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Sample records for corpora lutea number

  1. Receptors for gonadotrophin and prostaglandin F2 alpha in bovine corpora lutea of early, mid and late luteal phase.

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    Rao, C V; Estergreen, V L; Carman, F R; Moss, G E

    1979-07-01

    A total of 15 corpora lutea representing early (day 3), mid (day 13) and late luteal phase (day 20 and 21-24) were obtained by ovariectomy on cycling cows. The luteal weights and peripheral plasma progesterone levels just prior to ovariectomy, were consistent with the above luteal phases. The specific binding of [125I]human chorionic gonadotrophin to membranes prepared from corpora lutea was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) for days 13 and 20 than for days 3 and 21-24. The binding in day 21-24 corpora lutea was higher (P less than 0.01) than day 3. Although there was no different either in number or affinity (apparent dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.04 nM) of gonadotrophin receptors in days 13 and 20 corpora lutea, only in the former did the binding correlate well with plasma progesterone levels. The specific binding of [3H]prostaglanding (PG)F2 alpha to the membranes of the same corpora lutea showed a progressive increase (P less than 0.01) from day 3, reached the highest value at a time when corpora lutea were actively regressing (day 20) and the decline (P less than 0.01) by day 21-24. Although a considerable number of PGF2 alpha receptors existed at day 13, the affinity of these same receptors was 203 times lower (Kd = 3458 nM) than the affinity of receptors in day 20 corpora lutea (Kd = 17 nM). In summary, the above results show that gonadotrophin receptors correlate with luteotrophic, whereas PGF2 alpha receptors correlate with luteolytic phases in bovine corpora lutea.

  2. Studies of some correlations of ovaries with corpora lutea and fetal development in female Nelore cows

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    Renata Barbieri Trevisan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the right and left ovaries of 30 pregnant Nelore cows. The reproductive tracts were collected at slaughterhouses in the western region of the state of São Paulo, and the study was conducted at the Laboratório de Anatomia Animal at UNESP (in Araçatuba. The size (occipitosacral length, height and weight of the fetuses were analyzed. The length, width and thickness (using calipers of the ovaries and corpora lutea, and weight and volume of the gonads were also measured. The data related to the ovaries and corpora lutea were correlated with fetal development, using a SAS program to analyze the Pearson correlation coefficient, and adjusted using a simple linear regression model. There was a significant correlation between the right ovary variables and fetal development; positive for width and negative for thickness. For the corpora lutea and fetal development, there was a significant negative correlation with the volume.

  3. ULTRASONIC MONITORING OF FOLLICLES AND CORPORA LUTEA DURING SYNCHRONIZATION IN SUMMER ANOESTROUS NILI RAVI BUFFALOES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT SUPEROVULATORY RESPONSE

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    M. Irfan-ur-Rehman Khan, M. A. Rana and N. Ahmad

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, effect of GnRH and PGF2α given intramuscularly, 9 days apart, was observed on induction of ovulation and synchronization of oestrus in anoestrous buffaloes during summer (n=2. Ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were monitored on every other day basis, using B-mode real time, transrectal ultrasonography. Oestrus detection was carried out twice daily. The diameter of the largest follicle on the day of administration of GnRH averaged 9 ± 0 mm. These follicles ovulated within 48 h after injection of GnRH. Interval to oestrus after injection of PGF2α was 63 ± 11 h. In the second experiment, effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-p on follicular development in buffaloes during summer (n=2 was observed. FSH-p (total of 40 mg was administered intramuscularly in divided doses, twice daily on Days 10, 11, 12 and 13. PGF2α (2 ml was injected on Day 13. Ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were monitored on daily basis using real time, transrectal ultrasonography. Oestrus detection was carried out twice daily. Superovulatory response was measured and analyzed by comparing follicular development on Day 10, i. e. beginning of FSH-p treatment, (before and on Day of next oestrus (after. Superovulatory response was confirmed by determining number of corpora lutea on Day 7 after oestrus. Interval to oestrus after injection of PGF2α was 37 ± 10 h. Mean number of small follicles decreased (P<0.05 ‘after’ FSH-p treatment than ‘before’. Mean number of medium and large follicles and corpora lutea increased (P<0.05 ‘after’ FSH-p treatment than ‘before’. It is concluded that protocol of GnRH-PGF2α can induce ovulation and oestrus in buffaloes and reasonable superovulatory response to FSH-p can be achieved during summer when given during mid luteal phase.

  4. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

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    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S

    2009-01-01

    gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin...... alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan were present in the follicular basal lamina of all developmental stages. Collagen type XVIII was only found in basal lamina of primordial, primary and some preantral follicles, whereas laminin alpha2 was only detected in some preantral...... and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal...

  5. Inhibin mRNA in Human Corpora Lutea during the Menstrual Cycle

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    孙志达; 沈卫雄; 王寒正; 任佩锋; 张永莲; 龚岳亭

    1994-01-01

    The steady state of mRNAs for the α-and βA-subunits of inhibin was investigated in human corpora lutea(CL) during the menstrual cycle by Northern blot analysis with more sensitive cRNA probes. It revealed α 1.6kb mRNA for a subunit and 6.0,4.0, 2.8 and 1.8kb transcripts for βA subunit, Both of α-and βA inhibin mRNAs were detectable in CLs during early, mid and late luteal phases, but not in retrogressive CL after day-27 of the cycle or in tissues of ovarian stroma. An overall profile of the

  6. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

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    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  7. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

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    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-08-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and (D-Ala6,Des-Gly10)GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or (3H)inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism.

  8. Differential morphological effects in rat corpora lutea among ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, atrazine, and bromocriptine.

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    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Yamate, Jyoji; Yoshida, Midori

    2013-07-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) or atrazine induces luteal cell hypertrophy in rats. Our previous study suggested that EGME stimulates both new and old corpora lutea (CL), while atrazine stimulates new CL. Bromocriptine (BRC) is known to suppress the luteolysis in rats. This study investigated the light- and electron-microscopic luteal changes induced by EGME, atrazine, or BRC. Female rats were treated with EGME (300 mg/kg/day), BRC (2 mg/kg/day), EGME and BRC (EGME + BRC), or atrazine (300 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Luteal cell hypertrophy induced by EGME, EGME + BRC, and atrazine was subclassified into the following two types: CL hypertrophy, vacuolated type (CL-V) characterized by intracytoplasmic fine vacuoles, and CL hypertrophy, eosinophilic type (CL-E) characterized by eosinophilic and abundant cytoplasm. The proportions of CL-V and CL-E were different among the treatments. BRC-treated old CL showed lower proportion of endothelial cells and fibroblasts than normal old CL. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the luteal cells of CL-V contained abundant lipid droplets, whereas those of CL-E in EGME and EGME + BRC groups showed uniformly well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. No clear ultrastructural difference was observed between the control CL and atrazine-treated CL-E. These results indicate that EGME, atrazine, and BRC have differential luteal morphological effects.

  9. Level set segmentation of bovine corpora lutea in ex situ ovarian ultrasound images

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    Adams Gregg P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the viability of level set image segmentation methods for the detection of corpora lutea (corpus luteum, CL boundaries in ultrasonographic ovarian images. It was hypothesized that bovine CL boundaries could be located within 1–2 mm by a level set image segmentation methodology. Methods Level set methods embed a 2D contour in a 3D surface and evolve that surface over time according to an image-dependent speed function. A speed function suitable for segmentation of CL's in ovarian ultrasound images was developed. An initial contour was manually placed and contour evolution was allowed to proceed until the rate of change of the area was sufficiently small. The method was tested on ovarian ultrasonographic images (n = 8 obtained ex situ. A expert in ovarian ultrasound interpretation delineated CL boundaries manually to serve as a "ground truth". Accuracy of the level set segmentation algorithm was determined by comparing semi-automatically determined contours with ground truth contours using the mean absolute difference (MAD, root mean squared difference (RMSD, Hausdorff distance (HD, sensitivity, and specificity metrics. Results and discussion The mean MAD was 0.87 mm (sigma = 0.36 mm, RMSD was 1.1 mm (sigma = 0.47 mm, and HD was 3.4 mm (sigma = 2.0 mm indicating that, on average, boundaries were accurate within 1–2 mm, however, deviations in excess of 3 mm from the ground truth were observed indicating under- or over-expansion of the contour. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 0.814 (sigma = 0.171 and 0.990 (sigma = 0.00786, respectively, indicating that CLs were consistently undersegmented but rarely did the contour interior include pixels that were judged by the human expert not to be part of the CL. It was observed that in localities where gradient magnitudes within the CL were strong due to high contrast speckle, contour expansion stopped too early. Conclusion The

  10. Characterization of gonadotropin binding sites in the intracellular organelles of bovine corpora lutea and comparison with plasma membrane sites.

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    Rao, C V; Mitra, S; Carman, F R

    1981-03-25

    The specific binding of 125I-human choriogonadotropin (hCG) to plasma membranes, nuclear membranes, lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, heavy golgi, and medium and light golgi of bovine corpora lutea was dependent on the amount of protein, 125I-hCG concentration and incubation time. The bound hormone in all the organelles was able to rebind to fresh corresponding organelles. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogenous population of gonadotropin binding sites in plasma membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum, heavy golgi, and medium and light golgi, whose binding affinities (Kd = 8.6-11.0 X 10(-11) M) were similar but whose number of available gonadotropin binding sites varied. Scatchard analyses of nuclear membranes and lysosome binding, on the other hand, were heterogenous (Nuclear membranes, 11 and 23 X 10(-11) M lysosomes, 3.4 and 130 X 10(-11) M). The rate constants for association (5.9 to 12.1 X 10(6) M-1 S-1) and dissociation (7.4 to 9.0 X 10(-4) S-1) were similar among different subcellular organelles except for nuclear membranes and lysosomes, where rate constants for association were significantly lower. The ligand binding specificity, lower effectiveness of human luteinizing hormone as compared to hCG in competition, the optimal pH, the lack of ionic requirements for binding, and the molecular size of 125I-hCG-gonadotropin binding site complexes solubilized from various intracellular organelles were similar to those observed for plasma membranes. Numerous differences were also observed between intracellular organelles and plasma membranes as well as among intracellular organelles themselves with respect to binding losses due to exposure to low and high pH values, di- and monovalent cations, increasing preincubation temperatures, and a variety of enzymes and protein reagents. The possible reasons for these similarities as well as differences observed are discussed. The differences are viewed as an additional indication that contamination cannot solely

  11. Demonstration of luteotrophic responses of human recombinant gamma interferon in porcine corpora lutea using an in-vivo microdialysis system.

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    Prakash, B S; Pedina, J; Steiner, A; Wuttke, W

    1997-01-01

    Conceptuses from several mammalian species prior to implantation secrete proteins belonging to the family of interferons. The main species of interferons known to be secreted by the pig blastocyst is interferon gamma (IFNgamma), the precise role of which is unclear. We decided to explore its effects on corpus luteum (CL) function using the novel microdialysis technique in vivo. Six cycling miniature pigs were monitored for estrus by daily plasma progesterone analysis and visual symptoms. On day nine of the cycle (day zero being the day of ovulation) the animals underwent surgery, and microdialysis tubing (vitafiber, Amicon U.S.A, cut off mol. wt. 1 million) were implanted in 17 corpora lutea. The inlets and outlets of all tubings were exteriorized and the entry and exit points of tubings in the CLs sealed with tissue glue. The afferent extension tubings were connected to a fraction collector and the system was continuously flushed with Ringer at a flow rate of 2.4 ml/h. After an initial flushout phase of 8 h, fractions were collected every half hour over 3 days. On days 10, 11 and 12 post estrus 12 CLs were stimulated for 4 h with 10(-7) M, 2 x 10(7) M and 4 x 10(-7) M human recombinant IFNgamma (Pharma Biotechnologie) respectively. Simultaneously, fractions were also collected from the remaining five unstimulated corpora lutea which served as controls. Progesterone concentrations in the dialysates were estimated by a sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA). A significant increase (P < 0.01) in progesterone release was observed in all 3 days following stimulation. The progesterone increase was more marked on the first day of stimulation (1 x 10[-7] M) with the hormone levels rising further even after the end of stimulation. The overall increase in progesterone concentration was 2-fold on day 10 in comparison to 15-30% on subsequent days even though IFN concentrations for stimulation were 2- and 4-fold higher. In the unstimulated CLs, a gradual decline (P < 0.01) in

  12. Factors affecting spontaneous reduction of corpora lutea and twin embryos during the late embryonic/early fetal period in multiple-ovulating dairy cows.

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    López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Hunter, R H F

    2010-02-01

    Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos has been described in high-producing, Holstein-Fresian (Bos taurus) dairy herds. The first objective of the current study was to determine whether management and cow factors could have an effect on such a reduction in twin pregnancies during the early fetal period. Because loss of a corpus luteum was noted in cows suffering twin reduction, we expanded our study to include multiple-ovulating cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy was diagnosed and confirmed from Days 28 to 34 and 56 to 62 postinsemination. Sixty-nine (23.5%) of 293 pregnant cows with two corpora lutea carrying singletons and 132 (28.4%) of 464 twin pregnancies recorded on first pregnancy diagnosis subsequently lost one of the corpora lutea or one of the embryos, respectively. Thirty-four (25.8%) of the 132 twin pregnancies suffering embryo reduction lost one corpus luteum along with the embryo. Corpus luteum reduction always occurred in the ovary ipsilateral to the gravid horn suffering embryo reduction. Binary logistic regressions were performed considering corpus luteum and embryo reduction as dependent variables in single and twin pregnancies, respectively, and several management- and cow-related factors as independent variables. In cows carrying singletons, the risk of corpus luteum reduction was 14.3 (1/0.07) times lower for a given herd, whereas the interaction season by laterality significantly affected corpus luteum reduction such that in cows with two corpora lutea ipsilateral to the horn of pregnancy, the risk of reduction decreased during the winter period. In cows carrying twins, ipsilateral twin pregnancies were 3.45 (1/0.29) times more likely to undergo the loss of one embryo than bilateral twin pregnancies. As an overall conclusion, both corpora lutea and embryos were vulnerable to the effects of stress factors during the early fetal period in cows maintaining their pregnancies. A strong unilateral relationship between the corpus luteum and

  13. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

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    Johanna Painer

    Full Text Available Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  14. Specific disruption of Tsc1 in ovarian granulosa cells promotes ovulation and causes progressive accumulation of corpora lutea.

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    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1 is a tumor suppressor negatively regulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. It is reported that mice lacking Tsc1 gene in oocytes show depletion of primordial follicles, resulting in premature ovarian failure and subsequent infertility. A recent study indicated that deletion of Tsc1 in somatic cells of the reproductive tract caused infertility of female mice. However, it is not known whether specific disruption of Tsc1 in granulosa cells influences the reproductive activity of female mice. To clarify this problem, we mated Tsc1(flox/flox mice with transgenic mice strain expressing cyp19-cre which exclusively expresses in granulosa cells of the ovary. Our results demonstrated that Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant mice were fertile, ovulating more oocytes and giving birth to more pups than control Tsc1(flox/flox mice. Progressive accumulation of corpora lutea occurred in the Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant mice with advanced age. These phenotypes could be explained by the elevated activity of mTORC1, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of rpS6, a substrate of S6 in the Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant granulosa cells. In addition, rapamycin, a specific mTORC1 inhibitor, effectively rescued the phenotype caused by increased mTORC1 activity in the Tsc1(cko ovaries. Our data suggest that conditional knockout of Tsc1 in granulosa cells promotes reproductive activity in mice.

  15. The luteotrophic effect of homoplastic pituitary pars distalis homogenate, PMSG, and HCG on the corpora lutea of the hypophysectomized frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (SCHN).

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    Pancharatna, M; Saidapur, S K

    1984-03-01

    The effect of homoplastic pituitary pars distalis homogenate (PDH), PMSG, and HCG on the postovulatory follicles/corpora lutea (CL) of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis was studied to elucidate the factors regulating the life span of the luteal cells. Ovulation and spawning was induced in hypophysectomized frogs using PDH. Starting from Day 1 of spawning 1/2 PDH, 50 IU PMSG, or 50 IU HCG was injected daily for 3 days. In the saline-injected control frogs, the granulosa lutein cells regressed markedly on Day 2 with a steady progressive increase in the pycnosis of their nuclei. The sudanophilic lipid droplets of the luteal cells were fine on Day 1 but became coarser and reduced in number on subsequent days. Histochemically, the luteal cell 3 beta-HSDH and G-6-PDH also decreased drastically by Day 2. In PDH-treated frogs the granulosa lutein cells were healthy on all 4 days of the experiment. The nuclear diameter of the luteal cells increased progressively due to PDH. The pycnosis of the luteal cells was limited to 7.6% on Day 4 due to PDH as opposed to 68% seen in the controls. Histochemically, 3 beta-HSDH and G-6-PDH activities remained much higher than in the controls with abundant sudanophilic lipids (both fine and coarse) in the luteal cells of PDH treated frogs even on Day 4. PMSG treatment also maintained the granulosa lutein cells beyond their normal life span but the luteotrophic effect was less than that of PDH. HCG was least effective. The present studies suggest that the structural integrity of CL in the frog can be extended beyond the normal life span by injecting PDH or PMSG.

  16. Evidence for a dopamine intrinsic direct role in the regulation of the ovary reproductive function: in vitro study on rabbit corpora lutea.

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    Parillo, Francesco; Maranesi, Margherita; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Marinelli, Lisa; Di Stefano, Antonio; Boiti, Cristiano; Zerani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptor (DR) type 1 (D1R) has been found to be expressed in luteal cells of various species, but the intrinsic role of the DA/DRs system on corpora lutea (CL) function is still unclear. Experiments were devised to characterize the expression of DR types and the presence of DA, as well as the in vitro effects of DA on hormone productions by CL in pseudopregnant rabbits. Immunoreactivity and gene expression for D1R decreased while that for D3R increased in luteal and blood vessel cells from early to late pseudopregnant stages. DA immunopositivity was evidenced only in luteal cells. The DA and D1R agonist increased in vitro release of progesterone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by early CL, whereas the DA and D3R agonist decreased progesterone and increased PGF2α in vitro release by mid- and late CL. These results provide evidence that the DA/DR system exerts a dual modulatory function in the lifespan of CL: the DA/D1R is luteotropic while the DA/D3R is luteolytic. The present data shed new light on the physiological mechanisms regulating luteal activity that might improve our ability to optimize reproductive efficiency in mammal species, including humans.

  17. Expression and regulation of mRNAs for insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and LH receptor in corpora lutea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Relationship between insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA expression as well as their regulation was determined in rat corpora lutea (CL) . In the CL of estrous cycle rat, LHR mRNA positive CL expressed high level of mRNA of IGF-IR. While the expression of LHR mRNA decreased on estrus, the CL still expressed relatively high level of IGF-IR mRNA. In pseudopregnant rat CL, the expression level of LHR mRNA was low on day 1, the most intense signals were detected on day 8, the signals of LHR mRNA became undetectable on day 14. In contrast to LHR expression, the high level of IGF-IR mRNA was observed in pseudopregnant CL of day 1, and thereafter its signals were detected from day 2 to day 14. Pregnant rat CL expressed both LHR and IGF-IR mRNAs. IGF-I stimulated LHR expression in CL. PGF2 inhibited expression of IGF-IR and LHR. PGE2 negated the inhibiting effects of PGF2. These data suggest that IGF-I may be involved in regulating CL function, and maintaining CL structure through changes in expression of its receptors. Inhibited expression of IGF-IR by PGF2 may be part of mechanisms for regression of CL.

  18. Expression and regulation of mRNAs for insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and LH receptor in corpora lutea

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    罗文祥; 祝诚

    2000-01-01

    Relationship between insulin-like growth factor-l receptor (IGF-IR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA expression as well as their regulation was determined in rat corpora lutea (CL) . In the CL of estrous cycle rat, LHR mRNA positive CL expressed high level of mRNA of IGF-IR. While the expression of LHR mRNA decreased on estrus, the CL still expressed relatively high level of IGF-IR mRNA. In pseudopregnant rat CL, the expression level of LHR mRNA was low on day 1, the most intense signals were detected on day 8, the signals of LHR mRNA became undetectable on day 14. In contrast to LHR expression, the high level of IGF-IR mRNA was observed in pseudopregnant CL of day 1, and thereafter its signals were detected from day 2 to day 14. Pregnant rat CL expressed both LHR and IGF-IR mRNAs. IGF-I stimulated LHR expression in CL. PGF2ainhibited expression of IGF-IR and LHR. PGE2 negated the inhibiting effects of PGF2α. These data suggest that IGF-I may be involved in regulating CL function, and maintai

  19. Differential stimulation pathways of progesterone secretion from newly formed corpora lutea in rats treated with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, sulpiride, or atrazine.

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    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Yoshida, Midori; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Sakamoto, Yohei; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yamate, Jyoji; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), sulpiride, and atrazine are known ovarian toxicants, which increase progesterone (P4) secretion and induce luteal cell hypertrophy following repeated administration. The aim of this study was to define the pathways by which these compounds exerted their effects on the ovary and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In the ovary, changes in the steroidogenic activity of new and old corpora lutea (CL) were addressed. EGME (300 mg/kg), sulpiride (100 mg/kg), or atrazine (300 mg/kg) were orally given daily for four times from proestrus to diestrus in normal cycling rats. Treatment with all chemicals significantly increased serum P4 levels, and EGME as well as sulpiride induced increases in prolactin (PRL) levels. In new CL, at both the gene and the protein levels, all three chemicals upregulated the following steroidogenic factors: scavenger receptor class B type I, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and downregulated the luteolytic gene, 20α-HSD. Coadministration of EGME and bromocriptine, a D2 agonist, completely inhibited PRL but not P4 secretion. Additionally, steroidogenic factor expression levels were upregulated, and 20α-HSD level was downregulated in new CL. These results suggest that EGME both directly and indirectly stimulates P4 production in luteal cells, whereas sulpiride elevates P4 through activation of PRL secretion in the pituitary. Atrazine may directly activate new CL by stimulating steroidogenic factor expressions. The present study suggests that multiple pathways mediate the effects of EGME, sulpiride, and atrazine on the HPG axis and luteal P4 production in female rats in vivo.

  20. Role of interleukin-1β in the regulation of porcine corpora lutea during the late luteal phase of the cycle and during pregnancy.

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    Zmijewska, Agata; Franczak, Anita; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2012-09-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may regulate ovarian physiology. In this study, the influence of IL-1β on secretory activity within the corpora lutea (CL) of cyclic and gravid pigs was determined in vitro during different stages of the CL lifespan, e.g. on Days 10-11, 12-13 and 15-16 of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. IL-1β (10 ng/ml) increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion from CL of the cyclic and gravid pigs during studied days of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. Increase (P < 0.05) of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in IL-1β-treated CL was demonstrated only on Days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. More potent stimulatory effect of IL-1β on PGE2 than PGF2α secretion resulted in the enhancement of the PGE2:PGF2α ratio in cyclic and early pregnant CL. IL-1β increased (P < 0.05) progesterone (P4) secretion only in gravid CL and had no effect on oestradiol-17β (E2) release. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was stimulated (P < 0.05) in IL-1β-treated cyclic and gravid CL. Expression of prostaglandin synthase mRNAs in response to IL-1β did not increase. In conclusion, IL-1β modulates PGE2, PGF2α and P4 secretion from porcine CL, depending on luteal stage and the surrounding hormonal milieu. The cytokine may act locally in porcine CL for luteotrophic support throughout the PGE2-mediated synthesis and secretion.

  1. Accuracy of diagnosing double corpora lutea and twin pregnancy by measuring serum progesterone and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 in the first trimester of gestation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Zoltán; Répási, Attila; de Sousa, Noelita Melo; Beckers, Jean Francois; Szenci, Otto

    2015-07-01

    Progesterone (P4) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG-1) concentrations during gestation are dependent on the number of CL and fetuses, respectively. The objective of this present study was to measure and evaluate the usefulness of measuring the P4 and bPAG-1 concentrations in cases of single versus twin pregnancies and one versus two CL at the first 4 months of gestation. We hypothesized that both the number of the CL and the number of fetus might have an effect on P4 and pregnancy protein concentrations, and we can set up clinically useful threshold levels to predict twin gestations. Eighty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were enrolled in this prospective observational clinical trial. Blood was collected at time point 1: between Days 29 and 42, time point 2: between Days 57 and 70, time point 3: between Days 85 and 98, and time point 4: between Days 113 and 126 of gestation, and bPAG-1 and P4 concentrations were measured. Binary logistic regression analyzing serum P4 concentrations differed at time point 2 compared with baseline level, but the area under the curve (AUC) had low sensitivity. The bPAG-1 concentrations were statistically different at each time point of gestation. The AUC cutoff values of serum bPAG-1 concentrations were sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between twin gestations from singleton ones. At time points 3 (cutoff value of 3.4 ng/mL) and 4 (cutoff value of 56.5 ng/mL), statistically significant differences with low sensitivity, high specificity, and a high AUC were found. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of twin pregnancy using pregnancy protein measurements is clinically insufficient before Day 85 of gestation; however, the ability to confirm the early twin pregnancy diagnosis with bPAG-1 measurements appears to be promising. To achieve high sensitivity, further studies are required.

  2. Integrating corpora and dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    of written and spoken languages. Corpora are equally useful to sign language lexicographers, but sign language corpora have not become accessible until recent years. Nowadays corpora exist, or are being developed, for several sign languages, and we have the possibility of editing new, truly corpus-based sign...

  3. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  4. Estimating the Latent Number of Types in Growing Corpora with Reduced Cost-Accuracy Trade-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    The number of unique words in children's speech is one of most basic statistics indicating their language development. We may, however, face difficulties when trying to accurately evaluate the number of unique words in a child's growing corpus over time with a limited sample size. This study proposes a novel technique to estimate the latent number…

  5. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  6. Production of Coenzyme A by Sarcina lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Noriyuki; Shibatani, Takeji; Kakimoto, Toshio; Chibata, Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    To develop an efficient method for the production of coenzyme A (CoA), optimal conditions for its formation from pantothenic acid, cysteine, and adenine were studied. A number of microorganisms were screened for production of CoA. Strains belonging to the genera Sarcina, Bacillus, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, and Serratia accumulated CoA. Among these, Sarcina lutea was selected as the best organism, and the culture conditions for the production of CoA were investigated with this organism. Under optimal conditions, 600 μg of CoA per ml was accumulated in the culture broth. CoA was readily isolated in high purity by the use of charcoal, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Sephadex G-25, and Dowex-50. Yields of isolated CoA were over 33% from culture broth. PMID:4844273

  7. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  8. 不同黄体大小对供体超排和受体移植成功率的影响%Effect of Different Size of Corpora Iutea on the success ratio of Superorulation and Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 肖锐; 牛志宏; 张建军; 刘水涛; 张光伟; 张健

    2011-01-01

    本试验分析了291头14~15月龄荷斯坦青年母牛不同黄体大小对供体超排的效果.比较了924头受体母牛不同黄体大小对胚胎移植后妊娠率的影响.结果表明,埋栓前,黄体1.2cm组超排效果和有效胚胎数较高.黄体较小的组超排效果稍差一些.1.5cm以上黄体组的结果居中.受体母牛在移植胚胎时,0.8cm以上黄体的受体均获得了较高的妊娠率.但1.5cm以上黄体的受体妊娠率更高一些.由此结论提出:在超排前,黄体的大小与母牛体内孕酮浓度的高低和超排效果有关.受体在移植胚胎前,只要黄体的大小能保证最低妊娠所需的孕酮浓度,均能保证较好的妊娠率.黄体较大时,妊娠率有增加的趋势.%Two hundred and ninety-one Holstein heifers with 14-15 months age were superovulated and 924 received frozen embryos, in which heifers of donors and recipients had the different size of corpora lutea.The results showed that before CIDR inserion the heifers with 1.2 com of corpora lutea had a better superovulation response and higher transferable embryo yield.But the group below 1.0cm of corpora lutea had a poor superovulation response.And meanwhile an acceptable pregnancy rate of the recipients was obtained in heifers/cows with corpora lutea over 0.8cm.The recipients had a higher pregnancy rate with over 1.5 cm of corpora lutea.It can be conduded that the size of corpora lutea of donors was associated with superovulation response, progesterone concentrations and high embryo yield.Before the recipients receive embryos, an acceptable pregnancy rate would be obtained if the corpora lutea were over 0.8cm with a good progesterone concentration for maintaining pregnancy.Furthermore, the higher pregnancy rate had an increasing trend when the corpora lutea size was increased.

  9. Allelopathic potential ofnuphar lutea (L.) Sibth. & Sm. (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elakovich, S D; Wooten, J W

    1991-04-01

    Aqueous extracts ofNuphar lutea (L.) Sibth. & Sm. leaves (blades plus petioles) and roots plus rhizomes were tested for allelopathic activity using lettuce seedling andLemna minor L. assay systems. The 12.5, 25, 125, and 250 parts per thousand (ppt) treatments of both extracts killed the lettuce seedlings. At 2.5 ppt of extract, radicle growth of lettuce was 29% of the control for leaves and 31% of the control for roots plus rhizomes.Lemna minor frond number was reduced to 34% of the control by the 25 ppt leaf extract and to 43% of the control by the 25 ppt roots plus rhizomes extract.L. minor was killed by concentrations of 125 ppt and above of both plant part extracts. As expected, the frond number and total chlorophyll content measured by theL. minor assay were highly correlated. Osmotic potentials below 143 mOsmol/kg had no influence onL. minor growth. Neither the osmotic potential nor the pH of the undiluted extracts ofN. lutea were in the range known to influence the growth of either lettuce seedlings orL. minor. Nuphar lutea extracts were many times more inhibitory than 16 other hydrophytes we previously examined.

  10. Alkaloids of Nelumbo lutea (Wild.) pers. (Nymphaeaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, S G

    1977-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of an alcoholic extract of the petioles of Nelumbo lutea resulted in the identification of the alkaloids N-methylasimilobine, anonaine, and roemerine. The alkaloids nuciferine, armepavine, N-nornuciferine, and N-norarmepavine, previously previously reported in the whole plant, were also identified.

  11. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Chen, T.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Soede, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 i

  12. Corpora for computational linguistics Corpora for computational linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Orasan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 90s corpora has become very important for computational linguistics. This paper offers a survey of how they are currently used in different fields of the discipline, with particular emphasis on anaphora and coreference resolution, automatic summarisation and term extraction. Their influence on other fields is also briefly discussed. Since the mid 90s corpora has become very important for computational linguistics. This paper offers a survey of how they are currently used in different fields of the discipline, with particular emphasis on anaphora and coreference resolution, automatic summarisation and term extraction. Their influence on other fields is also briefly discussed.

