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Sample records for corporation tokyo japan

  1. The super conservation energy building of the Ohbayashi corporation in Tokyo, Japan; El edificio super conservador de energia de la corporacion Ohbayashi en Tokio Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Vargas, Ricardo [Instituto Tecnologico de La Laguna, La Laguna (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The main building of the Institute of Technical Investigation of Ohbayashi Corporation in Tokyo, Japan, was built with the objective of being the best all over the world in the grounds of energy conservation. The utilization of this building was initiated on April 15, 1982 registering an annual energy consumption in the first two years of 87 and 96 Million calories/m{sup 2} respectively, that is, less than one fourth the consumption in conventional buildings. The inside ambient is better or equal to the one of ordinary buildings and the time for the investment recuperation was estimated of 8.7 years. The classification for the energy consumption in those first two years was of 31% for air conditioning, 41% for lighting/wall receptacles and 25% for others. The maximum consumption was in the month of August and was of 10 to 11 Mcal/m{sup 2}. The minimum consumption corresponded to the month of November and was 6 to 7 Mcal/m{sup 2}. In 1984 this building won the prize Energy of the ASHRAE. A total od 98 conservation measures were adopted for its construction and operation. [Espanol] El principal edificio del Instituto de Investigacion Tecnica de la corporacion Ohbayashi en Tokio, Japon, fue construido con el objetivo de ser el mejor en el mundo en el terreno de la conservacion de energia. La utilizacion de este edificio comenzo el 15 de abril de 1982, registrando un consumo anual de energia en los dos primeros anos de 87 y 96 Mcal/m{sup 2} respectivamente, esto es, menos de un cuarto del consumo en edificios convencionales. El ambiente interno es mejor o igual que el de edificios ordinarios y el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion se estimo en 8.7 anos. La clasificacion en el consumo de energia para esos dos primeros anos fue de 31% para el acondicionamiento de aire, 41% para la iluminacion/contactos y 25% para otros. El maximo consumo aparecio en el mes de agosto y fue de 10 a 11 Mcal/m{sup 2}. El minimo consumo correspondio al mes de noviembre fue de 6 a 7 Mcal

  2. First China-Japan Governors Forum Held in Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The First China-Japan Governors Forum jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC, the China-Japan Friendship Association and the Japan National Governors’ Association was held in Tokyo on April 18. Over 100 delegates took part. Key members of the Chinese Delegation

  3. Tokyo Tower and Tokyo Skytree: History and Symbolism in Contemporary Japan

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    Yunuen Ysela Mandujano-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tokyo Tower and the Tokyo Skytree are the two most recognizable landmarks on the skyline of Japan’s capital. By means of a documental revision, a textual interpretative analysis of media contents, participant observation and unstructured interviews, the objective of this article is to identify the development of these towers as symbols of Tokyo and Japan. It is found that, with more than half a century of existence, the Tokyo Tower represents the successful post-war Japanese society, while in just five years the Tokyo Skytree has become a symbol of Japanese national spirit and resilience in an era of multiple crises. Both broadcasting towers are regularly portrayed in Japanese media linked to narratives of romance, dreams, family and community. Also, enhanced by their special lightening at night, they stand as attractive backgrounds for locals and visitors in relevant events in their lives.

  4. Global warming and urbanization affect springwater temperatures in Tokyo, Japan

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    Matsuyama, H.

    2014-02-01

    Due to global warming and urbanization, air temperature in Tokyo has risen 1.6 degrees in the past 30-40 years which has also affected springwater temperatures. From 2005, we have proceeded with the observations of springs in Tokyo metropolis, Japan which had been conducted by Environment of Tokyo from the end of the 1980s to 2001. In the rainy season (October) and dry season (February), we have observed springwater temperatures in 25 springs. The field surveys have revealed that most springwater temperatures has steadly risen in the past 30 years. As of February 2013, water temperatures of 19/11 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season. As of February 2006, water temperatures of 10/13 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season, i.e., 9/2 springs have acquired/lost the significance as of February 2013. One possible reason is the recent hot summer/cold winter in Tokyo.

  5. Lessons from Japan: Resilience after Tokyo and Fukushima

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    Michelle L. Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 1995 Japan experienced the world’s first major terrorist attack using chemical weapons by a little-known religious cult called Aum Shinrikyo. The attack on the Tokyo subway, which killed 13 people, was the first lethal case of a non-state actor using a chemical agent against a civilian population. In March 2011, following a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor experienced a full meltdown releasing radiation into the surrounding area. The seemingly unhurried government reaction provided conflicting information to Japanese citizens, slowing evacuation and protective actions. Government failure is cited as a significant factor in the severity of the nuclear disaster in three investigations conducted after the incident. This article defines resilience and raises the question of whether the U.S. government has the ability to address the issues raised by the two case studies. There are four primary lessons of these two case studies from Japan: Trust is essential; two-way communications are vital; someone or something will always unexpectedly fail to act appropriately, while others will provide surprising support and; finally, recovery is long-term.

  6. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

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    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  7. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  8. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

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    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  9. Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae in crabs collected along the Arakawa River in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Hiromu; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kameoka, Yosuke; Arakawa, Kyoko; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2004-08-01

    Brackish water crabs infected with Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae have been reported in various regions in Japan. However, infected crabs have not been identified in Tokyo. We therefore collected the crab, Chiromantes dehaani, between August 2002 and July 2003 from 12 locations along the Arakawa River that flows through Tokyo. Of the 922 captured crabs, 177 (19%) from 6 locations were infected with Paragonimus metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae at these 6 locations ranged from 5 to 89%. The number of metacercariae per infected crab ranged from 1 to 190, with an average of 13.1. The morphological features of the metacercariae and of adult worms recovered from test rats infected with metacercariae showed that the metacercariae in the infected crabs were P. ohirai Miyazaki, 1939. The ITS2 sequence data support this conclusion. This paper is the first description of P. ohirai infection of crabs in Tokyo.

  10. Changes in Hydrological Cycle Due to Urbanization in the Suburb Of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, Akihiko; Nishiyama, J

    1998-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] The suburbs of Tokyo Metropolitan area has been experiencing heavy land use/cover changes followed by modernization of Japan. The stages of land surface alteration can be precisely monitored by satellite remote sensing data and printed maps. Image processing system and Geographic Information System are used to draw land use/cover maps, and the changes in it was discussed. After delineating the urbanization process, the changes in hydrological cycle are assessed. In this paper, chan...

  11. Using a Mobile Phone Tour to Visit the Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan

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    Arita-Kikutani, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Japanese mobile phones are increasingly being used as multimedia players. In response to this, some museums in Japan have introduced mobile phone audiovisual guides. This paper presents a trial run of a cross-institutional mobile phone audiovisual guide tour at Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan.…

  12. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

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    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the 2012-2013 epidemics in Tokyo, Japan.

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    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Shimatani, Naotaka; Katow, Shigetaka; Takahashi, Takuri; Hori, Narumi

    2015-01-01

    A large rubella outbreak has been observed since June 2012 in Tokyo, Japan, and a rapid increase in the number of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases have also been reported in Japan since October 2012. All the clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed rubella cases reported in Tokyo from January 2012 to December 2013 and all the laboratory-confirmed CRS cases from January 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed. In total, 4,116 rubella cases were reported in Tokyo. Of these, 77.2% (n=3,176) were male; the highest number of cases occurred in males aged 35-39 years and in females aged 20-24 years. Complications included arthralgia/arthritis (19.4%), thrombocytopenic purpura (0.5%), hepatic dysfunction (0.3%), and encephalitis (0.1%). The circulating rubella virus in Tokyo was genotype 2B. The most possible site of transmission was the workplace. Because of the rubella epidemic, 16 CRS cases were reported in Tokyo from March 2013 to February 2014. Domestic infection with rubella was proven for all mothers of 16 cases. This situation suggests that Japan is still working to achieve rubella elimination.

  14. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kanai, Yutaka [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan); Masunaga, Shigeki, E-mail: masunaga@ynu.ac.j [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend. - This study reports the time trends of the concentrations of 24 species of PFCs, including FTCA, FTUCA and FOSAA, in a sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

  15. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

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    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)).

  16. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

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    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  17. Unstash the Cash! Corporate Governance Reform in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chie Aoyagi; Giovanni Ganelli

    2014-01-01

    Japan’s high corporate savings might be holding back growth. We focus on the causes and consequences of the current corporate behavior and suggest options for reform. In particular, Japan’s weak corporate governance—as measured by available indexes—might be contributing to high cash holdings. Our empirical analysis on a panel of Japanese firms confirms that improving corporate governance would help unlock corporate savings. The main policy implication of our analysis is that comprehen...

  18. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  19. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

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    Satoshi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  20. Geochemical and stable isotope characteristics of urban heavy rain in the downtown of Tokyo, Japan

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    Uchiyama, Ryunosuke; Okochi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Hiroko; Katsumi, Naoya; Asai, Daisuke; Nakano, Takanori

    2017-09-01

    In order to make clear the impact of air pollution on the formation of sudden and locally-distributed heavy rain in urban area (hereafter Urban Heavy Rain: UHR), we analyzed inorganic ion concentration and stable isotope ratio of water (δD and δ18O) in rainwater. Rainwater samples were collected in Shinjuku, which is a representative downtown of Tokyo, Japan, during four years from October 2012 to December 2015. The concentration and wet deposition fluxes of acidic components (H+, NH4+, NO3-, and nss-SO42 -) in UHR were especially higher than those in other types of rain events, i.e. normal rain, typhoon heavy rain, and frontal heavy rain. UHR had distinctly lower stable isotope ratios than those in other urban rains with same rainfall amount and summer precipitation systems. There was a high negative correlation between δ18O and the distances from the sampling point to the formation area of UHR within 10 km, while there were high positive correlations between δ18O and the concentration of acidic components in UHR. These findings indicate that UHR could effectively scavenge acidic substances within cloud and suggest the use of stable isotope ratios as tracers of an urban heavy rain's water and in-cloud scavenging process.

  1. Tokyo story. A British nurse is setting up an infection control service in Japan.

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    Nevill, Michael

    Tokyo is an amazing capital city, just as you would expect: tall buildings, bright lights, overcrowded and fast paced. Japan was a bit of a culture shock at first, but things have settled down since I learned a few key Japanese phrases for such questions as 'Can I have... ?' and 'Where is... ?' There are many places to visit in this city of almost 15 million people. Getting around is straightforward, as there is an efficient underground system with the station names in English as well as Japanese. The trains are on time and fully air-conditioned, but during rush hours it can get very uncomfortable with so many people squashed inside the carriages. The food ranges from inexpensive pavement cafes serving batter-fried octopus to exclusive sushi restaurants. Every type of food is available in the many restaurants, but I enjoy trying traditional Japanese dishes. The food is always fresh, well presented and tasty. Some of the more unusual dishes include raw horse, raw eggs, sea urchins and live fish. I have been taken to a karaoke bar by my work colleagues and it was great, but very different from what I had expected. You only sing to the people you are with and there are a number of rooms in the bar, depending on how many of you there are, which reduces the public humiliation factor.

  2. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

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    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  3. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

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    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  4. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    comparison of this map with a published map of the damage-ratio of wooden houses that were destroyed during the Kanto earthquake in 1923, shows a remarkable relation between zones of maximum destruction and the occurrence of the so-called 'zero' muds, the latter representing the sediments most sensitive for ground motion amplification. Our results show that the 3D geological voxel modelling approach presented here is able to make a spatial analysis of earth quake damage sensitivity in the Tokyo Lowland. This makes our workflow also is a promising tool for seismic hazard assessments in other areas in Japan were detailed insights in earth quake damage from historical records are absent.

  5. Risk perception and risk attitudes in Tokyo: A report of the first administration of DOSPERT+M in Japan

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    Alan Schwartz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT has been used to measure risk perceptions and attitudes in several nations and cultures. Takahashi translated DOSPERT to Japanese but DOSPERT responses from Japan have never been reported. Butler et al. (2012 developed an additional medical risk domain subscale to be added to DOSPERT to form DOSPERT+M. Objective: To describe the translation of the medical risk domain subscale to Japanese and to characterize domain-specific risk attitudes in Tokyo. Methods: Members of a probability-weighted online panel representative of the Tokyo metro area were randomized to complete pairs of DOSPERT+M tasks (risk attitude, risk perception, benefit perception. We explored relationships among domains through correlational and factor analysis; we tested the hypothesis that the medical risk domain and DOSPERT's health/safety domains were uncorrelated. Participants: One hundred eighty panelists. Results: Six of the original DOSPERT items (two each in the ethics, health/safety, and financial domains are not useable in Japan according to the Japanese Marketing Research Association code because they ask about participation in illegal activities; we thus used abbreviated versions of those domains leaving out these items. The DOSPERT+M items generally did not cluster cleanly into the expected domains, although items within the same domain usually were intercorrelated. Participants demonstrated domain-specific conventional risk attitudes, although nearly half of those assessed were perceived-risk neutral in all domains. Unlike our recently reported findings in the U.S. population, DOSPERT+M medical domain scores were associated with health/safety domain scores, although they were often more strongly associated with scores in other domains, such as recreational activities. Conclusion: The DOSPERT (and DOSPERT+M instruments are problematic in Japan but Japanese citizens may also differ from those of other nations

  6. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born and Japan-born residents in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Miyazawa, M; Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Kanno, Y; Takasaki, J; Kirikae, T; Kobayashi, N

    2015-03-01

    Sequences of the full genomes of 259 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtained from foreign-born and Japan-born patients in Tokyo, Japan, were determined, and a phylogenetic tree constructed by concatenated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. The 259 isolates were clustered into four clades: Lineage 2 (East Asian or "Beijing" genotype; n = 182, 70.3%), Lineage 4 (Euro-American, n = 46, 17.8%), Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic, n = 23, 8.9%), and Lineage 3 (East African-Indian, n = 8, 3.1%). Of the 259, 36 (13.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. There was no multi-drug-resistant isolate. Drug resistance was greater for the strains in Lineage 2 than the non-Lineage 2. The proportion of Lineage 2 isolates was significantly smaller in foreign-born (n = 43/91, 47.3%) than in Japan-born (n = 139/168, 82.7%) patients, whereas the proportion of Lineage 1 isolates was significantly larger in foreign-born (n = 19/91, 20.9%) than in Japan-born (n = 4/168, 2.4%) patients. We also found eight SNPs specific to the typical Beijing sub-genotype in Lineage 2, including 4 non-synonymous SNPs. Of the 259 isolates, 244 had strain-specific SNP(s) and small (1-30-bp) insertions and deletions (indels). The numbers of strain-specific SNPs and indels per isolate were significantly larger from foreign-born (median 89, range 0-520) than from Japan-born (median 23, range 0-415) (p 3.66E-15) patients. These results suggested that M. tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born patients had more genetic diversity than those from Japan-born patients.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Beggiatoa spp. from organic rich sediment of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2003-07-01

    Nitrate-accumulating filamentous bacteria from organic rich sediment of Tokyo Bay, morphologically similar to Beggiatoa species, were phylogenetically analyzed. From several sites in Tokyo Bay, Beggiatoa-like bacteria were collected. Each sample contained narrower or wider type (10 and 30 microns, respectively) of trichomes. With the nested PCR using specific primers for Beggiatoa, fragments of 16S rRNA gene were amplified and then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Sequencing and the following phylogenetic analysis indicated that they are related to large Beggiatoa species. The wider type was related to uncultured Beggiatoa clones of other geographical localities and distinct from the narrower type in Tokyo Bay. Among the narrower types, a sample from a tidal flat was genetically distinct from the sample from sites of 10 and 20 m water depth. These narrower types form a new branch in Beggiatoa/Thioploca cluster. The result of phylogenetic analysis was in accordance with the previous studies that indicate possession of nitrate-accumulation capability is congruent with phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences.

  8. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from <4.9 to 1700ng/L (mean: 220ng/L). The individual mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs in surface waters were; 10ng/L for D3, 13ng/L for D4, 180ng/L for D5, and 18ng/L for D6. The concentrations of ΣVMS determined in STP effluents varied widely from 99 to 2500ng/L and the individual mean concentrations were 21ng/L for D3, 27ng/L for D4, 540ng/L for D5, and 45ng/L for D6. D5, which is widely used in personal-care products, was found to be the most abundant compound in both river water and STP effluent. Linear VMSs were detected at much lower frequency and concentrations than those of cyclic VMSs. The measured concentrations of D4 were below the no-observed effect concentration (NOEC). The annual emission of ΣVMS through STPs into Tokyo Bay watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment.

  9. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMrespiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued.

  10. Partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Lam, Paul K S; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-15

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C or = 11) were found only in sediment The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment The maximum SigmaPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm(-2) yr(-1). Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  11. Vertical profiles of dioxin-like and estrogenic activities associated with a sediment core from Tokyo Bay, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Yamashita, N.; Imagawa, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Miyazaki, A.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (USA). Dept. of Zoology

    2000-09-01

    In vitro bioassays were used to measure dioxin-like and estrogenic activities associated with florisil fractions of extracts from a sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan. Florisil fractions 2(F2) and 3(F3) elicited significant dioxin-like responses in vitro. Dioxin-like activity of F2 samples were correlated with the vertical profile of PAH concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.85). Contribution of PAHs to Ah receptor-mediated activities in sediments was greater than those by PCDDs/DFs, PCBs, and PCNs. The dioxin-like activity of F3 samples suggests the presence of relatively polar, Ah receptor-active compounds in the Tokyo Bay sediment core. Significant estrogenic activities, which may be related to the presence of certain estrogenic PAHs, were observed for F2 samples. Estrogen equivalents (E2-EQs) calculated from the concentrations and relative potencies of known estrogenic compounds in F2 were greater than bioassay-derived E2-EQs. This suggests that complex interactions between estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds (PAHs, PCDD/DFs, and PCNs) may have modulated the activity. F3 samples were toxic to MVLN cells; therefore, their estrogenic activities could not be estimated. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  13. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  14. Redefining The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Tokyo’s National Defense Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    own Governors, must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives. JAMES MADISON to W, T. BARRY August 4, 1822 REDEFINING THE U.S.-JAPAN...SDF facilities for such purposes as Waining centers and advance depots for materials and equipment for peacekeeping operations, and supply by Japan of

  15. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Japan to network, build relationships and identify partners for current projects and potential joint... will also be given an opportunity to network with Japanese firms and identify potential business... network. Recruitment will begin immediately and conclude no later than January 15, 2014. The...

  17. Visit of Professor Shigehiko Hasumi. President of Tokyo University, Japan, Professor Kazuo Okamoto, Head of Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Professor Toshiteru Matsuura, Head of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Visit of Professor Shigehiko Hasumi. President of Tokyo University, Japan, Professor Kazuo Okamoto, Head of Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Professor Toshiteru Matsuura, Head of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

  18. Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas.

  19. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  20. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  1. Surface Albedo in Cities: Case Study in Sapporo and Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirofumi; Takamura, Tamio

    2014-12-01

    The surface albedo of two large cities in Japan was measured using a pyranometer mounted on a helicopter to avoid the bidirectional reflectance distribution. The daytime albedo was 0.12 in the cities, which was less than that of a nearby forest (0.16). The albedo was dependent on building structure in the cities; the albedo was lower in areas with more buildings, and decreased as the aspect ratio of street canyons increased. There are two reasons for this dependency: the multiple reflection of radiation in the building canopy, as has been shown in many previous studies, and the sparse vegetation in urban areas. These two factors concurrently determine the albedo in a real city, where the vegetation amount decreases as the plan roof ratio increases.

  2. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999-2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs) and 2009-2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs). T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher's exact test, and significance was indicated at P cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999-2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009-2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state.

  3. Distribution and community structure of fish in Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeppette J. Hermosilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and community structure of fish in Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner TokyoBay, central Japan was studied from May to December 2005 and March to April 2006. A total of 19,006individuals, represented by 25 species and some unidentified species under family Clupeidae, Cyprinidae,Gobiidae, Hemiramphidae, Mugilidae, Platycephidae, Pleuronectidae and Triglidae were collected. FamilyGobiidae had the most number of taxa with 13 genera and 10 species. Greatest fish abundancehappened in August and secondarily in April and May. Species richness was evident in the warmermonths particularly in May (17 taxa, August (21 taxa, September (15 taxa and October (17 taxa.Marine teleosts significantly contributed to the species richness and abundance of fish, whichcorresponded to 52.9% (10,046 individuals of the total catch while the estuarine fishes were the secondmost abundant group with 33.5% (6,372 individuals of the total catch. Species dominance was acoherent feature of this community. The proportional contribution of marine teleosts to the fishcommunity decreased with increase distance upstream while that of estuarine fishes increased withincrease distance upstream. The developmental stages of gobies range from larvae to adult but juvenilesconstitute 77.06% of the total sample. The distribution of developmental stage of estuarine gobies wasinfluenced to a greater extent by variation in monthly water temperature and station or the interaction ofboth. Adult estuarine gobies had the tendency to aggregate in the middle estuary reflecting their hightolerance to a wide range of water salinity inherent in this station but avoided the lower estuary mostlikely due to the predominance of high salinity waters.

  4. Seismic wavefield imaging in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, based on the replica exchange Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Masayuki; Nagao, Hiromichi; Nagata, Kenji; Ito, Shin-ichi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hori, Muneo; Hirata, Naoshi

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas. To reduce these secondary disasters, it is important to rapidly evaluate seismic hazards by analyzing the seismic responses of individual structures due to the input ground motions. Such input motions are estimated utilizing an array of seismometers that are distributed more sparsely than the structures. We propose a methodology that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain the seismic wavefield to be input into seismic response analysis. This study adopts the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for the estimation of the seismic wavefield together with one-dimensional local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests show that the REMC method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The REMC method well reproduces the seismic wavefield consistent with the true one. In contrast, the ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce the true wavefield even at low frequencies. This indicates that it is essential to take both physics-based and data-driven approaches into consideration for seismic wavefield imaging. Then the REMC method is applied to the actual waveforms observed by a dense seismic array MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), in which 296 accelerometers are continuously in operation with several kilometer intervals in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The estimated wavefield within a frequency band of 0.10-0.20 Hz is absolutely consistent with the observed waveforms. Further investigation suggests that the seismic wavefield is successfully

  5. Characterization of pollen dispersion in the neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the spring of 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham's pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women's University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm(-2) for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm(-2) for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it was

  6. An archival study on the nuclear fusion research in Japan later half of 1980's. An interview with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui [Nihon Univ., College of Science and Technology, Funabashi, Chiba (Japan); Obayashi, Haruo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    An interview record with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at The University of Tokyo, on the nuclear fusion researches in Japan later half of 1980's is given. The major topics concerned are: activities of Science Council of Japan, the establishment of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research, the history of establishing National Institute for Fusion Science, and effects of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, and others. (author)

  7. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Oi

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999-2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs and 2009-2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs. T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher's exact test, and significance was indicated at P < 0.05. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in cats was 5.6% (13 of 233 in 1999-2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104 in 2009-2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219 and 1.9% (2 of 106, respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P < 0.05. These results reveal that there has been little change in the feline and canine seroprevalence over the past decade, indicating that the risk of T. gondii exposure for cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state.

  8. Temporal trends for inflow of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Tokyo Bay, Japan, estimated by a receptor-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeo; Serizawa, Shigeko; Kobayashi, Jun; Kodama, Keita; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Maki, Hideaki; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Sevilla-Nastor, Janice Beltran; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We estimated inflow rates of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Tokyo Bay, Japan, between February 2004 and February 2011 by a receptor-oriented approach based on quarterly samplings of the bay water. Temporal trends in these inflow rates are an important basis for evaluating changes in PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Tokyo Bay catchment basin. A mixing model estimated the average concentrations of these compounds in the freshwater inflow to the bay, which were then multiplied by estimated freshwater inflow rates to obtain the inflow rates of these compounds. The receptor-oriented approach enabled us to comprehensively cover inflow to the bay, including inflow via direct discharge to the bay. On a logarithmic basis, the rate of inflow for PFOS decreased gradually, particularly after 2006, whereas that for PFOA exhibited a marked stepwise decrease from 2006 to 2007. The rate of inflow for PFOS decreased from 730kg/y during 2004-2006 to 160kg/y in 2010, whereas that for PFOA decreased from 2000kg/y during 2004-2006 to 290kg/y in 2010. These reductions probably reflected reductions in the use and emission of these compounds and their precursors in the Tokyo Bay catchment basin. Our estimated per-person inflow rates (i.e., inflow rates divided by the estimated population in the basin) for PFOS were generally comparable to previously reported per-person waterborne emission rates in Japan and other countries, whereas those for PFOA were generally higher than previously reported per-person waterborne emission rates. A comparison with previous estimates of household emission rates of these compounds suggested that our inflow estimates included a considerable contribution from point industrial sources.

  9. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  11. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility reporting in Japan from 2004 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Nakata, Akinori; Mori, Koji; Maruyama, Takashi; Kawashita, Futoshi; Nagata, Masako

    2017-05-02

    A number of companies publish corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting in booklets and other publicly available formats. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nine-year (2004-2012) trend of occupational safety and health (OSH) activities as described in CSR reporting (by industry sector and company size). We investigated CSR reporting on the website in all Japanese companies listed on the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The data were extracted from CSR reporting of each company every year from 2004 to 2012. We counted the pages dedicated to information on OSH activities by industry sector and company size and calculated the rate of OSH divided by total CSR-related activities. The number of companies publishing CSR reports increased in all industry sectors, although the rate of inclusion of OSH activity within CSR reports increased only among sectors such as construction, manufacturing, transportation, and commerce. Among all company size, CSR reporting increased constantly throughout all observed years. The proportion of companies that had described OSH in CSR reporting increased from 2004 to 2012, and 76.5% companies had described OSH activities in 2012. The average number of pages of CSR-related report was 34.2 in 2004, increasing to 43.1 in 2012. The proportion of described pages of OSH activities in total CSR reporting increased gradually, and 2.7% in 2012. The focus of CSR reporting gradually shifted from 'environment' to 'social activity including OSH'. Majority of companies are putting more emphasis on OSH in CSR reporting in Japan.

  12. Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm-2 day-1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm-2 day-1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm-2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr. in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm-2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr. in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much

  13. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kagawa; Furuno, K; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artifi...

  14. Heavy metal concentration of river sediment in the light of the environmental quality standard value of Japan from the river in and around the Tokyo Japan: A case study at the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2008-12-01

    The river sediment is basically composed of clastic materials derived from the surface of the Earth. Purpose of our study is clarify the quantitative estimation of ratio of influence given to river sediment of nature and human activity by using of heavy metals. We show the geochemical and geological characteristics of stream sediments from the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara Rivers that flow in Tokyo bay, Japan. We show research results of the degree of contamination in above four rivers that are the relativery polluted river in Japan. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As and Hg from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. Content of Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As, and Hg except Pb was above the environmental quality limit in few locations of the Tsurumi river. However, in the down-river part (mouth region) Pb-concentration was 10 times higher than at the source regions as the result of human impact; for Hg the same tendency was detected at the all rivers. This study is the first research that investigated river sediment in the light of the envirnomental quality standard in Tokyo area, Japan.

  15. Comparison of cost-benefit analysis of nitrogen dioxide control in Tokyo, Japan with those in other countries and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H.

