a previous paper, we introduced a novel asymptotic-correction approach which we used with the local density approximation (LDA) to yield an asymptotically corrected LDA (AC-LDA) potential [Casida, Casida, and Salahub, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 70, 933 (1998)]. The present paper details the theory underlying this asymptotic correction approach, which involves a constant shift to incorporate the effect of the derivative discontinuity (DD) in the bulk region of finite systems, and a spliced asymptotic correction in the large r region. This is done without introducing any adjustable parameters. We emphasize that correcting the asymptotic behavior of vxc is not by itself sufficient to improve the overall form of the potential unless the effect of the derivative discontinuity is taken into account. The approach could be used to correct vxc from any of the commonly used gradient-corrected functionals. It is here applied to the LDA, using the asymptotically correct potential of van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB94) in the large r region. The performance of our AC-LDA vxc is assessed for the calculation of TD-DFT excitation energies for a large number of excitations, including both valence and Rydberg states, for each of four small molecules: N2, CO, CH2O, and C2H4. The results show a significant improvement over those from either the LB94 or the LDA functionals. This confirms that the DD is indeed an important element in the design of functionals. The quality of TDLDA/LB94 and TDLDA/AC-LDA oscillator strengths were also assessed in what we believe to be the first rigorous assessment of TD-DFT molecular oscillator strengths in comparison with

  8. Small field detector correction factors: effects of the flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Madelaine K; Liu, Paul Z Y; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2016-05-08

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization cham-bers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ± 0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ± 1.6%. Measured diode response was within ± 1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ± 1.6% is accepted.

  9. Water equivalent path length calculations using scatter-corrected head and neck CBCT images to evaluate patients for adaptive proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Park, Yang-Kyun; Sharp, Gregory; Busse, Paul; Winey, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Proton therapy has dosimetric advantages due to the well-defined range of the proton beam over photon radiotherapy. When the proton beams, however, are delivered to the patient in fractionated radiation treatment, the treatment outcome is affected by delivery uncertainties such as anatomic change in the patient and daily patient setup error. This study aims at establishing a method to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the anatomic change and patient setup error during head and neck proton therapy. Range variations due to the delivery uncertainties were assessed by calculating water equivalent path length (WEPL) to the distal edge of tumor volume using planning CT and weekly treatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Specifically, mean difference and root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of the distal WEPLs were calculated as the weekly range variations. To accurately calculate the distal WEPLs, an existing CBCT scatter correction algorithm was used. An automatic rigid registration was used to align the planning CT and treatment CBCT images, simulating a six degree-of-freedom couch correction at treatments. The authors conclude that the dosimetric impact of the anatomic change and patient setup error was reasonably captured in the differences of the distal WEPL variation with a range calculation uncertainty of 2%. The proposed method to calculate the distal WEPL using the scatter-corrected CBCT images can be an essential tool to decide the necessity of re-planning in adaptive proton therapy.

  10. Isotope shifts of the three lowest 1S states of the B+ ion calculated with a finite-nuclear-mass approach and with relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2010-03-01

    We present very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the three lowest S-states [1s22s2(S10), 1s22p2(S10), and 1s22s3s(S10)] of the two stable isotopes of the boron ion, B10+ and B11+. At the nonrelativistic level the calculations have been performed with the Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the finite mass of the nucleus as it was obtained by a rigorous separation of the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory frame Hamiltonian. The spatial part of the nonrelativistic wave function for each state was expanded in terms of 10 000 all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians were variationally optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to the nonlinear parameters. The nonrelativistic wave functions of the three states were subsequently used to calculate the leading α2 relativistic corrections (α is the fine structure constant; α =1/c, where c is the speed of light) and the α3 quantum electrodynamics (QED) correction. We also estimated the α4 QED correction by calculating its dominant component. A comparison of the experimental transition frequencies with the frequencies obtained based on the energies calculated in this work shows an excellent agreement. The discrepancy is smaller than 0.4 cm-1.

  11. Isotope shifts of the three lowest 1S states of the B+ ion calculated with a finite-nuclear-mass approach and with relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2010-03-21

    We present very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the three lowest S-states [1s(2)2s(2)((1)S(0)), 1s(2)2p(2)((1)S(0)), and 1s(2)2s3s((1)S(0))] of the two stable isotopes of the boron ion, (10)B(+) and (11)B(+). At the nonrelativistic level the calculations have been performed with the Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the finite mass of the nucleus as it was obtained by a rigorous separation of the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory frame Hamiltonian. The spatial part of the nonrelativistic wave function for each state was expanded in terms of 10,000 all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians were variationally optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to the nonlinear parameters. The nonrelativistic wave functions of the three states were subsequently used to calculate the leading alpha(2) relativistic corrections (alpha is the fine structure constant; alpha=1/c, where c is the speed of light) and the alpha(3) quantum electrodynamics (QED) correction. We also estimated the alpha(4) QED correction by calculating its dominant component. A comparison of the experimental transition frequencies with the frequencies obtained based on the energies calculated in this work shows an excellent agreement. The discrepancy is smaller than 0.4 cm(-1).

  12. CdSe/CdTe interface band gaps and band offsets calculated using spin-orbit and self-energy corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M. [Centro de Pesquisas Avancadas Wernher von Braun, Av. Alice de Castro P.N. Mattosinho 301, CEP 13098-392 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, L.G. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, L.R.C. [Center for Semiconductor Components, State University of Campinas, R. Pandia Calogeras 90, 13083-870 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramprasad, R. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We performed ab initio calculations of the electronic structures of bulk CdSe and CdTe, and their interface band alignments on the CdSe in-plane lattice parameters. For this, we employed the LDA-1/2 self-energy correction scheme to obtain corrected band gaps and band offsets. Our calculations include the spin-orbit effects for the bulk cases, which have shown to be of importance for the equilibrium systems and are possibly degraded in these strained semiconductors. Therefore, the SO showed reduced importance for the band alignment of this particular system. Moreover, the electronic structure calculated along the transition region across the CdSe/CdTe interface shows an interesting non-monotonic variation of the band gap in the range 0.8-1.8 eV, which may enhance the absorption of light for corresponding frequencies at the interface between these two materials in photovoltaic applications.

  13. Correction Calculation of Circulating Cooling Water Pipeline Resistance%循环冷却水管路水阻修正计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗卉; 商显有; 侯平利

    2011-01-01

    The relevant factors of circulating cooling water pipeline resistance are analyzed and a correction calculation method of resistance is provided. When the condenser parameters change, corresponding to different cooling water flow, the circulating cooling water pipeline resistance can be modified according to the reference power plant condenser water resistance curve. This method can be used in the optimization of steam turbine cold end.%分析了影响循环冷却水管路水阻的相关因素,给出一种水阻的修正计算方法.在凝汽器相关参数变化时,对应于不同的循环冷却水流量,可根据参考电厂凝汽器的水阻曲线对循环冷却水管路的水阻进行修正.该方法可运用于汽轮机冷端优化研究.

  14. A RESEARCH TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE MULTI-LEVEL SINGLEPHASE AC/DC POWER FACTOR CORRECT SWITCHING CONVERTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Chao

    2008-01-01

    This letter studies and analyzes the working features of main circuit of tri-level boost Power Factor Correct (PFC) converter and the advantages of tri-level switch converter in aspects of bearing high-voltage of power components,overall system loss and magnetic component selection based upon the single-level boost PFC switch converter. Besides,relying on the application of mi-croprocessor in power converter technology and DSP (Digital Signal Processing) chip's strong cal-culating capacity,the letter presents the adoption of modified scheme of tri-level boost PFC converter under the control of predictive control algorithm. Moreover,the operating principle and control method are specified,the results of circuit test and analysis are provided and the advantages of pre-dictive control technology-based multi-level boost PFC converter is verified.

  15. On instrumental errors and related correction strategies of ozonesondes: possible effect on calculated ozone trends for the nearby sites Uccle and De Bilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Malderen, Roeland; Allaart, Marc A. F.; De Backer, Hugo; Smit, Herman G. J.; De Muer, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    The ozonesonde stations at Uccle (Belgium) and De Bilt (the Netherlands) are separated by only 175 km but use different ozonesonde types (or different manufacturers for the same electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) type), operating procedures, and correction strategies. As such, these stations form a unique test bed for the Ozonesonde Data Quality Assessment (O3S-DQA) activity, which aims at providing a revised, homogeneous, consistent dataset with an altitude-dependent estimated uncertainty for each revised profile. For the ECC ozonesondes at Uccle mean relative uncertainties in the 4-6 % range are obtained. To study the impact of the corrections on the ozone profiles and trends, we compared the Uccle and De Bilt average ozone profiles and vertical ozone trends, calculated from the operational corrections at both stations and the O3S-DQA corrected profiles. In the common ECC 1997-2014 period, the O3S-DQA corrections effectively reduce the differences between the Uccle and De Bilt ozone partial pressure values with respect to the operational corrections only for the stratospheric layers below the ozone maximum. The upper-stratospheric ozone measurements at both sites are substantially different, regardless of the correction methodology used. The origin of this difference is not clear. The discrepancies in the tropospheric ozone concentrations between both sites can be ascribed to the problematic background measurement and correction at De Bilt, especially in the period before November 1998. The Uccle operational correction method, applicable to both ozonesonde types used, diminishes the relative stratospheric ozone differences of the Brewer-Mast sondes in the 1993-1996 period with De Bilt to less than 5 % and to less than 6 % in the free troposphere for the De Bilt operational corrections. Despite their large impact on the average ozone profiles, the different (sensible) correction strategies do not change the ozone trends significantly, usually only within

  16. Scale factor correction for Gaussian beam truncation in second moment beam radius measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Lucas R.; Dragone, Rocco V.; MacGregor, Andrew D.

    2017-04-01

    Charged-couple devices (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, in conjunction with the second moment radius analysis method, are effective tools for determining the radius of a laser beam. However, the second moment method heavily weights sensor noise, which must be dealt with using a thresholding algorithm and a software aperture. While these noise reduction methods lower the random error due to noise, they simultaneously generate systematic error by truncating the Gaussian beam's edges. A scale factor that is invariant to beam ellipticity and corrects for the truncation of the Gaussian beam due to thresholding and the software aperture has been derived. In particular, simulations showed an order of magnitude reduction in measured beam radius error when using the scale factor-irrespective of beam ellipticity-and further testing with real beam data demonstrated that radii corrected by the scale factor are independent of the noise reduction parameters. Thus, through use of the scale factor, the accuracy of beam radius measurements made with a CCD or CMOS sensor and the second moment are significantly improved.

  17. Fast and precise algorithms for calculating offset correction in single photon counting ASICs built in deep sub-micron technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.

    2014-07-01

    An important trend in the design of readout electronics working in the single photon counting mode for hybrid pixel detectors is to minimize the single pixel area without sacrificing its functionality. This is the reason why many digital and analog blocks are made with the smallest, or next to smallest, transistors possible. This causes a problem with matching among the whole pixel matrix which is acceptable by designers and, of course, it should be corrected with the use of dedicated circuitry, which, by the same rule of minimizing devices, suffers from the mismatch. Therefore, the output of such a correction circuit, controlled by an ultra-small area DAC, is not only a non-linear function, but it is also often non-monotonic. As long as it can be used for proper correction of the DC operation points inside each pixel, it is acceptable, but the time required for correction plays an important role for both chip verification and the design of a big, multi-chip system. Therefore, we present two algorithms: a precise one and a fast one. The first algorithm is based on the noise hits profiles obtained during so called threshold scan procedures. The fast correction procedure is based on the trim DACs scan and it takes less than a minute in a SPC detector systems consisting of several thousands of pixels.

  18. Correction factors for safe performance of API X65 pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Sayyed H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Birjand, P.O. Box 97175/615, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shhashemi@birjand.ac.ir

    2009-08-15

    Prediction of required Charpy energy for fracture arrest is vital for safe performance of gas transportation pipelines. This is commonly estimated through failure models calibrated in the past on fracture data from combined Charpy tests and full-thickness burst experiments. Unfortunately, such pipeline failure models are unable to correctly predict the minimum arrest toughness of thermo-mechanical controlled rolled (TMCR) steels. To refine the existing failure models, different empirical adjustments have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, similar correction factors were derived from fracture information of instrumented Charpy impact tests on API X65 steel. The contribution of different fracture mechanisms of impact test specimens was determined through energy partitioning analysis. Parts of the energy contribution were correlated then to the source of uncertainty observed in similar experiments. The applied technique was similar to that of previous studies on X70 and X100 steels, and proved to be encouraging in giving consistent results compared to available test data.

  19. Reliability Analysis of a Composite Blade Structure Using the Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimiroy; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis of a composite blade profile. The so-called Model Correction Factor technique is applied as an effective alternate approach to the response surface technique. The structural reliability is determined by use of a simplified idealised analytical model which...... in a probabilistic sense is model corrected so that it, close to the design point, represents the same structural behaviour as a realistic FE model. This approach leads to considerable improvement of computational efficiency over classical response surface methods, because the numerically “cheap” idealistic model...... is used as the response surface, while the time-consuming detailed model is called only a few times until the simplified model is calibrated to the detailed model....

  20. Are seasonal correction factors useful in assessing the health risk from domestic radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Gillmore, G.K. [Bradford Univ., School of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Following an intensive survey of domestic radon levels in the UK, the former National Radiological Protection Board (N.R.P.B.), now the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (H.P.A.-R.P.D.) established a measurement protocol and promulgated a set of Seasonal Correction Factors (S.C.F.) applicable to the United Kingdom as a whole. Radon levels are assumed to exhibit systematic repeatable annual variation, generally higher in winter than in summer, and the S.C.F. comprise numerical multipliers which convert a one-month oree-month radon measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an effective annual mean radon concentration. In a recent project to assess the utility of short-term exposures in quantifying domestic radon levels, radon variability in a set of 34 houses on common radon-rich geology was found to depart significantly from that predicted by the H.P.A.-R.P.D. seasonal correction factors, with year-end discontinuities at both 1-month and 3- month measurement resolutions. Following this study, monitoring with electrets was continued in four properties, with weekly radon concentration data now available for a total duration of three years. Analysis of this data has permitted the derivation of reliable local seasonal correction factors. Overall, these are significantly lower than those recommended by H.P.A.-R.P.D., but are comparable with other results from the UK and from abroad, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. The discussion calls into question the validity of using nationally aggregated factors, especially for shorter exposures. (authors)

  1. Calculating impact factor: how bibliographical classification of journal items affects the impact factor of large and small journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubic, Rajna; Rudes, Mihael; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana

    2008-03-01

    As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor (IF) equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal" (New England Journal of Medicine, NEJM, IF = 38.570) and 61st-ranked journal (Croatian Medical Journal, CMJ, IF = 0.690), 1st-ranked journal in category "Multidisciplinary Sciences" (Nature, IF = 32.182) and journal with a relative rank of CMJ (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, AABC, IF = 0.435). Large journals published more items categorized by Web of Science (WoS) as non-research items (editorial material, letters, news, book reviews, bibliographical items, or corrections): 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 (2%) out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data (9.5% in Nature, 7.2% in NEJM, 13.7% in CMJ and none in AABC). These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal's size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation.

  2. Period-doubling bifurcation in two-stage power factor correction converters using the method of incremental harmonic balance and Floquet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa-Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Ma, Xi-Kui

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, period-doubling bifurcation in a two-stage power factor correction converter is analyzed by using the method of incremental harmonic balance (IHB) and Floquet theory. A two-stage power factor correction converter typically employs a cascade configuration of a pre-regulator boost power factor correction converter with average current mode control to achieve a near unity power factor and a tightly regulated post-regulator DC—DC Buck converter with voltage feedback control to regulate the output voltage. Based on the assumption that the tightly regulated post-regulator DC—DC Buck converter is represented as a constant power sink and some other assumptions, the simplified model of the two-stage power factor correction converter is derived and its approximate periodic solution is calculated by the method of IHB. And then, the stability of the system is investigated by using Floquet theory and the stable boundaries are presented on the selected parameter spaces. Finally, some experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  3. Period-doubling bifurcation in two-stage power factor correction converters using the method of incremental harmonic balance and Floquet theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fa-Qiang; Zhang Hao; Ma Xi-Kui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,period-doubling bifurcation in a two-stage power factor correction converter is analyzed by using the method of incremental harmonic balance (IHB) and Floquet theory.A two-stage power factor correction converter typically employs a cascade configuration of a pre-regulator boost power factor correction converter with average current mode control to achieve a near unity power factor and a tightly regulated post-regulator DC-DC Buck converter with voltage feedback control to regulate the output voltage. Based on the assumption that the tightly regulated postregulator DC-DC Buck converter is represented as a constant power sink and some other assumptions,the simplified model of the two-stage power factor correction converter is derived and its approximate periodic solution is calculated by the method of IHB.And then,the stability of the system is investigated by using Floquet theory and the stable boundaries are presented on the selected parameter spaces.Finally,some experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  4. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  5. Measurements of beta ray spectra inside nuclear generating stations using a silicon detector coincidence telescope: skin dose beta correction factors for TL elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Weizmann, Y. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby (Canada). Health Physics

    1996-10-01

    The measurement of beta ray spectra at various work locations inside nuclear generating stations operated by Ontario Hydro is described. The measurements were carried out using an advanced coincidence telescope spectrometer using silicon detectors only. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies over the range 70-2500 keV with close to 100% efficiency. Over 40 beta ray spectra were measured at various work locations in three nuclear generating stations. Photon rejection is carried out by requiring a coincidence between either two or three detectors. Monte Carlo calculations were then used to estimate beta correction factors for the LiF:Mg,Ti elements used in the Ontario Hydro thermoluminescence dosemeters. Averaging over all the measured beta correction factors for the `skin chip (100 mg. cm{sup -2}) results in a value of 2.73 {+-} 0.77 and for the extremity dosemeter (240 mg.cm{sup -2}) an average value of 4.42 {+-} 1.17 is obtained. These values are 57% and 120% greater, respectively, than the current values used by Ontario Hydro. In addition, beta correction factors for nine representative spectra were calculated for 40 mg.cm{sup -2} and 20 mg.cm{sup -2} chips, and the results demonstrate the benefits of decreased dosemeter thickness. The average value of the beta correction factor, as well as the spread in the beta correction factor, decreases dramatically from 4.80 {+-} 2.1 (240 mg.cm{sup -2}) to 1.29 {+-} 0.1 (20mg.cm{sup -2}). (Author).

  6. On the use of the correction factor with Japanese ozonesonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Morris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In submitting data to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center (WOUDC, numerous ozonesonde stations include a correction factor (CF that multiplies ozone concentration profile data so that the columns computed agree with column measurements from co-located ground-based and/or overpassing satellite instruments. We evaluate this practice through an examination of data from four Japanese ozonesonde stations: Kagoshima, Naha, Sapporo, and Tsukuba. While agreement between the sonde columns and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS or Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI is improved by use of the CF, agreement between the sonde ozone concentrations reported near the surface and data from surface monitors near the launch sites is negatively impacted. In addition, we find the agreement between the mean sonde columns without the CF and the ground-based Dobson instrument columns is improved by ~1.5 % by using the McPeters et al. (1997 balloon burst climatology rather than the constant mixing ratio assumption (that has been used for the data in the WOUDC archive for the above burst height column estimate. Limited comparisons of coincident ozonesonde profiles from Hokkaido University with those in the WOUDC database suggest that while the application of the CFs in the stratosphere improves agreement, it negatively impacts the agreement in the troposphere. Finally and importantly, unexplained trends and changing trends in the CFs appear over the last 20 years. The overall trend in the reported CFs for the four Japanese ozonesonde stations from 1990–2010 is (−0.264 ± 0.036 × 10−2 yr−1; but from 1993–1999 the trend is (−2.18 ± 0.14 × 10−2 yr−1 and from 1999–2009 is (1.089 ± 0.075 × 10−2 yr−1, resulting in a statistically significant difference in CF trends between these two periods of (3.26 ± 0.16 × 10−2 yr

  7. AN ACCURATE NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES AND K-CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO THE SLOAN FILTER SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beare, Richard; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin, E-mail: richard@beares.net [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-12-20

    We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, that is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template spectral energy distributions from Brown et al. A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog, we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute griz magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag and those in the u band by ∼0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

  8. Perancangan Zeta Converter yang dilengkapi Power Factor Correction pada Aplikasi Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Brushless DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhika Prajna Nandiwardhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan motor brushless DC telah banyak digunakan dalam berbagai bidang seperti peralatan rumah tangga maupun industri dikarenakan motor ini memiliki struktur yang sederhana, efisiensi dan torsi yang tinggi, serta menggunakan konsep komutasi elektris yang berbeda dari motor DC lainnya. Namun pengoperasian pada umumnya yang menggunakan sumber AC, penyearah serta inverter membuat tingginya nilai harmonisa arus (THD sebesar 73,33% dan power factor sebesar 0,803 dimana nilai ini kurang baik dalam pengaplikasiannya. Pada penelitian ini akan dikaji mengenai proses power factor correction yang mereduksi harmonisa arus (THD sumber AC dengan menggunakan zeta converter dalam pengaplikasian motor brushless DC, serta pengoperasian motor dengan mengamati respon motor terhadap kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah dan mengamati kestabilan motor terhadap pembebanan yang bervariasi. Dalam menerapkan metode yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini, pengoperasian motor brushless DC yang telah dirancang dapat bekerja dengan baik meliputi respon motor yang dapat mengikuti kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah, serta kestabilan motor dalam mempertahankan kecepatannya pada pembebanan yang bervariasi. Proses power factor correction dapat meningkatkan kualitas daya pada berbagai kecepatan dan mode penerapan yang berbeda-beda, dimana peningkatan tersebut membuktikan kinerja yang baik dalam sistem ini dan memiliki nilai kualitas daya yang baik.

  9. [Risk factor calculator for medical underwriting of life insurers based on the PROCAM study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geritse, A; Müller, G; Trompetter, T; Schulte, H; Assmann, G

    2008-06-01

    For its electronic manual GEM, used to perform medical risk assessment in life insurance, SCOR Global Life Germany has developed an innovative and evidence-based calculator of the mortality risk depending on cardiovascular risk factors. The calculator contains several new findings regarding medical underwriting, which were gained from the analysis of the PROCAM (Prospective Cardiovascular Münster) study. For instance, in the overall consideration of all risk factors of a medically examined applicant, BMI is not an independent risk factor. Further, given sufficient information, the total extra mortality of a person no longer results from adding up the ratings for the single risk factors. In fact, this new approach of risk assessment considers the interdependencies between the different risk factors. The new calculator is expected to improve risk selection and standard acceptances will probably increase.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Importance of the Hubbard correction on the thermal conductivity calculation of strongly correlated materials: a case study of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Anthony; Tian, Zhiting

    2016-11-01

    The wide bandgap semiconductor, ZnO, has gained interest recently as a promising option for use in power electronics such as thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, as well as optoelectronic devices. Though much work has been done to improve its electronic properties, relatively little is known of its thermal transport properties with large variations in measured thermal conductivity. In this study, we examine the effects of a Hubbard corrected energy functional on the lattice thermal conductivity of wurtzite ZnO calculated using density functional theory and an iterative solution to the Boltzmann transport equation. Showing good agreement with existing experimental measurements, and with a detailed analysis of the mode-dependence and phonon properties, the results from this study highlight the importance of the Hubbard correction in calculations of thermal transport properties of materials with strongly correlated electron systems.

  12. Factors Associated with Correct and Consistent Insecticide Treated Curtain Use in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Bauer, Karin; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Alexander, Neal; Halsey, Eric S; McCall, Philip J; Lenhart, Audrey

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne virus of great public health importance, and control of its mosquito vectors is currently the only available method for prevention. Previous research has suggested that insecticide treated curtains (ITCs) can lower dengue vector infestations in houses. This observational study investigated individual and household-level socio-demographic factors associated with correct and consistent use of ITCs in Iquitos, Peru. A baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was administered to 1,333 study participants, and ITCs were then distributed to 593 households as part of a cluster-randomized trial. Follow up KAP surveys and ITC-monitoring checklists were conducted at 9, 18, and 27 months post-ITC distribution. At 9 months post-distribution, almost 70% of ITCs were hanging properly (e.g. hanging fully extended or tied up), particularly those hung on walls compared to other locations. Proper ITC hanging dropped at 18 months to 45.7%. The odds of hanging ITCs correctly and consistently were significantly greater among those participants who were housewives, knew three or more correct symptoms of dengue and at least one correct treatment for dengue, knew a relative or close friend who had had dengue, had children sleeping under a mosquito net, or perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home. Additionally, the odds of recommending ITCs in the future were significantly greater among those who perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home (e.g. perceived the ITCs to be effective). Despite various challenges associated with the sustained effectiveness of the selected ITCs, almost half of the ITCs were still hanging at 18 months, suggesting a feasible vector control strategy for sustained community use.

  13. Review and standardization of cell phone exposure calculations using the SAM phantom and anatomically correct head models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainz Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed articles using computational RF dosimetry to compare the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM to anatomically correct models of the human head. Published conclusions based on such comparisons have varied widely. We looked for reasons that might cause apparently similar comparisons to produce dissimilar results. We also looked at the information needed to adequately compare the results of computational RF dosimetry studies. We concluded studies were not comparable because of differences in definitions, models, and methodology. Therefore we propose a protocol, developed by an IEEE standards group, as an initial step in alleviating this problem. The protocol calls for a benchmark validation study comparing the SAM phantom to two anatomically correct models of the human head. It also establishes common definitions and reporting requirements that will increase the comparability of all computational RF dosimetry studies of the human head.

  14. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  15. DMPD: Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily of transcription factors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979567 Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily...ng) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily...orrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily of transcription factors. Authors Honda K

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for Sick Building Syndrome among Italian correctional officers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chirico

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past two decades, numerous studies on indoor air and the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS have been conducted, mostly in office environments. However, there is little knowledge about SBS in police officers. This study was aimed to fill this gap. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2016 at the Triveneto Penitentiary Center, Northern Italy. Chi-square was used to test the difference of prevalence between office workers (OWs and correctional officers (COs of personal characteristics, cases of SBS, and general and mucocutaneous symptoms associated with SBS. A binary logistic regression was used to identify among individual, environmental, and psychosocial characteristics, factors associated with correctional officers’ Sick Building Syndrome. Results: Chi-squared analyses revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the estimated prevalence of SBS general symptoms (χ2 (1 = 12.22, P < .05, SBS mucocutaneous symptoms (χ2 (1 = 9.04, P < .05, and cases of SBS (χ2 (1 = 4.39, P <.05 between COs and OWs. COs reported that their health had been affected by the passive smoking (β = 2.34, P < .05 and unpleasant odour (β = 2.51, P < .05 as environmental risk factors; work-family conflict (β = 2.14, P < .05, psychological and physical isolation (β = 2.07, P < .05, and negative public image (β = 2.06, P < .05 as psychosocial risk factors. Finally, atopy (β = 2.02, P < .05 and to be current smoker (β = 2.02, P < .05 were statistically significant behavioral predictors of SBS among correctional officers. Discussion: Our survey showed that symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome are common in correctional officers and that psychosocial work climate and exposure to passive smoking could have a strong influence on the prevalence of both general and mucocutaneous symptoms associated with SBS. A health policy for passive tobacco smoking within prisons, and for work-related stress

  17. Microcontroller–Based Modified SEPIC Converter for Driving Lamp with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yamuna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study of electronic ballast for electrode less lamps including design and development issues is presented in this paper. The ballast is intended to feed a 300 W ultra violet lamp at 100 kHz with dimming feature. The proposed topology is composed of a Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC, used as power factor correction (PFC stage, integrated with a resonant half-bridge inverter, used as lamp power control (PC stage. The integration of both stages is proposed in this paper, in order to reduce the number of active switches, as well as to simplify the required driving and control circuitry for this application. The implemented topology attained very high power factor (0.9982, and low line current total harmonic distortion (THD (1.86%, without using electromagnetic interference (EMI filter, while the measured efficiency was 90% at nominal lamp power.