  13. Morphometric Correlates of the Ovary and Ovulatory Corpora in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, Raymond J; Hillmann, Daniel J; George, John C; Zeh, Judith E; Suydam, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Gross morphology and morphometry of the bowhead whale ovary, including ovulatory corpora, were investigated in 50 whales from the Chukchi and Beaufort seas off the coast of Alaska. Using the presence of ovarian corpora to define sexual maturity, 23 sexually immature whales (7.6-14.2 m total body length) and 27 sexually mature whales (14.2-17.7 m total body length) were identified. Ovary pair weights ranged from 0.38 to 2.45 kg and 2.92 to 12.02 kg for sexually immature and sexually mature whales, respectively. In sexually mature whales, corpora lutea (CLs) and/or large corpora albicantia (CAs) projected beyond ovary surfaces. CAs became increasingly less interruptive of the surface contour as they regressed, while remaining identifiable within transverse sections of the ovarian cortex. CLs formed large globular bodies, often with a central lumen, featuring golden parenchymas enfolded within radiating fibrous cords. CAs, sometimes vesicular, featured a dense fibrous core with outward fibrous projections through the former luteal tissue. CLs (never more than one per ovary pair) ranged from 6.7 to 15.0 cm in diameter in 13 whales. Fetuses were confirmed in nine of the 13 whales, with the associated CLs ranging from 8.3 to 15.0 cm in diameter. CLs from four whales where a fetus was not detected ranged from 6.7 to 10.6 cm in diameter. CA totals ranged from 0 to 22 for any single ovary, and from 1 to 41 for an ovary pair. CAs measured from 0.3 to 6.3 cm in diameter, and smaller corpora were more numerous, suggesting an accumulating record of ovulation. Neither the left nor the right ovary dominated in the production of corpora. Anat Rec, 299:769-797, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria lutea (anamorph Fusicoccum luteum) most easily is distinguished from other Botryosphaeria spp. by a yellow pigment that is formed in young cultures. This fungus has been reported from a number of cultivated hosts in New Zealand and Portugal. During a survey of Botryosphaeria fungi tha

  15. Building and using comparable corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoff, Serge; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Fung, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The 1990s saw a paradigm change in the use of corpus-driven methods in NLP. In the field of multilingual NLP (such as machine translation and terminology mining) this implied the use of parallel corpora. However, parallel resources are relatively scarce: many more texts are produced daily by native speakers of any given language than translated. This situation resulted in a natural drive towards the use of comparable corpora, i.e. non-parallel texts in the same domain or genre. Nevertheless, this research direction has not produced a single authoritative source suitable for researchers and stu

  16. Genetic Variation of the Endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae in Populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L. is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula. Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  17. The future of multimodal corpora O futuro dos corpora modais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Knight

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes stock of the current state-of-the-art in multimodal corpus linguistics, and proposes some projections of future developments in this field. It provides a critical overview of key multimodal corpora that have been constructed over the past decade and presents a wish-list of future technological and methodological advancements that may help to increase the availability, utility and functionality of such corpora for linguistic research.Este artigo apresenta um balanço do estado da arte da linguística de corpus multimodal e propõe a projeção de desenvolvimentos futuros nessa área. Um resumo crítico dos corpora multimodais-chave que foram construídos na última década é apresentado, assim como uma lista de desenvolvimentos tecnológicos e metodológicos futuros que podem auxiliar na disponibilização e utilização, bem como na funcionalidade, de tais corpora para a pesquisa linguística.

  18. Introducing Online Corpora into ELT Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJiezhi; LiaoJianhua

    2004-01-01

    There has been much talk about how corpora can facilita telanguage learning, especially foreign language learning and how they can narrow the gap between the English acquired in the classroom and authentic English. Some even declare that corpora will revolutionize language teaching. With the concordancer and corpora of natural English, " language

  19. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    . This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  20. Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora Using WebMAUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Strunk; F. Schiel; F. Seifart

    2014-01-01

    Language documentation projects supported by recent funding intiatives have created a large number of multimedia corpora of typologically diverse languages. Most of these corpora provide a manual alignment of transcription and audio data at the level of larger units, such as sentences or intonation

  1. Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora Using WebMAUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strunk, J.; Schiel, F.; Seifart, F.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.; Loftsson, H.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Moreno, A.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Language documentation projects supported by recent funding intiatives have created a large number of multimedia corpora of typologically diverse languages. Most of these corpora provide a manual alignment of transcription and audio data at the level of larger units, such as sentences or intonation

  2. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional...... translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business. Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use. Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool....... This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  3. Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    Reef sites Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea Accepted: 10 May 2002 / Published online: 5 July 2002 C211 Springer-Verlag 2002 We describe here an unreport- ed diseased state of Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime...)ontheKavarattireefof the Lakshadweep group of is- lands (11C176 N; 71C176E). Pink line syndrome (PLS) causes partial mortality of the coral P. lutea around Kavaratti Island (Fig. 1), and about 10% of colonies were found to be af- fected by PLS. The dead patches were colonized by a...

  4. Using Monolingual and Bilingual Corpora in Lexicography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miangah, Tayebeh Mosavi

    2009-01-01

    Constructing and exploiting different types of corpora are among computer applications exposed to the researchers in different branches of science including lexicography. In lexicography, different types of corpora may be of great help in finding the most appropriate uses of words and expressions by referring to numerous examples and citations.…

  5. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  6. Learner Corpora without Error Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastelli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of adopting a form-to-function perspective when annotating learner corpora in order to get deeper insights about systematic features of interlanguage. A split between forms and functions (or categories is desirable in order to avoid the "comparative fallacy" and because – especially in basic varieties – forms may precede functions (e.g., what resembles to a "noun" might have a different function or a function may show up in unexpected forms. In the computer-aided error analysis tradition, all items produced by learners are traced to a grid of error tags which is based on the categories of the target language. Differently, we believe it is possible to record and make retrievable both words and sequence of characters independently from their functional-grammatical label in the target language. For this purpose at the University of Pavia we adapted a probabilistic POS tagger designed for L1 on L2 data. Despite the criticism that this operation can raise, we found that it is better to work with "virtual categories" rather than with errors. The article outlines the theoretical background of the project and shows some examples in which some potential of SLA-oriented (non error-based tagging will be possibly made clearer.

  7. 76 FR 11086 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea (Golden Sedge) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... for the Carex lutea (golden sedge) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total... critical habitat for Carex lutea under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). For more information on...

  8. 75 FR 11080 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Critical Habitat for Carex lutea (Golden Sedge) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... the Carex lutea (golden sedge) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. We propose to...). Carex lutea is a perennial member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae). Fertile culms (stems) may reach...

  9. 75 FR 45592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea (Golden Sedge) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), proposed rule to designate critical habitat for Carex lutea (golden sedge) under the Endangered Species Act... field surveys at two extant Carex lutea subpopulations indicate that the extent of the golden sedge...

  10. Corpora and cognitive linguistics Corpora e linguística cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Newman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpora are a natural source of data for cognitive linguists, since corpora, more than any other source of data, reflect "usage" - a notion which is often claimed to be of critical importance to the field of cognitive linguistics. Corpora are relevant to all the main topics of interest in cognitive linguistics: metaphor, polysemy, synonymy, prototypes, and constructional analysis. I consider each of these topics in turn and offer suggestions about which methods of analysis can be profitably used with available corpora to explore these topics further. In addition, I consider how the design and content of currently used corpora need to be rethought if corpora are to provide all the types of usage data that cognitive linguists require.Corpora são uma fonte natural de dados para a linguística cognitiva, uma vez que, estes, mais que qualquer outra fonte de dados, refletem "o uso" - a noção que é frequentemente apontada como tendo importância crítica para o campo da linguística cognitiva. Corpora são relevantes para todos os principais tópicos de interesse da linguística cognitiva: metáfora, polissemia, sinonímia, protótipos e análise construcional. Neste artigo, considerarei cada um desses tópicos e oferecerei sugestões sobre quais os métodos de análise podem ser utilizados com os corpora disponíveis para melhor se explorarem esses tópicos. Adicionalmente, discuto como a arquitetura e o conteúdo dos corpora atualmente disponíveis necessitam ser repensados se pretenderem oferecer todos os tipos de dados de uso necessários às análises da linguística cognitiva.

  11. The interleukin-1β system in the corpora lutea of pigs during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmijewska, Agata; Franczak, Anita; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-06-01

    Expression of mRNAs encoding interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-1β receptor I (IL-1RI), IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as synthesis of IL-1β and IL-1RI proteins, were examined in the corpus luteum (CL) during critical stages of CL activity on days 10-16 of pregnancy and 2-16 of the estrous cycle. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro with IL-1β, and the effect on release of steroid hormones was determined. Expression of the IL-1β system in the CL changed significantly during pregnancy and the estrous cycle. IL-1β, IL-1RI, and IL-1Ra mRNA levels were elevated on days 12-13, whereas IL-1RAcP mRNA was increased on days 15-16 of pregnancy. In cyclic CL, expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, and IL-1RAcP mRNAs was increased on days 12-13. IL-1β and IL-1RI protein were highest in the CL on days 10-11 and 8-11 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Luteal cells harvested from gravid and cyclic CL produced IL-1β in vitro. IL-1β increased progesterone and estradiol-17β (E2) release by luteal cells on days 10-16 and 10-11 of pregnancy, respectively and on days 2-11 of the estrous cycle. IL-1β decreased the level of E2 produced by regressed CL (days 15-16). Expression of the IL-1β system in CL and IL-1β secretion from luteal cells changed depending on the status of the CL. These data show that IL-1β may be involved in intraluteal, luteotrophic regulation of CL functions in gravid and cyclic pigs.

  12. Corpora lutea of pregnant and pseudopregnant domestic cats reveal similar steroidogenic capacities during the luteal life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschockelt, Lina; Amelkina, Olga; Siemieniuch, Marta J; Koster, Stefanie; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2014-10-01

    In domestic cats, luteal phases of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy (non-pregnant luteal phase) differ in the course and level of plasma progesterone (P4). Therefore, we assumed differences in luteal steroidogenic capacities. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of intraluteal steroid biogenesis in the domestic cat. We quantitatively measured relative mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 oxidases (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD), steroid reductase (SRD) and enzymes involved in sulfoconjugation of steroids, i.e. sulfotransferase (SULT) and sulfatase (STS). Protein expression was analysed by Western Blot for HSD3B. Additionally, intraluteal steroid contents were determined. During the pseudopregnant luteal phase, expression of STAR (p=0.005), HSD3B1 (ppregnancy and pseudopregnancy. This was in accordance with decreasing intraluteal levels of P4, oestrogens and androgens. In contrast, expression of SRD5A1 (p0.05), suggesting a permanent capacity of cat CL to convert progestogens via androgen and oestrogen pathways. In general, mRNA expression profiles of steroidogenic enzymes during the pregnant luteal phase reflected the pseudopregnancy profiles. Intraluteal oestrogen (pcat CL of the same histomorphological stage are characterised by identical steroidogenic capacities independently of an on-going pregnancy.

  13. Fungi in Porites lutea: Association with healthy and diseased corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    It is found that fungi to occur regularly in healthy, partially dead, bleached and pink-line syndrome (PLS)-affected scleractinian coral, Porites lutea, in the reefs of Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Mostly terrestrial species of fungi were isolated...

  14. Critical Survey of the Freely Available Arabic Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghouani, Wajdi

    2017-01-01

    The availability of corpora is a major factor in building natural language processing applications. However, the costs of acquiring corpora can prevent some researchers from going further in their endeavours. The ease of access to freely available corpora is urgent needed in the NLP research community especially for language such as Arabic. Currently, there is not easy was to access to a comprehensive and updated list of freely available Arabic corpora. We present in this paper, the results o...

  15. Corpora and corpus technology for translation purposes in professional and academic environments. Major achievements and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Frérot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “use” of corpora and concordancers in translation teaching has grown increasingly attractive since the mid1990s’ with an abundant literature advocating their use and promoting their benefits in the translation classroom. In translator training, efforts are being made to incorporate the use of corpora and concordancers in masters’ programmes and to offer specific modules on corpora for translation as the use of translation memory (TM systems within Computer-Aided Translation (CAT courses still dominates. In the translation profession, while TM systems are part of the everyday working environment, the same cannot be said of corpora and concordancers even though the most recent surveys show that professional translators would like to learn more about the potential of corpora for translation. Overall, the “usefulness” of corpora and corpus technology at the different stages of the translation process remains poorly documented in translation but a growing number of empirical studies has started to show concern as it has now become of paramount importance to assess the extent to which corpora are of added value for translation quality in both professional and academic environments.

  16. Subdomain sensitive statistical parsing using raw corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, B.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    Modern statistical parsers are trained on large annotated corpora (treebanks). These treebanks usually consist of sentences addressing different subdomains (e.g. sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by current statistical parsers are mixtures of subdomains of language

  17. GLP-1 Increases Preovulatory LH Source and the Number of Mature Follicles, As Well As Synchronizing the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outeiriño-Iglesias, Verónica; Romaní-Pérez, Marina; González-Matías, Lucas C; Vigo, Eva; Mallo, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Control of estrous cycle and reproductive capacity involves a large number of central and peripheral factors, integrating numerous nutritional and metabolic signals. Here we show that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a peptide with anorexigenic and insulinotropic actions, and the GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex4) exert a regulatory influence on the gonadal axis, in both adult and prepubertal female rats. In adult rats, Glp-1 receptor expression varies during the estrous cycle at the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. Furthermore, acute treatment with GLP-1 in the morning proestrus doubled the amplitude of the preovulatory LH surge, as well as influencing estradiol and progesterone levels along the estrous cycle. These changes provoked an important increase in the number of Graafian follicles and corpora lutea, as well as in the litter size. Conversely, Ex4 diminished the levels of LH, later producing a partial blockade at the preovulatory surge, yet not affecting either the number of mature follicles or corpora lutea. Chronic administration of low doses of GLP-1 to prepubertal rats synchronized vaginal opening and increased LH levels on the 35th day of life, yet at these doses it did not modify their body weight, food intake, or ovarian and uterine weight. By contrast, chronic exposure to Ex4 produced a significant reduction in ovarian and uterine weight, and serum LH, and the animals treated chronically with Ex4 showed no vaginal opening in the period studied. Overall, our results demonstrate that GLP-1 and Ex4 act on the gonadal axis, involving the hypothalamic kisspeptin system, to influence reproductive efficiency in female rats.

  18. From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora The article describes the work on a number of dictionaries being developed by the Corpus Linguistics and Semantics Group of the Institute of Slavic PAS. They include “Contemporary Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”, “Bulgarian-Polish Online Dictionary” and “Russian-Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”. The dictionaries differ in the numbers of entries, as well as in the different degrees of their connection with parallel corpora being elaborated under the “Clarin” project. All the discussed dictionaries are similar with respect to their use of traditional, syntactic classifiers and of semantic classifiers, introduced for the first time in the existing lexicographical practice. Thanks to the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian Corpus”, the Group has managed to verify the results of contrasting Polish and Bulgarian in the light of scope-based logical quantification. Thanks to the Russian material added to the trilingual corpus, the researchers have managed to confirm the fact that from the viewpoint of “incomplete quantification” Russian and Polish (synthetic languages behave similarly, and are opposed to the analytic Bulgarian.

  19. Metaphor identification in large texts corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yohai; Last, Mark; Argamon, Shlomo; Howard, Newton; Frieder, Ophir

    2013-01-01

    Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child) is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are variations of the same core algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms on two corpora of Reuters and the New York Times articles. The paper presents the most comprehensive study of metaphor identification in terms of scope of metaphorical phrases and annotated corpora size. Algorithms' performance in identifying linguistic phrases as metaphorical or literal has been compared to human judgment. Overall, the algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm with 71% precision and 27% averaged improvement in prediction over the base-rate of metaphors in the corpus.

  20. Corpora and concordancers on the nl.ijs.si server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monolingual and parallel corpora which can be accessed through two concordancers on the server nl.ijs.si. Twelve monolingual corpora contain Slovene language texts, one contains Japanese and one English texts, and comprise reference corpora, such as Gigafida for written contemporary Slovene, IMP for historical Slovene, and GOS for spoken Slovene and specialised corpora, such as the corpus of texts from the informatics domain and the corpus of Slovene tweets. The five parallel corpora contain Slovene texts sentence aligned with, variously, English, Japanese, French, German, and Italian from domains such as EU law, literature and journalism. Although most of the corpora have been produced in the past, they have now been newly annotated, some have been extended with additional texts, and a few are completely new. The texts in the corpora are supplied with meta-data, while their word tokens are either manually or automatically annotated with at least lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions. Most of the corpora are freely available through two web concordancers, the noSketch Engine and CUWI. These two corpus analysis tools support searching large annotated corpora, various types of search result display, the possibility to filter the searches according to meta-data, and saving the search results locally. In addition to the corpora and concordancers the paper also discusses some issues pertaining to such a corpus-linguistic infrastructure, and concludes with directions for further work.

  1. On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa; Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora In the article, the authors present a proposal for semantic annotation in Clarin-PL parallel corpora: Polish-Bulgarian-Russian and Polish-Lithuanian ones. Semantic annotation of quantification is a novum in developing sentence level semantics in multilingual parallel corpora. This is why our semantic annotation is manual. The authors hope it will be interesting to IT specialists working on automatic processing of the given natural langu...

  2. Corpora and historical linguistics Corpora e linguística histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Kytö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to survey and assess the current state of electronic historical corpora and corpus methodology, and attempts to look into possible future developments. It highlights the fact that within the wide spectrum of corpus linguistic methodology, historical corpus linguistics has emerged as a vibrant field that has significantly added to the appeal felt for the study of language history and change. In fact, according to a historical linguist with more than fifty years of experience, "[w]e could even go as far as to say that without the support and new impetus provided by corpora, evidence-based historical linguistics would have been close to the end of its life-span in these days of rapid-changing life and research, increasing competition on the academic career track and the methodological attractions offered to young scholars" (RISSANEN, forthcoming. Historical corpora and other electronic resources have also made the study of language history attractive: working on them engages students in an individual and interactive way that they find appealing (CURZAN 2000, p. 81.Este artigo objetiva fazer um levantamento e avaliar o estado da arte dos corpora históricos eletrônicos e da metodologia de estudos de corpora, assim como sugerir possíveis desenvolvimentos futuros na área. Destaca-se que dentro do espectro metodológico da linguística de corpus, a linguística de corpus histórica emergiu como um campo de investigação vibrante que tem adicionado interesse ao estudo da história e da mudança linguística. De acordo com um pesquisador da área com mais de cinqüenta anos de experiência, "pode-se dizer que sem o apoio e o novo ímpeto trazidos pelos corpora, a linguística histórica baseada em evidências teria estado próxima ao fim de sua vida nesses tempos de rápidas mudanças de vida e de pesquisa, aumentando a competição na carreira acadêmica e nas atrações metodológicas oferecidas aos jovens pesquisadores

  3. Spoken corpora and pragmatics Corpora orais e pragmática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Moneglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present arguments in favour of two points related to the study of oral corpora and pragmatics: a at the level of annotation, corpora must ensure the parsing of the speech flow into utterances on the basis of prosodic cues and provide an easy access to the acoustic source; b at the level of sampling, corpora must ensure the maximum representation of context variation, rather than speaker variation. We will present the reasons which support the very basic prosodic annotation of speech (prosodic boundaries as a means to obtain relevant data from the speech flow. Starting from our present knowledge about the distribution of speech acts types in spoken corpora, we will present the reasons why building corpora in accordance to a context variation strategy should expand our knowledge of pragmatics. Additionally, we will claim that prosody is the necessary interface between locutive and illocutive acts and we will show that a deeper prosodic analysis is necessary to grasp unknown speech act types from language usage. Finally, we will briefly sketch the main assumptions of the Language into Act Theory (CRESTI, 2000 which is dedicated to the link between prosody and pragmatics and helps make explicit core aspects of pragmatic knowledge.O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar argumentos favoráveis a dois pontos relacionados ao estudo de corpora orais e pragmática: a no nível da anotação, os corpora devem garantir o processamento do fluxo discursivo em enunciados, baseando-se em chaves prosódicas, e oferecer fácil acesso aos arquivos de som; b no nível da amostragem, os corpora devem garantir a representatividade máxima de variação contextual, ao invés de variação de falantes. Apresentaremos os motivos que sustentam a escolha das fronteiras prosódicas como o referencial básico para a anotação prosódica da fala, como uma forma relevante de se obterem dados importantes do fluxo discursivo. Partindo do nosso

  4. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  5. The Kiel Corpora of "Speech & Emotion" - A Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Peters, Benno; Landgraf, Rabea

    2015-01-01

    technology applications that sneak in every corner of our life. Apart from the fact that speech corpora seem to become constantly larger (for example, in order to properly train self-learning speech synthesis/recognition algorithms), the content of speech corpora also changes. In particular, recordings...

  6. Corpora and Language Teaching: Just a Fling or Wedding Bells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    2005-01-01

    Electronic language corpora, and their attendant computer software, are proving increasingly influential in language teaching as sources of language descriptions and pedagogical materials. However, few teachers are clear about their nature or their relevance to language teaching. This paper defines corpora and their types, discusses their…

  7. Overcoming Legal Limitations in Disseminating Slovene Web Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Web texts are becoming increasingly relevant sources of information, with web corpora useful for corpus linguistic studies and development of language technologies. Even though web texts are directly accessable, which substantially simplifies the collection procedure compilation of web corpora is still complex, time consuming and expensive. It is crucial that similar endeavours are not repeated, which is why it is necessary to make the created corpora easily and widely accessible both to researchers and a wider audience. While this is logistically and technically a straightforward procedure, legal constraints, such as copyright, privacy and terms of use severely hinder the dissemination of web corpora. This paper discusses legal conditions and actual practice in this area, gives an overview of current practices and proposes a range of mitigation measures on the example of the Janes corpus of Slovene user-generated content in order to ensure free and open dissemination of Slovene web corpora.

  8. Uso de corpora na formação de tradutores Using corpora in translator training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio P. Berber Sardinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda a questão do uso de corpora na formação de tradutores, enfocando mais especificamente a questão da conscientização. O trabalho apresenta uma discussão sobre o papel de corpora na tradução, sua aplicabilidade na formação profissional, e sua importância para o melhor conhecimento da constituição da linguagem. São oferecidos dois exemplos de análises, detalhadas a fim de serem aplicáveis em contextos em que haja poucos recursos de infraestrutura. As análises centram-se em pesquisas sobre as escolhas lingüísticas de um texto jornalístico traduzido para o português, e da versão brasileira de um slogan de uma campanha publicitária americana. É sugerido que essas atividades possam ser desenvolvidas com alunos de tradução, de tal modo que elas forneçam condições para que os alunos, ao explorarem corpora eletrônicos, possam se conscientizar da complexidade e da especificidade das escolhas lingüísticas envolvidas no processo tradutório.This paper tackles the issue of using corpora in translator training, focussing more specifically on the question of awareness raising. The paper presents a discussion on the role of corpora in translation, their applicability in professional development, and their importance in leading to a better understanding of how language is constituted. Two example analyses are offered and detailed, so that they are applicable to contexts in which computational resources are scarce. The analyses center around the linguistic choices in a translated newspaper text and in the Brazilian version of a slogan from an American advertising campaign. It is suggested that these activities may be carried out with translation students, in such a way that they enable students, while they explore electronic corpora, to become aware of both the complexity and the specificity of the linguistic choices involved in the process of translation.

  9. Diversity and distribution of Actinobacteria associated with reef coral Porites lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weiqi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria is a ubiquitous major group in coral holobiont. The diversity and spatial and temporal distribution of actinobacteria have been rarely documented. In this study, diversity of actinobacteria associated with mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and in the surrounding seawater were examined every 3 months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The population structures of the P. lutea-associated actinobacteria were analyzed using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which demonstrated highly diverse actinobacteria profiles in P. lutea. A total of 25 described families and 10 unnamed families were determined in the populations, and 12 genera were firstly detected in corals. The Actinobacteria diversity was significantly different between the P. lutea and the surrounding seawater. Only 10 OTUs were shared by the seawater and coral samples. Redundancy and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to analyze the correlation between the variations of actinobacteria population within the divergent compartments of P. lutea, seasonal changes, and environmental factors. The actinobacteria communities in the same coral compartment tended to cluster together. Even so, an extremely small fraction of OTUs was common in all three P. lutea compartments. Analysis of the relationship between actinobacteria assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that several genera were closely related to specific environmental factors. This study highlights that coral-associated actinobacteria populations are highly diverse, and spatially structured within P. lutea, and they are distinct from which in the ambient seawater. PMID:26539166

  10. Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Gentian Lutea Root and Its Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana Lutea root (G. Lutea is a medicinal herb, traditionally used as a bitter tonic in gastrointestinal ailments for improving the digestive system. The active principles of G. Lutea were found to be secoiridoid bitter compounds as well as many other active compounds causing the pharmacological effects. No study to date has yet determined the potential of G. Lutea antioxidant activity on lipid oxidation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an extract of G. Lutea on lipid oxidation during storage of an emulsion. G. Lutea extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. An amount of 0.5% w/w G. Lutea lyophilise was able to inhibit lipid oxidation throughout storage (p < 0.05. A mixture of G. Lutea with 0.1% (w/w BSA showed a good synergic effect and better antioxidant activity in the emulsion. Quantitative results of HPLC showed that G. Lutea contained secoiridoid-glycosides (gentiopiocroside and sweroside and post column analysis displayed radical scavenging activity of G. Lutea extract towards the ABTS radical. The results from this study highlight the potential of G. Lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier food commodities.

  11. Summer spawning of Porites lutea from north-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, C. W.; Stoddart, J. A.; Blakeway, D. R.

    2012-09-01

    Most coral species off Australia's west coast spawn in the austral autumn (March-April), with a few species also spawning in the southern spring or early summer (November-December). This is the reverse timing to spawning recorded off Australia's east coast. Porites lutea, a gonochoric broadcast spawner that is common on Australia's west coast, is shown here to spawn in the months of November or December, as it does on Australia's east coast. Spawning occurred between 2 and 5 nights after full moon, with the majority of spawning activity on night 3. Gametes developed over three to four months with rapid development in the last two weeks before spawning. Zooxanthellae were typically observed in mature oocytes, only a week before spawning so their presence may provide a useful indicator of imminent spawning.

  12. Assessment of Ibicella lutea for antibacterial agent front Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Martins Volcão

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificative and Objectives: the study aimed the assessment of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and fractions of Ibicella lutea, front Staphylococcus aureus, thecombination of these compounds and cytotoxic activity. Methods: was used for antibacterial activity the Microdilution Test Broth, and performed the Checkerboard Test. The extracts showed antibacterial activity were submitted to the citotoxicity test, with macrophages cell and determination of the Selectivity Index (SI. Results: The acetate etila fraction (AcOE was better antimicrobial activity (6.25 µg/mL compared with the others extracts and fractions used, however none of the compounds showed bactericidal activity in concentrations employed. In present study, we can be observed an additive activity between AcOE and methanolic (MeOH fractions, and indifferent interaction between crude extracts. According to citotoxicity test, the extract which led to a higher survival rate of macrophage cells was the fraction AcOE (IC50%=30.35 µg/mL. However, when the calculated SI no satisfactory results (SI < 10 to any of the extracts was observed. Conclusions: in the present study we can observe an antimicrobial activity of the fractions AcOE and MeOH to S. aureus, as well as an additive this potential when the fractions are combined, providing support from isolation and characterization of yours active components. Despite the extracts did not showed a satisfactory SI, new toxicity studies should be performed to establish the potential use of safety with the products derived from I. lutea, such as drugs for topical and biocide products.

  13. About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About Certain Semantic Annotation in Parallel Corpora The semantic notation analyzed in this works is contained in the second stream of semantic theories presented here – in the direct approach semantics. We used this stream in our work on the Bulgarian-Polish Contrastive Grammar. Our semantic notation distinguishes quantificational meanings of names and predicates, and indicates aspectual and temporal meanings of verbs. It relies on logical scope-based quantification and on the contemporary theory of processes, known as “Petri nets”. Thanks to it, we can distinguish precisely between a language form and its contents, e.g. a perfective verb form has two meanings: an event or a sequence of events and states, finally ended with an event. An imperfective verb form also has two meanings: a state or a sequence of states and events, finally ended with a state. In turn, names are quantified universally or existentially when they are “undefined”, and uniquely (using the iota operator when they are “defined”. A fact worth emphasizing is the possibility of quantifying not only names, but also the predicate, and then quantification concerns time and aspect.  This is a novum in elaborating sentence-level semantics in parallel corpora. For this reason, our semantic notation is manual. We are hoping that it will raise the interest of computer scientists working on automatic methods for processing the given natural languages. Semantic annotation defined like in this work will facilitate contrastive studies of natural languages, and this in turn will verify the results of those studies, and will certainly facilitate human and machine translations.

  14. Extracting definition candidates from specialized corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Pollak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge is available in different forms, including domain texts, terminological dictionaries, encyclopaediae, and recently also in computer- understandable representations of domain knowledge, such as taxonomies and ontologies. Since manual domain modeling is costly and time-consuming, researchers in human language technologies have started developing methods and tools for semi-automatic extraction of domain-specific knowledge from unstructured texts, involving tasks, such as terminology extraction, definition extraction, semantic relations extraction, or semi-automatic ontology building. This article presents a methodology for definition extraction from domain corpora, currently available for Slovene and English. Since most of the existing methods and tools are language specific and not developed for minor languages, the main contribution of the dissertation is the developed definition extraction methodology for Slovene. The proposed definition extraction methodology is based on three different approaches to extracting definition candidates. The first follows the traditional pattern-based approach, in which patterns are composed of lemmas and morphosyntactic descriptions; the second approach relies on pairs of domain terms extracted through automatic term extraction; the third approach exploits wordnet hypernym pairs. We propose an original combination of the three approaches. The developed methodology was applied to a real-case problem of modeling the language technologies domain, for which we constructed a comparable Slovene- English corpus consisting of about two million tokens. We extracted more than 3,400 definition candidates, of which over 700 (approximately 480 for Slovene and 230 for English were evaluated as definitions. The results are used as a basis for the Language Technologies Glossary.17 An additional contribution is the proposed domain-modeling pipeline—from corpus uploading and preprocessing to inspecting the

  15. Terra: a Collection of Translation Error-Annotated Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Maja; Fishel, Mark; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Recently the first methods of automatic diagnostics of machine translation have emerged; since this area of research is relatively young, the efforts are not coordinated. We present a collection of translation error-annotated corpora, consisting of automatically produced trans- lations and their detailed manual translation error analysis. Using the collected corpora we evaluate the available state-of-the-art methods of MT diagnostics and assess, how well the methods perform, how they...