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the economic effectiveness of past NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo, the authors compared the results of their cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of these controls with other investigations. The authors carried out a CBA of NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo using Freeman's benefit methodology and EPA and Dixon et al. cost methodologies and they compared their assumptions and results to work done by other researchers for other countries and cities, which were collected from the literature. The authors assumed 2 to 3 days duration per incidence of respiratory illness. Kenkel suggested 4.1 days and Dixon et al. assumed 2 weeks. They estimated avoided incidence per person in adults as 2.6 (upper limit UL 2.7; lower limit LL 2.4) and in children as 0.33 (UL 0.35; LL 0.30). Ostro estimated 0.20 for respiratory symptoms in adults from NO{sub 2} exposure, 5.2 for respiratory symptoms and 0.078 for asthma attacks in adults from particulates. The authors estimated work loss days (WLDs) per person for workers as 4.7 (UL 5.0; LL 4.4) and for working mothers as 0.61 (UL 0.66; LL 0.56). Shin et al.'s per-person estimates included 4.5 WLDs in Bangkok, 3.7 in Beijing, 2.3 in Shanghai, and 1.1 in Kuala Lumpur. They estimated the cost effectiveness of NO{sub 2} control in Tokyo to be $1,400/ton (UL $1,500; LL $1,300) for motor vehicles, $21,000/ton (UL $23,000; LL $19,000) for all NO{sub x} sources, and $91,000/ton (UL $98,000; LL $84,000) for stationary point sources. This compares to $240 to $1,500/ton in West Virginia for all NO{sub x} sources, $2,700/ton in northern Virginia from motor vehicles, $5,600/ton from motor vehicles in Virginia, and $17,000 to $26,000/ton from all NO{sub x} sources in the Chesapeake River Watershed. Herein, the benefits in Tokyo exceeded the costs by a ratio of approximately 6 to 1 (UL 7:1; LL 5:1).

  16. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  17. Responses of two tall buildings in Tokyo, Japan, before, during, and after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hisada, Yoshiuaki; Omrani, Roshanak; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated significant long duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of tall buildings at several hundred km from the epicenter of the main shock and other events show tall buildings were affected by long-period motions of events at distant sources. This study presents behavioral aspects of 29-story and 30-story neighboring buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from records retrieved from a sparse array of accelerometers deployed in the superstructures, at ground and 100 m below the ground level over a time interval covering before, during, and after the main shock. Such long-period effects are common in several regions of Japan as well as in the United States and in other seismically active countries. Permanent shifts in fundamental frequencies are observed. Drift ratios indicate possible structural nonlinear behavior occurred during the main shock. The need to consider risks to built environments from distant sources, including those in neighboring countries, is emphasized.

  18. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis among shelter dogs in Tokyo, Japan, after a decade: comparison of 1999–2001 and 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection among shelter dogs between a decade ago and the present were evaluated. Serum samples were collected from 200 adult dogs in urban and suburban areas in Tokyo, Japan, during two 2-year periods (April 1999 to March 2001 and April 2009 to March 2011. Sera were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using a specific commercialized kit. The seroprevalence of D. immitis infection was 46% in 1999–2001 and 23% in 2009–2011. A decrease was observed in the prevalence of infection between 1999–2001 and 2009–2011; in particular, the prevalence in urban areas decreased significantly compared with that in suburban areas (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in prevalence between the sexes in each period, but there was a significant difference between mixed-breed and purebred dogs (P < 0.01. The decrease in prevalence of canine heartworm disease in urban areas could be related to better veterinary care.

  19. Studying Classroom Teaching as a Medium for Professional Development: Proceedings of a U.S.-Japan Workshop (9th, Tokyo/Makuhari, Japan, July 31-August 6, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Hyman, Ed.; Usiskin, Zalman P., Ed.; Burrill, Gail, Ed.

    The Ninth International Congress on Mathematics Education (ICME-9) held in Makuhari, Japan, in August 2000 provided a unique opportunity for the Mathematical Sciences Education Board and the U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction. Together with educators from the Japanese mathematical community, they hosted a workshop on teacher…

  20. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances. Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meeting (8th) Held at Tokyo, Japan on 8-10 November 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Kaneko, Y. Watari , and N. Aritomi ...... .............. .. 450 3 a.. ATTENDEES 8th ANNUAL MEETING U. S./JAFAN EXPERTS MEETING U. S. Delegation COL...Term Effects of Dr,. ng Operations Program," Waterways Experi- ment Station, C, ps of Engineers, USA 1600-1630 A. Kaneko, Y. Watari , and N. Aritoml...DESIGN’ED FOR BOTTOM SLDIMENT DREDGI(,; Akihiro Kaneko Yoshiharu Watari Noriyoshi Aritomi Japan Dredging and Reclamation "Engineering Association

  1. Living Conditions, Ability to Seek Medical Treatment, and Awareness of Health Conditions and Healthcare Options among Homeless Persons in Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtsu,Tadahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate:36.7%. With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen. The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively. This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable, respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1% and "public offices" (33.3%. Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1. Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  2. Congener-specific metabolism and sequestration of dioxin-like compounds by cytochrome P450 1A induced in the liver of crows from Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Yoneda, K.; Hashimoto, T. [Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Jungle crow (JC; Corvus macrorhynchos) is a useful bioindicator for monitoring contaminants in urban areas, because this species is residential, occupies a same habitat as human, and feeds variety of foods including domestic waste and garbage. Therefore, JCs may accumulate environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), which are released by human activities. Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A is a responsive mechanism elicited by exposure to dioxinlike compounds including PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs. Toxicokinetic behavior of dioxin-like compounds in organisms is controlled by excretion, metabolism and absorption. These processes are, at least partly, dependent on CYP1A expression in addition to chemical structure and number of chlorine substitution of each congener. Low chlorinated congeners such as 2378-T{sub 4}CDD, 2378- T{sub 4}CDF, 12378-P{sub 5}CDD and 33'44'-PCB were easily metabolized by CYP1A1/2 in rat liver microsomes. PCDDs/DFs accumulate in hepatic tissue to a greater extent than adipose tissue in rats and mice. Recent study using transgenic CYP1A2 knockout mice demonstrated that CYP1A2 is responsible for the sequestration of 2378-T{sub 4}CDD and 23478-P{sub 5}CDF in hepatic tissue. Therefore, CYP1A is considered as a key factor responsible for toxicokinetics of dioxin-like compounds. However, there's no comprehensive data on the contribution of CYP1A to the toxicokinetics of dioxin-like congeners in wild populations. In this study, we investigated contamination levels of PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs in liver and breast muscle of JCs from Tokyo, Japan, and interactions of dioxin-like congeners with hepatic CYP to elucidate congener-specific toxicokinetics related to CYP expression in JC.

  3. Mixing states of light-absorbing particles measured using a transmission electron microscope and a single-particle soot photometer in Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Yutaka; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2016-08-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as carbonaceous particles influence the climate through absorbing sunlight. The mixing states of these aerosol particles affect their optical properties. This study examines the changes in the mixing states and abundance of strongly light absorbing carbonaceous particles by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-particle soot photometer (SP2), as well as of iron oxide particles, in Tokyo, Japan. TEM and SP2 use fundamentally different detection techniques for the same light-absorbing particles. TEM allows characterization of the morphological, chemical, and structural features of individual particles, whereas SP2 optically measures the number, size, and mixing states of black carbon (BC). A comparison of the results obtained using these two techniques indicates that the peaks of high soot (nanosphere soot (ns-soot)) concentration periods agree with those of the BC concentrations determined by SP2 and that the high Fe-bearing particle fraction periods measured by TEM agree with that of high number concentrations of iron oxide particles measured using SP2 during the first half of the observation campaign. The results also show that the changes in the ns-soot/BC mixing states primarily correlate with the air mass sources, wind speed, precipitation, and photochemical processes. Nano-sized, aggregated, iron oxide particles mixed with other particles were commonly observed by using TEM during the high iron oxide particle periods. We conclude that although further quantitative comparison between TEM and SP2 data will be needed, the morphologically and optically defined ns-soot and BC, respectively, are essentially the same substance and that their mixing states are generally consistent across the techniques.

  4. FUTURE-ORIENTED MINDSET'S CONTRIBUTION TO MANAGEMENT OF CORPORATE R&D PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the decreasing motivation of R&D personnel in Japan, this paper analyzes the relations between motivation and R&D personnel's future-oriented mindset and the time-climate in their workplace. Questionnaires were given to 240 corporate R&D personnel in six Japanese companies. ANOVA results show that highly motivated personnel have longer-term perspectives about ability growth than do personnel with low motivation levels. In a Japanese automobile company we confirmed the positive impa...

  5. Motorway lighting under fog conditions : based on a paper presented at Japan Highway Corporation, Tokyo, 12 July 1990.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This study defines fog as an aerosol consisting primarily of water droplets. The main effect on road traffic is the contrast reduction as a result of the scatter of light in the aerosol. Absorption plays only a small role. The effect of the contrast reduction is that many objects in the field of vie

  6. Motorway lighting under fog conditions : based on a paper presented at Japan Highway Corporation, Tokyo, 12 July 1990.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This study defines fog as an aerosol consisting primarily of water droplets. The main effect on road traffic is the contrast reduction as a result of the scatter of light in the aerosol. Absorption plays only a small role. The effect of the contrast reduction is that many objects in the field of vie

  7. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson S; Miyajima, Nelson T; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between the populations. Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in comparative case-control studies of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene levels, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans compared with Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. The plasma total carotenoid level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared with the mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/ml), P for difference was 0.03 among Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/ml) and less than 0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/ml). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may have contributed to the slower pace of the increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population after migration.

  8. Tokyo / Karin Thea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karin, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Tokyo vaatamisväärtused: Sky Tree teletorn, Takeshita Dori jalakäijate tänav, Asakusa linnaosa, The Gate Hotel, Tokyo metroo, Ryogoku Kokugikan, Nippon Kasgaku Miraikan ning Jaapani suurim kalaturg Tsukiji

  9. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  10. New international services and the competitiveness of Tokyo International Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Matsumoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government i

  11. Responses of a tall building with U.S. code-type instrumentation in Tokyo, Japan, to events before, during and after the Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Kashima, Toshihide; Ghahari, S. Farid; Abazarsa, Fariba; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected tall buildings in urban areas several hundred kilometers from the epicenter of the main shock. Recorded responses show that tall buildings were affected by long-period motions. This study presents the behavior and performance of a 37-story building in the Tsukuda area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from modal analyses of records retrieved for a time interval covering a few days before, during, and for several months after the main shock. The U.S. “code-type” array comprises three triaxial accelerometers deployed at three levels in the superstructure. Such a sparse array in a tall structure limits a reliable assessment, because its performance must be based on only the average drift ratios. Based on the inferred values of this parameter, the subject building was not structurally damaged.

  12. Seasonal pattern and community structure of fishes in the shallow tidal creek of Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Moteki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal pattern and the community structure of fishes in the shallow tidal creek of ObitsugawaRiver Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay was studied for one year. Family Gobiidae corresponded to 98%of the total catch. Dominant species were Gymnogobius uchidai, Gymnogobius macrognathos,Gymnogobius breunigii, Eutaeniichthys gilli, Pseudogobius masago and Favonigobius gymnauchen.Stepwise modelling in canonical correspondence analysis indicated that season (p=0.02 best explainedthe variation in abundance of fish in this shallow habitat. There was a difference in fish communitybetween spring and summer while only a small difference was observed between summer and autumn aswell as winter and autumn. Species dominance was an inherent property of the tidal creek fishcommunity particularly in spring because of the remarkable abundance of G. uchidai. However, the fishcommunity had the tendency to become proportionately even as the season progresses from spring towinter. The occurrence of a particular life history stage generally showed a strong association with monthand water temperature. Adults substantially contributed to the population size structure of P. masagoand G. uchidai while juvenile 2 for G. breunigii and E. gilli . Larvae significantly contributed to thepopulation size structure of F. gymnauchen while juvenile 1 and juvenile 2 for G. macrognathos. Thecurrent study indicated that natural shallow habitat within a highly urbanized metropolitan area in innerTokyo Bay can serve as a habitat for fishes and the prevalence of certain life history stages of estuarinespecies indicated the importance of the said habitat at certain part of their life history.

  13. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus based on culture and PCR in inpatients at a tertiary care center in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ohta, Shoichi; Yukioka, Tetsuo

    2012-10-01

    We investigated active screening for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on admission and weekly follow-up surveillance after admission to a tertiary care center (TCC) between June 2007 and 31 December 2007. Eleven percent (30/267) of patients were found to be positive for MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or culture on admission; 5% (12/267) became positive during the TCC stay. The major primary diagnoses in MRSA-positive patients were pneumonia and cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty-two (52%) of 42 patients were found to be MRSA positive by both PCR and culture, compared with 19 (45%) of 42 who were PCR positive and culture negative. These findings suggest that active surveillance with PCR is highly sensitive and useful for the detection of MRSA colonization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of active surveillance of MRSA by PCR and bacterial culture in critically ill inpatients in Japan.

  14. The Tokyo axion helioscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, R., E-mail: comic@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Akimoto, Y. [School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mizumoto, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Namba, T. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takasu, Y. [Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    The Tokyo Axion Helioscope experiment aims to detect axions which are produced in the solar core. The helioscope uses a strong magnetic field in order to convert axions into X-ray photons and has a mounting to follow the sun very accurately. The photons are detected by an X-ray detector which is made of 16 PIN-photodiodes. In addition, a gas container and a gas regulation system are adopted for recovering the coherence between axions and photons in the conversion region giving sensitivity to axions with masses up to 2 eV. In this paper, we report on the technical detail of the Tokyo Axion Helioscope.

  15. Getting Lost in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lucas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential for using alternative forms of inscriptive practice to describe the urban space of the Tokyo Subway. I begin with an account of the process of getting lost in Shinjuku Subway Station in the heart of Tokyo. This station represents a limit condition of place, being dense and complex beyond the powers of traditional architectural representation. The station is explored through serial translations, beginning with narrative, moving to a flowchart diagram, Laban dance notation, recurring motifs and archetypes, architectural drawing, photography, and cartography. As Claudia Brodsky Lacour and Tim Ingold describe, the form our inscriptive practices take are crucial to the ways in which we conceptualise those places. How much of the experience of a place is lost in the traditional inscriptive practices of the architect? This description of the urban space of the Tokyo subway forms the basis for an extended study exploring the description of this experience of place, and the power of such description to theorise space. The ultimate aim of this is to shift the focus of urban design away from geometric principles and towards the experiences that might be enjoyed in such places.

  16. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  17. The Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs in contact beneath Tokyo, central Japan: their roles in defining hazardous interaction earthquakes and in limiting the southern extent of Tohoku-oki aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaya, D. A.; Sato, H.; Lavier, L. L.; Tan, E.; Wu, F. T.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake produced over 11,000 >M3 aftershocks within the first four months after its 2011 March 11 occurrence date. The majority of these aftershocks define the earthquake source region between the subducting Pacific plate (PAC) and its overlying Eurasian plate (EUR) along the Japan Trench. While this portion of the trench boundary extends southward to the Boso triple junction (latitude ~34.3 oN), the Tohoku-oki aftershocks predominantly terminate at ~35.7 oN. Between these two latitudes there is a marked dropoff in aftershocks, most noticably offshore of Boso Peninsula, eastern Kanto, which we refer to as the off-Boso aftershock gap. Inside this gap, aftershocks that have occurred form two narrow-width streaks that radiate from the triple junction and extend into central Kanto. There is a correlation between the location of the off-Boso aftershock gap and the northern extent of the Philippine Sea plate (PHS). The PHS is sandwiched between the PAC-EUR plates beneath Kanto. While the majority of Tohoku-oki aftershocks occur within the one-slab PAC-EUR system to the north, the off-Boso gap is updip of where the PHS slab is resident inside the PAC-EUR mantle wedge. Furthermore, the northern of the two aftershock streaks spatially correlates with the downdip extent of the PHS with many located at the PHS-PAC contact based on published tomographic/seismicity studies. The presence of PHS changes the conditions of PAC-EUR slip. Preliminary finite-source studies from web sources (e.g., Univ Tokyo, Harvard) show that Tohoku-oki rupture terminated just north of the off-Boso gap. Apparently, the presence of the Philippine Sea plate may have been a contributing factor to inhibiting this rupture from propagating further southward. The megathrust source faults beneath Kanto are associated with the tops of Philippine Sea and Pacific plates. These shallow source faults have been the focus of much recent geological and geophysical study including seismicity and

  18. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of School Libraries: Comparisons from Tokyo and Honolulu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuriko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses and compares results of a survey of teacher's perceptions of school libraries in Tokyo, Japan and in Honolulu, Hawaii that showed differences in policies, availability of trained school library personnel, and in the nature of school library development. Copies of the questionnaires used are appended. (Author/LRW)

  20. Sounding moves: flamenco, gender, and meaning in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ede, Y.; Dunin, E.I.; Stavělová, D.; Gremlicová, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the complex interactions between gender and localization of a world dance by focusing on the signification strategies of flamenco dance in Tokyo, Japan. Key in understanding these strategies are the senses. Sensory structures are the cultural incentive; embedded in local

  1. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  2. Sounding moves: flamenco, gender, and meaning in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ede, Y.; Dunin, E.I.; Stavělová, D.; Gremlicová, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the complex interactions between gender and localization of a world dance by focusing on the signification strategies of flamenco dance in Tokyo, Japan. Key in understanding these strategies are the senses. Sensory structures are the cultural incentive; embedded in local cultura

  3. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  4. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  5. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  6. Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Paul; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Keys, Christine; Smith, Kimothy L.; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Inouye, Sakae; Kurata, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases. PMID:15112666

  7. Multi functionele gebouwcomplexen in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijnsbergen, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes eight Multi Uses Complexes in Tokyo. All these buildings combine work, living, leisure and parking. In the first part of the study, there is a historical view of Tokyo concerning the infra-structure of the city. Important is that the city has still the same street pattern

  8. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazujo Suzuki

    2000-01-01

    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  9. Cashing in for Growth; Corporate Cash Holdings as an Opportunity for Investment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Galen Sher

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, cash holdings in nonfinancial firms around the world have increased. This phenomenon is particularly concerning in Japan, where the success of Abenomics depends on a transition from stimulus-driven to self-sustaining growth based on private consumption and investment. This paper finds that Japanese nonfinancial firms have accumulated cash at the expense of investment and dividends, hampering this transition. The evidence suggests that cash accumulation is due to fin...

  10. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  11. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  12. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Japan. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing bus...

  13. "Ruudi" võitis Tokyos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" (stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe) sai Tokyo 14. lastefilmide festivalil Kodomotachino parima mängufilmi auhinna

  14. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazujo

    2000-01-01

    Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften...

  15. Japan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-18

    characteristics retained . Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [] are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text...Kurokawa said the nation’s economic environment is favorable both in terms of economic growth and corporate earnings . "The economic situation now is...success in completing installing of computer-controlled control systems at Tokyo Disneyland , the company is succeeding in the new fields of business

  16. Potential for rooftop photovoltaics in Tokyo to replace nuclear capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, B. L.; Smith, T. A.; Deinert, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japan’s nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity, there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan provided more than just base-load by storing energy in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems, which was then released to provide some peaking capacity. If this storage were instead coupled to current generation rooftop solar systems in Tokyo, the combined system could help to meet peak requirements while at the same time providing ˜26.5% of the electricity Tokyo used to get from nuclear output, and do so 91% of the time. Data from a study of rooftop space and a 34 yr data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with 5.6 times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO’s nuclear capacity.

  17. 31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphaël Piguet

    2011-01-01

    31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

  18. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  19. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  20. Record of Tokyo Trial Court and Study of Japan Opium Aggression---Take"Manchukuo"as an example%东京审判庭审记录与日本对华鸦片侵略研究--以“满洲国”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华

    2015-01-01

    东京审判庭审记录有关日本在“满洲国”实施鸦片侵略的犯罪证据,揭露了日本对华鸦片侵略的犯罪事实,是我们研究二战日本对华鸦片侵略的重要史料,翻译整理这部分史料,将有利于对相关的研究与利用,具有重要的意义。%The record evidence of a crime of Tokyo Trial court related to Japanese in the"Manchukuo"Imple-mentation of opium aggression, exposes Japan's opium facts of the crime of aggression, is important historical Japan's invasion of opium in World War II.Translation and finishment this part of the historical data will facilitate the use of the relevant research, which has important significance.

  1. 日本薄弱高中改革实践探析--以东京都“鼓励学校”为例%Exploring the Reform Practice of Weak Senior High School in Japan--the Case of“Encourage School”in Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋庆清

    2014-01-01

    战后日本以教育均衡发展著称,但随着高中普及,高中生日益多样化,学业水平未达到义务教育毕业程度的学生也进入了高中。东京都的“鼓励学校”就是日本高中多样化改革中应对学力低下高中生教育的实践案例。日本高中多样化改革是新自由主义教育改革的一环,有顺应日本经济社会发展变化的一面,但也有追求效率、放弃均衡的的另一面。%Japan is known for the balanced development of education in the postwar, but with the popularity of high school, the students in senior high school have become increasingly diversiifed, some did not reach the graduate degree of compulsory education. The"encourage school"in Tokyo is the practice case of Japan's diversiifed reform on high school in response to those with low learning ability. Japanese high school diversiifed reform is part of the Neoliberal education reform, complying with the development and change of Japanese society but abandoning the balance.when pursuing efifciency.

  2. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  3. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014.

  4. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.

    2006-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Unlike California's seismic environment of shallow and largely strike-slip faults, Tokyo lies 200 km from a triple junction with two subduction zones, and 80 km from a front of active volcanoes. Further, some of the region's megathust faults are seismically coupled, some undergo episodic slip events, and others appear to be permanently aseismic. To reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates, and estimate their earthquake frequency, we analyzed the 7,000-yr record of seventeen M~8 shocks preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits, and 150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years from Japan's GeoNet array. We also digitized 10,000 observations of historical shaking recorded over the past 400 years, and examined 300,000 earthquakes registered by the dense NIED/JMA network in a 3D geographic information system. In a principal departure from previous work, we propose that a 100-km-wide, 25-km-thick dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and argue that the this fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior, including the damaging 1855 M~7.1 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, we estimate that events with magnitude and location similar to the Ansei-Edo event have a 20% likelihood in an average 30-yr period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for great M~7.9 megathrust shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is just 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (~0.9 g peak ground acceleration) in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ~30%, and the annual probability is 1.3%.

  5. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  6. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  7. Influence of culture is on development of corporations (on the example of corporations of the USA, Japan, countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stoyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of features of elements of economic culture of the USA, Japan, countries of Western Europe is given. Generalized experience of different countries and different companies from making of ethics of внутріфірмових and міжфірмових business relationships in the контектсі use of experience for the Ukrainian enterprises

  8. Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Sheng Ng, Chris Fook; Konishi, Shoko; Koyanagi, Ai; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to suicide (e.g. 30 to suicide mortality in Tokyo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  10. China-Japan Friendship Association Delegation in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Shorinji Kem-po Group and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JC-FA), the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA) delegation led by Vice President Jing Dun-quan visited Tokyo, Miyazaki and Fukuoka from November 2 to 9, 2007. During its stay in Japan, from November 2 to 4, the delegation attended a series of activities celebrating the 60th

  11. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  12. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan.

  13. Japan’s Defense Policy: Forecast and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-21

    Kodanska Intnl. Ltd., Tokyo, 1973. Duus , Peter , The Rise of Modern Japan, Houghton Miflin Co., Boston, Mass., 1976. E-mmerson, John K., Arms. Yen and...Yasoaka, op. cit., 1978, pp. 29-34. 22 Duus , P. The Rise of Modern Japan, 1976, pp. 121-25; Stockwin, J. Japan: Divided Politics in a Growth Economy

  14. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 4, Number 4, October-December 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Cavaliere of Istituto di Fisica dell’Universita, Roma. The luminosity of these objects is l043 to l0’ ergs/sec, much of it emitted as energetic x...Tokyo 106 Japan -Iucci, N. Istituto di Fisica dell’Universita Piazzale Deile Scienze, 5 00185 Roma Italy -Jokipii, J. R. Dept. of Planetary Sciences...Reutrakul, Department of Medical Plants and Spices Chemistry, Faculty of Science Mahidol University, Rama VI Road Bangkok 4 September 22-25 Eighth

  15. Internationalization of Água das Pedras to Tokyo (Japan)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Carlota da Rocha Baptista

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Água das Pedras is a natural carbonated mineral water exploited and sold by Unicer S.A, a 44% Danish and 56% Portuguese company, the largest beverage company in Portugal1. The market for bottled water in Portugal has been stabilizing in the past years due to its maturity character. At the same time, the expansion of off-trade distribution ch...

  16. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  17. Chinese University Students’ Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note: At the invitation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the Japan-China Friendship Center, a 77-member delegation of Chinese university students led by Wang Xiuyun, Vice President of the China-Japan Friendship Association, visited Tokyo, Miyagi and Kyoto from March 4 to 11, 2013. Members of the delegation consisted of students from Peking University, Renmin University of China, Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing Normal University, Beijing International Studies

  18. A CHARITY GALA @ PARK HYATT TOKYO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    As a mark of the end of the 10th anniversary year, Park Hyatt Tokyo held a charity gala on December 4th. All restaurants, the swimming pool and banquet rooms were transformed into 7 different theater featuring by world-class entertainers including the Three Tenors, Jose Carreras, and the award-winning Broadway show, etc.

  19. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  20. Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddock, Sandra; Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We define and discuss the concept of corporate responsibility. We suggest that corporate responsibility has some unique characteristics, which makes it different from earlier conceptions of corporate social responsibility. Our discussion further shows commonalities and differences between corporate...... responsibility and related concepts, such as corporate citizenship and business ethics. We also outline some ways in which corporations have implemented corporate responsibility in practice....

  1. Dunhuang Friendship Delegation Visits Japan and ROK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>A friendship delegation of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province paid a visit to Japan and the ROK from January 12 to 25, 2007. During its visit to Japan and the ROK, the delegation signed agreements on establishing friendship-city ties between Dunhuang and Nikko City of Japan and between Dunhuang and Namhae County of the ROK, and visited Kamakura and Usuki, Dunhuang’ s two friendship cities in Japan, and held meetings in Tokyo and Seoul to advertise Dunhuang’s tourist products.

  2. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-07-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  3. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  4. Tokyo XX videofestival ja kohtumine Suure Hiirega / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    JVC Tokyo XX videofestivalist. Peapreemia Jon Alpertile dokumentaalse videoga "Life of Crime : Deleris's Sad Story". R. Kelomehe videost "Maja". Interaktiivse kunsti muuseumist ICC (Inter Communication Center) Tokyo Opera Citys. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 72-75

  5. Deux expositions au Palais de Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    Glicenstein, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Les expositions « Hardcore » et « GNS », organisées respectivement par Jérôme Sans et Nicolas Bourriaud au Palais de Tokyo début 2003, fournissent une occasion de voir s’exprimer les positions respectives des deux co-directeurs du lieu quant à la pratique du commissariat d’exposition, tout en permettant de jeter un regard sur la première année d’existence de cette nouvelle institution parisienne. En dépit de la différence des démarches adoptées par Sans et Bourriaud – et de la différence des...

  6. Winners of the Japan Chinese Speech Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yui Tanaka; Yuka Goto

    2012-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:This year marks the 40th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations. The final of the 29th Japan Chinese Speech Contest sponsored by the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA) was held in Tokyo on January 8. The 28 contestants came from 17 Japanese prefectures. They spoke about their experience in learning Chinese language, their contacts with Chinese people and their views on removing misunderstanding and enhancing mutual understanding and friendship between the two countries.

  7. Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmark, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through o...... for corporate brands and corporate communication.......Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through...... organizational culture and identity, and how, although characterized by parallel developments, new ideas and models from a “third” wave of corporate branding challenge prevailing assumptions of corporate reputation particularly in terms of the assumptions that reputations emerge from authentic and transparent...

  8. 日本音乐人才培养模式的规范化研究--以东京艺术大学音乐学部为例%A Study of the Standardization of MusicStudents Training Mode inJapan:A Case Study of Department of Music of Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳; 郭兰兰

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the Department of Music of Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music and expounds the strict academic standards of the 120-year-long university in terms of organizational structure,training mode,test form,curriculum,and degree acquisition.The modern Japanese music education,as a combination of do-mestic and foreign achievements,goes with the international multiple trend and hence it can provide some reference for the Chinese music education in universities and the standardization of students training mode.%通过对日本东京艺术大学音乐学部的概况介绍,从中了解这所有着120多年历史的专业音乐院校在学部建制、培养模式、考试形式、课程设置、学位获得等方面严谨治学的标准。日本近现代音乐教育在借鉴外来艺术与本民族文化融合以及对当代音乐文化中呈现多元化发展趋势的探索对我国高等院校的音乐教育以及人才培养模式规范化操作提供参考。

  9. Seasonal variations in concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kubo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay to evaluate the significance of DOC degradation for the carbon budget in coastal waters and carbon export to the open ocean. Recalcitrant DOC (RDOC was differentiated from bioavailable DOC (BDOC as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation. On average, RDOC accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. RDOC concentrations were higher than BDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than during autumn and winter. The relative abundance of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open oceanic waters was estimated to be 9%, 33%, and 58%, respectively, by multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33% and 74% at freshwater sites and 39% and 76% at Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of sewage treatment plant effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported DOC, mostly RDOC, to the open ocean because of remineralization of BDOC.