  18. Scatter correction in planar imaging and SPECT by constrained factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.; Younes, R.B.; Bellaton, B.; Bidet, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Jean Minjoz, 25 - Besancon (France). Lab. de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire); Hannequin, P. (Centre d' Imagerie Nucleaire, 74 -Annecy (France))

    1990-11-01

    A new approach to Compton scatter correction based on factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is presented in this study. The innovation is the use of a constrained photopeak factor. This novel algorithm is evaluated both on planar imaging and SPECT data using Monte Carlo simulations and real phantoms. A comparison with the modified method of Jaszczak is also presented. Different parameters are significantly improved with the authors' recombination method in SPECT studies; particularly after attenuation compensation by the iterative method of Chang. Compared with the subtraction method the contrast is increased by 1.5 for planar Monte Carlo simulations and the scatter fraction is reduced four times with the recombination method. (author).

  19. Digitally Controlled Integrated Electronic Ballast with Dimming and Power Factor Correction Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar-Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a digitally controlled integrated electronic ballast with dimming and power factor correctionfeatures. The control circuit is based on a low-cost PIC16C71 microcontroller where the different strategies for energysaving have been implemented. The ballast is operating in closed loop achieving tight lamp current regulation througha digital Proportional-Integral algorithm. The integrated power stage is based on a frequency-controlled single-switchboost rectifier plus a half-bridge series resonant parallel loaded inverter sharing one power switch. The single-switchboost rectifier works in discontinuous inductor current mode with automatic power factor correction. Detailed analysisof the power stages and experimental results using 42-watt electronic ballast are presented.

  20. DSP Implementation of a Power Factor Correction Strategy for BLDC Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayarajeswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a power factor correction mechanism for a brushless dc permanent magnet (BLDC-PM motor drive system through the use of a front end boost converter. It evolves a wave shaping mechanism to arrive at the sinusoidal nature for the input current in an effort to improve the input power factor. The theory is articulated using a closed loop algorithm to revolve around the operating range of the drive motor. The performance is evaluated on a MATLAB platform to elucidate the viability of the scheme in addition to highlighting its speed regulating capability. It steals the role of a Digital Signal Processor (DSP to implement the proposed methodology and there from validate the results with a view to illustrate its practical applicability.

  1. Power factor correction at the Miguel Hidalgo refinery; Correccion del factor de potencia en la refineria Miguel Hidalgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Gonzalez, Gustavo [Petroleos Mexicanos, Refineria Miguel Hidalgo, Tula de Allende (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper the theoretical fundament and formulae of the power factor are analyzed and a relationship among kilowatts, kilovars and power factor, is shown; also it deals with power factor in combination with load groups, as well as the numerical calculation of the required kvar for the desired improvement of the power factor. Additionally the technical and economical aspects of the capacitors and synchronous motors are contemplated, as well as their location in the electric system in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Finally, the savings obtained with the installation of capacitors in the electric power system of the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, are explained. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se analizan los fundamentos teoricos y formulas del factor de potencia y se muestra la relacion entre kilowatts, kilovars y factor de potencia; tambien trata al factor de potencia combinado de grupos de cargas, asi como el calculo numerico de los KVAR necesarios para la mejora deseada del factor de potencia. Ademas se contemplan aspectos tecnicos y economicos de los capacitores y los motores sincronos, asi como la ubicacion de los mismos en el sistema electrico para lograr los maximos beneficios. Finalmente se explican las ganancias economicas que se obtuvieron al instalarse capacitores en el sistema electrico de potencia de la refineria Miguel Hidalgo.

  2. The effective family and personality factors on felony in adolescent felons of Khorramabad house of correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.

  3. QCD corrections to B→π form factors from light-cone sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We compute perturbative corrections to B→π form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes. Applying the method of regions we demonstrate factorization of the vacuum-to-B-meson correlation function defined with an interpolating current for pion, at one-loop level, explicitly in the heavy quark limit. The short-distance functions in the factorization formulae of the correlation function involves both hard and hard-collinear scales; and these functions can be further factorized into hard coefficients by integrating out the hard fluctuations and jet functions encoding the hard-collinear information. Resummation of large logarithms in the short-distance functions is then achieved via the standard renormalization-group approach. We further show that structures of the factorization formulae for fBπ+(q2 and fBπ0(q2 at large hadronic recoil from QCD light-cone sum rules match that derived in QCD factorization. In particular, we perform an exploratory phenomenological analysis of B→π form factors, paying attention to various sources of perturbative and systematic uncertainties, and extract |Vub|=(3.05−0.38+0.54|th.±0.09|exp.×10−3 with the inverse moment of the B-meson distribution amplitude ϕB+(ω determined by reproducing fBπ+(q2=0 obtained from the light-cone sum rules with π distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, we present the invariant-mass distributions of the lepton pair for B→πℓνℓ (ℓ=μ,τ in the whole kinematic region. Finally, we discuss non-valence Fock state contributions to the B→π form factors fBπ+(q2 and fBπ0(q2 in brief.

  4. Combination of recombinant factor VIIa and fibrinogen corrects clot formation in primary immune thrombocytopenia at very low platelet counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole H; Stentoft, Jesper; Radia, Deepti

    2013-01-01

    Haemostatic treatment modalities alternative to platelet transfusion are desirable to control serious acute bleeds in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This study challenged the hypothesis that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) combined with fibrinogen concentrate may correct whole b...

  5. Application of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry combined with in-core measurements for correction of neutron source used for RPV fluence calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N. [Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety SEC NRS, Malaya Krasnoselskaya ul., 2/8, Bld. 5, 107140 Moscow (Russian Federation); Konheiser, J. [Helmholz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with calculated and semi-analytical evaluations of VVER-1000 reactor core neutron source distributions and their influence on measurements and calculations of the integral through-vessel neutron leakage. Neutron activation measurements analyzed in the paper were carried out in an ex-vessel air cavity at different nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 during different fuel cycles. The time-integrated neutron source distributions used for DORT calculations were prepared via two different approaches based on (a) calculated fuel burnup (standard routine procedure) and (b) in-core measurements by means of self-powered detectors (SPDs) and thermocouples (TCs) (new approach). Considering that fuel burnup distributions in operating VVER may be evaluated now by the use of analytical methods (calculations) only, it is necessary to develop new approaches for the testing and correction of calculated evaluations of a neutron source. The results presented in this paper allow one to consider the reverse task of the alternative estimation of fuel burnup distributions. The proposed approach is based on the adjustment (fitting) of time-integrated neutron source distributions, and thus fuel burnup patterns, in some part of the reactor core, taking into account neutron leakage measurements, neutron-physical calculations, and in-core SPD and TC measurement data. (authors)

  6. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30 St, P.O.BOX MG-6,Magurele, cod 077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  7. TH-C-BRD-06: A Novel MRI Based CT Artifact Correction Method for Improving Proton Range Calculation in the Presence of Severe CT Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, P; Schreibmann, E; Fox, T; Roper, J; Elder, E; Tejani, M; Crocker, I; Curran, W; Dhabaan, A [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Severe CT artifacts can impair our ability to accurately calculate proton range thereby resulting in a clinically unacceptable treatment plan. In this work, we investigated a novel CT artifact correction method based on a coregistered MRI and investigated its ability to estimate CT HU and proton range in the presence of severe CT artifacts. Methods: The proposed method corrects corrupted CT data using a coregistered MRI to guide the mapping of CT values from a nearby artifact-free region. First patient MRI and CT images were registered using 3D deformable image registration software based on B-spline and mutual information. The CT slice with severe artifacts was selected as well as a nearby slice free of artifacts (e.g. 1cm away from the artifact). The two sets of paired MRI and CT images at different slice locations were further registered by applying 2D deformable image registration. Based on the artifact free paired MRI and CT images, a comprehensive geospatial analysis was performed to predict the correct CT HU of the CT image with severe artifact. For a proof of concept, a known artifact was introduced that changed the ground truth CT HU value up to 30% and up to 5cm error in proton range. The ability of the proposed method to recover the ground truth was quantified using a selected head and neck case. Results: A significant improvement in image quality was observed visually. Our proof of concept study showed that 90% of area that had 30% errors in CT HU was corrected to 3% of its ground truth value. Furthermore, the maximum proton range error up to 5cm was reduced to 4mm error. Conclusion: MRI based CT artifact correction method can improve CT image quality and proton range calculation for patients with severe CT artifacts.

  8. On proper linearization, construction and analysis of the Boyle-van't Hoff plots and correct calculation of the osmotically inactive volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Igor I

    2011-06-01

    The Boyle-van't Hoff (BVH) law of physics has been widely used in cryobiology for calculation of the key osmotic parameters of cells and optimization of cryo-protocols. The proper use of linearization of the Boyle-vant'Hoff relationship for the osmotically inactive volume (v(b)) has been discussed in a rigorous way in (Katkov, Cryobiology, 2008, 57:142-149). Nevertheless, scientists in the field have been continuing to use inappropriate methods of linearization (and curve fitting) of the BVH data, plotting the BVH line and calculation of v(b). Here, we discuss the sources of incorrect linearization of the BVH relationship using concrete examples of recent publications, analyze the properties of the correct BVH line (which is unique for a given v(b)), provide appropriate statistical formulas for calculation of v(b) from the experimental data, and propose simplistic instructions (standard operation procedure, SOP) for proper normalization of the data, appropriate linearization and construction of the BVH plots, and correct calculation of v(b). The possible sources of non-linear behavior or poor fit of the data to the proper BVH line such as active water and/or solute transports, which can result in large discrepancy between the hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic parts of the BVH plot, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New gamma-ray buildup factor data for point kernel calculations: ANS-6. 4. 3 standard reference data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.

    1988-09-01

    An American Nuclear Society Standards Committee Working Group, identified as ANS-6.4.3, has developed a set of evaluated gamma-ray isotropic point-source buildup factors and attenuation coefficients for a standard reference data base. The largely unpublished set of buildup factors calculated with the moments method has been evaluated by recalculating key values with Monte Carlo, integral transport, and discrete ordinates methods. Additional buildup factor data were obtained from PALLAS code results. Attention has been given to frequently-neglected processes such as bremsstrahlung and the effect of introducing a tissue phantom behind the shield. The proposed draft standard, provided as an appendix, contains data for a source energy range from 15 keV to 15 MeV and for 23 elements and 3 mixtures (water, air, and concrete). The buildup factor data are also represented as coefficients for the G-P fitting function. Tables giving correction factors for multiple scattering in tissue are also provided. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Calculation of the astrophysical S-factor S_12 with the Lorentz integral transform

    CERN Document Server

    Deflorian, Sergio; Leidemann, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The LIT approach is tested for the calculation of astrophysical S-factors. As an example the S-factor of the reaction 2H(p,gamma)3He is considered. It is discussed that a sufficiently high density of LIT states at low energies is necessary for a precise determination of S-factors. In particular it is shown that the hyperspherical basis is not very well suited for such a calculation and that a different basis system is much more advantageous. A comparison of LIT results with calculations, where continuum wave functions are explicitly used, shows that the LIT approach leads to reliable results. It is also shown how an error estimate of the LIT inversion can be obtained.

  11. Calculation of the molecular integrals with the range-separated correlation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkowski, Michał; Lesiuk, Michał, E-mail: lesiuk@tiger.chem.uw.edu.pl; Moszynski, Robert [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-03-28

    Explicitly correlated quantum chemical calculations require calculations of five types of two-electron integrals beyond the standard electron repulsion integrals. We present a novel scheme, which utilises general ideas of the McMurchie-Davidson technique, to compute these integrals when the so-called “range-separated” correlation factor is used. This correlation factor combines the well-known short range behaviour resulting from the electronic cusp condition, with the exact long-range asymptotics derived for the helium atom [Lesiuk, Jeziorski, and Moszynski, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134102 (2013)]. Almost all steps of the presented procedure are formulated recursively, so that an efficient implementation and control of the precision are possible. Additionally, the present formulation is very flexible and general, and it allows for use of an arbitrary correlation factor in the electronic structure calculations with minor or no changes.

  12. Calculation of the molecular integrals with the range-separated correlation factor

    CERN Document Server

    Silkowski, Michał; Moszynski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Explicitly correlated quantum chemical calculations require calculations of five types of molecular integrals beyond the standard electron repulsion integrals. We present a novel scheme, which utilises general ideas of the McMurchie-Davidson technique, to compute these integrals when the so-called \\range-separated" correlation factor is used. This correlation factor combines the well-known short range behaviour, resulting from the electronic cusp condition, with the exact long-range asymptotics found for the helium atom [M. Lesiuk, B. Jeziorski, and R. Moszynski, J. Chem. Phys. $\\textbf{139}$, 134102 (2013)]. Almost all steps of the presented procedure are formulated recursively, so that an efficient implementation and control of the precision are possible. Additionally, the present formulation is very flexible and general, and it allows for use of an arbitrary correlation factor in the electronic structure calculations with minor or no changes.

  13. A novel correction factor based on extended volume to complement the conformity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F; Wang, Y; Wu, Y-Z

    2012-08-01

    We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application. In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CI(Paddick)), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1-1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CI(Paddick). The measurements of MCI in head-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice. The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CI(Paddick) are also provided. The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose-volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.

  14. Lorentz factor - Beaming corrected energy/luminosity correlations and GRB central engine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liang, En-Wei

    2017-03-01

    We work on a GRB sample whose initial Lorentz factors (Γ0) are constrained by the afterglow onset method and the jet opening angles (θj) are determined by the jet break time. We confirm the Γ0-Eγ,iso correlation by Liang et al. (2010), and the Γ0-Lγ,iso correlation by Lü et al. (2012). Furthermore, we find correlations between Γ0 and the beaming corrected γ-ray energy (Eγ) and mean γ-ray luminosity (Lγ). By also including the kinetic energy of the afterglow, we find rough correlations (with larger scatter) between Γ0 and the total (γ-ray plus kinetic) energy and the total mean luminosity, both for isotropic values and beaming corrected values: these correlations allow us to test the data with GRB central engine models. Limiting our sample to the GRBs that likely have a black hole central engine, we compare the data with theoretical predictions of two types of jet launching mechanisms from BHs, i.e. the non-magnetized ν ν bar -annihilation mechanism, and the strongly magnetized Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We find that the data are more consistent with the latter mechanism, and discuss the implications of our findings for GRB jet composition.

  15. Polarity correction factor for flattening filter free photon beams in several cylindrical ionization chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Masao; Tsudou, Shinji; Masutani, Takashi; Okayama, Takanobu

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the polarity correction factor in ionization chambers for flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams and flattening filter (FF) beams. Measurements were performed with both 6 and 10 MV FFF and FF beams. Five commercial ionization chambers were evaluated: PTW TN30013; IBA Dosimetry CC01, CC04, and CC13; and Exradin A12S. Except for the CC01 ionization chamber, the other four chambers showed less than a 0.3 % difference in the polarity effect between the FFF and the FF beams. The CC01 chamber showed a strong field-size-dependence, unlike the other chambers. The polarity effect for all chambers with FFF beams did not change with the dose rate. Except in the case of the CC01 chamber, the difference in the polarity effect between FFF and FF beams was not significant.

  16. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations.

  17. High Efficiency Three-phase Power Factor Correction Rectifier using Wide Band-Gap Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Improving the conversion efficiency of power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers has become compelling due to their wide applications such as adjustable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs). The attention to PFCs has increased even more...... power devices. Therefore, the PFC switching frequency using WBG devices can potentially be increased. This advantage helps the reactive components to be reduced in size. However, it also brings challenges such as identifying a proper material for inductive components that has lower loss and layout....... Therefore, current controllers are also important to be investigated in this project. In this PhD research work, a comprehensive design of a two-level three-phase PFC rectifier using silicon-carbide (SiC) switches to achieve high efficiency is presented. The work is divided into two main parts: 1) Optimum...

  18. High Efficiency Three-phase Power Factor Correction Rectifier using Wide Band-Gap Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza

    Improving the conversion efficiency of power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers has become compelling due to their wide applications such as adjustable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs). The attention to PFCs has increased even more...... since grid regulations have become stricter in terms of injected harmonic and power quality. Therefore, improving the efficiency and the power quality of PFCs are the main objectives of this PhD work. New wide band gap (WBG) power switches have better switching characteristics in comparison with silicon...... power devices. Therefore, the PFC switching frequency using WBG devices can potentially be increased. This advantage helps the reactive components to be reduced in size. However, it also brings challenges such as identifying a proper material for inductive components that has lower loss and layout...

  19. Mitigation of voltage sag, swell and power factor correction using solid-state transformer b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel topology of solid-state transformer (SST. In the design process, the AC/DC, DC/AC and AC/AC converters have been integrated to achieve higher efficiency. To obtain higher efficiency from other SST with DC-link topologies, the AC/DC and DC/AC converters have been integrated in one matrix converter. The proposed SST performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, voltage sag and swell elimination, voltage flicker reduction and protection capability in fault situations. In addition, it has other benefits such as light weight, low volume and elimination of hazardous liquid dielectrics because it uses medium frequency transformer. The operation and some performances of the proposed SST have been verified by the simulation results.

  20. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE USING SINGLE-PHASE CUK CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV SINGH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.

  1. Power Factor Correction and THD Minimization by Interleaved Boost Converter in Continuous Conduction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saubhik Maulik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy available in the utility grid is not suitable for direct use in many applications. In particular, applications requiring DC source must involve an interface device between the AC power line and the load requiring the DC voltage. Conventional AC/DC conversion involves diode rectifiers with large capacitor to reduce DC voltage ripple. The filter capacitor reduces the ripple present in the output voltage but draws non-sinusoidal line current which reduces the power factor. So power factor correction (PFC techniques are gaining increasing attention. The most popular topology for active PFC is boost converter as it draws continuous input current. This input current can be manipulated by average current mode control technique. But there are ripple in the input current due to inductor of boost converter which can be minimized by using two phase interleaved boost converter. Here average current mode controlled interleaved boost converter in continuous conduction mode using PI controller, is represented which provides high power factor and low THD.

  2. Combining active-space coupled-cluster methods with moment energy corrections via the CC(P;Q) methodology, with benchmark calculations for biradical transition states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    We have recently suggested the CC(P;Q) methodology that can correct energies obtained in the active-space coupled-cluster (CC) or equation-of-motion (EOM) CC calculations, which recover much of the nondynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects, for the higher-order, mostly dynamical, correlations missing in the active-space CC/EOMCC considerations. It is shown that one can greatly improve the description of biradical transition states, both in terms of the resulting energy barriers and total energies, by combining the CC approach with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, with the CC(P;Q)-style correction due to missing triple excitations defining the CC(t;3) approximation.

  3. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess-Flores, Mauricio [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in

  4. Monte-Carlo simulation of backscattered electrons in Auger electron spectroscopy. Part 1: Backscattering factor calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholomier, M.; Vicario, E.; Doghmane, N.

    1987-10-01

    The contribution of backscattered electrons to Auger electrons yield was studied with a multiple scattering Monte-Carlo simulation. The Auger backscattering factor has been calculated in the 5 keV-60 keV energy range. The dependence of the Auger backscattering factor on the primary energy and the beam incidence angle were determined. Spatial distributions of backscattered electrons and Auger electrons are presented for a point incident beam. Correlations between these distributions are briefly investigated.

  5. CALCULATING THE MOLECULAR INTERNAL ROTATING STERIC FACTOR OF POLYMERS BY THE RADIATION CROSSLINKING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wanxi; SUN Jiazhen

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, calculating the molecular internal rotating steric factor of polymers by the radiation crosslinking method is studied and a relationship between the molecular internal rotating steric factor (σ) and crosslinking parameter β is established[1] by taking account of the effect of polymer chain flexibility on β value. σ value of polymer obtained by this method is in agreement with that given with other method.

  6. Bradford's law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of 'journals that matter' and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice: in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest.

  7. Investigation of the range of validity of the pairwise summation method applied to the calculation of the surface roughness correction to the van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, André; Burnham, Nancy A.

    2016-09-01

    It has long been recognized that stochastic surface roughness can considerably change the van der Waals (vdW) force between interacting surfaces and particles. However, few analytical expressions for the vdW force between rough surfaces have been presented in the literature. Because they have been derived using perturbative methods or the proximity force approximation the expressions are valid when the roughness correction is small and for a limited range of roughness parameters and surface separation. In this work, a nonperturbative approach, the effective density method (EDM) is proposed to circumvent some of these limitations. The method simplifies the calculations of the roughness correction based on pairwise summation (PWS), and allows us to derive simple expressions for the vdW force and energy between two semispaces covered with stochastic rough surfaces. Because the range of applicability of PWS and, therefore, of our results, are not known a priori, we compare the predictions based on the EDM with those based on the multilayer effective medium model, whose range of validity can be defined more properly and which is valid when the roughness correction is comparatively large. We conclude that the PWS can be used for roughness characterized by a correlation length of the order of its rms amplitude, when this amplitude is of the order of or smaller than a few nanometers, and only for typically insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, diamond, and certain glasses, polymers and ceramics. The results are relevant for the correct modeling of systems where the vdW force can play a significant role such as micro and nanodevices, for the calculation of the tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy, and in problems involving adhesion.

  8. Modeling the archetype cysteine protease reaction using dispersion corrected density functional methods in ONIOM-type hybrid QM/MM calculations; the proteolytic reaction of papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Attila; Komáromi, István

    2016-12-07

    A proteolytic reaction of papain with a simple peptide model substrate N-methylacetamide has been studied. Our aim was twofold: (i) we proposed a plausible reaction mechanism with the aid of potential energy surface scans and second geometrical derivatives calculated at the stationary points, and (ii) we investigated the applicability of the dispersion corrected density functional methods in comparison with the popular hybrid generalized gradient approximations (GGA) method (B3LYP) without such a correction in the QM/MM calculations for this particular problem. In the resting state of papain the ion pair and neutral forms of the Cys-His catalytic dyad have approximately the same energy and they are separated by only a small barrier. Zero point vibrational energy correction shifted this equilibrium slightly to the neutral form. On the other hand, the electrostatic solvation free energy corrections, calculated using the Poisson-Boltzmann method for the structures sampled from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories, resulted in a more stable ion-pair form. All methods we applied predicted at least a two elementary step acylation process via a zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate. Using dispersion corrected DFT methods the thioester S-C bond formation and the proton transfer from histidine occur in the same elementary step, although not synchronously. The proton transfer lags behind (or at least does not precede) the S-C bond formation. The predicted transition state corresponds mainly to the S-C bond formation while the proton is still on the histidine Nδ atom. In contrast, the B3LYP method using larger basis sets predicts a transition state in which the S-C bond is almost fully formed and the transition state can be mainly featured by the Nδ(histidine) to N(amid) proton transfer. Considerably lower activation energy was predicted (especially by the B3LYP method) for the next amide bond breaking elementary step of acyl-enzyme formation. Deacylation appeared to

  9. An automated Monte-Carlo based method for the calculation of cascade summing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Britton, R.; Davies, A. V.; McLarty, J. L.; Goodwin, M.

    2016-10-01

    A versatile method has been developed to calculate cascade summing factors for use in quantitative gamma-spectrometry analysis procedures. The proposed method is based solely on Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) nuclear data, an X-ray energy library, and accurate efficiency characterisations for single detector counting geometries. The algorithm, which accounts for γ-γ, γ-X, γ-511 and γ-e- coincidences, can be applied to any design of gamma spectrometer and can be expanded to incorporate any number of nuclides. Efficiency characterisations can be derived from measured or mathematically modelled functions, and can accommodate both point and volumetric source types. The calculated results are shown to be consistent with an industry standard gamma-spectrometry software package. Additional benefits including calculation of cascade summing factors for all gamma and X-ray emissions, not just the major emission lines, are also highlighted.

  10. Implementation of a method for calculating output factors in air for irregular fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Frguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    The concept of output factor in air (Sc) was introduced to characterize the variation of the incident photon fluence per unit monitor with different settings of the collimator. The objective of this work is the implementation of the method proposed by Zhu et al. (2004) to calculate both as FCSc Sc and verification with the measurements performed in mini-mannequin.

  11. Perturbative calculation of the Sternheimer anti-shielding factor with Hartree-Fock atomic orbitals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We report a calculation of the Sternheimer anti-shielding factor, \\gamma, by means of first order perturbation theory. In quality of basis functions, we use Hartree-Fock electronic orbitals, expanded on hydrogenic atomic states. The computed \\gamma(r) for Fe^{3+} and Cu^{1+} inner electronic cores are reported and compared with literature values, obtained from alternative methodologies.

  12. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-K-factor files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The k-factor files contain the correction factors calculated from the headboat activity report. A correction factor is calculated for individual vessels by...

  13. A single-stage voltage sensorless power factor correction converter for LED lamp driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Abd El-Moniem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED technology presents an effective and robust solution to decrease the energy demand. In this paper, a power factor correction (PFC converter is proposed to solve the problems that appear when using LED lamps, such as reducing harmonic currents and reshaping the input current to be a sinusoidal waveform without using line voltage sensor, so the total cost can be reduced and increasing the efficiency. Thus, this technique is considered a simple and easy method which reduces the number of sensors required and achieves the noise isolation between the power circuit and the controller. Also, the proposed method is implemented using a zero-crossing processing, which allows a greater accuracy than other methods. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed circuit which show that the proposed control method has low inrush input current, high power factor (near unity, and fast dynamic response under transient operation. Also, a sinusoidal current waveform under a non-sinusoidal input voltage condition can be achieved.

  14. Lattice calculation of the pion transition form factor $\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma^* \\gamma^*$

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, Gérardin; Nyffeler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the pion transition form factor ${\\cal F}_{\\pi^0\\gamma^*\\gamma^*}(q_1^2,q_2^2)$, which describe the interaction of an on-shell pion with two off-shell photons, using lattice QCD simulations with two degenerate flavors of dynamical quarks. This form factor is the main ingredient in the calculation of the pion-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon $g-2$, $a_\\mu^{\\mathrm{HLbL}; \\pi^0}$. We focus our study on the spacelike region with photon virtualities up to $1.5~\\mathrm{GeV}^2$, not yet measured experimentally. Several lattice spacings and pion masses are used to extrapolate the results to the physical point and a comparison with different phenomenological models is performed. Finally, we use our extrapolated form factor to provide a lattice determinaiton of $a_\\mu^{\\mathrm{HLbL}; \\pi^0}$.