  16. Corpora and language teaching: Just a fling, or wedding bells?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielatos, Costas

    2005-01-01

    Electronic language corpora, and their attendant computer software, are proving increasingly influential in language teaching as sources of language descriptions and pedagogical materials. However, few teachers are clear about their nature or their relevance to language teaching. This paper defines corpora and their types, discusses their contribution to language learning and teaching, and provides examples of their use in class. It also outlines the changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes...

  17. SPOKEN CORPORA AND ANALYSIS OF NATURAL SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Tseng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces spoken corpora of Taiwan Mandarin created at Academia Sinica and gives an overview of some recent studies carried out utilizing the spoken data. Spoken language resources of Taiwan Mandarin have been collected and processed at Academia Sinica since 2001. As a result, spoken data, which are useful not only for language archives purpose, but also for linguistic studies, has been made available. In addition to creation of the corpus, two lines of research are discussed in which theoretical and empirical studies are connected by using the aforementioned language resources: 1 language variation and change and 2 spoken discourse analysis. Phonetic reduction is one of the main reasons for changes within a language and it is important to take into account different levels of variations in spontaneous speech. For this purpose, we studied syllable contraction/merger, vowel reduction, and phonetic reduction in directional complements. Discourse items also play an essential part, because they add specific implications to sentences and their use is mainly marked by prosodic means. We segmented a spoken discourse into smaller prosodic units to allow for a more precise study of discourse items, prosodic features, and disfluency. These issues are correlated with each other, especially through prosodic markings.

  18. Morphological and germination response variability in seeds of wild yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) accessions from northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Garcia, Felix; Varela, Federico; González Benito, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. (yellow gentian, Gentianaceae) is an important medicinal plant under protection as endangered species in most European countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate variation in seed mass, seed water content, and seed germination among 56 wild accessions of G. lutea. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), putrescine, moist chilling, and level of ripeness of seeds on subsequent germination was also investigated. Seeds of G. lutea showed physiological dormancy (final germinat...

  19. Peptidomic Analysis of the Brain and Corpora Cardiaca-Corpora Allata Complex in the Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect for silk production. However, many of the mature peptides relevant to its various life stages remain unknown. Using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, and previously identified peptides from B. mori and other insects in the transcriptome database, we created peptide profiles showing a total of 6 ion masses that could be assigned to peptides in eggs, including one previously unidentified peptide. A further 49 peptides were assigned to larval brains. 17 new mature peptides were identified in isolated masses. 39 peptides were found in pupal brains with 8 unidentified peptides. 48 were found in adult brains with 12 unidentified peptides. These new unidentified peptides showed highly significant matches in all MS analysis. These matches were then searched against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database to provide new annotations for these mature peptides. In total, 59 mature peptides in 19 categories were found in the brains of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult stages. These results demonstrate that peptidomic variation across different developmental stages can be dramatic. Moreover, the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (CC-CA complex was examined during the fifth larval instar. A total of 41 ion masses were assigned to peptides.

  20. Peptidomic Analysis of the Brain and Corpora Cardiaca-Corpora Allata Complex in the Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Ning, Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Wenfeng; Zhao, Zhangwu; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect for silk production. However, many of the mature peptides relevant to its various life stages remain unknown. Using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, and previously identified peptides from B. mori and other insects in the transcriptome database, we created peptide profiles showing a total of 6 ion masses that could be assigned to peptides in eggs, including one previously unidentified peptide. A further 49 peptides were assigned to larval brains. 17 new mature peptides were identified in isolated masses. 39 peptides were found in pupal brains with 8 unidentified peptides. 48 were found in adult brains with 12 unidentified peptides. These new unidentified peptides showed highly significant matches in all MS analysis. These matches were then searched against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database to provide new annotations for these mature peptides. In total, 59 mature peptides in 19 categories were found in the brains of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult stages. These results demonstrate that peptidomic variation across different developmental stages can be dramatic. Moreover, the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (CC-CA) complex was examined during the fifth larval instar. A total of 41 ion masses were assigned to peptides.

  1. Postembryonic proliferation of neuroendocrine cells expressing adipokinetic hormone peptides in the corpora cardiaca of the locust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, S R; O'Shea, M

    1993-08-01

    Neuroendocrine glands that synthesize and secrete peptide hormones regulate the levels of these peptide messengers during development. In this article we describe a mechanism for regulating neuropeptide levels in the corpora cardiaca of the locust Schistocerca gregaria, a neuroendocrine gland structurally analogous to the vertebrate adenohypophysis. A set of five colocalized peptide hormones of the adipokinetic hormone family is synthesized in intrinsic neurosecretory cells in the corpora cardiaca. During postembryonic development there are progressive changes in the absolute and relative levels of these five peptide hormones. We show that the ability of the gland to increase peptide synthesis is due to a 100-fold increase in the number of cells which make up the gland. The gland grows by the addition of new cells derived from symmetrical division of undifferentiated precursor cells within the corpora cardiaca. We show, using double-label immunocytochemistry, that cells born in the glandular lobe mature into cells that express adipokinetic hormone peptides. The pattern of cell birth and peptide expression can account for the dramatic increase in postembryonic peptide levels.

  2. Contrasting Specific English Corpora: Language Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Carrió Pastor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community has traditionally considered technical English as neutral and objective, able to transmit ideas and research in simple sentences and specialized vocabulary. Nevertheless, global communication and intense information delivery have produced a range of different ways of knowledge transmission. Although technical English is considered an objective way to transmit science, writers of academic papers use some words or structures with different frequency in the same genre. As a consequence of this, contrastive studies about the use of second languages have been increasingly attracting scholarly attention. In this research, we evidence that variation in language production is a reality and can be proved contrasting corpora written by native writers of English and by non-native writers of English. The objectives of this paper are first to detect language variation in a technical English corpus; second, to demonstrate that this finding evidences the parts of the sentence that are more sensitive to variation; finally, it also evidences the non-standardisation of technical English. In order to fulfil these objectives, we analysed a corpus of fifty scientific articles written by native speakers of English and fifty scientific articles written by non-native speakers of English. The occurrences were classified and counted in order to detect the most common variations. Further analysis indicated that the variations were caused by mother tongue interference in virtually all cases, although meaning was only very rarely obscured. These findings suggest that the use of certain patterns and expressions originating from L1 interference should be considered as correct as standard English.La comunidad científica considera al inglés técnico como un tipo de lenguaje neutral y objetivo, capaz de transmitir ideas y hallazgos en frases simples y vocabulario reconocido por los especialistas de ese campo. Sin embargo, la comunicación global y el

  3. On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora In the article, the authors present a proposal for semantic annotation in Clarin-PL parallel corpora: Polish-Bulgarian-Russian and Polish-Lithuanian ones. Semantic annotation of quantification is a novum in developing sentence level semantics in multilingual parallel corpora. This is why our semantic annotation is manual. The authors hope it will be interesting to IT specialists working on automatic processing of the given natural languages. Semantic annotation defined the way it is defined here will make contrastive studies of natural languages more efficient, which in turn will help verify the results of those studies, and will certainly improve human and machine translations.

  4. New perspectives on corpora amylacea in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Elisabet; Cabezón, Itsaso; Pelegrí, Carme; Vilaplana, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Corpora amylacea are structures of unknown origin and function that appear with age in human brains and are profuse in selected brain areas in several neurodegenerative conditions. They are constituted of glucose polymers and may contain waste elements derived from different cell types. As we previously found on particular polyglucosan bodies in mouse brain, we report here that corpora amylacea present some neo-epitopes that can be recognized by natural antibodies, a certain kind of antibodies that are involved in tissue homeostasis. We hypothesize that corpora amylacea, and probably some other polyglucosan bodies, are waste containers in which deleterious or residual products are isolated to be later eliminated through the action of the innate immune system. In any case, the presence of neo-epitopes on these structures and the existence of natural antibodies directed against them could become a new focal point for the study of both age-related and degenerative brain processes. PMID:28155917

  5. Breeding biologies, seed production and species-rich bee guilds of Cleome lutea and Cleome serrulata (Cleomaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane

    2008-01-01

    The summer-blooming annual forbs Cleome lutea and Cleome serrulata (Cleomaceae) are native across the US Intermountain West and Rocky Mountains, respectively. Their farmed seed is sought to help rehabilitate western rangelands in those regions. This study of the reproductive biologies and pollinator faunas of C. lutea...

  6. Effect of flushing of blastocysts on days 10-13 on the life-span of the corpora lutea in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Helmond, F A; Oudenaarden, C P

    1988-09-01

    Blastocysts were flushed out of both uterine horns of gilts on Days 10, 11, 12 or 13. In mated non-pregnant gilts flushing had no effect on progesterone profile or cycle length (20.8 +/- 0.4 versus 20.6 +/- 0.6 days in the preflush cycle, N = 6, mean +/- s.e.m.). Flushing the blastocysts out of the uterine horns on Day 10 resulted in a cycle with a normal progesterone profile and a normal length (21.2 +/- 0.4 days, N = 5). Flushing on Days 11, 12 or 13 resulted in a normal cycle or in maintenance of the CL for 3-13 days as indicated by elevated progesterone concentrations and an increased interoestrous interval of, respectively, 22.0 +/- 1.2 versus 19.8 +/- 0.6 days (Day 11; N = 6), 24.8 +/- 1.4 versus 21.0 +/- 0.6 days (Day 12; N = 5; P less than 0.05) and 26.3 +/- 2.3 versus 20.5 +/- 0.4 days (Day 13; N = 6; P less than 0.05). There was a positive relationship between the change in interoestrous interval and the interval between the first observed standing oestrus and flushing of the blastocysts (rs = 0.350; n = 22; P less than 0.1). There was a large variation in the diameter of the blastocysts flushed on the same day. Only in those gilts in which the blastocysts were greater than or equal to 8 mm or filamentous were the CL maintained for 3 or more days. These results indicate that a first signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy is generated on Day 12 and that blastocysts greater than or equal to 8 mm are required for prolongation of CL function for 3 or more days. Since CL function is only extended for a maximum of 13 days (mean 7.4 +/- 1.0), a second signal seems necessary to maintain the CL for the whole period of pregnancy.

  7. Apoptosis-Related Factors in the Luteal Phase of the Domestic Cat and Their Involvement in the Persistence of Corpora Lutea in Lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Amelkina

    Full Text Available The corpus luteum (CL is a transient gland formed in the ovary after ovulation and is the major source of progesterone. In the Iberian and Eurasian lynx, CL physiologically persist after parturition and retain their capacity to produce progesterone, thus suppressing the ovarian activity. This unique reproductive characteristic has a big impact on the success of assisted reproduction techniques in the endangered Iberian lynx. The mechanisms behind CL persistence are not yet understood and require extensive studies on potential luteotropic and luteolytic factors in felids. Because the apoptosis system has been shown to be involved in structural regression of CL in many species, we aimed to investigate the capacity of perCL to undergo apoptosis. In addition, we performed initial studies on the apoptosis system in the luteal phase of the domestic cat. No previous research on this system has been made in this species. Our factors of interest included agents of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, i.e., pro-survival B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX, the executioner caspase-3 (CASP3, as well as of the extrinsic pathway, i.e., pro-apoptotic receptor FAS, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF and its receptors (pro-apoptotic TNFRSF1A and pro-survival TNFRSF1B. We analyzed the relative mRNA levels of these factors, as well as protein localization of CASP3 and TNF during stages of pregnancy and the non-pregnant luteal phase in CL of domestic cats. The same factors were investigated in freshly ovulated CL (frCL and perCL of Iberian and Eurasian lynx, which were histologically analyzed. All factors were present in the CL tissue of both domestic cat and lynx throughout all analyzed stages. The presence of pro-apoptotic factors BAX, CASP3, FAS and TNFRSF1A in perCL of the Eurasian and Iberian lynx might indicate the potential sensitivity of perCL to apoptotic signals. The expression of pro-survival factors BCL2 and TNFRSF1B was significantly higher in perCL compared to frCL of studied Iberian lynx, suggesting the potential involvement of these factors in the structural integrity of perCL. In both Iberian lynx and pregnant and non-pregnant domestic cats, the expression of TNFRSF1A was significantly higher in forming CL compared to other stages, suggesting the conserved involvement of this factor in the tissue reorganization during formation of the feline CL. The mRNA levels of CASP3 and TNFRSF1B were highest during regression stages of domestic cat CL. The current study provides initial results on the possible involvement of the apoptosis system in the structure and function of the feline CL and in its physiological persistence.

  8. Automatic Extraction of Tagset Mappings from Parallel-Annotated Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, J; Atwell, E; Hughes, John; Souter, Clive; Atwell, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent work of project AMALGAM (automatic mapping among lexico-grammatical annotation models). We are investigating ways to map between the leading corpus annotation schemes in order to improve their resuability. Collation of all the included corpora into a single large annotated corpus will provide a more detailed language model to be developed for tasks such as speech and handwriting recognition. In particular, we focus here on a method of extracting mappings from corpora that have been annotated according to more than one annotation scheme.

  9. Two approaches to gathering text corpora from the WorldWideWeb

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of pattern recognition to natural language processing require large text corpora in a specified language. For many of the languages of the world, such corpora are not readily available, but significant quantities of text...

  10. Comparability of Lexical Corpora: Word Frequency in Phonological Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierut, Judith A.; Dale, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical regularities in language have been examined for new insight to the language acquisition process. This line of study has aided theory advancement, but it also has raised methodological concerns about the applicability of corpora data to child populations. One issue is whether it is appropriate to extend the regularities observed in the…

  11. Comparing non-verbal vocalisations in conversational speech corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouvain, Jürgen; Truong, Khiet P.; Devillers, L.; Schuller, B.; Batliner, A.; Rosso, P.; Douglas-Cowie, E.; Cowie, R.; Pelachaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conversations do not only consist of spoken words but they also consist of non-verbal vocalisations. Since there is no standard to define and to classify (possible) non-speech sounds the annotations for these vocalisations differ very much for various corpora of conversational speech. There seems to

  12. Promoting free dialog video corpora: the IFADV corpus example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, R.J.J.H.; Wesseling, W.; Sanders, E.; van den Heuvel, H.; Kipp, M.; Martin, J.C.; Paggio, P.; Heylen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Research into spoken language has become more visual over the years. Both fundamental and applied research have progressively included gestures, gaze, and facial expression. Corpora of multi-modal conversational speech are rare and frequently difficult to use due to privacy and copyright restriction

  13. Using Online Corpora to Develop Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Large corpora such as the British National Corpus and the COBUILD Corpus and Collocations Sampler are now accessible, free of charge, online and can be usefully incorporated into a process writing approach to help develop students' writing skills. This article aims to familiarize readers with these resources and to show how they can be usefully…

  14. Come studiare e insegnare l'italiano attraverso i corpora (How To Study and Teach Italian through Corpora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviosa, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Examines recent studies of linguistic corpora in Italian, and presents the results of an analysis of "piace" and "piacciono" conducted on a corpus of 3.5 million words of written Italian, accessible at the University of Birmingham in England. Focuses on pedagogical applications of the data and on the inductive methodologies…

  15. Come studiare e insegnare l'italiano attraverso i corpora (How To Study and Teach Italian through Corpora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviosa, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Examines recent studies of linguistic corpora in Italian, and presents the results of an analysis of "piace" and "piacciono" conducted on a corpus of 3.5 million words of written Italian, accessible at the University of Birmingham in England. Focuses on pedagogical applications of the data and on the inductive methodologies…

  16. Cytotoxic effect of Reseda lutea L.: A case of forgotten remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Zlatković, Dragan B; Ilić-Tomić, Tatjana; Senerović, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2014-04-11

    Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) or Wild Mignonette is a widely distributed plant species. Pliny the Elder (AD 23-AD 79), a Roman scholar and naturalist, reported the use of R. lutea for reducing tumors in his Historia naturalis. Accounts of the beneficial effects of R. lutea in tumor treatment could also be found in the works of later authors, such as Étienne François Geoffroy (1672-1731) and Samuel Frederick Gray (1766-1828). However, to date no in vivo or in vitro evidence exists in support of the alleged tumor healing properties of R. lutea. The composition of autolysates obtained from different organs (root, flower and fruit) of R. lutea was investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses and IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. These analyses led to the discovery of a new compound isolated in pure form from the flower autolysate. Autolysates and their major constituents were submitted to MTT-dye reduction cytotoxic assay on human A375 (melanoma) and MRC5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Mechanism of the cytotoxic effects was studied by cell cycle analysis and Annexin V assay. Benzyl isothiocyanate and 2-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate were identified as the major constituents of the root and flower autolysates, respectively (the later represents a new natural product). These compounds showed significant antiproliferative effects against both cell lines, which could also explain the observed high cytotoxic activity of the tested autolysates. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis as the probable mechanism of cell death. Tumor healing properties attributed to R. lutea in the pre-modern texts were substantiated by the herein obtained results. Two isothiocyanates were found to be the major carriers of the observed activity. Although there was a relatively low differential effect of the plant metabolites on transformed and non-transformed cell lines, one can argue that the noted strong cytotoxicity provides first evidence that could explain the long forgotten use of this

  17. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of the corpora cavernosa of the human clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toesca, A; Stolfi, V M; Cocchia, D

    1996-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the corpora cavernosa of the human clitoris was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The distribution pattern of the nerve network was demonstrated by S-100 and neuron specific enolase immunoreactivity. Vascular and nonvascular muscle cells were identified by desmin and/or vimentin expression, and fibroblasts and endothelial cells by vimentin immunoreactivity. The findings show that tissue organisation in the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris is essentially similar to that of the penis except for the absence of the subalbugineal layer interposed between the tunica albuginea and erectile tissue. This has functional implications, suggesting that the clitoral erection cycle differs from that of the penis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8763468

  19. A Statistical Word-Level Translation Model for Comparable Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    readily available resources such as corpora, thesauri, bilingual and multilingual lexicons and dictionaries. The acquisition of such resources has...could aid in Monolingual Information Retrieval (MIR) by methods of query expansion, and thesauri construction. To date, most of the existing...testing the limits of its performance. Future directions include testing the model with a monolingual comparable corpus, e.g. WSJ [42M] and either IACA/B

  20. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  1. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  2. Changes in macroelement content in Nuphar lutea (L. Sibith. and Sm. during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Tomaszewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of monitoring studies carried out to determine the chemical composition of Nuphar lutea in two phytocoenoses of Nupharo-Nymphaeetum albae Tomasz. 1977 occurring in two lakes of different trophic types (eutrophic Lake Łaśmiady and oligo-humotrophic Lake Pływające Wyspy. The leaves (collected starting in May, rhizomes and roots of Nuphar lutea as well as water and sediment samples were collected from March to November in the above phytocoenoses (for 3 years in Lake Pływające Wyspy and for 4 years in Lake Łaśmiady. The samples were analysed for several parameters including: phosphate, nitrate, total nitrogen, potassium, sodium, calcium, total iron, sulphate and silica dissolved. In addition the manganese, cadmium, zinc and lead contents were determined in the leaves, rhizomes and roots of the plants collected in July (at the height of the growing season. It was found that the differences in the chemical composition of water and sediments between the lakes studied were more pronounced than in the case of leaves, rhizomes and roots of Nuphar lutea.

  3. Regulation of the corpora allata in male larvae of the cockroach Diploptera punctata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of corpora allata was studied in final instar males of Diploptera punctata. The glands were manipulated in vivo and removed to determine the effect by in vitro radiochemical assay for juvenile hormone synthesis. Corpora allata were also treated with putative regulatory factors in vitro. During the final stadium the corpora allata were inhibited both by nerves and by humoral factors. Neural inhibition was shown by an increase in juvenile hormone synthesis following denervation of the corpora allata. This operation elicited an extra larval instar. Humoral inhibition was shown by the decline in juvenile hormone synthesis of adult female corpora allata following transplantation into final instar larval hosts, and conversely the increase in juvenile hormone synthesis by larval corpora allata following implantation into adult females. Humoral inhibition was prevented by decapitation of larvae prior to the head critical period for molting and restored by implantation of a larval brain, showing that the brain is the source of this inhibition.

  4. SOSTENIBILIDAD DE Dalea lutea EN BOSQUE MIXTO Y PASTIZAL EN TENANCINGO, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sald\\u00EDvar-Iglesias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la dinámica poblacional, el comportamiento anual y evaluar la sostenibilidad ecológica de una población de D. lutea (Cav. Willd. La presente investigación se llevó a cabo en la comunidad de Chalchihuapán, Tenancingo Estado de México (México durante el periodo de otoño 2002 a otoño 2004. Se evaluó una población de Dalea lutea (Cav. Willd. en bosque mixto y en pastizal inducido. Se marcaron para ello cuatro parcelas por zona y se clasifi caron los individuos en tres tipos: plántulas, juveniles y adultas; los datos se trataron con análisis de varianza, prueba de medias y fórmulas de sostenibilidad. La población de D. lutea aumentó durante el verano-otoño y disminuyó durante el periodo invierno-primavera. Los muestreos presentaron diferencias estadísticas para plántulas y juveniles, no así en adultas, pero cuando estas clases se evaluaron dentro de las zonas no difi rieron estadísticamente; el mayor número de individuos se reportó durante el verano, otoño e invierno de 2003. Respecto a sostenibilidad, el pastizal mostró al fi nal del periodo un restablecimiento de 59,5 y 41% para plántulas y plantas adultas, respectivamente, y una disminución de 79% en juveniles. Mientras que en bosque mixto las plántulas y las juveniles decrecieron en 4,4 y 16,2%, y las adultas se restablecieron en 25,1%. La población de D. lutea aumentó o disminuyó conforme la época de muestreo, y el número de individuos estuvo afectado por la precipitación. Bajo las condiciones actuales de recolecta, la población de D. lutea se mantuvo estable en bosque mixto y se restableció mejor en la zona de pastizal.

  5. Exploiting parallel corpora to scale up multilingual biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrich, Johannes; Hahn, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Creating and maintaining biomedical terminologies for multiple natural languages is a resource-expensive task, typically carried out by human domain experts. We here report on efforts to computationally support this process by treating term acquisition as a machine translation-guided classification problem capitalizing on parallel corpora. We report on experiments for French, German, Spanish and Dutch parts of a UMLS-derived terminology for which we generated 18 k, 23 k, 19 k and 12 k new terms and synonyms, respectively. Based on expert assessments of a novel German terminology segment about 80% of the newly acquired terms were judged as bio-medically reasonable and terminologically valid.

  6. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Neves

    2014-01-01

    Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, suc...

  7. Automatic correction of part-of-speech corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Uwe D.; Bucar Shigemori, Lia Saki

    2008-01-01

    In this study a simple method for automatic correction of part-ofspeech corpora is presented, which works as follows: Initially two or more already available part-of-speech taggers are applied on the data. Then a sample of differing outputs is taken to train a classifier to predict for each difference which of the taggers (if any) delivered the correct output. As classifiers we employed instance-based learning, a C4.5 decision tree and a Bayesian classifier. Their performances ranged fr...

  8. Word Sense Disambiguation Using English-Spanish Aligned Phrases over Comparable Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Amoros, David

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a WSD experiment based on bilingual English-Spanish comparable corpora in which individual noun phrases have been identified and aligned with their respective counterparts in the other language. The evaluation of the experiment has been carried out against SemCor. We show that, with the alignment algorithm employed, potential precision is high (74.3%), however the coverage of the method is low (2.7%), due to alignments being far less frequent than we expected. Contrary to our intuition, precision does not rise consistently with the number of alignments. The coverage is low due to several factors; there are important domain differences, and English and Spanish are too close languages for this approach to be able to discriminate efficiently between senses, rendering it unsuitable for WSD, although the method may prove more productive in machine translation.

  9. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools: A Solution in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigdis Jensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business.  Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use.  Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool.  This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond to being able to perform an advanced Google search. We show the different steps in setting up and working with an ad-hoc corpus, illustrated by means of the software AntConc applied on the SEO area.

  10. FacetAtlas: multifaceted visualization for rich text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Sun, Jimeng; Lin, Yu-Ru; Gotz, David; Liu, Shixia; Qu, Huamin

    2010-01-01

    Documents in rich text corpora usually contain multiple facets of information. For example, an article about a specific disease often consists of different facets such as symptom, treatment, cause, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention. Thus, documents may have different relations based on different facets. Powerful search tools have been developed to help users locate lists of individual documents that are most related to specific keywords. However, there is a lack of effective analysis tools that reveal the multifaceted relations of documents within or cross the document clusters. In this paper, we present FacetAtlas, a multifaceted visualization technique for visually analyzing rich text corpora. FacetAtlas combines search technology with advanced visual analytical tools to convey both global and local patterns simultaneously. We describe several unique aspects of FacetAtlas, including (1) node cliques and multifaceted edges, (2) an optimized density map, and (3) automated opacity pattern enhancement for highlighting visual patterns, (4) interactive context switch between facets. In addition, we demonstrate the power of FacetAtlas through a case study that targets patient education in the health care domain. Our evaluation shows the benefits of this work, especially in support of complex multifaceted data analysis.

  11. Metaphor in corpora: a corpus-driven analysis of Applied Linguistics dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a methodology for finding metaphors in corpora. The procedure is based on the wish that, without a prior list of metaphors, the computer would provide a number of possible metaphor candidates. The methodology works by selecting an initial pool of word types in the corpus, finding shared collocates between pairs of those words and then computing a semantic distance measure for those word pairs which have a requisite number of mutual collocates. Cases which satisfy these criteria were then concordanced and interpreted. This methodology was applied to a corpus of MA dissertations in Applied Linguistics, completed in Brazil. The paper highlights the importance of the use of metaphors by novice Applied Linguistic researchers.O presente estudo visa a desenvolver uma metodologia para identificar metáforas em corpora. O procedimento é baseado no desejo de que o computador possa fornecer um repertório de candidatos a metáfora no corpus sem que tivesse tido acesso a uma lista de metáforas possíveis naquele corpus. A metodologia trabalha com uma seleção inicial de palavras, partindo então para a detecção dos colocados em comum entre essas palavras e para o cálculo da distância semântica daqueles pares de palavras que possuam um número mínimo de colocados em comum. Os casos que satisfazem esses critérios são examinados cuidadosamente pelo pesquisador por meio de concordâncias. Essa metodologia foi aplicada a um corpus de dissertações de mestrado de Lingüística Aplicada defendidas no Brasil. O trabalho enfatiza a importância do uso de metáforas nas dissertações de mestrado, como uma maneira de os novos pesquisadores demonstrarem pertencimento à Lingüística Aplicada.

  12. How Can We Use Corpus Wordlists for Language Learning? Interfaces between Computer Corpora and Expert Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Bruncak, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in technology, wordlists retrieved from computer corpora have become increasingly popular in recent years. The lexical items in those wordlists are usually selected, according to a set of robust frequency and dispersion criteria, from large corpora of authentic and naturally occurring language. Corpus wordlists are of great value…

  13. On-Line Access to Linguistically Annotated Text Corpora of Dutch via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, J. G.; Raaijmakers, S. A.; van der Kamp, P. H. J.; van Strien, R. J.

    Corpora of present-day Dutch developed by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology include two linguistically annotated corpora that can be accessed via Internet: a 5-million word corpus covering a variety of topics and text types, and a 27-million word newspaper corpus. The texts of both were acquired in machine-readable form and have been lemmatized…

  14. Use of English Corpora as a Primary Resource to Teach English to the Bengali Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Niladri Sekhar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue in favour of teaching English as a second language to the Bengali learners with direct utilisation of English corpora. The proposed strategy is meant to be assisted with computer and is based on data, information, and examples retrieved from the present-day English corpora developed with various text samples composed by…

  15. Automated extraction of lexical meanings from Polish corpora: potentialities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Piasecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Automated extraction of lexical meanings from Polish corpora: potentialities and limitations Large corpora are often consulted by linguists as a knowledge source with respect to lexicon, morphology or syntax. However, there are also several methods of automated extraction of semantic properties of language units from corpora. In the paper we focus on emerging potentialities of these methods, as well as on their identified limitations. Evidence that can be collected from corpora is confronted with the existing models of formalised description of lexical meanings. Two basic paradigms of lexical semantics extraction are briefly described. Their properties are analysed on the basis of several experiments performed on Polish corpora. Several potential applications of the methods, including a system supporting expansion of a Polish wordnet, are discussed. Finally, perspectives on the potential further development are discussed.

  16. Demequina lutea sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2009-01-01

    up to 2 % NaCl (w/v) in the growth medium. Growth under anaerobic conditions was slow and weak. The peptidoglycan of both isolates was of the A4β type with L-ornithine as the diamino acid and serine as a component of the interpeptide bridge with either D-aspartate (SV45T) or D-glutamate (SV47...... the name Demequina lutea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV45T (=LMG 24795T =DSM 19970T)....

  17. Melatonin-induced neuropeptide release from isolated locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2005-01-01

    A method, based on a combination of mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography, was developed to investigate the release of neuropeptides from isolated locust corpora cardiaca. Melatonin, octopamine, trehalose and forskolin were administered to the perifused glands. The neuropeptides present in the releasates (spontaneous versus induced) were visualized by either conventional or capillary HPLC. Identification was achieved by means of MALDI-TOF MS and/or nanoflow-LC-Q-TOF MS. The observed effects of these chemicals regarding AKH release were in line with previous studies and validate the method. The most important finding of this study was that administration of melatonin stimulated the release of adipokinetic hormone precursor related peptides (APRP 1 and APRP 2), neuroparsins (NP A1, NP A2 and NP B) and diuretic peptide.

  18. Locust corpora cardiaca contain an inactive adipokinetic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, K J

    1999-03-26

    A neuropeptide from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has been identified as a novel member of the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The peptide is probably synthesised in the brain because it is the first AKH found in the storage lobe, whilst the three 'classic' Locusta AKHs are present in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In locusts, the peptide has no biological activity usually associated with AKHs. There is only 36-56% sequence identity with the three Lom-AKHs, but 78% identity with the Drosophila melanogaster AKH, Drm-HrTH. The new peptide is active in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and was provisionally named 'L. migratoria hypertrehalosaemic hormone', Lom-HrTH; its biological role in locusts remains to be established. The high degree of identity with Drm-HrTH suggests that Lom-HrTH is an ancient molecule.

  19. Forty years of working with corpora: from Ibsen to Twitter, and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Hofland

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of forty years of work with language corpora by the research group that started in 1972 as the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities. A brief history highlights major corpora and tools that have been developed in numerous collaborations, including corpora of literature, dialect recordings, learner language, parallel texts, newspaper articles, blog posts and tweets. Current activities are also described, with a focus on corpus analysis tools, treebanks and social media analysis. Keywords: corpus building; corpus analysis tools; treebanks; social media analysis

  20. Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Garabík

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish In this paper we focus on the web-presentation of bilingual corpora in three Slavic languages and their possible applications. Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish corpora are collected and developed as results of the collaboration in the frameworks of two joint research projects between Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, from one side, and from the other side: Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinate by authors of this paper.