  10. Corporate Law and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Romano

    1998-01-01

    We have seen a revival in interest in corporate law and corporate governance since the 1980s, as researchers applied the tools of the new institutional economics and modern corporate finance to analyze the new transactions emerging in the 1980s takeover wave. This article focuses on three mechanisms of corporate governance to illustrate the analytical usefulness of transaction cost economics for corporate law. They are the board of directors; relational investing, a form of block ownership in...

  11. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  12. Seeking Common Development While Reserving Differences——Speech at the rally by friendly people's organizations from China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Chengren; Wang; Xiaoyi(Translated)

    2005-01-01

    Today, friendly people's organizations from China and Japan are gathering here in Tokyo. First of all,please allow me to express our warm congratulations to the successful holding of this rally and heartfelt thanks to Japanese friendly organizations, including Japan-China Friendship Association and JapanChina Association, for their thoughtful arrangements and warm hospitality extended to us.

  13. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  14. Tale of Three Cities: Elsinore--Montreal--Tokyo. The Influence of Three UNESCO World Conferences upon the Development of Adult Education. Landmarks and New Horizons in Continuing Education Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, James Robbins

    The three cities of Elsinore, Denmark; Montreal, Canada; and Tokyo, Japan share in common one event--they were the scenes successively in 1949, 1960, and 1972 of three World Conferences on Adult Education under UNESCO sponsorship. The 1949 Elsinore Conference, with representatives from 27 countries, focused on education for workers and for work,…

  15. An ex post cost-benefit analysis of the nitrogen dioxide air pollution control program in Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Public Health and Occupational Medicine

    2000-03-01

    The benefits and costs of past nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) control policies were calculated for Tokyo, Japan, using environmental, economic, political, demographic, and medical data from 1973 to 1994. The benefits of NO{sub 2} control were estimated as medical expenses and lost work time due to hypothetical no-control air concentrations of NO{sub 2}. Direct costs were calculated as annualized capital expenditures and 1 year's operating costs for regulated industries plus governmental agency expense. 46 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Mass psychogenic systemic illness in school children in relation to the Tokyo photochemical smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Honma, T.

    1986-05-01

    To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of epidemics with acute systemic neurobehavioral illness associated with photochemical air pollution in Japan, we re-examined our past records in sixteen junior high school children, and compared them with major epidemics that occurred in 1970-1972 during which time Japanese society faced a new and unusual type of air pollution (Tokyo smog). Dysfunction of alveolar-arterial gas exchange, together with respiratory alkalosis, was newly found in these children, who suffered from chest discomfort, ocular irritation, emotional distress, tetany, and unconsciousness. It was concluded that anxiety reaction, precipitated by the physical effects of photochemical oxidants and athletic performance, possibly led to many outbreaks of mass psychogenic systemic illness (hyperventilation syndrome) among school children.

  17. Bigger shield alliance, politics, and military change in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Winward, Lynn H.

    2006-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Military change has been a persistent characteristic of Japan's re-emergence from World War II. However, most studies focus on Tokyo's 'evolutionary-like' and 'incremental' efforts, rooting them in a host of structural impediments to change. Nonetheless, Japan continues to strengthen its reliance on the U.S. 'sword' while building a broader more effective 'shield.' Through three case studies (U.S alignment in the 1950s/1960s, the 198...

  18. Chinese University Students Delegation For Musical Exchanges Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu; Bo

    2014-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Japan-China Friendship Center(CJFC),an 83-member Chinese university students’delegation visited Tokyo and Hokkaido from July 9 to 16.It comprised students and teachers of the music specialty of the Central Conservatory of Music,the School of Music of the Minzu University of China and the Shanghai Conservatory of Music.

  19. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporation...... public-private partnerships. These theoretical perspectives are used to gain a deeper understanding of the corporate drivers that motivated TOTAL S.A. to approach UNESCO for cooperation on community development programs in Myanmar.......Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporations...... react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on the responsible nature of their business practices. The corporate awakening towards a broader role of business in society and the trend of corporations embracing partnerships has led many to question the driving...

  20. Rand Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle Search Site-wide Search Search RAND RAND Corporation Provides Objective Research Services and Public Policy Analysis ... on Twitter Share on LinkedIn About The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to ...

  1. Report of Surrender and Occupation of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-05-09

    for the entry of the forces into Tokyo Bay. Before any units were permitted to use this channel, however, it was swept by our own minecraft (TU...Northern Japan Area became the responsibility of SCAJAP. (2) Any further minesweeping to be conducted in the area would be supervised by Commander Minecraft ...Other minecraft have fared less fortunately from operational causes. In the typhoon of 16 September, 5 YMSs were lost; and during the severe typhoon

  2. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    better to continue to develop Japan’s economy . If Japan were to develop nuclear weapons, the fear was that it would damage trade relations with more...Tokyo, Kure, and Osaka universities.24 The knowledge gained from the Japanese scientists was invaluable as they had either studied nuclear technology...rested on the United States; and (4) Japan’s economy could not support the development of nuclear weapons. The main point of this chapter draws out

  3. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; UN Global Compact

    2017-01-01

    Corporate citizenship - a commitment to ethical behavior in business strategy, operations, and culture - has been on the periphery of corporate governance and board leadership, linked mainly to corporate reputation. However, in today’s globalized and interconnected world, investors, creditors, and other stakeholders have come to recognize that environmental, social, and governance responsi...

  4. Risk, ritual and health responsibilisation: Japan's 'safety blanket' of surgical face mask-wearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Adam; Horii, Mitsutoshi

    2012-11-01

    This article begins to develop an understanding of surgical mask-wearing in Japan, now a routine practice against a range of health threats. Their usage and associated meanings are explored through surveys conducted in Tokyo with both mask wearers and non-mask wearers. It contests commonly held cultural views of the practice as a fixed and distinctively Japanese collective courtesy to others. A historical analysis suggests that an originally collective, targeted and science-based response to public health threats has dispersed into a generalised practice lacking a clear end or purpose. Developed as part of the biomedical response to the Spanish flu of 1919, the practice resonated with folk assumptions as making a barrier between purity and pollution. But mask-wearing became socially embedded as a general protective practice only from the 1990s through a combination of commercial, corporate and political pressures that responsibilised individual health protection. These developments are usefully understood amidst the uncertainty created by Japan's 'second modernity' and the fracturing of her post-war order. Mask-wearing is only one form of a wider culture of risk; a self-protective risk ritual rather than a selfless collective practice.

  5. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  6. Corporate attributes and corporate accruals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Shamimul Hasan; Normah Omar; Rashidah Abdul Rahman; Syed Zabid Hossain

    2016-01-01

    ... (discretionary accruals) in Bangladesh. The behaviour of corporate accruals is explained by corporate attributes such as asset size, turnover, earnings per share, number of shareholders, year of listing, international link of audit firm...

  7. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  8. An ex post cost-benefit analysis of the nitrogen dioxide air pollution control program in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A S; Araki, S; Sakai, R; Sato, H

    2000-03-01

    The benefits and costs of past nitrogen dioxide (NO2) control policies were calculated for Tokyo, Japan, using environmental, economic, political, demographic, and medical data from 1973 to 1994. The benefits of NO2 control were estimated as medical expenses and lost work time due to hypothetical no-control air concentrations of NO2. Direct costs were calculated as annualized capital expenditures and 1 year's operating costs for regulated industries plus governmental agency expenses. The major findings were as follows: (1) Using Tokyo's average medical cost of pollution-related illness, the best net estimate of the avoided medical costs due to incidence of phlegm and sputum in adults was 730 billion yen ($6.08 billion; 1 U.S. dollar = 120 yen). (2) The best net estimate of the avoided medical costs due to incidence of lower respiratory illness in children was 93 billion yen ($775 million). (3) Using Tokyo's average duration of pollution-related illness and average wages, the best net estimate of the avoided costs of lost wages in workers was 760 billion yen ($6.33 billion). (4) The best net estimate of the avoided costs of lost wages in mothers caring for their sick children was 100 billion yen ($833 million). (5) Using Tokyo-specific data, the best net costs were estimated as 280 billion yen ($2.33 billion). (6) Using human health and productivity benefits, and annualized capital cost and operating cost estimates, the best net benefits-to-costs ratio was 6:1 (upper limit 44:1; lower limit 0.3:1). Benefit calculations were sensitive to assumptions of mobile source emissions and certain health impacts that were not included. Cost calculations were highly dependent on assumptions of flue gas volume and fuel use. For comparative purposes, we identified other studies for air pollution-related illness. Assumptions that formed the basis for most of the inputs in the present study, such as duration of illness, medical treatment costs, per person illness in children, and

  9. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  10. Tindak Tutur Permintaan Dalam Film Tokyo Love Story

    OpenAIRE

    Syahri, Rosmita

    2011-01-01

    Rosmita Syahri. 2011. Speect acts found in the Tokyo Love Story Film. School Student. Medan. Postgraduate Program North Sumatera University. This thesis deals with speect acts in Japanese found in the Tokyo Love Story Film. The objective of the study is to describe and explain the function of speect acts in the film. The study is based on the theory of speect acts as proposed by Rahardi (2009 : 19) in which two kinds of speect acts are elaborated to analyze the speect act function, re...

  11. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-04-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  12. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  13. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  14. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Both the business community and public organisations...... are recognizing the potential benefits of public-private partnerships for furthering the Millennium Development Goals while having a positive impact on business. Partnerships have become more common as corporations react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government...... on the responsible nature of their business practices. The accountability of corporations has moved beyond the traditional obligations of addressing shareholder demands and today, corporations must be accountable to society and all stakeholders affected by global development. The corporate awakening towards...

  15. Corporate Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross......-sector partnerships. The results of this paper are based on interviews, participant observations, and organizational documents from a 19-month empirical study of a Danish corporate foundation. Findings suggest that corporate foundations have potential to act as boundary organizations and facilitate collaborative...... action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...

  16. Pariisi Tokyo palee taassünd / Merike Trubert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trubert, Merike

    2002-01-01

    21. I avati Pariisis taas Tokyo palee, nüüdsest kaasaegse kunsti eksponeerimiseks. Kunstikriitikutest direktorid Nicolas Bourriaud ja Jérõme Sans on seadnud eesmärgiks avastada uusi talente. Pakuti vaadata Alexander Györfi filmi "Ballaad õnnelikest inimestest", mida reaalsuses ei eksisteeri jm

  17. Pariisi Tokyo palee taassünd / Merike Trubert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trubert, Merike

    2002-01-01

    21. I avati Pariisis taas Tokyo palee, nüüdsest kaasaegse kunsti eksponeerimiseks. Kunstikriitikutest direktorid Nicolas Bourriaud ja Jérõme Sans on seadnud eesmärgiks avastada uusi talente. Pakuti vaadata Alexander Györfi filmi "Ballaad õnnelikest inimestest", mida reaalsuses ei eksisteeri jm

  18. Multilingualism in Tokyo: A Look into the Linguistic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about multilingual signs in Tokyo. It is based on empirical research conducted in 2003. Special attention is given to the distinction between official and nonofficial multilingual signs. It will be demonstrated that the two types of signs exhibit some essentially different characteristics with regard to the languages contained and…

  19. Meteorologists from the University of Tokyo: Their Exodus to the United States Following World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John M.

    1993-07-01

    The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.

  20. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence......The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...

  1. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...... interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  2. 日本、我国台湾公立高校法人化改革比较:进程、结果与启示%A Comparison of Corporative Reform in Public Universities In Japan and Taiwan:Processes, Results and Inspirations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄建国; 王素一

    2014-01-01

    In the Eighties and Nineties of the 20th century, public universities in Japan and Taiwan carried out the corporative reforms. These reforms have similar backgrounds and experiences, but they form different structures of corporate governance. The Public Universities corporative reform in Japan had complete system designs and standard operation flows, but the reform in Taiwan had a more cautious attitude and made steady steps.%20世纪80、90年代日本和我国台湾地区公立高校都进行了法人化改革。两者的改革都有相似的背景与经历,但是形成了不同的法人治理结构。日本公立高校法人化改革注重完整的制度设计和规范的操作流程,而我国台湾地区公立高校法人化改革则显示了谨慎的态度和稳健的步伐。

  3. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  4. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  5. Corporate Language and Corporate Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    the geographical borders by the medium of common corporate values for knowledge management, collection of data and analysis in these studies inspired by approach of ground theory and presents a usefulness of distinguishing between corporate language and talks to enable the headquarters learning. Also it concludes...

  6. Analysis of spontaneous inquiries about suspected adverse drug reactions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobashi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Akira Dobashi,1 Kaori Kurata,1 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,2,3 Mari Nishizawa4 1Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Health Innovation and Technology Center, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, 3Cross Care Field Co., Ltd., 4Yakuju Corporation, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Spontaneous inquiries about the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to medicines can be extracted based on the questions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”. Our aim was to clarify the characteristics related to people’s descriptions of suspected ADRs and determine the reasons for submitting a spontaneous inquiry. Methods: Fifty brand names of medicines used for inquiry extraction were chosen by selecting 35 pharmaceutical products, based on the generic names that had the highest sales in Japan. Questions containing both the brand name of one of these medicines and the term “Fukusayō” (ADR in Japanese that were posted from July 2004 to June 2009 were extracted from the site. Results: Among 1,419 questions extracted, 614 questions had at least one identifiable brand name of a suspected medicine, an ADR description, and the extent to which the ADR appeared to be caused by the suspected medicine(s. Among these 614 questions, 589 described in detail the symptoms/signs that the inquirers themselves or their families had experienced as ADRs. The highest number of questions was found for Paxil (525. Posts asking whether the symptoms being experienced were due to an ADR accounted for the highest number of questions. In most cases, the inquirer suspected that a single medicine led to an ADR and was seeking advice from others taking the same medicine. Conclusion: Our examination of spontaneous inquiries showed that people have sufficient knowledge to adequately report potential ADRs in terms of their symptoms

  7. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  8. A coastal acoustic tomography experiment in the Tokyo Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANEKO Arata; HACHIYA Hiroyuki; HASHIMOTO Noriaki; YAMAGUCHI Keisuke; YAMAMOTO Tokuo; GOHDA Noriaki; ZHENG Hong; SYAMSUDIN Fadli; LIN Ju; NGUYEN Hong-Quang; MATSUYAMA Masaji

    2005-01-01

    Eight sets of coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems were deployed during November 29 to December 10, 2002 at the coasts on both sides of Tokyo Bay to measure tidal current structures at 15-min interval. Sound transmission across the Tokyo Bay (between Yokohama and Chiba)was successfully traced,even under severe interference from ship generated wakes and bubbles. Tidal current fields changing from northward to southward flow are well reconstructed by the inverse analysis of travel-time difference data for a period with the best sound transmission condition. It is suggested that the CAT is the most powerful tool to continuously map tidal current fields in the coastal seas with heavy shipping traffic and fisheries activity.

  9. Corporate entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina

    2005-01-01

    Corporate entreprenørskab kan blive svaret på, hvordan Danmark fremmer en mere videnintensiv produktion. Begrebet er blevet anvendt til at forklare forskellige organisatoriske fænomener alt fra strategi over ledelse i al almindelighed til innovation, hvilket har medført en mangfoldighed af begreber...... og perspektiver, som har skabt stor uklarhed omkring corporate entreprenørskab. Med henblik på at skabe fundamentet for et fælles fodslag redegøres der i denne artikel for corporate entreprenørskabsbegrebet ud fra forskellige perspektiver. Der gives i artiklen endvidere et overblik ved hjælp af en...... model, der indeholder intraprenørskab og exoprenørskab, samt fire organisatoriske perspektiver: corporate venturing, interne ressourcer, internationalisering og eksterne netværk....

  10. Corporate Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Appeals to corporate responsibility often simply take for granted that businesses have ethical responsibilities that go beyond just respecting the law. This paper addresses arguments to the effect that businesses have no such responsibilities. The interesting claim is not that businesses have no ethical responsibility at all but that their primal responsibility is to increase their profits. The extent to which there is reason to take such arguments seriously delineates the limits of corporate...

  11. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m telescope: project overview and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, T.; Sako, S.; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, T.; Kato, N.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Koshida, S.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Garay, G.

    2016-07-01

    The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory Project is to construct a 6.5m infrared telescope at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in northern Chile, promoted by the University of Tokyo. Thanks to the dry climate (PWV 0.5mm) and the high altitude, it will achieve excellent performance in the NIR to MIR wavelengths. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci where the facility instruments are installed and two folded-Cassegrain foci for carry-in instruments. All these four foci can be switched by rotating a tertiary mirror. The final focal ratio is 12.2 and the telescope foci have large field-of-view of 25° in diameter. We adopted the 6.5m light-weighted borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror and its support system that are developed by Steward Observatory Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab. The dome enclosure has the shape of carousel, and large ventilation windows with shutters control the wind to flush heat inside the dome. The operation building with control room, aluminizing chamber and maintenance facilities is located at the side of the dome. Two cameras, SWIMS for spectroscopy and imaging in the near-infrared and MIMIZUKU in the mid-infrared, are being developed as the first-generation facility instruments. The operation of the telescope will be remotely carried out from a base facility at San Pedro de Atacama, 50km away from the summit. The construction of the telescope is now underway. Fabrication of the telescope mount has almost finished, and the pre-assembly has been carried out in Japan. The primary, secondary, and tertiary mirrors and their cells have been also fabricated, as well as their cells and support systems. Fabrication of the enclosure is now underway, and their pre-assembly in Japan will be carried out in 2016. Construction of the base facility at San Pedro de Atacama has been already completed in 2014, and operated for the activities in Atacama. The telescope is now scheduled to see the first light at the beginning of 2018.

  12. Global Business Strategy: Multinational Corporations Venturing into Emerging Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    This book presents theories and case studies for corporations in developed nations, including Japan, for designing strategies to maximize opportunities and minimize threats in business expansion into developing nations...

  13. Examining corporate governance and corporate tax management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation play an essential role both in a country and in a corporation. For a country it is one of the primary income source, while for the corporation taxes will reduce corporate net income. To minimize the tax payment, corporation conduct a corporate tax management. According to some of previous research, there is a correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. While there are many corporate governance proxies could be used in corporate governance research, in this research we are focusing on three: number of board, number of independent board and board compensation. We measure corporate tax management by using effective tax rate (GAAP ETR and current ETR are used in this research. By using several other control variables, we run the regression and conduct the statistical analysis to examine the correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. Our result show that corporate governance have a significant correlation to corporate tax management.

  14. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-FDI Cooperation LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ..., GERMANY; Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; ifak e. V., Magdeburg, GERMANY; and Smar... acceptance testing. (iii) Tools and Architecture: This working group will manage the development of those...

  15. Atmospheric fallout of (129)I in Japan before the Fukushima accident: regional and global contributions (1963-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-06

    Atmospheric (129)I deposition was studied in different locations of Japan (Akita, Tsukuba, Tokyo, and Ishigaki Island) with samples collected between 1963 and 2005 in order to understand the distribution and sources of this nuclide and provide a reference deposition level prior to the Fukushima accident. Over this time period, the deposition pattern of (129)I in Tsukuba and Tokyo (on the Pacific side) differed from that of Akita (on the Japan Sea side). The primary source of deposition in Tsukuba and Tokyo is related to the (129)I discharge from domestic reprocessing in Tokai-mura. In contrast, the time-series pattern of deposition in Akita seems to have been influenced by (129)I discharges from reprocessing facilities in Europe and the transport of this radionuclide by westerly winds to coastlines of the Japan Sea. The (129)I deposition in Ishigaki (one of the southernmost islands in Japan) is influenced primarily by oceanic air masses (easterly winds), and deposition was 1 order of magnitude lower than that observed in Tsukuba and Tokyo. Cumulative (129)I deposition in Tokyo before the Fukushima accident was estimated at 13 mBq/m(2). The results of this study on deposition contribute to understanding the deposition levels of (129)I prior to the accident.

  16. CJFA President Song Jian Leads Delegation to Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A delegation of the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA) headed by its president Song Jian visited Japan from September 4 to 9 at the invitation of the Japan-China Friendship Centre. While in Tokyo, CJFA President Song Jian met with Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda, Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura, President of the House of Councillors Satsuki Eda and Defence Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi, and attended the reception marking the 30th anniversary of the signing of the China-Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship and the meeting in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the completion of the Japan-China Friendship Centre. Song Jian and his party also made a friendly visit to Toyama Prefecture where they exchanged views on local government contact with Governor Takakazu Ishii and visited scientific research institutes and small and medium enterprises.

  17. CJFA Delegation Led by Song Jian Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Japan-China Friendship Centre,a delegation of the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA) led by its President Song Jian paid a goodwill visit to Japan from December 3 to 10,2006.In Tokyo Song Jian and his party paid an official call on leaders of the Japanese ruling party and parties not in office and a number of important political figures including Prime Minister Shinzo Abe,Speaker of the House of Representatives Yohei Kono,Foreign Minister Taro Aso,head of the New Komeito Party Akihiro Ota,leader of the Democratic Party Ichiro Ozawa,Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan Kazuo Shii,and Chairman of the Socialist Party Mizuho Fukushima,and fully exchanged views with the leaders of the seven Japan-China friendship organizations on making great efforts to promote people-to-people friendly exchanges.

  18. [Two research projects on infectious diseases conducted in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana by Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Eiji; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ghana-Tokyo Medical and Dental University Research Collaboration Center has been established since 2008 when our Program was chosen together with the Program in the Philippines proposed by Tohoku University as an additional small-scale research center of the Overseas Research Program on Emerging and Reemerging Diseases that is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government and started in 2005. This 5-year government-supported Program has changed its name to develop into a more active world-level program called Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) and entered the second 5-year phase in 2010, and our Program is playing an important role among other research centers located in Asia and Africa. Currently, two research projects are carried out in parallel in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research by Tokyo Medical and Dental University: one is a J-GRID project and the other is the one of Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) which is a joint project between Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This special article is describing what these two projects are all about.

  19. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  1. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  2. Pre-flight performance and radiation hardness of the Tokyo Tech pico-satellite Cute-1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoku, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)]. E-mail: kotoku@hp.phys.titech.ac.jp; Kataoka, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kuramoto, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The Cute-1.7 was launched successfully in February 2006 as a piggyback satellite of the Astro-F mission. The Cute-1.7 dimensions are 10x10x20cm{sup 3} box with a total mass of 3.6kg. It is the second pico-satellite to have been developed completely by students of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.) after the successful launch of the CUTE-I in June 2003. The goals of the Cute-1.7 mission are two-fold: (1) to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space. We particularly use personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a main computer in orbit (2) to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the 'satellite-core' concept. For the Cute-1.7 mission, we will carry avalanche photo diodes (APDs) as a high-count particle monitor in low-Earth orbit. Here we present details of various ground tests and pre-flight performance of the Cute-1.7 immediately before the launch. Results of the Cute-1.7 mission will provide quick feedback for space applications of APDs in Japan's future X-ray astronomy mission NeXT.

  3. Evaluation of a virtual reality simulation system for porcelain fused to metal crown preparation at Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hirono; Ikeda, Masaomi; Araki, Koji

    2013-06-01

    The use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) is a new teaching modality in dentistry, and there is scope for further research evaluating its use under different educational programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how VRS with or without instructor feedback influenced students' learning and skills related to porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown preparation. In this study, forty-three dental students in their fifth year of study at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, were randomly divided into three groups: the first group used VRS (DentSim) with the instructor's feedback (DSF) (n=15), the second group used VRS without the instructor's feedback (DS) (n=15), and the third group neither used features of VRS (NDS) (n=13) nor received the instructor's feedback. All the students performed PFM crown preparation under the same setup once a week for four weeks. Total scores, preparation time, and twelve evaluation items were compared among the three groups and four experiments. The total scores of students in the DSF and DS groups were significantly higher than those in the NDS group. The presence of the instructor did not result in significant difference when VRS was used for training, while it shortened the preparation time at early stages. The results of this study suggested that the use of the VRS system improved student training for PFM crown preparation.

  4. [The growing-up and background of clinical neurology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira

    2002-11-01

    Japan strictly closed the country to foreigners except for the Dutch and Chinese in the days of Tokugawa Regime for about 200 years (1639-1858). During this period, Japanese neurology made a start. In 1774, five Dutch scholars in Edo (Tokyo at present) translated the Dutch version of a German textbook "Anatomische Tabellen". After the Meiji Restoration, Japan was rapidly westernized. The modern neurology was introduced mainly from Germany, France and the United Kingdom into Japan, and exerted a fruitful influence on the subsequent Japanese neurology. Prof. Hiroshi KAWAHARA published the first textbook of neurology (in Japanese) in 1897. Prof. Kinnosuke MIURA founded the first neurological journal in Japan in 1902. These two pioneers in Japanese neurology had their medical education under Prof. Erwin Baelz at the University of Tokyo during the last-eighteenth century.

  5. Corporate Venturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintergaard, Christian

    From the perspective of Austrian economics, this paper develops a conceptual understanding ofhow corporate venture managers recognize and discover opportunities in a network environment.In an effort to create a better understanding of who is involved in process, this paper reports onthe development...... path of an entrepreneurial opportunity of the Danish corporate venture capitalist,Danfoss A/S. This paper distinguishes itself from previous research done on entrepreneurialopportunities by creating a holistic and conceptual framework, which broadens and expands theperception of the market participants...... involved in recognition and discovery. Consequently thepaper offers insight to a diversified group of actors who mix and match technological and marketcapabilities in a constant process of recognition and discovery.Key words: Corporate venturing, entrepreneurship, discovery, networks, opportunities,recognition....

  6. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities, a...... entrepreneurship and innovation, and identifying management practices supportive of these particular innovation processes.......Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities......, and thereby moving the organization to a new state of being. In spite of a general consensus on a strong interlinkage between the concepts of innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, the nature of this linkage is rarely addressed directly. This has made further research in the two areas problematic, mainly...

  7. Corporate responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    Is it legitimate for a business to concentrate on profits under respect for the law and ethical custom? On the one hand, there seems to be good reasons for claiming that a corporation has a duty to act for the benefit of all its stakeholders. On the other hand, this seems to dissolve the notion...... to this paradox as Goodpaster, namely that a corporation is the instrument of the shareholders only, but that shareholders still have an obligation to act ethically responsibly. To this, I add discussion of Friedman's claim that this responsibility consists in increasing profits. I show that most of his arguments...

  8. Faszination Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Árokay, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Japan ist ein Ausnahmeland. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg stieg Japan rasand schnell zu einer Wirtschaftsmacht auf, heute ist es das westlichste Land im Fernen Osten. Über das Leben im modernen Japan sowie über Einschätzungen und Fehleinschätzungen dieses faszinierenden Landes in Deutschland sprach der Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann mit der Professorin für Japanologie an der Universität Heidelberg, Frau Prof. Dr. Judit Árokay. Der Beitrag "Faszination Japan" erschien in der Sendereihe "Camp...

  9. Analysis of tooth decay data in Japan using asymmetric statistical models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Kouji Yamamoto,1 Sadao Tomizawa21Department of Medical Innovation, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda City, Chiba, JapanBackground: The aim of the present paper was to develop two new asymmetry probability models to analyze data for tooth decay from 363 women and 349 men aged 18–39 years who visited a dental clinic in Sapporo City, Japan, from 2001 to 2005.Methods: We analyzed th...