  15. Intraosseous delivery of lentiviral vectors targeting factor VIII expression in platelets corrects murine hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Shin, Simon C; Chiang, Andy F J; Khan, Iram; Pan, Dao; Rawlings, David J; Miao, Carol H

    2015-04-01

    Intraosseous (IO) infusion of lentiviral vectors (LVs) for in situ gene transfer into bone marrow may avoid specific challenges posed by ex vivo gene delivery, including, in particular, the requirement of preconditioning. We utilized IO delivery of LVs encoding a GFP or factor VIII (FVIII) transgene directed by ubiquitous promoters (a MND or EF-1α-short element; M-GFP-LV, E-F8-LV) or a platelet-specific, glycoprotein-1bα promoter (G-GFP-LV, G-F8-LV). A single IO infusion of M-GFP-LV or G-GFP-LV achieved long-term and efficient GFP expression in Lineage(-)Sca1(+)c-Kit(+) hematopoietic stem cells and platelets, respectively. While E-F8-LV produced initially high-level FVIII expression, robust anti-FVIII immune responses eliminated functional FVIII in circulation. In contrast, IO delivery of G-F8-LV achieved long-term platelet-specific expression of FVIII, resulting in partial correction of hemophilia A. Furthermore, similar clinical benefit with G-F8-LV was achieved in animals with pre-existing anti-FVIII inhibitors. These findings further support platelets as an ideal FVIII delivery vehicle, as FVIII, stored in α-granules, is protected from neutralizing antibodies and, during bleeding, activated platelets locally excrete FVIII to promote clot formation. Overall, a single IO infusion of G-F8-LV was sufficient to correct hemophilia phenotype for long term, indicating that this approach may provide an effective means to permanently treat FVIII deficiency.

  16. Detector to detector corrections: A comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azangwe, Godfrey, E-mail: g.azangwe@iaea.org; Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna; Meghzifene, Ahmed [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Lechner, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University Vienna/AKH Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Andersen, Claus E.; Beierholm, Anders R.; Helt-Hansen, Jakob [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Mizuno, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Akifumi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Yajima, Kaori [Association for Nuclear Technology in Medicine, 7-16, Nihonbashikodenmacho, chuou-ku, Tokyo 103-0001 (Japan); Gouldstone, Clare; Sharpe, Peter [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Palmans, Hugo [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and EBG MedAustron GmbH, Medical Physics Department, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm{sup 2} to 4.2 × 4.2 cm{sup 2} and the measurements were extended to larger fields of up to 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm{sup 3} to 0.3 cm{sup 3}). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios determined from alanine to derive a detector correction factors that account for beam perturbation related to nonwater equivalence of the detector materials. Results: For the detectors used in this study, volume averaging corrections ranged from unity for the smallest detectors such as the diodes, 1.148 for the 0.14 cm{sup 3} air filled ionization chamber and were as high as 1.924 for the 0.3 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber. After applying volume averaging corrections, the detector readings were consistent among themselves and with alanine measurements for several small detectors but they differed for larger detectors, in particular for some small ionization chambers with volumes larger than 0.1 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: The results demonstrate

  17. SU-E-I-05: A Correction Algorithm for Kilovoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Dose Calculations in Cervical Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, W; Lu, J [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and feasibility of dose calculations using kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography in cervical cancer radiotherapy using a correction algorithm. Methods: The Hounsfield units (HU) and electron density (HU-density) curve was obtained for both planning CT (pCT) and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) using a CIRS-062 calibration phantom. The pCT and kV-CBCT images have different HU values, and if the HU-density curve of CBCT was directly used to calculate dose in CBCT images may have a deviation on dose distribution. It is necessary to normalize the different HU values between pCT and CBCT. A HU correction algorithm was used for CBCT images (cCBCT). Fifteen intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans of cervical cancer were chosen, and the plans were transferred to the pCT and cCBCT data sets without any changes for dose calculations. Phantom and patient studies were carried out. The dose differences and dose distributions were compared between cCBCT plan and pCT plan. Results: The HU number of CBCT was measured by several times, and the maximum change was less than 2%. To compare with pCT, the CBCT and cCBCT has a discrepancy, the dose differences in CBCT and cCBCT images were 2.48%±0.65% (range: 1.3%∼3.8%) and 0.48%±0.21% (range: 0.1%∼0.82%) for phantom study, respectively. For dose calculation in patient images, the dose differences were 2.25%±0.43% (range: 1.4%∼3.4%) and 0.63%±0.35% (range: 0.13%∼0.97%), respectively. And for the dose distributions, the passing rate of cCBCT was higher than the CBCTs. Conclusion: The CBCT image for dose calculation is feasible in cervical cancer radiotherapy, and the correction algorithm offers acceptable accuracy. It will become a useful tool for adaptive radiation therapy.

  18. Revision to the humidity correction equation in the calculation formulae of the air refractive index based on a phase step interferometer with three frequency-stabilized lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianghua; Zhang, Mengce; Liu, Shuaijie; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Lv, Weiwei

    2016-12-01

    At present the formulae proposed by G Boensch and E Potulski in 1998 (Boensch and Potulski 1998 Metrologia 35 133-9) are mostly used to calculate the air refractive index. However, the humidity correction equation in the formulae is derived by using the light source of a Cd lamp whose light frequency stability is poor and at a narrow temperature range, around 20 °C. So it is no longer suitable in present optical precision measurements. To solve this problem, we propose a refractive index measurement system based on phase step interferometer with three frequency stabilized lasers (532 nm, 633 nm, 780 nm), corrected coefficients of the humidity are measured and a corresponding revised humidity correction equation is acquired. Meanwhile, the application temperature range is extended from 14.6 °C to 25.0 °C. The experiment comparison results at the temperature of 22.2-23.2 °C show the accuracy by the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski.

  19. The accurate calculation of the band gap of liquid water by means of GW corrections applied to plane-wave density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changming; Li, Wun-Fan; Koster, Rik S; Klimeš, Jiří; van Blaaderen, Alfons; van Huis, Marijn A

    2015-01-07

    Knowledge about the intrinsic electronic properties of water is imperative for understanding the behaviour of aqueous solutions that are used throughout biology, chemistry, physics, and industry. The calculation of the electronic band gap of liquids is challenging, because the most accurate ab initio approaches can be applied only to small numbers of atoms, while large numbers of atoms are required for having configurations that are representative of a liquid. Here we show that a high-accuracy value for the electronic band gap of water can be obtained by combining beyond-DFT methods and statistical time-averaging. Liquid water is simulated at 300 K using a plane-wave density functional theory molecular dynamics (PW-DFT-MD) simulation and a van der Waals density functional (optB88-vdW). After applying a self-consistent GW correction the band gap of liquid water at 300 K is calculated as 7.3 eV, in good agreement with recent experimental observations in the literature (6.9 eV). For simulations of phase transformations and chemical reactions in water or aqueous solutions whereby an accurate description of the electronic structure is required, we suggest to use these advanced GW corrections in combination with the statistical analysis of quantum mechanical MD simulations.

  20. Scattering amplitudes and static atomic correction factors for the composition-sensitive 002 reflection in sphalerite ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, M; Müller, K; Rosenauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Modified atomic scattering amplitudes (MASAs), taking into account the redistribution of charge due to bonds, and the respective correction factors considering the effect of static atomic displacements were computed for the chemically sensitive 002 reflection for ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. MASAs were derived from computations within the density functional theory formalism. Binary eight-atom unit cells were strained according to each strain state s (thin, intermediate, thick and fully relaxed electron microscopic specimen) and each concentration (x = 0, …, 1 in 0.01 steps), where the lattice parameters for composition x in strain state s were calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The concentration dependence was derived by computing MASAs for each of these binary cells. Correction factors for static atomic displacements were computed from relaxed atom positions by generating 50 × 50 × 50 supercells using the lattice parameter of the eight-atom unit cells. Atoms were randomly distributed according to the required composition. Polynomials were fitted to the composition dependence of the MASAs and the correction factors for the different strain states. Fit parameters are given in the paper.

  1. Regional-scale calculation of the LS factor using parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Guoan; Jiang, Ling; Zhu, A.-Xing; Yang, Jianyi; Song, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    With the increase of data resolution and the increasing application of USLE over large areas, the existing serial implementation of algorithms for computing the LS factor is becoming a bottleneck. In this paper, a parallel processing model based on message passing interface (MPI) is presented for the calculation of the LS factor, so that massive datasets at a regional scale can be processed efficiently. The parallel model contains algorithms for calculating flow direction, flow accumulation, drainage network, slope, slope length and the LS factor. According to the existence of data dependence, the algorithms are divided into local algorithms and global algorithms. Parallel strategy are designed according to the algorithm characters including the decomposition method for maintaining the integrity of the results, optimized workflow for reducing the time taken for exporting the unnecessary intermediate data and a buffer-communication-computation strategy for improving the communication efficiency. Experiments on a multi-node system show that the proposed parallel model allows efficient calculation of the LS factor at a regional scale with a massive dataset.

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Corneal Power Measurement and Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Following Laser Vision Correction (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Tang, Maolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xinbo; Armour, Rebecca L.; Gattey, Devin M.; Lombardi, Lorinna H.; Koch, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure corneal power and improve the selection of intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract surgeries after laser vision correction. Methods: Patients with previous myopic laser vision corrections were enrolled in this prospective study from two eye centers. Corneal thickness and power were measured by Fourier-domain OCT. Axial length, anterior chamber depth, and automated keratometry were measured by a partial coherence interferometer. An OCT-based IOL formula was developed. The mean absolute error of the OCT-based formula in predicting postoperative refraction was compared to two regression-based IOL formulae for eyes with previous laser vision correction. Results: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients all had uncomplicated cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation. The mean arithmetic prediction error of postoperative refraction was 0.05 ± 0.65 diopter (D) for the OCT formula, 0.14 ± 0.83 D for the Haigis-L formula, and 0.24 ± 0.82 D for the no-history Shammas-PL formula. The mean absolute error was 0.50 D for OCT compared to a mean absolute error of 0.67 D for Haigis-L and 0.67 D for Shammas-PL. The adjusted mean absolute error (average prediction error removed) was 0.49 D for OCT, 0.65 D for Haigis-L (P=.031), and 0.62 D for Shammas-PL (P=.044). For OCT, 61% of the eyes were within 0.5 D of prediction error, whereas 46% were within 0.5 D for both Haigis-L and Shammas-PL (P=.034). Conclusions: The predictive accuracy of OCT-based IOL power calculation was better than Haigis-L and Shammas-PL formulas in eyes after laser vision correction. PMID:24167323

  3. Quantification of confounding factors in MRI-based dose calculations as applied to prostate IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Matteo; Seevinck, Peter R.; Schubert, Gerald; Hoesl, Michaela A. U.; van Asselen, Bram; Viergever, Max A.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Meijer, Gert J.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR)-only radiotherapy treatment planning requires pseudo-CT (pCT) images to enable MR-based dose calculations. To verify the accuracy of MR-based dose calculations, institutions interested in introducing MR-only planning will have to compare pCT-based and computer tomography (CT)-based dose calculations. However, interpreting such comparison studies may be challenging, since potential differences arise from a range of confounding factors which are not necessarily specific to MR-only planning. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify and quantify the contribution of factors confounding dosimetric accuracy estimation in comparison studies between CT and pCT. The following factors were distinguished: set-up and positioning differences between imaging sessions, MR-related geometric inaccuracy, pCT generation, use of specific calibration curves to convert pCT into electron density information, and registration errors. The study comprised fourteen prostate cancer patients who underwent CT/MRI-based treatment planning. To enable pCT generation, a commercial solution (MRCAT, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) was adopted. IMRT plans were calculated on CT (gold standard) and pCTs. Dose difference maps in a high dose region (CTV) and in the body volume were evaluated, and the contribution to dose errors of possible confounding factors was individually quantified. We found that the largest confounding factor leading to dose difference was the use of different calibration curves to convert pCT and CT into electron density (0.7%). The second largest factor was the pCT generation which resulted in pCT stratified into a fixed number of tissue classes (0.16%). Inter-scan differences due to patient repositioning, MR-related geometric inaccuracy, and registration errors did not significantly contribute to dose differences (0.01%). The proposed approach successfully identified and quantified the factors confounding accurate MRI-based dose calculation in

  4. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities.

  5. Sulphur abundance determinations in star-forming regions-I: Ionization Correction Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dors, O L; Hagele, G F; Cardaci, M V; Krabbe, A C

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we used a grid of photoionization models combined with stellar population synthesis models to derive reliable Ionization Correction Factors (ICFs) for the sulphur in star-forming regions. These models cover a large range of nebular parameters and yielding ionic abundances in consonance with those derived through optical and infrared observational data of star-forming regions. From our theoretical ICFs, we suggested an {\\alpha} value of 3.27 in the classical Stasinska formulae. We compared the total sulphur abundance in the gas phase of a large sample of objects by using our Theoretical ICF and other approaches. In average, the differences between the determinations via the use of the different ICFs considered are similar to the uncertainties in the S/H estimations. Nevertheless, we noted that for some objects it could reach up to about 0.3 dex for the low metallicity regime. Despite of the large scatter of the points, we found a trend of S/O ratio to decrease with the metallicity, independ...

  6. Risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after surgical correction of degenerative lumbar scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-yong Ha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis surgery can lead to development of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after lumbar or thoracolumbar fusion. Its incidence, risk factors, morbidity and correlation between radiological and clinical symptoms of ASD have no consensus. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of radiologic adjacent segment disease and certain imperative parameters. Materials and Methods: 98 patients who had undergone surgical correction and lumbar/thoracolumbar fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation for degenerative lumbar scoliosis with a minimum 5 year followup were included in the study. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of radiologic adjacent segment disease and imperative patient parameters like age at operation, sex, body mass index (BMI, medical comorbidities and bone mineral density (BMD. The radiological parameters taken into consideration were Cobb′s angle, angle type, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, intercristal line, preoperative existence of an ASD on plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and surgical parameters were number of the fusion level, decompression level, floating OP (interlumbar fusion excluding L5-S1 level and posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Visual Analogue Score (VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Results: ASD was present in 44 (44.9% patients at an average period of 48.0 months (range 6-98 months. Factors related to occurrence of ASD were preoperative existence of disc degeneration (as revealed by MRI and age at operation ( P = 0.0001, 0.0364. There were no statistically significant differences between radiological adjacent segment degeneration and clinical results (VAS, P = 0.446; ODI, P = 0.531. Conclusions: Patients over the age of 65 years and with preoperative disc degeneration (as revealed by plain radiograph and MRI were at a higher risk of developing ASD.

  7. High-precision calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Jeremy [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Meinel, Stefan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Krieg, Stefan [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany); Julich Supercomputing Centre, Julich (Germany); Laeuchli, Jesse [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Negele, John W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pochinsky, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We report a direct lattice QCD calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors GsE and GsM in the kinematic range 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.2GeV2. For the first time, both GsE and GsM are shown to be nonzero with high significance. This work uses closer-to-physical lattice parameters than previous calculations, and achieves an unprecented statistical precision by implementing a recently proposed variance reduction technique called hierarchical probing. We perform model-independent fits of the form factor shapes using the z-expansion and determine the strange electric and magnetic radii and magnetic moment. As a result, we compare our results to parity-violating electron-proton scattering data and to other theoretical studies.

  8. Calculation of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays for water and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Exposure buildup factors for water and lead have been calculated by the Monte-Carlo method for an isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium, using the latest cross secions available on the Internet. The types of interactions considered are ,photoelectric effect, incoherent (or bound-electron Compton. Scattering, coherent (or Rayleigh scattering and pair production. Fluorescence radiations have also been taken into acount for lead. For each material, calculations were made at 10 gamma ray energies in the 40 keV to 10 MeV range and up to penetration depths of 10 mean free paths at each energy point. The results presented in this paper can be considered as modified gamma ray exposure buildup factors and be used in radiation shielding designs.

  9. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Investigation and calculation of filling factor of SnO2 inverse opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Shimin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    In the process of preparing inverse opal, the structure of inverse opal is affected by many factors, and the filling factor of inverse opal is difficult to directly test. In this paper, SnO2 inverse opal was prepared with the sol-gel method by cooperative opal template. The repetition times of the infiltrating precursor into the opal templates were investigated in detail. The band-gap positions of SnO2 inverse opal were tested. In order to prepare perfect inverse opal structure, the filling quantity of the precursor is greater, as the diameter of the PS microsphere of opal is bigger. The filling factor of air in inverse opal can be calculated with a formula derived from Bragg’s law. For inverse opal, the filling factor of air in inverse opal gradually enlarges as the diameter of the void increases.

  11. Bradford’s law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Llimos F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of ‘journals that matter’ and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest.

  12. BIEMS : A Fortran 90 Program for Calculating Bayes Factors for Inequality and Equality Constrained Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Mulder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a Fortran 90 program referred to asBIEMS (Bayesian inequality and equality constrained model selection that can be used for calculating Bayes factors of multivariate normal linear models with equality and/or inequality constraints betweenthe model parameters versus a model containing no constraints, which is referred to as the unconstrained model. The prior that is used under the unconstrained model is the conjugate expected-constrained posterior prior and the prior under the constrained model is proportional to the unconstrained prior truncated in the constrained space. This results in Bayes factors that appropriately balance between model t and complexity for a broad class of constrained models. When the set of equality and/or inequality constraints in the model represents a hypothesis that applied researchers have in, for instance, (MAN(COVA, (multivariate regression, or repeated measurements, the obtained Bayes factor can be used to determine how much evidence is provided by the data in favor of the hypothesis in comparison to the unconstrained model. If several hypotheses are underinvestigation, the Bayes factors between the constrained models can be calculated using the obtained Bayes factors from BIEMS. Furthermore, posterior model probabilities of constrained models are provided which allows the user to compare the models directlywith each other.

  13. Calculation of k factor function for the carbonation process of lime-based plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    The carbonation process of prepared lime plaster and lime based plaster with pozzolana active metakaolin is performed in an accelerated test arrangement. The depth of carbonation head is determined using colorimetric method and FTIR spectroscopy. Based on experimental data of carbonation head, time dependent k factor function is calculated that points to the decelerated and retarded propagation of the carbonation process due to metakaolin used in plaster composition.

  14. BIEMS: A Fortran 90 Program for Calculating Bayes Factors for Inequality and Equality Constrained Models

    OpenAIRE

    Joris Mulder; Herbert Hoijtink; Christiaan de Leeuw

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a Fortran 90 program referred to as BIEMS (Bayesian inequality and equality constrained model selection) that can be used for calculating Bayes factors of multivariate normal linear models with equality and/or inequality constraints between the model parameters versus a model containing no constraints, which is referred to as the unconstrained model. The prior that is used under the unconstrained model is the conjugate expected-constrained posterior prior and the prior un...

  15. Calculated g -factors of 5 d double perovskites Ba2NaOsO6 and Ba2YOsO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyo-Hoon; Pajskr, Karel; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kuneš, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Using Wannier functions to represent the density functional results we calculate the hybridization corrections to the orbital momentum operator in the Os 5 d shell of the Mott insulators Ba2NaOsO6 and Ba2YOsO6 . The g -factors are obtained by evaluating the spin and orbital momentum operators in the atomic ground states of the Os ion. While the hybridization corrections play a minor role in the d3 ion of Ba2YOsO6 with a dominant spin moment, they are instrumental for the observation of the nonzero g -factor of the d1 ions of Ba2NaOsO6 . In addition, we analyze the exchange interactions in Ba2YOsO6 and find them to be consistent with the reported magnetic structure.

  16. Finite and infinite system gamma ray buildup factor calculations with detailed physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atak, Haluk; Çelikten, Osman Şahin; Tombakoğlu, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Examination of physical interactions of photons in materials is a significant subject for buildup factor studies. In most of the buildup calculations, by default, coherent (Rayleigh) scattering is ignored and the Compton scattering is modeled by free-electron Klein-Nishina formula with "simple physics" treatment. In this work, photon buildup factors are calculated for many different cases including "detailed physics" by taking into account coherent and bound-electron Compton scatterings with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, and the results are compared with the literature values. They are computed for point isotropic photon sources up to depths of 20 mean free paths and at the three photon energies most widely used (0.06, 0.6 and 6MeV). Calculations are made for both finite and infinite homogeneous ordinary water media. It is concluded that Coherent scattering is very dominant at low energies and for deep penetrations and assumed physical approximation (simple/detailed, finite/infinite) is the critical point for determining shielding material dimensions. After all, it can be stated that all parametric assumptions should be clearly given and indicated in the tabulation of photon buildup factors.

  17. Semi-empirical calculation of quenching factors for ions in scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyak, V I

    2009-01-01

    Semi-empirical method of calculation of quenching factors for scintillators is described. It is based on classical Birks formula with the total stopping powers for electrons and ions which are calculated with the ESTAR and SRIM codes, respectively. Method has only one fitting parameter (the Birks factor kB) which can have different values for the same material in different conditions of measurements and data treatment. A hypothesis is used that, once the kB value is obtained by fitting data for particles of one kind and in some energy region (e.g. for a few MeV alpha particles from internal contamination of a detector), it can be applied to calculate quenching factors for particles of another kind and for another energies (e.g. for low energy nuclear recoils) if all data are measured in the same experimental conditions and are treated in the same way. Applicability of the method is demonstrated on many examples including materials with different mechanisms of scintillation: organic scintillators (solid C8H8, ...

  18. Monte Carlo modelling of diode detectors for small field MV photon dosimetry: detector model simplification and the sensitivity of correction factors to source parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer-Sargison, G; Weston, S; Evans, J A; Sidhu, N P; Thwaites, D I

    2012-08-21

    The goal of this work was to examine the use of simplified diode detector models within a recently proposed Monte Carlo (MC) based small field dosimetry formalism and to investigate the influence of electron source parameterization has on MC calculated correction factors. BEAMnrc was used to model Varian 6 MV jaw-collimated square field sizes down to 0.5 cm. The IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD), PTW T60016 (shielded) and PTW T60017 (un-shielded) diodes were modelled in DOSRZnrc and isocentric output ratios (OR(fclin)(detMC)) calculated at depths of d = 1.5, 5.0 and 10.0 cm. Simplified detector models were then tested by evaluating the percent difference in (OR(fclin)(detMC)) between the simplified and complete detector models. The influence of active volume dimension on simulated output ratio and response factor was also investigated. The sensitivity of each MC calculated replacement correction factor (k(fclin,fmsr)(Qclin,Qmsr)), as a function of electron FWHM between 0.100 and 0.150 cm and energy between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV, was investigated for the same set of small field sizes using the simplified detector models. The SFD diode can be approximated simply as a silicon chip in water, the T60016 shielded diode can be modelled as a chip in water plus the entire shielding geometry and the T60017 unshielded diode as a chip in water plus the filter plate located upstream. The detector-specific (k(fclin,fmsr)(Qclin,Qmsr)), required to correct measured output ratios using the SFD, T60016 and T60017 diode detectors are insensitive to incident electron energy between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV and spot size variation between FWHM = 0.100 and 0.150 cm. Three general conclusions come out of this work: (1) detector models can be simplified to produce OR(fclin)(detMC) to within 1.0% of those calculated using the complete geometry, where typically not only the silicon chip, but also any high density components close to the chip, such as scattering plates or shielding material is necessary

  19. Burnout, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction Among Southern Correctional Officers: Perceptions and Causal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Charles A.; Whitehead, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Surveyed perceptions of burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction among a representative sample (N=241) of Alabama correctional officers. Examination of predictor variables revealed that social support; marital status; role conflict; age; correctional seniority; and extrinsic, organizational, and overload stressors significantly influenced…

  20. Nuclear masses near N = Z from Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations with pairing corrections beyond BCS from an isospin conserving pairing force

    CERN Document Server

    Bentley, I; Frauendorf, S

    2013-01-01

    A model with nucleons in a charge independent potential well interacting by an isovector pairing force is considered. For a 24-dimensional valence space, the Hartree-Bogolyubov (HB) plus Random Phase (RPA) approximation to the lowest eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian is shown to be accurate except near values of the pairing force coupling constant G where the HB solution shifts from a zero to a non-zero pair gap. In the limit G->infinity the HB + RPA is asymptotically exact. The inaccuracy of the HB + RPA in the critical regions of G can be remedied by interpolation. The resulting algoritm is used to calculate pairing corrections in the framework of a Nilsson-Strutinsky calculation of nuclear masses near N = Z for A = 24-100, where N and Z are the numbers of neutrons and protons, and A = N + Z. The dimension of the valence space is 2A in these calculations. Adjusting five liquid drop parameters and a power law expression for the constant G as a function of A allows us to reproduce the measured binding energies of...

  1. A general formalism for phase space calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Deutchman, Philip A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1988-01-01

    General formulas for calculating the interactions of galactic cosmic rays with target nuclei are presented. Methods for calculating the appropriate normalization volume elements and phase space factors are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining correct phase space factors for 2-, and 3-body final states. Calculations for both Lorentz-invariant and noninvariant phase space are presented.

  2. Calculation of heavy meson decay form factors using QCD light cone sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Christoph; Faller, Sven; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Offen, Nils [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France)

    2009-07-01

    For the determination of CKM-matrix elements from exclusive semileptonic heavy meson decays it is important to know the corresponding form factors, which describe the hadronic dynamics. Since the form factors need some theoretical input, it is crucial to have a few independent calculations to extract the CKM-parameters from experimental data. One of these is the method of QCD sum rules, which will be applied here. In this talk we present our results from the use of different versions of the method of light cone sum rules (LCSR) for the determination of the B{yields} D{sup (*)}- as well as the D{yields}{pi} and D{yields}K-form factors. For B{yields}D{sup (*)} we use the new version of LCSR with B-meson-distribution amplitudes, which is applicable in the kinematical region of high recoil of the produced meson. The results are compared with recent experimental data and their expansion in the heavy quark mass is discussed. Concerning D{yields} {pi},K we employ and update the conventional LCSR with {pi}/K-distribution amplitudes. With the calculated form factors we determine the ratio vertical stroke V{sub cd} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cs} vertical stroke from new experimental data.

  3. The Application of the Model Correction Factor Method to a Reliability Analysis of a Composite Blade Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimiroy; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis of a composite blade profile. The so-called Model Correction Factor technique is applied as an effective alternate approach to the response surface technique. The structural reliability is determined by use of a simplified idealised analytical model which...

  4. Fluence correction factors for graphite calorimetry in a low-energy clinical proton beam: I. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmans, Hugo; Al-Sulaiti, L; Andreo, P

    2013-01-01

    -eq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.3%. These results are of direct relevance to graphite calorimetry in low-energy protons but given that the fluence correction factor is almost solely influenced by non-elastic nuclear interactions the results are also relevant for plastic phantoms that consist of carbon...