  1. The shifts of diazotrophic communities in spring and summer associated with coral Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata and Porites lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanying Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coral holobiont often resides in oligotrophic waters; both coral cells and their symbiotic dinoflagellates possess ammonium assimilation enzymes and potentially benefit from the nitrogen fixation of coral-associated diazotrophs. However, the seasonal dynamics of coral-associated diazotrophs are not well characterized. Here, the seasonal variations of diazotrophic communities associated with three corals, Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata and Porites lutea, were studied using nifH gene amplicon pyrosequencing techniques. Our results revealed a great diversity of coral-associated diazotrophs. nifH sequences related to Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were ubiquitous and dominant in all corals in two seasons. In contrast with the coral P. decussata, both G. astreata and P. lutea showed significant seasonal changes in the diazotrophic communities and nifH gene abundance. Variable diazotroph groups accounted for a range from 11% to 49% within individual coral samples. Most of the variable diazotrophic groups from P. decussata were species-specific, however, the majority of overlapping variable groups in G. astreata and P. lutea showed the same seasonal variation characteristics. Rhodopseudomonas palustris- and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus-affiliated sequences were relatively abundant in the summer, whereas a nifH sequence related to Halorhodospira halophila was relatively abundant in spring G. astreata and P. lutea. The seasonal variations of all diazotrophic communities were significantly correlated with the seasonal shifts of ammonium and nitrate, suggesting that diazotrophs play an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the coral holobiont.

  2. Data Analysis Project: Leveraging Massive Textual Corpora Using n-Gram Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    future work. 1 Introduction Massive textual corpora such as the World Wide Web hold great amounts of information. How- ever, extracting machine...Cryptosporidium rivers tributaries, Helen, water rocks limestone, granite, sandstone, basalt, granites, shale, sandstones, gneiss, gabbro , shales Table

  3. Laughter annotations in conversational speech corpora - possibilities and limitations for phonetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Trouvain, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Existing laughter annotations provided with several publicly available conversational speech corpora (both multiparty and dyadic conversations) were investigated and compared. We discuss the possibilities and limitations of these rather coarse and shallow laughter annotations. There are definition i

  4. Chemical Composition, Biological and Cytotoxic Activities of Plant Extracts and Compounds Isolated from Ferula lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the phytochemical study on Ferula lutea flowers. Total phenolics and flavonoids of the n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were quantified (phenolics [40.68–52.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight], flavonoids [12.38–14.72 mg quercitin/g dry weight]. Two diastereoisomers were isolated and identified using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR and GC-MS. The extracts and diastereoisomers were tested for antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, antidiabectic, cytotoxic (leukemia cell line activities and allelopathic potentialities. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 12.8 ± 1.29 µg/mL. The two extracts exhibited high antidiabetic activity (54.1 and 52.1% at 40 µg/mL.

  5. Chemical composition, biological and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts and compounds isolated from Ferula lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znati, Mansour; Hichem, Ben Jannet; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2014-02-26

    The present work describes the phytochemical study on Ferula lutea flowers. Total phenolics and flavonoids of the n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were quantified (phenolics [40.68-52.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight], flavonoids [12.38-14.72 mg quercitin/g dry weight]). Two diastereoisomers were isolated and identified using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR and GC-MS). The extracts and diastereoisomers were tested for antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, antidiabectic, cytotoxic (leukemia cell line) activities and allelopathic potentialities. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (IC₅₀ = 12.8 ± 1.29 µg/mL). The two extracts exhibited high antidiabetic activity (54.1 and 52.1% at 40 µg/mL).

  6. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented as a perineal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, González-Satué; Ivanna, Valverde Vilamala; Gustavo, Tapia Melendo; Joan, Areal Calama; Javier, Sanchez Macias; Luis, Ibarz Servio

    2012-01-01

    Primary male genital lymphomas may appear rarely in testis, and exceptionally in the penis and prostate, but there is not previous evidence of a lymphoma arising from the corpora cavernosa. We report the first case in the literature of a primary diffuse cell B lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented with low urinary tract symptoms, perineal pain and palpable mass. Diagnosis was based on trucut biopsy, histopathological studies and computed tomographic images. PMID:22919138

  7. The effect of ovary implants on juvenile hormone production by corpora allata of male Diploptera punctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Hass

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cockroach Diploptera punctata, vitellogenic basal oocytes stimulate juvenile hormone production by the corpora allata. Experiments with males were designed to determine whether oocytes must grow vitellogenically in order to stimulate juvenile hormone production. Two ovarioles with vitellogenic basal oocytes were implanted into unoperated and sham-operated males that do not produce vitellogenin, and males with denervated corpora allata, that produce more juvenile hormone, and sometimes more vitellogenin. Males with corpora allata in similar conditions were injected with saline as controls. In males with denervated corpora allata compared to sham-operated and unoperated males, the implanted basal oocytes showed a greater increase in length, protein, and vitellin content. Juvenile hormone synthesis by denervated corpora allata in males with ovariole implants was greater than in controls. In 10 of 50 males with denervated corpora allata in which one or no ovarioles grew, juvenile hormone production was not higher than in controls. This suggests that if sufficient juvenile hormone is not present to produce vitellogenin, or oocytes do not take vitellogenin up, juvenile hormone production is not stimulated. In sham-operated males implanted with ovarioles, no difference was detected in juvenile hormone synthesis compared to controls. However, when unoperated males were used, a significant increase was detected. This suggests that intact nerves from the brain to the corpora allata restrained juvenile hormone production so that ovarioles could elicit only slight stimulation of the corpora allata, and oocytes continued vitellogenesis but more slowly than in denervated males. Thus the extent of vitellogenesis appears to determine the ability of ovaries to stimulate juvenile hormone production.

  8. Transcribing Southern Min Speech Corpora with a Web-Based Language Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Feldmar, Jacques; Laprie, Yves; Fohr, Dominique; Haton, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The paper proposes a human-computation-based scheme for transcribing Southern Min speech corpora. The core idea is to implement a Web-based language learning system to collect orthographic and phonetic labels from a large amount of language learners and choose the commonly input labels as the transcriptions of the corpora. It is essentially a technology of distributed knowledge acquisition. Some computeraided mechanisms are also used to verify the collected transcripti...

  9. Corpora amylacea in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Marlise de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the commonest pathology in epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Beside, there are an increased density of corpora amylacea (CA founded in 6 to 63% of those cases. OBJECTIVE: verify the presence of CA and the clinical correlates of their occurrence in a consective series of patients undergoing temporal surgery with diagnosis of HS. METHOD: We reviewed 72 hippocampus specimens from January 1997 to July 2000. Student's t test for independent, samples, ANOVA and Tukey test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: CA were found in 35 patients (49%, whose mean epilepsy duration (28.7 years was significantly longer than that group of patients without CA (19.5 years, p= 0.001. Besides, when CA were found, duration was also significantly correlated with distribution within hippocampus: 28.7 years with diffuse distribution of CA, 15.4 with exclusively subpial and 17.4 years with distribution subpial plus perivascular (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the presence of CA in patients with HS and suggest that a longer duration of epilepsy correlate with a more distribution of CA in hippocampus.

  10. Citation Matching in Sanskrit Corpora Using Local Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhinandan S.; Rao, Shrisha

    Citation matching is the problem of finding which citation occurs in a given textual corpus. Most existing citation matching work is done on scientific literature. The goal of this paper is to present methods for performing citation matching on Sanskrit texts. Exact matching and approximate matching are the two methods for performing citation matching. The exact matching method checks for exact occurrence of the citation with respect to the textual corpus. Approximate matching is a fuzzy string-matching method which computes a similarity score between an individual line of the textual corpus and the citation. The Smith-Waterman-Gotoh algorithm for local alignment, which is generally used in bioinformatics, is used here for calculating the similarity score. This similarity score is a measure of the closeness between the text and the citation. The exact- and approximate-matching methods are evaluated and compared. The methods presented can be easily applied to corpora in other Indic languages like Kannada, Tamil, etc. The approximate-matching method can in particular be used in the compilation of critical editions and plagiarism detection in a literary work.

  11. TOWARDS A FACETED TAXONOMY TO STRUCTURE WEBGENRE CORPORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Ezeiza Ramos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of cyberjournalistic documents by proposing a taxonomy to structure web-genre corpora. It takes into account the peculiarities of this field, the new genres, their hybridization and complexness. In this sense, the taxonomy presented in this paper does not match a single theoretical framework, but it tries to gather the guidelines of various works intended to study online journalism and its genres. This theoretical flexibility is needed to set up a proposal good enough to suit the current needs of the area. The paper also describes the main axes of the taxonomy, defines its communication unit and remarks the values and limitations of such a work. Its result is a highly structured and document-oriented database, a tool that will enable users to understand the current trends, to create new hybrids, and to detect the changes that happen within this field that is widening the horizons of the usage of language.

  12. How Hierarchical Topics Evolve in Large Text Corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Wu, Zhuofeng; Wei, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Using a sequence of topic trees to organize documents is a popular way to represent hierarchical and evolving topics in text corpora. However, following evolving topics in the context of topic trees remains difficult for users. To address this issue, we present an interactive visual text analysis approach to allow users to progressively explore and analyze the complex evolutionary patterns of hierarchical topics. The key idea behind our approach is to exploit a tree cut to approximate each tree and allow users to interactively modify the tree cuts based on their interests. In particular, we propose an incremental evolutionary tree cut algorithm with the goal of balancing 1) the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts; 2) the historical and new information related to user interests. A time-based visualization is designed to illustrate the evolving topics over time. To preserve the mental map, we develop a stable layout algorithm. As a result, our approach can quickly guide users to progressively gain profound insights into evolving hierarchical topics. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and real-world news data. The results show that users are able to successfully analyze evolving topics in text data.

  13. CORPORA AMYLACEA OF BRAIN TISSUE FROM NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES ARE STAINED WITH SPECIFIC ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS eCARRASCO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin and potential function of corpora amylacea (CA remains largely unknown. Low numbers of CA are detected in the aging brain of normal individuals but they are abundant in the central nervous system of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we show that CA from patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD contain fungal proteins as detected by immunohistochemistry analyses. Accordingly, CA were labeled with different anti-fungal antibodies at the external surface, whereas the central portion composed of calcium salts contain less proteins. Detection of fungal proteins was achieved using a number of antibodies raised against different fungal species, which indicated cross-reactivity between the fungal proteins present in CA and the antibodies employed. Importantly, these antibodies do not immunoreact with cellular proteins. Additionally, CNS samples from patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Parkinson’s disease (PD also contained CA that were immunoreactive with a range of antifungal antibodies. However, CA were less abundant in ALS or PD patients as compared to CNS samples from AD. By contrast, CA from brain tissue of control subjects were almost devoid of fungal immunoreactivity. These observations are consistent with the concept that CA associate with fungal infections and may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of CA.

  14. The shifts of diazotrophic communities in spring and summer associated with coral Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata and Porites lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Yanying Zhang; Qingsong Yang; Juan Ling; Joy Van Nostrand; Zhou Shi; Jizhong Zhou; Junde Dong

    2016-01-01

    The coral holobiont often resides in oligotrophic waters; both coral cells and their symbiotic dinoflagellates possess ammonium assimilation enzymes and potentially benefit from the nitrogen fixation of coral-associated diazotrophs. However, the seasonal dynamics of coral-associated diazotrophs are not well characterized. Here, the seasonal variations of diazotrophic communities associated with three corals, Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata, and Porites lutea, were studied using nifH gene a...

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae) root on learning and memory in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiwhen, I O; Bisong, S A

    2013-12-20

    Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three groups of ten each. One group of mice served as the control and was given normal saline (p.o.) while the other two groups were given acute low dose (1500mg/kg, p.o.) and high dose (2500mg/kg, p.o.) (LD50 3338.83mg/kg). The effect of the extract on cognitive memory was investigated using the Novel Object recognition task (NORT) while the effect on visuospatial learning and memory was studied using the Morris Water maze (MWM). The results obtained in the NORT show that the index of habituation was significantly lower following acute treatment with a low dose of C. lutea extract compared to control. However, the index of habituation did not differ following treatment with a high dose of C. lutea compared to control but it was higher compared to the low dose. Following treatment with a low dose of the extract, the index of discrimination was significantly higher compared to control. The index of discrimination in the high dose treatment group did not differ from control, but it was lower compared to the low dose treatment. This indicated that there was improved cognitive memory only in the low dose treatment group. In the MWM there was no significant difference in swim latency during Acquisition and Reversal training. There also was no significant difference in quadrant duration during probe trial. The swim latency during the visible platform test showed that all mice used had good visual acuity. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of C. lutea root enhanced cognitive memory. However it did not affect visuospatial learning and memory.

  16. The shifts of diazotrophic communities in spring and summer associated with coral Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata and Porites lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Yanying Zhang; Qingsong Yang; Juan Ling; Joy Van Nostrand; Zhou Shi; Jizhong Zhou; Junde Dong

    2016-01-01

    The coral holobiont often resides in oligotrophic waters; both coral cells and their symbiotic dinoflagellates possess ammonium assimilation enzymes and potentially benefit from the nitrogen fixation of coral-associated diazotrophs. However, the seasonal dynamics of coral-associated diazotrophs are not well characterized. Here, the seasonal variations of diazotrophic communities associated with three corals, Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata and Porites lutea, were studied using nifH gene am...

  17. ADAPTATION OF THE OBTAINED in vitro Gentiana lutea L. PLANTS TO ex vitro AND in situ CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop the technology of introduction of the obtained by microclonal propagation Gentiana lutea L. plants into conditions in situ. Methods of cultivation of plant objects in vitro were used. There were chosen optimal conditions for rooting G. lutea shoots obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro: МS/2 medium with twice decreased concentration of NH4NO3 without vitamins and sucrose supplemented with 3 g/l of mannite and 0.05 mg/l kinetin, and agar (4 mg/l in combination with perlite (16 g/l used as a maintaining substrate; or the nutrient medium (MS/2 without vitamins and smaller concentration of N4NO3 with gradual decrease of carbohydrates from 10 g/l to 2 g/l, and further rooting experimental shoots in tap water. Rooted plants were adapted to conditions ex vitro through planting them into flowerpots with soil and gradual changing hothouse regime for exposed one. The share of adapted to in situ conditions plants (21% after a year of planting proves the suggested method to be efficient and promising. There was suggested this technology is the most efficient ones for revival of disturbed G. lutea populations that includes repatriation of rooted and adapted to ex vitro conditions plants obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro.

  18. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Guitián

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition.

  19. Automatically building large-scale named entity recognition corpora from Chinese Wikipedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Bi-cheng LI; Gang CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Named entity recognition (NER) is a core component in many natural language processing applications. Most NER systems rely on supervised machine learning methods, which depend on time-consuming and expensive annotations in different languages and domains. This paper presents a method for automatically building silver-standard NER corpora from Chinese Wikipedia. We refine novel and language-dependent features by exploiting the text and structure of Chinese Wikipedia. To reduce tagging errors caused by entity classification, we design four types of heuristic rules based on the characteristics of Chinese Wikipedia and train a supervised NE classifier, and a combined method is used to improve the precision and coverage. Then, we realize type identification of implicit mention by using boundary information of outgoing links. By selecting the sentences related with the domains of test data, we can train better NER models. In the experiments, large-scale NER corpora containing 2.3 million sentences are built from Chinese Wikipedia. The results show the effectiveness of automatically annotated corpora, and the trained NER models achieve the best performance when combining our silver-standard corpora with gold-standard corpora.

  20. Using corpora in scientific and technical translation training: resources to identify conventionality and promote creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés López-Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the first Corpus Use and Learning to Translate (CULT Conference in Bertinoro (Italy in 1997, the usefulness of corpora for translators and trainee translators has been highlighted. From an initial approach where translators compiled ad hoc corpora in their hard drive for a subsequent study with lexical analysis software, there emerged a new trend towards the use of the Internet as corpus. In this second approach, the Web is perceived as a huge corpus which is accessed by means of online tools which produce monolingual wordlists and concordances from texts available from the Internet or pre-existing corpora, or by means of bilingual or multilingual concordancers displaying aligned texts from international institutions' parallel corpora. Bilingual concordancers and translation memories are widely used by translators and trainee translators because of the immediate translation solutions they offer, but these tools can restrain creativity by offering conventional solutions and eliminating layout and multimodal elements in texts. The aim of this article is to describe the exploitation of quality corpora in a scientific and technical translation course, focusing on texts on health translated from English into Spanish, and on terminological variation as a reflection of creativity in language.

  1. Discovery learning in the language-for-translation classroom: corpora as learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bernardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the idea of discovery learning with corpora, proposed in the 1990s, evaluating its potential and its implications with reference to the education of translators today. The rationale behind this approach to data-driven learning, combining project-based and form-focused instruction within a socio-constructivistically inspired environment, is discussed. Examples are also provided of authentic, open-ended learning experiences, thanks to which students of translation share responsibility over the development of corpora and their consultation, and teachers can abandon the challenging role of omniscient knowledge providers and wear the more honest hat of "learning experts". Adding to the more straightforward uses of corpora in courses that aim to develop thematic, technological and information mining competences – i.e., in which training is offered in the use of corpora as professional aids –, attention is focused on foreign language teaching for translators and on corpora as learning aids, highlighting their potential for the development of the three other European Master's in Translation (EMT competences (translation service provision, language and intercultural ones.

  2. Management, breeding, and health records from a captive colony of pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea), 2001 - 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Cláudio E F; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Zimermann, Francielli C; Stein, Gisele; Marks, Fernanda; Cerva, Cristine; Lieberknecht, Carlos; Canal, Claudio W; Driemeier, David

    2011-09-01

    Pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea) were once the most widely kept softbills in captivity. As a result of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES-1997), the worldwide trade of wild-caught pekin robins has been prohibited due to the depletion of native populations of this species. In Brazil, as in other countries, pekin robins imported prior to the enactment of the CITES have disappeared from aviaries because the end of the birds' natural life span has passed, and only very few captive-bred pekin robins now exist. While captive propagation fails to address the primary causes of wild bird population decline, it might help the recovery of populations of this species. This article presents records made over a 10-yr period of a captive colony of pekin robins. Emphasis is placed on the management of the flock, the ailments affecting the birds, and the findings associated with bird losses. The main causes of bird losses included rearing management failures and age-related disorders.

  3. New bioactive dihydrofuranocoumarins from the roots of the Tunisian Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Saoussen; Jabrane, Aymen; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2013-07-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire led to the isolation of new dihydrofuranocoumarins as two inseparable isomers, (-)-5-hydroxyprantschimgin 1 and (-)-5-hydroxydeltoin 2, together with eight known compounds, (-)-prantschimgin 3, (-)-deltoin 4, psoralen 5, xanthotoxin 6, umbelliferone 7, caffeic acid 8, β-sitosterol 9 and stigmasterol 10. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectroscopy analysis, as well as by comparison with literature data. The anti-acetylcholinesterase and cytotoxic effects of the isolates and antioxidant activities of the mixture (1+2) were also evaluated in this work. Results showed that the mixture (1+2) has the most cytotoxic activity with IC50 values 0.29±0.05 and 1.61±0.57μM against the cell lines HT-29 and HCT 116, respectively. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.76±0.03) was exhibited by the xanthotoxin 6. In addition, the mixture (1+2) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and showed IC50 values 18.56, 13.06, 7.59, and 4.81μM towards DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS radical monocation, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, respectively.

  4. Sentence-alignment and application of russian-german multi-target parallel corpora for linguistic analysis and literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhekova, Desislava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of multi-target parallel corpora consisting of a single source text and multiple target translations of it for linguistic analysis. We discuss the alignment, interactive search and visualization of this type of data within a specific tool called ALuDo (Alignment with Lucene for Dostoyevsky. This is a Java implementation that uses local grammars, ontological information, bilingual dictionaries and statistical approaches for alignment and search. The data set in use is the Russian novel Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky and three German translations of it. With this bilingual corpus quite a number of investigations in the field of linguistics and of literary studies are possible. Additionally, we release part of the resulting parallel corpus.

  5. Pedagogical Application of Specialized Corpora in ESP Teaching: the case of the UVaSTECorpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to defining the concept of specialized corpora, reviews the rationale for using them instead of general corpora in teaching activities, and offers the state of art in both corpus-based and corpus-driven approaches to ESP teaching. It also explains some decisions taken regarding the compilation of the University of Valladolid Corpus of Written Scientific and Technical English and illustrates some uses of the corpus. In particular, it presents some tasks with concordances and defends that ESP students should be taught the niceties of lexical gender as it is a grammatical category with social and/or ideological implications.

  6. The Application of the Comparable Corpora in Chinese-English Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lin; ZHANG Yibo; SUN Le; SUN Yufang

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Chinese-English Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval (CECLIR) model PME, in which bilingual dictionary and comparable corpora are used to translate the query terms. The proximity and mutual information of the term-pairs in the Chinese and English comparable corpora are employed not only to resolve the translation ambiguities but also to perform the query expansion so as to deal with the out-of-vocabulary issues in the CECLIR. The evaluation results show that the query precision of PME algorithm is about 84.4% of the monolingual information retrieval.

  7. A Novel Visualization Tool for Manual Annotation when Building Large Speech Corpora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel visualized sound description, called sound dendrogram is proposed to make manual annotation easier when building large speech corpora. It is a lattice structure built from a group of "seed regions" and through an iterative procedure of mergence. A simple but reliable extraction method of "seed regions" and advanced distance metric are adopted to construct the sound dendrogram, so that it can present speech's structure character ranging from coarse to fine in a visualized way. Tests show that all phonemic boundaries are contained in the lattice structure of sound dendrogram and very easy to identify. Sound dendrogram can be a powerful assistant tool during the process of speech corpora's manual annotation.

  8. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  9. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  10. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

    2014-01-01

    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students, without…

  11. Antioxidant, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of compounds isolated from the Ferula lutea flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znati, Mansour; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Cazaux, Sylvie; Souchard, Jean Pierre; Harzallah Skhiri, Féthia; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2014-10-22

    A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E)-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H)-one-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2), reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), methyl caffeate (5), methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8), (-)-marmesin (9), isoimperatorin (10) and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11). Compounds 3-10 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2), as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively.

  12. Antioxidant, 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Ferula lutea Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir. Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2, reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, methyl caffeate (5, methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8, (−-marmesin (9, isoimperatorin (10 and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11. Compounds 3–10 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2, as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively.

  13. A concept-driven biomedical knowledge extraction and visualization framework for conceptualization of text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiruddin; Abulaish, Muhammad; Dey, Lipika

    2010-12-01

    A number of techniques such as information extraction, document classification, document clustering and information visualization have been developed to ease extraction and understanding of information embedded within text documents. However, knowledge that is embedded in natural language texts is difficult to extract using simple pattern matching techniques and most of these methods do not help users directly understand key concepts and their semantic relationships in document corpora, which are critical for capturing their conceptual structures. The problem arises due to the fact that most of the information is embedded within unstructured or semi-structured texts that computers can not interpret very easily. In this paper, we have presented a novel Biomedical Knowledge Extraction and Visualization framework, BioKEVis to identify key information components from biomedical text documents. The information components are centered on key concepts. BioKEVis applies linguistic analysis and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to identify key concepts. The information component extraction principle is based on natural language processing techniques and semantic-based analysis. The system is also integrated with a biomedical named entity recognizer, ABNER, to tag genes, proteins and other entity names in the text. We have also presented a method for collating information extracted from multiple sources to generate semantic network. The network provides distinct user perspectives and allows navigation over documents with similar information components and is also used to provide a comprehensive view of the collection. The system stores the extracted information components in a structured repository which is integrated with a query-processing module to handle biomedical queries over text documents. We have also proposed a document ranking mechanism to present retrieved documents in order of their relevance to the user query.

  14. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  15. Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora In the field of Slavonic linguistics contrastive studies of neologisms occupy little place, the newest words are insufficiently described and classified. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the need for contrastive description of the newest lexis and checking exclusively one of many possibilities of obtaining Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Language corpora, as this possibility is in question, are not the only source from which the author obtains her research material, yet a growing interest in corpora has inspired her to also use this method. The author wants to show the reader to what degree language corpora can help in building the thesaurus of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Making an attempt to confront a collection of neologisms of contemporary Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language, the author points out the need to standardize the description (identical for each of the analysed languages, which she intends to propose in another publications on neologisms in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language. The application of contrastive method to three different but related languages from the Slavonic group will help, in her opinion, to discover more mechanisms of new words coming into existence and examine the newest derivative processes and their productivity.

  16. Combining Language Corpora with Experimental and Computational Approaches for Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, first language acquisition research was a painstaking process of observation, requiring the laborious hand coding of children's linguistic productions, followed by the generation of abstract theoretical proposals for how the developmental process unfolds. Recently, the ability to collect large-scale corpora of children's language…

  17. Functional characterization of an allatotropin receptor expressed in the corpora allata of mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouzova, Marcela; Brockhoff, Anne; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Goodwin, Marianne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    Allatotropin is an insect neuropeptide with pleiotropic actions on a variety of different tissues. In the present work we describe the identification, cloning and functional and molecular characterization of an Aedes aegypti allatotropin receptor (AeATr) and provide a detailed quantitative study of the expression of the AeATr gene in the adult mosquito. Analysis of the tissue distribution of AeATr mRNA in adult female revealed high transcript levels in the nervous system (brain, abdominal, thoracic and ventral ganglia), corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex and ovary. The receptor is also expressed in heart, hindgut and male testis and accessory glands. Separation of the corpora allata (CA) and corpora cardiaca followed by analysis of gene expression in the isolated glands revealed expression of the AeATr primarily in the CA. In the female CA, the AeATr mRNA levels were low in the early pupae, started increasing 6 hours before adult eclosion and reached a maximum 24 hours after female emergence. Blood feeding resulted in a decrease in transcript levels. The pattern of changes of AeATr mRNA resembles the changes in JH biosynthesis. Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader recordings of calcium transients in HEK293 cells expressing the AeATr showed a selective response to A. aegypti allatotropin stimulation in the low nanomolar concentration range. Our studies suggest that the AeATr play a role in the regulation of JH synthesis in mosquitoes. PMID:21839791

  18. Learning in Parallel: Using Parallel Corpora to Enhance Written Language Acquisition at the Beginning Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Brody

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the pedagogical value of incorporating parallel corpora in foreign language education. It explores the development of a Chinese/English parallel corpus designed specifically for pedagogical application. The corpus tool was created to aid language learners in reading comprehension and writing development by making foreign…

  19. Application of Learner Corpora to Second Language Learning and Teaching: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of learner corpora and their application to second language learning and teaching. It is proposed that there are four core components in learner corpus research, namely, corpus linguistics expertise, a good background in linguistic theory, knowledge of SLA theory, and a good understanding of foreign language teaching…

  20. Using parallel corpora in contrastive studies: Cross-linguistic contrast of future referring expressions in English and Norwegian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hilde Hasselgard

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual corpora have well been recognised as a valuable resource in contrastive and translation studies. This article investigates the development and use of multilingual corpora with a focus on work done in Scandinavia with the purpose ofshowing how parallel corpora can be useful within different fields of language descrip- tions: lexis, grammar and discourse. It also presents a case study that demonstrates how a parallel corpus can be used in comparing two seemingly equivalent future-referring expressions cross-linguistically, namely the English ' be going to' and the Norwegian ' kommer til a' (‘come to').

  1. Cloning of plastid division gene GlFtsZ from Gentiana lutea and its expression during petal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of GlFtsZ was isolated by screening the cDNA library of Gentiana lutea. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by GlFtsZ indicated that GlFtsZ protein possesses the typical conservative motifs existed in all FtsZ proteins. The existence of putative plastid transit peptide in its N-terminus suggested that GlFtsZ might function inside of plastids. With the deve- lopmental process of petals of Gentiana lutea, the expression of plastid division gene GlFtsZ declined gradually, whereas the expression of carotenoids biosynthesis gene Zds increased obviously; meanwhile, in contrast to the increment of carotenoids, the content of chlorophyll in petals decreased sharply. The chloroplasts turned into chromoplasts, and the color of petals also turned from green to golden. All of these results suggested that the expression of GlFtsZ is accompanied with the development and differentiation of plastids.

  2. Changes in macroelement content of rhizomes of Nuphar lutea (L. Sibith. and Sm. during the annual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Tomaszewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of studies on the chemical composition of rhizomes of Nuphar lutea which were carried out from July 2006 to November 2007 (the samples were collected at two-week intervals from March to November 2007. The first indication of the start of the growing season was the growth of leaves in the apical part of the rhizomes. Clearly visible signs that marked the beginning of the growing season were unfolding of leaves, which became arrow-shaped. The leaves had already unfolded and were arrow-shaped (saggitate on April 10th when the temperature of the bottom water layer was 7oC. It may be assumed, therefore, that the growing season began between the 28th March and 10th April 2007. The phosphates, nitrates, sodium, calcium, total iron and sulphates levels in the rhizomes declined just after the growing season had started. The total nitrogen content remained at a constant level whereas the amount of dissolved silica increased. Considerable changes in the macroelement contents were noted when Nuphar lutea was in full bloom (10th-24th June. The macroelement contents presented in the tables and diagrams were expressed on a dry matter basis. An additional table illustrates the macroelement contents expressed on a fresh matter basis. The problem of collecting rhizomes of polycormic plants is discussed.

  3. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of the flower oil of Ferula lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znati, Mansour; Jabrane, Aymen; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Casanova, Joseph; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2012-07-01

    The present work describes the chemical composition and evaluates the antimicrobial and the anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of the flower oil from the Tunisian Ferula lutea obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by combination of GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical composition of the flower oil of this species is reported for the first time. Seventeen compounds were identified accounting for 94.3% of the total oil. The chemical composition of this essential oil was characterized by a high proportion of monoterpene hydrocarbons (80.4%) among which delta-3-carene (31.2%) and alpha-pinene (25.8%) were the predominant compounds. The oxygenated monoterpenes represent the second major fraction (12.0%), 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (10.9%) being the predominant one. Furthermore, the isolated oil was tested for its antimicrobial activity using the disc-diffusion and the microdilution assays against six Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria as well as towards eight Candida species. It was found that flower oil of F. lutea exhibited interesting antibacterial and anticandidal activity (MIC = 39 mcirog/mL against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and MIC = 156 microg/mL against Candida albicans). The anti-acetylcholinesterase effect of this oil was also evaluated in this work. Results showed that this oil exhibits significant activity (IC50 =70.25 +/- 5.41 microg/mL).