  10. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  11. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  12. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul

    2002-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market

  13. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Goldberg, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market

  14. [Two Outbreaks of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infections in Tokyo and the Characterization of Isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Noriko; Ishitsuka, Rie; Yokoyama, Keiko; Saiki, Dai; Akase, Satoru; Monma, Chie; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of outbreaks caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been very small in Japan, 4 outbreaks were occurred during the 2 years between 2012 and 2013. We describe herein 2 outbreaks which were examined in Tokyo in the present study. Outbreak 1: A total of 39 people (37 high school students and 2 staff) stayed at a hotel in mountain area in Japan had experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever in August, 2012. The Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 18 (64.3%) out of 28 fecal specimens of 28 patients. The infection roots could not be revealed because Y. enterocolitica was not detected from any meals at the hotel or its environment. Outbreak 2: A total of 52 students at a dormitory had diarrhea and fever in April, 2013. The results of the bacteriological and virological examinations of fecal specimens of patients showed that the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 24 fecal specimens of 21 patients and 3 kitchen staff. We performed bacteriological and virological examination of the stored and preserved foods at the kitchen of the dormitory to reveal the suspect food. For the detection of Y. enterocolitica, food samples. together with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were incubated at 4 degrees C for 21 days. Then, a screening test for Y. enterocolitica using realtime-PCR targeting the ail gene was performed against the PBS culture. One sample (fresh vegetable salad) tested was positive on realtime-PCR. No Y. enterocolitica was isolated on CIN agar from the PBS culture because many bacteria colonies other than Y. enterocolitica appeared on the CIN agar. After the alkaline-treatments of the culture broth or the immunomagnetic beads concentration method using anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibodies, Y. enterocolitica O:8 which was the same serogroup as the patients' isolates was successfully isolated from the PBS culture. The fresh vegetable salad was confirmed as the incrimination food of this outbreak.

  15. Perbandingan Pengelolaan Pendidikan Agama Pada Sekolah di Indonesia dan Sekolah Republik Indonesia Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious education is a mandate of national legislation that should be implemented in every school based on the Legislation of National Education System, and as the right of every studentto receive religious education in accordance with their own religion. This research is aimed to get sufficient data and information on the management of religious education in school of the Republic of Indonesia in Tokyo Japan. Specifically this study is expected to be a policy matter, Firstly, students’ right fulfillment aspect to receive religious education as stated in Legislation Number 20/2003 About the National Education System Article 12 Verse (1 point a. Government Regulation Number 55/2007 aboutreligious education and Religious affair education, and also the Minister of Religious Affairs Regulation Number 16/2010 on the Management of Religious Education in Schools; Secondly, the management of religious teachers and religious education learning in order to meet the Education National Standards as the authority of the Ministry of Religious Affairs that must be implemented optimally in every educational unit.

  16. 东京审判与南京大屠杀%Tokyo trial and Nanjing massacre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文奇

    2008-01-01

    南京大屠杀无疑是第二次世界大战日军暴行中最突出的一个事件,它的残酷程度令全世界感到震惊.时至今日,日本国内仍有人要否认这段历史.二战后,东京国际法庭通过公开审判,将日本军国主义分子的滔天罪行记录在案,将日寇在南京的暴行永远钉在历史的耻辱柱上,昭示后代,永志不忘.%Nanjing massacre is undoubtedly an outstanding event that indicates the savage acts of the Japanese soldiers during World War Ⅱ, and its cruelty shocked the whole world. But up to now, there are still some people in Japan denying this period of history. The Trial by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East ("Tokyo International Tribunal") puts the monstrous crimes committed by the Japanese militarists in record, nails their violence in Nanjing to the history's pillar of shame for ever, and declares publicly to the later generations that such violence shall never be forgot.

  17. Systematic Education of Self-Medication at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.

  18. Ambulance Transport of the Oldest Old in Tokyo: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Abe, Toshikazu; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Hinohara, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated ambulance utilization in people aged 85 years or older, ie, the oldest old. Methods We conducted a 1-year population-based observational study of patients transported by ambulance to emergency departments in Tokyo, Japan, which has a population of about 12 million. Demographic data, symptoms/events associated with ambulance transport, and the proportion of hospital admissions were recorded. Transport rates by age and sex were calculated using data for the background population and ambulance transports, and the 10 most frequent symptoms/events requiring transport were compared between the oldest old and those aged 65 to 84 years. Results Of the 642 764 patients who were transported to hospitals by ambulances, 59 570 (9%) were aged ≥85 years; 64% were women. The annual ambulance transport rate for this population was 250 per 1000/year and was significantly greater than the rate (90 per 1000/year) for those aged 65 to 84 years. The highest rate was for men aged 85 to 99 years (292 per 1000/year). Among the oldest old, the most frequent reason for ambulance transport was fall (38.5 per 1000/year), and the symptom most likely to result in hospital admission was dyspnea. Conclusions The ambulance transport rate for the oldest old was high, particularly among men aged ≥95 years. To reduce the need for ambulance transport among the oldest old, preventive care is needed to reduce falls and acute exacerbations of cardiac and respiratory disorders. PMID:20814165

  19. Moe: Exploring Virtual Potential in Post-Millennial Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALBRAITH, Patrick W.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on moe, a word used to describe a euphoric response to fantasy characters or representations of them. I combine theoretical perspectives from Japan and abroad with participant observation conducted in Tokyo from 2004 to 2009 among male and female fans of anime, manga and videogames. Considering the discourse on moe and its pragmatic uses, I argue fantasy characters offer virtual possibilities and affect that exist separately and in tandem with 'reality.' This allows for expanded expressive potential.

  20. Corporate social responsibility in Japan from the Edo period to the Fukushima nuclear accident; La responsabilite sociale des entreprises au Japon de l'epoque d'Edo a la norme ISO 26 000 a l'accident nucleaire de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland-Piegue, E. [Ambassade de France au Japon (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Behind an apparently universal adherence to corporate social responsibility, differences in approaches are lurking with roots in distinct traditions of thought. Japanese business values date back to merchants during the Edo period and to the pioneers of Japanese capitalism during the Meiji period. They have always emphasized the diversity of all the parties - and not just shareholders - who contribute to a company's prosperity and should share in the benefits. Imported from Europe in 2003, corporate social responsibility was quickly institutionalized by Japanese firms that want to comply with international standards. This concept, Japanese-style, barely touches on social questions, which are referred to traditional values; but focuses instead on environmental issues and consumer protection. Non governmental organizations are not very active in Japan, and the state refuses to take a leading role even though its pro-business policy supports corporate social responsibility and should help, for example, diffuse the new standard, Iso-26000. Since March 2011, a new phase, laden with uncertainty, has started. The most devastating earthquake since World War II and the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station should lead the Japanese to raise fundamental questions about what they expect from firms and public authorities. (author)

  1. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  2. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  3. Global update: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Doug

    2011-11-01

    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  4. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  5. Contributions to the Acoustic Emission Symposium (5th), Tokyo, Japan, 18-20 November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    s - d~ .NLA. 00 Apr IV ~V)W 0 5 13 15 20 20 . 200 67;x 250 a50 0 Ig 0 -A 2 300 301 )73X .1-27?e. t7531 2001. 200 250 4130 50 1______________ IN 5C 0 1...alloys (stainless steels, AISI 304L and 316), we found that planar dislocation glide reduced the AE out- put. In Cu-Ni alloys, this effect appears to be

  6. Solidarity and the city: The case of modern Tokyo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    is that of architecture. Architects have more than any other profession worked on, and with, the urban condition theoretically as well as practically and solution-oriented. Returning Japanese architects have been confronted with the art of rebuilding cities from the bottom, not least in the case of Tokyo . The second...... of places of urban sociability. But whereas one school - ‘the city planning’ or ‘anti-city planning’ - is in look after places linked to community through local culture, another one - - detects the in-between places of urban sociability that run outwards. At these places society shows itself as emergent...

  7. Corporate Governance and Corporate Creditworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Parnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relation between corporate governance and bankruptcy risk as an underlying force affecting a bond’s yield. The level of corporate governance is captured by the G-index, along with the explicit groups of governance provisions. We estimate bankruptcy risk by Z-score, by cash-flow-score, by O-score, through Merton structural model default probabilities, and by S&P credit ratings. After addressing endogeneity and while controlling for firm-specific factors, based on the four objective methodologies we find that corporate governance is inversely related to bankruptcy risk. Yet, rating agencies take a mixed approach towards this association likely because of the conflicting impact of different governance provisions.

  8. SRIF Receives 2007 Global Excellent Supplier Award from TOSHIBA CORPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Shenyang Research Institute of Foundry (SRIF),the largest foundry institute and a large science and technology enterprise in China, has recently been awarded the 2007 Global Excellent Supplier Award by TOSHIBA CORPORATION Power Systems Company. Out of all the suppliers that supply the products for electrical equipment, 12 were recognized at the event held in Japan, on May 23, 2008, of which nine are from Japan and three are from outside Japan.

  9. Update Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  10. Toshiba viste os Japans svaghed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance (selskabsledelse, red.) er blevet moderne i Japan som led i Shinzo Abe-regeringens forsøg på at revitalisere landets økonomi. Krav om øget rentabilitet gjorde det endnu sværere at indrømme problemerne. Direktøren tager skyldenI en dansk eller amerikansk virksomhed ville en ny...... direktør givetvis straks have afskrevet så meget som muligt af forgængernes fejltagelser, men den går ikke i Japan, hvor den afgåede direktør sidder med ved bordet, og den tiltrædende direktør måske har været med i beslutningerne. Umiddelbart virker de japanske corporate governance-reformer utilstræk...

  11. Difusora de TV y diario de Shizuoka –Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tange, Kenzo

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available This building has a central shaft of 7.70 m diameter and 57 m height, made of steel and reinforced concrete, and it involves a basement and 12 floors. In spite of the small area of the site this building has become an outstanding feature of the urban landscape, and serves as a reference point to visitors to Tokyo who arrive along the motor roads or in the high speed Shinkauzen train, reputedly the fastest in the world.El edificio está organizado alrededor de un eje vertical constituido por una columna central —de 7,70 m de diámetro y 57 m de altura—, a base de estructura mixta —metálica y de hormigón armado—, y que consta de: sótano y doce plantas de altura. No obstante las extremadamente reducidas dimensiones del solar, el edificio «destaca» del conjunto urbano y sirve como punto de referencia a los viajeros que acceden al centro de Tokyo procedentes de las autopistas o del super-expreso Shinkauzen (el más rápido del mundo.

  12. Atmospheric Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident-Two years observations in Tsukuba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Adachi, Koji; Mikami, Masao; Kita, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Yuko

    2013-04-01

    The accident of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Corporation arisen by the hit of great earthquake and tsunami in March 11, 2011, emitted abundant fresh radioactive material to the atmospheric environment. The amount has been estimated to be at least a few-tenth of those from the Chernobyl accident (by NISA, etc.). By this large-scale contamination, atmospheric environments over Japan, especially the eastern part, were seriously impacted with such a massive amount of the anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. typical hotspots). So the persisting aftermath is one of the concerns. Although the heavy primary emission seems to be terminated until April of 2011, 2ndary emissions from contaminated ground surface, coppices, fields, roads, any burnings of the contaminated materials generated the resuspension of radionuclides into the atmosphere. With 2-years observation for the Fukushima radioactivity at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan (MRI) such persisting resuspension is considered in this presentation. The resuspension seems still in difficulty to give forecast by computer modeling; the observations are indispensable bodies of the research even in the future. The MRI has carried out observations of the atmospheric radionuclides, which are long-lived with potentials of environmental and health impacts, for more than 50 years. Aiming at to clarify temporal change in concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere and its control factors, the observations have continued over the long period. The long-lasting impacts of the Fukushima accident are addressed with our long-term time series of the atmospheric radioactivity as a reference.

  13. Japanese Fundraising: A Comparative Study of the United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Tamaki

    2007-01-01

    The enactment of the Law to Promote Specified Nonprofit Activities in 1998 has resulted not only in a rapid increase in the number of specified nonprofit corporations (NPO corporations) but also in an urgent need for effective fundraising in Japan. Despite Japan's long and rich tradition of philanthropy and a serious need for fundraising, very…

  14. Rearming Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  15. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  16. Intensive Language and Culture Orientation Program for Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Rebecca J.; Taft, Lori A.

    The Language and Culture Institute of the University of Pittsburgh has developed a 13-week program of pre-assignment training for engineers given corporate assignments in Japan. The Institute offers the corporations three components in this intensive seminar: program administration, language training, and culture training. The program…

  17. Corporate Fictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Søndergaard, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a particular strategy of communication called a social science fiction. The strategy was taken up following an empirical research project on gender and management, in order to communicate results to the company's managers and Human Resource Staff. The research results showed...... fiction was the kind of narrative therapy, which aims to reconfigure the problem in focus by a process of externalisation that allows a reconstruction and retelling of the issue. The article describes how three cultural mechanisms in the company were condensed into three imaginary figures: Mr. Corporate...

  18. Corporate Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Gemünden, Hans Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although in the last three decades much knowledge has been produced on how best to conduct foresight exercises, but little is known on how foresight should be integrated with the innovation effort of a company. Drawing on empirical evidence from 19 case studies and 107 interviews, we identify three...... roles that corporate foresight should play to maximize the innovation capacity of a firm: (1) the strategist role, which explores new business fields; (2) the initiator role, which increases the number of innovation concepts and ideas; and (3) the opponent role, which challenges innovation projects...

  19. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of survival. From this understanding......, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) has arisen, arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to explore the SE construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance...

  20. Going Corporate

    CERN Document Server

    Kadre, Shailendra

    2011-01-01

    Going Corporate: A Geek's Guide shows technology workers how to gain the understanding and skills necessary for becoming an effective, promotable manager or sought-after consultant or freelancer. Technology professionals typically dive deeply into small pieces of technology - like lines of code or the design of a circuit. As a result, they may have trouble seeing the bigger picture and how their work supports an organization's goals. But ignoring or dismissing the business or operational aspects of projects and products can lead to career stagnation. In fact, understanding the larger business

  1. Corporate Fictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Søndergaard, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a particular strategy of communication called a social science fiction. The strategy was taken up following an empirical research project on gender and management, in order to communicate results to the company's managers and Human Resource Staff. The research results showed...... fiction was the kind of narrative therapy, which aims to reconfigure the problem in focus by a process of externalisation that allows a reconstruction and retelling of the issue. The article describes how three cultural mechanisms in the company were condensed into three imaginary figures: Mr. Corporate...

  2. Corporate Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Gemünden, Hans Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although in the last three decades much knowledge has been produced on how best to conduct foresight exercises, but little is known on how foresight should be integrated with the innovation effort of a company. Drawing on empirical evidence from 19 case studies and 107 interviews, we identify three...... roles that corporate foresight should play to maximize the innovation capacity of a firm: (1) the strategist role, which explores new business fields; (2) the initiator role, which increases the number of innovation concepts and ideas; and (3) the opponent role, which challenges innovation projects...

  3. 11 August 2008 - Member of the House of Councillors M. Naito (The National Diet of Japan, The Democratic Party of Japan) signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    Also present: ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, ATLAS Collaboration and University of Tokyo T. Kawamoto Adviser for Non-Member State Relations J. Ellis Deputy Director-General, Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen ATLAS Collaboration and KEK T.Kondo Second Secretary, Permanent Mission of Japan in Geneva K. Saito

  4. Drift issues of tall buildings during the March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake, Japan - Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Okawa, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant effects of the M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 is the now well-known long duration (>10 minutes) shaking of buildings in Japan – particularly those in Tokyo (~350-375 km from the epicenter) and in places as far as Osaka (~770 km from the epicenter). Although none collapsed, the strong shaking caused many tall buildings not to be functional for days and weeks.

  5. The Power of Implicit Teaching Practices: Continuities and Discontinuities in Pedagogical Approaches of Deaf and Hearing Preschools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akiko; Tobin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Meisei Gakuen, a private school for the deaf in Tokyo, is the only school for the deaf in Japan that uses Japanese Sign Language (JSL) as the primary language of instruction and social interaction. We see Meisei as a useful case for bringing out core issues in Japanese deaf and early childhood education, as well as for making larger arguments…

  6. Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference (9th) Held in Tsukuba, Japan on 4-8 April 2005. Book of Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    8M2-585-8655 FAX: +8142-583-5119 E-mail : fuiii@tmit.ac.jp Haruki Takegahara Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology Kohichiro OYAMA...DESIGN of SATELLITE SYSTEMS against SPACECRAFT CHARGING Noriyoshi Onodera, Yoichi Murakami , Hideaki Koakutsu Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Phone

  7. The Tokyo Trials and “Pal Myth”%东京审判与“帕尔神话”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志勇

    2016-01-01

    东京审判是战后对日本战争犯罪的总决算,意在通过惩治战争犯罪,防止历史悲剧重演。东京审判具有充分的法律依据,其管辖权中“破坏和平罪”和“反人道罪”的设立,既是对传统国际法的继承,也是对国际法的发展,具有重要意义。而帕尔在其个人意见书中对全体被告的无罪判定,既是对罪刑法定原则的固守,更是缘于其民族主义的政治偏见和东西方对立的意识形态偏见,以及对共产主义的仇视,缺乏科学性和合理性。日本右翼夸大渲染帕尔个人意见,创造了“帕尔神话”,意在借此否定日本侵略战争的历史性质。因此,应该以发展的眼光看待东京审判,不仅要看到其对传统国际法的继承,更要到其对未来国际法发展的贡献。%The Tokyo Trials or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal was convened after the Second World War to try the war criminals of Japan. The trials aimed at punishing the war crimes and preventing the recurrence of similar tragedies. The Tokyo Trials was not only fully justified but also significant in inheriting and advancing the traditional international law because of the legislation of “crime against peace” and “crime against humanity”. Pal‘s dissenting opinion of exoneration for all the defendants was neither scientific nor reasonable. It was a banality of the principle of legally prescribed punishment, a political prejudice stemmed from the nationalism and the distinctive ideologies of the East and the West, and, of course, it was hostile to communism. To conceal the fact of aggression, Japanese right-wing force overstated Pal‘s dissenting opinion and fabricated the “Pal myth” in Japan. Therefore, the Tokyo Trials should be regarded in a developing view and recognized both as the inheritance of the traditional international law and as the contribution to the advancement of international law in the future.

  8. Corporate ethic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Хадарцева, Лариса; Кайтмазов, Владимир

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the general concept of business ethics, a corporate code of ethics and corporate social responsibility. Corporations take pains to promote sustainability through codes of ethics and their efforts are positively received by consumers.

  9. Musterland Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Im Gegensatz zu Japan ist in den westeuro­päischen Ländern die Umweltpolitik erst seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre in heftige Bewe­gung geraten. Den Anstoß hierzu gaben wie in Japan in den sechziger Jahren vor allem Umweltschadensfälle größeren Ausmaßes, wodurch Regierungen, Verwaltungen und umweltbelastende Betriebe unter starken Handlungsdruck gesetzt wurden. Seitdem gehören Umweltfragen in nahezu allen Indu­strieländern zu den zentralen politischen Themen. Trotz teilweise beeindrucken...

  10. Managing Corporate Reputation Through Corporate Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken; Hatch, Mary Jo; Adams, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This article, which concentrates on symbolic management by explaining the role of corporate branding in managing corporate reputation, using Novo Nordisk as a case study, presents three perspectives on corporate branding: the marketing perspective, the organisational perspective and the co......-creation perspective. The three perspectives reviewed show the possibility of developing a multidisciplinary conceptualisation of corporate branding. They all offer insights important to managing organisations as corporate brands in a multi-stakeholder context and thus to the likelihood that corporate branding...... is a way to influence corporate reputation. The Novo Nordisk management believes the data indicate that corporate branding influenced reputation more than the other way around. Formal brand management practices may work considerably better when they complement rather than try to control existing forces...

  11. Managing Corporate Reputation Through Corporate Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken; Hatch, Mary Jo; Adams, Nick

    2012-01-01

    -creation perspective. The three perspectives reviewed show the possibility of developing a multidisciplinary conceptualisation of corporate branding. They all offer insights important to managing organisations as corporate brands in a multi-stakeholder context and thus to the likelihood that corporate branding......This article, which concentrates on symbolic management by explaining the role of corporate branding in managing corporate reputation, using Novo Nordisk as a case study, presents three perspectives on corporate branding: the marketing perspective, the organisational perspective and the co...... is a way to influence corporate reputation. The Novo Nordisk management believes the data indicate that corporate branding influenced reputation more than the other way around. Formal brand management practices may work considerably better when they complement rather than try to control existing forces...

  12. Corporate Social Communication and Corporate Social Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ziggers, Gerrit Willem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide firms in the food and agricultural sector a model that enables them to assess their corporate social initiatives in conjunction with their stakeholders. Building on the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate social performance (CSP) and the relational view the paper argues that firms can improve the results of their corporate social initiatives by setting up a dialogue with their stakeholders and to relate this to their internal or...

  13. Teaching Mills in Tokyo: Developing a Sociological Imagination through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Here I emphasize the applicability of the sociological imagination to an international audience by sharing my journey of teaching sociology in Japan. I found my own sociological imagination helpful in critically evaluating the literature on Japanese higher education and the construction of the Japanese student as a form of Orientalism. As I…

  14. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  15. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  16. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  17. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  18. Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

  19. [Discussion of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhong, Ding-Wen; Xu, Da-Zhao; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Li, Jing; Shu, Fu-Zheng; Liu, Yu-Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jiang

    2012-12-01

    The contents of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Declaration for short) and its effect on development situation, current status, features, opportunities and challenges of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion are introduced, some proposals brought up in the Declaration are analyzed as well. The Declaration summarizes six characteristics of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, including paying great attention to palpation techniques such as pulse and abdominal diagnosis, always selecting response point in the meridian during acupuncture treatment, etc. Also six proposals have been brought up to promote the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, such as being devoted to spread the latest knowledge of acupuncture and moxibustion to medical professionals and the public in order to get correct understanding and proper evaluation, etc. What's more, the Declaration makes a prospection of improving international academic exchange and promoting the globalization of acupuncture and moxibustion and so on. The Declaration is served as a link between past and future in the history and developing process of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, which has a great meaning to the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion. We should have a clear understanding of weakness and strength in the development of acupuncture and moxibustion, seize the opportunity and develop science of acupuncture and moxibustion with our own characteristics, which makes more contribution to development of international acupuncture and moxibustion.

  20. Urban earthquake simulation of Tokyo metropolis using full K computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kohei; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Reflecting detailed urban geographic information data to earthquake simulation of cities is expected to improve the reliability of damage estimates for future earthquakes. Such simulations require high resolution computation of large and complex domains and thus fast and scalable finite element solver capable of utilizing supercomputers are needed. Targeting massively parallel scalar supercomputers, we have been developing a fast low-ordered unstructured finite element solver by combining multi-precision arithmetic, multi-grid method, predictors, and techniques for utilizing multi-cores and SIMD units of CPUs. In this talk, I will show the developed method and its scalability/performance on the K computer. Together, I will show some small scale measurement results on Intel Haswell CPU servers for checking performance portability. As an application example, I will show an urban earthquake simulation targeted on a 10 km by 9 km area of central Tokyo with 320 thousand structures. Here the surface ground is modeled by 33 billion elements and 133 billion degrees-of-freedom, and its seismic response is computed using the whole K computer with 82944 compute nodes. The fast and scalable finite element method can be applied to earthquake wave propagation problems through earth crust or elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses and is expected to be useful for improving resolution of such simulations in the future.

  1. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  2. Tokyo tähtsus üleilmse finantskeskusena väheneb / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo positsioon rahvusvahelise finantskeskusena sai riiki tabanud maavärina, tsunami ja radiatsiooni tõttu hoobi. Suured välispangad, investeerimisfondid ja maaklerfirmad toovad oma töötajaid Tokyost ära

  3. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  4. Tokyo tähtsus üleilmse finantskeskusena väheneb / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo positsioon rahvusvahelise finantskeskusena sai riiki tabanud maavärina, tsunami ja radiatsiooni tõttu hoobi. Suured välispangad, investeerimisfondid ja maaklerfirmad toovad oma töötajaid Tokyost ära

  5. Muusikamaailm : Wien Modern 2000. Muusikateater Huddersfieldis. Sibeliuse konkurss Helsingis. Penderecki uus teos Tokyos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Wien Modern" 28. okt.-26. nov. Muusikalavastustest Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalil. VIII Sibeliuse nim. rahvusvahelisest viiuldajate konkursist. 30. nov. toimus Tokyos K. Penderecki teose "Concerto grosso per tre violoncelli ed orchestra"

  6. Muusikamaailm : Wien Modern 2000. Muusikateater Huddersfieldis. Sibeliuse konkurss Helsingis. Penderecki uus teos Tokyos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Wien Modern" 28. okt.-26. nov. Muusikalavastustest Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalil. VIII Sibeliuse nim. rahvusvahelisest viiuldajate konkursist. 30. nov. toimus Tokyos K. Penderecki teose "Concerto grosso per tre violoncelli ed orchestra"

  7. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  8. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  9. Spatial and temporal trends of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments off the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Horii, Yuichi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Weifang; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, and assess the effectiveness of control measures on the contamination by chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in East Asia, surface and core sediments were sampled from the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan (i.e., Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay) and analyzed for short-chain (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs). Much higher concentrations of CPs were found in the industrialized PRD than in adjacent Hong Kong waters. Significant correlation between CP concentration and population density in the coastal district of Hong Kong was observed (r(2) = 0.72 for SCCPs and 0.55 for MCCPs, p < 0.05), highlighting the effect of urbanization. By contrast, a relatively lower pollution level of CPs was detected in Tokyo Bay. More long-chain groups within SCCPs in the PRD than in Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay implied the effect of industrialization. Comparison of temporal trends between Hong Kong outer harbor with Tokyo Bay shows the striking difference in historical deposition of CPs under different regulatory situations in China and Japan. For the first time, the declining CP concentrations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. China National Acrobatic Troupe’s Performance Tour in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Min-On Concert Association of Japan,a 51-member China National Acrobatic Troupe sent by the CPAFFC made a performance tour in 61 Japanese cities including Tokyo,Osaka and Nagoya from September 8 to December 26,2007.During the 110-day performance tour,the troupe gave 114 performances with an audience of 230,000 person/times.This performance tour,as an important part of the activities of the China-Japan Cultural and Sports Exchange Year and in commemoration of the 35th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan was well received by the Japanese audience and won praises from both Japanese and Chinese media,achieving a full success.

  11. Research on carbon dioxide miscible flooding by Technology Research Center of Japan National Oil Corporation. Current status of CO/sub 2/ flooding field application, Work honored with the 31st JAPT award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanakadate, Tadao

    1988-03-01

    The application examples in world on carbon dioxide miscible flooding which is an enhanced oil recovery method and the outline of field pilot test in Japan which will start from fiscal 1989 were reported. In the USA, there are fifty three examples on carbon dioxide miscible flooding and thirty one examples on carbon dioxide immiscible flooding. The enhanced rates of oil recovery by carbon dioxide miscible flooding are 7 to 13 %. In Hungary, the oil reservior pressures were increased rapidly due to the carbon dioxide injection and the push by water, and the recovery rates of 24 % and more were achieved. In Turkey, carbon dioxide immiscible flooding is in a trial stage. In these countries, carbon dioxide can be provided comparatively easily owing to the existences of the carbon dioxide fields, and the advantageous conditions are utilized. In Japan, the pilot tests are carried out with main research subjects on the phase behavior of carbon dioxide-oil system, prospect for performance of carbon dioxide miscible flooding by oil reservior simulation. (10 figs, 2 tabs, 5 refs)

  12. The Corporate Secretary

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    This Handbook offers a concise and practical description of how corporate secretaries might carry out their role to improve governance in their organizations. It can also serve as a guidance tool for both International Finance Corporation (IFC) clients and advisory staff to clarify the potentially expansive duties of corporate secretaries and to help them assist corporate secretaries in un...