  5. LCL filter design for three-phase two-level power factor correction using line impedance stabilization network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction (PFC) using line impedance stabilization network (LISN). A straightforward LCL filter design along with variation in grid impedance is not simply achievable and inevitably lead to an iterative solution...

  6. Advantages of using a two-switch forward in single-stage power factor corrected power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (discontinues conduction mode) and it is shown that this operation mode ensures the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit...

  7. Improved description of the structural and optoelectronic properties of DNA/RNA nucleobase anhydrous crystals: Experiment and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. B.; Francisco, T. S.; Maia, F. F.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    The development of low cost and environmentally friendly organic electronic/optoelectronic devices has attracted a lot of interest. The integration of DNA and RNA nucleobases to improve the performance of organic light-emitting diodes has been proposed recently [Gomez et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 7105 (2014), 10.1038/srep07105], notwithstanding limited experimental and theoretical information on the optoelectronic properties of DNA/RNA thin films. As a contribution to an improved understanding of DNA/RNA-based devices in the solid state, we have performed in this paper dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations to obtain the optimized geometries, Kohn-Sham band structures and orbitals, charge distribution, optical absorption, Frenkel exciton binding energies, and complex dielectric functions of the five DNA/RNA nucleobase anhydrous crystals, namely cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine, and uracil. Optical absorption measurements on DNA/RNA nucleobase powders were also performed for comparison with the simulations. An improvement on the local density approximation (LDA) description of the lattice parameter estimates was achieved considering the generalized gradient approach (GGA) with a semiempirical dispersion correction scheme in comparison with structural x-ray data found in the literature. Energy gap correction using the Δ-sol methodology provided a good agreement between theory and experimental estimates from our optical absorption data, greatly surpassing the quality of previous simulations. Effective masses for the carriers were also found, indicating that the guanine crystal as well as the cytosine one (although with some drawbacks) has potential applications in optoelectronics as a direct gap semiconductor, with the other nucleobases presenting either a semiconductor or an insulator character depending on the carrier type. The complex dielectric function exhibits a high degree of anisotropy for different states

  8. Determination of the ion recombination correction factor for intraoperative electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besheli, Majid Ghorbanpour; Simiantonakis, Ioannis [University Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Physics/Medical Physics; Zink, Klemens [Univ. of Applied Science (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection (IMPS); Budach, Wilfried [University Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology

    2016-05-01

    The ion recombination correction factor (k{sub s}) is determined for the Advanced Markus chamber exposed to electron beams produced by a dedicated intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) accelerator at medium dose-per-pulse values. The authors evaluate five different methods. Three of them are known as Boag's modified expressions, which are based on the two-voltage-analysis method and include the free-electron component. In the fourth method the IAEA TRS-398 protocol is applied, which uses the same two-voltage-analysis method but ignores the free-electron component, and finally the fifth approach is known as the Jaffe plot. k{sub s} values were obtained in the range of 4 mGy/pulse to 42 mGy/pulse and were compared with k{sub s} values determined by means of radiochromic films, which are independent of the dose rate. It was found that k{sub s} values that resulted from the three Boag's modified expressions and the TRS-398 protocol deviated by on average 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively, from the reference k{sub s} values based on film dosimetry. These results are within the estimated relative uncertainty of ±3%. On the other hand, the absolute deviation of each method depends on the dose-per-pulse value at which the method is investigated. In conclusion, in the medium dose-per-pulse range all Boag's modified expressions could be used for k{sub s} determination. Above a dose-per-pulse value of 35 mGy/pulse, the TRS-398 approach should be avoided. At 27 mGy/pulse and a maximum operation voltage of 300 V the k{sub s} value resulting from the Jaffe plot showed a 0.3% deviation from the reference value. More investigation on the Jaffe plot is necessary at higher dose-per-pulse values.

  9. FÓRMULA RÁPIDA PARA LA CORRECCIÓN DE LOS TRASTORNOS DEL SODIO Quick calculation for sodium imbalances correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Rincón

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El sodio es el catión extracelular más abundante con una concentración sérica normal de 135 a 145 mEq/L. Los mecanismos homeostáticos mantienen la concentración de sodio y la osmolaridad sérica dentro de rangos estrechos. Los trastornos del sodio son comunes en pacientes hospitalizados, y se deben evitar las correcciones inapropiadas ya que pueden producir complicaciones adicionales, morbilidad y muerte. Se propone una fórmula rápida que simplifica el cálculo para la corrección de los trastornos del sodio.Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and has a normal serum concentration of 135 to 145 meq/L. Normal homeostatic mechanisms keep the serum sodium concentration and serum osmolality within narrow therapeutic ranges. Sodium imbalances are common in inbed patients, and caution must be exercised to avoid inappropriate correction, which could result in further complications, morbidity, and death. A quick formula is proposed for simplification of the calculations for correction or sodium imbalances.

  10. Humidity coefficient correction in the calculation equations of air refractive index by He-Ne laser based on phase step interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianghua; Liu, Jinghai; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2015-02-10

    The refractive index of air (RIA) is an important parameter in precision measurement. The revisions to Edlen's equations by Boensch and Potulski [Metrologia 35, 133 (1998)] are mostly used to calculate the RIA at present. Since the humidity correction coefficients in the formulas were performed with four wavelengths of a Cd(114) lamp (644.0, 508.7, 480.1, and 467.9 nm) and at the temperature range of 19.6°C-20.1°C, the application is restricted when an He-Ne laser is used as the light source, which is mostly applied in optical precision measurement, and the environmental temperature is far away from 20°C as well. To solve this problem, a measurement system based on phase step interferometry for measuring the effect of the humidity to the RIA is presented, and a corresponding humidity correction equation is derived. The analysis and comparison results show that the uncertainty of the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski's. It is more suitable in present precision measurements by He-Ne laser, and the application temperature range extends to 14.6°C-24.0°C as well.

  11. Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Radiology Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Radiology Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.

  12. Semi-analytical calculation of QED radiative corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} anti ff with special emphasis on kinematical cuts to the final state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, M.A.

    2000-08-01

    In this dissertation a complete calculation of QED radiative corrections is presented for total cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries for s-channel fermion pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation with kinematical cuts to the final state. This includes cuts on the maximal acollinearity angle {theta}{sub acol} and on the minimal energies E{sub min} of the final state fermion pair and on the cosine of the scattering angle of one fermion cos {theta}. The applied cuts pose a realistic alternative for leptonic final states to cuts on the invariant mass squared s' of the fermion pair and on cos {theta}. The derived QED flux functions {rho}(s'/s), with s as center-of-mass (c.m.) energy squared, are convoluted over s' in an improved Born approximation and were implemented into the semi-analytical Fortran program ZFITTER. It is used at the LEP and SLC experiments for precision tests to the standard model and for searches of new particle physics phenomena. This calculation had become necessary due to the much higher experimental precision obtained now and the insufficient accuracy of the approximate, earlier coding. The hard photon flux functions partly correct unpublished earlier results or constitute otherwise new, general formulae which contain known results as special cases. Very compact expressions are obtained when omitting a cut on cos {theta}. An analysis of the updated code together with other numerical two-fermion codes yields for the acollinearity cut option an agreement of cross sections and asymmetries of better than 0.1 per mil on the Z boson resonance, and of better than 0.3 to 1 per mil at the wings ({radical}(s) = M{sub Z} {+-} 3 GeV).

  13. Grain boundary atomic structures and light-element visualization in ceramics: combination of Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Grain boundaries and interfaces of crystals have peculiar electronic structures, caused by the disorder in periodicity, providing the functional properties, which cannot be observed in a perfect crystal. In the vicinity of the grain boundaries and interfaces, dopants or impurities are often segregated, and they play a crucial role in deciding the properties of a material. Spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), allowing the formation of sub-angstrom-sized electron probes, can directly observe grain boundary-segregated dopants. On the other hand, ceramic materials are composed of light elements, and these light elements also play an important role in the properties of ceramic materials. Recently, annular bright-field (ABF)-STEM imaging has been proposed, which is now known to be a very powerful technique in producing images showing both light- and heavy-element columns simultaneously. In this review, the atomic structure determination of ceramic grain boundaries and direct observation of grain boundary-segregated dopants and light elements in ceramics were shown to combine with the theoretical calculations. Examples are demonstrated for well-defined grain boundaries in rare earth-doped Al(2)O(3) and ZnO ceramics, CeO(2) and SrTiO(3) grain boundary, lithium battery materials and metal hydride, which were characterized by Cs-corrected high-angle annular dark-field and ABF-STEM. It is concluded that the combination of STEM characterization and first-principles calculation is very useful in interpreting the structural information and in understanding the origin of the properties in various ceramics.

  14. Factors influencing separation distances against odour annoyance calculated by Gaussian and Lagrangian dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piringer, Martin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin; Schauberger, Günther

    2016-09-01

    Direction-dependent separation distances to avoid odour annoyance, calculated with the Gaussian Austrian Odour Dispersion Model AODM and the Lagrangian particle diffusion model LASAT at two sites, are analysed and compared. The relevant short-term peak odour concentrations are calculated with a stability-dependent peak-to-mean algorithm. The same emission and meteorological data, but model-specific atmospheric stability classes are used. The estimate of atmospheric stability is obtained from three-axis ultrasonic anemometers using the standard deviations of the three wind components and the Obukhov stability parameter. The results are demonstrated for the Austrian villages Reidling and Weissbach with very different topographical surroundings and meteorological conditions. Both the differences in the wind and stability regimes as well as the decrease of the peak-to-mean factors with distance lead to deviations in the separation distances between the two sites. The Lagrangian model, due to its model physics, generally calculates larger separation distances. For worst-case calculations necessary with environmental impact assessment studies, the use of a Lagrangian model is therefore to be preferred over that of a Gaussian model. The study and findings relate to the Austrian odour impact criteria.

  15. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  16. Correction factor to account for dispersion in sharp-interface models of terrestrial freshwater lenses and active seawater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a recent analytical solution that describes the steady-state extent of freshwater lenses adjacent to gaining rivers in saline aquifers is improved by applying an empirical correction for dispersive effects. Coastal aquifers experiencing active seawater intrusion (i.e., seawater is flowing inland) are presented as an analogous situation to the terrestrial freshwater lens problem, although the inland boundary in the coastal aquifer situation must represent both a source of freshwater and an outlet of saline groundwater. This condition corresponds to the freshwater river in the terrestrial case. The empirical correction developed in this research applies to situations of flowing saltwater and static freshwater lenses, although freshwater recirculation within the lens is a prominent consequence of dispersive effects, just as seawater recirculates within the stable wedges of coastal aquifers. The correction is a modification of a previous dispersive correction for Ghyben-Herzberg approximations of seawater intrusion (i.e., stable seawater wedges). Comparison between the sharp interface from the modified analytical solution and the 50% saltwater concentration from numerical modelling, using a range of parameter combinations, demonstrates the applicability of both the original analytical solution and its corrected form. The dispersive correction allows for a prediction of the depth to the middle of the mixing zone within about 0.3 m of numerically derived values, at least on average for the cases considered here. It is demonstrated that the uncorrected form of the analytical solution should be used to calculate saltwater flow rates, which closely match those obtained through numerical simulation. Thus, a combination of the unmodified and corrected analytical solutions should be utilized to explore both the saltwater fluxes and lens extent, depending on the dispersiveness of the problem. The new method developed in this paper is simple to apply and offers a

  17. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene tilde{{A}} 1Au—{tilde{X}} {^1Σ _g^+} transition. I. Method for calculating polyatomic linear—bent vibrational intensity factors and evaluation of calculated intensities for the gerade vibrational modes in acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. Barratt

    2014-10-01

    Franck-Condon vibrational overlap integrals for the tilde{A} {^1A_u}—{tilde{X}} {^1Σ _g^+} transition in acetylene have been calculated in full dimension in the harmonic normal mode basis. The calculation uses the method of generating functions first developed for polyatomic Franck-Condon factors by Sharp and Rosenstock [J. Chem. Phys. 41(11), 3453-3463 (1964)], and previously applied to acetylene by Watson [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 207(2), 276-284 (2001)] in a reduced-dimension calculation. Because the transition involves a large change in the equilibrium geometry of the electronic states, two different types of corrections to the coordinate transformation are considered to first order: corrections for axis-switching between the Cartesian molecular frames and corrections for the curvilinear nature of the normal modes at large amplitude. The angular factor in the wavefunction for the out-of-plane component of the trans bending mode, ν _4^' ' }, is treated as a rotation, which results in an Eckart constraint on the polar coordinates of the bending modes. To simplify the calculation, the other degenerate bending mode, ν _5^' ' }, is integrated in the Cartesian basis and later transformed to the constrained polar coordinate basis, restoring the conventional v and l quantum numbers. An updated tilde{A}-state harmonic force field obtained recently in the R. W. Field research group is evaluated. The results for transitions involving the gerade vibrational modes are in qualitative agreement with experiment. Calculated results for transitions involving ungerade modes are presented in Paper II of this series [G. B. Park, J. H. Baraban, and R. W. Field, "Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene tilde{A} {^1A_u}—{tilde{X}} {^1Σ _g^+} transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes," J. Chem. Phys. 141, 134305 (2014)].

  18. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene à (1)A(u)-X̃ (1)Σ(g)(+) transition. I. Method for calculating polyatomic linear-bent vibrational intensity factors and evaluation of calculated intensities for the gerade vibrational modes in acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G Barratt

    2014-10-07

    Franck-Condon vibrational overlap integrals for the à Au1-X̃ 1Σg+ transition in acetylene have been calculated in full dimension in the harmonic normal mode basis. The calculation uses the method of generating functions first developed for polyatomic Franck-Condon factors by Sharp and Rosenstock [J. Chem. Phys. 41(11), 3453-3463 (1964)], and previously applied to acetylene by Watson [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 207(2), 276-284 (2001)] in a reduced-dimension calculation. Because the transition involves a large change in the equilibrium geometry of the electronic states, two different types of corrections to the coordinate transformation are considered to first order: corrections for axis-switching between the Cartesian molecular frames and corrections for the curvilinear nature of the normal modes at large amplitude. The angular factor in the wavefunction for the out-of-plane component of the trans bending mode, ν4(″), is treated as a rotation, which results in an Eckart constraint on the polar coordinates of the bending modes. To simplify the calculation, the other degenerate bending mode, ν5(″), is integrated in the Cartesian basis and later transformed to the constrained polar coordinate basis, restoring the conventional v and l quantum numbers. An updated Ã-state harmonic force field obtained recently in the R. W. Field research group is evaluated. The results for transitions involving the gerade vibrational modes are in qualitative agreement with experiment. Calculated results for transitions involving ungerade modes are presented in Paper II of this series [G. B. Park, J. H. Baraban, and R. W. Field, "Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene à Au1-X̃ 1Σg+ transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes," J. Chem. Phys. 141, 134305 (2014)].

  19. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  20. Gamma-ray energy buildup factor calculations and shielding effects of some Jordanian building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, J. M.; Saleh, H.

    2015-05-01

    The shielding properties of three different construction styles, and building materials, commonly used in Jordan, were evaluated using parameters such as attenuation coefficients, equivalent atomic number, penetration depth and energy buildup factor. Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate gamma-ray energy buildup factors of limestone, concrete, bricks, cement plaster and air for the energy range 0.05-3 MeV, and penetration depths up to 40 mfp. It has been observed that among the examined building materials, limestone offers highest value for equivalent atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient and the lowest values for penetration depth and energy buildup factor. The obtained buildup factors were used as basic data to establish the total equivalent energy buildup factors for three different multilayer construction styles using an iterative method. The three styles were then compared in terms of fractional transmission of photons at different incident photon energies. It is concluded that, in case of any nuclear accident, large multistory buildings with five layers exterior walls, style A, could effectively attenuate radiation more than small dwellings of any construction style.

  1. An analytical formalism to calculate phantom scatter factors for flattening filter free (FFF) mode photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heeteak; Prado, Karl L; Yi, Byong Yong

    2014-02-21

    Phantom Scatter Factors, Sp in the Khan formalism (Khan et al 1980 J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 6 745-51) describe medium-induced changes in photon-beam intensity as a function of size of the beam. According to the British Journal of Radiology, Supplement 25, megavoltage phantom scatter factors are invariant as a function of photon-beam energy. However, during the commissioning of an accelerator with flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams (Varian TrueBeam(TM) 6-MV FFF and 10-MV FFF), differences were noted in phantom scatter between the filtered beams and FFF-mode beams. The purpose of this work was to evaluate this difference and provide an analytical formalism to explain the phantom scatter differences between FFF-mode and the filtered mode. An analytical formalism was devised to demonstrate the source of phantom scatter differences between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams. The reason for the differences in the phantom scatter factors between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams is hypothesized to be the non-uniform beam profiles of the FFF-mode beams. The analytical formalism proposed here is based on this idea, taking the product of the filtered phantom scatter factors and the ratio of the off-axis ratio between the FFF-mode and the filtered beams. All measurements were performed using a Varian TrueBeam(TM) linear accelerator with photon energies of 6-MV and 10-MV in both filtered and FFF-modes. For all measurements, a PTW Farmer type chamber and a Scanditronix CC04 cylindrical ionization were used. The in-water measurements were made at depth dose maximum and 100 cm source-to-axis distance. The in-air measurements were done at 100 cm source-to-axis distance with appropriate build-up cap. From these measurements, the phantom scatter factors were derived for the filtered beams and the FFF-mode beams for both energies to be evaluated against the phantoms scatter factors calculated using the proposed algorithm. For 6-MV, the difference between the measured

  2. Correction factors for A1SL ionization chamber dosimetry in TomoTherapy: Machine-specific, plan-class, and clinical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Arias, Araceli; Rodriguez-Romero, Ruth; Sanchez-Rubio, Patricia; Miguel Gonzalez-Castano, Diego; Gomez, Faustino; Nunez, Luis; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Pardo-Montero, Juan [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid 28222 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, 28222 (Spain); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middx, TW11 OLW (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Recently, an international working group on nonstandard fields presented a new formalism for ionization chamber reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields [Alfonso et al., Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)] which has been adopted by AAPM TG-148. This work presents an experimental determination of the correction factors for reference dosimetry with an Exradin A1SL thimble ionization chamber in a TomoTherapy unit, focusing on: (i) machine-specific reference field, (ii) plan-class-specific reference field, and (iii) two clinical treatments. Methods: Ionization chamber measurements were performed in the TomoTherapy unit for intermediate (machine-specific and plan-class-specific) calibration fields, based on the reference conditions defined by AAPM TG-148, and two clinical treatments (lung and head-and-neck). Alanine reference dosimetry was employed to determine absorbed dose to water at the point of interest for the fields under investigation. The corresponding chamber correction factors were calculated from alanine to ionization chamber measurements ratios. Results: Two different methods of determining the beam quality correction factor k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} for the A1SL ionization chamber in this TomoTherapy unit, where reference conditions for conventional beam quality determination cannot be met, result in consistent values. The observed values of overall correction factors obtained for intermediate and clinical fields are consistently around 0.98 with a typical expanded relative uncertainty of 2% (k = 2), which when considered make such correction factors compatible with unity. However, all of them are systematically lower than unity, which is shown to be significant when a hypothesis test assuming a t-student distribution is performed (p=1.8x10{sup -2}). Correction factors k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}} and k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s

  3. In vitro versus in vivo protein digestibility techniques for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score) applied to chickpea fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Olga Luisa; Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva Júnior, Sinézio Inácio

    2016-11-01

    Seven different in vitro methods to determine the protein digestibility for chickpea proteins were considered and also the application of these methodologies for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score), seeking their correlations with the in vivo methodology. In vitro digestibility of raw and heated samples were determined using pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, considering soluble nitrogen via Kjeldahl (ppKJ) and hydrolysed peptide linkages using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and o-phthaldialdehyde. In vitro digestibility was also determined using trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase (3-Enz) or trypsin, chymotrypsin, peptidase and pronase solution (4-Enz). None of the correlations between in vitro and in vivo digestibilities were significant (at pvitro and in vivo results. PDCAAS-ppKJ, PDCAAS-3-Enz and PDCAAS-4-Enz presented the highest correlations with in vivo method, r=0.9316, 0.9442 and 0.9649 (pvitro methods for calculating PDCAAS may be promising and deserves more discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  5. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...

  6. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design....

  7. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design....

  8. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...

  9. Density functional theory calculations of the lowest energy quintet and triplet states of model hemes: role of functional, basis set, and zero-point energy corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostichenko, Daria; Choi, Andrew; Boulatov, Roman

    2008-04-24

    We investigated the effect of several computational variables, including the choice of the basis set, application of symmetry constraints, and zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, on the structural parameters and predicted ground electronic state of model 5-coordinate hemes (iron(II) porphines axially coordinated by a single imidazole or 2-methylimidazole). We studied the performance of B3LYP and B3PW91 with eight Pople-style basis sets (up to 6-311+G*) and B97-1, OLYP, and TPSS functionals with 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets. Only hybrid functionals B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-1 reproduced the quintet ground state of the model hemes. With a given functional, the choice of the basis set caused up to 2.7 kcal/mol variation of the quintet-triplet electronic energy gap (DeltaEel), in several cases, resulting in the inversion of the sign of DeltaEel. Single-point energy calculations with triple-zeta basis sets of the Pople (up to 6-311G++(2d,2p)), Ahlrichs (TZVP and TZVPP), and Dunning (cc-pVTZ) families showed the same trend. The zero-point energy of the quintet state was approximately 1 kcal/mol lower than that of the triplet, and accounting for ZPE corrections was crucial for establishing the ground state if the electronic energy of the triplet state was approximately 1 kcal/mol less than that of the quintet. Within a given model chemistry, effects of symmetry constraints and of a "tense" structure of the iron porphine fragment coordinated to 2-methylimidazole on DeltaEel were limited to 0.3 kcal/mol. For both model hemes the best agreement with crystallographic structural data was achieved with small 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets. Deviation of the computed frequency of the Fe-Im stretching mode from the experimental value with the basis set decreased in the order: nonaugmented basis sets, basis sets with polarization functions, and basis sets with polarization and diffuse functions. Contraction of Pople-style basis sets (double-zeta or triple-zeta) affected the results

  10. Determination of the beam quality correction factor k_{Q,Q_0 } for the microLion chamber in a clinical photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Huh, Hyun Do; Kim, Kum-Bae; Kim, SeongHoon

    2013-01-01

    The mcroLion chamber, which has a small volume (0.0017cc) and a high sensitivity suitable for small field dosimetry, is an ionization chamber with liquid (isooctane) filling the cavity volume. In the present work, we used two alternative ways to estimate the beam quality correction factor k_{Q,Q_0 }^{micL} of the microLion chamber in the 6 MV photon beam from a Clinac iX accelerator (Varian, USA); Monte Carlo simulations and experimental methods. The Monte Carlo calculation (1.0183 ± 0.58%) agreed to within 0.56% with the experimental determination (1.024 ± 0.58%). The results from the two methods were in good agreement within acceptable uncertainties. We think that the averaged factor, 1.0212, could be used for the microLion chamber in reference dosimetry.

  11. Lattice calculation of the pion transition form factor $\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma^* \\gamma^*$

    CERN Document Server

    Gérardin, Antoine; Nyffeler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the $\\pi^0\\to \\gamma^*\\gamma^*$ transition form factor ${\\cal F}_{\\pi^0\\gamma^*\\gamma^*}(q_1^2,q_2^2)$ in lattice QCD with two flavors of quarks. Our main motivation is to provide the input to calculate the $\\pi^0$-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon $(g-2)$, $a_\\mu^{\\rm HLbL;\\pi^0}$. We therefore focus on the region where both photons are spacelike up to virtualities of about $1.5~$GeV$^2$, which has so far not been experimentally accessible. Results are obtained in the continuum at the physical pion mass by a combined extrapolation. We reproduce the prediction of the chiral anomaly for real photons with an accuracy of about $8-9\\%$. We also compare to various recently proposed models and find reasonable agreement for the parameters of some of these models with their phenomenological values. Finally, we use the parametrization of our lattice data by these models to calculate $a_\\mu^{\\rm HLbL;\\pi^0}$.

  12. Calculation of the Power Peaking Factor Using CFNN and Its Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The local power density (LPD) and DNBR must be calculated in order to perform the main functions of the core protection calculator (CPC) and the core operation limit supervisory system (COLSS). CPC and COLSS play a role in the protection and monitoring systems of the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) and the advanced power reactor 1400 (APR1400). LPD should be estimated accurately to prevent fuel rods from melting. LPD at the hottest part of the core is called the power peaking factor (PPF, F{sub q} ). LPD at the hottest part of the core is more important than LPD at any other position in a reactor core. DNBR and PPF are the most important factors that must be continuously monitored from a safety aspect. The aim of the study is to calculate PPF in a reactor core by a cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) model according to operating conditions. The operation condition is reactor power, core inlet temperature, pressurizer pressure, mass flowrate, axial shape index (ASI), and variety of control rod position. The proposed CFNN model that is a PPF estimation algorithm is verified by using the nuclear and thermal data acquired from numerical simulations of OPR1000. The CFNN regression models were optimized by using the data set prepared as training data and tested by using verification data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the OPR 1000. As a result, the RMS error of the estimated PPF values is below 0.05%. In addition, their uncertainty was analyzed by a bootstrap method using 100 sampled development data sets.

  13. Comparison of different multiple flow algorithms for topographic RUSLE factor (LS) calculation in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Pascal; Liniger, Hanspeter; Prasuhn, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a well-known challenge both from a global perspective and in Switzerland, and it is assessed and discussed in many projects (e.g. national or European erosion risk maps). Meaningful assessment of soil erosion requires models that adequately reflect surface water flows. Various studies have attempted to achieve better modelling results by including multiple flow algorithms in the topographic length and slope factor (LS-factor) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The choice of multiple flow algorithms is wide, and many of them have been implemented in programs or tools like Saga-Gis, GrassGis, ArcGIS, ArcView, Taudem, and others. This study compares six different multiple flow algorithms with the aim of identifying a suitable approach to calculating the LS factor for a new soil erosion risk map of Switzerland. The comparison of multiple flow algorithms is part of a broader project to model soil erosion for the entire agriculturally used area in Switzerland and to renew and optimize the current erosion risk map of Switzerland (ERM2). The ERM2 was calculated in 2009, using a high resolution digital elevation model (2 m) and a multiple flow algorithm in ArcView. This map has provided the basis for enforcing soil protection regulations since 2010 and has proved its worth in practice, but it has become outdated (new basic data are now available, e.g. data on land use change, a new rainfall erosivity map, a new digital elevation model, etc.) and is no longer user friendly (ArcView). In a first step towards its renewal, a new data set from the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo) was used to generate the agricultural area based on the existing field block map. A field block is an area consisting of farmland, pastures, and meadows which is bounded by hydrological borders such as streets, forests, villages, surface waters, etc. In our study, we compared the six multiple flow algorithms with the LS factor calculation approach used in

  14. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  15. Evaluation of wall correction factor of INER's air-kerma primary standard chamber and dose variation by source displacement for HDR ¹⁹²Ir brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Wang, J N; Huang, T T; Su, S H; Chang, B J; Su, C H; Hsu, S M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the wall effect of the self-made spherical graphite-walled cavity chamber with the Monte Carlo method for establishing the air-kerma primary standard of high-dose-rate (HDR) ¹⁹²Ir brachytherapy sources at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). The Monte Carlo method established in this paper was also employed to respectively simulate wall correction factors of the ¹⁹²Ir air-kerma standard chambers used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK) for comparisons and verification. The chamber wall correction calculation results will be incorporated into INER's HDR ¹⁹²Ir primary standard in the future. For the brachytherapy treatment in the esophagus or in the bronchi, the position of the isotope may have displacement in the cavity. Thus the delivered dose would differ from the prescribed dose in the treatment plan. We also tried assessing dose distribution due to the position displacement of HDR ¹⁹²Ir brachytherapy source in a phantom with a central cavity by the Monte Carlo method. The calculated results could offer a clinical reference for the brachytherapy within the human organs with cavity.