  4. Biological effects of synthetic AKH in Manduca sexta and estimates of the amount of AKH in corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R

    1990-01-01

    Dose-response curves were measured with synthetic Manduca adipokinetic hormone (AKH) for glycogen phosphorylase activation in larvae and for lipid mobilization in adults. Both responses are known hormonal functions in Manduca sexta. In ligated larvae, full activation of glycogen phosphorylase was achieved with 0.1 pmol and half-maximal activation with 0.03-0.04 pmol. Maximal lipid mobilization in adults required 10 pmol and half-maximal mobilization 0.15 to 0.2 pmol, respectively. An estimate of AKH content of corpora cardiaca from M. sexta was gained by comparing the dose-response curves for synthetic Manduca AKH with curves from gland extracts. Corpora cardiaca extracts were also quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography. According to both estimates corpora cardiaca of adults contain 10-20 pmol AKH per pair, while a pair of larval corpora cardiaca contains 0.7-2 pmol.

  5. Developmental changes in the response of the fat body of Manduca sexta to injections of Corpora cardiaca extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R

    1984-04-01

    The Corpora cardiaca of larval and adult Manduca sexta contain glycogen phosphorylase-activating and adipokinetic activity. Depending on the age of the injected animal, injection of Corpora cardiaca extracts induces different responses. In larvae of the 1st and 2nd day of the Vth instar, phosphorylase is activated strongly by injections of Corpora cardiaca extracts, whereas in older animals it is only slightly activated. Mobilization of lipids in response to Corpora cardiaca extract injections is found only in animals injected after the imaginal molt; in younger animals this response is absent. It is argued that this difference in responsiveness may be due to a change in the properties of the target organ fat body.

  6. A linear-RBF multikernel SVM to classify big text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R; Iglesias, E L; Borrajo, L

    2015-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a powerful technique for classification. However, SVM is not suitable for classification of large datasets or text corpora, because the training complexity of SVMs is highly dependent on the input size. Recent developments in the literature on the SVM and other kernel methods emphasize the need to consider multiple kernels or parameterizations of kernels because they provide greater flexibility. This paper shows a multikernel SVM to manage highly dimensional data, providing an automatic parameterization with low computational cost and improving results against SVMs parameterized under a brute-force search. The model consists in spreading the dataset into cohesive term slices (clusters) to construct a defined structure (multikernel). The new approach is tested on different text corpora. Experimental results show that the new classifier has good accuracy compared with the classic SVM, while the training is significantly faster than several other SVM classifiers.

  7. Representativeness in corpora of literary texts: introducing the C18P project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemeinböck, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are very few specialised corpora of literary texts that are tailored to the needs of literary critics who are interested in corpus stylistic analyses of prose fiction. Many existing corpora including literary texts were compiled for linguistic research interests and are often unsuitable for corpus stylistic purposes. The paper addresses three of the main problems: the absence of labelling of the texts for literary genre, the use of extracts, and the prevalence of linguistic periodisation schemes. C18P is a corpus of prose fiction designed specifically to address these issues. It traces the early development of the novel from 1700 up until the Victorian era. It can, for instance, be used for an analysis of the characteristic linguistic features of individual literary genres and forms. The following paper introduces the design of the corpus as well as some of its potential uses.

  8. Co-occurrence frequency evaluated with large language corpora boosts semantic priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunellière, Angèle; Perre, Laetitia; Tran, ThiMai; Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, many computational techniques have been developed to analyse the contextual usage of words in large language corpora. The present study examined whether the co-occurrence frequency obtained from large language corpora might boost purely semantic priming effects. Two experiments were conducted: one with conscious semantic priming, the other with subliminal semantic priming. Both experiments contrasted three semantic priming contexts: an unrelated priming context and two related priming contexts with word pairs that are semantically related and that co-occur either frequently or infrequently. In the conscious priming presentation (166-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony, SOA), a semantic priming effect was recorded in both related priming contexts, which was greater with higher co-occurrence frequency. In the subliminal priming presentation (66-ms SOA), no significant priming effect was shown, regardless of the related priming context. These results show that co-occurrence frequency boosts pure semantic priming effects and are discussed with reference to models of semantic network.

  9. A descriptive approach to computerised English historical corpora in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Vázquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical corpora offer many potentialities for linguistic research. Thus, the present article provides an overview of the major English historical corpora compiled or being compiled both in Spain and abroad. They include different types such as tagged and parsed corpora, and their main features will be outlined. As for the organisation of the article, after the introductory section, the historical corpora created abroad will be presented. Then, those being constructed in Spain (Coruña, Las Palmas, Málaga, Salamanca, Santiago and Sevilla will be discussed. Some final remarks and the references close the article.Los corpus históricos ofrecen múltiples posibilidades para la investigación lingüística. En el presente artículo se proporciona una visión general de los corpus históricos ingleses más importantes, compilados o que están en proceso de compilación, a nivel nacional e internacional. Los corpus considerados incluyen distintos tipos, entre los que se encuentran los analizados morfológica y sintácticamente, de los que se esbozan las principales características. En cuanto a la estructura del trabajo, tras la introducción, se presentan los corpus creados en el extranjero y seguidamente se tratan aquellos que se están recopilando en España (La Coruña, Las Palmas, Málaga, Salamanca, Santiago y Sevilla. Cierran el estudio algunas consideraciones finales y las referencias bibliográficas.

  10. Fault-tolerant Fulltext Search for Large Multilingual Scientific Text Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Wolfram M.

    2006-01-01

    In the work reported here, we present a new way of performing fault-tolerant fulltext retrieval on large text corpora, such as scientific encyclopedias. The weighted pattern morphing (WPM) technique introduced in this paper overcomes disadvantages of both the popular edit distance measure and the Soundex code approaches, yet keeping their flexibility. This algorithm handles phonetic similarities; common typing errors such as omission or transposition of letters, and inconsistent usage of abbr...

  11. Correction of disproportion of corpora cavernosa as cause of chordee in hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, P M; Gibbons, M D; Gonzales, E T

    1983-12-01

    Correction of chordee is a basic step in hypospadias surgery. In some children with significant chordee, ventral deflection of the shaft will persist after all "chordee tissue" is excised from the surface of the corpora cavernosa. In the flaccid state, this persistent chordee may not be evident but is easily demonstrated with an artificial erection technique. The use of dorsal plication of the tunica albuginea to correct this deformity is emphasized.

  12. Draft genome sequence of Halomonas lutea strain YIM 91125(T) (DSM 23508(T)) isolated from the alkaline Lake Ebinur in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Yu; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Haynes, Matthew; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tindall, Brian J; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Species of the genus Halomonas are halophilic and their flexible adaption to changes of salinity and temperature brings considerable potential biotechnology applications, such as degradation of organic pollutants and enzyme production. The type strain Halomonas lutea YIM 91125(T) was isolated from a hypersaline lake in China. The genome of strain YIM 91125(T) becomes the twelfth species sequenced in Halomonas, and the thirteenth species sequenced in Halomonadaceae. We described the features of H. lutea YIM 91125(T), together with the high quality draft genome sequence and annotation of its type strain. The 4,533,090 bp long genome of strain YIM 91125(T) with its 4,284 protein-coding and 84 RNA genes is a part of Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project. From the viewpoint of comparative genomics, H. lutea has a larger genome size and more specific genes, which indicated acquisition of function bringing better adaption to its environment. DDH analysis demonstrated that H. lutea is a distinctive species, and halophilic features and nitrogen metabolism related genes were discovered in its genome.

  13. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  14. Evidence that locustatachykinin I is involved in release of adipokinetic hormone from locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D R; Passier, P C; Elekes, K; Dircksen, H; Vullings, H G; Cantera, R

    1995-06-27

    The glandular cells of the corpus cardiacum of the locust Locusta migratoria, known to synthesize and release adipokinetic hormones (AKH), are contacted by axons immunoreactive to an antiserum raised against the locust neuropeptide locustatachykinin I (LomTK I). Electron-microscopical immunocytochemistry reveals LomTK immunoreactive axon terminals, containing granular vesicles, in close contact with the glandular cells cells. Release of AKH I from isolated corpora cardiaca of the locust has been monitored in an in vitro system where the amount of AKH I released into the incubation saline is determined by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. We could show that LomTK I induces release of AKH from corpora cardiaca in a dose-dependent manner when tested in a range of 10-200 microM. This is thus the first clear demonstration of a substance inducing release of AKH, correlated with the presence of the substance in fibers innervating the AKH-synthesizing glandular cells, in the insect corpora cardiaca.

  15. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  16. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  17. High-resolution climate recorded in the δ 13 C of Porites lutea from Nansha Islands of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Porites lutea core from Yongshu Reef of Nansha Islands covering 50_year growth history is analyzed for carbon isotopic composition with monthly and seasonal resolution, and the results show that the coral δ 13 C generally has clear yearly cycles. The calibration indicates that the coral δ 13 C can record the sunshine duration, total cloud cast and rainfall of the Yongshu Reef, and it also shows significant association to El Nio events. From 1950 to 1999, the δ 13 C shows a clear long-term declining trend, which indicates a decrease in the sunshine duration and an increase in cloud cast and rainfall over Yongshu Reef over the past fifty years.

  18. Identification of two organic bands showing different chemical composition within the skeleton of Porites lutea: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M.; Nehrke, G.

    2012-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy mapping was used to investigate the organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines showed an elemental composition that differed from the incremental growth layers. The position and shape of the latter growth lines resemble either denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines) or former skeletal surfaces. We hypothesize that these lines are involved in the three-dimensional arrangement of skeletal elements and represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal components continues. We show that high spatial resolution mapping can significantly improve our understanding of skeletal growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  19. Estudo da produção do suco clarificado de cajá (Spondias lutea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA Antonio de Pádua Valença da; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; OLIVEIRA Gerardo Sérgio Francelino de; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro

    1999-01-01

    Cajás ( Spondias lutea L.), oriundos do município de Maranguape, Ceará, Brasil, foram processados em nível de escala-piloto para obtenção de suco clarificado através do emprego de enzimas pectinolíticas e agentes clarificantes. Aplicaram-se 120ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) na polpa para obtenção do suco polposo e, em seguida, 500ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex-AR) no suco extraído, utilizando-se a "Prova do álcool" como indicador da presença de pectina. Para o proces...

  20. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea, and leaves of Annona muricata. Materials and methods Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund’s adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. Results The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group (P<0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Conclusion Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa, flowers of C. lutea, and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits. PMID:27877047

  1. Antidiuretic effects of a factor in brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata extract on fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Audsley, N; Schooley, D A

    2000-02-01

    Extracts of the brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata (Br/CC/CA) complex of Manduca sexta larvae elicit an antidiuretic effect, measured by an increase in fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of larval M. sexta. Separation of the extract by reversed-phase liquid chromatography gave two fractions with antidiuretic effects. The more potent of these two factors was further characterized for its effects on the cryptonephric complex. Its antidiuretic effect is not inhibited by bumetanide, a drug that inhibits M. sexta diuretic hormone (Mas-DH)-stimulated fluid reabsorption. These data indicate that the mechanism of the antidiuretic effect of the factor is different from that of Mas-DH on the cryptonephric complex. The basal reabsorption of the cryptonephric complex is blocked when treated on the lumen side with bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of the H(+)-ATPase, or with amiloride, an inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) antiporter. However, the antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption is not affected by either bafilomycin A(1) or amiloride. The increase in reabsorption triggered by the semi-purified factor can be inhibited by Cl(-) channel blockers or by removing Cl(-) from the lumen side of the cryptonephric complex. It appears that this factor activates a Cl(-) pump associated with the cryptonephric complex. Forskolin mimics the effect of this factor on fluid reabsorption, and the effect of forskolin is not inhibited by bumetanide. A selective and potent inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, also inhibits antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption. Addition of the factor to cryptonephric complexes maintained in vitro caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels extracted from these tissues compared with values for controls. These data suggest that the antidiuretic effect of the factor in Br/CC/CA extract is mediated by cyclic AMP.

  2. Analysis of peptides in the brain and corpora cardiaca-corpora allata of the honey bee, Apis mellifera using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    The neuropeptide profiles and diversity of the brain and retrocerebral organs (corpora cardiaca-corpora allata; CC-CA) of adult workers of the honey bee Apis mellifera carnica (dark European strain) were investigated using a combination of HPLC and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with post-source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation. Using evidence from genomic sources, including BLAST searches of the honey bee genome, comparisons with other species and de novo sequencing by PSD and CID fragmentation, a total of 13 mass ions could be assigned to peptides predicted from the A. mellifera genomic database. Peptides positively identified were A. mellifera tachykinin-related peptides 3 and 4 (APMGFQGMRa; APMGFYGTRa) and leucomyosuppressin (pEDVDHVFLRFa). Peptides tentatively identified were A. mellifera tachykinin-related peptides 2 and 5 (ALMGFQGVRa; ARMGFHGMRa), A. mellifera allatostatins 2, 3 and 4 (GRDYSFGLa; RQYSFGLa; GRQPYSFGLa), A1-SIFamide (AYRKPPFNGSIFa), Q1-leucomyosuppressin (QDVDHVFLRFa) and A. mellifera pyrokinins PK 1, PK 2 and Q1-PK 2 (TSQDITSGMWFGPRLa; pEITQFTPRLa; QITQFTPRLa). Allatostatins, tachykinin-related peptides and A1-SIFamide were not detected in CC-CA extract, which appears to contain predominantly leucomyosuppressin, Q1-leucomyosuppressin, PK 1, PK 2, Q1-PK 2 and some unidentified masses. No ion signal was detected that would correspond to the hypertrehalosaemic peptide (=Manse-AKH), which has been isolated from the Italian race of the honey bee (A. mellifera ligustica), but not from A. mellifera carnica.

  3. Effect of numbers of sperm and timing of a single, post-cervical insemination on the fertility of weaned sows treated with OvuGel(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Esparza-Harris, K C; Johnston, M E; Webel, S K

    2017-04-01

    Variability in estrus and ovulation requires multiple inseminations during estrus to ensure one AI occurs close to ovulation. Induction of ovulation after weaning improves synchrony of ovulation and allows for fixed time AI. However, the interaction between number of sperm in the AI dose and the timing of insemination has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sperm numbers used in a single post-cervical insemination (PCAI) and the timing of insemination following induced ovulation in weaned sows. The experiment was performed using sows (n = 641) allotted by parity (1-6) and lactation length (19.5 d) to receive a single PCAI using 1.5 or 2.5 billion motile sperm at either 22, 26, or 30 h following administration of a GnRH agonist, triptorelin acetate (OvuGel(®)) at 96 h post-weaning. Sows received boar contact once daily 3-6 d following weaning. A sub-population of the sows (n = 499) were assessed for follicle size and ovulation utilizing ultrasound at 8 h intervals. There was no interaction of number of sperm and timing of insemination for any response measure (P > 0.10). Wean to estrus interval (4.8 d), duration of estrus (1.9 d), and expression of estrus (88.0%), were not different among treatments (P > 0.10). Of sows scanned by ultrasound at the time of OvuGel(®), 88.2% had large follicles, 10.9% had small, medium or cystic sized follicles, and 0.9% had corpora lutea. The proportion of sows that ovulated averaged 94%, and differed by time of AI (P ≤ 0.05) but not by number of sperm. Pregnancy rate and farrowing rate tended to be affected by dose (P ≤ 0.10), while time of insemination affected pregnancy rate and tended to influence farrowing rate (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was greater (P sows that did not exhibit estrus, approximately 50% farrowed a litter. Total born and born alive were affected by dose (P sows resulted in 88% of sows ovulating within a 24 h period. Fertility was

  4. Ontology-based retrieval of bio-medical information based on microarray text corpora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Allan; Zambach, Sine; Have, Christian Theil

    Microarray technology is often used in gene expression exper- iments. Information retrieval in the context of microarrays has mainly been concerned with the analysis of the numeric data produced; how- ever, the experiments are often annotated with textual metadata. Al- though biomedical resources...... are exponentially growing, the text corpora are sparse and inconsistent in spite of attempts to standardize the format. Ordinary keyword search may in some cases be insucient to nd rele- vant information and the potential benet of using a semantic approach in this context has only been investigated to a limited...

  5. Using language corpora in initial teacher education: pedagogic issues and practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Anne; Farr, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    peer-reviewed Recent years have seen a vast increase in the amount of materials such as dictionaries and grammars which are ‘corpus-based’ and it is difficult to dispute the contribution of corpus linguistics to English language description. There have also been many developments in the use of corpora in the classroom in data-driven learning (Johns 1991). However, this rapid development in new technology has not been matched in teacher education provision. This paper aims to make a case fo...

  6. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching computer corpora for language learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Alex

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper outlines how corpora (in printed, electronic or multi-modal form) can be used in language learning, an area often referred to as "data-driven learning" or DDL (Johns 1991). The alleged advantages are numerous, but are in need of empirical support which is frequently claimed to be lacking in the field. However, over 80 studies have so far attempted to evaluate some aspect of corpus use by non-native speakers (Boulton 2010): these are briefly reviewed as a who...

  7. Structure elucidation and biological activity of an unusual adipokinetic hormone from corpora cardiaca of the butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllisch, G V; Lorenz, M W; Kellner, R; Verhaert, P D; Hoffmann, K H

    2000-09-01

    A structurally unusual member of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone peptide family was isolated from corpora cardiaca of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui. Its primary structure was assigned by Edman degradation and nano-electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as pQLTFTSSWGGK (Vac-AKH). Vac-AKH represents the first 11mer and the first nonamidated peptide in this family. The peptide shows significant adipokinetic activity in adult specimens of V. cardui. Injection of 10 pmol of synthetic Vac-AKH into 4-day-old decapitated males resulted in an approximately 150% increase of hemolymph lipids after 90 min. Half maximal adipokinetic activity was achieved with about 0. 1 pmol of Vac-AKH. During a 2-h incubation of corpora cardiaca/corpora allata complexes in medium containing 50 mM KCl, significant amounts of Vac-AKH were released from the glands.

  8. Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties.

  9. Extraction of V-N-Collocations from Text Corpora A Feasibility Study for German

    CERN Document Server

    Breidt, E

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of a statistical approach suggested by Church et al. (1991) is evaluated for the extraction of verb-noun (V-N) collocations from German text corpora. Some problematic issues of that method arising from properties of the German language are discussed and various modifications of the method are considered that might improve extraction results for German. The precision and recall of all variant methods is evaluated for V-N collocations containing support verbs, and the consequences for further work on the extraction of collocations from German corpora are discussed. With a sufficiently large corpus (>= 6 mio. word-tokens), the average error rate of wrong extractions can be reduced to 2.2% (97.8% precision) with the most restrictive method, however with a loss in data of almost 50% compared to a less restrictive method with still 87.6% precision. Depending on the goal to be achieved, emphasis can be put on a high recall for lexicographic purposes or on high precision for automatic lexical acquisiti...

  10. Comparative HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD study of different populations of cultivated, wild and commercial Gentiana lutea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ahmed M; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Maggi, Filippo; Marín, Rosa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    The root of Gentiana lutea L., famous for its bitter properties, is often used in alcoholic bitter beverages, food products and traditional medicine to stimulate the appetite and improve digestion. This study presents a new, fast, and accurate HPLC method using HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD for simultaneous analysis of iridoids (loganic acid), secoiridoids (gentiopicroside, sweroside, swertiamarin, amarogentin) and xanthones (isogentisin) in different populations of G.lutea L., cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park, obtained wild there, or purchased commercially. Comparison of HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD indicated that HPLC/ESI-MS is more sensitive, reliable and selective. Analysis of twenty samples showed that gentiopicroside is the most dominant compound (1.85-3.97%), followed by loganic acid (0.11-1.30%), isogentisin (0.03-0.48%), sweroside (0.05-0.35%), swertiamarin (0.08-0.30%), and amarogentin (0.01-0.07%). The results confirmed the high quality of the G.lutea cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park.

  11. Web-Application for the Presentation of Bilingual Corpora (Focusing on Bulgarian as One of the Two Paired Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-Application for the Presentation of Bilingual Corpora (Focusing on Bulgarian as One of the Two Paired Languages This paper briefly presents a web-application for the presentation of bilingual aligned corpora focusing on Bulgarian as one the two paired languages. The focus is given to the description of the software tools and user interface. The software is developed in IMI-BAS and will be hosted on a server there. Some examples of the usage of the web-application for the presentation of a Bulgarian-Polish aligned corpus are included.

  12. Breathe New Life into English Teaching:A Book Review of Using Corpo-ra in the Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐磊; 江晓敏

    2013-01-01

    The present article provides a critical review of Randi Reppen’s impressing book Using Corpora in the Language Class⁃room. It’s argued that Randi Reppen’s book, despite a few slight flaws, has a strong practical orientation and is a laudable effort to make English language teachers to realize the importance and practicality of bringing corpora into classroom in digital age. The book is particularly worthy of reading for those language teachers (especially beginner teachers) who want to breathe new life into their English teaching.

  13. Estudo da produção do suco clarificado de cajá (Spondias lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Antonio de Pádua Valença da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajás ( Spondias lutea L., oriundos do município de Maranguape, Ceará, Brasil, foram processados em nível de escala-piloto para obtenção de suco clarificado através do emprego de enzimas pectinolíticas e agentes clarificantes. Aplicaram-se 120ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex Ultra SP-L na polpa para obtenção do suco polposo e, em seguida, 500ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex-AR no suco extraído, utilizando-se a "Prova do álcool" como indicador da presença de pectina. Para o processo de clarificação do suco foram utilizados, como agentes clarificantes, 400ppm de gelatina e 500ppm de sílica sol. A "Prova do excesso e/ou da insuficiência de clarificação", bem como a "Prova de estabilidade" mostraram resultados negativos, indicando a eficiência do processo de clarificação.

  14. The high-resolution climaterecorded in the δ18O of Porites lutea from the Nansha Islands of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A Porites lutea core from Yongshu Reef of Nansha Islands covering 50 years growth history was analyzed for oxygen isotopic composition with monthly and seasonally resolution. The calibration of the δ18O with the instrumental temperature indicated that the coral δ18O is a good indicator for sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature ( t ). It can be used to reconstruct the SST and air temperature of the Yongshu Reef sea area. In addition, the coral δ18O provides signatures for the intensity of the East Asia monsoon and it is a record for the activities of El Ni(n~)o events. With the calibrated SST and air temperature formulas, the most recent fifty years SST and air temperature were reconstructed based on the coral δ18O, thus back up the understanding of the climate of Nansha Islands to 1950, far beyond the limit of the instrumental recording since September 1988. It was found that, in general, increasing 1℃ air temperature results in 0.24‰ decrease in skeletal δ18O.

  15. Reconstructing skeletal fiber arrangement and growth mode in the coral Porites lutea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nehrke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM mapping was used to investigate the microstructural arrangement and organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Relative changes in the crystallographic orientation of crystals within the fibrous fan-system could be mapped, without the need to prepare thin sections, as required if this information is obtained by polarized light microscopy. Simultaneously, incremental growth lines can be visualized without the necessity of etching and hence alteration of sample surface. Using these methods two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines resemble denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines or skeletal surfaces. We hypothesize that these lines represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal areas continues. We show that CRM mapping with high spatial resolution can significantly improve our understanding of the micro-structural arrangement and growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  16. Reconstructing skeletal fiber arrangement and growth mode in the coral Porites lutea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia): a confocal Raman microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M.; Nehrke, G.

    2012-11-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) mapping was used to investigate the microstructural arrangement and organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Relative changes in the crystallographic orientation of crystals within the fibrous fan-system could be mapped, without the need to prepare thin sections, as required if this information is obtained by polarized light microscopy. Simultaneously, incremental growth lines can be visualized without the necessity of etching and hence alteration of sample surface. Using these methods two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines resemble denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines or skeletal surfaces). We hypothesize that these lines represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal areas continues. We show that CRM mapping with high spatial resolution can significantly improve our understanding of the micro-structural arrangement and growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  17. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase from the fungal strain Humicola lutea 103 improves ram spermatozoa functions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, R; Angelova, M; Stefanova, T; Subev, M; Dolashka, P; Voelter, W; Zachariev, Z

    2004-04-01

    In this study we determined the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during incubation in media at 39 degrees C on ram spermatozoa and the protection by exogenously added antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). A novel Cu/Zn-SOD, isolated from the fungal strain Humicola lutea 103 (HLSOD), was used. Our results point out that the levels of both, superoxide anion radicals (*O2-) and H2O2, increase approximately 8-10- and 2-3-fold, respectively, during incubation of spermatozoa. Enhanced ROS generation coincided with reduction of motility, independently of the type of diluted medium. Addition of HLSOD (30, 60 and 120 U ml(-1) sperm) improved sperm functions, maintaining almost initial percentages of motile spermatozoa and increasing the values of mean cytochemical coefficient. At the same time, a significant diminution of *O2- and H2O2 content in the presence of antioxidant enzyme was established. The results suggest that HLSOD is an effective *O2- scavenger in semen that leads to protection of sperm functions.

  18. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1 from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4, swerchirin (6, and methylswertianin (7 showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  19. Characterisation of an atypical manifestation of black band disease on Porites lutea in the Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David A.; Schleyer, Michael H.; Chabanet, Pascale; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD) presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation. Surveys conducted within two geomorphological zones over two consecutive summers and winters showed spatial and seasonal patterns consistent with those found for typical BBD. Genetic analyses suggested an uncharacteristically high level of Vibrio spp. bacterial infection within PorBBD. However, microscopic analysis revealed high densities of cyanobacteria, penetrating the compromised tissue as well as the presence of basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates in the living tissue, adjacent to the bacterial mat. Additionally, classical BBD-associated cyanobacterial strains, genetically related to Pseudoscillatoria coralii and Roseofilum reptotaenium were identified and isolated and the presence of sulfate-reducers or sulfide-oxidizers such as Desulfovibrio and Arcobacter, previously shown to be associated with anoxic microenvironment within typical BBD was also observed, confirming that PorBBD is a manifestation of classical BBD. PMID:27441106

  20. Characterisation of an atypical manifestation of black band disease on Porites lutea in the Western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Séré

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation. Surveys conducted within two geomorphological zones over two consecutive summers and winters showed spatial and seasonal patterns consistent with those found for typical BBD. Genetic analyses suggested an uncharacteristically high level of Vibrio spp. bacterial infection within PorBBD. However, microscopic analysis revealed high densities of cyanobacteria, penetrating the compromised tissue as well as the presence of basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates in the living tissue, adjacent to the bacterial mat. Additionally, classical BBD-associated cyanobacterial strains, genetically related to Pseudoscillatoria coralii and Roseofilum reptotaenium were identified and isolated and the presence of sulfate-reducers or sulfide-oxidizers such as Desulfovibrio and Arcobacter, previously shown to be associated with anoxic microenvironment within typical BBD was also observed, confirming that PorBBD is a manifestation of classical BBD.

  1. Stretched Verb Collocations with "Give": Their Use and Translation into Spanish Using the BNC and CREA Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Plaza, Silvia; de Gregorio-Godeo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of on-going research, this paper explores the pedagogical implications of contrastive analyses of multiword units in English and Spanish based on electronic corpora as a CALL resource. The main tenets of collocations from a contrastive perspective--and the points of contact and departure between both languages--are discussed…

  2. The Effect of the Integration of Corpora in Reading Comprehension Classrooms on English as a Foreign Language Learners' Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    This study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effect of the integration of corpora in general English courses on the students' vocabulary development. To enhance the learners' lexical repertoire and thereby improve their reading comprehension, an online corpus-based approach was integrated into 42 hours of…

  3. Automatic Entity Recognition and Typing from Massive Text Corpora: A Phrase and Network Mining Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    In today's computerized and information-based society, we are soaked with vast amounts of text data, ranging from news articles, scientific publications, product reviews, to a wide range of textual information from social media. To unlock the value of these unstructured text data from various domains, it is of great importance to gain an understanding of entities and their relationships. In this tutorial, we introduce data-driven methods to recognize typed entities of interest in massive, domain-specific text corpora. These methods can automatically identify token spans as entity mentions in documents and label their types (e.g., people, product, food) in a scalable way. We demonstrate on real datasets including news articles and tweets how these typed entities aid in knowledge discovery and management.

  4. Identification of a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide from the corpora cardiaca of locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynen, Elke; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Baggerman, Geert; Van Doorn, Jan; Van Der Horst, Dick; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2003-08-01

    A mass spectrometric study of the peptidome of the neurohemal part of the corpora cardiaca of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria shows that it contains several unknown peptides. We were able to identify the sequence of one of these peptides as pQSDLFLLSPK. This sequence is identical to the part of the Locusta insulin-related peptide (IRP) precursor that is situated between the signal peptide and the B-chain. We designated this peptide as IRP copeptide. This IRP copeptide is also present in the pars intercerebralis, which is likely to be the site of synthesis. It is identical in both L. migratoria and S. gregaria. It shows no effect on the hemolymph lipid concentration in vivo or muscle contraction in vitro. The IRP copeptide is able to cause a decreased phosphorylase activity in locust fat body in vitro, opposite to the effect of the adipokinetic hormones and therefore possibly represents a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide.

  5. Taming Big Data: An Information Extraction Strategy for Large Clinical Text Corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew H; Gupta, Kalpana; Trautner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Concepts of interest for clinical and research purposes are not uniformly distributed in clinical text available in electronic medical records. The purpose of our study was to identify filtering techniques to select 'high yield' documents for increased efficacy and throughput. Using two large corpora of clinical text, we demonstrate the identification of 'high yield' document sets in two unrelated domains: homelessness and indwelling urinary catheters. For homelessness, the high yield set includes homeless program and social work notes. For urinary catheters, concepts were more prevalent in notes from hospitalized patients; nursing notes accounted for a majority of the high yield set. This filtering will enable customization and refining of information extraction pipelines to facilitate extraction of relevant concepts for clinical decision support and other uses.