  13. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…

  14. Realizing Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girschik, Verena

    This doctoral dissertation aims to understand how companies realize corporate responsibility - both how they perform corporate responsibility in particular local contexts and how they negotiate understandings of what corporate responsibility means. It builds on an inductive case study of the Danish...... in this dissertation unfold distinct yet interdependent processes of positioning and framing that constitute new ways of performing and understanding corporate responsibility....

  15. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-09

    its warers unless Japan withdraws its objections to the IWC by April i. Abe pointed to the strong American influence on world-wide support of a...squadron of five SH-3 Sea King antisubmarine helicopters which it carries for a squadron of six model H [helicopters] equipped with radar for monitoring ...which appeared in the American newspaper The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR on 3 May 1983, introduced a statement by Commander (Holcomb) to the effect that

  16. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    said Monday. In return, Japan has obtained the right to extend its air service beyond Kuala Lumpur to any further point of its choosing, the...System (MAS) and Northwest Orient Airlines will be dropped, the sources said. JAL and MAS will be allowed to begin new services via Kuala Lumpur and...secondary wood manufacturing and tourism , the leader of a state investment mission said Monday. James M. Root, leader of the 19-member mission, said

  17. Japan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Japan Socialist Party General Secretary Tsuruo Yamaguchi: "The Deceptiveness of Breaking Through the Defense - Spending Limit of 1 Percent of GNP...Agency Budget Proposal 22 Defense Facilities Administration Agency Budget Proposal 41 Breaking of Defense - Spending Limit Criticized (Tsuruo...such as the high yen and decline in the price of oil. (1) Total Amount Fiscal 1987 defense related expenditures are 3,517.4 billion yen, an

  18. In the Wake of TICAD V: Japan-Africa Relations Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarrósy István

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at how Japan, one of the major donors of African countries, has been redefining its positions on the African continent in terms of bilateral aid and business opportunities, triangular collaboration and multilateral development projects in an increasingly ‘interpolar’ world of international relations. The discussion includes China's expanding presence all over Africa as an important ‘reference point’ for the Japanese public at large and how that may influence Japanese pragmatic foreign policy towards the continent and Japan's involvement in African development. What are Japan's priorities in the wake of hosting the fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V early in June 2013 in Yokohama? How does Japan go along with its confident manner of inclusive development and ownership in African societies when at the same time it is challenged by China and other emerging actors? What are the items on Japan's agenda for a re-intensified Africa policy?

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility: Consumer Behavior, Corporate Strategy, and Public Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kreng, Victor B; Huang, May-Yao

    2011-01-01

    ... as "the consumers' impression of the corporation itself, corporate product marketing, and the services provided by the corporation". Corporate image is thus the consumers' subjective overall assessment of the corporation. Some marketing experts believe that the role corporations play in the wider society will help build their corporate image. ...

  20. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kanazawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  1. Innovation activity of corporations in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Ekaterina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers macro parameters of corporation innovation activity in the BRICS countries. The authors determine transnational corporation behavior strategies in the context of creating and transferring new knowledge, where developed countries (the USA, European countries and Japan play an important role and take a leading position in this process. Companies from emerging economies focus on using and adopting innovations. The reason for this is that knowledge “is coded” specifically, consequently the participants of its exchange have to be in similar intellectual space. Nevertheless, the market-leading corporations from the BRICS countries join the world chains of innovation creation, building their networks to satisfy their branches needs concerning technological decisions and personnel training

  2. Corporate governance and government owned corporations in Queensland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MCDONOUGH, Darryl D

    1998-01-01

    ...) - principles of corporate governance applicable to government owned corporations - history of corporatisation - objectives and features of the Government Owned Corporations Act 1993 - categorisation...

  3. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  4. Application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow in Japan: a case study of groundwater transit times and storage in Hokkaido watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Gusyev, Maksym A.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Michael K.; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Terumasa; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow to estimate groundwater transit times and storage volumes in Hokkaido, Japan. To establish the long-term history of tritium concentration in Japanese precipitation, we used tritium data from the global network of isotopes in precipitation and from local studies in Japan. The record developed for Tokyo area precipitation was scaled for Hokkaido using tritium values for precipitation based o...

  5. Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Norihide; Tanishima, Toshikatsu; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Kiri, Kentaro; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-10-01

    We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and naproxen showed poor removal (crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

  6. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection.

  7. The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Review of the Guidelines for Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    During debates over legislation to implement the revised guidelines, members of the Diet at- tempted to define the geographic extent of “situations in...administration. In 1999, Japan’s Diet adopted the Act Concerning Measures for Peace and Safety in Areas Surrounding Japan and moved to put in place the necessary...November 2004, a Chinese submarine traveled submerged through Japan’s territorial waters off Okinawa ; in response, Tokyo issued a Maritime Security

  8. A fact database for toxicological data at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Makoto; Nakadate, Masahiro; Osada, Takaharu; Ishibe, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Satoru; Maekawa, Akihiko; Sofuni, Toshio; NAKATA, Yasuko; Kanoh, Naoko; Hashiba, Shigeko; Takenaka, Yusuke; Ishidate, Motoi

    1991-01-01

    The computerized fact database for the toxicity data of chemicals was constructed at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan (biological database, BL-DB). The BL-DB stores data on mutagenicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and other toxicological tests of chemicals that appeared in the scientific literature. The BL-DB includes information about chemical identification, test system, results of the assays, and a bibliography. The system consists of five modules: data colle...

  9. Report on recent over-exposure accidents with a medical linac in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, Hisaaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Lab., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    On December 21, 2001, at a hospital in Tokyo, an engineer setting a medical-linac was over-exposed by the equipment due to lack of communication between workers. The exposed dose was initially reported as 1000 mSv (1 Sv), but later revised to 200 mSv at most. The outline of the accident and the statistical data on radiation exposure accidents in Japan and the world are briefly overlooked. (author)

  10. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  11. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  12. Assessing change of environmental dynamics by legislation in Japan, using red tide occurrence in Ise Bay as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chika

    2016-01-30

    Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and the Seto Inland Sea are the total pollutant load control target areas in Japan. A significant correlation between the incidence of red tides and water quality has been observed in the Seto Inland Sea (Honjo, 1991). However, while red tides also occur in Ise Bay and Tokyo Bay, similar correlations have not been observed. Hence, it is necessary to understand what factors cause red tides to effectively manage these semi-closed systems. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the dynamics of the Red Tide Index and nitrogen regulation as well as phosphorus regulation, even in Ise Bay where, unlike Tokyo Bay, there are few observation items, by selecting a suitable objective variable. The introduction of a new technique that uses the Red Tide Index has revealed a possibility that the total pollution load control has influenced the dynamics of red tide blooms in Ise Bay.

  13. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative

  14. Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The choice of using a strategy for corporate entrepreneurship as a primary means of .... Corporate venturing is a means of planning for organizational ambiguity in .... Multidiscipline teamwork approach, Long time horizon, Volunteer program.

  15. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  16. Fortune 500 Corporate Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Large Corporate Headquarters in the United States This database is composed of 'an annual list of the 500 largest industrial corporations in the U.S., published by...

  17. Paradoxical association between body mass index and in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Yamauchi,1,2 Wakae Hasegawa,1 Hideo Yasunaga,3 Mitsuhiro Sunohara,1 Taisuke Jo,1,2 Kazutaka Takami,1 Hiroki Matsui,3 Kiyohide Fushimi,4 Takahide Nagase1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Division for Health Service Promotion, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Health Policy and Informatics, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background and objective: The prevalence and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in elderly patients are increasing worldwide. Low body mass index (BMI is a well-known prognostic factor for COPD. However, the obesity paradox in elderly patients with COPD has not been well elucidated. We investigated the association between BMI and in-hospital mortality in elderly COPD patients. Methods: Using the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan, we retrospectively collected data for elderly patients (>65 years with COPD who were hospitalized between July 2010 and March 2013. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to compare all-cause in-hospital mortality between patients with BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 (underweight, 18.5–22.9 kg/m2 (low–normal weight, 23.0–24.9 kg/m2 (high–normal weight, 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 (overweight, and ≥30.0 kg/m2 (obesity with adjustment for patient backgrounds. Results: In all, 263,940 eligible patients were identified. In-hospital mortality was 14.3%, 7.3%, 4.9%, 4.3%, and 4.4%, respectively, in underweight, low–normal weight, high–normal weight, overweight, and obese patients. Underweight patients had a significantly higher mortality than low–normal weight patients (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48–1.63, whereas lower mortality was associated with high

  18. US/Japan Seminar on Superalloys Held at Susono, Japan on 7-11 December 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    University of Technology) STRENGTH AND PHASE STABILITY OF Ni Al INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS -TOWARD ALLOY DESIGN OF SUPERALLOYS- Y. Mishima , T. Suzuki (Tokyo...Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Technical Institute Nishiyama, Yukio Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Technical Institute Tanaka, Shoji Kawasaki Steel, Research...Technology Matsuo, Takashi Tokyo Institute of Technology Mishima , Yoshinao Tokyo Institute of Technology Takeyama, Masao Tokyo Institute of

  19. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  20. Corporate Business Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field of corporate business diplomacy using examples from academic disciplines, such as economics and political science, which can contribute to the understanding of corporate business diplomacy. Examples also show that corporate business...... diplomacy can complement business theories such as stakeholder theory and agency theory. Examples from practice show that in a broad sense, corporate business diplomacy is concerned with managing external stakeholders, while in a narrow sense, it is concerned with managing internal stakeholders...

  1. 7th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium: regulated bioanalysis, to a new stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    Tower Hall Funabori, Tokyo, Japan, 9-10 March 2016 At the 7th Japan Bioanalysis Forum symposium, bioanalytical methods and processes were discussed with authorities after the issuing of bioanalytical method validation guidelines (EMA and Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) and draft guidance (US FDA). Method establishment and bioanalysis of biomarkers were discussed with a focus on scientific validation. Bioanalytical methods for antibody-drug conjugates, the potential of MS imaging and microsampling activity in drug development were introduced. Discussion groups presented and openly discussed their results with about 300 attendees. This manuscript provides an overview of the highlights of the symposium.

  2. Patients views and experiences in online reporting adverse drug reactions: findings of a national pilot study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Yamamoto,1 Kiyoshi Kubota,2 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,3 Akira Dobashi,3 Masayuki Hashiguchi,4 Hirohisa Doi,1 Machi Suka,5 Mayumi Mochizuki4 1Education Center for Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan; 3Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan; 4Division for Evaluation and Analysis of Drug Information, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Patients have been allowed to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs directly to the government in some countries, which would contribute to pharmacovigilance.Objective: We started a pilot study to determine whether web-based patient ADR reporting would work in Japan. This article aims to describe the characteristics of the patient reporters, and to clarify patient views and experiences of reporting.Methods: Patients who submitted online ADR reports were contacted to respond to an ADR reporting questionnaire; only consenting reporters were included. Subjects with multiple responses were excluded from analysis. The questionnaire consisted of both closed and open questions. Questionnaire responses were examined using Pearson’s chi-squared test.Results: A total of 220 web-based ADR reports were collected from January to December 2011; questionnaires were sent to 190 reporters, excluding those who gave multiple reports and those that refused to be contacted. Responses were obtained from 94 individuals (effective response rate: 49.5%. The median respondent age was 46.0 years. Sixty-three respondents found out about this pilot study on the Internet (67.0%. The numbers of respondents claiming that they had difficulty recalling the time/date of ADR occurrence were 16 patient

  3. 25 CFR 227.6 - Corporations and corporate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporations and corporate information. 227.6 Section 227... § 227.6 Corporations and corporate information. (a) If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it... the lands are located, evidence showing compliance with the corporation laws thereof. Statements...

  4. 25 CFR 213.14 - Corporations and corporate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporations and corporate information. 213.14 Section... Corporations and corporate information. If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it shall file evidence..., evidence showing compliance with the corporation laws thereof. Statements of changes in officers...

  5. Corporate communications impact on corporate image and corporate competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Pirić

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an analysis of the impact of corporate communications and of the intensity of their application on a company’s image management, and an emphasis of the role that a company’s image plays as one of the fundamental sources of its competitiveness in contemporary market conditions. Through review and analysis of theoretical contributions, the paper shows how corporate communications integrate management, organization and the marketing communication dimension at the lev...

  6. Role of the Vision Van, a mobile ophthalmic outpatient clinic, in the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenya Yuki,1 Toru Nakazawa,2 Daijiro Kurosaka,3 Tsunehiko Yoshida,4–6 Eduardo C Alfonso,7 Richard K Lee,7 Shigeru Takano,8 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan; 4The House of Representatives of Japan, Tokyo, Japan; 5Nagoya University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 6Aichi Medical University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 7Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 8Japan Ophthalmological Association, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 triggered powerful tsunami waves off the northeastern Pacific coast of Japan that destroyed almost all of the built-up areas along the coast. The study reported here examined the role played by the Vision Van, a mobile outpatient ophthalmological clinic, in providing eye care to disaster evacuees. Methods: This was a retrospective case-series study of 2,070 victims (male: 732, female: 1,338 who visited the Vision Van. The subjects' medical records were examined retrospectively and analyzed in terms of age, sex, and date of visit to the Vision Van. Information regarding each patient's chief complaint, diagnosis, medication(s prescribed, and eyeglasses and contact lenses provided, was also examined. Results: The Vision Van was used to conduct medical examinations on 39 days between April 23 and June 29, 2011. The average number of subjects visiting the Vision Van each day was 53±31 (range: 7–135, with examinations carried out in Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture. The most frequent complaint was a need for eye drops (871/2,070 [42.1%]. The second and third most frequent complaints, respectively, were the need for contact lenses (294/2,070 [14.2%] and eyeglasses (280/2,070 [13.5%]. The most frequent ocular disease diagnosis

  7. Evolution of Corporate Essence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2016-01-01

    , it offers a legal framework where public benefit is more important than profits. As a corporate entity, Public Benefit Corporation already exists in numerous jurisdictions and those jurisdictions that do not yet facilitate creation of this corporate form should most definitely consider it....

  8. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of corporate communications…

  9. Management and application of Geotechnical Data: The Geotechnical Data Information System of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Motomu; Ishimura, Kenji; Nakayama, Toshio

    1992-05-01

    In the Tokyo metropolis many geological surveys are carried out in conjunction with building construction work and urban base improvement undertakings. Furthermore, the Institute of Civil Engineering (ICE) of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has been conducting surveys on urban geology, land subsidence, and geodetics. Thus, ICE of TMG keeps a lot of geological data. In order to plan for a more effective use of these data, the Geotechnical Data Information System of Tokyo Metropolitan Government was organized in 1985, and since 1986, it has become fully implemented. This Geotechnical Data Information System has incorporated a relational data base into a mainframe computer, the NEC ACOS System 430, and as of March 1989 it can retrieve and graphically present borehole, deep-well, and groundwater data. The authors wish to introduce in this article the organizational structure of the Geotechnical Data Information System of TMG, a summary of the data base system, standards of input data, and applicable examples of the data base.

  10. Linear alkylbenzenes in urban riverine environments in Tokyo: distribution, source, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, H.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1987-09-01

    The distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LASs) in river sediments, suspended river particles, domestic wastes, and waste effluents around the Tokyo city area was investigated. LABs as well as LASs with alkyl carbon chain lengths in the range from 10 to 14 were found in all environmental samples and LAS-type synthetic detergents examined. These results indicate that LABs are carried into aquatic environments as a result of the use of synthetic detergents around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Further results are (1) LABs in urban river sediments originate predominantly from untreated domestic wastes, final effluents contributing only a minor portion of the LABs in sediments, (2) the isomeric composition of the LABs changes systematically during biodegradation, and (3) the ratio of LAS to LAB decreases as follows: commercial synthetic detergents > suspended particles in domestic wastes > river sediments > Tokyo Bay sediments.

  11. 关东大地震对东京市财政的影响%The Influence of the Great Kanto Earthquake on Public Finance of the City of Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小鹏

    2015-01-01

    1923年发生的关东大地震给日本带来惨重损失。作为主要受灾地,东京市1⃝的经济遭到沉重打击,在财政方面体现得尤为明显。地震造成东京市社会财富严重受损,财政收入缩减。而灾后的应急救援和城市重建却需要依靠大量财政资金,财政支出增多。对此,东京市财政力所不逮,只能依靠政府债务完成东京城市复兴事业,但累积债务也成为此后阻碍东京市经济发展的关键因素。%The Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 was a holocaust for Japan where economy of Tokyo especially the finance of Tokyo suffered a critical hit. The disaster hit numerous social resource and the revenue greatly reduced. The disaster relief and reconstruction relied much on the financial funds and the fiscal expenditure increased. The financial capacity of Tokyo was therefore limited. Taking debt to recover from the disaster was the only way to cope with the Capital Reconstruction Project, and debt was one of the factors to hinder the economic development of Tokyo for the future.

  12. Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Fangyuan

    2013-01-01

    <正>The eight-day visit to Japan seemed to be a beautiful dream that ended before I woke up. However, in the dream I saw the future of China-Japan friendship. On March 4, flying to Japan, I thought all the way: "What kind of a country is Japan? Is it really as orderly and

  13. [Toxoplasmosis in Japan. Comparative study of different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, N; Kawai, K; Cazaux, M; Seguela, J P

    1985-01-01

    Specificities of Japan by geography, culture, and low incidence for Toxoplasmosis were examined in this epidemiological study. 1 731 human sera were examined by several immunological tests but these results are related with Agglutination-Latex test. The sera came from North (Hokkaido), Middle (Tokyo area) and South (Okinawa). The ratio for the whole Japan towards Toxoplasmosis is 24.7% but the increase of antibodies with age is late: rate of positivity 4.6% up to 17 years old and nearly 30% after 30 years old. Cats, business, climate do not seem to influence the human infection. It is consumption of meat and particularly raw meat which influence the results: 40.8% positive results among eaters of raw meat and 22% among those not eating meat or eating it well cooked.

  14. Popular Geopolitics of Japan: Geopolitical Discourses of Anime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zorko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical discourses are an integral part of the contemporary geopolitics of each state. Driven by geopolitical traditions and imagination, they intercept and thus create all aspects of the discipline of critical geopolitics- the formal, practical and popular. The main area of our research is the discourse embedded in the popular geopolitics of a specific cultural product of Japan, anime. Anime are unique and thus suited for analysis for two reasons. The first is their specific, local production and global recognition. The second is their double coding. Although they are a product of the traditional geopolitical culture of Japan’s entertainment industry, they are able to create a contemporary geopolitical culture at the same time. Through an analysis of three anime series, Tokyo Magnitude 8.0, Earth Maiden Arjuna and Mobile Suit Gundam 00, we explore the geographic and geopolitical characteristics of Japan and their influence on the traditional, as well as the contemporary geopolitical discourses.

  15. Lithium batteries in Japan; Les batteries lithium au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Mercier, A.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    This document is a mission report about the development of lithium batteries research in Japan. The mission took place between November 29 and December 3, 1999 and was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Tokyo. The organizations shown during the mission were: ETL, NEDO/LIBES, the Kyoto university, Yuasa, Hitachi, Matsushita, Japan Storage, Sanyo and Sony. The mission has shown that the government program is clearly backward. The Japanese research on battery materials remains important. The leaders of the lithium-ion technology are Sony, first, and then Hitachi and Sanyo. Applications of lithium-ion batteries are developing for small electric-powered vehicles. (J.S.)

  16. How fast do Tokyo and New York stock exchanges respond to each other? An analysis with high-frequency data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Tsutsui; K. Hirayama

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses one-min returns on the TOPIX and S&P500 to examine the efficiency of the Tokyo and New York Stock Exchanges. Our major finding is that Tokyo completes reactions to New York within six min, but New York reacts within fourteen min. Dividing the sample period into three subperiods, we f

  17. Insights into software development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  18. Effects of corporate governance on corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    López González, Eva

    2015-01-01

    One of the most critical strategic and enduring assets that a corporation may possess is good reputation. The positive impact of corporate reputation on firm performance has been analyzed and documented for ages. Intangible assets like reputation are increasing their importance in companies as sources of sustainable advantages. Organizations used to look for tangible assets as the drivers of these advantages, but nowadays intangible ones are getting much more weight in this sense. This is wh...

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RELATION WITH CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    ISSAM MF SALTAJI

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is targeted in this article to be integrated with corporate governance presenting its importance in business world not as obligation, but as a tool be adopted. Economic challenges push companies to think twice before making decisions. Corporate governance is a success key for companies through improving performance and gain mistrust of investors serving business sustainability. Objectives direction has been changed from concentrating on shareholders’ benefits to maintain sustai...

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RELATION WITH CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    ISSAM MF SALTAJI

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is targeted in this article to be integrated with corporate governance presenting its importance in business world not as obligation, but as a tool be adopted. Economic challenges push companies to think twice before making decisions. Corporate governance is a success key for companies through improving performance and gain mistrust of investors serving business sustainability. Objectives direction has been changed from concentrating on shareholders’ benefits to maintain sustai...

  1. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  2. [How do we cure the medical divide between northern Tohoku district and Tokyo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2010-11-01

    What is required to provide high quality medical service to anybody, anytime and anywhere? We have investigated health care in neurology as provided by national health insurance in Aomori, Akita and Iwate prefectures compared to health care in Tokyo. We have conducted hearing surveillance to patients and doctors. Most of the patients have to drive to hospital for more than 100 kms as there is no licensed neurologist in their neighborhood and public transportation is poor. There are only a few medical facilities that can satisfy their needs even in prefectural cities. Neurologists who work alone at general hospitals face difficulties as they cannot consult with other neurologist about diagnosis and treatment and have rare opportunity to attend academic conferences. A licensed neurologist at northern Tohoku district has to be in charge of a half of Tokyo 23 districts area and twice as many people as Tokyo. We have concluded that medical divide due to the more or less of quantity of selection exists between northern Tohoku and Tokyo. How do we cure this medical divide? Creating a new framework of patients transporting system, increasing the number of doctors who work at general hospitals and opening satellite clinics at regional towns should be considered.

  3. Changes in the therapeutic strategy for acute cholecystitis after the Tokyo guidelines were published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Koji; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoaki; Kodama, Hajime; Dotai, Kojiro; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Okamoto, Yasushi; Saida, Yoshihisa; Nagao, Jiro

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) for acute cholecystitis (AC) according to the Tokyo guidelines severity grade, and analyzed the changes in the therapeutic strategy for AC after the Tokyo guidelines were published. A total of 225 patients were enrolled in this study. The therapeutic period was divided into two periods: before and after the publication of the Tokyo guidelines (prior to and including 2007, and from 2008, respectively). Comparing the surgical strategy between ELC and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC), significant differences were found in the length of preoperative hospital stay and total hospital stay for cases of mild AC compared with moderate AC. With conversion to open surgery, postoperative complications including postoperative bile leak were not significantly different. Since ELC was performed significantly more often after publication of the guidelines, preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stays were significantly shorter in the later period. ELC is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for both mild and moderate AC. The Tokyo guidelines resulted in a significant increase in the performance of ELC and significantly reduced preoperative and total hospital stays without increasing intra- and postoperative complications.

  4. Tokyo elanikud pagevad linnast. Poed kaubast tühjad / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo poole liigub radiatsioon, mitmed elanikud lahkuvad linnast. Peaminister Naoto Kani sõnul edasise radioaktiivsuse lekke võimalus kasvab ning tehakse kõik, et vältida lekke levikut. Fukushima Daiichi tuumajaama ümbrusest on inimesed evakueeritud

  5. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  6. Diasporic identity and media consumption among Korean-Chinese diaspora : the case of Shanghai and Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    李, 光鎬; 李, 津娥

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionMedia Consumption in Diasporic Context: Korean Diaspora and Their Changing Social and Media EnvironmentResearch Purpose and MethodDiasporic Identity and Media Use of the Korean-Chinese in ShanghaiDiasporic Identity and Media Use of the Korean-Chinese in TokyoDiscussions

  7. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  8. Modeling the budget impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlich J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jörg Mahlich,1,2 Masamichi Nishi,3 Yoshimichi Saito11Health Economics, Janssen Pharmaceutical KK, Tokyo, Japan; 2Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; 3Pricing, Janssen Pharmaceutical KK, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The cost of schizophrenia in Japan is high and new long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics might be able to reduce costs by causing a reduction of hospital stays. We aim to estimate budget effects of the introduction of a new 1-month LAI, paliperidone palmitate, in Japan.Methods: A budget impact analysis was conducted from a payer perspective. The model took direct costs of illness into account (ie, costs for inpatient and outpatient services, as well as drug costs. The robustness of the model was checked using a sensitivity analysis.Results: According to our calculations, direct total costs of schizophrenia reach 710,500 million yen a year (US$6 billion. These costs decrease to 691,000 million yen (US$5.9 billion 3 years after the introduction of paliperidone palmitate.Conclusion: From a payer point of view, the introduction of a new treatment for schizophrenia in Japan helps to save resources and is not associated with a higher financial burden.Keywords: budget impact, schizophrenia, long-acting injectables, paliperidone, Japan

  9. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Apostol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was focused on measuring the performance level of corporate governance in Romania. This is carried out by evaluating the importance level given to the principles of corporate governance in the Romanian economy, while the practices of transparency and dissemination of companies’ information in the selected sample were monitored. To achieve the objectives of the study, we need to examine the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Sample companies were selected and their information from the “Comply or Explain” Statements was analyzed.The research method is a non-participating observation—based on the information from the “Comply or Explain” Statement to determine whether companies are applying corporate governance and transparency elements. The research results highlight the progress of Romanian companies in the process of exercising to the principles of corporate governance, becoming internationally recognized, and integrating into the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  10. The Corporate Marketing Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Eggert, Andreas; Münkhoff, Eva

    it can best add value to the firm. Based on a qualitative study among B2B companies, we develop a conceptual framework highlighting the various parental roles through which corporate marketing can contribute to overall firm and business unit performance. In addition, we identify five gaps that restrain......Corporate marketing has been downsized or eliminated in many firms. At the same time, firms that still own a corporate marketing department struggle with organizing and positioning their commercial front‐end. The question arises whether firms need a corporate marketing department, and if so, how...... successful outcomes of corporate marketing activities. In sum, our framework provides important insights on how to successfully organize corporate marketing activities....

  11. 25 CFR 226.8 - Corporation and corporate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporation and corporate information. 226.8 Section 226... RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.8 Corporation and corporate information. (a) If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it shall file evidence...

  12. Evolution of genotoxicity test methods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuni, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of methods to assess genotoxicity of test compounds is thought to be one of the important subjects in The Japanese Environmental and Mutagen Society (JEMS). In 1970, the Ministry of Education of Japan (at that time) organized a research group (Organizer: Y. Tazima, National Institute of Genetics), and started a systematic research on the genotoxic effects induced by chemical substances. Considering the importance of this issue through the outcomes of the research group, JEMS was established in 1972, and President Tazima organized the 1st annual meeting in the August in Tokyo with the participation of experts in this field working in national institutes, universities and others in Japan. The discovery that food additives possessed genotoxic potential triggered various scientific activities in the field of genotoxicity. Another important point was the correlation between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, in which the establishment of the reverse mutation assay played an important role. Other critical factors, such as side effects of drugs, occupational cancer, and environmental pollution due to genotoxic chemicals, emphasized the importance of genotoxicity tests for human safety. The tests performed to assess genotoxicity from 1960s to 1980s will be described to understand that many different genotoxic methodologies were discussed in these periods.

  13. Corporate governance in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SINGAM, Kamini

    2003-01-01

    ... governance in Malaysia - the ownership structure, composition and operation of Malaysian companies in Malaysia - the nature of shareholder control and protection made available in the Malaysian corporate...