  16. LA CALCULADORA CIENTIFICA Y LA OBTENCIÓN DE LA RESPUESTA CORRECTA EN EL CICLO DIVERSIFICADO (SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR AND OBTAINING THE CORRECT ANSWER IN THE DIVERSIFIED CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Retana José Ángel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Al comparar la Política Educativa costarricense con los Planes y Programas en Matemáticas, desarrollados en el ciclo diversificado, se muestra una discrepancia en torno a los objetivos de éstos. La Política Educativa propone un aprendizaje con comprensión sobre la base del paradigma constructivista, en tanto los Planes y Programas pretenden dotar al educando de recursos para la obtención de respuestas correctas, incluyendo para ello el uso de la calculadora científica. Esta discrepancia muestra una diferencia significativa en el éxito en la prueba de Bachillerato (conclusión del ciclo diversificado entre los ítemes “algorítmicos” (los cuales pueden ser resueltos con el apoyo de la calculadora científica, y los “conceptuales”. Esta diferencia se incrementa en la Prueba de Diagnóstico que muchos estudiantes aplican antes de ingresar a la Universidad de Costa Rica, dado que en la misma no pueden utilizar la calculadora científica. El presente ensayo cuestiona un posible papel de la calculadora científica en esta situación.Abstract:When comparing both the Costa Rican Educational policy and the plans and programs in Mathematics implemented in t he diversified cycle, clear gaps around t he objetives are evident. The Educational Policy proposes learning with understanding on the basis of the constructivist paradigm while both the plans andprograms intend to provide the learners with resources for attaining correct answers, including the use of scientific calculators. The gaps mentioned evidence a significant difference in “conceptual” and “algorithmic” items of the “Bachillerato” test results (which can be solved by resorting to scientific calculators. This difference increases in the Diagnostic test t hat several students must take before entering the University of Costa Rica as they are not allowed to use the scientific calculator. This paper establishes an argument against the possible role of the

  17. Energy Optimization And Calculation Of Dose Absorption Enhancement Factor In Photon Activation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ranjbar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Secondary radiation such as photoelectrons, Auger electrons and characteristic radiations cause a local boost in dose for a tumor when irradiated with an external X-ray beam after being loaded with elements capable of activating the tumor, e.g.; I and Gd. Materials and Methods:  In this investigation, the MCNPX code was used for simulation and calculation of dose enhancement factor for a tumor loaded with activating elements. The designed model comprised the X-ray source, phantom (target tissue and loaded tumor with activating agent, detector, interactions modeling and results. The source was defined as monochromatic and plane surface situated at 50 cm (z = 50. Phantom geometry was a 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 cube centered at (0, 0, 0 with a 2.2 × 2.2 × 2.2 cm3 cubic tumor with a center located at 3 cm depth inside the phantom Results: Dose enhancement factor and optimum energy in radiotherapy are evaluated using the photon activation therapy method. Result show that the dose enhancement factor increases with activating concentration in the tumor. The maximum dose enhancement factor for iodine in the tumor occurs for photons in the energy range of 50-60 keV. Dose uniformity is less for lower energy photons within the activated region inside the tumor. Results indicate that the dose enhancement factor varies linearly with the activating concentration agent. Discussion and Conclusion: In this study, the obtained results point out a considerable enhancement in dose in the presence of activating agents in the tumor regions.

  18. Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Anna; Liu, Paul; Warrener, Kirbie; McKenzie, David; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2012-05-07

    There is no commercially available real-time dosimeter that can accurately measure output factors for field sizes down to 4 mm without the use of correction factors. Silicon diode detectors are commonly used but are not dosimetrically water equivalent, resulting in energy dependence and fluence perturbation. In contrast, plastic scintillators are nearly dosimetrically water equivalent. A fibre optic dosimeter (FOD) with a 0.8 mm(3) plastic scintillator coupled to an air core light guide was used to measure the output factors for Novalis/BrainLab stereotactic cones of diameter 4-30 mm and Novalis MLC fields of width 5-100 mm. The FOD data matched the output factors measured by a 0.125 cm(3) Semiflex ion chamber for the MLC fields above 30 mm and those measured with the EBT2 radiochromic film for the cones and MLC fields below 30 mm. Relative detector readings were obtained with four diode types (IBA SFD, EFD, PFD, PTW 60012) for the same fields. Empirical diode correction factors were determined by taking the ratio of FOD output factors to diode relative detector readings. The diodes were found to over-respond by 3%-16% for the smallest field. There was good agreement between different diodes of the same model number.

  19. Risk factors for rod fracture after posterior correction of adult spinal deformity with osteotomy: a retrospective case-series

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Cameron; Noshchenko, Andriy; Patel, Vikas; Cain, Christopher; Kleck, Christopher; Burger, Evalina

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteotomies including pedicle subtraction (PSO) and/or Smith-Peterson (SPO) are used to facilitate surgical correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD), but are associated with complications including instrumentation failure and rod fracture (RF). The purpose of this study was to determine incidence and risk factors for RF, including a clinically significant subset (CSRF), after osteotomy for ASD. Methods A retrospective review of clinical records was conducted on consecutive ASD pa...

  20. Analysis and design of modular three-phase power factor correction schemes for utility interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jae-Hong

    The extensive use of non-linear and electronically switched loads in power system has lead to higher incidences of harmonic distortion of the voltage and current waveforms. Harmonic currents degrade power quality and are considered the main source of many system malfunctions. Technical guidelines and standards regarding suppressions of system harmonic contents have been enacted. This dissertation proposes several new three-phase power factor correction (PFC) schemes using single-phase PFC modules. An integrated single-switch approach is first proposed. This is essentially an add-on solution to standard ASD's. This approach is based on circulating third harmonic current between neutral and DC mid-point by utilizing a lossless resistor. Single-phase PFC emulates this resistor to control the amplitude of the current, which is implemented by the dynamic breaking chopper available in standard adjustable speed drives (ASD's). This approach is also capable of reducing harmonic distortion in multiple drives. Analysis, design and simulations are conducted to determine the performance of the proposed scheme with different line impedances and with and without dc-link inductance in the ASD. Experimental results are presented using commercial ASD retrofitted with the proposed approach. Second scheme proposes a three-phase PFC using two standard single-phase PFC modules. In this approach, three-phase input is transformed into two-phase by means of 0.14 pu autotransformer. Two standard single-phase PFC modules are employed to process two-phase power to do output. Split inductors and diodes are employed to limit the interaction between the two phases. A method to eliminate the interaction between phases is also described. Due to cascade operation of two PFC stages, low frequency (120Hz) ripple in dc-link is cancelled. An active interphase transformer (IPT) scheme is proposed to draw sinusoidal input line currents, in the third study. This scheme utilizes a unique combination of a

  1. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  2. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines.

  3. Comparison between In-house developed and Diamond commercial software for patient specific independent monitor unit calculation and verification with heterogeneity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Murugan, Lavanya

    2016-02-01

    The study was aimed to compare two different monitor unit (MU) or dose verification software in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using modified Clarkson's integration technique for 6 MV photons beams. In-house Excel Spreadsheet based monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) program and PTW's DIAMOND secondary check software (SCS), version-6 were used as a secondary check to verify the monitor unit (MU) or dose calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). In this study 180 patients were grouped into 61 head and neck, 39 thorax and 80 pelvic sites. Verification plans are created using PTW OCTAVIUS-4D phantom and also measured using 729 detector chamber and array with isocentre as the suitable point of measurement for each field. In the analysis of 154 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU, using heterogeneity corrections, In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS showed good agreement TPS. The overall percentage average deviations for all sites were (-0.93% + 1.59%) and (1.37% + 2.72%) for In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS respectively. For 26 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region below -350 HU showed higher variations for both In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS. It can be concluded that for patient specific quality assurance (QA), the In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS can be used as a simple and fast accompanying to measurement based verification for plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU.

  4. Development of the heated length to diameter correction factor on critical heat flux using the artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    With using artificial neural networks (ANNs), an analytical study related to the heated length effect on critical heat flux (CHF) has been carried out to make an improvement of the CHF prediction accuracy based on local condition correlations or table. It has been carried out to suggest a feasible criterion of the threshold length-to-diameter (L/D) value in which heated length could affect CHF. And within the criterion, a L/D correction factor has been developed through conventional regression. In order to validate the developed L/D correction factor, CHF experiments for various heated lengths have been carried out under low and intermediate pressure conditions. The developed threshold L/D correlation provides a new feasible criterion of L/D threshold value. The developed correction factor gives a reasonable accuracy for the original database, showing the error of -2.18% for average and 27.75% for RMS, and promising results for new experimental data. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  5. Final-state interaction correction to the electromagnetic nucleon form factors in the time-like region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Jacques; Ong, Saro [Universite de Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (UMR 8608), IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    We study the strong energy dependence of the proton electromagnetic form factors in the time-like region, taking into account the one-pion-exchange final-state interaction in a covariant way. This effect is quantified in terms of the corrected Dirac F{sub 1} and Pauli F{sub 2} form factors and in the commonly used electric G{sub E} and magnetic G{sub M} ones. Our results on the ratio G{sub E} /G{sub M} depend only on the values of two free parameters and allow significant comparisons with the BaBar data. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of Stress Intensity Factor KⅠ Using the Exact Solution in an Infinitely Deep Crack in a Half-Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Deuk Man [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, we develop the exact field of modeⅠin an infinitely deep crack in a half-plane. Using this field, we obtain the exact stress intensity factor KⅠ. From the tractions on the crack faces induced by exact field, we calculate the stress intensity factor of this field. We compare the results with the stress intensity factor calculated using Bueckner’s weight function formula and that calculated by using Tada’s formula listed in “The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook” It was found that Bueckner’s formula yields accurate results. However, the results obtained using Tada’s formula exhibit inaccurate behavior.

  7. Analysis and calculation of factors on curvature ductility of unbonded prestressed concrete beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wen-zhong; XIE Hengyan; YANG Chun-feng

    2007-01-01

    In consideration that behavior of curvature ductility of interior support directly influences the degree of moment modification of unbonded prestressed concrete (UPC) continuous structures, constitutive relationships of concrete, non-prestressed reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement used for nonlinear analysis are given. Through simulation analysis on simple beams subjected to single loading at the middle of the span, the law of factors influencing curvature ductility, such as global reinforcing index, prestressing degree, effective prestress, strength of concrete and grade of non-prestressed reinforcement are explored. Based on these researches, calculating formula of curvature ductility coefficient of UPC beams is established, which provides basic data for further research on plastic design of UPC indeterminate structures.

  8. Theoretical Characterization of Visual Signatures and Calculation of Approximate Global Harmonic Frequency Scaling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Nelson, R. G.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2016-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared spectra, as well as other properties, of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. Quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication have been employed to optimize molecular geometries, compute unscaled harmonic frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase species. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Calculation of approximate global harmonic frequency scaling factors for specific DFT functionals is also in progress. A full statistical analysis and reliability assessment of computational results is currently underway. Work supported by the ARL, DoD-HPCMP, and USMA.

  9. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP sup T sup M , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents...

  10. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J. E-mail: mrivard@lifespan.org; Sganga, J.K.; D' Errico, F.; Tsai, J-S.; Ulin, K.; Engler, M.J

    2002-01-01

    The {sup 252}Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S{sub KN}/m{sub Cf}) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass ({mu}g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for {sup 252}Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S{sub KN}/m{sub Cf} was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S{sub KN}/m{sub Cf} decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of {sup 252}Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra results calculated herein using MCNP were compared with results of Colvett et al. and Rivard et al.

  11. METHOD TO CALCULATE STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR OF V-NOTCH IN BI-MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youtang Li; Ming Song

    2008-01-01

    Based on Zak's stress function,the eigen-equation of stress singularity of bi-materials with a Ⅴ-notch was obtained.A new definition of stress intensity factor for a perpendicular inter facial Ⅴ-notch of bi-material was put forward.The effects of shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of the matrix material and attaching material on eigen-values were analyzed.A generalized ex pression for calculating KI of the perpendicular V-notch of bi-materials was obtained by means of stress extrapolation.Effects of notch depth,notch angle and Poisson's ratio of materials on the singular stress field near the tip of the Ⅴ-notch were analyzed systematically with numerical simulations.As an example,a finite plate with double edge notches under uniaxial uniform ten sion was calculated by the method presented and the influence of the notch angle and Poisson's ratio on the stress singularity near the tip of notch was obtained.

  12. Perturbative Corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ Form Factors from QCD Light-Cone Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We compute radiative corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with $\\Lambda_b$-baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-$\\Lambda_b$-baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in $\\Lambda/m_b$, with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to-$B$-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ shift the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originat...

  13. SU-C-304-06: Determination of Intermediate Correction Factors for Three Dosimeters in Small Composite Photon Fields Used in Robotic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, E [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Belec, J; Vandervoort, E [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa (Canada); Muir, B [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To calculate using Monte-Carlo the intermediate and total correction factors (CFs) for two microchambers and a plastic scintillator for composite fields delivered by the CyberKnife system. Methods: A linac model was created in BEAMnrc by matching percentage depth dose (PDD) curves and output factors (OFs) measured using an A16 microchamber with Monte Carlo calculations performed in egs-chamber to explicitly model detector response. Intermediate CFs were determined for the A16 and A26 microchambers and the W1 plastic scintillator in fourteen different composite fields inside a solid water phantom. Seven of these fields used a 5 mm diameter collimator; the remaining fields employed a 7.5 mm collimator but were otherwise identical to the first seven. Intermediate CFs are reported relative to the respective CF for a 60 mm collimator (800 mm source to detector distance and 100 mm depth in water). Results: For microchambers in composite fields, the intermediate CFs that account for detector density and volume were the largest contributors to total CFs. The total CFs for the A26 were larger than those for the A16, especially for the 5 mm cone (1.227±0.003 to 1.144±0.004 versus 1.142±0.003 to 1.099±0.004), due to the A26’s larger active volume (0.015 cc) relative to the A16 (0.007 cc), despite the A26 using similar wall and electrode material. The W1 total and intermediate CFs are closer to unity, due to its smaller active volume and near water-equivalent composition, however, 3–4% detector volume corrections are required for 5 mm collimator fields. In fields using the 7.5 mm collimator, the correction is nearly eliminated for the W1 except for a non-isocentric field. Conclusion: Large and variable CFs are required for microchambers in small composite fields primarily due to density and volume effects. Corrections are reduced but not eliminated for a plastic scintillator in the same fields.

  14. Lattice QCD calculation of form factors for $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda(1520) \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results for mesonic $b \\to s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays show a pattern of deviations from Standard-Model predictions, which could be due to new fundamental physics or due to an insufficient understanding of hadronic effects. Additional information on the $b \\to s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ transition can be obtained from $\\Lambda_b$ decays. This was recently done using the process $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, where the $\\Lambda$ is the lightest strange baryon. A further interesting channel is $\\Lambda_b \\to p^+ K^- \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, where the $p^+ K^-$ final state receives contributions from multiple higher-mass $\\Lambda$ resonances. The narrowest and most prominent of these is the $\\Lambda(1520)$, which has $J^P=\\frac32^-$. Here we present an ongoing lattice QCD calculation of the relevant $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda(1520)$ form factors. We discuss the choice of interpolating field for the $\\Lambda(1520)$, and explain our method for extracting the fourteen $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda(1520)$ helicity form factors from corr...

  15. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100m high tower; the frequency of the “event day of land and sea breezes” are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test.A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established.This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast.The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  16. Microscopic calculations of C2 and C4 form factors in sd-shell nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Radhi, R A

    2003-01-01

    Inelastic electron scattering to 2 sup + and 4 sup + states for the even-even N=Z sd-shell nuclei ( sup 2 sup 0 Ne, sup 2 sup 4 Mg, sup 2 sup 8 Si and sup 3 sup 2 S) are discussed taking into account higher energy configurations outside the sd-shell. Higher energy configurations, which are called core polarization effects, are included through a microscopic theory that includes excitations from the core 1s and 1p orbits and also from 2s-1d shell to the higher allowed orbits with 2 Planck constant omega excitations. The predictions of C2 and C4 Coulomb form factors are compared with the available experimental data. The calculations based on the Wildenthal interaction for the sd-shell model space and on the modified surface delta interaction for the core-polarization effects. The effect of higher excited configurations is found essential in both the transition strength and momentum transfer dependence of form factors, and gives a remarkably good agreement with the measured data.

  17. Effect of four factors in the calculation of induced voltages on a tree-shaped distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Horacio; Perez, Ernesto; Herrera, Javier; Younes, Camilo; Salgado, Milton; Quintana, Carlos; Rondon, Daniel; Gallego, Luis; Montana, Johny; Vargas, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Research Program on Acquisition and Analysis of Signals - PAAS]. E-mail: paas@paas.unal.edu.co

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to show a sensibility analysis of four different factors: current waveform, return stroke velocity, lightning current amplitude and network configuration in the calculation of induced voltages on a tree-shaped distribution line. In order to calculate distribution line. In order to calculate the induced voltages it was used the EMTP/ATP program with the inclusion of Rusck's Coupling Model into the MODELS routine. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic transition form factor and radiative corrections in decays of neutral pions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husek Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly summarize experimental and theoretical results on the rare decay π0 → e+e−. The notorious 3.3σ discrepancy between the SM prediction and the experimental value provided by KTeV collaboration is discussed in the view of a complete set of NLO QED radiative corrections. We also present the Two-Hadron Saturation (THS scenario for the PVV correlator and apply it to the decay under discussion. The discrepancy then reduces down to 1.8σ.

  19. Analyses toward factors influencing sealing clearance of a metal rubber seal and derivation of a calculation formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Hui Zhao Yalei Liu Jianguo Jiang Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    .... By combining the temperature and elasticity factors of metal rubber with the elastic mechanics theory, the calculation formula of the sealing clearance has been derived, and the values of the sealing...

  20. Dose calculation for asymmetric fields and irregular fields with multileaf collimators. Approximation of tissue-maximum ratio and field factor using modified Day`s calculation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Manabu; Okada, Takashi; Komai, Yoshinori; Nohara, Hiroki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1996-08-01

    Modern linear accelerators have four independent jaws and multileaf collimators (MLC) of 1 cm width at the isocenter. Asymmetric fields defined by such independent jaws and irregular multileaf collimated fields can be used to match adjacent fields or to spare the spinal cord in external photon beam radiotherapy. We have developed a new approximate algorithm for depth dose calculations at the collimator rotation axis. The program is based on Clarkson`s principle, and uses a more accurate modification of Day`s method for asymmetric fields. Using this method, tissue-maximum ratios (TMR) and field factors of ten kinds of asymmetric fields and ten different irregular multileaf collimated fields were calculated and compared with the measured data for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The dose accuracy with the general A/Pe method was about 3%, however, with the new modified Day`s method, accuracy was within 1.7% for TMR and 1.2% for field factors. The calculated TMR and field factors were found to be in good agreement with measurements for both the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. (author)

  1. Perturbative renormalization factors and O(a^2) corrections for lattice 4-fermion operators with improved fermion/gluon actions

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Martha; Frezzotti, Roberto; Lubicz, Vittorio; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Stylianou, Fotos

    2010-01-01

    In this work we calculate the corrections to the amputated Green's functions of 4-fermion operators, in 1-loop Lattice Perturbation theory. One of the novel aspects of our calculations is that they are carried out to O(a^2) (a: lattice spacing). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and a family of Symanzik improved actions for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients. While our Green's function calculations regard any pointlike 4-fermion operators which do not mix with lower dimension ones, we pay particular attention to DF=2 operators, both Parity Conserving and Parity Violating (F: flavour). We compute the perturbative renormalization constants for a complete basis of 4-fermion operators and we study their mixing pattern. For some of the actions considered here, even O(a^0) results did not exis...

  2. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFICACY OF RISK FACTORS CORRECTION AND TREATMENT COMPLIANCE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Efanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the efficacy of correction of modifiable risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD, and treatment compliance within 6 months of observation in group of men and group of women after acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Material and мethods. Patients (n=147: 100 men and 47 women aged under 70 years who underwent ACS were examined. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and frequency of basic drugs taking were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. The efficacy of risk factors correction in men was compared with this in women. Results. A general number of patients with effective blood pressure (BP control as well as patients who reached the target levels of total cholesterol (TC <4.5 mmol/l and cholesterol of low>density lipoproteins (LDC <2.5 mmol/l after 6 months increased significantly in comparison with this before observation. Taking of drugs from all main groups left unsatisfactory and did not>reach the advisable values. Women have better antihypertensive treatment compliance, but worse lipidemia level control; they more often have glucose metabolism disorders, arterial hypertension and obesity. Men smoked more often, but have better BP, TC and cholesterol LDC control. Conclusion. The high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors requires intensification of preventive activity regarding IHD onset and progression among both men and women.

  3. [Albumin corrected anion gap is an independent risk factor for long-term mortality of patients with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Liao, Xuelian; Xie, Zhichao; Jiang, Chao; Kang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    To explore whether albumin corrected anion gap (ACAG) is associated with long-term mortality of sepsis patients. Adult patients with a diagnosis of sepsis within the first 24 hours (from December 2013 to December 2014) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included via the Sepsis database of West China Hospital Sichuan University. To record their long-term survival, patients were followed up by telephone interview one year after enrollment. ACAG was calculated according to the anion gap (AG) level within the first 24 hours admitted to ICU, and patients were divided into normal ACAG group (ACAG 12-20 mmol/L) and high ACAG group (ACAG > 20 mmol/L), and clinical characteristics and 1-year mortality were compared between groups. Patients were also divided into survivors and non-survivors according to the 1-year survival outcome, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to find independent risk factors for long-term mortality of sepsis patients. A total of 296 sepsis patients were enrolled in the study, with 191 (64.5%) in the high ACAG group and 105 (35.5%) in the normal ACAG group. There were no significant differences in age, gender, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), Charlson cormobidity index (CCI) and other background variables between groups. Compared with the normal ACAG group, patients who suffered from multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in the high ACAG group were more prone to develop renal and gastrointestinal injury (43.5% vs. 25.7%, 52.9% vs. 33.3%, respectively), had significantly higher serum creatinine [SCr (μmol/L): 89.0 (61.0, 148.0) vs. 67.1 (48.0, 86.0)], greater need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT, 16.8% vs. 6.7%), and significantly shorter length of ICU stay and hospital stay [days: 11 (5, 22) vs. 16 (18, 31), 21 (14, 39) vs. 28 (20, 47)], with statistically significant differences (all P year cumulative survival for the

  4. Metabolic correction of congenital erythropoietic porphyria with iPSCs free of reprogramming factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Aurélie; Taillepierre, Miguel; Guyonnet-Duperat, Véronique; Lippert, Eric; Dubus, Pierre; Dabernat, Sandrine; Mautuit, Thibaud; Cardinaud, Bruno; Pain, Catherine; Rousseau, Benoît; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Duchartre, Yann; Richard, Emmanuel; de Verneuil, Hubert; Moreau-Gaudry, François

    2012-07-13

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is due to a deficiency in the enzymatic activity of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS); such a deficiency leads to porphyrin accumulation and results in skin lesions and hemolytic anemia. CEP is a candidate for retrolentivirus-mediated gene therapy, but recent reports of insertional leukemogenesis underscore the need for safer methods. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened up new horizons in gene therapy because it might overcome the difficulty of obtaining sufficient amounts of autologous hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation and the risk of genotoxicity. In this study, we isolated keratinocytes from a CEP-affected individual and generated iPSCs with two excisable lentiviral vectors. Gene correction of CEP-derived iPSCs was obtained by lentiviral transduction of a therapeutic vector containing UROS cDNA under the control of an erythroid-specific promoter shielded by insulators. One iPSC clone, free of reprogramming genes, was obtained with a single proviral integration of the therapeutic vector in a genomic safe region. Metabolic correction of erythroblasts derived from iPSC clones was demonstrated by the disappearance of fluorocytes. This study reports the feasibility of porphyria gene therapy with the use of iPSCs.

  5. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk;

    2015-01-01

    circuit is used to provide the inductor current harmonic spectrum. Therefore, using the harmonic spectrum, the low and high frequency copper losses are calculated. The high frequency minor B-H loops in one switching cycle are also analyzed. Then, the loss map provided by the measurement setup is used...

  6. Correcting for Cultural Factors in Evaluating Intellectual Deficit on the WAIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, John E.; Levin, Harvey S.

    1978-01-01

    Estimates were obtained of the effects of ethnic group, sex, education, and clinical diagnosis on WAIS IQ scores of psychiatric patients. Expected IQ scores for segments of the general population were calculated by adding or subtracting these effects from an expected IQ for a White high school graduate. (Author/SJL)

  7. Optimizing stream water mercury sampling for calculation of fish bioaccumulation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Knightes, Christopher; Button, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for game fishes are widely employed for monitoring, assessment, and regulatory purposes. Mercury BAFs are calculated as the fish Hg concentration (Hgfish) divided by the water Hg concentration (Hgwater) and, consequently, are sensitive to sampling and analysis artifacts for fish and water. We evaluated the influence of water sample timing, filtration, and mercury species on the modeled relation between game fish and water mercury concentrations across 11 streams and rivers in five states in order to identify optimum Hgwater sampling approaches. Each model included fish trophic position, to account for a wide range of species collected among sites, and flow-weighted Hgwater estimates. Models were evaluated for parsimony, using Akaike’s Information Criterion. Better models included filtered water methylmercury (FMeHg) or unfiltered water methylmercury (UMeHg), whereas filtered total mercury did not meet parsimony requirements. Models including mean annual FMeHg were superior to those with mean FMeHg calculated over shorter time periods throughout the year. FMeHg models including metrics of high concentrations (80th percentile and above) observed during the year performed better, in general. These higher concentrations occurred most often during the growing season at all sites. Streamflow was significantly related to the probability of achieving higher concentrations during the growing season at six sites, but the direction of influence varied among sites. These findings indicate that streamwater Hg collection can be optimized by evaluating site-specific FMeHg - UMeHg relations, intra-annual temporal variation in their concentrations, and streamflow-Hg dynamics.