  6. Corpora of Vietnamese texts: lexical effects of intended audience and publication place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn; Carney, Edward

    2008-02-01

    This article has two primary aims. The first is to introduce a new Vietnamese text-based corpus. The Corpora of Vietnamese Texts (CVT; Tang, 2006a) consists of approximately 1 million words drawn from newspapers and children's literature, and is available online at www.vnspeechtherapy.com/vi/CVT. The second aim is to investigate potential differences in lexical frequency and distributional characteristics in the CVT on the basis of place of publication (Vietnam or Western countries) and intended audience: adult-directed texts (newspapers) or child-directed texts (children's literature). We found clear differences between adult- and child-directed texts, particularly in the distributional frequencies of pronouns or kinship terms, which were more frequent in children's literature. Within child- and adult-directed texts, lexical characteristics did not differ on the basis of place of publication. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  7. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Acevedo J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Arroyo-Acevedo,1–3 Cesar Franco-Quino,4,5 Eliberto Ruiz-Ramirez,4,5 Roberto Chávez-Asmat,1,6 Andrea Anampa-Guzmán,7,8 Ernesto Raéz-González,3 José Cabanillas-Coral9 1Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute of Clinical Research, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru; 2Institute of Clinical Research, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru; 3Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru; 4Laboratory of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru; 5Graduate Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru; 6Association for the Development of Student Research in Health Sciences (ADIECS, Lima, Peru; 7School of Human Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru; 8Sociedad Científica de San Fernando (SCSF, Lima, Peru; 9Faculty of Medicine, National University San Luis Gonzaga of Ica, Ica, Peru Introduction: Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea, and leaves of Annona muricata. Materials and methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS and group B received it diluted in Freund’s adjuvant (FA. Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, and 1,000 µg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received

  8. Sr/Ca and {delta} {sup 18}O ratios measured from Acropora nobilis and Porites lutea: Is Sr/Ca paleo-thermometry always reliable?; Mesures conjointes des rapports Sr/Ca et {delta} {sup 18}O effectuees sur Acropora nobilis et Porites lutea: le paleothermometre Sr/Ca est-il toujours fiable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiseau, M.; Trupin, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre des Faibles Radioactivites; Cornu, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. d' oceanographie dynamique et de climatologie, Unite mixte CNRS-ORSTOM-UPCM, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-11-01

    We measured the Sr/Ca and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios in Acropora nobilis and Porites lutea, from the Mayotte lagoon. As the variations of {delta}{sup 18}O{sub seawater} are negligible, coral {delta}{sup 18}O{sub aragonite} reflects only seasonal temperature variations. While there is a good agreement between the Sr/Ca ratio and {delta}{sup 18}O for Acropora nobilis, it is not the case for Porites lutea. Coral biological and environmental parameters cannot explain the discrepancies between Sr/Ca ratios and isotopic measurements. However transport mechanisms of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} and the presence of two mineralogical structures of strontium may affect the Sr/Ca ratio.

  9. Observación de leiotrix piquirrojo Leiothrix lutea (Scopoli, 1786) en Irún. Nueva especie de aveexótica en Gipuzkoa

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Azkue, I., Michelena, P.L., Esparcia, J.F., Belzunce, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Se ha observado por primera vez en Gipuzkoa la especie leiotrix piquirrojo Leiothrix lutea (Scopoli, 1786), también conocido como ruiseñor del Japón, paseriforme catalogado como especie exótica invasora en el Catálogo Español de Especies Exóticas Invasoras. Los individuos, encontrados en los municipios de Irún, Hondarribia y Donostia-San Sebastián, han podido migrar de una población naturalizada instalada en el sur de Francia. La expansión hacia el sur de esta población predice una presenc...

  10. Comparative transcriptome of wild type and selected strains of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea provides insights into the genetic basis, lipid metabolism and the life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Carrier

    Full Text Available The applied exploitation of microalgae cultures has to date almost exclusively involved the use of wild type strains, deposited over decades in dedicated culture collections. Concomitantly, the concept of improving algae with selection programs for particular specific purposes is slowly emerging. Studying since a decade an economically and ecologically important haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso, we took advantage of the availability of wild type (Tiso-Wt and selected (Tiso-S2M2 strains to conduct a molecular variations study. This endeavour presented substantial challenges: the genome assembly was not yet available, the life cycle unknown and genetic diversity of Tiso-Wt poorly documented. This study brings the first molecular data in order to set up a selection strategy for that microalgae. Following high-throughput Illumina sequencing, transcriptomes of Tiso-Wt and Tiso-S2M2 were de novo assembled and annotated. Genetic diversity between both strains was analyzed and revealed a clear conservation, while a comparison of transcriptomes allowed identification of polymorphisms resulting from the selection program. Of 34,374 transcripts, 291 were differentially expressed and 165 contained positional polymorphisms (SNP, Indel. We focused on lipid over-accumulation of the Tiso-S2M2 strain and 8 candidate genes were identified by combining analysis of positional polymorphism, differential expression levels, selection signature and by study of putative gene function. Moreover, genetic analysis also suggests the existence of a sexual cycle and genetic recombination in Tisochrysis lutea.

  11. Transfer of selected mineral nutrients and trace elements in the host-hemiparasite association, Cistus-Odontites lutea, growing on and off metal-polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llugany, M; Lombini, A; Dinelli, E; Poschenrieder, C; Barceló, J

    2009-03-01

    The role of a hemiparasitic life-style in plant resistance to toxic trace elements in polluted soils is unclear. Restriction of metal uptake by the host, restriction of metal transfer from host to parasite, or transformation of metals into a less toxic form may play a role. This study analysed the transfer of selected mineral elements from soil to host (Cistus spp.) and from host to hemiparasite (Odontites lutea) at locations with different metal burdens: a Cu-rich serpentine site, Pb-Ba mine spoil and an unpolluted soil. Highest soil-to-host transfer factors for K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu and Pb were observed on the unpolluted soil. Statistically significant differences among locations of host-to-parasite transfer factors were only found for Ca and Pb. Restriction of transfer of unfavourable Ca/Mg ratios, characteristic at the serpentine site, and of high Pb and Zn concentrations at the Pb-Ba mine occurred mainly at the soil-host, and not at the host-parasite, level. Odontites lutea was able to withstand enhanced Zn and Pb concentrations and low Fe/Cu ratios in shoot tissue without developing toxicity symptoms. This could be caused by specific metal resistance mechanisms in this hemiparasite and/or the transformation and transfer of these metals into a less toxic form by the metal-tolerant host.

  12. Comparative transcriptome of wild type and selected strains of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea provides insights into the genetic basis, lipid metabolism and the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Gregory; Garnier, Matthieu; Le Cunff, Loïc; Bougaran, Gaël; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Corre, Erwan; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Saint-Jean, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The applied exploitation of microalgae cultures has to date almost exclusively involved the use of wild type strains, deposited over decades in dedicated culture collections. Concomitantly, the concept of improving algae with selection programs for particular specific purposes is slowly emerging. Studying since a decade an economically and ecologically important haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso), we took advantage of the availability of wild type (Tiso-Wt) and selected (Tiso-S2M2) strains to conduct a molecular variations study. This endeavour presented substantial challenges: the genome assembly was not yet available, the life cycle unknown and genetic diversity of Tiso-Wt poorly documented. This study brings the first molecular data in order to set up a selection strategy for that microalgae. Following high-throughput Illumina sequencing, transcriptomes of Tiso-Wt and Tiso-S2M2 were de novo assembled and annotated. Genetic diversity between both strains was analyzed and revealed a clear conservation, while a comparison of transcriptomes allowed identification of polymorphisms resulting from the selection program. Of 34,374 transcripts, 291 were differentially expressed and 165 contained positional polymorphisms (SNP, Indel). We focused on lipid over-accumulation of the Tiso-S2M2 strain and 8 candidate genes were identified by combining analysis of positional polymorphism, differential expression levels, selection signature and by study of putative gene function. Moreover, genetic analysis also suggests the existence of a sexual cycle and genetic recombination in Tisochrysis lutea.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome of Wild Type and Selected Strains of the Microalgae Tisochrysis lutea Provides Insights into the Genetic Basis, Lipid Metabolism and the Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Gregory; Garnier, Matthieu; Le Cunff, Loïc; Bougaran, Gaël; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Corre, Erwan; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Saint-Jean, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The applied exploitation of microalgae cultures has to date almost exclusively involved the use of wild type strains, deposited over decades in dedicated culture collections. Concomitantly, the concept of improving algae with selection programs for particular specific purposes is slowly emerging. Studying since a decade an economically and ecologically important haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso), we took advantage of the availability of wild type (Tiso-Wt) and selected (Tiso-S2M2) strains to conduct a molecular variations study. This endeavour presented substantial challenges: the genome assembly was not yet available, the life cycle unknown and genetic diversity of Tiso-Wt poorly documented. This study brings the first molecular data in order to set up a selection strategy for that microalgae. Following high-throughput Illumina sequencing, transcriptomes of Tiso-Wt and Tiso-S2M2 were de novo assembled and annotated. Genetic diversity between both strains was analyzed and revealed a clear conservation, while a comparison of transcriptomes allowed identification of polymorphisms resulting from the selection program. Of 34,374 transcripts, 291 were differentially expressed and 165 contained positional polymorphisms (SNP, Indel). We focused on lipid over-accumulation of the Tiso-S2M2 strain and 8 candidate genes were identified by combining analysis of positional polymorphism, differential expression levels, selection signature and by study of putative gene function. Moreover, genetic analysis also suggests the existence of a sexual cycle and genetic recombination in Tisochrysis lutea. PMID:24489800

  14. Effects of metabolic neuropeptides from insect corpora cardiaca on proline metabolism of the African fruit beetle, Pachnoda sinuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, L; Gäde, G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of the fruit beetle Pachnoda sinuata on proline metabolism has been investigated in vivo. Conspecific injections of a crude extract from corpora cardiaca cause an increase of the concentration of proline in the haemolymph by nearly 20% and a decrease of the concentration of alanine, the precursor in proline synthesis, by about 64% when compared with a water-injected group. Purification of an extract of corpora cardiaca on reversed-phase liquid chromatography revealed two distinct UV absorbance and fluorescence peaks that cause hyperprolinaemia in the fruit beetle. The major peak is the previously identified octapeptide Mem-CC; the second peak is also a peptide, but its primary sequence remains, as yet, unidentified. Synthetic Mem-CC elicited time- and dose-dependent increases/decreases of the concentrations of proline and alanine in the haemolymph respectively. Furthermore, the receptor for this peptide seems to be specific in P. sinuata: only peptides of the large family of adipokinetic hormones with an Asp, Asn or Gly residue at position 7 could elicit biological activity, whereas those with a Trp, Ser or Val residue at this position did not have any activity.

  15. Restricted occurrence of Locusta migratoria ovary maturing parsin in the brain-corpora cardiaca complex of various insect species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, O; Tamarelle, M; Geoffre, S; Girardie, J

    1994-09-01

    Ovary maturing parsin (OMP) is a gonadotrophic molecule previously isolated from the neurosecretory lobes of the corpora cardiaca of Locusta migratoria (acridian Orthoptera). A polyclonal antiserum directed against the two biologically active domains of the L. migratoria (Lom) OMP was used to investigate the occurrence of Lom OMP-like substances in brain-corpora cardiaca complexes of other insect species. Using immunohistochemistry, specimens of 40 different insect species belonging to 13 insect orders were tested. The Lom OMP-like substance was strictly limited to specimens of insect species belonging to the Acridae. It occurred in non-basophilic cells of the pars intercerebralis that project to the corpora cardiaca, as in Locusta. Although the antiserum only detected Lom OMP-like material in the Acridae, it is possible that related molecules exist in other insects. The antiserum may be very specific for domains of the Lom OMP molecule that have not been highly conserved during evolution or possibly these domains are not accessible to the antiserum in other insects.

  16. Using Small Parallel Corpora to Develop Collocation-Centred Activities in Specialized Translation Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolea Sorina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research devoted to special languages as well as the activities carried out in specialized translation classes tend to focus primarily on one-word or multi-word terminological units. However, a very important part in the making of specialist registers and texts is played by specialised collocations, i.e. relatively stable word combinations that do not designate concepts but are nevertheless of frequent use in a given field of activity. This is why helping students acquire competences relative to the identification and processing of collocations should become an important objective in specialised translation classes. An easily accessible and dependable resource that may be successfully used to this purpose is represented by corpora and corpus analysis tools, whose usefulness in translator training has been highlighted by numerous studies. This article proposes a series of practical, task-based activities-developed with the help of a small-size parallel corpus of specialised texts-that aim to raise the translation trainees′ awareness of the collocations present in specialised texts and to provide suggestions about their processing in translation.

  17. Negative Feedbacks by Isoprenoids on a Mevalonate Kinase Expressed in the Corpora Allata of Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Nyati

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JH regulate development and reproductive maturation in insects. JHs are synthesized through the mevalonate pathway (MVAP, an ancient metabolic pathway present in the three domains of life. Mevalonate kinase (MVK is a key enzyme in the MVAP. MVK catalyzes the synthesis of phosphomevalonate (PM by transferring the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to the C5 hydroxyl oxygen of mevalonic acid (MA. Despite the importance of MVKs, these enzymes have been poorly characterized in insects.We functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti MVK (AaMVK expressed in the corpora allata (CA of the mosquito. AaMVK displayed its activity in the presence of metal cofactors. Different nucleotides were used by AaMVK as phosphoryl donors. In the presence of Mg(2+, the enzyme has higher affinity for MA than ATP. The activity of AaMVK was regulated by feedback inhibition from long-chain isoprenoids, such as geranyl diphosphate (GPP and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP.AaMVK exhibited efficient inhibition by GPP and FPP (Ki less than 1 μM, and none by isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP and dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DPPM. These results suggest that GPP and FPP might act as physiological inhibitors in the synthesis of isoprenoids in the CA of mosquitoes. Changing MVK activity can alter the flux of precursors and therefore regulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

  18. Designing and Implementing a Cross-Language Information Retrieval System Using Linguistic Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nezarat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is a crucial area of natural language processing (NLP and can be defined as finding documents whose content is relevant to the query need of a user. Cross-language information retrieval (CLIR refers to a kind of information retrieval in which the language of the query and that of searched document are different. In fact, it is a retrieval process where the user presents queries in one language to retrieve documents in another language. This paper tried to construct a bilingual lexicon of parallel chunks of English and Persian from two very large monolingual corpora an English-Persian parallel corpus which could be directly applied to cross-language information retrieval tasks. For this purpose, a statistical measure known as Association Score (AS was used to compute the association value between every two corresponding chunks in the corpus using a couple of complicated algorithms. Once the CLIR system was developed using this bilingual lexicon, an experiment was performed on a set of one hundred English and Persian phrases and collocations to see to what extend this system was effective in assisting the users find the most relevant and suitable equivalents of their queries in either language.

  19. Investigating the distribution of some (but not all implicatures using corpora and web-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Degen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalent, but to date untested, assumption about lexicalized scalar implicatures such as those from some to not all, is that they fall into the class of GCIs and as such, constitute a homogeneous class of highly regularized and context-independent implicatures. This paper reports a test of this assumption in which linguistically untrained participants’ implicature strength judgments were collected for naturally occurring utterances containing the word some in a large-scale corpus-based web study. The results indicate that implicature strength is highly variable and systematically dependent on features of the linguistic context such as the partitive, determiner strength, and discourse accessibility. These results call into question the GCI status of scalar implicatures from some to not all and demonstrate the usefulness of corpora and web-based methods for challenging received wisdom, enriching the empirical landscape, and informing theory in pragmatics. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.11 BibTeX info

  20. Glandectomy with preservation of corpora cavernosa in the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Aluizio G. da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to describe a conservative surgical technique as an alternative to classic penile amputations, aiming the local control of the disease, in addition to trying to preserve the patient's sexual function. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: After a circular incision of the skin around the penis, the subfascial plane is developed until the base of the organ. The dorsal neurovascular bundle and the urethra are isolated in their distal extremities. The neurovascular bundle is sectioned distally. A retrocoronal dissection plane is developed between the glans and the corpora cavernosa. When this stage is complete, the glans is fixed only to the urethra, which is distally sectioned as well. The neurovascular bundle is fixed to the dorsal albuginea. Following the spatulation of the urethra, a neomeatus is created using the overlay skin of the penis. Between January 2001 and July 2002, we employed this technique in 6 patients who had epidermoid carcinoma of the penis, which were limited to the glans, superficial, well or moderately differentiated and measuring up to 3 cm. COMMENTS: Several conservative surgical methods for treatment of carcinoma of the penis aim the organ's preservation, in an attempt of improving the quality of life of patients, however the indexes of local recurrence and failure in disease control are significant. The described technique showed to be safe and effective for disease control, in addition to preserving sexual function in all patients who were treated, representing, thus, a quite appealing conservative surgical alternative in selected cases.

  1. FacetGist: Collective Extraction of Document Facets in Large Technical Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Tarique; Ren, Xiang; Parameswaran, Aditya; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Given the large volume of technical documents available, it is crucial to automatically organize and categorize these documents to be able to understand and extract value from them. Towards this end, we introduce a new research problem called Facet Extraction. Given a collection of technical documents, the goal of Facet Extraction is to automatically label each document with a set of concepts for the key facets (e.g., application, technique, evaluation metrics, and dataset) that people may be interested in. Facet Extraction has numerous applications, including document summarization, literature search, patent search and business intelligence. The major challenge in performing Facet Extraction arises from multiple sources: concept extraction, concept to facet matching, and facet disambiguation. To tackle these challenges, we develop FacetGist, a framework for facet extraction. Facet Extraction involves constructing a graph-based heterogeneous network to capture information available across multiple local sentence-level features, as well as global context features. We then formulate a joint optimization problem, and propose an efficient algorithm for graph-based label propagation to estimate the facet of each concept mention. Experimental results on technical corpora from two domains demonstrate that Facet Extraction can lead to an improvement of over 25% in both precision and recall over competing schemes.

  2. Co-occurrence Vectors from Corpora vs. Distance Vectors from Dictionaries

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Y; Niwa, Yoshiki; Nitta, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A comparison was made of vectors derived by using ordinary co-occurrence statistics from large text corpora and of vectors derived by measuring the inter-word distances in dictionary definitions. The precision of word sense disambiguation by using co-occurrence vectors from the 1987 Wall Street Journal (20M total words) was higher than that by using distance vectors from the Collins English Dictionary (60K head words + 1.6M definition words). However, other experimental results suggest that distance vectors contain some different semantic information from co-occurrence vectors. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Fri Nov 12 12:25 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id MAA10923 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:47 +0100 (MET) Received: from uuu.lanl.gov (uuu.lanl.gov [204.121.6.59]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id MAA18850 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:46 +0100 (MET) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by uu...

  3. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  4. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangbin; Bustamante, Erika L; Antonova, Julie; McLean, Graeme W; Kim, Seung K

    2011-08-01

    Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC) are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  5. Conserved mechanisms of glucose sensing and regulation by Drosophila corpora cardiaca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung K; Rulifson, Eric J

    2004-09-16

    Antagonistic activities of glucagon and insulin control metabolism in mammals, and disruption of this balance underlies diabetes pathogenesis. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the brain of insects such as Drosophila also regulate serum glucose, but it remains unclear whether insulin is the sole hormonal regulator of glucose homeostasis and whether mechanisms of glucose-sensing and response in IPCs resemble those in pancreatic islets. Here we show, by targeted cell ablation, that Drosophila corpora cardiaca (CC) cells of the ring gland are also essential for larval glucose homeostasis. Unlike IPCs, CC cells express Drosophila cognates of sulphonylurea receptor (Sur) and potassium channel (Ir), proteins that comprise ATP-sensitive potassium channels regulating hormone secretion by islets and other mammalian glucose-sensing cells. They also produce adipokinetic hormone, a polypeptide with glucagon-like functions. Glucose regulation by CC cells is impaired by exposure to sulphonylureas, drugs that target the Sur subunit. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of an akh transgene reverses the effect of CC ablation on serum glucose. Thus, Drosophila CC cells are crucial regulators of glucose homeostasis and they use glucose-sensing and response mechanisms similar to islet cells.

  6. Ultrastructural changes of corpora cavernosa in men with erectile dysfunction and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Lo Forti, Bruno; Savica, Vincenzo; Favazzi, Pietro; Magaudda, Ludovico; Cohen, Arthur H

    2004-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and often distressing side effect of renal failure. Uremic men of different ages report a high variety of sexual problems, including sexual hormonal pattern alterations, reduced or loss of libido, infertility, and impotence, thereby influencing their well-being. The pathogenic mechanisms include physiologic, psychologic, and organic causes. To determine the contribution of morphologic factors to impotence we studied the ultrastructure of the corpora cavernosa in 20 patients with end-stage renal disease who were treated with chronic dialysis and compared the findings with 6 individuals with no clinical history of impotence. Our results indicated that in male uremic patients with sexual disturbances there were major changes in smooth muscle cells. This was characterized by reduction of dense bodies in the cytoplasm, thick basement membranes, and increased interstitial collagen fibers with resultant reduction of cell-to-cell contact. In addition, there was thickening and lamination of basement membranes of endothelial cells and increased accumulation of collagen between nerve fibers. These alterations were more evident in patients with longer time on dialysis and were independent of type of primary renal disease. We hypothesize that ED in dialysis patients is not related to the primary disease but to the uremic state.

  7. The potential of purpose-built corpora in the analysis of student academic writing in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hüttner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards using English as an academic lingua franca has undoubtedly increased the awareness of a need for specific EAP writing instruction and inroads into researching student writing have been made. However, systematic improvements for a theory-informed teaching practice still require more detailed knowledge of the current state of student academic writing, which also takes into account local practices and requirements. Extended genre analysis provides such a means of researching student writing in specific settings. This is an innovative methodology which expands on English for Specific Purposes (ESP genre analysis (cf. Bhatia, 1993, 2004; Swales, 1990, 2004 to systematically integrate corpus linguistic tools into the analysis and to take into account the special status of student genres. A special advantage of this methodology is that it can be applied easily and successfully to small-scale purpose-built corpora. This paper presents an application of extended genre analysis to a corpus of 55 student paper conclusions produced by non-native speakers in the initial phase of their studies. Findings suggest systematic differences in structure between student and expert genres, as well as a more complex set of differences in lexico-grammar, and especially the use of formulaic language, between research articles and non-native student papers. The implications of these findings as well as of the proposed methodology of corpus-based genre analysis for teaching practice are also discussed.

  8. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbin Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  9. Training and evaluation corpora for the extraction of causal relationships encoded in biological expression language (BEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Madan, Sumit; Ansari, Sam; Kodamullil, Alpha T; Karki, Reagon; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Catlett, Natalie L; Hayes, William; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Success in extracting biological relationships is mainly dependent on the complexity of the task as well as the availability of high-quality training data. Here, we describe the new corpora in the systems biology modeling language BEL for training and testing biological relationship extraction systems that we prepared for the BioCreative V BEL track. BEL was designed to capture relationships not only between proteins or chemicals, but also complex events such as biological processes or disease states. A BEL nanopub is the smallest unit of information and represents a biological relationship with its provenance. In BEL relationships (called BEL statements), the entities are normalized to defined namespaces mainly derived from public repositories, such as sequence databases, MeSH or publicly available ontologies. In the BEL nanopubs, the BEL statements are associated with citation information and supportive evidence such as a text excerpt. To enable the training of extraction tools, we prepared BEL resources and made them available to the community. We selected a subset of these resources focusing on a reduced set of namespaces, namely, human and mouse genes, ChEBI chemicals, MeSH diseases and GO biological processes, as well as relationship types 'increases' and 'decreases'. The published training corpus contains 11 000 BEL statements from over 6000 supportive text excerpts. For method evaluation, we selected and re-annotated two smaller subcorpora containing 100 text excerpts. For this re-annotation, the inter-annotator agreement was measured by the BEL track evaluation environment and resulted in a maximal F-score of 91.18% for full statement agreement. In addition, for a set of 100 BEL statements, we do not only provide the gold standard expert annotations, but also text excerpts pre-selected by two automated systems. Those text excerpts were evaluated and manually annotated as true or false supportive in the course of the BioCreative V BEL track task

  10. Talk talk, not just small talk. Exploring English contrastive focus reduplication with the help of corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widlitzki Bianca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive focus reduplication (CR is a type of reduplication in English which picks out a prototypical or intensified reading of the reduplicated element and shows contrastive stress on the reduplicant: for instance, speakers may use talk talk to indicate that a ‘real talk’ - as opposed to e.g. ‘just small talk’- took place. The present paper pursues an empirical, corpus-linguistic approach to CR: Based on three mega-corpora of contemporary English, the following aspects in particular are investigated: the importance of the co-text of CR, the possibility of emerging default interpretations for some frequent CRs, and the function(s CR serves in discourse. In addition, it contains the first analysis of the sociolinguistics of the phenomenon, based on a corpus of blogs. It emerges that contrasts and/or synonyms are commonly employed to clarify the meaning of CR - most frequently in the form of the unreduplicated base (not talk, but talk talk or an explanatory phrase (talk talk, by which I mean a serious conversation. CR is most frequent in blogs maintained by women and by young speakers. Its presence in blogs shows that CR is not limited to (fictional representations of spoken dialogue. Though generally rare, it is also found in other genres (such as fiction, news, and even academic prose. Apart from its disambiguating function, CR is also used for creative purposes (as a kind of wordplay and apparently serves to build rapport between interlocutors (or bloggers and readers via reference to common ground.

  11. Usefulness of electromyography of the cavernous corpora (CC EMG) in the diagnosis of arterial erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virseda-Chamorro, M; Lopez-Garcia-Moreno, A M; Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2012-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the corpora cavernosa (CC-EMG) is able to record the activity of the erectile tissue during erection, and thus has been used as a diagnostic technique in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study examines the usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED. A cross-sectional study was made of 35 males with a mean age of 48.5 years (s.d. 11.34), referred to our center with ED for >1 year. The patients were subjected to CC-EMG and a penile Doppler ultrasound study following the injection of 20 μg of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The patients were divided into three groups according to their response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1: Group 1 (adequate erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity); Group 2 (insufficient erection and persistence of EMG activity); and Group 3 (insufficient erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity). Patient classification according to response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1 was as follows: Group 1: six patients (17%), Group 2: 18 patients (51%), and Group 3: 11 patients (31%). Patients diagnosed with arterial insufficiency according to Doppler ultrasound (systolic arterial peak velocity EMG activity showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (confidence interval between 50 and 84%) and a specificity of 92.9% (confidence interval between 84 and 100%) in the diagnosis of arterial ED. Owing to the high specificity of CC-EMG response to the injection of PGE1, this test is considered useful as a screening technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED.

  12. High quality draft genome sequence of the type strain of Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Park, Gun-Seok; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T) (=LMG 21974(T), CECT 5822(T)) is the type strain of the species and was isolated from the rhizosphere of grass growing in Spain in 2003 based on its phosphate-solubilizing capacity. In order to identify the functional significance of phosphate solubilization in Pseudomonas Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, we describe here the phenotypic characteristics of strain OK2(T) along with its high-quality draft genome sequence, its annotation, and analysis. The genome is comprised of 5,647,497 bp with 60.15 % G + C content. The sequence includes 4,846 protein-coding genes and 95 RNA genes.

  13. Quantification of Locusta diuretic hormone in the central nervous system and corpora cardiaca: influence of age and feeding status, and mechanism of release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, N; Goldsworthy, G J; Coast, G M

    1997-03-12

    Locusta-DH is known to have a hormonal function in the control of post-feeding diuresis in the migratory locust. This study has quantified Locusta-DH in tissues from V(th) instar nymphs and adults, and investigated the K+-induced release of the peptide from corpora cardiaca. Locusta-DH is present in thoracic and abdominal ganglia, but the amounts are small (25-200 fmol) compared with brain (approximately 1 pmol) and corpora cardiaca ( > 5 pmol) from 14-day old locusts. About 50% of the immunoreactive material in corpora cardiaca coelutes with Locusta-DH on reversed-phase HPLC. An earlier eluting fraction is also biologically active, suggesting locusts have a second, previously undetected, CRF-related peptide. The amount of peptide stored in corpora cardiaca varies with age and physiological status. Reductions on day 1 of the adult instar and immediately after feeding suggest Locusta-DH controls post-eclosion as well as post-feeding diureses. Locusta-DH is released by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism from corpora cardiaca held in salines containing > or =40 mM K+. This is blocked by verapamil, implicating L-type Ca2+ channels. Release is most rapid shortly after transfer to a high K+ saline, and more peptide is released from glands allowed to recover in normal saline between successive K+ depolarisations.

  14. The Conventional Morphology Research About Small Intestine of Leiothrix lutea%红嘴相思鸟小肠的常规形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莒; 何杨; 徐远航; 冯亚坤; 彭西; 袁施彬

    2015-01-01

    本试验取1、5、9日龄和成年红嘴相思鸟的十二指肠、空肠、回肠为材料,制作HE染片,光学显微镜下观察红嘴相思鸟消化道的组织结构特征,测量各层厚度并计算绒毛高度与隐窝深度的比值。结果显示:红嘴相思鸟小肠管壁由黏膜、黏膜下层、肌层和浆膜层4层构成,肠绒毛高度、隐窝深度以及肌层厚度都呈现出十二指肠>空肠>回肠的趋势;随着日龄的增长,肠绒毛长度、隐窝深度、肌层厚度总体也呈现增长的趋势;小肠各段绒毛高度与隐窝深度的比值与日龄呈负相关。%Duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled from Leiothrix luteas at 1, 5 and 9 days-old or adult birds, respectively. HE staining slides were made for observing the histological structure under microscope,measuring the thickness of each layer and calculating the ratio of villus length and crypt depth. The results showed that the intestinal tube of Leiothrix lutea was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer and serous membrane, the length of each layer was duode-num>jejunum>ileum. The villus length, crypt depth, and the thickness of muscle showed time-de-pendent increasing before sexual maturity. However, the ratio of villus length/crypt depth was de-creased with the increase of age.

  15. O uso de corpora comparáveis na pesquisa terminológica bilíngue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Araújo Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho insere-se na interface entre os Estudos Terminológicos e os Estudos da Tradução baseados em corpora, com foco no uso de corpora comparáveis. Sendo o Espiritismo uma religião bastante desenvolvida no Brasil, é grande o número de traduções produzidas a partir de obras espíritas brasileiras, sendo que essas traduções são exportadas para vários países do mundo. Nesse sentido, este trabalho objetivou analisar termos espíritas, sobretudo referentes à mediunidade, utilizados em obras espíritas brasileiras (Português Original, PO, e seus equivalentes em obras traduzidas para o inglês (English Translated, ET. Para validar o uso desses equivalentes, analisou-se, ainda, sua ocorrência em obras escritas originalmente em inglês (English Original, EO. Com esse intuito, a metodologia empregada foi a Linguística de Corpus, que permitiu o uso de corpora comparáveis e paralelos. A metodologia consistiu na (a seleção dos termos específicos dessa área, (b na elaboração de fichas terminológicas e na seleção de termos multivocabulares, a partir dos colocados, para (c criação de uma amostra de glossário bilíngue. Os resultados apontaram para a existência, em inglês original, de opções que não foram contempladas pelos tradutores nas traduções para o inglês.