  14. An archival study on the fusion researches in Japan from 1965 to 1986. An interview with Sekiguchi Tadashi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Technology; Obayashi, Haruo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    We here report an archival study undertaken by the method of an interview with Sekiguchi Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo. The theme covers the circumstances of the fusion research during the period (1965-1976) when fusion project was launched in Japan, and during the period (1970-1986) when JT-60 was initiated and subsequently developed. This interview was arranged as a part of the collaborative works organized with the Data and Planning Center of NIFS since 1999. (author)

  15. How Did the Dengue Fever Outbreak Progress in Yoyogi Park, Tokyo, in 2014?-Evaluation Based on a Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Shimogawara, Rieko; Fueda, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, an outbreak of autochthonous dengue fever occurred in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity, Tokyo, Japan. In this study, we investigated how the dengue fever outbreak progressed in Yoyogi Park using a mathematical model. This study was limited to the transmission of the dengue virus in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity. We estimated the distributions of the intrinsic incubation period and infection dates on the basis of epidemiological information on the dengue outbreak in 2014. We searched for an assumption that satisfactorily explains the outbreak in 2014 using rough estimates of secondary and tertiary infection cases. We constructed a mathematical model for the transmission of the dengue virus between humans and Aedes albopictus. We carried out 1,000-trial stochastic simulations for all combinations of three kinds of assumption about Ae. albopictus and asymptomatic infection with each of three levels. Simulation results showed that the scale of the outbreak was markedly affected by the daily survival rate of Ae. albopictus. The outbreak involved a small number of secondary infection cases, reached a peak at tertiary infection, and transformed to termination at the fourth infection. Under some assumptions, the daily progress of onset cases was within a range between the 1st-3rd quartiles of 1,000 trials for 87% of dates and within a range between the minimum and maximum for all dates. It is important to execute plans to detect asymptomatic cases and reduce the survival rate of Ae. albopictus to prevent the spread of tertiary infections unless an outbreak is suppressed at the secondary infection stage.

  16. Isolation of Microsporum gallinae from a fighting cock (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako

    2013-02-01

    A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country.

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  18. Asia-Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 16-20, 1992, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topics discussed include the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Station, and space activities in the Pacific Rim region. Possible future space missions are also examined, with particular attention given to medium-term and long-term perspectives in the ESA scientific program, projected lunar and planetary missions in the Japanese space program, and post-Cold War international cooperation in planetary exploration. Also presented are workshops on such topics as the future space transportation system, JERS-1 and ERS-1, and cover change and disaster mitigation, polar stratospheric ozone, and Space Station utilization.

  19. Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk Factors among HIV-positive Patients in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV infection, particularly multiple HPV types, is recognized as a necessary cause of anal cancer. However, a limited number of studies have reported the prevalence of anal HPV infection in Asia. We determined the prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors for anal HPV infection in Japanese HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM, heterosexual men, and women.This cross-sectional study included 421 HIV-positive patients. At enrollment, we collected data on smoking, alcohol, co-morbidities, drugs, CD4 cell counts, HIV RNA levels, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART duration, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and serological screening (syphilis, hepatitis B virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Entamoeba histolytica. Anal swabs were collected for oncogenic HPV genotyping.Oncogenic HPV rate was 75.9% in MSM, 20.6% in heterosexual men, and 19.2% in women. HPV 16/18 types were detected in 34.9% of MSM, 17.7% of heterosexual men, and 11.5% of women. Multiple oncogenic HPV (≥2 oncogenic types rate was 54.6% in MSM, 8.8% in heterosexual men, and 0% in women. In univariate analysis, younger age, male sex, MSM, CD4 50,000, no administration of HAART, and having ≥2 sexually transmitted infections (STIs were significantly associated with oncogenic HPV infection, whereas higher smoking index and corticosteroid use were marginally associated with oncogenic HPV infection. In multivariate analysis, younger age (OR, 0.98 [0.96-0.99], MSM (OR, 5.85 [2.33-14.71], CD4 <100 (OR, 2.24 [1.00-5.01], and having ≥2 STIs (OR, 2.81 [1.72-4.61] were independently associated with oncogenic HPV infection. These 4 variables were also significant risk factors for multiple oncogenic HPV infection.Among Japanese HIV-infected patients, approximately two-thirds of MSM, one-fifth of heterosexual men, and one-fifth of women have anal oncogenic HPV infection. Younger age, MSM, ≥2 STIs, and immunosuppression confer a higher risk of infection with oncogenic HPV and multiple oncogenic types.

  20. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics Held at Tokyo (Japan) on October 6-10 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    motion poten- _ cause it is not clear whether he was dea - tials and the combined incident w and dif-ling with the same flow subsy m. (fie fnis 4 ( 21 and...the resonant whereas for the lift we have at =uc - 0 waves. Further inspection of the resuitse-shows that at t first-order only Uso ,te LnC /AX’ T- (89...distribution with the effect of displacement thickness which is varied near the free surface by the inter- a 0 action and which is approximated as Step funcion

  1. Season of birth of breast cancer patients and its relation to patients' reproductive history in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao,Hiroko

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of the birth dates of 405 pre-menopausal and 285 post-menopausal breast cancer patients was investigated in order to determine whether or not the season of their birth was related to various reproductive risk factors of breast cancer, including nulliparity, late age at first birth, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and a history of benign breast diseases. The seasonal distributions of births were compared between groups of patients categorized according to whether they possessed each risk factor or not, separately for pre- and post-menopausal patients. Patients with the same menopausal status generally had the same seasonal distribution of births, irrespective of whether or not they possessed a risk factor. Moreover, low-risk patients exhibited more deviation in the seasonal distribution of birth from general births than the high-risk patients. These results suggest that the distinctive seasonal distribution of birth observed in breast cancer patients is basically a phenomenon independent from the effect of the reproductive history on the occurrence of breast cancer, and that specific seasonal factors are involved at the fetal or neonatal stage in the etiology of breast cancer.

  2. Imaging Ground Motions in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Based on MeSO-net: Azimuth Verification for Seismometers and Transfer Function Estimation for Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M.; Nagao, H.; Shiomi, K.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Mizusako, S.; Hori, M.; Hirata, N.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of structural motions during large earthquakes is important to prevent secondary disasters. To evaluate such strong motion as accurately as possible, it is essential to infer the image of ground motion in the target area based on densely installed seismological networks. In the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, the dense seismological array "MeSO-net" was established in 2007, and has approximately 300 stations with several kilometer intervals. Mizusako et al. (2014, AGU) applies lasso, which is a linear regression modeling method using the L1 regularization, to the MeSO-net data during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake to infer the spatially-high-resolution strong motions in the metropolitan area. Their method succeeds in reproducing the waveforms up to much higher frequency component than previous studies. However, there are two topics to deal with before practical use of their study. The first topic is that real azimuths of MeSO-net seismometers installed after 2009 have not been verified, while those installed in 2007 and 2008 were already verified based on cross correlation with nearby tiltmeters of Hi-net and/or seismometers of F-net (Shiomi et al., 2009). Since azimuths of seismometers obviously affect the data processing, we evaluate the azimuths of seismometers following Shiomi et al. (2009). The second topic is that we cannot directly obtain the ground motion data on surface since MeSO-net seismometers are installed at 20m depth. We have been also developing the method to estimate transfer functions that convert strong motion at 20m depth to that on surface, by utilizing continuous observations obtained both on surface and at 20m depth at two stations, and short-term observations obtained above the boreholes at more than 100 stations. A combination of this vertical transformation method and the horizontal estimation method (Mizusako et al., 2014), enables us to infer an image of ground motions in the whole Tokyo area.

  3. Sacchi, Livio (2004. Tokyo: City and Architecture. 249 p. ISBN: 0-7893-1212-3. Nueva York: Universe Publishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Ernesto Flores Quiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The book by the Italian author Livio Sacchi, focuses on the analysis on the spatial development of the city of Tokyo and the way in which the socioeconomic processes of the 19th and 20th centuries influenced the conformation of the urban structure on which millions of Tokyo citizens develop their daily life. During the text, the author underlines the impact of the modern architectural movement on the urban landscape of Tokyo. Furthermore, it is important to mention that this work serves as a translator for the western readers, because it deciphers the social and spatial characteristics that constitute the most populous city in the world.

  4. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  5. Corporate Bankruptcy Tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign corporations facing financial distress have a choice: resructure in their home jurisdiction or file for bankruptcy in the United States. And some number of foreign corporations do file bankruptcy petitions in the United States. But besides the occasional anecdotal account, how frequently thi

  6. Efficiency in Corporate Takeovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Dai (Yun)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractCorporate takeover is a very important economic activity that generates profound consequences on many classes of market participants. The great financing needs and transaction costs directly change the wealth of both shareholders and creditors. The corporate restructuring induced by

  7. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  8. Corporate Bankruptcy Tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign corporations facing financial distress have a choice: resructure in their home jurisdiction or file for bankruptcy in the United States. And some number of foreign corporations do file bankruptcy petitions in the United States. But besides the occasional anecdotal account, how frequently

  9. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  10. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  11. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of…

  12. Corporation as climate ambassador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2012-01-01

    At a time when corporations are addressing increasingly complex, global corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, this study examines and evaluates the strategies used in Vattenfall’s challenging and innovative CSR campaign which aimed at establishing the energy company as a credible climate...

  13. Institutional conditions of corporate citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the concept of citizenship from the history of political philosophy provides suggestions about what corporate citizenship could mean. The metaphor of corporate citizenship suggests an institutional approach to corporate social responsibility. Citizenship is a social role, characterized by

  14. Institutional conditions of corporate citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the concept of citizenship from the history of political philosophy provides suggestions about what corporate citizenship could mean. The metaphor of corporate citizenship suggests an institutional approach to corporate social responsibility. Citizenship is a social role, characterized by

  15. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Darwis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to provide empirical evidence that corporate governance implementation,managerial ownership, institutional ownership, board of executive, and independent executiveaffected corporate performance. Population of the research was companies listed at IndonesianStock Exchange (ISX between 2006 – 2008; sampling method used was purposive sampling as well asmultiple regression analysis. The result showed the implementation of GCG affected corporate performance.This meant that if the listed companies at BEI and have been surveyed by IICG implement agood corporate governance, the performance would increase. The higher corporate governance wasmeasured by corporate governance index perception, the higher corporate obedience and result ina good corporate performance. Institutional ownership affected corporate performance. The greaterinstitutional share ownership, the better corporate performance. The result showed that controlfunction from the ownership did determine improving corporate performance. Managerial ownership,board of commissioner, and commissioner independent did not affect corporate.

  16. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  17. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  18. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination

  19. Japan after the Quake: Prospects for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luta, Alexandru

    2011-07-01

    The triple calamity of 11 March 2011 has dealt a serious blow domestically to the credibility of the Japanese nuclear industry, putting the country's energy policy in flux.The severe impact on the country's infrastructure, the unwieldiness of its bureaucracy and the chaotic political situation preclude Japan's energy policy from explicitly re-orientating itself before the middle of 2012, but political consensus seems to be emerging that the country's mid-term pledge on emission reductions will need to be curtailed.The bill on renewable energy passed under Prime Minister Kan marked a step in the right direction, but was shallow and politically opportunistic. Its future impact on policy is uncertain.With other policy instruments on climate proposed by the Democratic Party of Japan toothless or abandoned, Tokyo's ability to engage in significant mitigation activities domestically is in question.Opposition to a second commitment period to the Kyoto Protocol remains firm; Japan will continue to pursue bilateral mechanisms outside the UNFCCC framework.Given its frail domestic policy and a stated readiness to act internationally outside multilateral frameworks, Japan's promise to carry out significant mitigation activities even in the absence of a clear and comprehensive post-2012 legal instrument should be viewed with a critical eye.(Author)

  20. Leadership matters Prime Minister Koizumi's role in the normalization of Japan's post-9/11 security policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shrader, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    For many years following the end of World War II, Japanese leaders followed the Yoshida Doctrine, which placed the nation's priority on economic recovery and growth at the expense of defense spending. Tokyo was able to do this through the U.S.-Japan alliance during the Cold War years. The end of the Cold War and the "checkbook diplomacy" of the first Gulf War forced Japan's leadership to rethink how it approaches foreign policy and marked the beginning of the end for the doctrine and a beg...

  1. Fuel cells for stationary applications in Japan; Les piles a combustible pour les applications stationnaires au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, F.; Mermillod, N.; Millet, C.; Pinget, A.

    2000-05-01

    This document is a mission report on stationary applications of fuel cells in Japan. This mission was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Japan in December 1999. The organizations shown were: NEDO, Osaka Gas, Tokyo Gas, Sanyo, the Kawagoe facility, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, CRIEPI and Toto. Since the year 2000, the public effort made on fuel cells development has shot up and reaches 7 billions of yen among which more than a half is devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Applications of PEFCs are various, from stationary cogeneration to transportation systems. (J.S.)

  2. Emergence of intragenotype recombinant sapovirus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Gia; Khamrin, Pattara; Quang, Trinh Duy; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Takanashi, Sayaka; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Sapovirus is an important causative agent of sporadic cases as well as of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. A total of 603 fecal specimens collected from July 2005 to June 2006 from children with acute gastroenteritis in five localities in Japan (Maizuru, Tokyo, Sapporo, Saga, and Osaka) were screened for sapovirus by RT-PCR. It was found that 17 specimens were positive for sapovirus and it represented 2.8%. Interestingly, intragenotype recombinant sapovirus GI/1 emerged with 76.4% (13 of 17) and rapidly became the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in Japan for the first time. The lower frequency of sapovirus GI/2 and GI/4 (each of 11.8%), which were the second prevailing genotypes, was also detected. A novel nomenclature of sapovirus was proposed, in which worldwide sapovirus strains were classified into seven genogroups. Of these, novel sapovirus genogroups VI and VII demonstrated the very low homologies, only 32.8-41.6% at the amino acid level and 43.6-49.9% at the nucleotide level, to those of sapovirus genogroups I-V. Of note, two distinct clusters of sapovirus were co-circulating in porcine. Interestingly, the worldwide sapovirus strains shared the 25 nucleotide-conserved region, covering the polymerase-capsid junction which differed according to each species due to multiple nucleotide substitutions. The finding suggests that the sapovirus recombination between human and animal hardly takes place in nature. This is also the first, to our best knowledge, demonstrating the emergence of the intragenotype recombinant sapovirus with its causing diarrheal illness in Japan.

  3. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  4. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  5. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  6. Entering the lesbian world in Japan: debut stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamano, Saori

    2005-01-01

    Conceiving of a "lesbian community" as the process and/or the end product of a lesbian's going outside herself or her intimate relationship to connect with other lesbians, this paper explores the experiences of lesbians in entering the community in Tokyo, Japan, which lesbians refer to as "community debut." Based on the personal accounts gathered through interviewing 24 women in 2002 in the Tokyo area, this paper examines the personal contexts in which the women entered a lesbian community, which included searching for and defining themselves, accepting themselves, and acting out the new identity to make changes in their lives. Some of the women interviewed were prompted by a need to understand themselves as lesbians. Others with a lesbian identity searched for further affirmation through connecting with "the world of lesbians" beyond their immediate contexts. For some other women interviewed, entering the community was a way to help them start their lives anew by getting out of their previous (married) lives. The paper also specifically touches on the significance of the Internet as a source of information for individual women and as a way of creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Although the research reported in this paper leaves for further exploration how boundaries of the communities are negotiated and drawn, the norms of the communities, and conflicts and negotiations among individuals and groups, it has provided one piece of the mosaic of lesbian communities in Japan. The communities, while still largely invisible in the mainstream society, are nonetheless an important part of life, albeit in different ways, of many lesbians. The research process leads the author to anticipate greater visibility of lesbians and lesbian communities in Japan in the not too distant future.

  7. Social, not physical, infrastructure: the critical role of civil society after the 1923 Tokyo earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel P

    2012-07-01

    Despite the tremendous destruction wrought by catastrophes, social science holds few quantitative assessments of explanations for the rate of recovery. This article illuminates four factors-damage, population density, human capital, and economic capital-that are thought to explain the variation in the pace of population recovery following disaster; it also explores the popular but relatively untested factor of social capital. Using time-series, cross-sectional models and propensity score matching, it tests these approaches using new data from the rebuilding of 39 neighbourhoods in Tokyo after its 1923 earthquake. Social capital, more than earthquake damage, population density, human capital, or economic capital, best predicts population recovery in post-earthquake Tokyo. These findings suggest new approaches for research on social capital and disasters as well as public policy avenues for handling catastrophes.

  8. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  9. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  10. Antibacterial Therapy of Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis (According to Tokyo Guidelines2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics should be used wisely in antimicrobial therapy in each institution, region and country. The recent global spread of antibiotic resistance gives us a warning in the modern practice. Tokyo Guidelines 2013 provide practical guidance for physicians and surgeons involved in the treatment of community-acquired and hospital acute biliary infection. Much remains uncertain in this view. Continuous monitoring of local resistance to antibiotics and further studies in acute cholecystitis and cholangitis should be justified.

  11. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    烏田, 直哉

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  12. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  13. Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in Metropolitan Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    In this study, the detailed horizontal structure, i.e. cliffs and plateaux of the heat island of the Metropolitan Tokyo area is investigated. According to Oke (1977), cliff is steep temperature gradient at the rural/urban boundary and plateau is a steady but weaker horizontal gradient of increasing temperature towards the city center. However, these features are not always evident, e.g. large city like Tokyo. To elucidate such aspects, moving observations of the horizontal distribution of air temperature from electric trains of the transportation network of Metropolitan Tokyo during late evening or early morning were thus conducted. In total, 16 railroad lines were used for the moving observations. The observations were done in two phases for sectional and horizontal distributions. Results show that three cliffs exist in the heat island of Metropolitan Tokyo, although the location of these cliffs should be taken into consideration for urban planning or urban redevelopment.

  14. Energy situations in Japan before and after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraoka K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the various effects on the public conception on nuclear energy and more generally on energy policies in Japan due to the nuclear accident that occurred on 11th March 2011 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station, which is owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO. Before the accident, nuclear energy had been conceived as the main energy source of electricity in Japan for reducing CO2 emission beyond 2020. However, public opinion has turned almost completely against nuclear energy after observing how vulnerable the nuclear system had been. The present Japanese government is now trying to buy time before taking a decision. After explaining these circumstances, the author tries to chart his personal projection of energy sources for Japan to 2050.

  15. Influence of paint chips on lead concentration in the soil of public playgrounds in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Michie; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2006-03-01

    Lead concentration in the surface soils from 31 playgrounds in a ward in Tokyo was measured to examine if paint chips, peeled off from playing equipment installed in the playgrounds, contribute to elevated Pb concentration in the soil of public playgrounds. Lead concentration in the paint chips sampled from playgrounds ranged from 0.003 to 8.9%. Lead concentration in the surface soil ranged from 15.2 to 237 mg kg(-1) (average, 55.5 mg kg(-1)) and higher Pb concentration was found in the soil near painted playing equipment indicating that paint chips from playing equipment contributed to increase soil Pb level of playgrounds in Tokyo. The degree of peeling-off of paint on the surface of playing equipment in the public playground (peeling-off index: POI) positively correlated with Pb concentration in the soil (Spearman rank-correlation coefficient, r = 0.366, p = 0.043). The stronger correlation between Pb concentration and isotope ratios (207Pb/206Pb and Pb conc., r = 0.536, p = 0.002, 208Pb/206Pb and Pb conc. r = 0.600, p playground-to-playground variation in soil Pb concentration. It was concluded that both gasoline Pb of the past and paint chips contributed to increased Pb concentration in the surface soil of playgrounds in Tokyo, though the contribution of paint chips is smaller than gasoline Pb.

  16. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  17. Corporate Governance in Japan : the role of cross-shareholding

    OpenAIRE

    Karikoski, Aki Tapani

    2007-01-01

    Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Statsvetenskapliga biblioteket (Unionsgatan 35). Dessa avhandlingar fjÀrrutlånas endast som microfiche. Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Library of Social Sciences (Unioninkatu 35) . Microfiche copies of these theses are available for interlibrary loans. Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden sidotut arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa ...

  18. Corporate Blogging For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Karr, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Establish a successful corporate blog to reach your customers. Corporate blogs require careful planning and attention to legal and corporate policies in order for them to be productive and effective. This fun, friendly, and practical guide walks you through using blogging as a first line of communication to customers and explains how to protect your company and employees through privacy, disclosure, and moderation policies. Blogging guru Douglas Karr demonstrates how blogs are an ideal way to offer a conversational and approachable relationship with customers. You'll discover how to prepare, e

  19. Strategic corporate sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  20. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    , human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...... management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials...

  1. Strategic corporate sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  2. [The Formative Years of Modern Anesthesiology in Japan--A Dialogue between Hideo Yamamura and Akitomo Matsuki].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Hideo; Matsuki, Akitomo

    2016-06-01

    In a dialogue with Akitomo Matsuki as the moderator, Hideo Yamamura, the first Professor of Anesthesiology in Japan at the University of Tokyo who had enormously contributed toward improving the standard of the specialty in Japan, gave detailed accounts of following topics: his training as a surgeon, Saklad's lectures in 1950, the establishment of a departmental anesthesia group, the conversion to anesthesiologist, studying in the United States, the foundation of the Japan Society of Anesthesiology, movements for the governmental approval of registered anesthesiologists and the qualification system of board certified anesthesiologists, international activities in holding the Second Asian Australasian Congress of Anaesthesiologists in 1966 and the Fifth World Congress of Anaesthesiologists in 1972, and the opening of pain clinics and the foundation of its society. Yamamura's accounts illustrate unknown episodes in the history of the formative period of modern anesthesiology in Japan.

  3. THE METHOD OF TEACHING AND EXAMINATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: THE SYSTEM IN INDIA AND JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwika LASKAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education of children with special needs is an important field of study. Children with special needs deserve to be educated like any other human being. Over the years, several provisions have been made and laws have been passed to ensure education of children with special needs. A visually impaired child’s needs and goals for learning are not different from that of his sighted peers. Only the means of achieving those goals are different. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalent method of teaching and the system of examination for students with Visual Impairment studying in the special schools for the blind in India and Japan. Methodology: The study was delimited to i blind students only and ii the special schools for the blind in Kolkata and Tokyo. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 50 teachers (25 each from the special schools for the blind in Kolkata and Tokyo. The researcher interviewed the teachers. Semi–structured information schedules were used to collect data and the data were analyzed only qualitatively. Findings: The method of teaching the blind students was similar in both Kolkata and Tokyo. Differences were observed mainly in the type of teaching equipments used. Regarding the system of examination, differences were observed within the special schools in Kolkata. In Tokyo, however, all the special schools followed a uniform system. The study revealed that in Kolkata a strict pass/fail criterion existed. In Tokyo, on the other hand, there was no strict pass/fail criterion. Conclusion: This study is important because not many comparative studies have been done between India and Japan. Most of the comparative research work is either between Japan and the U.S.A or between Japan and the U.K. This study was conducted mainly to find out the differences between a Developing and a Developed nation. Being a developed country, it is always assumed that there will be a lot to learn from

  4. 78 FR 52982 - Experian, Experian US Headquarters: Corporate Departments (Finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Experian, Experian US Headquarters: Corporate Departments (Finance...), Experian, Experian US Headquarters: Corporate Departments (finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate Marketing...: Corporate Departments (finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate Marketing, Global Corporate Systems, Legal...

  5. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances; Proceedings of the 6th U.S./Japan Experts Meeting Held at Tokyo, Japan on 16-18 February 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    growth:1.O00). 5) The rate of progress at the end of fiscal 1980 against the entire program: 19.5%. PORT OF MINAMATA 1) Water pollution is of a serious...nature in the port. The polluted sediments contain mercury due to the drainage from the Minamata Plant of the Chisso Company Ltd. This drainage...contaminates fish and shellfish and causes the Minamata Disease, thus having a serious impact on the environment. 2) With the designation by the Minister of

  6. 78 FR 39326 - Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Opendaylight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...., Gatineau, Quebec City, CANADA; Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA; Juniper Networks, Sunnyvale, CA; Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA; NEC Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; PLUMgrid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA; Radware LTD..., CA; Ciena Corporation, Hanover, MD; Cisco Systems Inc., San Jose, CA; Citrix Systems, Inc.,...

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used to communic...

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suhaimi Ishak; Mohamad Naimi Mohamad Nor

    2017-01-01

    .... In Malaysia, based on the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG), (2007; 2012) clearly stated the role and responsibility of the board of directors toward the risk management activities...

  9. The corporate security professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Lund

    2013-01-01

    In our age of globalization and complex threat environments, every business is called upon to manage security. This tendency is reflected in the fact that a wide range of businesses increasingly think about security in broad terms and strive to translate national security concerns into corporate...... speech. This article argues that the profession of the security manager has become central for understanding how the relationship between national and corporate security is currently negotiated. The national security background of most private sector security managers makes the corporate security...... professional inside the company a powerful hybrid agent. By zooming in on the profession and the practice of national security inside companies, the article raises questions about where to draw the line between corporate security and national security along with the political consequences of the constitution...

  10. Measuring Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nicolăescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the evolving character of sustainability management in corporations, the significance of environmental protection and sustainability, and barriers to carrying out an incorporated and strategic firm-wide advance of social responsibility. In the present paper, we focus on the contribution of sustainability undertakings towards enhancing corporate performance, the financial involvements of sustainability position and operation, and the chief function of values in corporate policy. Our paper contributes to the literature by supplying proof of elements that lead to the triumph of business patterns for sustainable development, processes through which stakeholders are affecting corporate sustainability conduct, and the link between economic growth and the environment.

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used...

  12. Corporate Governance and Shareholder Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalchev, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.

  13. Corporate risk management : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Casper M.

    2001-01-01

    Corporate risk management and hedging are important activities within financial as well as non-financial corporations. Under the assumptions of Modigliani and Miller [1958], corporate risk management is a redundant activity. However, the existence of market imperfections can explain the corporate us

  14. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  15. Tax planning in corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  16. China Petrochemical Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) is a super-large petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group, established in July 1998 on the basis of the former China Petrochemical Corporation. Sinopec Group is a state-owned company solely invested by the state, function ing as a state-authorized investment organization in which the state holds the controlling share. Headquartered in Beijing, Sinopec Group has a registered capital of 182 billion yuan. The board chairman of Sinopec Group is its legal representative.

  17. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  18. Corporate Risk Disclosure and Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouthar Lajili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, research which integrates corporate governance and risk management has been limited. Yet, risk exposure and management are increasingly becoming the core function of modern business enterprises in various sectors and industries domestically and globally. Risk identification and management are crucial in any business strategy design and implementation. From the investors’ point of view, knowledge of the risk profile, risk appetite and risk management are key elements in making sound portfolio investment decisions. This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and risk disclosure behavior using a sample of Canadian publicly-traded companies (TSX 230. Results show that Canadian public companies are more likely to disclose risk management information over and above the mandatory risk disclosures, if they are larger in size and if their boards of directors have more independent members. Minority voting control ownership structures appear to negatively impact risk disclosure and CEO incentive compensation shows mixed results. The paper concludes that more research is needed to further assess the impact of various governance mechanisms on corporate risk management and disclosure behavior.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pregabalin for treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with accompanying lower limb pain (neuropathic component in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igarashi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ataru Igarashi,1 Manabu Akazawa,2 Tatsunori Murata,3 Toshihiko Taguchi,4 Alesia Sadosky,5 Nozomi Ebata,6 Richard Willke,5 Koichi Fujii,6 Jim Doherty,5 Makoto Kobayashi3 1Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 3CRECON Medical Assessment Inc., Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan; 5Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 6Pfizer Japan, Inc., Tokyo, Japan Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin for the treatment of chronic low back pain with accompanying neuropathic pain (CLBP-NeP from the health care payer and societal perspectives. Methods: The cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus usual care for treatment of CLBP-NeP was evaluated over a 12-month time horizon using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, derived from the five-dimension, five-level EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, was the measure of effectiveness. Medical costs and productivity losses were both calculated. Expected costs and outcomes were estimated via cohort simulation using a state-transition model, which mimics pain state transitions among mild, moderate, and severe pain. Distributions of pain severity were obtained from an 8-week noninterventional study. Health care resource consumption for estimation of direct medical costs for pain severity levels was derived from a physician survey. The ICER per additional QALY gained was calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the assumptions across a range of values. Results: Direct medical costs and hospitalization costs were both lower in the pregabalin arm compared with usual care. The estimated ICERs in the base case scenarios were approximately ¥2,025,000 and ¥1,435,000 per

  20. 75 FR 11197 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 Open Mobile Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; Soundbuzz Pte Ltd., SINGAPORE; Streamezzo, Paris, FRANCE; Sunpius m...- Ericsson; Tecnornen to Tecnomen Lifetree; Verizon Wireless to Verizon. No other changes have been made in...