  8. Three- and four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital calculations with a novel subdividing fragmentation method applicable to structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chiduru; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Okiyama, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Takayuki; Kato, Akifumi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Mochizuki, Yuji; Nakano, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    We develop an inter-fragment interaction energy (IFIE) analysis based on the three- and four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital (FMO3 and FMO4) method to evaluate the interactions of functional group units in structure-based drug design context. The novel subdividing fragmentation method for a ligand (in units of their functional groups) and amino acid residues (in units of their main and side chains) enables us to understand the ligand-binding mechanism in more detail without sacrificing chemical accuracy of the total energy and IFIEs by using the FMO4 method. We perform FMO4 calculations with the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for an estrogen receptor (ER) and the 17β-estradiol (EST) complex using the proposed fragmentation method and assess the interaction for each ligand-binding site by the FMO4-IFIE analysis. When the steroidal EST is divided into two functional units including "A ring" and "D ring", respectively, the FMO4-IFIE analysis reveals their binding affinity with surrounding fragments of the amino acid residues; the "A ring" of EST has polarization interaction with the main chain of Thr347 and two hydrogen bonds with the side chains of Glu353 and Arg394; the "D ring" of EST has a hydrogen bond with the side chain of His524. In particular, the CH/π interactions of the "A ring" of EST with the side chains of Leu387 and Phe404 are easily identified in cooperation with the CHPI program. The FMO4-IFIE analysis using our novel subdividing fragmentation method, which provides higher resolution than the conventional IFIE analysis in units of ligand and each amino acid reside in the framework of two-body approximation, is a useful tool for revealing ligand-binding mechanism and would be applicable to rational drug design such as structure-based drug design and fragment-based drug design.

  9. Muonic vacuum polarization correction to the bound-electron $g$-factor

    CERN Document Server

    Belov, N A; Weis, R; Yerokhin, V A; Sturm, S; Blaum, K; Keitel, C H; Harman, Z

    2016-01-01

    The muonic vacuum polarization contribution to the $g$-factor of the electron bound in a nuclear potential is investigated theoretically. The electric as well as the magnetic loop contributions are evaluated. We found these muonic effects to be observable in planned trapped-ion experiments with light and medium-heavy highly charged ions. The enhancement due to the strong Coulomb field boosts these contributions much above the corresponding terms in the free-electron $g$-factor. Due to their magnitude, muonic vacuum polarization terms are also significant in planned determinations of the fine-structure constant from the bound-electron $g$-factor.

  10. Correction Factor for Gaussian Deconvolution of Optically Thick Linewidths in Homogeneous Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Profiles of optically thick, non-Gaussian emission line profiles convoluted with Gaussian instrumental profiles are constructed, and are deconvoluted on the usual Gaussian basis to examine the departure from accuracy thereby caused in "measured" linewidths. It is found that "measured" linewidths underestimate the true linewidths of optically thick lines, by a factor which depends on the resolution factor r congruent to Doppler width/instrumental width and on the optical thickness tau(sub 0). An approximating expression is obtained for this factor, applicable in the range of at least 0 tau(sub 0) estimates of the true linewidth and optical thickness.

  11. Evaluation of calculation methods of collimator scatter factors in a linear accelerator equipped with MLC instead of lower collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Tomo; Sasaki, Koji

    2009-09-20

    In the monitor unit verification for high-energy radiation therapy, we evaluated methods of calculation of collimator scatter factors (S(c)) in a linear accelerator equipped with MLC instead of lower collimators. Routinely,S(c) is calculated from rectangular fields shaped by upper and lower jaws in the linear accelerator. However, this calculation method should not be used for the linear accelerator equipped with MLC instead of lower collimators. Consequently, we used a backprojected field at the flattening filter plane projected by calculation point's eye view on each MLC. We then attempted to deviseS(c) by using Clarkson's integration for these backprojected irregular fields. This method makes it possible to calculate collimator scatter factors in error of less than +/-0.3% in all of sixteen measured irregular fields.

  12. Single stage single phase active power factor corrected Ĉuk Topology Based AC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail Hossain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a power factor correction (PFC converter using close loop Ĉuk topology. Regardless of the input line voltage and output load variations, input current drawn by the buck or buck-boost converter is always discontinuous. The Boost converter suffers from high voltage stresses across the power electronic devices. The input current in Ĉuk converter is comparable to boost converter’s input current. In this paper output voltage is controlled by inner current and outer voltage control loop along with power factor correction (PFC. It shows less input current THD, nearly unity power factor and better output voltage regulation of AC-DC converter under variable input voltage and output load. In this paper the relative performance between normal diode rectifier, open loop Ĉuk rectifier and close loop Ĉuk rectifier is presented. An algorithm for implementing close loop Ĉuk rectifier in digital domain is developed and simulated.

  13. Partial correction of a severe molecular defect in hemophilia A, because of errors during expression of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Inaba, Hiroshi [Tokyo Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Although the molecular defect in patients in a Japanese family with mild to moderately severe hemophilia A was a deletion of a single nucleotide T within an A{sub 8}TA{sub 2} sequence of exon 14 of the factor VIII gene, the severity of the clinical phenotype did not correspond to that expected of a frameshift mutation. A small amount of functional factor VIII protein was detected in the patient`s plasma. Analysis of DNA and RNA molecules from normal and affected individuals and in vitro transcription/translation suggested a partial correction of the molecular defect, because of the following: (i) DNA replication/RNA transcription errors resulting in restoration of the reading frame and/or (ii) {open_quotes}ribosomal frameshifting{close_quotes} resulting in the production of normal factor VIII polypeptide and, thus, in a milder than expected hemophilia A. All of these mechanisms probably were promoted by the longer run of adenines, A{sub 10} instead of A{sub 8}TA{sub 2}, after the delT. Errors in the complex steps of gene expression therefore may partially correct a severe frameshift defect and ameliorate an expected severe phenotype. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Analyses toward factors influencing sealing clearance of a metal rubber seal and derivation of a calculation formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hui; Zhao Yalei; Liu Jianguo; Jiang Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Sealing clearance is a key factor for a metal rubber seal’s sealability. The expansion coef-ficient and expansion deformation in the radial direction of metal rubber have been obtained through a thermal expansion experiment of metal rubber. The influence of the elastic modulus to the sealing clearance has been analyzed theoretically. By combining the temperature and elasticity factors of metal rubber with the elastic mechanics theory, the calculation formula of the sealing clearance has been derived, and the values of the sealing clearance and the leakage rate in certain working conditions have been calculated. Experimental results are consistent with calculation results in a high degree. The calculation formula of the sealing clearance can explain the influences of the temperature and elastic modulus factors of metal rubber on the sealing clearance. It can pro-vide guidance for the study of sealing mechanism of metal rubber seals.

  15. A critical analysis of dipole-moment calculations as obtained from experimental and theoretical structure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain-Paul, Agnieszka; Nassour, Ayoub; Jelsch, Christian; Guillot, Benoit; Kubicki, Maciej; Lecomte, Claude

    2012-11-01

    Three models of charge-density distribution - Hansen-Coppens multipolar, virtual atom and kappa - of different complexities, different numbers of refined parameters, and with variable levels of restraints, were tested against theoretical and high-resolution X-ray diffraction structure factors for 2-methyl-4-nitro-1-phenyl-1H-imidazole-5-carbonitrile. The influence of the model, refinement strategy, multipole level and treatment of the H atoms on the dipole moment was investigated. The dipole moment turned out to be very sensitive to the refinement strategy. Also, small changes in H-atom treatment can greatly influence the calculated magnitude and orientation of the dipole moment. The best results were obtained when H atoms were kept in positions determined by neutron diffraction and anisotropic displacement parameters (obtained by SHADE, in this case) were used. Also, constraints on kappa values of H atoms were found to be superior to the free refinement of these parameters. It is also shown that the over-parametrization of the multipolar model, although possibly leading to better residuals, in general gives worse dipole moments.

  16. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    CERN Document Server

    Rivard, M J; D'Errico, F; Tsai, J S; Ulin, K; Engler, M J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (mu g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra resul...

  17. Experimental determination of field factors (\\Omega _{{{Q}_{\\text{clin}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{clin}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} ) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1 cm  ×  1 cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%—with the exception of the IBA-PFD—for field sizes between 1.5 cm  ×  1.5 cm and 5 cm  ×  5 cm. For the 1 cm  ×  1 cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated k{{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}} is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1 cm  ×  1 cm for the dosimeters used in this work.

  18. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  19. Fast Reinforcement Learning with Large Action Sets using Error-Correcting Output Codes for MDP Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Dulac-Arnold, Gabriel; Preux, Philippe; Gallinari, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The use of Reinforcement Learning in real-world scenarios is strongly limited by issues of scale. Most RL learning algorithms are unable to deal with problems composed of hundreds or sometimes even dozens of possible actions, and therefore cannot be applied to many real-world problems. We consider the RL problem in the supervised classification framework where the optimal policy is obtained through a multiclass classifier, the set of classes being the set of actions of the problem. We introduce error-correcting output codes (ECOCs) in this setting and propose two new methods for reducing complexity when using rollouts-based approaches. The first method consists in using an ECOC-based classifier as the multiclass classifier, reducing the learning complexity from O(A2) to O(Alog(A)). We then propose a novel method that profits from the ECOC's coding dictionary to split the initial MDP into O(log(A)) seperate two-action MDPs. This second method reduces learning complexity even further, from O(A2) to O(log(A)), t...

  20. Region of Interest Correction Factors Improve Reliability of Diffusion Imaging Measures Within and Across Scanners and Field Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E.; Landman, Bennett; Goh, Joshua; Reiter, David A.; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures are commonly used as imaging markers to investigate individual differences in relation to behavioral and health-related characteristics. However, the ability to detect reliable associations in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies is limited by the reliability of the diffusion measures. Several studies have examined reliability of diffusion measures within (i.e. intra-site) and across (i.e. inter-site) scanners with mixed results. Our study compares the test-retest reliability of diffusion measures within and across scanners and field strengths in cognitively normal older adults with a follow-up interval less than 2.25 years. Intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV) of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were evaluated in sixteen white matter and twenty-six gray matter bilateral regions. The ICC for intra-site reliability (0.32 to 0.96 for FA and 0.18 to 0.95 for MD in white matter regions; 0.27 to 0.89 for MD and 0.03 to 0.79 for FA in gray matter regions) and inter-site reliability (0.28 to 0.95 for FA in white matter regions, 0.02 to 0.86 for MD in gray matter regions) with longer follow-up intervals were similar to earlier studies using shorter follow-up intervals. The reliability of across field strengths comparisons was lower than intra- and inter-site reliability. Within and across scanner comparisons showed that diffusion measures were more stable in larger white matter regions (> 1500 mm3). For gray matter regions, the MD measure showed stability in specific regions and was not dependent on region size. Linear correction factor estimated from cross-sectional or longitudinal data improved the reliability across field strengths. Our findings indicate that investigations relating diffusion measures to external variables must consider variable reliability across the distinct regions of interest and that correction factors can be used to improve consistency of measurement across

  1. Proton form-factor dependence of the finite-size correction to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, J D; Rafelski, J; Miller, G A

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the 2P^{F=2}_{3/2} to 2S^{F=1}_{1/2} transition in muonic hydrogen by Pohl et al. and subsequent analysis has led to the conclusion that the rms radius of the proton differs from the accepted (CODATA) value by approximately 4%, corresponding to a 4.9 sigma discrepancy. We investigate the finite-size effects - in particular the dependence on the shape of the proton electric form-factor - relevant to this transition using bound-state QED with nonperturbative, relativistic Dirac wave-functions for a wide range of idealised charge-distributions and a parameterization of experimental data in order to comment on the extent to which the perturbation-theory analysis which leads to the above conclusion can be confirmed. We find no statistically significant dependence of this correction on the shape of the proton form-factor.

  2. Semi-empirical correction of ab initio harmonic properties by scaling factors: a validated uncertainty model for calibration and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Pernot, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian Model Calibration is used to revisit the problem of scaling factor calibration for semi-empirical correction of ab initio harmonic properties (e.g. vibrational frequencies and zero-point energies). A particular attention is devoted to the evaluation of scaling factor uncertainty, and to its effect on the accuracy of scaled properties. We argue that in most cases of interest the standard calibration model is not statistically valid, in the sense that it is not able to fit experimental calibration data within their uncertainty limits. This impairs any attempt to use the results of the standard model for uncertainty analysis and/or uncertainty propagation. We propose to include a stochastic term in the calibration model to account for model inadequacy. This new model is validated in the Bayesian Model Calibration framework. We provide explicit formulae for prediction uncertainty in typical limit cases: large and small calibration sets of data with negligible measurement uncertainty, and datasets with la...

  3. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in surgeries for correction of idiopathic, neuromuscular or congenital scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical and demographic variables in patients requiring blood transfusion during elective surgery to treat scoliosis with the aim of identifying markers predictive of the need for blood transfusion. METHODS: Based on the review of medical charts at a public university hospital, this retrospective study evaluated whether the following variables were associated with the need for red blood cell transfusion (measured by the number of packs used during scoliosis surgery: scoliotic angle, extent of arthrodesis (number of fused levels, sex of the patient, surgery duration and type of scoliosis (neuromuscular, congenital or idiopathic. RESULTS: Of the 94 patients evaluated in a 55-month period, none required a massive blood transfusion (most patients needed less than two red blood cell packs. The number of packs was not significantly associated with sex or type of scoliosis. The extent of arthrodesis (r = 0.103, surgery duration (r = 0.144 and scoliotic angle (r = 0.004 were weakly correlated with the need for blood transfusion. Linear regression analysis showed an association between the number of spine levels submitted to arthrodesis and the volume of blood used in transfusions (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal any evidence of a significant association between the need for red blood cell transfusion and scoliotic angle, sex or surgery duration in scoliosis correction surgery. Submission of more spinal levels to arthrodesis was associated with the use of a greater number of blood packs.

  4. Bias correction of nutritional status estimates when reported age is used for calculating WHO indicators in children under five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado D Quezada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the performance of a simple correction method for nutritional status estimates in children under five years of age when exact age is not available from the data. Materials and methods. The proposed method was ba- sed on the assumption of symmetry of age distributions within a given month of age and validated in a large population-based survey sample of Mexican preschool children. Results. The main distributional assumption was consistent with the data. All prevalence estimates derived from the correction method showed no statistically significant bias. In contrast, failing to correct attained age resulted in an underestimation of stunting in general and an overestimation of overweight or obesity among the youngest. Conclusions. The proposed method performed remarkably well in terms of bias correction of estimates and could be easily applied in situations in which either birth or interview dates are not available from the data.

  5. Study on Torque Calculation for Hybrid Magnetic Coupling and Influencing Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Peng-yu; Li, De-yong

    2017-03-01

    Specific to a problem that the present transmission of magnetic coupling torque was subjected to restrictions of its own structure, a hybrid magnetic coupling was proposed. Then, finite element method was adopted to carry out numerical calculations for its three-dimensional magnetic field to obtain three-dimensional magnetic field distribution of radial and axial configurations. Major influencing factors of its torque, such as lengths of axial and radial air gaps, thicknesses of axial and radial permanent magnets, the number of slots in axial copper rotor, thickness of axial and radial copper rotor, etc., were analyzed. The relevant results indicated that in certain conditions of shapes, ten magnetic poles of the axial permanent magnet rotor, nine of the radial permanent magnet rotor and nine slots from the axial copper rotor were used. Correspondingly, the axial copper rotor had a thickness of 20 mm and it was 5 mm for the radial copper rotor. Moreover, the maximum torque could reach 190 N.m approximately. If lengths of axial and radial air gaps increased, the torque may go down otherwise. Within a certain scope, the torque rose in the first place and then fell with increases in the permanent magnet thickness of axial permanent magnetic rotor, the number of axial and radial magnetic poles, the number of slots in axial copper rotor, and the thickness of axial copper rotor. Additionally, the number of slots in the axial copper rotor could not be equivalent to that of magnetic poles in axial permanent magnetic rotor. However, as the permanent magnet thickness of radial permanent magnetic rotor rose, the torque went up as well.

  6. Paradigm shift in LUNG SBRT dose calculation associated with Heterogeneity correction; Cambio de paradigma en SBRT pulmonar asociada al calculo de dosis con correccion de heterogeneidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Pinto Monedero, M.; Marti Asensjo, J.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of lung injury SBRT requires great dosimetric accuracy, the increasing clinical importance of dose calculation heterogeneities introducing algorithms that adequately model the transport of particles narrow beams in media of low density, as with Monte Carlo calculation. (Author)

  7. Comparison of methods for calculating Franck-Condon factors beyond the harmonic approximation: how important are Duschinsky rotations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Patrick; Rauhut, Guntram

    2015-12-01

    Three different approaches for calculating Franck-Condon factors beyond the harmonic approximation are compared and discussed in detail. Duschinsky effects are accounted for either by a rotation of the initial or final wavefunctions - which are obtained from state-specific configuration-selective vibrational configuration interaction calculations - or by a rotation of the underlying multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces being determined from explicitly correlated coupled-cluster approaches. An analysis of the Duschinsky effects in dependence on the rotational angles and the anisotropy of the wavefunction is provided. Benchmark calculations for the photoelectron spectra of ClO2, HS-2 and ZnOH- are presented. An application of the favoured approach for calculating Franck-Condon factors to the oxidation of Zn(H2O)+ and Zn2(H2O)+ demonstrates its applicability to systems with more than three atoms.

  8. Do fragmentation functions in factorization theorems correctly treat non-perturbative effects?

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John

    2016-01-01

    Current all-orders proofs of factorization of hard processes are made by extracting the leading power behavior of Feynman graphs, i.e., by extracting asymptotics strictly order-by-order in perturbation theory. The resulting parton densities and fragmentation functions include non-perturbative effects. I show how there are missing elements in the proofs; these are related to and exemplified by string and cluster models of hadronization. The proofs rely on large rapidity differences between different parts of graphs for the process; but in reality large rapidity gaps are filled in

  9. Deconvolution and chromatic aberration corrections in quantifying colocalization of a transcription factor in three-dimensional cellular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thomas; Allan, Sarah E; Levings, Megan K

    2010-08-01

    In the realm of multi-dimensional confocal microscopy, colocalization analysis of fluorescent emission signals has proven to be an invaluable tool for detecting molecular interactions between biological macromolecules at the subcellular level. We show here that image processing operations such as the deconvolution and chromatic corrections play a crucial role in the accurate determination of colocalization between biological macromolecules particularly when the fluorescent signals are faint, and when the fluorescent signals are in the blue and red emission regions. The cellular system presented here describes quantification of an activated forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor in three-dimensional (3D) cellular space. 293T cells transfected with a conditionally active form of FOXP3 were stained for anti-FOXP3 conjugated to a fluorescent red dye (Phycoerythrin), and counterstained for DNA (nucleus) with fluorescent blue dye (Hoechst). Due to the broad emission spectra of these dyes, the fluorescent signals were collected only from peak regions and were acquired sequentially. Since the PE signal was weak, a confocal pinhole size of two Airy size was used to collect the 3D image data sets. The raw images supplemented with the spectral data show the preferential association of activated FOXP3 molecules with the nucleus. However, the PE signals were found to be highly diffusive and colocalization quantification from these raw images was not possible. In order to deconvolve the 3D raw image data set, point spread functions (PSFs) of these emissions were measured. From the measured PSF, we found that chromatic shifts between the blue and red colors were quite considerable. Followed by the applications of both the axial and lateral chromatic corrections, colocalization analysis performed on the deconvolved-chromatic corrected-3D image data set showed that 98% of DNA molecules were associated with FOXP3 molecules, whereas only 66% of FOXP3 molecules were colocalized

  10. Up-regulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor facilitates tumor progression in malignant melanoma [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-En Tsai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200 showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  11. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  12. Scaled Quantum Mechanical scale factors for vibrational calculations using alternate polarized and augmented basis sets with the B3LYP density functional calculation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, C R; Brown, N R; Dunbar, R A; Harness, M D; Nguyen, K; Oyewole, O; Collier, W B

    2015-06-15

    The Scaled Quantum Mechanical (SQM) method of scaling calculated force constants to predict theoretically calculated vibrational frequencies is expanded to include a broad array of polarized and augmented basis sets based on the split valence 6-31G and 6-311G basis sets with the B3LYP density functional. Pulay's original choice of a single polarized 6-31G(d) basis coupled with a B3LYP functional remains the most computationally economical choice for scaled frequency calculations. But it can be improved upon with additional polarization functions and added diffuse functions for complex molecular systems. The new scale factors for the B3LYP density functional and the 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), 6-31G+(d,p), 6-31G++(d,p), 6-311G, 6-311G(d), 6-311G(d,p), 6-311G+(d,p), 6-311G++(d,p), 6-311G(2d,p), 6-311G++(2d,p), 6-311G++(df,p) basis sets are shown. The double d polarized models did not perform as well and the source of the decreased accuracy was investigated. An alternate system of generating internal coordinates that uses the out-of plane wagging coordinate whenever it is possible; makes vibrational assignments via potential energy distributions more meaningful. Automated software to produce SQM scaled vibrational calculations from different molecular orbital packages is presented.

  13. Ion recombination correction factors (P(ion)) for Varian TrueBeam high-dose-rate therapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Molineu, Andrea; Followill, David S

    2012-11-08

    Ion recombination is approximately corrected for in the Task Group 51 protocol by Pion, which is calculated by a two-voltage measurement. This measurement approach may be a poor estimate of the true recombination, particularly if Pion is large (greater than 1.05). Concern exists that Pion in high-dose-per-pulse beams, such as flattening filter free (FFF) beams, may be unacceptably high, rendering the two-voltage measurement technique inappropriate. Therefore, Pion was measured for flattened beams of 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for FFF beams of 6 and 10 MV. The values for the FFF beams were verified with 1/V versus 1/Q curves (Jaffé plots). Pion was also measured for electron beams of 6, 12, 16, 18, and 20 MeV on a traditional accelerator, as well as on the high-dose-rate Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The measurements were made at a range of depths and with PTW, NEL, and Exradin Farmer-type chambers. Consistent with the increased dose per pulse, Pion was higher for FFF beams than for flattening filter beams. However, for all beams, measurement locations, and chambers examined, Pion never exceeded 1.018. Additionally, Pion was always within 0.3% of the recombination calculated from the Jaffé plots. We conclude that ion recombination can be adequately accounted for in high-dose-rate FFF beams using Pion determined with the standard two-voltage technique.

  14. A propensity score approach to correction for bias due to population stratification using genetic and non-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huaqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita

    2009-12-01

    Confounding due to population stratification (PS) arises when differences in both allele and disease frequencies exist in a population of mixed racial/ethnic subpopulations. Genomic control, structured association, principal components analysis (PCA), and multidimensional scaling (MDS) approaches have been proposed to address this bias using genetic markers. However, confounding due to PS can also be due to non-genetic factors. Propensity scores are widely used to address confounding in observational studies but have not been adapted to deal with PS in genetic association studies. We propose a genomic propensity score (GPS) approach to correct for bias due to PS that considers both genetic and non-genetic factors. We compare the GPS method with PCA and MDS using simulation studies. Our results show that GPS can adequately adjust and consistently correct for bias due to PS. Under no/mild, moderate, and severe PS, GPS yielded estimated with bias close to 0 (mean=-0.0044, standard error=0.0087). Under moderate or severe PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the PCA method in terms of bias, coverage probability (CP), and type I error. Under moderate PS, the GPS method consistently outperforms the MDS method in terms of CP. PCA maintains relatively high power compared to both MDS and GPS methods under the simulated situations. GPS and MDS are comparable in terms of statistical properties such as bias, type I error, and power. The GPS method provides a novel and robust tool for obtaining less-biased estimates of genetic associations that can consider both genetic and non-genetic factors.

  15. Perinatal factors associated with neural tube defects (anencephaly [correction of anancephaly], spina bifida and encephalocele).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, A J; Camano, L; Brunoni, D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of risk factors for the occurrence of neural tube defects. Data for 33,535 births which occurred at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo from July 1973 to December 1986 were collected in a prospective manner as recommended by "Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas" (ECLAMC, Collaborative Latin American Study on Congenital Malformations). Twenty-six cases of neural tube defects were detected (0.77/1000 births). Of these, 11 were cases of spina bifida (0.39/1000 births), 9 of anencephaly (0.27/1000 births) and 6 of encephalocele (0.18/1000 births). We observed a higher frequency of polyhydramnios, premature labor, Apgar scores of less than 7 at the first and fifth minutes, low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation.

  16. Constraints on the annihilation corrections in $B_{u,d}$ ${\\to}$ $PV$ decays within QCD factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Junfeng; Hu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yueling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the contributions of hard spectator scattering and annihilation in $B$ ${\\to}$ $PV$ decays within QCD factorization framework. With available experimental data on $B$ ${\\to}$ ${\\pi}K^{\\ast}$, ${\\rho}K$, ${\\pi}{\\rho}$ and $K{\\phi}$ decays, comprehensive $\\chi^2$ analyses on parameters $X_{A,H}^{i,f}$ or (${\\rho}_{A,H}^{i,f}$, ${\\phi}_{A,H}^{i,f}$) are performed, where $X_{A}^{f}$ ($X_{A}^{i}$) and $X_{H}$ are used to parameterize the endpoint divergences of the (non)factorizable annihilation and hard spectator scattering amplitudes, respectively. From $\\chi^2$ analyses, it is found that (1) the topology-dependent parameterization is feasible for $B$ ${\\to}$ $PV$ decays; (2) A relatively small value of inverse moment parameter ${\\lambda}_{B}$ ${\\sim}$ 0.2 GeV for $B$ meson wave function is allowed by $B$ ${\\to}$ $PP$, $PV$ decays; (3) At present accurate level of experimental measurements and theoretical evaluations, $X_{H}$ $=$ $X_{A}^{i}$ is a good simplification, but $X_{H}$ $\

  17. Reliability Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade Section Using the Model Correction Factor Method: Numerical Study and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reliability analysis of fiber-reinforced composite structures is a relatively unexplored field, and it is therefore expected that engineers and researchers trying to apply such an approach will meet certain challenges until more knowledge is accumulated. While doing the analyses included...... in the present paper, the authors have experienced some of the possible pitfalls on the way to complete a precise and robust reliability analysis for layered composites. Results showed that in order to obtain accurate reliability estimates it is necessary to account for the various failure modes described...... by the composite failure criteria. Each failure mode has been considered in a separate component reliability analysis, followed by a system analysis which gives the total probability of failure of the structure. The Model Correction Factor method used in connection with FORM (First-Order Reliability Method) proved...