  16. A possible role of SchistoFLRFamide in inhibition of adipokinetic hormone release from locust corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullings, H G; Ten Voorde, S E; Passier, P C; Diederen, J H; Van Der Horst, D J; Nässel, D R

    1998-12-01

    The distribution and actions of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in the corpora cardiaca of the locust Locusta migratoria were studied. Antisera to FMRFamide and SchistoFLRFamide (PDVDHVFLRFamide) label neuronal processes that impinge on glandular cells in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca known to produce adipokinetic hormones. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that these FaRP-containing processes form synaptoid contacts with the glandular cells. Approximately 12% of the axon profiles present in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum contained SchistoFLRFamide-immunoreactive material. Retrograde tracing of the axons in the nervus corporis cardiaci II with Lucifer yellow revealed 25-30 labelled neuronal cell bodies in each lateral part of the protocerebrum. About five of these in each hemisphere reacted with the SchistoFLRFamide-antiserum. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry showed that the FaRP-containing processes in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca are distinct from neuronal processes, reacting with an antiserum to the neuropeptide locustatachykinin. The effect of the decapeptide SchistoFLRFamide and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide on the release of adipokinetic hormone I (AKH I) from the cells in the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum was studied in vitro. Neither the deca- nor the tetrapeptide had any effect on the spontaneous release of AKH I. Release of AKH I induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, however, was reduced significantly by both peptides. These results point to an involvement of FaRPs as inhibitory modulators in the regulation of the release of adipokinetic hormone from the glandular cells.

  17. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. female castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Durvalina Bomtorin

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s of JH in social evolution.

  18. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  19. Allatotropic activity in the suboesophageal ganglia and corpora cardiaca of the adult male loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, R; Chen, S J

    2000-02-01

    Allatotropic activity was found in the methanolic extract of the suboesophageal ganglia (SOG) and the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the Mythimna loreyi virgin males. No allatotropic activity was observed in the extract of brain or corpora allata (CA). Although CA can be activated by the SOG and CC extract, respectively, CC extract inhibited the response to the SOG extract. A significant in vitro allatotropic effect was exerted by the SOG and CC extract within 10 and 15 min, respectively, and this effect can be sustained for several hours even after transferring to fresh medium without extracts. The time course pattern of the CA activation ratio in both the SOG and CC extract-treated group is very similar to, but with significantly higher level than, that in the control group, suggesting the existence of an intrinsic pacemaker or an in vitro effect that controls the fluctuation of the CA biosynthetic activity. Synthetic Manduca sexta allatotropin had no significant effect on the M. loreyi CA. The results of treatment with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, and the cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP did not indicate that cAMP might be involved in the allatotropic control of CA. Arch. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Reuse of termino-ontological resources and text corpora for building a multilingual domain ontology: an application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramé, Khadim; Diallo, Gayo; Delva, Fleur; Dartigues, Jean François; Mouillet, Evelyne; Salamon, Roger; Mougin, Fleur

    2014-04-01

    Ontologies are useful tools for sharing and exchanging knowledge. However ontology construction is complex and often time consuming. In this paper, we present a method for building a bilingual domain ontology from textual and termino-ontological resources intended for semantic annotation and information retrieval of textual documents. This method combines two approaches: ontology learning from texts and the reuse of existing terminological resources. It consists of four steps: (i) term extraction from domain specific corpora (in French and English) using textual analysis tools, (ii) clustering of terms into concepts organized according to the UMLS Metathesaurus, (iii) ontology enrichment through the alignment of French and English terms using parallel corpora and the integration of new concepts, (iv) refinement and validation of results by domain experts. These validated results are formalized into a domain ontology dedicated to Alzheimer's disease and related syndromes which is available online (http://lesim.isped.u-bordeaux2.fr/SemBiP/ressources/ontoAD.owl). The latter currently includes 5765 concepts linked by 7499 taxonomic relationships and 10,889 non-taxonomic relationships. Among these results, 439 concepts absent from the UMLS were created and 608 new synonymous French terms were added. The proposed method is sufficiently flexible to be applied to other domains.

  1. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  2. Is This Enough? A Qualitative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Teacher-Training Course on the Use of Corpora in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenko-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a teacher-training course on the use of corpora in language education offered to graduate students at the Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw. It also presents the results of two questionnaires distributed to the students prior to and after the second edition of the course. The main aims of the course are: to…

  3. Quantitative determination of the juvenile hormones in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during normal development and after implantation of corpora allata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse-Minderhoud, L.; Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van; Kerk-Van Hoof, A.C. van der; Biessels, H.W.A.; Salemink, C.A.; Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative determination of the three naturally occurring juvenile hormones in insects (JH-I, JH-II and JH-III) was performed on haemolymph samples of both normally developing locusts and locusts implanted with active corpora allata, using capillary gas chromatography with electron ca

  4. Reproductive toxicity in acrylamide-treated female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanwei; Li, Jian; Li, Xingmei; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the reproductive toxicity of acrylamide in female mice. The results from immunohistochemistry provided evidence that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) signaling was involved in the process of follicular development and atresia. Oral administration of acrylamide to female mice led to significantly reduced body weights, organ weights and the number of corpora lutea (Pacrylamide; however, 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were unchanged with treatment. Measurement of NOS activities indicated that total NOS (TNOS), iNOS and eNOS activities were significantly increased (Pacrylamide. The results from in vitro study indicated that acrylamide reduced the viability of mouse granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, acrylamide affected bodily growth and development, as well as reproductive organs, the number of corpora lutea and progesterone production in female mice, possibly acting through the NOS signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary structure of two neuropeptide hormones with adipokinetic and hypotrehalosemic activity isolated from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, H; Raina, A K; Riley, C T; Fraser, B A; Nachman, R J; Vogel, V W; Zhang, Y S; Hayes, D K

    1989-01-01

    The primary structures of two neuropeptides, Tabanus atratus adipokinetic hormone (Taa-AKH) and Tabanus atratus hypotrehalosemic hormone (Taa-HoTH), from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) have been determined. Amino acid sequences of Taa-AKH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Taa-HoTH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-Tyr-NH2) (where less than Glu = pyroglutamic acid) were determined by automated gas-phase Edman degradation of the peptides deblocked by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The hormones were synthesized, and the natural and synthetic peptides exhibited identical chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biological properties. When assayed in adult face fly males, Taa-AKH and Taa-HoTH demonstrated hyperlipemic activity, in addition, Taa-HoTH also demonstrated a significant hypotrehalosemic activity. PMID:2813385

  6. Isolation and primary structure of two peptides with cardioacceleratory and hyperglycemic activity from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, R M; Jamieson, G C; Kalish, F; Kramer, S J; McEnroe, G A; Miller, C A; Schooley, D A

    1984-01-01

    Two cardioacceleratory peptides from the corpora cardiaca of Periplaneta americana have been purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, Based on analysis of the intact factors and their chymotryptic fragments, we have assigned the primary structure of these octapeptides as pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-1, and pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2, designated periplanetin CC-2. They represent new members of a family of invertebrate peptides that includes locust adipokinetic hormone and crustacean red-pigment concentrating hormone. Both peptides show adipokinetic activity in grasshoppers and hyperglycemic activity in cockroaches. One of these peptides (CC-2) has provocative sequence homology with the NH2-terminal portion of glucagon. Images PMID:6591205

  7. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, A; Pannell, L; Kochansky, J; Jaffe, H

    1995-09-01

    A new neuropeptide hormone was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada species. Primary structure of the peptide as determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation after enzymatic deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and mass spectrometry is: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2. Synthetic peptide assayed in the green stink bug Nezara viridula caused a 112% increase in hemolymph lipids at a dose of 0.625 pmol, and a 67% increase in hemolymph carbohydrates at a dose of 2.5 pmol. Based on these results we designate this peptide, a first from order Homoptera, as Magicicada species-adipokinetic hormone (Mcsp-AKH).

  8. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L.) obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L.) obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    OpenAIRE

    DA SILVA,Antônio de Pádua Valença; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; Gerardo Sérgio Francelino de OLIVEIRA; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro

    1997-01-01

    Cajás (Spondias lutea L.), oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil), em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C). A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) por 30 min, à tempe...

  9. Statistical modeling of biomedical corpora: mining the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center Bibliography for genes related to life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical modeling of biomedical corpora could yield integrated, coarse-to-fine views of biological phenomena that complement discoveries made from analysis of molecular sequence and profiling data. Here, the potential of such modeling is demonstrated by examining the 5,225 free-text items in the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center (CGC Bibliography using techniques from statistical information retrieval. Items in the CGC biomedical text corpus were modeled using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model. LDA is a hierarchical Bayesian model which represents a document as a random mixture over latent topics; each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Results An LDA model estimated from CGC items had better predictive performance than two standard models (unigram and mixture of unigrams trained using the same data. To illustrate the practical utility of LDA models of biomedical corpora, a trained CGC LDA model was used for a retrospective study of nematode genes known to be associated with life span modification. Corpus-, document-, and word-level LDA parameters were combined with terms from the Gene Ontology to enhance the explanatory value of the CGC LDA model, and to suggest additional candidates for age-related genes. A novel, pairwise document similarity measure based on the posterior distribution on the topic simplex was formulated and used to search the CGC database for "homologs" of a "query" document discussing the life span-modifying clk-2 gene. Inspection of these document homologs enabled and facilitated the production of hypotheses about the function and role of clk-2. Conclusion Like other graphical models for genetic, genomic and other types of biological data, LDA provides a method for extracting unanticipated insights and generating predictions amenable to subsequent experimental validation.

  10. Using ParaConc to extract bilingual terminology from parallel corpora: A case of English and Ndebele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketiwe Ndhlovu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of African languages into languages of science and technology is dependent on action being taken to promote the use of these languages in specialised fields such as technology, commerce, administration, media, law, science and education among others. One possible way of developing African languages is the compilation of specialised dictionaries (Chabata 2013. This article explores how parallel corpora can be interrogated using a bilingual concordancer (ParaConc to extract bilingual terminology that can be used to create specialised bilingual dictionaries. An English–Ndebele Parallel Corpus was used as a resource and through ParaConc, an alphabetic list was compiled from which headwords and possible translations were sought. These translations provided possible terms for entry in a bilingual dictionary. The frequency feature and ‘hot words’ tool in ParaConc were used to determine the suitability of terms for inclusion in the dictionary and for identifying possible synonyms, respectively. Since parallel corpora are aligned and data are presented in context (Key Word in Context, it was possible to draw examples showing how headwords are used. Using this approach produced results quickly and accurately, whilst minimising the process of translating terms manually. It was noted that the quality of the dictionary is dependent on the quality of the corpus, hence the need for creating a representative and clean corpus needs to be emphasised. Although technology has multiple benefits in dictionary making, the research underscores the importance of collaboration between lexicographers, translators, subject experts and target communities so that representative dictionaries are created.

  11. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    Hainan\\'s coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  13. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Cornelia; Wu, Zhongjie; Richter, Claudio; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Hainan's coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated.

  14. Fidelity of δ18O as a proxy for sea surface temperature: Influence of variable coral growth rates on the coral Porites lutea from Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michiyo; Oba, Tadamichi; Xu, Guoqiang; Lu, Bingquan; Wang, Luejiang; Murayama, Masafumi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Winter, Amos

    2005-09-01

    The extremely high temporal resolution (nearly daily interval) measurement was conducted on the coral (Porites lutea) oxygen isotope compositions (δ18Oc) to examine the detailed relationship between δ18Oc and sea surface temperature (SST) and seawater oxygen isotope composition (δ18Ow) from Hainan Island, China. Although SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) or δ18Ow varied in a wide range at the studied site, the dynamic range of δ18Oc recorded in coral was much smaller than expected from SST and SSS (δ18Ow) changes. The extremely high (>30°C) and low (rates (the overall rate is 15 mm/year) varied by a factor of about 18 within one year, from very slow in winter to very fast in spring. Light availability could affect the extension rate of coral skeleton through the activity of photosynthesis of symbiont algae. Such cessation and acceleration of calcification cause a serious distortion of the δ18O profile, which makes it difficult to make a correlation between δ18O and SST. Because high and low extension rates correspond to low- and high-density bands, respectively, a detailed examination of the density structure may assist the correction for distortion of the δ18O profile.

  15. Recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. as a source for synthetic seed production for medium-term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holobiuc Irina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to establish an efficient and reproducible system for producing synthetic seeds from recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. This species is a vulnerable medicinal plant, protected both at the national and international levels, and is included in different Red Lists and Books. In vitro culture, as an alternative to classical methods of preservation, allows for the cyclic multiplication of plant material and short-, medium- and long-term preservation of tissue collections. Biotechnological approaches allow for maintenance of the plant material in a confined space and protection against biotic and abiotic factors. Somatic embryogenesis (SE is the most efficient way to regenerate plants, ensuring material for preservation and fundamental research. In our experiment, recurrent somatic embryogenesis was developed in long-term cultures in the presence of sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol and in the absence of growth factors. This process proceeded at a high rate, with adventive somatic embryos being generated in a continuous process, followed by maturation, germination and development into plants. To follow the somatic embryogenesis process, histological samples were made. We used these embryogenic cultures for synthetic seed production and medium-term conservation. The viability of somatic embryos after moderate osmotic stress treatment was tested using TTC. Our methodology relied on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in the presence of auxins in the first cycle of in vitro cultures, long-term high embryogenic culture maintenance in the presence of sugar alcohols and synthetic seed production.

  16. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution,climate and economic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zicheng; LIU Junhua; ZHOU Chenglin; NIE Baofu; CHEN Tegu

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21' N, 111°11' E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn,and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County.Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

  17. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  18. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  19. Vantagem competitiva nacional: a perspectiva das subsidiárias de corporações estrangeiras no Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a perspectiva das subsidiárias de corporações multinacionais instaladas no país acerca do ambiente competitivo brasileiro. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa junto a uma amostra de 114 subsidiárias do universo das 1.000 maiores empresas de capital estrangeiro no Brasil. Segundo as empresas estrangeiras que atuam no Brasil, quando o ambiente competitivo brasileiro é comparado com outros locais de atuação das multinacionais, percebe-se que este não favorece a criação e o desenvolvimento de inovações e vantagens competitivas, embora apresente um enorme potencial a ser desenvolvido. Adicionalmente, o ambiente competitivo favorece de forma muito tímida a inserção das subsidiárias na formação e participação em redes de negócios no Brasil. Por fim, segundo as empresas pesquisadas, o governo brasileiro não é pró-ativo no apoio aos investimentos e crescimento industrial estrangeiro e credita pouco respeito e reconhecimento ao papel das subsidiárias na economia nacional. Há desafios relevantes que dependem de iniciativas governamentais e das empresas de capital estrangeiro instaladas no país para serem superados. Palavras-chave: corporações multinacionais; papel das subsidiárias; contexto competitivo. Abstract This article analyzes the perspective of the subsidiaries of multinationals corporations concerning the Brazilian competitive environment. For this, a research was carried on in a sample of 114 subsidiaries of the 1.000 largest foreign companies in Brazil. According to the foreign companies in Brazil, when compared to other countries, the Brazilian competitive environment do not favors the creation and development of innovations and competitive advantages, although expresses an important potential for that. In the same way, the competitive environment favors in a very shy way the insertion of the foreign firms in extern networks in Brazil. Finally, according to theses firms, the Brazilian

  20. Corporação Andina de Fomento: o financiamento da infraestrutura integradora sulamericana e a participação do Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Maschion Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A cooperação financeira regional é fundamental para aumentar os laços de integração física da América do Sul. A Corporação Andina de Fomento é uma instituição central para que isso aconteça. Ao mesmo tempo, a cooperação financeira e a Corporação Andina beneficiam a atividade comercial das construtoras brasileiras na América do Sul.

  1. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2o0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Neves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  2. A comparative immunocytochemical study using an antiserum against a synthetic analogue of the corpora cardiaca peptide Pea-CAH-I (MI, neurohormone D) of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, M; Gabriel, J; Birkenbeil, H; Greiner, G; Rapus, J; Gäde, G

    1996-06-01

    An antiserum against the octapeptide Pea-CAH-I, a member of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family, has been produced for immunocytochemical staining in insects and various other invertebrate species. The anti-Pea-CAH-I serum stains the glandular corpora cardiaca cells of those insect species that synthesize identical or structurally similar peptides. In the corpora cardiaca of species producing peptides with a different C-terminus, these cells remain unstained. Pea-CAH-I-like immunoreactivity has also been found in neurons of the central nervous system of all invertebrate orders studied. The antiserum recognizes the C-terminal sequence Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2 of the Pea-CAH-I molecule as established by enzyme immunoassay. The widespread Pea-CAH-I-like immunoreactivity in all nervous systems of the studied animals probably does not reflect the presence of Pea-CAH-I but the occurrence of peptides carrying similar epitopes.

  3. EFFECTS OF JINLU, AN ANTI-JUVENILE HORMONE ON THE GROWTH, ULTRA-STRUCTURE OF THE CORPORA ALLATA AND PROTHORACIC GLAND OF SILKWORM, BOMBYX MORI L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 4th instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L, when treated with anti-juvenile hormone (Jinlu) had its larval period extended by 2 days and the total larval period shortened by about 4 days. The conversion ratio of tetramolters into trimolters was 100%. But anti-juvenile hormone administration to the 5th instar larvae lengthened the silkworm age by one day. When anti-juvenile hormone was administered, we could find many neurosecretory granules of the brain transferred to the cells of the corpora allata, but there was little endoplasmic reticulum. In the prothoracic gland, the micropile edge was clear and there were large nucleoli, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This study was carried out to show that anti-JH compound inhibits the secretion of Juvenile hormone in silkworm Bombyx mori L. The investigation revealed that the anti-juvenile hormone inhibited the secretion of corpora allata and initiated the activity of the prothoracic gland.

  4. Preceitos e normas internas (kakun de casas comerciais japonesas: um estudo sobre a longevidade e a ética da corporação japonesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Yamamoto

    Full Text Available O estudo de corporações de uma das maiores economias mundiais se justifica em um mundo sem fronteiras no qual hoje vivemos e onde diferenças culturais afetam relações negociais. O objetivo é explicitar como as casas comerciais e outras corporações tradicionais japonesas conseguiram enorme longevidade. Foi privilegiado o papel desempenhado pelo kakun nessas corporações; ou seja, o papel desempenhado por um conjunto de preceitos e normas internas que, tendo surgido nos séculos XVII e XVIII, tem viva a sua força até os dias correntes. O método escolhido para o estudo foi a historiografia, que visa ao resgate dos acontecimentos e das atividades humanas ao longo do tempo. Chegamos à conclusão de que muito do que pregava o kakun está hoje presente em estudos sobre organizações e gestão e que, associado a questões éticas, o kakun é, em grande parte, o responsável pela longevidade das empresas japonesas.

  5. Exotic Birds in Hainan island: Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) and Azure-winged Magpie (Cyanopica cyana)%海南岛发现外来鸟种红嘴相思鸟和灰喜鹊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙舞; 梁伟

    2013-01-01

    外来物种的入侵被认为是全球生物多样性及其保护所面临的巨大威胁并伴随着世界经济贸易的发展而越发频繁.2010-2011年期间,通过野外调查在海南岛记录到红嘴相思鸟(Leiothrix lutea)和灰喜鹊(Cyanopica cyana)的逃逸群体,确认为海南岛的外来鸟种.

  6. A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Selected Ethnic and Racial Terminology Present in Assorted Public English Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pietraszewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of the article is to analyse large collections of linguistic data in order to unveil language patterns pointing to the pervasive racist sentiments. Lexical choices made by speakers are assumed to reflect their attitudes to certain minority groups. Since languages reflect ideas present in a society, it is possible to find examples of racial and ethnic prejudices expressed either overtly with ethnophaulisms or more inconspicuously in certain lexical choices. This study is concerned with discriminatory practices in the form of racist and ethnic slurs as well as the most frequent collocates pointing to negative stereotypes of selected ethnic minorities. The search for biased language was conducted in large British and American English corpora, including Internet treated as corpus. The author attempts to present how the visual and cultural differences as well as the portrayal of particular minorities in media may influence language pertaining to ethnic groups. The results indicate that ethnic stereotypes are still reproduced in both British and American English. Prejudiced language appears to be associated with both visibility and socio-economic status of a particular group in a certain country.

  7. Corpora amylacea deposition in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A new role for an old gene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is the most common medically refractory epilepsy syndrome in adults, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the most frequently encountered lesion in patients with MTLE. Premature accumulation of corpora amylacea (CoA, which plays an important role in the sequestration of toxic cellular metabolites, is found in the hippocampus of 50-60% of the patients who undergo surgery for medically refractory MTLE-HS. However, the etiopathogenesis and clinical importance of this phenomenon are still uncertain. The ABCB1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp plays a prominent role as an antiapoptotic factor in addition to its efflux transporter function. ABCB1 polymorphism has been found to be associated with downregulation of P-gp expression. We hypothesized that a similar polymorphism will be found in patients with CoA deposition, as the polymorphism predisposes the hippocampal neuronal and glial cells to seizure-induced excitotoxic damage and CoA formation ensues as a buffer response. Materials and Methods: We compared five single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene Ex06+139C/T (rs1202168, Ex 12 C1236T (rs1128503, Ex 17-76T/A (rs1922242, Ex 21 G2677T/A (rs2032582, Ex26 C3435T (rs1045642 among 46 MTLE-HS patients of south Indian ancestry with and without CoA accumulation. Results: We found that subjects carrying the Ex-76T/A polymorphism (TA genotype had a five-times higher risk of developing CoA accumulation than subjects without this genotype (Odds ratio 5.0, 95% confidence intervals 1.34-18.55; P = 0.016. Conclusion: We speculate that rs1922242 polymorphism results in the downregulation of P-gp function, which predisposes the hippocampal cells to seizure-induced apoptosis, and CoA gets accumulated as a buffer response.

  8. Strategy of Human Resources Localization for Multinational Corpora-tions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明娜

    2014-01-01

    With the swift growth of China’s economy in recent years, the number of multinational corporations in China is in-creasing rapidly, and during their process of management, the strategy of human resources localization is widely used. Though there are a lot of scholars who have done research on advantages, negative effects and implementation of this strategy, there are still not enough studies have been made about the enlightenments for China. Therefore, this study aims at representing more modern and advanced opinions by stating superiority and inferior of multinational corporations’human resources localization strategy on the basis of predecessors’studies. This study is based on multinational corporation human resources localization theo-ries, research on certain multinational corporations located in China, and data and information from relative journals, books, newspapers and internet. The conclusion of this paper is as below:though human resources localization strategy has obvious ad-vantages, the management shall control the“degree”in case of“over-localization”;secondly, as Chinese corporations, it is neces-sary to possess their own core technology instead of being a manufacturer only;and last, Chinese corporations should learn from foreign multinationals that balancing between globalization and localization, to maximize the benefits.

  9. Kontrastivní lingvistika a paralelní korpusy : Contrastive Linguistics and Parallel Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libuše Dušková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief survey of English-Czech contrastive studies based on original texts and their translations from the beginnings in the mid-fifties of the last century to the present. Until the first decade of the present century, excerption was done manually, which limited the research to a small number of samples. The early studies of English largely concentrated on sentence condensation and nominal tendencies in the expression of the predicate, as compared with the verbal character of Czech. In connection with the development of the theory of functional sentence perspective other topics were found in this sphere, especially as regards word order. While the former studies can be currently pursued on the basis of InterCorp at a qualitatively higher level, research into FSP topics remains restricted to issues involving variables with formalizable realization forms. The main part of the paper focuses on some of the fallacies involved in using translation counterparts as the basis of contrastive research. One of them is the possible influence of the original; others appear in such areas as the choice of translation counterparts with respect to the issue under investigation, the assessment of their adequacy, including the possibility of misrepresentation by the translator, the validity of the translation counterpart (which is in most cases limited, as alternatives are possible and others. In studies of functional sentence perspective a point to be considered is equivocal interpretation of the FSP structure in the original. These points are illustrated by translation counterparts in two translations of the same novel.

  10. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  11. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    2011-01-01

    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  12. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  13. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  14. Linguistic scope-based and biological event-based speculation and negation annotations in the BioScope and Genia Event corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincze Veronika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of negation and hedging in natural language processing has received much interest recently, especially in the biomedical domain. However, open access corpora annotated for negation and/or speculation are hardly available for training and testing applications, and even if they are, they sometimes follow different design principles. In this paper, the annotation principles of the two largest corpora containing annotation for negation and speculation – BioScope and Genia Event – are compared. BioScope marks linguistic cues and their scopes for negation and hedging while in Genia biological events are marked for uncertainty and/or negation. Results Differences among the annotations of the two corpora are thematically categorized and the frequency of each category is estimated. We found that the largest amount of differences is due to the issue that scopes – which cover text spans – deal with the key events and each argument (including events within events of these events is under the scope as well. In contrast, Genia deals with the modality of events within events independently. Conclusions The analysis of multiple layers of annotation (linguistic scopes and biological events showed that the detection of negation/hedge keywords and their scopes can contribute to determining the modality of key events (denoted by the main predicate. On the other hand, for the detection of the negation and speculation status of events within events, additional syntax-based rules investigating the dependency path between the modality cue and the event cue have to be employed.

  15. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L. obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L. obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Pádua Valença DA SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cajás (Spondias lutea L., oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil, em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C. A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L por 30 min, à temperatura de 25°C, o pH natural (2,98, seguido o processo mecânico de extração. Foi empregado como processo de preservação do suco integral o método "hot-fill" + aditivos. Segundo o ponto de vista estatístico as características físico-químicas permaneceram inalteradas ao longo de 120 dias, apresentando os seguintes valores médios: pH (2,78, sólidos solúveis (11,19 °Brix, acidez titulável total (1,46 g% de ácido cítrico, açúcares redutores (6,91 g% em glicose, taninos (77,36 mg% de ácido tânico, cor (0,125 em leitura de absorbância a 440 nm, pectina (0,12 g% em pectato de cálcio e viscosidade (10,8 cps. A análise sensorial classificou o suco polposo como de "boa" e "muito boa", sendo que as maiores médias couberam aos parâmetros aparência, cor e sabor.Caja fruit (Spondias lutea L. from Maranguape (Ceará-Brazil obtained at the full maturity stage were processed at a pilot-scale level with the purpose to obtain pulpy juice through enzymatic-mechanical process. The final product was analysed regarding physical-chemical characteristics as well as in relation to sensorial profile after 120 days of storage at room temperature (28°C. The pulp was treated by 120 ppm of pectinolytics enzymes (Pectinex Ultra SP-L during 30 minutes at 25°C, keeping natural pulp pH (2,98. The "hot-fill " + aditives were used as a preservation process for the pulpy juice. At a statistical point of view physical-chemical characteristics

  16. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  17. The construction of small English-Chinese parallel corpora%略谈小型英汉对应语料库的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琨; 张荣梅

    2011-01-01

    主要介绍了对应语料库的概念、类型以及编制的具体方法,从语料的选取、收集、整理、对齐和标注等方面详细阐述了小型英汉对应语料库的编制步骤和注意事项。%Focusing on the definition,types and construction of parallel corpora,this paper demonstrates in detail such procedures as pre-edition,alignment and annotation during the construction of a parallel corpus.

  18. 构建和剖析中英三元组可比语料库%Building and profiling Chinese-English 3-tuple comparable corpora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小鹏; 袁琦; 耿鑫辉; 朱姝

    2014-01-01

    由于受到翻译腔的影响,中英平行语料库存在固有的扭斜的语言模型。显然,用这样的语料库训练的机器翻译、跨语言检索等自然语言处理系统也承袭了扭斜的语言模型,严重影响到应用系统的性能。为了克服平行语料库固有的缺陷,提出构建和剖析中英三元组可比语料库的技术研究。这项研究采用可比语料库和语言自动剖析技术,使用统计和规则相结合的方法,对由本族英语、中式英语和标准中文三元素所组成的三元组可比语料库中的本族英语和中式英语进行统计分析。在此基础上,利用n-元词串、关键词簇等自动抽取技术挖掘基于本族语言模型的双语资源,实现改进和发展机器翻译等自然语言的处理应用。%There exists inherent skewed language model in Chinese-English parallel corpus due to the influence of transla-tionese. Obviously, natural language processing systems trained with these corpora, including machine translation and cross-language information retrieval, will inherit the skewed language model, thus seriously degrading the performance of applications. To fix the inherent defaults in parallel corpus, this paper proposes a technical research on building and profiling Chinese-English 3-tuple comparable corpora. The study adopts comparable corpora and automatic language profiling technologies and applies a combined method of statistics and rules for statistical analysis on native English and Chinglish in 3-tuple comparable corpora that consists of native English, Chinglish and standard Chinese. Based on this, automatic extraction technologies, such as n-grams and key clusters, are used in the mining of native-language-based bilingual resources to improve and develop natural language processing applications such as machine translation.

  19. Magic Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE last digit of my home phone number in Beijing is 4. “So what?” European readers might ask.This was my attitude when I first lived in China; I couldn't understand why Chinese friends were so shocked at my indifference to the number 4. But China brings new discoveries every day, and I have since seen the light. I know now that Chinese people have their own ways of preserving their well being, and that they see avoiding the number 4 as a good way to stay safe.

  20. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  1. Integrating corpora and dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss different possibilities for integration of corpus data with dictionary data, mainly seen from a lexicographic point of view and in a sign language context. For about 25 years a text corpus has been considered a useful, if not necessary tool for editing dictionaries ...... interface, and, finally, we briefly outline the future perspectives of integrated sign language corpus-dictionary interfaces....

  2. Corpora and cultural cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can...

  3. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  4. O Papel das Subsidiárias de Corporações Multinacionais: Um Estudo de Caso na Indústria Brasileira de Refrigerantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rocha Lima Massa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Um importante desafio para as empresas que hoje internacionalizam seus negócios é desenvolver um nível de globalização que gere concentrações adequadas das operações locais e globalizadas para a empresa. Em um cenário muito mais incerto e dinâmico que os seguros mercados regionais, o gerenciamento eficaz das subsidiárias e unidades de negócios por parte das matrizes das multinacionais pode criar vantagens competitivas aplicáveis em toda corporação. A partir do estudo de caso de uma subsidiária atuando no mercado brasileiro de refrigerantes, o presente trabalho busca reconhecer a importância estratégica das subsidiárias das corporações multinacionais, conscientizando as empresas brasileiras que internacionalizam seus negócios e as multinacionais que atuam no Brasil, do papel das subsidiárias não apenas como instrumentos para implementação ou adaptação das diretrizes globais da empresa, mas com destaque na formulação de estratégias, na identificação de oportunidades de mercado e na criação de vantagens competitivas.

  5. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  6. Numbers, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  7. Numbers, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  8. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  9. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  10. Évolution du système linguistique d'apprenants d'allemand à l'aide de corpus numériques. L'exemple de l'adjectif. Learning to handle German adjective flexion by means of corpora use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schaeffer-Lacroix

    2010-12-01

    texts to another text which they had written before without any writing aid. The last text was written with controlled writing aids. The comparison of the four texts shows that exploiting corpora as writing aids can make texts more complex: the number of paratactic structures decreases and structures containing inflected adjectives and adjectives used as adverbs tend to increase.