  1. Ramadan fasting influences on food intake consumption, sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Nevertheless, a decrease in fat mass was detected. Concerning plasma ... increased HDL-C against a decreased LDL-C fraction. Taken together ... (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were muscular mass, fat mass and body ...

  2. In the Spotlight of Misperception: Japanese Science Fiction Vis-à-vis Western Science Fiction Set in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryon Tensor Posadas

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, William Gibson published a novel that began new traditions in science fiction writing —Neuromancer. the novel won a hat-trick of all three of the major science fiction awards: The Hugo, Nebula, and the Philip K. Dick. The opening chapter was set in Chiba prefecture, a large coastal region east of the capital Tokyo with the line "The sky above the port was the color of television turned to a dead channel" (Gibson 1. It was the centerpiece of the cyberpunk movement characterized by a mix of high technology in the fields of computer networking and biomechanical interface and urban street life (Sterling xi.Yet despite its opening scenes being set in Tokyo, Gibson at that time had never set foot in Japan. Furthermore, practically all of Gibson's novels—Neuromancer (1984, Count Zero (1986, Mona Liza Overdrive (1988, Virtual Light (1991, and Idoru (1995 along with several of his short stories, have dealt with Japan in varying degrees, wether as a setting or by involving Japanese social system sush as the yakuza and the zaibatsu system of corporate management as atmospheric elements.Another impetus came from Delia Aguilar's study on Filipino housewives and the politics of gender. This study reveals that " . . . in the private space of the family as the major mechanism for the reproduction of social relations, women are at once validated and oppressed, a process that is powerfully mediated by the maternal ideology of which women are the foremost proponents." This maternal ideology shapes Filipino women's idea of motherhood that sees devotion to children, self-sacrifice, and care giving as the essence of motherhood, allowing them to embrace oppression and subordination. In this context, the interrogation of maternal ideology in Philippine literature is important to the overall feminist movement. Women writers who have freed themselves from the mystifying notions of motherhood may have been inspired to represent women in their works

  3. Pursuing a Major Power Role: Realism with the US and Idealism with Europe in Japan's Post-Cold War Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATANASSOVA-CORNELIS, Elena

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Japan's move towards becoming a major power after the end of the Cold War, by way of examining how Japan adds an 'idealist' approach through its relations with Europe to the 'realist' one, pursued in its partnership with the US. After 1989, the military alliance with the US has remained crucial to the country's national security and the pursuit of a realist foreign policy towards Washington has, therefore, continued to be a priority for Tokyo. In this context, Japan has expanded its role within the bilateral security arrangement and has further strengthened it since the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the US. At the same time, Japan has pursued throughout the 1990s an idealist foreign policy towards the EC/EU, through the development of a Euro-Japanese human centred and non-military security cooperation. Since the start of the 2000s, however, Japan has expanded its military profile, showed a greater willingness to engage in security and defence matters, and embarked on revising its peace constitution. Although it may seem that Tokyo has moved towards pursuing more realism with the US at the expense of idealism with Europe, this article argues that the non-military partnership with the EU is also important for Japan in that it facilitates the country's transformation from a 'reactive' to a 'proactive' state, which is encouraged by the military alliance with the US.

  4. The Japanese Tax Reform and the Effective Rate of Tax on Japanese Corporate Investments

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Shoven

    1988-01-01

    Japan is in the midst of reforming its national level individual and corporation income tax systems. Last year it abandoned its large system of tax free savings accounts and lowered individual marginal tax rates. A much more radical proposal is currently being advocated by the government and is well along the way towards passage in the Diet. The new proposal would significantly lower the statutory rate for the corporation income tax, lower individual rates further and increase the tax thresho...

  5. Review of Recent Development of Photoinjectors in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, M.; Iijima, H.; Dobashi, K.; Yang, J.; Miyamoto, S.

    2003-12-01

    Systematic developments of the photoinjectors for ultrashort and high quality electron beam works are under way in Japan. Sumitomo Heavy Industries succeeded in transformation of the Gaussian shape to the trapezoidal one in the temporal and transverse profiles of the drive laser and achieved 0.9 πmm.mrad with 1 nC/bunch. It is the best data in the transverse aspect. Himeji Inst. Tech. is operating very unique needle-shaped photocathode RF gun with the original Nd/Glass laser for IR-FEL and Compton scattering X-rays. U.Tokyo/JASRI(SPring8)/KEK/NIRS/BNL/etc. are developing and operating the S-band photoinjectors with Cu, Mg and Cs2Te cathodes, and transmission-type one in near future. Further, U.Tokyo/KEK/NIRS are designing and constructing a new X-band RF-gun/linac/laser system to generate inverse Compton scattering hard X-rays(33-50keV) for intravenous angiography.

  6. Le Procès de Tôkyô, l’empereur et la question du Yasukuni The Tokyo trial, the emperor and the Yasukuni shrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Takahashi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Au Japon, toute une partie de la classe politique conservatrice persiste à refuser les conclusions du procès de Tôkyô, considérant celui-ci comme une justice « orchestrée par les vainqueurs ». Ce faisant, les partisans de cette thèse se trouvent dans une contradiction puisque l’empereur Hirohito lui-même, qui avait exprimé sa gratitude auprès des forces d’occupation américaines pour l’avoir épargné, en avait de facto admis les conclusions. Ce paradoxe pour le camp conservateur est aggravé par le fait que l’empereur a cessé de se rendre au sanctuaire Yasukuni à partir du moment où les mânes de quatorze haut responsables condamnés comme criminels de guerre lors du procès de Tôkyô y furent transférés sans son accord. Ces contradictions internes à la droite irrédentiste japonaise invite ainsi à envisager le procès de Tôkyô sous un autre jour. Loin d’être une simple « justice de vainqueur », la stratégie américaine fut éminemment bénéfique pour la droite conservatrice : Hirohito n’étant pas traduit en justice, il devenait possible de lui conférer une fonction symbolique par l’article I de la nouvelle Constitution de 1946, ce qui permit à la droite conservatrice de sauver le système impérial et d’assurer une continuité entre l’avant et l’après-guerre.In Japan, a part of the conservative political class continues to deny the conclusions of the Tokyo trial, as a justice “of the victors”. But the proponents of this theory face a contradiction since the Emperor Hirohito himself expressed his gratitude to the American occupation authority (SCAP for not condemning him. Hirohito therefore admitted the conclusions of the trial. The paradox goes even further as the conservative leaders publicize their visit to Yasukuni shrine although the Emperor himself ceased to visit the shrine after top leaders convicted as war criminals at the Tokyo Trial were transferred to the shrine without his

  7. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries.

  8. Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Japanese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krukowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that determine the Japanese approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR to facilitate future empirical research in the Polish conditions. Methodology: To conduct the research, the available literature concerning CSR, managerial behaviour and stakeholder relations in Japan was studied. The research was conducted onsite in Japan after consultation with local experts, both Japanese and foreigners, specialized in Japanese management and the economy. Findings: The Japanese approach to CSR is strongly determined by their religious, philosophical, cultural, historical, economic and legal factors. It is proof of the concept of CSR contextuality, which provokes questions about the nature of the business relations of Japanese companies with their foreign counterparts and their style of management while investing abroad. Research limitations: The methodology was only supposed to gain a general view of the factors infl uencing CSR in Japan. Studying more detailed issues with the use of empirical data was complicated because of the short time available for the research (6 weeks and the relatively low level of transparency of the Japanese companies. Value: The study helped in understanding managerial decisions and Japanese business behaviour in the context of corporate responsibility and the ethics of its everyday operations. It was the fi rst research thoroughly analyzing many of the determinants of CSR in Japan, which may be valuable for any counterparts cooperating with the Japanese companies and foreign researchers analyzing Japanese management systems.

  9. Study of blind thrust faults underlying Tokyo and Osaka urban areas using a combination of high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and continuous coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miura

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and continuously cored boreholes to evaluate active flexures produced by major blind thrust fault systems within two densely populated Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins in Japan: the Fukaya Fault System near Tokyo in the Kanto Basin and the Uemachi Fault System in the Osaka Basin. The high-resolution seismic reflection survey made clear the length, geometry and growth history of fault-related folds, or flexures formed above the two blind thrusts. Continuously cored boreholes linked with high-resolution seismic profiles enabled us to estimate the uplift rate as defined by shallow stratigraphic horizons and constrain the age of the most recent growth of the flexures during earthquakes on the Fukaya and Uemachi fault systems. Even with the high quality of the data we collected, it is still not possible to exactly constrain the age of the most recent blind thrust earthquake recorded by flexure of these fault-related folds. Data presented in this paper form the basis for future efforts aimed at mechanical and kinematic models for fault growth to evaluate the activity of blind thrusts underlying urban areas.

  10. Genetic classification of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strains, including epidemic clones, isolated from retail meat in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Mochizuki, Mariko; Yamada, Fumiya; Takano, Takashi; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2014-01-01

    A food-borne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b, has been frequently isolated from patients with listeriosis, and numerous outbreaks of listeriosis are associated with this serotype. In the present study, we performed subtyping of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains on the basis of genetic analyses. Thirty-four isolates of serotype 4b were classified into 8 genotypes, namely genotypes 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24, and 25, on the basis of the sequence for the partial iap gene. Genetic analyses revealed that genotype 16 and genotypes 24 and 25 belong to epidemic clone I (ECI) and ECII, respectively, which have been frequently associated with listeriosis outbreaks in the United States and Europe. The genotype isolated most frequently from retail meats in the Tokyo metropolitan area was genotype 12 (52%), followed by genotype 16 (29%), which belongs to ECI. We suggest that ECI is a common subtype of L. monocytogenes in retail meat in the area under investigation. On the other hand, ECII isolates were confirmed to be present in retail meat in Japan but were rare.

  11. A High-Resolution, Wave and Current Resource Assessment of Japan: The Web GIS Dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Adrean; Fujimoto, Wataru; Horiuchi, Kazutoshi; Kiyomatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Varlamov, Sergey; Yoshikawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The University of Tokyo and JAMSTEC have conducted state-of-the-art wave and current resource assessments to assist with generator site identification and construction in Japan. These assessments are publicly-available and accessible via a web GIS service designed by WebBrain that utilizes TDS and GeoServer software with Leaflet libraries. The web GIS dataset contains statistical analyses of wave power, ocean and tidal current power, ocean temperature power, and other basic physical variables. The data (2D maps, time charts, depth profiles, etc.) is accessed through interactive browser sessions and downloadable files.

  12. APL: a corporate strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J; Nyatanga, L; Ringer, C; Greaves, J

    1992-06-01

    This paper is based on, and summarises, papers read at the second annual international conference of Nurse Education Tomorrow held at the University of Durham (UK) September 1991. To this end this paper will offer: Some Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) definition and process as reflected in the literature available. A distinction will be made between APL and Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) although the procedures and processes for assessing them will be shown to be the same. A brief outline of corporate strategy, as it applies to APL, will be given to form the basis for logical demonstration of how Derbyshire Institute of Health and Community Studies has employed such a corporate strategy. Insights developed and gained from APL research currently being undertaken through the college of nursing and midwifery will be used to inform the development and nature of corporate strategy. A flowchart of the operationalisation of the corporate strategy is offered as an integrative summary of how all the APL ideas have had a positive cumulative effect. The paper finishes by highlighting the possible strengths and limitations of APL corporate strategy.

  13. Cronobacter spp. in commercially available dried food in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kiribe, Nami; Fukuda, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 140 samples of dried food sold in Japan were surveyed and tested for the presence of viable bacteria, distribution of coliform bacteria, and contamination with Cronobacter spp. The samples were purchased from retail stores in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture. Out of the 140 samples tested, viable bacteria were found in 135 samples and coliform bacteria were found in 23 samples. Qualitative and quantitative testing revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in 35 (25.0%) and 11 samples (7.9%), respectively. The most commonly found Cronobacter species were C. sakazakii, with the next most common, in order, being C. muytjensii and C. turicensis. The actual numbers of Cronobacter species in the tested dried foods were low, but the widespread contamination particularly in dried herbs and vegetables was confirmed.

  14. [Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Jun; Shiobara, Yasumasa; Inui, Masami; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshinori; Takayama, Yoko; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Okuda, Shunji; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Sasahara, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature.

  15. Tokyo Jane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Schafer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    -shipped to company headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark from factories in China, stocked in the head office and delivered to 400 retail partners —small fashion boutiques, big department stores and online shops — who then sell to consumers in Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and Canada. The two partners who...

  16. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Purnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstudies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University ofOccupational and Environmental Health, Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December.Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement andwork-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental

  17. Photovoltaic power system field test program at Tokyo Hikarigaoka sporting facilities, sporting facilities in a standard district; Tokyo Hikarigaoka taiyoko hatsuden system field test jigyo (hyojun chiku no sports shisetsu) Tokyo Hikarigaoka sports shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Y. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-30

    The photovoltaic power systems were installed in September in FY1994 in Tokyo Hikarigaoka sporting facilities, and the field tests have been conducted, to investigate applicability of the system to sporting facilities. Described herein are the results of the field tests conducted in FY1995, following those in FY1994, for its demonstrated applicability. The sporting facilities are very large in scale, having a 24-story office building, a 2-story building for sporting facilities, a 6-story hotel building and a common and large-space atrium. The photovoltaic system, installed on the 2-story building, provides power for various purposes, including illumination, air-conditioning and driving various devices. It is integrated into a low-voltage line of 20kW with reverse flow. It produces a maximum output of 21.45kWp, the array consisting of 15 (series) by 22 (parallel) single-crystalline modules, directed to due south at an elevation angle of 20{degree}. If demonstrated commercially viable, a photovoltaic power system can be integrated into a building adjacent to an office building in the planning stage, to greatly reduce the construction cost. The photovoltaic power systems have good PR effects, because a total of approximately 160,000 people can annually use the sporting facilities, including the office and hotel, and there are Hikarigaoka apartment complex (having 38,000 residents) and 50,000 local residents around the sporting facilities.

  18. Investment Horizon and the Cross Section of Expected Returns: Evidence from the Tokyo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Pin-Huang Chou; Yuan-Lin Hsu; Guofu Zhou

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, we study how beta, size, and ratio of book to market equity (BE/ME) account for the cross-section of expected stock returns over different lengths of investment horizons. We find that $\\beta$, adjusted for infrequent trading or not, fails to explain the cross-section of monthly expected returns, but does a much better job for horizons over half- and one-year. However, either the size or the BE/ME alone is still a significant factor in explaining the c...

  19. The Earthquake Proof ‘Tokyo Sky-Tree‘- Bringing New Possibilities for Modern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sai Shiva Prasad,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pagodas have always fascinated the people who see them. Not only are they interesting, but they also represent the essence of science and architecture which was used in the olden days. Thus, bringing new possibilities for modern architecture. The world’s tallest tower and Japan’s biggest new landmark, The Tokyo Sky-tree is one among them which remains unaffected when the earthquake strikes. In our paper, we are going to review the construction technologies used in building this massive tower and compare it to the traditional Chinese pagodas.

  20. The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal, Tokyo 2000: a feminist response to revisionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévy, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the emergence in the 1990s of the issue of “Comfort women” and the conditions that led to the holding of The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal for the Trial of Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery. It argues that it was a response both to victims’ needs and to the prevailing revisionism concerning the violence committed during the Asian-Pacific war by the Japanese army, which had been the subject of the Tokyo war crimes trials of 1946-1948. The women’s tribunal represe...

  1. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  2. Corporate dentistry in 2032?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael

    2012-07-01

    During the last 20 years, there has been considerable growth in the number of dental practices owned by corporate bodies. At present, well over 800 practices are owned by such bodies and they employ over 3000 dentists. This paper describes the factors that have led to this growth and explores the advantages and disadvantages of 'corporate' dentistry for patients, dentists, and the dental team. It then considers how and why dental practice may change over the next 20 years and concludes that by 2032 the small one-dentist practice may well be in the past. It is likely that smaller practices will have to work in some form of association if they are to survive. Although their current model is unstable, corporates are likely to adapt to a changing environment. By 2032, in some cases, dentistry may well be taken out of its conventional setting, into supermarkets or a school environment.

  3. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  4. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  5. Iranian Corporations and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Chapardar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.

  6. Jaarboek corporate governance 2011-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.; Bier, B.; Kaptein, M.; Paape, L.

    2011-01-01

    In dit eerste Jaarboek Corporate Governance worden uiteenlopende aspecten van Corporate Governance nader besproken door toonaangevende schrijvers uit verschillende disciplines. Inclusief actuele corporate governance code.

  7. Jaarboek corporate governance 2011-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.; Bier, B.; Kaptein, M.; Paape, L.

    2011-01-01

    In dit eerste Jaarboek Corporate Governance worden uiteenlopende aspecten van Corporate Governance nader besproken door toonaangevende schrijvers uit verschillende disciplines. Inclusief actuele corporate governance code.

  8. Assessing clinical outcomes of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis in addition to the Tokyo grading: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of acute cholecystitis is still based on clinical expertise. This study aims to investigate whether the outcome of acute cholecystitis can be related to the severity criteria of the Tokyo guidelines and additional clinical comorbidities. A total of 103 patients with acute cholecystitis were retrospectively enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. They were all classified according to therapeutic modality, including early cholecystectomy and antibiotic treatment with or without percutaneous cholecystostomy. The impact of the Tokyo guidelines and the presence of comorbidities on clinical outcome were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. According to Tokyo severity grading, 48 patients were Grade I, 31 patients were Grade II, and 24 patients were Grade III. The Grade III patients had a longer hospital stay than Grade II and Grade I patients (15.2 days, 9.2 days, and 7.3 days, respectively, p < 0.05. According to multivariate analysis, patients with Grade III Tokyo severity, higher Charlson’s Comorbidity Score, and encountering complications had a longer hospital stay. Based on treatment modality, surgeons selected the patients with less severity and fewer comorbidities for cholecystectomy, and these patients had a shorter hospital stay. In addition to the grading of the Tokyo guidelines, comorbidities had an additional impact on clinical outcomes and should be an important consideration when making therapeutic decisions.

  9. Genetic population structure of local populations of the endangered saltmarsh sesarmid crab Clistocoeloma sinense in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhara, Takeshi; Kawane, Masako; Furota, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, over 40% of Japanese estuarine tidal flats have been lost due to coastal developments. Local populations of the saltmarsh sesarmid crab Clistocoeloma sinense, designated as an endangered species due to the limited suitable saltmarsh habitat available, have decreased accordingly, being now represented as small remnant populations. Several such populations in Tokyo Bay, have been recognised as representing distributional limits of the species. To clarify the genetic diversity and connectivity among local coastal populations of Japanese Clistocoeloma sinense, including those in Tokyo Bay, mitochondrial DNA analyses were conducted in the hope of providing fundamental information for future conservation studies and an understanding of metapopulation dynamics through larval dispersal among local populations. All of the populations sampled indicated low levels of genetic diversity, which may have resulted from recent population bottlenecks or founder events. However, the results also revealed clear genetic differentiation between two enclosed-water populations in Tokyo Bay and Ise-Mikawa Bay, suggesting the existence of a barrier to larval transport between these two water bodies. Since the maintenance of genetic connectivity is a requirement of local population stability, the preservation of extant habitats and restoration of saltmarshes along the coast of Japan may be the most effective measures for conservation of this endangered species.

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to Host ... adopting partnership strategies as a means of contributing to community development, ... community development partnership (CDPs) initiatives' undertaken by Exxon ...

  11. Lessons From Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YAFEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the mid-to late 1980s, Japan experienced a prolonged bubble economy and entered a decadelong recession after it burst. The economy in China currently has several things in common with Japan's economy before its bubbles burst, such as a large foreign exchange reserve, an international dispute over currency revaluation, excess liquidity, and soaring asset prices.

  12. Corporate Identity as a Factor of Corporate Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Perelygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forming-upof the corporate identity is based on cognitive, affective and conative elements of corporate culture. The group as an entity choosing goals and values ensures a certain response to standards and values of corporate culture within the parameters of its social responsibility. Corporate security as security of community and cooperation acts as a form of organizational and ethical approach to developing socially responsible attitude of government and business.

  13. CORPORATE IDENTITY AS A FACTOR OF CORPORATE SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Perelygina, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Forming-up of the corporate identity is based on cognitive, affective and conative elements of corporate culture. The group as an entity choosing goals and values ensures a certain response to standards and values of corporate culture within the parameters of its social responsibility. Corporate security as security of community and cooperation acts as a form of organizational and ethical approach to developing socially responsible attitude of government and business.

  14. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.

  15. The integration of corporate governance in corporate social responsibility disclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, not only has attention to corporate governance increased but also the notion has broadened considerably, and started to cover some aspects traditionally seen as being part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR, corporate governance and their interlink seem particularly relev

  16. The integration of corporate governance in corporate social responsibility disclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, not only has attention to corporate governance increased but also the notion has broadened considerably, and started to cover some aspects traditionally seen as being part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR, corporate governance and their interlink seem particularly relev

  17. The integration of corporate governance in corporate social responsibility disclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, not only has attention to corporate governance increased but also the notion has broadened considerably, and started to cover some aspects traditionally seen as being part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR, corporate governance and their interlink seem particularly

  18. Hubungan Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibilities dan Corporate Financial Performance Dalam Satu Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Murwaningsari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the influence of Good Corporate Governance, represented by institutional ownership and managerial ownership, on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance, and also to observe the possible influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Corporate Financial Performance. This research examines 126 manufacturing companies which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (ISX and have issued an audited financial statement for 2006. The statistical method used to test the hypothesis is Path Analysis. The result suggests that Good Corporate Governance influences both the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance and that Corporate Social Responsibility significantly influences Corporate Financial Performance. The result also suggests that CEO Tenure, the controlling variable, holds a significant influence on the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility. Yet, there is no strong evidence to support the type of industries as an influencing factor of Corporate Social Responsibility. Furthermore, we found that the latter condition would also apply when we analyze the influence of Corporate Secretary and Nomination and Remuneration Committee on Corporate Financial Performance. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh antara struktur Coorporate Governance yang diproksikan sebagai kepemilikan institusional, kepemilikan manajerial terhadap corporate social responsibility dan corporate social responsibility terhadap corporate financial performance. Penelitian menggunakan data sekunder dari laporan tahunan 2006 perusahaan publik yang terdapat di Pusat Referensi Pasar Modal (PRPM Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. Sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 126 perusahaan. Melalui pendekatan analisa jalur (path analysis menunjukkan Good Corporate Governance yaitu kepemilikan managerial dan institusional mempunyai pengaruh terhadap

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer

    This doctoral dissertation examines the business-development relations in Afghanistan by focusing on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and other related practices from corporations in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry. More concretely, the study aims to explore the characteristics...

  20. 76 FR 68747 - Hess Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...] Hess Corporation v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint... 385.212, Hess Corporation (Complainant) filed a Petition for Declaratory Order requesting that...

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, White Paper on Science & Technology 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    apparent in many areas such as resources, energy, market and so on. We are-therefore required to find ways and means of achieving a "sustainable development...3 Reseacher /engineer exchanges between Japan and other countries (1989) Japan _e_ _ departure> <departure> Developed 112 thousands <departure> 35...of Single Market in 1992. (Figure 21) 18 Figure 20 Percentage of private corporations having overseas R&D facility M% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

  2. Value Relevance of Earnings Information in Japan -- A Survey: The Empirical Findings by Foreign Researchers --

    OpenAIRE

    大日方, 隆

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm how international academicians evaluate the Japanese accounting system. This paper surveys prior studies on the international comparison (including Japan) of accounting information and reexamines the empirical findings on the usefulness of earnings information in Japan, focusing on the value relevance of earnings. Many researchers have pointed out that code law, investor protection in financial regulation environments and Japanese corporate governance, ...

  3. Of Corporate Bondage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, James

    1975-01-01

    "While it is entirely possible that the university will continue to function as an essential arm of the giant agribusiness and energy corporations, there are, nevertheless, a wealth of opportunities for it to direct its energies to more useful purposes." The author traces universities' past involvement noting alternatives in energy and agriculture…

  4. Corporate Stakeholding and Globalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Most corporations consider their stakeholders to be those, who can be defined in a relatively narrow periphery. Customers, workers, investors, authorities, neighbours, suppliers and various interest groups, for instance NGOs. However, during the last decades, phenomena such as the financial crisis...

  5. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and compositi

  6. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    The concept of corporate environmental management has existed for the last two to three decades. Many companies have fully or partly adopted the concept in their efforts to eliminate or reduce the impacts on the natural environment caused by their business activities. The question is, however, if...

  7. Essential Corporate Bankruptcy Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This article begins from a simple observation: Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code is the global standard for corporate restructuring, but at the same time it is a far more complex procedure than most jurisdictions seem to require. This observation begs the question what parts of a

  8. Corporate Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The American Chamber of Commerce, the People's Republic of China (AmCham-China) and the American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai recently released "American Corporate Experience in a Changing China: Insights From AmCham Business Climate Surveys, 1999-2005." Excerpts of the report follow:

  9. Contractual Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Companies have the choice to deviate from their national corporate governance standards by opting into another system. They can do so via contractual devices – such as cross-border mergers and acquisitions, (re)incorporations, and cross-listings – which enable firms to choose their preferred level

  10. Corporate strategies: organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, R C; Oestreicher, V

    1988-06-01

    In previous installments of this series, the authors outlined factors that influence corporation information system strategies. The factor that appears to be most significant is centralization vs. decentralization. This article presents examples of organizational structures, roles and responsibilities for either approach.

  11. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  12. Corporate social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Arsić, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. Definition emphasizes three basic characteristics of CSR. CSR is voluntary concept, it covers environmental issues and interaction with stakeholders, not only shareholders, is taken into account.

  13. The Politicization of Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation of usages of non-market corporate strategies, such as testimony, lobbying, interlocking of positions and other means to influ......This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation of usages of non-market corporate strategies, such as testimony, lobbying, interlocking of positions and other means...... to influence policymakers at all levels of government and international institutions as an adjunct to the firm’s market strategies. This paper brings to the fore the role of corporations in the World Economic Forum (WEF), and how firms act through the WEF to advance their interests, financial as well...... as political. What is the role of business in the WEF, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? Empirically we depart from ethnographic field studies of the World Economic Forum, drawing on observations from WEF-events and interviews with participants and organizers. We propose...

  14. Corporate information management guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

  15. Behavioral corporate governance : four empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis consists of studies of corporate governance from a behavioral perspective. The chapters are about trust between chief executive officers (CEOs) and board chairpersons, asymmetric effects of corporate social responsibility on corporate financial performance, compliance with corporate

  16. Corporal Punishment and the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In order to understand and evaluate the continued prevalence of corporal punishment in school systems, this article reviews the following topics: (1) historical issues; (2) current demographics and correlates; (3) the effectiveness of corporal punishment in school settings; (4) myths; (5) alternatives to corporal punishment; and (6) social policy.…

  17. De Ratio van Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbe de Jong (1970) is Professor in Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance at RSM Erasmus University. He obtained a PhD in finance at Tilburg University (1999). His research and teaching interests are in the area of empirical corporate finance and include capital structure choice,

  18. Corporate governance and public corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corrupt...

  19. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Moldova's corporate governance framework-its legal and policy framework, as well as enforcement and compliance practices. The report makes policy recommendations where appropriate, and provides investors with a benchmark to compare corporate governance with the 1999 OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. Moldova is beginning to upgrade its legal and ...