  18. Phase separation of polymer solutions. The calculation of the cloudpoint curve with a concentration and temperature-dependent free energy correction parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, van P.T.; Smolders, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    The free enthalpy correction parameter g in the Flory-Huggins equation for the Gibbs free enthalpy of mixing in polymer solutions is considered generally as a concentration- and temperature-independent parameter. It has been extended here with linear concentration- and temperature-dependent terms. W

  19. Calculation of radar signal delays in the vicinity of the Sun due to the contribution of a Yukawa correction term in the gravitational potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haranas, Ioannis; Ragos, Omiros

    2011-07-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the recent years in the possibility of deviations from the predictions of Newton's "inverse-square law" of universal gravitation. One of the reasons for renewing this interest lies in various theoretical attempts to construct a unified elementary particle theory, in which there is a natural prediction of new forces over macroscopic distances. Therefore the existence of such a force would only coexist with gravity, and in principle could only be detected as a deviation from the inverse square law, or in the "universality of free fall" experiments. New experimental techniques such that of Sagnac interferometry can help explore the range of the Yukawa correction λ≥1014 m where such forces might be present. It may be, that future space missions might be operating in this range which has been unexplored for very long time. To study the effect of the Yukawa correction to the gravitational potential and its corresponding signal delay in the vicinity of the Sun, we use a spherically symmetric modified space time metric where the Yukawa correction its added to the gravitational potential. Next, the Yukawa correction contribution to the signal delay is evaluated. In the case where the distance of closest approach is much less than the range λ, it results to a signal time delay that satisfies the relation t( b< λ)≅37.7 t( b= λ).

  20. The self-absorption correction factors for (210)Pb concentration in mining waste and influence on environmental radiation risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczyk, Michal; Michalik, Boguslaw; Chmielewska, Izabela

    2017-03-01

    The radioactive lead isotope (210)Pb occurs in waste originating from metal smelting and refining industry, gas and oil extraction and sometimes from underground coal mines, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Radiation risk assessment requires accurate knowledge about the concentration of (210)Pb in such materials. Laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method applicable in environmental (210)Pb monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is a very fast and cost-effective method to determine (210)Pb concentration. On the other hand, the self-attenuation of gamma ray from (210)Pb (46.5 keV) in a sample is significant as it does not depend only on sample density but also on sample chemical composition (sample matrix). This phenomenon is responsible for the under-estimation of the (210)Pb activity concentration level often when gamma spectrometry is applied with no regard to relevant corrections. Finally, the corresponding radiation risk can be also improperly evaluated. Sixty samples of coal mining solid tailings (sediments created from underground mining water) were analysed. Slightly modified and adapted to the existing laboratory condition, a transmission method has been applied for the accurate measurement of (210)Pb concentration . The observed concentrations of (210)Pb range between 42.2 ÷ 11,700 Bq·kg(-1) of dry mass. Experimentally obtained correction factors related to a sample density and elemental composition range between 1.11 and 6.97. Neglecting this factor can cause a significant error or underestimations in radiological risk assessment. The obtained results have been used for environmental radiation risk assessment performed by use of the ERICA tool assuming exposure conditions typical for the final destination of such kind of waste.

  1. Calculation of nitrous oxide emission from agriculture in the Netherlands : update of emission factors and leaching fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to update the NO2 emission factors for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and animal manures applied to soils, based on results of Dutch experiments, and to derive a country specific methodology to calculate nitrate leachting using a leaching fraction (FracLEACH). It is recommended to use

  2. Calculation of site specific characterisation factors for metal ecotoxicity using decoupled multi species fate and exposure modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Strandesen, Maria; Larsen, HF

    2004-01-01

    Calculation of characterisation factors (CF’s) for metal ecotoxicity typically involves fate and exposure modelling of metals in multi-media models developed for assessment of organic compounds. Metals do not follow the fate patterns of organic chemicals, and the results will therefore most likel...

  3. Calculation of site specific characterisation factors for metal ecotoxicity using decoupled multi species fate and exposure modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Strandesen, Maria; Larsen, HF;

    2004-01-01

    Calculation of characterisation factors (CF’s) for metal ecotoxicity typically involves fate and exposure modelling of metals in multi-media models developed for assessment of organic compounds. Metals do not follow the fate patterns of organic chemicals, and the results will therefore most likel...

  4. Heating load of envelope and energy efficiency correction factor for orientation of civil buildings%民用建筑围护结构负荷与节能朝向修正率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳峰; 王登甲; 张薇

    2013-01-01

    In the current heating design standard, the value scope of the correction factor for orientation of building envelope heating loads is rather large, and it cannot reflect the differences of solar radiation intensities in various regions which results in that the design calculation results fail to match the respect practical situation. The related energy efficiency design standard does not take the orientation correction into account. Synthetically considering graded solar energy zoning and building thermotechnical design zoning standard, chooses the representative city of every region. Calculates and obtains heating load and energy efficiency correction factors for orientation for wider and more accurate application.%在现行暖通设计规范中,围护结构负荷朝向修正率取值范围较大,且无法体现太阳辐照度地区差异引起的差别,导致不同地区设计计算结果与实际朝向负荷不相符.相关节能设计标准中亦未考虑朝向修正.综合考虑太阳能热能等级分区和建筑热工设计分区划分标准,选取典型城市,计算得到了适用范围广、较准确的负荷朝向修正率和节能朝向修正率.

  5. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (Pproteins.

  6. Use Residual Correction Method and Monotone Iterative Technique to Calculate the Upper and Lower Approximate Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Non-linear Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to use the proposed residual correction method in coordination with the monotone iterative technique to obtain upper and lower approximate solutions of singularly perturbed non-linear boundary value problems. First, the monotonicity of a non-linear differential equation is reinforced using the monotone iterative technique, then the cubic-spline method is applied to discretize and convert the differential equation into the mathematical programming problems of an inequation, and finally based on the residual correction concept, complex constraint solution problems are transformed into simpler questions of equational iteration. As verified by the four examples given in this paper, the method proposed hereof can be utilized to fast obtain the upper and lower solutions of questions of this kind, and to easily identify the error range between mean approximate solutions and exact solutions.

  7. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Elicson; Bentley Harwood; Jim Bouchard; Heather Lucek

    2011-03-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: • Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), • Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and • Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  8. Calculating dose distributions and wedge factors for photon treatment fields with dynamic wedges based on a convolution/superposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; McCullough, E C; Mackie, T R

    1998-01-01

    A convolution/superposition based method was developed to calculate dose distributions and wedge factors in photon treatment fields generated by dynamic wedges. This algorithm used a dual source photon beam model that accounted for both primary photons from the target and secondary photons scattered from the machine head. The segmented treatment tables (STT) were used to calculate realistic photon fluence distributions in the wedged fields. The inclusion of the extra-focal photons resulted in more accurate dose calculation in high dose gradient regions, particularly in the beam penumbra. The wedge factors calculated using the convolution method were also compared to the measured data and showed good agreement within 0.5%. The wedge factor varied significantly with the field width along the moving jaw direction, but not along the static jaw or the depth direction. This variation was found to be determined by the ending position of the moving jaw, or the STT of the dynamic wedge. In conclusion, the convolution method proposed in this work can be used to accurately compute dose for a dynamic or an intensity modulated treatment based on the fluence modulation in the treatment field.

  9. 微功耗功率因数校正器%Micro Power Consumption Power Factor Correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁百超; 李嘉明

    2012-01-01

    The voltage compensation method was applied in the micro power consumption power factor correction to achieve the power factor correction of power grid system to be "1" for the power factor and "0" for the total harmonic distortion (THD). The advantage of the method is without the pulse width Modulation (PWM) and no generation of electromagnetic interference (EMI). It takes a small portion of input power thru power conversion process and obtains total output power, that is, most portion of input power needs neither power conversion process, nor linear transformer or inductor transmit process. It connects to output terminal and become output power. Therefore, the power consumption is very small with long life, safe and more reliable than current standard methods. Efficiency of this method is nearly 100%, and cost is low enough to maintain and install.%微功耗功率因数校正器采用电压补偿的方法,实现了对电网电压的功率因数校正,达到网侧功率因数为1、总谐波畸变THD为零。其最大优点是,不采用PWM脉宽调制,不产生EMI干扰,只须将输入功率中的极小部份进行功率变换,就可以获得全部输出功率,即输入功率中极大部份不必进行实际的功率变换,也不必磁芯变压器或电感传递,真接到达输出端,成为输出功率。因此功耗极小而寿命极长,安全可靠,节能环保,效率接近lOO%,成本低,制作安装容易。

  10. Calculation of the importance of quality factors in braille application process on labels by screen UV-varnishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Repeta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oriented graph has been drawn in the article according to fixed factors of the quality of applying Braille screen printing on the label by screen UV-varnishes. Using hierarchical representation of relationships between factors in the form of oriented graphs we have ranked the factors of the screen printing process of Braille elements by UV-varnishes and calculated their corresponding coefficients. We have found that the most ranked are such factors as the surface energy of the printing material, the printing speed, the temperature of UV-varnish and its viscosity. Received results of ranking will enable to synthesize the model of the process’ priority factors and to reveal the possibilities of regulations of geometrical parameters of the tactile font elements.

  11. Phenotypic correction and stable expression of factor VIII in hemophilia A mice by embryonic stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J J; Kuang, Y; Zhang, L L; Shen, C L; Wang, L; Lu, S Y; Lu, X B; Fei, J; Gu, M M; Wang, Z G

    2013-05-13

    Hereditary deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII) leads to hemophilia A, a severe X-linked bleeding disorder. Current therapies include fixed-dose FVIII prophylaxis, factor replacement therapy, and most recently, gene therapy. Prophylaxis and FVIII replacement therapies are limited by incomplete efficacy, high cost, restricted availability, and development of neutralizing antibodies in chronically treated individuals. Limited success has been obtained in preclinical trials using gene therapy for the treatment of hemophilia. Therefore, new options for therapy for hemophilia A are needed. We evaluated the potential of embryonic stem cells for correcting hemophilia A in mice. FVIII-deficient mouse blastocysts were collected and injected with mouse embryonic stem cells stably expressing green-fluorescent protein (GFP) and transferred to pseudopregnant recipient mice. Expression of FVIII was measured in the liver and plasma of the 5 chimeric mice that were produced. Three of these mice were GFP-positive at the age of 6 months. The plasma FVIII activity levels were equal to those of wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that embryonic stem cell transplantation at an early embryonic stage has potential as therapy for this progressively debilitating, life-threatening bleeding disorder.

  12. Vertebral subluxation during three-column osteotomy in surgical correction of adult spine deformity: incidence, risk factors, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Xiao, Lingyan; Sun, Xu; Shi, Benlong; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Leilei; Zhu, Zezhang; Qian, Bangping; Qiu, Yong

    2017-08-24

    To investigate incidence, risk factors, and complications of vertebral subluxation (VS) during three-column osteotomy in surgical correction of adult spine deformity. Adult spine deformity patients who underwent three-column osteotomies including VCR, PSO, and other modified types from March 2000 to December 2014 in our center were retrospectively reviewed. The following parameters were measured pre- and postoperatively: Cobb angle of main curve, global kyphosis, sagittal vertical axis, and kyphosis flexibility. Radiographic parameters between groups (VCR vs. PSO and subluxation vs. non-subluxation) were compared. 171 ASD patients were recruited, 18 of which (10.5%) developed sagittal vertebral subluxation at the osteotomy site. 5 of 18 patients (27.8%) developed neurological complications after surgery. For these five patients, two patients got partial recovery, and three got complete recovery at 2-year follow-up. 116 patients underwent PSO, 12 of which (10.3%) developed sagittal vertebral subluxation. In 55 patients receiving VCR, 6 (10.9%) developed sagittal vertebral subluxation. No significant difference was noted between the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean age of VS group was larger than that of non-VS group (46.2 vs. 34.2, P column osteotomies, one-fourth of which would develop neurological deficits. Older age, rigid kyphosis, and the pre-existence of VS were risk factors for developing VS.

  13. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Revisiting the Bjerrum’s correction factor:Use of the liquidity index for assessing the effect of soil plasticity on undrained shear strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamil Kayabali; Ozgur Akturk; Mustafa Fener; Orhan Dikmen; Furkan Hamza Harputlugil

    2015-01-01

    The undrained shear strength (su) of fine-grained soils that can be measured in situ and in laboratory is one of the key geotechnical parameters. The unconfined compression test (UCT) is widely used in lab-oratory to measure this parameter due to its simplicity; however, it is severely affected by sample disturbance. The vane shear test (VST) technique that is less sensitive to sample disturbance involves a correction factor against the soil plasticity, commonly known as the Bjerrum’s correction factor, m. This study aims to reevaluate the Bjerrum’s correction factor in consideration of a different approach and a relatively new method of testing. Atterberg limits test, miniature VST, and reverse extrusion test (RET) were conducted on 120 remolded samples. The effect of soil plasticity on undrained shear strength was examined using the liquidity index instead of Bjerrum’s correction factor. In comparison with the result obatined using the Bjerrum’s correction factor, the undrained shear strength was better represented when su values were correlated with the liquidity index. The results were validated by the RET, which was proven to take into account soil plasticity with a reliable degree of accuracy. This study also shows that the RET has strong promise as a new tool for testing undrained shear strength of fine-grained soils.

  15. Revisiting the Bjerrum's correction factor: Use of the liquidity index for assessing the effect of soil plasticity on undrained shear strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kayabali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The undrained shear strength (su of fine-grained soils that can be measured in situ and in laboratory is one of the key geotechnical parameters. The unconfined compression test (UCT is widely used in laboratory to measure this parameter due to its simplicity; however, it is severely affected by sample disturbance. The vane shear test (VST technique that is less sensitive to sample disturbance involves a correction factor against the soil plasticity, commonly known as the Bjerrum's correction factor, μ. This study aims to reevaluate the Bjerrum's correction factor in consideration of a different approach and a relatively new method of testing. Atterberg limits test, miniature VST, and reverse extrusion test (RET were conducted on 120 remolded samples. The effect of soil plasticity on undrained shear strength was examined using the liquidity index instead of Bjerrum's correction factor. In comparison with the result obatined using the Bjerrum's correction factor, the undrained shear strength was better represented when su values were correlated with the liquidity index. The results were validated by the RET, which was proven to take into account soil plasticity with a reliable degree of accuracy. This study also shows that the RET has strong promise as a new tool for testing undrained shear strength of fine-grained soils.

  16. Calculating LOAEL/NOAEL uncertainty factors for wildlife species in ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suedel, B.C.; Clifford, P.A.; Ludwig, D.F. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Terrestrial ecological risk assessments frequently require derivation of NOAELs or toxicity reference values (TRVS) against which to compare exposure estimates. However, much of the available information from the literature is LOAELS, not NOAELS. Lacking specific guidance, arbitrary factors of ten are sometimes employed for extrapolating NOAELs from LOAELs. In this study, the scientific literature was searched to obtain chronic and subchronic studies reporting NOAEL and LOAEL data for wildlife and laboratory species. Results to date indicate a mean conversion factor of 4.0 ({+-} 2.61 S.D.), with a minimum of 1. 6 and a maximum of 10 for 106 studies across several classes of compounds (I.e., metals, pesticides, volatiles, etc.). These data suggest that an arbitrary factor of 10 conversion factor is unnecessarily restrictive for extrapolating NOAELs from LOAELs and that a factor of 4--5 would be more realistic for deriving toxicity reference values for wildlife species. Applying less arbitrary and more realistic conversion factors in ecological risk assessments will allow for a more accurate estimate of NOAEL values for assessing risk to wildlife populations.

  17. Structure and stability of acrolein and allyl alcohol networks on Ag(111) from density functional theory based calculations with dispersion corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Branda, Maria Marta; Illas, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of acrolein and allyl alcohol with the Ag(111) surface has been studied by means of periodic density functional theory based calculations including explicitly dispersion terms. Different coverage values have been explored going from isolated adsorbed molecules to isolated dimers, interacting dimers or ordered overlayers. The inclusion of the dispersion terms largely affects the calculated values of the adsorption energy and also the distance between adsorbed molecule and the metallic surface but much less the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. Owing to the large dipole moment of acrolein, the present calculations predict that at high coverage this molecule forms a stable extensive two-dimensional network on the surface, caused by the alignment of the adsorbate dipoles. For the case of allyl alcohol, dimers and complex networks exhibit similar stability.

  18. Enhancing the calculation accuracy of performance characteristics of power-generating units by correcting general measurands based on matching energy balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchinnikov, P. A.; Safronov, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    General principles of a procedure for matching energy balances of thermal power plants (TPPs), whose use enhances the accuracy of information-measuring systems (IMSs) during calculations of performance characteristics (PCs), are stated. To do this, there is the possibility for changing values of measured and calculated variables within intervals determined by measurement errors and regulations. An example of matching energy balances of the thermal power plants with a T-180 turbine is made. The proposed procedure allows one to reduce the divergence of balance equations by 3-4 times. It is shown also that the equipment operation mode affects the profit deficiency. Dependences for the divergence of energy balances on the deviation of input parameters and calculated data for the fuel economy before and after matching energy balances are represented.

  19. Calculation of transient dynamic stress intensity factors at bimaterial interface cracks using a SBFEMbased frequency-domain approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.J.YANG; A.J.DEEKS

    2008-01-01

    A frequency-domain approach based on the semi-analytical scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) was developed to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) at bimaterial interface cracks subjected to transient loading. Be-cause the stress solutions of the SBFEM in the frequency domain are analytical in the radial direction, and the complex stress singularity at the bimaterial interface crack tip is explicitly represented in the stress solutions, the mixed-mode DSIFs were calculated directly by definition. The complex frequency-response functions of DSIFs were then used by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the inverse FFT to calculate time histories of DSIFs. A benchmark example was modelled. Good re-sults were obtained by modelling the example with a small number of degrees of freedom due to the semi-analytical nature of the SBFEM.

  20. Calculation of indoor effective dose factors in ORNL phantoms series due to natural radioactivity in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the effective dose in the age-dependent ORNL phantoms series, due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, was calculated. The absorbed doses for various organs or human tissues have been calculated. The MCNP-4B computer code was used for this purpose. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP Publication 74. The obtained values of dose conversion factors for a standard room are: 1.033, 0.752 and 0.0538 nSv h-1 per Bq kg-1 for elements of the U and Th decay series and for the K isotope, respectively. The values of effective dose agreed generally with those found in the literature, although the values estimated here for elements of the U series were higher in some cases.

  1. Relativistic configuration interaction plus linearized-coupled-cluster calculations of U2 + energies, g factors, transition rates, and lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I.; Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Excitation energies, term designations, g factors, transition rates, and lifetimes of U2 + are determined using a relativistic configuration interaction (CI) + linearized-coupled-cluster (LCC) approach. The CI-LCC energies are compared with CI + many-body-perturbation-theory (MBPT) and available experimental energies. Close agreement has been found with experiment, within hundreds of cm-1. In addition, lifetimes of higher levels have been calculated for comparison with three experimentally measured lifetimes, and close agreement has been found within the experimental error. CI-LCC calculations constitute a benchmark test of the CI + all-order method in complex relativistic systems such as actinides and their ions with many valence electrons. The theory yields many energy levels, g factors, transition rates, and lifetimes of U2 + that are not available from experiment. The theory can be applied to other multivalence atoms and ions, which would be of interest to many applications.

  2. The accurate calculation of the band gap of liquid water by means of GW corrections applied to plane-wave density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Changming; Li, Wun Fan; Koster, Rik S.; Klimeš, Jiří; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the intrinsic electronic properties of water is imperative for understanding the behaviour of aqueous solutions that are used throughout biology, chemistry, physics, and industry. The calculation of the electronic band gap of liquids is challenging, because the most accurate ab initi

  3. Calculation of Kaon Electromagnetic Form Factor in the Framework of Coupled Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter Formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiGang; WAN ShaoLong; WANG KeLin

    2001-01-01

    The kaon electromagnetic form factor is calculated in the framework of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation in rainbow approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation in ladder approximation with the modified fiat-bottom potential,which is the combination of the flat-bottom potential with considerations for the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic behaviours of the effective quark-gluon coupling. All our numerical results give good fit to experimental values and other theoretical results.``

  4. Fault of the correction factor for pressure and temperature k{sub PT} in the atmospheric conditions of Dosimetric Calibration Lab. - LSCD of ININ - Mexico; Falla del factor de correcion por presion y temperatura k{sub PT} a las condiciones atmosfericas del LSCD-ININ-Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, Jose T.; Jesus Cejudo, A.; La Cruz H., Daniel de; Tovar M, Victor M., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jesus.cejudo@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: daniel.delacruz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (LSCD/ININ), Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica

    2013-07-01

    The realization of the operational quantities H*, Hp y/0 H'(0.07) for estimating the effective dose E, usually is done by measuring the air kerma Ka air within the field of ionizing radiation of interest and was subsequently applied appropriate conversion factors for both the quality of radiation and the operational quantity of interest. However, the SSDL in performing the Ka to environmental conditions of ININ (3000 m above sea level, P ∼ 710 hPa) with ionization chambers has found that the pressure correction factor and kPT temperature is not sufficient to correct the change in air density. Indeed, in the case of {sup 60}Co the discrepancy between the measurement of a primary standard graphite walls Ka (BEV CC01 be 131) and a side of the plastic walls (Exradin A12) is on the order of 0.4% for the case of the RX BIPM qualities to 100,135, 180 and 250 kV. It was found that for a camera model 30001 PTW (PMMA graphite wall) is needed an additional correction factor k PT ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, correction factor calculated by MC simulation. For Sk of {sup 125}I brachytherapy sources was given an additional correction lower in 11% compared to conventional k{sub PT} value measured with a well chamber Standard Imaging HDR 1000 plus. Finally, it is in the process of studying the behavior of this additional correction factor to the case of {sup 137}Cs.

  5. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  6. Medians and correction factors for biochemical and ultrasound markers in Chinese women undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, D S; Leung, T Y; Fung, T Y; Chan, L W; Law, L W; Lau, T K

    2009-04-01

    To establish normative values and distribution parameters of first-trimester maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness in Chinese women and to examine the effects of covariates on their levels. Maternal serum free beta-hCG, PAPP-A and fetal NT were measured in 9762 women presenting for first-trimester combined screening for Down syndrome at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation. Individuals' markers were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) using expected medians estimated by performing a weighted regression analysis. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of maternal weight, parity, ethnicity, chorionicity in twin pregnancies, smoking, insulin-dependent diabetes and mode of conception on individual marker MoM levels. Both free beta-hCG and PAPP-A median values demonstrated an exponential relationship with gestational age in days. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that free beta-hCG MoM was statistically significantly dependent on maternal weight (P hCG and PAPP-A to their MoM equivalents and correction factors have been determined to adjust for maternal and pregnancy characteristics for use in ethnic Chinese women undergoing first-trimester screening for aneuploidy. (c) 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ideas of four-fermion operators in electromagnetic form factor calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chueng-Ryong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four-fermion operators have been utilized in the past to link the quark-exchange processes in the interaction of hadrons with the effective meson-exchange amplitudes. In this presentation, we apply the similar idea of Fierz rearrangement to the electromagnetic processes and focus on the electromagnetic form factors of nucleon and electron. We explain the motivation of using four-fermion operators and discuss the advantage of this method in computing electromagnetic processes.

  8. Optimizing fish and stream-water mercury metrics for calculation of fish bioaccumulation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Bradley; Karen Riva Murray; Barbara C. Scudder Elkenberry; Christopher D. Knightes; Celeste A. Journey; Mark A. Brigham

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation factors (BAFs; ratios of Hg in fish [Hgfish] and water[Hgwater]) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Protection of wildlife and human health depends directly on the accuracy of site-specific estimates of Hgfish and Hgwater and the predictability of the relation between these...

  9. Entrance dose measurements for in-vivo diode dosimetry: Comparison of correction factors for two types of commercial silicon diode detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X R

    2000-01-01

    Silicon diode dosimeters have been used routinely for in-vivo dosimetry. Despite their popularity, an appropriate implementation of an in-vivo dosimetry program using diode detectors remains a challenge for clinical physicists. One common approach is to relate the diode readout to the entrance dose, that is, dose to the reference depth of maximum dose such as d(max) for the 10x10 cm(2) field. Various correction factors are needed in order to properly infer the entrance dose from the diode readout, depending on field sizes, target-to-surface distances (TSD), and accessories (such as wedges and compensate filters). In some clinical practices, however, no correction factor is used. In this case, a diode-dosimeter-based in-vivo dosimetry program may not serve the purpose effectively; that is, to provide an overall check of the dosimetry procedure. In this paper, we provide a formula to relate the diode readout to the entrance dose. Correction factors for TSD, field size, and wedges used in this formula are also clearly defined. Two types of commercial diode detectors, ISORAD (n-type) and the newly available QED (p-type) (Sun Nuclear Corporation), are studied. We compared correction factors for TSDs, field sizes, and wedges. Our results are consistent with the theory of radiation damage of silicon diodes. Radiation damage has been shown to be more serious for n-type than for p-type detectors. In general, both types of diode dosimeters require correction factors depending on beam energy, TSD, field size, and wedge. The magnitudes of corrections for QED (p-type) diodes are smaller than ISORAD detectors.

  10. New Calculations for Phase Space Factors Involved in Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Stoica, Sabin

    2013-01-01

    We present new results for the phase space factors involved in double beta decay for beta-beta- transitions to ground states and excited 0+1 states, for isotopes of experimental interest. The Coulomb distortion of the electron wave functions is treated by solving numerically the Dirac equation with inclusion of the finite nuclear size and electron screening effects, and using a Coulomb potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in the daughter nucleus. Our results are compared with other results from literature, obtained in different approximations, and possible causes that can give differences are discussed.

  11. A framework for the calculation of the $\\Delta N\\gamma^*$ transition form factor on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Agadjanov, Andria; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    Using the non-relativistic effective field theory framework in a finite volume, we discuss the extraction of the $\\Delta N\\gamma^*$ transition form factors from lattice data. A counterpart of the L\\"uscher approach for the matrix elements of unstable states is formulated. In particular, we thoroughly discuss various kinematic settings, which are used in the calculation of the above matrix element on the lattice. The emerging L\\"uscher-Lellouch factor and the analytic continuation of the matrix elements into the complex plane are also considered in detail. A full group-theoretical analysis of the problem is made, including the partial-wave mixing and projecting out the invariant form factors from data.