  20. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Sino-Japan Friendship is the Common Aspiration of the two Peoples and in the Interests of both Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Maoshan; Chang; Jiuqing(Translated)

    2005-01-01

    In the season of the blooming Japanese flowering cherry, I attended the Conference of Sino-Japan People's Organizations held in Tokyo and made a friendly visit there as a member of the CAFIU delegation from April 11 to 17. The conference was widely attended and closely watched by the people from all walks of life both in China and Japan and regarded as one of great significance for the people's organizations in the two countries as it was held on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the world people's victory over fascism and Chinese people's victory over the Japanese aggression as well as in the time when Sino-Japan relations were in difficulty.

  2. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Sano,1,2 Takahiro Fujii,3,4 Takahisa Matsuda,3 Yasushi Oda,5,6 Shin'ei Kudo,7 Masahiro Igarashi,8 Hiroyasu Iishi,9 Kazuhiro Kaneko,1,10 Kinichi Hotta,3,11,12 Nozomu Kobayashi,3,13 Yuichiro Yamaguchi,12 Kiyonori Kobayashi,8 Hideki Ishikawa,14 Yoshitaka Murakami,15 Tadakazu Shimoda,16 Takahiro Fujimori,17 Yoichi Ajioka,18 Hirokazu Taniguchi,16 Hiroaki Ikematsu,1,3 Kazuo Konishi,10 Yutaka Saito,3 Shigeaki Yoshida1,19 1Department of Gastroenterology, Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, 2Gastrointestinal Center and Institute of Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Care (iMEC, Sano Hospital, Kobe, 3Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, 4Takahiro Fujii Clinic, Tokyo, 5Hattori GI Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Clinic, Kumamoto, 6Oda GI Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Clinic, Kumamoto, 7Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, 8Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, 9Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, 10Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 11Department of Gastroenterology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku, 12Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Mishima, 13Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, 14Department of Molecular-Targeting Cancer Prevention, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 15Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, 16Pathology and Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, 17Department of Surgical and Molecular Pathology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 18Division of Molecular and Diagnostic Pathology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 19Aomori Prefectural Hospital, Aomori

  3. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

  4. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  6. 76 FR 70758 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, Inc. D...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... specified circumstances. Specifically, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation, Inc., Hsinchu, Taiwan... Semiconductor Inc., Geonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; Tokyo Electron Limited, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Rudolph Technologies Inc., Flanders, NJ; ON Semiconductor, Phoenix, AZ; NEXX Systems Inc., San Francisco, CA;...

  7. [Delusions and society in Japan and China from a transcultural-psychiatric viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, H; Pei, Z Z; Kizaki, Y; Zheng-Ji, C

    1987-11-01

    The relationship between contents of schizophrenic delusions and sociocultural background in the modern society of Japan and China were studied from transcultural psychiatric aspects. The data of this study were derived from the public mental hospitals in Tokyo and Shanghai in a similar size; of 186 cases (88 cases of male, 98 cases of female) of the first admission in Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital during 1981-1983, 112 cases with delusions (53 cases of male, 59 cases of female) were selected, and of 200 cases (112 cases of male, 88 cases of female) of the first admission in Shanghai Psychiatric Hospital in 1983, 129 cases with delusions (70 cases of male, 59 cases of female) were chosen. The incidence of delusions of physical persecution and grandeur was relatively high in patients of both hospitals in Tokyo and Shanghai, while the incidence of delusions with hypochondria and guilt was low in both hospitals. Only the incidence of delusion of poisoning was significantly higher in Shanghai than in Tokyo (mean 2 = 12.97, p less than 0.001). After the World War II, the patriarchally oriented family system was abolished in Japan which caused shifting the system from a large family to a nuclear family. In China where the property (land) and daily life were closely connected the close human relationship among generations had important values in relation to the labor power within the frame of a large family. It is believed that occurrence of the delusion of poisoning might be a reflection of the disturbed human relationship within the family member in dining which should be helpful for making further understanding and reliance. It's occurrence conflict and struggle in the community of the outside of the family. At present there is a marked difference between Chinese and Japanese in their structure of consciousness. The former places high value and meaningfulness on the participation to the group and seeks protection and safety of individuals. The latter reveals a

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer

    This doctoral dissertation examines the business-development relations in Afghanistan by focusing on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and other related practices from corporations in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry. More concretely, the study aims to explore the characteristics...... provides a relevant empirical focus that can enrich the theoretical debates about CSR in developing countries. The study thereby stresses on the importance of context, and integrates both the societal and corporate dimensions to study CSR by corporations in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry...... in Afghanistan, and a study of secondary data from the corporations, Afghan state institutions, civil society and other relevant actors....

  9. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Tone River, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Eiki; Heesoo, Eun; Koji, Baba; Tomohito, Arao; Shozo, Endo [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Tadashi, Sekino [Environmental Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Environmental pollution by PCDD/Fs has arisen exclusively from human activities, and for example, they are inadvertently produced from various combustion sources and manufacturing processes, such as municipal solid waste incineration steel production processes and chemical production processes. In Japan, it is well known that the environmental pollution has close relation to agricultural operation, that is, some PCDD/Fs are contained as impurities in a kind of pesticide. The Tone River is the largest basin area (about 16,900 km{sup 2}) in Japan, and after the Shinano River, is the second longest river (about 322 km). The river has many tributaries (about 800 rivers), and the rivers taking the Kokai River, the Kinu River, the Edo River, and the Watarase River as objects of the present study are also representative tributaries. Since the Tone River basin corresponding to about 4.5% of the total area of Japan leads about twelve million population corresponding to about 10% of the gross population in Japan, it plays an important part in a supply of water for human activities. Not only some residential zones near Tokyo and industrial zones but also representative agricultural zones in Japan expand in the basin expands, and especially the lower basin leads a leading granary. The objective of our effort is to investigate the levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in surface sediment and water samples from the Tone River and some related tributaries, and to assess their distribution and origin using congener-specific characterization approach.

  10. Preparedness for ebolavirus disease outbreak in Japan: Necessity of Biosafety level-4 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Although a globe box-type highly contained laboratory with the internationally-recognized biosafety level-4 standards has been constructed in the Murayama Annex, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan (NIID) in 1981, the laboratory has never been operated as BSL-4 laboratory since its construction. Furthermore, there are no other BSL-4 laboratories in operation in Japan. The evidence indicates that infectious BSL-4 pathogens such as Ebola and Marburg viruses cannot be manipulated in Japan, making it impossible to study the BSL-4 pathogens using the infectious viruses. A large-scale outbreak of ebolavirus disease (EVD) has occurred in the western Africa such as Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Furthermore, the highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases outbreaks such as SARS, Nipah encephalitis, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have emerged in the world. However, BSL-4 laboratories are not present in Japan, making it difficult to study these pathogens and infectious diseases. Because these emerging virus infections are caused by the zoonotic pathogens, the eradiation and the elimination of these infectious diseases are impossible. We need to develop the diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive measures based on the studies of the highly pathogenic pathogens more in detail using the infectious microbes. Therefore, BSL-4 in operation in Japan is required to minimize the risk of and combat these emerging highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases.

  11. null Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  12. Japan's radiant architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruairí O'Brien

    2014-01-01

    .... If Japanese architecture in the last century could be seen as an expression of fast growth, destruction, rebirth and expansion, today's Japan promises to deliver a new hybrid of high and low tech...

  13. X-Ray Lithography In Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    20 percent of the market; and Hitachi Chemical, Chisso, Daikin , Fuji Chemical, Somar, Toray (Tokyo Rayon), and Toso (Tokyo Soda). All were reported...Matsushita Used with SNR top layer Daikin FBM N/A+-/+ poly~hexafluorobutyl-methacrylate) Hitachi RE-5000P 5 PC/CM2/+ Novolak/poly(methylpentenesulfone

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liempd, Dennis van; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Abild-Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Målet med denne artikel er at klargøre, at der findes forskellige teoretiske tilgange til ansvarlig leverandørstyring og Corporate Social Responsibility (i det følgende kaldt CSR). Endvidere er det målet at belyse, at området er i kraftig udvikling og forventes at få øget betydning for revisor i...... ansvarlig leverandørstyring og CSR. I artiklen konkluderes følgende: - at udviklingen i Corporate Social Responsibility indikerer, at etik er den mest betydende faktor (driver); (jf. afsnit 1)- at etik som primær driver vil betyde, at virksomheden vil gå ud over lovens minimumkrav, og stræbe efter de...

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liempd, Dennis van; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Abild-Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Målet med denne artikel er at klargøre, at der findes forskellige teoretiske tilgange til ansvarlig leverandørstyring og Corporate Social Responsibility (i det følgende kaldt CSR). Endvidere er det målet at belyse, at området er i kraftig udvikling og forventes at få øget betydning for revisor i...... ansvarlig leverandørstyring og CSR. I artiklen konkluderes følgende: - at udviklingen i Corporate Social Responsibility indikerer, at etik er den mest betydende faktor (driver); (jf. afsnit 1)- at etik som primær driver vil betyde, at virksomheden vil gå ud over lovens minimumkrav, og stræbe efter de...

  16. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  17. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  18. Japan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Japan has a universal public pension system. Social security spending is a key fiscal policy challenge in Japan. The 2004 pension reforms have increased the ratio of the government subsidy to the basic pension benefit. Three reform measures are necessary to improve pension finances: an increase in pension eligibility age, a reduction in the pension benefit, and an increase in contributions. Eliminating the preferential tax treatments of pension income and collecting pension contributions from...

  19. US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Final] report, June 1991--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-16

    The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

  20. Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality.

  1. Corporate creativity and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Camilla; Dahlby, Tove

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses organizational culture and focus on corporate creativity and innovation. The aim is to see which organizational factors that foster creativity and innovation in organizations. The essay will provide answer on how organizational culture can encourage creativity and innovation and how organizations can promote the rise of a creative work environment. The research design of this essay is a qualitative case study with interviews at Gotland Energi AB (GEAB). The interviews pro...

  2. Corporate Governance Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gnecchi, Flavio

    2006-01-01

    The recognised critical importance of corporate governance, and the attention that it is paid today, can be ascribed to several factors: sensational financial scandals (and the repercussions they have had for securities and financial markets), the exponential development of stock option policies, the information asymmetry that can be noted in practically every company, The different requests for information of the various categories of stakeholders, combine to strengthen the decision to adopt...

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Priesterová, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this Diploma thesis is to find out, on the basis of research, how the companies from Czech and Slovak Republic perceive and apply in praxis the concept of corporate social responsibility. The work consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is included in the first three chapters. The first chapter defines the term CSR and illustrates the historical development of social responsibility. The second chapter presents various theories and approaches in the ar...

  4. Corporate Foresight at Cisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Bøe-Lillegraven, Siri

    Cisco Systems traditional innovation model is challenged. It is no longer possible to simply scout for promising start-ups, integrate them and grow them globally to succeed. This case describes the challenge faced by Cisco to create a comprehensive and systematic strategic foresight system...... that shall be tied into technology strategy and corporate business development. The case elaborates on the process and the best practices in the introduction of the Cisco Technology Radar approach....

  5. Improvement of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kenta, E-mail: murakami@tokai.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo, E-mail: iwai@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, Yamagata-shi 990-9585 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto, E-mail: sekimura@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the modification of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo (HIT). The HIT facility was severely damaged during the 2011 earthquake, which occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. A damaged 1.0 MV tandem Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was replaced with a 1.7 MV accelerator, which was formerly used in another campus of the university. A decision was made to maintain dual-beam irradiation capability by repairing the 3.75 MV single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator and reconstructing the related beamlines. A new beamline was connected with a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) to perform in-situ TEM observation under ion irradiation.

  6. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  7. Analisis Kinerja Kontrak Berjangka Komoditi pada Tokyo Grain Exchange – Jepang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy G. Soemapradja

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Futures contract is one of derivative instruments in which its value depends on underlying asset’s price fluctuation in the future. At the beginning, the futures contracts were traded with hedging motive, but now they are traded with speculative motive also. As an agricultural nation, finally, Indonesia has a commodity futures exchange (BBJ by the end of 2000. Low volume of transactions and less futures alternative on BBJ made Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE as the object of this research. The statistical test concluded: The average rate of return of futures portfolio model is greater than average of forex trading of USD, and the risk of futures portfolio model is greater than forex trading of USD.

  8. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  9. Tokyo et les campagnes: la progression de la banlieue à Toride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Desbois

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace périurbain japonais se distingue de ce que l'on observe en Europe ou aux États-Unis. La ville progresse en conservant dans son tissu même des éléments agro-ruraux. Nous utilisons ici un SIG réalisé pour deux quartiers de la commune de Toride, située dans la lointaine banlieue de Tokyo ; il permet de quantifier l'extension urbaine et de mieux en saisir le rythme depuis 1945. Il permet aussi de mettre en évidence le paysage très bigarré et, à certains égards, désordonné des grandes banlieues japonaises contemporaines.

  10. Built heritage vulnerability: synergies between the Universities of Naples and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fujita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of natural disasters and their extraordinary impact on built heritage are the foundations of a research synergy started since 2008, between the Recovery and Maintenance Laboratory, University of Naples Federico II, and the Matsumura and Fujita Laboratory, Tokyo University. Broadening the idea of vulnerability to the relationship between buildings and environment, several Unesco sites are assumed as case studies. The scientific synergy flows into the promotion of a learning network among the actors of local management processes, rethinking procedures and priorities for mitigating the vulnerability of settlements. The originality of the outcomes can be traced in creating a dedicated community, able to acquire competence by doing. The learning network brings into play an active approach towards site's management, rethinking the dynamics of interaction between people and places, through the recovery of  local sedimented cultures.

  11. Isolation and identification of arabinose mycolates of Cell Wall Skeleton (CWS) derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Yuko; Kusunose, Naoto; Yano, Ikuya; Sunagawa, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    A unique hydrolysis method using a two-layer solution, consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and toluene was developed to isolate whole arabinose mycolates from the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) in order to reveal its pivotal role in enhancing immune responses against tumors.

  12. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro [Department of Life Environment Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kotaro [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4-5-7, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige, E-mail: shige@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems. Highlights: ► PBDEs were less biomagnified than PCBs in low-trophic-level organisms in Tokyo Bay. ► Depletion of PBDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. ► BDE99 and 153 were debrominated in in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of fish. ► BDE47, 100, and 154 as well as PCB congeners were not transformed in vitro. ► Both in vitro and field results suggested selective meta-protonation of PBDEs.

  13. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  14. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ishii

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  15. JPRS Report; Science & Technology Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    be fully used at a temperature exceeding 1,350°C. References 1. Kazumori Kishi, Masaki Umebayashi, Eiji Tani, and Kazuo Kobayashi, Journal of...Recently, the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Prof. Yoshikawa , et al, has successfully developed a new polishing technique for diamond thin films. The

  16. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters.

  17. Essays on banking, corporate bankruptcy, and corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    von Schedvin, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters that empirical explore issues related to bank credit supply, corporate bankruptcy risk, and firms’ leverage decisions. The first chapter explores the role of contractual externalities in loan contracts. The second chapter evaluates the extent trade credit chains between corporate firms lead to propagation of corporate failures. The third chapter explores non-linear relationships between firm failure and leverage, earnings, and liquidity. The final chapter...

  18. Are Corporate Carbon Management Practices Reducing Corporate Carbon Emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Doda, B; Gennaoli, C; Gouldson, A; Grover, D.; Sullivan, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first large scale, quantitative study of the impact of corporate carbon management practices on corporate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Using data for 2009 and 2010 from the Carbon Disclosure Project survey, we find little compelling evidence that commonly adopted management practices are reducing emissions. This finding is unexpected and we propose three possible explanations for it. First, it may be because corporate carbon data and management practice information have n...

  19. Corporate Reputation and Corporate Social Responsibility : CSR for Higher Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    北見, 幸一

    2008-01-01

    There is an increased recognition of importance of corporate reputation and corporate social responsibility. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between corporate reputation and CSR. In this study, the high reputation companies and the low reputation companies were picked up. According to this research, the high reputation companies sent more information about CSR to stake holders, and CSR communication was more positively done than the low reputation companies.

  20. Japan's Higher Education Incorporation Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Three Stages of National University Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    A number of countries with public higher education systems have implemented privatisation policies. In Japan, the national government introduced the National University Corporation Act (NUCA) in 2004 and changed the legal status of national universities from that of government-owned public institutions to independent administrative agencies. Its…

  1. Water Stewardship and Corporate Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; David HILLIER

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which some of the world’s leading companies are publicly addressing water stewardship as part of their corporate sustainability strategies. The paper begins with an outline of the growing importance of corporate sustainability and water stewardship. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on sustainability posted on the top twelve ‘Consumer Superbrands’ corporate websites. The findings r...

  2. Measuring instruments of corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Grgić

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this paper is focused on the instruments for the measurement of corporate reputation. Recent research of the elements which influence the success of a company shows a growing interest in intangible values. Corporate reputation itself has been identified as one of the key intangible assets which create the company’s added value. Understanding of the importance of corporate reputation has been determined as a significant component of the company’s competitiveness, that is, of its...

  3. The Institutions of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    In this review piece, I outline the institutions of corporate governance decision-making in the large public firm in the wealthy West. By corporate governance, I mean the relationships at the top of the firm - the board of directors, the senior managers, and the stockholders. By institutions I mean those repeated mechanisms that allocate authority among the three and that affect, modulate, and control the decisions made at the top of the firm. Core corporate governance institutions respon...

  4. THE SOUND OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU LUMINITA MIHAELA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the corporate governance and corporate social responsibility in music industry, by reviewing the literature and investigating the aspects in the context of a sample made by top companies in this domain. The paper spotlighting the mutual connections between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility. The research methodology used consists in investigate the corporate governance codes. It’s about a qualitative interpretive research methodology that was adopted. The findings suggest the intercorelation of corporate governance with corporate social responsibility. The main contribution of the author consists in the fact that the added value of this paper and the original contribution leads in the intercorelation of these two aspects of corporate governance and corporate social responsibility, the findings beeing interesting, implying that recent preoccupation with corporate governance in music industry is starting to be equable by some attention to social responsibility aspects, with growing appreciation of their interdependencies. Previous literature has researched corporate governance and corporate social responsibility independently. Due to this fact, this paper is considering them jointly. The paper is important for both practical and theoretical aspects: for managers and also can serve as the basis for future research on this topic. The current paper is realized in the doctoral program entitled “PhD in Economics at the Standards of European Knowledge- DoEsEc”, scientific coordinator Prof. PhD Niculae Feleaga, Institution: The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of Accounting and Management Informatic System, Department of International Accounting, period of research 2009-2012.

  5. Strategic Leadership of Corporate Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2014-01-01

    ? What effects do corporate sustainability TMT positions have at their organizations? We consider these questions through strategic leadership and neoinstitutional theoretical frameworks. Through the latter, we also engage with Weberian considerations of bureaucracy. We find that the reasons why......Strategic leadership and corporate sustainability have recently come together in conspicuously explicit fashion through the emergence of top management team (TMT) positions with dedicated corporate sustainability responsibilities. These TMT positions, commonly referred to as 'Chief Sustainability...

  6. Trends in Corporate Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Milosteanu; Ionel Scaunasu; Alina Cornescu; Nicolae Popovic

    2011-01-01

    When business strategy is correlated with corporate communication strategy, this is reflected in the position and image of the organization on the market, leading to higher sales and increased profitability. The major changes caused by globalization, coupled with the new dynamic of the markets where consumers have access to more information in less time, require new forms of corporate communication. The new corporate communication concept involves major challenges for managers and can help de...

  7. Trends in Corporate Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Milosteanu; Ionel Scaunasu; Alina Cornescu; Nicolae Popovic

    2011-01-01

    When business strategy is correlated with corporate communication strategy, this is reflected in the position and image of the organization on the market, leading to higher sales and increased profitability. The major changes caused by globalization, coupled with the new dynamic of the markets where consumers have access to more information in less time, require new forms of corporate communication. The new corporate communication concept involves major challenges for managers and can help de...

  8. Corporate social responsibility in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakova, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the article are considered essence of corporate social responsibility and terms necessary for realization of social activity management subjects. Hikes over are brought to realization of corporate social responsibility, meaningfulness of large and middle business is certain in becoming of social responsibility of enterprises. It is set that exactly midsize business must come forward as a main motor of economic development of Ukraine. Becoming features and modern state of corporate social r...

  9. State ownership and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Pargendler, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    State ownership of publicly-traded corporations remains pervasive around the world, and has been increasing in recent years. Existing literature focuses on the implications of government ownership for corporate governance and performance at the firm level. This Article, by contrast, explores the different but equally important question of whether the presence of the state as a shareholder can impose negative externalities on the corporate law regime available to the private sec...

  10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Darwis

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to provide empirical evidence that corporate governance implementation,managerial ownership, institutional ownership, board of executive, and independent executiveaffected corporate performance. Population of the research was companies listed at IndonesianStock Exchange (ISX) between 2006 – 2008; sampling method used was purposive sampling as well asmultiple regression analysis. The result showed the implementation of GCG affected corporate performance.This meant that if th...

  11. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ONG, Wei Jiin

    2006-01-01

    This research provides evidence on corporate governance disclosure in Malaysia based on a sample of 25 Malaysian public listed companies on the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) in the year 1998 and 2005 that are listed on the Bursa Malaysia. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether after the launch of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (HLFC, 2000) following the 1997/98 financial crisis, corporate governance in Malaysia has improved in terms of disclosure information ...

  12. Inter-Corporeity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algis Mickūnas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The essay explicates the phenomenological problematic of intersubjectivity on the level of bodily interaction with the world and with others. On this level, the concept of visibility is transformed in terms of the primacy of bodily “I can” and the kinaesthetic awareness that pervades all perceptual fields. In addition, the investigations into kinaesthetic awareness lead to the understanding that one’s own bodily action is extended as well as varied by the kinaesthetic activities of others and thus form an inter-corporeal field wherein visibility is located. Such an extended awareness is the bodily counterpart of transcendental domain. 

  13. To Change Corporate Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雁

    2007-01-01

    1. Analysis of Culture and Managing change 1.1 The Two Varies of Models 1.1.1 Five-step model According to ’five-step model’, the progress of change could be divided into five stages. Firstly, manager needs to think why a culture change is necessary. Possibly due to the signals from the environment in which the company locate in, managers find the operating principles or routines are not in line with the change of the market. These elements have threatened the corporation. On this occasion, managers could start to analyze what kind of culture the organization possesses.

  14. Impact of inpatient caseload, emergency department duties, and online learning resource on General Medicine In-Training Examination scores in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kensuke Kinoshita,1 Yusuke Tsugawa,2 Taro Shimizu,3 Yusuke Tanoue,4 Ryota Konishi,5 Yuji Nishizaki,6 Toshiaki Shiojiri,7 Yasuharu Tokuda8 1Department of Medicine, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, University of Tsukuba, Mito City, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Tokyo Joto Hospital, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 4Good Medicine Japan, Miyagi, 5Department of General Internal Medicine, Kanto Rosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 6Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, 7Department of General Internal Medicine, Asahi General Hospital, Asahi, Chiba, 8Japan Community Healthcare Organization, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Both clinical workload and access to learning resource are important components of educational environment and may have effects on clinical knowledge of residents. Methods: We conducted a survey with a clinical knowledge evaluation involving postgraduate year (PGY-1 and -2 resident physicians at teaching hospitals offering 2-year postgraduate training programs required for residents in Japan, using the General Medicine In-Training Examination (GM-ITE. An individual-level analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the number of assigned patients and emergency department (ED duty on the residents' GM-ITE scores by fitting a multivariable generalized estimating equations. In hospital-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between for the number of UpToDate reviews for each hospital and for the hospitals' mean GM-ITE score. Results: A total of 431 PGY-1 and 618 PGY-2 residents participated. Residents with four or five times per month of the ED duties exhibited the highest mean scores compared to those with greater or fewer ED duties. Those with largest number of inpatients in charge exhibited the highest mean scores compared to the residents with fewer inpatients in charge. Hospitals with the greater Up

  15. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder in Japan: results of an Internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Koichiro Watanabe,1 Eiji Harada,2 Takeshi Inoue,3 Yuka Tanji,2 Toshiaki Kikuchi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Medical Science, Medicines Development Unit-Japan, Eli Lilly Japan KK, Hyogo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a recurrent and episodic illness. This survey study assessed experiences and identified clinical insights of individuals with bipolar disorder. An Internet-based monitor system database was screened for patients with bipolar disorder in Japan (February and March 2013. Of 1,050 patients, 457 completed surveys, and results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Approximately one-fourth of respondents were diagnosed with bipolar disorder on their first visit to medical institutions, although the most common initial diagnosis was depression/depressive state (65%. Mean time lag between first-time visit to a medical institution and receipt of correct diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 4 years; one-third of patients experienced more than 5 years of lag time. Three perceived reasons for lapsed time before correct diagnosis were “(patients Did not consider manic symptoms as illness, and did not tell the doctor about them,” “I (patient did not know of bipolar disorder,” and “Lack of communication between my doctor and myself (patient.” Among participants who believed that they were initially incorrectly diagnosed and improperly treated, most experienced socioeconomic problems, such as having long-term inability to work or to study (65%. Sources of encouragement for participants included “To have someone to consult with” (41% followed by having “People around me treat me the same as before” (40%. Individuals with bipolar disorder reported a time lag of many years before accurate diagnosis, and substantial burden imposed by the illness. Encouragement should be provided for individuals to live positively

  16. Peculiarities of Corporate Governance Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vladimirovna Prokhorova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the quality and identification of priorities of institutional investors in corporate governance in Russia. The authors conclude that the main task of the corporate governance system is to create favorable conditions for broad attraction of foreign investments in Russian companies and to increase the role of shareholders in strategic management. At present, the companies from developed countries achieve higher economic performance through the introduction of modern methods of corporate governance. The adoption of the new Code of Corporate Governance in the Russian Federation in 2014 will create an opportunity to improve the efficiency of Russian companies and to conduct their activities in accordance with international standards through the introduction of modern corporate governance practices, including ensuring transparency of activities for investors. At the same time, despite significant improvements in corporate governance practices of Russian companies, the level of its quality in comparison with foreign countries remains low. The article highlights both positive and negative trends in the Russian practice of corporate governance. One of the effective corporate governance methods is to ensure feedback between Russian companies and institutional investors. The article presents the results of a survey of opinions of investors that allow to identify the main factors of corporate governance that motivate them to take investment decisions on the Russian market.

  17. Corporate Accounting Policy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena K. Vorobei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issues of efficient use of different methods of tax accounting for the optimization of income tax expenses and their consolidation in corporate accounting policy. The article makes reasoned conclusions, concerning optimal selection of depreciation methods for tax and bookkeeping accounting and their consolidation in corporate accounting policy and consolidation of optimal methods of cost recovery in production, considering business environment. The impact of the selected methods on corporate income tax rates and corporate property tax rates was traced and tax recovery was estimated.

  18. Peculiarities of Corporate Governance Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victoria Vladimirovna Prokhorova

    2016-01-01

    ... of shareholders in strategic management. At present, the companies from developed countries achieve higher economic performance through the introduction of modern methods of corporate governance...

  19. Creditor Governance and Corporate Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiations on corporate policies. We develop a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment disciplines equity holders in their financing...... and investment decisions and, hence, mitigates the agency cost of debt. Our model explains the empirical intensity and patterns of the occurrence of debt renegotiation. We also quantify the role of debt covenant renegotiations as a governance channel on corporate financial policies and on the value of corporate...

  20. FMA Roundtable on New Developments in European Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elson, Charles; Berglund, Tom; Rapp, Marc Steffen

    2017-01-01

    -based system, with its dispersed share ownership, lots of takeovers, and an otherwise vigorous market for corporate control; and the relationship-based, or “main bank,” system associated with Japan, Germany, and continental Europe generally. The distinguishing features of the relationship-based system...... are large controlling shareholders, including the main banks themselves, and few takeovers or other signs of a well-functioning corporate control market. Given the steady increase in the globalization of business and international diversification by large institutional investors, the panelists were asked...... have already begun to look much like those in the U.S. and U.K., with much less reliance on bank loans and greater use of bonds and public equity. And these financing changes have resulted in major changes in ownership structures that have seen local main banks largely supplanted by foreign...