  12. Finite-field Calculations of Molecular Polarizabilities Using Field-Induced Polarization Functions: Second- and Third-order Perturbation Correlation Corrections to the Coupled Hartree-Fock Polarizability of H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, S. R.; Scott, W. R.; Suzuki, N.; Chong, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Ordinary Rayleigh-Schroudinger perturbation theory with Moller-Plesset (RSMP) partitioning is used to calculate second- and third-order correlation corrections to the CHF polarizability and dipole moment of the water molecule by a finite-field procedure. Pade approximants are found to be useful in accelerating the convergence of the property perturbation expansions. Field-induced polarization functions suitable for polarizability calculations are determined. The average polarizability calculated, neglecting vibrational averaging, with Dunning's (9s5p/4s-4s2p/2s) contracted GTO basis set augmented by field-induced lslp2d/lp polarization functions is within 3 per cent of the experimental result. Correlation corrections to the dipole moment and polarizability of the water molecule calculated by the finite-field RSMP and single + double excitation CI(SDCI) methods for the same basis set are found to be in close agreement. The RSMP approach has the advantages of being size-consistent and of being capable of greater efficiency than the SCDI method. Comparative calculations carried out using Epstein-Nesbet partitioning show that through third order RSEN correlation perturbation expansions for the dipole moment and polarizability are less rapidly convergent than RSMP expansions. However, reasonable accord with RSMP results can be achieved by using Pade approximants to accelerate the convergence of RSEN energy perturbation expansions. The convergence of RSMP property correlation expansions based on the zeroth-order uncoupled-Hartree-Fock (UCHF) and coupled-Hartree-Fock (CHF) approximations are compared through third order. Whereas the CHF + RSMP expansions are for practical purposes fully converged, the UCHF + RSMP expansions are not adequately converged.

  13. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, F [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, RadioFisica, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FisiologIa y BioFisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capote, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Terron, J A [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, RadioFisica, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FisiologIa y BioFisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Gomez, F [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-03-21

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface.

  14. Evaluation of the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) in dose calculation for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction; Avaliacao do Algoritmo Analitico Anisotropico (AAA) no calculo de dose para campos com fluencia nao uniforme considerando correcao de heterogeneidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornatto, P.; Funchal, M.; Bruning, F.; Toledo, H.; Lyra, J.; Fernandes, T.; Toledo, F.; Marciao, C., E-mail: pricila_bornatto@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Erasto Gaertner (LPCC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the calculation of dose distribution AAA (Varian Medical Systems) for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction. Five different phantoms were used with different density materials. These phantoms were scanned in the CT BrightSpeed (©GE Healthcare) upon the array of detectors MAPCHECK2 TM (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and irradiated in a linear accelerator 600 CD (Varian Medical Systems) 6MV and rate dose 400MU/min with isocentric setup. The fluences used were exported from IMRT plans, calculated by ECLIPSE™ planning system (Varian Medical Systems), and a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field to assess the heterogeneity correction for uniform fluence. The measured dose distribution was compared to the calculated by Gamma analysis with approval criteria of 3% / 3 mm and 10% threshold. The evaluation was performed using the software SNCPatient (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and considering absolute dose normalized at maximum. The phantoms best performers were those with low density materials, with an average of 99.2% approval. Already phantoms with plates of higher density material presented various fluences below 95% of the points approved. The average value reached 94.3%. It was observed a dependency between fluency and approved percentage points, whereas for the same fluency, 100% of the points have been approved in all phantoms. The approval criteria for IMRT plans recommended in most centers is 3% / 3mm with at least 95% of points approved, it can be concluded that, under these conditions, the IMRT plans with heterogeneity correction can be performed , however the quality control must be careful because the difficulty of the system to accurately predict the dose distribution in certain situations. (author)

  15. Critical evaluation of the LDA + U approach for band gap corrections in point defect calculations: The oxygen vacancy in ZnO case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchun, Adisak; Lambrecht, Walter R.L. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 444106-7079 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The LDA + U approach can be used essentially as a shift potential to open up the band gap of a semiconductor. This approach was previously applied to the oxygen vacancy in ZnO by Paudel and Lambrecht (PL) [Phys. Rev. B 77, 205202 (2008)]. Here, we review the results of that approach and introduce additional refinements of the LDA + U model. Good agreement is obtained with recent hybrid functional calculations on the position of the {epsilon}(2+/0) transition state. A comparison of various approaches on the oxygen vacancy in ZnO is provided. The relevance of the one-electron levels to the experiments is discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Calculating the binding free energies of charged species based on explicit-solvent simulations employing lattice-sum methods: An accurate correction scheme for electrostatic finite-size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklin, Gabriel J. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, California 94143-2550, USA and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, California 94143-2550 (United States); Mobley, David L. [Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemistry, University of California Irvine, 147 Bison Modular, Building 515, Irvine, California 92697-0001, USA and Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States); Dill, Ken A. [Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, 5252 Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-0001 (United States); Hünenberger, Philippe H., E-mail: phil@igc.phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-14

    The calculation of a protein-ligand binding free energy based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations generally relies on a thermodynamic cycle in which the ligand is alchemically inserted into the system, both in the solvated protein and free in solution. The corresponding ligand-insertion free energies are typically calculated in nanoscale computational boxes simulated under periodic boundary conditions and considering electrostatic interactions defined by a periodic lattice-sum. This is distinct from the ideal bulk situation of a system of macroscopic size simulated under non-periodic boundary conditions with Coulombic electrostatic interactions. This discrepancy results in finite-size effects, which affect primarily the charging component of the insertion free energy, are dependent on the box size, and can be large when the ligand bears a net charge, especially if the protein is charged as well. This article investigates finite-size effects on calculated charging free energies using as a test case the binding of the ligand 2-amino-5-methylthiazole (net charge +1 e) to a mutant form of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase in water. Considering different charge isoforms of the protein (net charges −5, 0, +3, or +9 e), either in the absence or the presence of neutralizing counter-ions, and sizes of the cubic computational box (edges ranging from 7.42 to 11.02 nm), the potentially large magnitude of finite-size effects on the raw charging free energies (up to 17.1 kJ mol{sup −1}) is demonstrated. Two correction schemes are then proposed to eliminate these effects, a numerical and an analytical one. Both schemes are based on a continuum-electrostatics analysis and require performing Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) calculations on the protein-ligand system. While the numerical scheme requires PB calculations under both non-periodic and periodic boundary conditions, the latter at the box size considered in the MD simulations, the analytical scheme only requires three non

  17. METHOD TO CALCULATE BENDING CENTER AND STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS OF CRACKED CYLINDER UNDER SAINT-VENANT BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤任基; 汤昕燕

    2001-01-01

    Using the single crack solution and the regular solution of plane harmonic function, the problem of Saint-Venant bending of a cracked cylinder by a transverse force was reduced to solving two sets of integral equations and its general solution was then obtained. Based on the obtained solution, a method to calculate the bending center and the stress intensity factors of the cracked cylinger whose cross-section is not thin-walled, but of small torsion rigidity is proposed. Some numerical examples are given.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor corrected for platelet count and hematocrit is associated with the clinical course of aplastic anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Takuro; Tanabe, Takayuki; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2012-05-01

    The wide variety of clinical courses that lead to the development of severe aplastic anemia (AA) makes it difficult to speculate whether treatment for AA is required in the early phase. The objective of this study was to identify a method for predicting the clinical course of AA at the onset of the disease. First, in healthy adults, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released per platelet was measured by the activation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). Serum concentration of VEGF, serum concentration of VEGF corrected for platelet count, and serum concentration of VEGF corrected for both platelet count and hematocrit (corrected VEGF) were then compared to VEGF released per platelet. Corrected VEGF showed the best correlation with VEGF released per platelet by the activation of PRP in healthy subjects (R (2) = in a single 0.806, p = 0.001). Next, corrected VEGF was assayed in 11 pediatric patients with AA at the time of diagnosis. Corrected VEGF in AA patients was significantly greater than that in age-matched control subjects [1.32 × 10(-6) pg (range 0.36-1.85) vs. 0.18 × 10(-6) pg (range 0.12-0.94)] (p = 0.002). Moreover, corrected VEGF in AA patients who did not require treatment for more than 2 years was significantly greater than that in AA patients who required earlier treatment [1.67 × 10(-6) pg (range 1.32-1.85) vs. 0.87 × 10(-6) pg (0.36-1.34)] (p = 0.011). These data indicate that a compensatory mechanism for increasing VEGF and preventing disease progression might play a role in AA. Corrected VEGF may be useful for predicting the clinical course of AA.

  19. Semi-empirical calculations of radiative decay rates in Mo II. A comparison between oscillator strength parametrization and core-polarization-corrected relativistic Hartree-Fock approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We present a semi-empirical determination of Mo II radiative parameters in a wide wavelength range 1716-8789 Å. Our fitting procedure to experimental oscillator strengths available in the literature permits us to provide reliable values for a large number of Mo II lines, predicting previously unmeasured oscillator strengths of lines involving 4d45p and 4d35s5p odd-parity configurations. The extracted transition radial integral values are compared with ab-initio calculations: on average they are 0.88 times the values obtained with the basic pseudo-relativistic Hartree Fock method and they agree well when core polarization effects are included. When making a survey of our present and previous studies and including also those given in the literature we observe as general trends a decreasing of transition radial integral values with filling nd shells of the same principal quantum numbers for ndk(n + 1)s → ndk(n + 1)p transitions.

  20. Sensitivity of thermal inertia calculations to variations in environmental factors. [in mapping of Earth's surface by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of thermal inertia (TI) calculations to errors in the measurement or parameterization of a number of environmental factors is considered here. The factors include effects of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, surface albedo and emissivity, variations in surface turbulent heat flux density, cloud cover, vegetative cover, and topography. The error analysis is based upon data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite for July 1978 at three separate test sites in the deserts of the western United States. Results show that typical errors in atmospheric radiative transfer, cloud cover, and vegetative cover can individually cause root-mean-square (RMS) errors of about 10 percent (with atmospheric effects sometimes as large as 30-40 percent) in HCMM-derived thermal inertia images of 20,000-200,000 pixels.

  1. Sensitivity of thermal inertia calculations to variations in environmental factors. [in mapping of Earth's surface by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of thermal inertia (TI) calculations to errors in the measurement or parameterization of a number of environmental factors is considered here. The factors include effects of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, surface albedo and emissivity, variations in surface turbulent heat flux density, cloud cover, vegetative cover, and topography. The error analysis is based upon data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite for July 1978 at three separate test sites in the deserts of the western United States. Results show that typical errors in atmospheric radiative transfer, cloud cover, and vegetative cover can individually cause root-mean-square (RMS) errors of about 10 percent (with atmospheric effects sometimes as large as 30-40 percent) in HCMM-derived thermal inertia images of 20,000-200,000 pixels.

  2. Monte Carlo MSM correction factors for control rod worth estimates in subcritical and near-critical fast neutron reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecouey Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The GUINEVERE project was launched in 2006, within the 6th Euratom Framework Program IP-EUROTRANS, in order to study the feasibility of transmutation in Accelerator Driven subcritical Systems (ADS. This zero-power facility hosted at the SCK·CEN site in Mol (Belgium couples the fast subcritical lead reactor VENUS-F with an external neutron source provided by interaction of deuterons delivered by the GENEPI-3C accelerator and a tritiated target located at the reactor core center. In order to test on-line subcriticality monitoring techniques, the reactivity of all the VENUS-F configurations used must be known beforehand to serve as benchmark values. That is why the Modified Source Multiplication Method (MSM is under consideration to estimate the reactivity worth of the control rods when the reactor is largely subcritical as well as near-critical. The MSM method appears to be a technique well adapted to measure control rod worth over a large range of subcriticality levels. The MSM factors which are required to account for spatial effects in the reactor can be successfully calculated using a Monte Carlo neutron transport code.

  3. Numerical Calculation of the Peaking Factor of a Water-Cooled W/Cu Monoblock for a Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Xu, Tiejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to accurately predict the incident critical heat flux (ICHF, the heat flux at the heated surface when CHF occurs) of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock for a divertor, the exact knowledge of its peaking factors (fp) under one-sided heating conditions with different design parameters is a key issue. In this paper, the heat conduction in the solid domain of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock is calculated numerically by assuming the local heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of the cooling wall to be functions of the local wall temperature, so as to obtain fp. The reliability of the calculation method is validated by an experimental example result, with the maximum error of 2.1% only. The effects of geometric and flow parameters on the fp of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock are investigated. Within the scope of this study, it is shown that the fp increases with increasing dimensionless W/Cu monoblock width and armour thickness (the shortest distance between the heated surface and Cu layer), and the maximum increases are 43.8% and 22.4% respectively. The dimensionless W/Cu monoblock height and Cu thickness have little effect on fp. The increase of Reynolds number and Jakob number causes the increase of fp, and the maximum increases are 6.8% and 9.6% respectively. Based on the calculated results, an empirical correlation on peaking factor is obtained via regression. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of water-cooled divertors. supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education, China (CXLX12_0170), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  4. Quantification of Triacylglycerol Molecular Species in Edible Fats and Oils by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector Using Correction Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Obi, Junji; Nagai, Toshiharu; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard. The capillary column was Ultra ALLOY(+)-65 (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.10 μm thickness) and the column temperature was programmed to rise from 250°C to 360°C at 4°C/min and then hold for 25 min. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the TAG standards were > 0.10 mg and > 0.32 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively, except for LnLnLn, and the LOD and LOQ values of LnLnLn were 0.55 mg and 1.84 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively. The CFs of TAG standards decreased with increasing total acyl carbon number and degree of desaturation of TAG molecules. Also, there were no remarkable differences in the CFs between TAG positional isomers such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol, 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, and 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, which cannot be separated by GC-FID. Furthermore, this method was able to predict the CFs of heterogeneous (AAB- and ABC-type) TAGs from the CFs of homogenous (AAA-, BBB-, and CCC-type) TAGs. In addition, the TAG composition in cocoa butter, palm oil, and canola oil was determined using CFs, and the results were found to be in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Therefore, the GC-FID method using CFs can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils.

  5. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  6. Data Mining Activity for Bone Discipline: Calculating a Factor of Risk for Hip Fracture in Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, R.; Sibonga, J. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The factor-of-risk (Phi), defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanical approach to hip fracture risk assessment that may be used to identify subjects who are at increased risk for fracture. The purpose of this project was to calculate the factor of risk in long duration astronauts after return from a mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is typically 6 months in duration. The load applied to the hip was calculated for a sideways fall from standing height based on the individual height and weight of the astronauts. The soft tissue thickness overlying the greater trochanter was measured from the DXA whole body scans and used to estimate attenuation of the impact force provided by soft tissues overlying the hip. Femoral strength was estimated from femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which were performed between 5-32 days of landing. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expedition 1 to 18 were included in this study, where repeat flyers were treated as separate subjects. Male astronauts (n=20) had a significantly higher factor of risk for hip fracture Phi than females (n=5), with preflight values of 0.83+/-0.11 and 0.36+/-0.07, respectively, but there was no significant difference between preflight and postflight Phi (Figure 1). Femoral aBMD measurements were not found to be significantly different between men and women. Three men and no women exceeded the theoretical fracture threshold of Phi=1 immediately postflight, indicating that they would likely suffer a hip fracture if they were to experience a sideways fall with impact to the greater trochanter. These data suggest that male astronauts may be at greater risk for hip fracture than women following spaceflight, primarily due to relatively less soft tissue thickness and subsequently greater impact force.

  7. 角膜屈光手术后人工晶状体度数计算的误差及矫正%Error sources and correction of intraocular lens power calculation after corneal refractive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏升; 顾扬顺

    2013-01-01

    As the increasing popularity of corneal refractive surgery and the aging of the society population,it presents a major challenge in accurate calculation of intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract patients with prior refractive surgery.To cope with this situation,great efforts have been made to reveal the sources of calculation error and available corrective process.Essentially,the instrument error,the keratometer index error and the IOL formula error are considered to be the main three sources,whereas other biometric measurements (e.g.axial length) contribute slightly.Numerous established algorithms aim to reduce I0L prediction error mainly through postoperative corneal power correction or direct adjustment of calculated IOL power.However,it presents a confusing of the variety of procedures and formulas for the controversy of optimal choice still going on,so it is important to make comprehensive consideration of reliable historic material,physician's experience,and patient' s expectation when faced with this issues clinically.%如何准确计算角膜屈光手术后白内障患者的人工晶状体(intraocular lens,IOL)度数是常见的临床问题.常规的IOL计算误差主要来源于仪器检测误差、屈光指数误差和公式计算误差,解决方法主要是通过矫正屈光术后角膜屈光度,或直接矫正IOL计算值来减小预测误差.各种方法的临床应用准确性仍存在一些争议,临床医生应根据自己掌握的资料、临床经验和患者的期望选择合适的计算方法.

  8. Factors Influencing the Completion of the GED in a Federal Correctional Setting a Multiple Regression Correlation-Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Correctional education's primary goal is to reduce recidivism and increase employment among ex-offenders. The Bureau of Prison's practical goal in its mandatory GED program is to maximize the number of inmates obtaining the GED in a given time period. The purpose of this research is to model the number of instructional hours an inmate requires to…

  9. Borehole deviation and correction factor data for selected wells in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.

    2016-11-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, has maintained a water-level monitoring program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 1949. The purpose of the program is to systematically measure and report water-level data to assess the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and long term changes in groundwater recharge, discharge, movement, and storage. Water-level data are commonly used to generate potentiometric maps and used to infer increases and (or) decreases in the regional groundwater system. Well deviation is one component of water-level data that is often overlooked and is the result of the well construction and the well not being plumb. Depending on measured slant angle, where well deviation generally increases linearly with increasing slant angle, well deviation can suggest artificial anomalies in the water table. To remove the effects of well deviation, the USGS INL Project Office applies a correction factor to water-level data when a well deviation survey indicates a change in the reference elevation of greater than or equal to 0.2 ft.Borehole well deviation survey data were considered for 177 wells completed within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, but not all wells had deviation survey data available. As of 2016, USGS INL Project Office database includes: 57 wells with gyroscopic survey data; 100 wells with magnetic deviation survey data; 11 wells with erroneous gyroscopic data that were excluded; and, 68 wells with no deviation survey data available. Of the 57 wells with gyroscopic deviation surveys, correction factors for 16 wells ranged from 0.20 to 6.07 ft and inclination angles (SANG) ranged from 1.6 to 16.0 degrees. Of the 100 wells with magnetic deviation surveys, a correction factor for 21 wells ranged from 0.20 to 5.78 ft and SANG ranged from 1.0 to 13.8 degrees, not including the wells that did not meet the correction factor criteria of greater than or equal to 0.20 ft.Forty-seven wells had

  10. Calculation of 18F, 99mTc, 111In and 123I calibration factor using the penelope ionization chamber simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, M N

    2004-01-01

    A new method using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE for ionization chamber simulation has already been successfully used for calculating calibration factors needed for the measurements of radionuclides with photon emission (2003, Appl. Radiat. Isot., to be published). This work has been continued at (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) in order to calculate the calibration factors for radionuclides with short half-lives used in medical services. Activity measurements of 18F, 99mTc,111In and 123I using the calculated calibration factors were obtained with standard uncertainties equal to 0.6% for 18F, 99mTc and 1.5% for 111In and 123I.

  11. A Computer Program to Calculate Two-Stage Short-Run Control Chart Factors for (X,MR Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Elam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second in a series of two papers that fully develops two-stage short-run (X, MR control charts. This paper describes the development and execution of a computer program that accurately calculates first- and second-stage short-run control chart factors for (X, MR charts using the equations derived in the first paper. The software used is Mathcad. The program accepts values for number of subgroups, α for the X chart, and α for the MR chart both above the upper control limit and below the lower control limit. Tables are generated for specific values of these inputs and the implications of the results are discussed. A numerical example illustrates the use of the program.

  12. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system XiO with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on; Validacao dos algoritmos de calculo de dose do sistema de planejamento XiO considerando as correcoes para heterogeneidade dos tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, L.R.; Barbi, G.L.; Silva, W.T. da; Reis, E.G.F. dos; Borges, L.F.; Bertucci, E.C.; Maciel, M.F.; Amaral, L.L. do, E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%; This is in accordance with the recommendation of several references.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%).

  13. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system Xi O with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on; Validacao dos algoritmos de calculo de dose do sistema de planejamento Xi O considerando as correcoes para heterogeneidade dos tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, Leandro R.; Barbi, Gustavo L.; Silva, Wiliam T.; Reis, Eduardo G.F.; Borges, Leandro F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Maciel, Marina F.; Amaral, Leonardo L., E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2011-07-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%). (author)

  14. Recommended values of the humidity correction factor k{sub n} for determining exposure in an X-ray beam with free-air chambers; Valores recomendados del factor de correccion por humedad, k{sub h} para la determinacion de la exposicion en un haz de rayos X usando camaras de paredes de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Brosed, A.

    1983-07-01

    The experimental values stated by CCEMRI (Section I) concerning the humidity correction factor k{sub h} required for determining exposure in an X-ray beam with free-air chambers are commented and a method to estimate k{sub n} numerically, at any particular combination of relative humidity, pressure and temperature, la explained. A table of k{sub h}, calculated for relative humidity varying from 0% to 90%, for pressures in the range of 70 kPa to 104kPa and temperatures between 15 degree centigree and 30 degree centigree, is included. (Author) 10 refs.

  15. A new high-performance AC/DC power factor correction switching converter based on one-cycle control technology and active floating-charge technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao

    2008-01-01

    A new family of converters, high-performance AC/DC power factor correction (PFC) switching converters with one-cycle control technology and active floating-charge technology, was derived and experimentally verified. The topology of a single-phase CCM and DCM Boost-PFC switching converter was also analyzed. Its operating prniciples and control methods were expounded. Based on these, a new type of AC/DC switching converter circuits for PFC combined with one-cycle control technology was presented herein. The proposed AC/DC switching converter significantly helps improve the converter efficiency and its power factor value.

  16. A priori calculations of hyperfine interactions in highly ionized atoms: g-factor measurements on aligned pico-second states populated in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, N. J., E-mail: n.stone@physics.ox.ac.uk; Stone, J. R. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Jonsson, P. [Malmo University (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Calculations of hyperfine interaction strength and life-times of states in highly ionized atoms, using the GRASP atomic structure package, are reported. The calculations aim at providing calibration for Recoil-in-Vacuum nuclear excited state g-factor measurements. The method is outlined and results compared with experiment. Inclusion of decay of higher electronic states is discussed.

  17. Predictive factors for obtaining a correct therapeutic range using antivitamin K anticoagulants: a tertiary center experience of patient adherence to anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcuţ R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruxandra Jurcuţ,1 Sebastian Militaru,1 Oliviana Geavlete,1 Nic Drăgotoiu,1 Sergiu Sipoş,1 Răzvan Roşulescu,2 Carmen Ginghină,1 Ciprian Jurcuţ2 1Prof Dr CC Iliescu Emergency Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Dr Carol Davila Central University Emergency Military Hospital, Bucharest, Romania Background: Patient adherence is an essential factor in obtaining efficient oral anticoagulation using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, a situation with a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, patient education and awareness are crucial for good management. Auditing the current situation would help to identify the magnitude of the problem and to build tailored education programs for these patients. Methods: This study included 68 hospitalized chronically anticoagulated patients (mean age 62.6±13.1 years; males, 46% who responded to a 26-item questionnaire to assess their knowledge on VKA therapy management. Laboratory and clinical data were used to determine the international normalized ratio (INR at admission, as well as to calculate CHA2DS2-VASC and HAS-BLED scores for patients with atrial fibrillation. Results: The majority of patients (62% were receiving VKA for atrial fibrillation, the others for a mechanical prosthesis and previous thromboembolic disease or stroke. In the atrial fibrillation group, the mean CHA2DS2-VASC score was 3.1±1.5, while the average HAS-BLED score was 1.8±1.2. More than half of the patients (53% had an INR outside of the therapeutic range at admission, with the majority (43% having a low INR. A correct INR value was predicted by education level (higher education and the diagnostic indication (patients with mechanical prosthesis being best managed. Patients presenting with a therapeutic INR had a trend toward longer treatment duration than those outside the therapeutic range (62±72 months versus 36±35 months, respectively, P=0.06. There was no correlation between INR at admission

  18. Extrahepatic sources of factor VIII potentially contribute to the coagulation cascade correcting the bleeding phenotype of mice with hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolini, Diego; Merlin, Simone; Feola, Maria; Ranaldo, Gabriella; Amoruso, Angela; Gaidano, Gianluca; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Ferrero, Alessandro; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Valente, Guido; Gupta, Sanjeev; Prat, Maria; Follenzi, Antonia

    2015-07-01

    A large fraction of factor VIII in blood originates from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells although extrahepatic sources also contribute to plasma factor VIII levels. Identification of cell-types other than endothelial cells with the capacity to synthesize and release factor VIII will be helpful for therapeutic approaches in hemophilia A. Recent cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation studies indicated that Küpffer cells, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells could synthesize factor VIII in sufficient amount to ameliorate the bleeding phenotype in hemophilic mice. To further establish the role of blood cells in expressing factor VIII, we studied various types of mouse and human hematopoietic cells. We identified factor VIII in cells isolated from peripheral and cord blood, as well as bone marrow. Co-staining for cell type-specific markers verified that factor VIII was expressed in monocytes, macrophages and megakaryocytes. We additionally verified that factor VIII was expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and endothelial cells elsewhere, e.g., in the spleen, lungs and kidneys. Factor VIII was well expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Küpffer cells isolated from human liver, whereas by comparison isolated human hepatocytes expressed factor VIII at very low levels. After transplantation of CD34(+) human cord blood cells into NOD/SCIDγNull-hemophilia A mice, fluorescence activated cell sorting of peripheral blood showed >40% donor cells engrafted in the majority of mice. In these animals, plasma factor VIII activity 12 weeks after cell transplantation was up to 5% and nine of 12 mice survived after a tail clip-assay. In conclusion, hematopoietic cells, in addition to endothelial cells, express and secrete factor VIII: this information should offer further opportunities for understanding mechanisms of factor VIII synthesis and replenishment.

  19. Correction: Lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells is not accompanied by downregulation of AP-2 transcription factor genes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jager, Richard

    2011-09-09

    AbstractFollowing the publication of our article, an error in Table 1 was noted. The primer sequences used for PCR of beta-casein are incorrectly stated. The beta-casein primer pair has been incorrectly stated as: beta-casein sense: 5\\'-CCATCCTGCGTCTGGACCTG-3\\' beta-casein antisense: 5\\'-GGAATGTTGTGGAGTGGCAG-3\\' The correct beta-casein primer pair that has been used in the study is: beta-casein sense: 5\\'-GCCTTGCCAGTCTTGCTAAT-3\\' beta-casein antisense: 5\\'-GGAATGTTGTGGAGTGGCAG-3\\' We apologise for any inconvenience this may have caused.

  20. Calculation of gamma-ray buildup factors up to depths of 100 mfp by the method of invariant embedding. (2) Improved treatment of bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, A

    2003-01-01

    An improved method to calculate the gamma-ray buildup factors including bremsstrahlung has been developed. The exposure buildup factors with bremsstrahlung were computer by the present method for lead, iron and water at the source energy of 10.0 MeV up to depths of 100 mfp. The accuracy of the present method was checked by comparison with the calculations by use of EGS4. Excellent agreement was obtained between the calculations by both methods about the exposure buildup factors per energy (energy spectrum of transmitted photons) for lead up to depths of 10 mfp and the ratio of the exposure buildup factor with bremsstrahlung to that without bremsstrahlung for lead, iron and water up to depths of 40 mfp. It is confirmed that the present method has an accuracy sufficient to be used to the generation of an improved set of gamma-ray buildup factors including bremsstrahlung. (author)