  11. Study of stress of four environmental factors on Porites lutea and Goniopora stutchburyi%四种环境因子对澄黄滨珊瑚和斯氏角孔珊瑚胁迫作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 李泽鹏; 申玉春; 杨小东

    2013-01-01

    在实验室条件下对澄黄滨珊瑚(Porites lutea)和斯氏角孔珊瑚(Goniopora stutchburyi)进行温度、pH、磷酸盐和铜离子4种环境因子的胁迫试验。结果表明,温度、pH、磷酸盐和铜离子含量对2种珊瑚单位面积虫黄藻密度和叶绿素 a含量有重要影响,对照组和试验组间差异显著(p<0.05)。随着水环境温度升高、pH降低、磷酸盐和铜离子浓度增加,澄黄滨珊瑚和斯氏角孔珊瑚分泌黏液,触手逐渐回缩,直至全部紧缩,颜色逐渐变浅,白化死亡。澄黄滨珊瑚在25℃和28℃时有较高的虫黄藻密度,在28℃时有较高的叶绿素 a含量;斯氏角孔珊瑚在28℃时单位面积虫黄藻密度与叶绿素a含量都达到最高值。在pH 6.5时,2种珊瑚单位面积虫黄藻密度和叶绿素a含量均达到最高值。澄黄滨珊瑚在磷酸盐浓度5.0µmol·L−1时,单位面积虫黄藻密度和叶绿素a含量达到最高值;斯氏角孔珊瑚在未添加磷酸盐时,单位面积虫黄藻密度和叶绿素a含量为最高值。在铜离子浓度为4μg·L−1时,2种珊瑚有较高的单位面积虫黄藻密度和叶绿素 a 含量。2种珊瑚比较,澄黄滨珊瑚单位面积虫黄藻密度和叶绿素 a 含量明显低于斯氏角孔珊瑚。%Under laboratory condition, a stress experiment of four environmental factors (temperature, pH, phosphate and copper) on scleractinian (Porites lutea and Goniopora stutchburyi) was carried. The results suggested the four environmental factors have significant impacts on the areal zooxanthellae density and zooxanthellae chlorophyll-a content of two coral species and show a significant differences between control and treatment (p<0.05). Along with the increase of temperature, the decrease of pH, and the increases of phosphate concentration and copper concentration in the seawater, two coral species were stimulated to have slime secretion at first, and then their tentacle lost activity density and coral surfaces

  12. Cultura do silêncio e razão cínica das corporações na primavera brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Giovanni David Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ensaio que aborda a ausência das corporações empresariais no debate público sobre as manifestações e movimentos de protestos que têm ocorrido no Brasil nos últimos meses. O pressuposto analítico assumido no artigo é que a não participação empresarial no debate reproduz a cultura do silêncio e representa a adoção de uma razão cínica por parte de agentes de mercado diante de fenômenos sociais adversos, em relação aos quais possuem responsabilidade parcial ou integral.

  13. Several isoforms of locustatachykinins may be involved in cyclic AMP-mediated release of adipokinetic hormones from the locust Corpora cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D R; Vullings, H G; Passier, P C; Lundquist, C T; Schoofs, L; Diederen, J H; Van der Horst, D J

    1999-03-01

    Four locustatachykinins (LomTK I-IV) were identified in about equal amounts in extracts of corpora cardiaca of locusts, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay with synthetic LomTK I-IV as standards. Brain extracts also contained the four isoforms in roughly equimolar concentrations. Retrograde tracing of the nervi corporis cardiaci II (NCC II) in vitro with Lucifer yellow in combination with LomTK immunocytochemistry revealed that about half of the secretomotor neurons in the lateral part of the protocerebrum projecting into the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca (CCG) contain LomTK-immunoreactive material. Since the four LomTKs are present in the CCG, these four or five neurons in each hemisphere are likely to contain colocalized LomTK I-IV. The role of two of the LomTKs in the regulation of the release of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) from the adipokinetic cells in the CCG in the locust was investigated. Experiments performed in vitro showed that LomTK I and II induced release of AKH in a dose-dependent manner. These peptides also rapidly and transiently elevated the cyclic AMP-content of the CCG. The peak level of cyclic AMP occurred about 45 seconds after stimulation with LomTK. These results support the proposal that LomTKs are involved in controlling the release of the adipokinetic hormones and suggest that all LomTK isoforms may participate in this cyclic AMP-mediated event. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  15. Superovulation with different doses of follicle stimulating hormone in Kamphaeng Saen beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerayut Nilchuen*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH usedin a superovulation program on numbers of corpora lutea, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos in Kamphaeng Saenbeef cattle. Cyclic cows (n=3 and heifers (n=3 of Kamphaeng Saen beef breed were assigned to two levels of FSH (200 and250 mg. NIH-FSH-P1 in Crossover Design by which two changes over treatments were studied over two periods in allanimals. Cows and heifers were estrous synchronized by Cloprostenol (500 μg. Estrus detection was performed by teaserbull (Day 0 = day of the onset of standing estrus. On day 9 after the onset of standing estrus, all animals were treated withFSH twice daily in decreasing doses over 4 days. On day 3 of FSH injection, each animal was treated with Cloprostenol (500μg. At the first standing estrus, all animals were artificially inseminated three times at 12 h intervals. Two straws of frozenthawedsemen of Kamphaeng Saen bull were used per insemination. All animals were treated with gonadotropin releasinghormone (10 μg of Buserelin at first insemination. Numbers of corpora lutea were determined by rectal palpation and embryoswere flushed seven days after the onset of standing estrus and classified according to the development stage and quality.The results showed that numbers of corpora lutea, percentages of total ova/embryos and percentages of transferable embryoswere not significantly different (P>0.05 between treatments (FSH: 200 versus 250 mg in either cows or heifers.

  16. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...

  17. Effects of Inula viscosa leaf extracts on abortion and implantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dissi, N M; Salhab, A S; Al-Hajj, H A

    2001-09-01

    The anti-implantation and mid-term abortifacient effects exhibited by administration of Inula viscosa leaf extracts, were studied in rats. The aqueous extract administered i.p. on day 1-6 of gestation, totally diminished fetal implantation and caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the number of corpora lutea and blood progesterone levels. Meanwhile, administration on day 13-15 of gestation exhibited mid-term abortion. Furthermore, petroleum ether and dichloromethane, but not methanol, extracts exhibited pronounced abortifacient effects. The results of this study are in agreement with the traditional reputation of this plant as abortifacient. Further, the plant possesses anti-implantational and luteolytic effects.

  18. Effect of corpus luteum: quality and recovery rate of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    SAHOO, Lakshman; Singla, Suresh K.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery rate and quality of oocytes were investigated from abattoir collected ovaries with and without corpora lutea (CL). The oocytes were categorized into four grades: grade-A, grade-B, grade-C, and grade-D based on the presence of the cumulus cells complex around the oocytes. The number of oocytes per ovary were 1.7 ±0.1 and 1.5 ±0.1, obtained from ovaries without CL and with CL, respectively. Recovery rate of different grades of oocytes from ovaries with CL and without CL were almost ide...

  19. Hyperprolinaemia caused by novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides isolated from corpora cardiaca of onitine beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G

    1997-01-01

    Two novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides were identified in dung beetles of the genus Onitis using heterologous (measuring lipid and carbohydrate mobilization in locusts and cockroaches) and a homologous (measuring proline increase in the haemolymph) bioassay(s). Isolation of the peptides was achieved by single-step reverse-phase HPLC of corpora cardiaca extracts. The primary structure was elucidated by automated Edman degradation and by electrospray MS. Both peptides are blocked octapeptides containing three aromatic amino acids. Peptide 1, designated Ona-CC-I, is pGlu-Tyr-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp-NH2, and peptide 2, designated Ona-CC-II, is pGlu-Phe-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2. The synthetic peptides were chromatographically indistinguishable from the natural compounds. They both had a hyperprolinaemic effect in the dung beetle. Moreover, flight experiments established that proline is an important fuel to power flight metabolism in Onitis species. Therefore, it is concluded that these novel and unique peptides are involved in regulating proline-based flight metabolism.

  20. Ultrastructural localization of unique neurosecretory granules in the corpora cardiaca of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, S M; Pendleton, M W; Langley, P A; Lovering, S L

    1999-05-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of the corpora cardiaca of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, revealed the presence of elementary neurosecretory granules (ENG) unique to the intrinsic neurosecretory cells (INC) of these species. In addition to electron-dense spheres, the INC of the corpus species. In addition to electron-dense spheres, the INC of the corpus cardiacum of the stable fly contain electrondense angular granules, either square or rectangular in shape, while the INC of the tsetse fly contain electron-dense spindle-shaped ENG. The distinctive granules of these INC can be traced within nerves to their sites of storage and release, eliminating the need for labeling with artificial probes. Although the INC of the corpus cardiacum of most species have been found to be fuchsinophilic, neither the INC of the stable fly nor the tsetse fly are aldehyde-fuchsinophilic. These peptigenic cells offer neuroendocrinologists a unique opportunity to study the physiology and biochemistry of neurosecretory cells.

  1. Operações com derivativos financeiros das corporações de economias emergentes Operations with financial derivatives of corporations from emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Farhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o aprofundamento da crise financeira internacional no segundo semestre de 2008, diversas empresas produtivas de economias emergentes registraram enormes perdas nos mercados de derivativos de câmbio. Esse fato aponta para a dinâmica, muitas vezes, especulativa, das corporações no ambiente das finanças desregulamentadas. O objetivo do artigo reside em articular tais aspectos da lógica de atuação das empresas com a crise e discutir os impactos macroeconômicos dos prejuízos financeiros resultantes de apostas especulativas em derivativos.As a consequence of the deepening of the international financial crisis during the second semester of 2008, several productive companies from emerging economies have registered enormous losses in the foreign exchange derivatives markets. This fact points to the speculative dynamics of corporations in the financial deregulation environment. This paper aims to articulate this logic of enterprises' behavior with the crisis and to discuss some macroeconomic effects resulting from the financial losses caused by speculative bets in the derivative markets.

  2. Utilité du partage des corpus pour l'analyse des interactions en ligne en situation d'apprentissage : un exemple d'approche méthodologique autour d'une base de corpus d'apprentissage Benefits of Sharing Corpora when Analyzing Online Interactions: an Example of Methodology Related to a Databank of Learning and Teaching Corpora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Ciekanski

    2010-12-01

    propos sur les modes de valorisation scientifique du travail du chercheur confronté à la collecte et à la structuration de corpus d'apprentissage.The study of online learning, whether aimed at understanding this form of situated human learning, at evaluating relevant pedagogical scenarios and settings or at improving technological environments, requires the availability of interaction data from all participants in the learning situations. However, usually data are either inaccessible, or of limited access to those who were not involved in the original project. Moreover data are fragmented, therefore decontextualized with respect to the original teaching/learning settings. Sometimes they are buried in a proprietary format within the technological environment. The consequence is that research lacks a scientific basis. In the literature comparisons are often attempted between objects that are ill-defined and may in fact be different. The processes of scientific enquiry, such as re-analyzing, replicating, verifying, refuting or extending the original findings, are therefore disabled. To address this anomaly, we suggest to create and disseminate a new type of corpus, a contextualized learner corpus, entitled "LEarning and TEaching Corpus" (Letec. Such corpora include not only the data that correspond to output of learner activity in online courses, but also their context. Sharing Letec corpora within the research community implies that: (1 corpora are formatted and structured according to a new model which is compatible with existing standards for corpora and for learning design specifications; (2 corpora are placed on a server offering cross-platform compatibility and free access; (3 an ethics policy is formulated as well as copyright-licences. This paper presents the answers brought by our Mulce project from a theoretical and methodological standpoint. We give examples extracted from two learning and teaching corpora (Simuligne and Copéas. We show how data structured

  3. 贵州宽阔水自然保护区红嘴相思鸟的巢址选择%Nest-site choice of Red-billed Leiothrix Leiothrix lutea in Kuankuoshui Nature Reserve of Guizhou Province in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢昕; 程成; 梁伟

    2011-01-01

    2008年4月至7月,在贵州宽阔水自然保护区对红嘴相思鸟(Leiothrix lutea)的巢址选择进行了调查.野外共发现红嘴相思鸟的巢17个,其中88%(n=15)位于竹林中.主成分分析表明,影响红嘴相思鸟巢址选择的主要因素包括乔木因子、地形因子、人为活动因子、巢隐蔽因子和食物因子等.用5 mX5 m样方法对巢址和对照样方进行统计分析表明,在生境类型等8个参数中存在显著差异(Z=-4.794,P=0.000).巢址中心样方和巢址四周样方在灌木高度(Z=-2.855,P=0.004)、灌木数量(Z=-2.662,P=0.000)和草本种类(Z=-2.190,P=0.028)上存在显著差异,表明红嘴相思鸟倾向于选择灌木密集,草本单一的生境营巢,而对郁闭度没有选择偏好.

  4. Randomised clinical trial evaluating the effect of different timing and number of fixed timed artificial inseminations, following a seven-day progesterone-based protocol, on pregnancy outcomes in UK dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John Paul; Coates, Amy; Lima, Fabio; Smith, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2017-09-25

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect on pregnancy outcome of either inseminating heifers twice (at 48 and 72 hours after withdrawal of a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing progesterone) or once (56 hours after CIDR withdrawal) following a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol. Dairy heifers (n=267) from five farms, with an age range of 388-736 days, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (group A heifers were inseminated twice; group B heifers were inseminated once). Both groups received a CIDR on day (D) 0 and an intramuscular injection of d-cloprostenol on D6; the CIDR was withdrawn on D7. Measurements of withers height, body condition score and hearth girth (used to estimate weight) were taken on D0. The diameter of the largest follicles and corpora lutea was recorded on both D0 and D6. Data were analysed with the use of multivariable logistic regression modelling. Treatment group and farm were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy per treatment (P/T). Age and dominant follicle size on D6 were significantly associated with P/T. Heifers with the largest dominant follicle sizes (16-22 mm) were 5.54 times less likely to be pregnant than those heifers with the smallest dominant follicles (8-10 mm) on D6. It was shown that the cost associated with inseminating heifers twice after a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol is not justified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit...

  6. Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit formula for the number of such compositions, in terms of convolutions of Fibonacci numbers.

  7. Comparing two different superovulation protocols on ovarian activity and fecal glucocorticoid levels in the brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Eveline S; Munerato, Marina S; Cursino, Marina S; Duarte, José Maurício B

    2014-03-19

    Stress is a limiting factor in assisted reproduction in wild animals maintained in captivity. However, the knowledge of assisted reproduction techniques for wild animals is useful for future in situ and ex situ conservation programs. Thus, this study evaluated the ovulation rate, presence of functional corpora lutea and fecal glucocorticoid levels following treatments promoting superovulation in captive brown brocket deer. The crossover design used six hinds, allocated to two groups (n=6): eCG Treatment, CIDR for 8 days, followed by 0.25 mg of EB on day 0, 700 IU of eCG on day 4 following device insertion and 265 mug of PGF2alfa on day 8; and FSH Treatment, CIDR for 7.5 days, followed by 0.25 mg of EB on day 0, 130 mg of FSH in 8 equal doses and 265 mug of PGF2alfa on day 7.5. Induced adrenal activity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by corpora lutea (CL) counts and fecal glucocorticoid and progestin concentration (ng/g feces) analyses for five different phases: Pre, two days before treatment; Early, first four days of treatment; Late, last four days of treatment; Total, entire treatment period; and Post, five days posttreatment. eCG Treatment resulted in the highest number of CL (P lower than 0.05). There was no significant difference for fecal glucocorticoid concentrations in five different time periods between the treatments; however Pre fecal glucocorticoid concentrations (90.06+/-19.64) were significantly different from Late (200.76+/-26.39) within FSH Treatment. The mean fecal progestin concentration and mean ovulation rate were higher in eCG Treatment (4293.69+/-769.47, 7.0+/-1.8) than in FSH Treatment (1571.26+/-240.28, 2.6+/-0.8) (P lower than or equal to 0.05). Although the eCG Treatment induced a good superovulatory response, with the formation of functional corpora lutea, we cannot yet affirm that we have established a suitable protocol for induction of SOV in the species M. gouazoubira because approximately 65% of the deer showed premature

  8. The proprotein convertase encoded by amontillado (amon) is required in Drosophila corpora cardiaca endocrine cells producing the glucose regulatory hormone AKH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Jeanne M; Wegener, Christian; Bender, Michael

    2010-05-27

    Peptide hormones are potent signaling molecules that coordinate animal physiology, behavior, and development. A key step in activation of these peptide signals is their proteolytic processing from propeptide precursors by a family of proteases, the subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs). Here, we report the functional dissection of amontillado (amon), which encodes the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, using cell-type specific inactivation and rescue experiments, and we show that amon is required in the islet-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells that regulate sugar homeostasis. In Drosophila, AKH acts analogously to vertebrate glucagon to increase circulating sugar levels from energy stores, while insulin-like peptides (DILPs) act to decrease sugar levels. amon mutant larvae have significantly reduced hemolymph sugar levels, and thus phenocopy larvae where the AKH-producing cells in the corpora cardiaca have been ablated. Reduction of amon expression in these cells via cell-specific RNA inactivation also results in larvae with reduced sugar levels while expression of amon in AKH cells in an amon mutant background rescues hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia in larvae resulting from amon RNA inactivation in the AKH cells can be rescued by global expression of the akh gene. Finally, mass spectrometric profiling shows that the production of mature AKH is inhibited in amon mutants. Our data indicate that amon function in the AKH cells is necessary to maintain normal sugar homeostasis, that amon functions upstream of akh, and that loss of mature AKH is correlated with loss of amon activity. These observations indicate that the AKH propeptide is a proteolytic target of the amon proprotein convertase and provide evidence for a conserved role of PC2 in processing metabolic peptide hormones.

  9. Use of Corpora in Textbook-making%论语料库在外语教材编撰中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛文伟

    2013-01-01

    本文列举实例,探讨了外语教材编撰过程中,语料库能够起到的重要应用。本族语语料库不仅清楚地呈现了目标语言中词汇、语法项目的不对称分布等特征,而且提供了词语搭配、语义韵、呼应关系等方面的丰富信息。学习者语料库则较为准确地反映了学习者的习得状况。通过有的放矢地对存在过度使用或习得困难趋势的项目加以抑制或强化,能够帮助学习者在内部构建更为准确、完善的目标语言体系。%This paper provides examples to discuss the application of corpora in textbook-making. The native corpus shows us the asymmetry in distribution of vocabulary, grammar etc. in the target language. Also it provides us with valuable information about the collocation, semantic prosodies and the relationship of words etc. On the other hand, the learners’corpus reflects the status of the learner's language acquisition, from which we can find the overused or underused projects that should be targeted to inhibit or enhance in order to help the learners be more successful in mastering the target language.

  10. Alternative treatment of ovarian cysts with Tribulus terrestris extract: a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, A; Esfandiari, A; Bigdeli, S Momeni

    2012-02-01

    Tribulus terrestris has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of T. terrestris extract in the treatment of polycystic ovary (PCO) in Wistar rat. Estradiol valerate was injected to 15 mature Wistar rats to induce PCO. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, low-dose and high-dose groups) of five each and received 0, 5 and 10 mg of T. terrestris extract, respectively.Treatments began on days 50 and 61 after estradiol injection; at the same time, vaginal smear was prepared. The ovaries were removed on day 62, and histological sections were prepared accordingly. The number and diameter of corpora lutea, thickness of the theca interna layer and the number of all follicles were evaluated in both ovaries. In comparison with the control group, the number of corpora lutea and primary and secondary follicles significantly increased following T. terrestris treatment; however, the number of ovarian cysts significantly decreased. It can be concluded that T. terrestris have a luteinizing effect on ovarian cysts, which may relate to its gonadotropin-like activity; also, a high dose of the extract can efficiently remove ovarian cysts and resume ovarian activity.

  11. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  12. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  13. Effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on follicular growth and ovulation in gonadotrophin-treated gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Cassar, Glen; Friendship, Robert M; Garcia, José C; Dominguez, J Carlos; Kirkwood, Roy N

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on the ovarian response of gilts previously treated with 200 IU hCG combined with 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) (eCG/hCG). Seventy-one prepuberal gilts (105 ± 7.5 kg) were assigned to groups: i) eCG/hCG (hCG-0; n = 25); ii) eCG/hCG followed by 100 IU of hCG at 24 h (hCG-100; n = 24); iii) eCG/hCG followed by 200 IU hCG at 24 h (hCG-200; n = 10); and iv) controls (CON; n = 12). Ovulation response was assessed by ovarian dissection or real-time ultrasonography. Additional hCG did not significantly improve numbers of gilts ovulating. Numbers of corpora lutea increased with hCG, and was higher in hCG-200 (P hCG-0, the frequency of cysts in gilts was higher in hCG-100 (P hCG-200 (P hCG. We conclude that supplemental hCG will increase the number of corpora lutea but will be associated with follicular cyst development in a dose dependent manner.

  14. Ilocuções comissivas em dicionários híbridos italiano>português-brasileiro: proposta de dicionarização a partir do uso de corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Railo Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é expor os resultados de um projeto de mestrado desenvolvido entre 2012-2015 cuja proposta fora a de sugerir um modo de inserção, em dicionários híbridos italiano>português-brasileiro, de informações acerca da dimensão ilocucionária de ambas as línguas, a partir de pesquisa feita em corpora eletrônicos. O texto foi assim estruturado: apresentação dos pressupostos teóricos; dos critérios adotados para investigação de ilocuções em corpora (e resultados obtidos; da sugestão de inserção de ilocuções em dicionários híbridos italiano>português-brasileiro; da análise lógico-conceitual que a justifica. Justifica-se a pesquisa na medida em que são poucos os estudos que se debruçaram sobre a presença e/ ou inclusão de informações ilocucionárias em dicionários híbridos. A proposta final foi a de inserir: no interior dos verbetes, marcas de uso referentes às classes de ilocução e de remissivas que conduzam o leitor a uma seção externa à nomenclatura; como material externo à nomenclatura, uma seção que contenha explicações referentes às classes de ilocuções, lista com suas respectivas espécies dispostas segundo frequência em corpora, e exemplos de uso retirados dos corpora. Concluiu-se que a inserção de tais informações podem ser de utilidade a estudantes brasileiros que pretendam (reconhecer tal aspecto pragmático da língua italiana.

  15. 早春类短命植物生物量研究(Ⅲ) ——顶冰花生物量特征及模型构建%On Spring Ephemeral Plants Biomass(Ⅲ) ——Biomass Characteristics and Biomass Model Construction of Gagea lutea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金萍; 范春楠; 程岩; 刘彬; 李金玉

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biomass of Gagea lutea by using the whole harvest method, and analyzed the distribution characteristics of underground biomass and aboveground biomass, meanwhile, constructed biomass model of Gagea lutea.The results showed that:the mean individual biomass of Gagea lutea was 0.3162 g.Mean biomass of underground was higher than that of aboveground about 37.92%.Leaf biomass,fruit biomass,total biomass,aboveground biomass and underground biomass were increased with leaf length enlarging, but flower biomass was decreased.There was a close relationship between sexual reproduction and individual size.The proportion of sexual reproduction biomass in total biomass was in a range from 5.47% to 19.42%,the mean was 11 .92%;the proportion of sexual reproduction biomass in vegetation growth biomass was 14 .41%, and showed rise firstly after the fall to rise again with leaf length enlarging.The root-shoot radio was from 0.93 to 1.86,the mean was 1.33,and assumed unimodal type change with the leaf length enlarging.In general,the increase of the Gagea lutea biomass with the leaf length manifested as aboveground growth transformed into underground growth, and the growth of vegetative organ transformed into the growth of reproductive organ.The four biomass estimation models of Gagea lutea with the leaf length including aboveground biomass,underground biomass and total biomass all reached very significant level,except model of underground biomass by index equation.%以早春类短命植物顶冰花为研究对象,采用全收获法对其生物量进行统计.结果表明:顶冰花的单株生物量平均为0.3162 g,地下部分较地上部分平均高出37.92%.随着叶长的增大,叶生物量、果生物量、总生物量、地上生物量与地下生物量均显著增加,而花生物量显著减小.有性生殖生长与植株个体大小的关系密切,占总生物量的5.47%~19.42%,平均为11.92%;占营养器官的比例平均为14.41%,表现出随叶长的

  16. Activated Rho kinase mediates diabetes-induced elevation of vascular arginase activation and contributes to impaired corpora cavernosa relaxation: possible involvement of p38 MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toque, Haroldo A; Nunes, Kenia P; Yao, Lin; Liao, James K; Webb, R Clinton; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, R William

    2013-06-01

    Activated RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) has been implicated in diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Earlier studies have demonstrated involvement of ROCK pathway in the activation of arginase in endothelial cells. However, signaling pathways activated by ROCK in the penis remain unclear. We tested whether ROCK and p38 MAPK are involved in the elevation of arginase activity and subsequent impairment of corpora cavernosal (CC) relaxation in diabetes. Eight weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetes, vascular functional studies, arginase activity assay, and protein expression of RhoA, ROCK, phospho-p38 MAPK, p38 MAPK, phospho-MYPT-1(Thr850), MYPT-1 and arginase levels were assessed in CC tissues from nondiabetic wild type (WT), diabetic (D) WT (WT + D), partial ROCK 2(+/-) knockout (KO), and ROCK 2(+/-) KO + D mice. The expression of RhoA, ROCK 1 and 2, phosphorylation of MYPT-1(Thr850) and p38 MAPK, arginase activity/expression, endothelial- and nitrergic-dependent relaxation of CC was assayed. Diabetes significantly reduced maximum relaxation (Emax ) to both endothelium-dependent acetylcholine (WT + D: Emax; 61 ± 4% vs. WT: Emax; 75 ± 2%) and nitrergic nerve stimulation. These effects were associated with increased expression of active RhoA, ROCK 2, phospho-MYPT-1(Thr850), phospho-p38 MAPK, arginase II, and activity of corporal arginase (1.6-fold) in WT diabetic CC. However, this impairment in CC of WT + D mice was absent in heterozygous ROCK 2(+/-) KO + D mice for acetylcholine (Emax : 80 ± 5%) and attenuated for nitrergic nerve-induced relaxation. CC of ROCK 2(+/-) KO + D mice showed much less ROCK activity, did not exhibit p38 MAPK activation, and had reduced arginase activity and arginase II expression. These findings indicate that ROCK 2 mediates diabetes-induced elevation of arginase activity. Additionally, pretreatment of WT diabetic CC with inhibitors of arginase (ABH) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) partially prevented impairment of ACh- and nitrergic nerve

  17. On Number of Compositions of Natural Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We first give a combinatorial interpretation of coefficients of Chebyshev polynomials, which allows us to connect them with compositions of natural numbers. Then we describe a relationship between the number of compositions of a natural number in which a certain number of parts are p-1, and other parts are not less than p with compositions in which all parts are not less than p. Then we find a relationship between principal minors of a type of Hessenberg matrices and compositions of natural numbers.

  18. Morphological and hormonal changes after superovulation in cows treated with Neutra-PMSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boryczko, Z.; Gajewski, Z.; Witkowski, M. [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland); Bostedt, H.; Hoffmann, B. [Dept. of Animal Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Morphological changes in ovaries and hormonal changes as well as changes in Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P blood plasma levels were observed after superovulation induced by the administration of PMSG and the neutralization of this hormone with monoclonal antibodies Neutra-PMSG administered either 72 or 108 h later. The introduction of Neutra-PMSG 108 h after PMSG injection clearly decreases the number of surviving non-ovulated follicles with a diameter >10 mm (1.7{+-}0.8 vesicle in an individual cow on the average) in comparison to the group without Neutra-PMSG (19.4{+-}9.5). The efficiency of ovulation in the group treated with Neutra-PMSG in the 108th of the experiment (8.2{+-}4.6 corpora lutea per cow on the average), did not differ statistically from the group treated with PMSG only (12.4{+-}10.6). Early administration of Neutra-PMSG (72 h), totally inhibits superovulation. Observations showed, that injection of Neutra-PMSG in the 108th h, caused a considerable decrease in the estradiol level, beginning with the 120th h of the experiment. Determination of the progesterone blood plasma level reflects the number of corpora lutea and can be helpful in evaluating the effects of superovulation. Superovulation did not effect the level of Na, K, Mg, and P in the blood plasma. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Effect of follicular wave synchronization on superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Esquerdo Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the follicular wave synchronization method on the superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors. Seven cows and five heifers were divided into three treatments according to the method of the follicular wave synchronization prior to superovulation. The donors were superovulated with eight FSH decreasing doses, adding 133 mg per animal. The superovulatory response was evaluated using an ultrasound device to quantify the number of corpora lutea. The number and quality of recovered structures were also evaluated. Animal category (cow or heifer and genetic group influenced the superovulatory response, in which heifers showed a greater response (100% in all treatments compared with cows, which showed 85.7%, 57.1% and 57.1% superovulatory response for standing estrus, GnRH and P4 + BE groups, respectively. The genetic group also showed influence on superovulatory response, in which the 3/8 animals had an average of 10.3 corpora lutea per donor compared with the 3/4 animals, which showed 4.9. The follicular wave synchronization treatments did not show differences in superovulatory response, recovered structures and viable structures. The treatment of follicular wave synchronization with GnRH or with P4 + BE can be used in Girolando donors with the same efficiency as the standing estrus group, and 3/8 Girolando heifers respond better to the superovulatory treatment.

  20. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  1. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  2. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  3. Automated Analysis of Corpora Callosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the steps needed to perform modern model-based interpretation of the corpus callosum in MRI. The process is discussed from the initial landmark-free contours to full-fledged statistical models based on the Active Appearance Models framework. Topics treated incl...... include landmark placement, background modelling and multi-resolution analysis. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative validation in a cross-sectional study show that fully automated analysis and segmentation of the corpus callosum are feasible....

  4. All Square Chiliagonal Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A?iru, Muniru A.

    2016-01-01

    A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square…

  5. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  6. Parameterizing by the Number of Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellows, Michael R; Rosamond, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    The usefulness of parameterized algorithmics has often depended on what Niedermeier has called, "the art of problem parameterization". In this paper we introduce and explore a novel but general form of parameterization: the number of numbers. Several classic numerical problems, such as Subset Sum, Partition, 3-Partition, Numerical 3-Dimensional Matching, and Numerical Matching with Target Sums, have multisets of integers as input. We initiate the study of parameterizing these problems by the number of distinct integers in the input. We rely on an FPT result for ILPF to show that all the above-mentioned problems are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized in this way. In various applied settings, problem inputs often consist in part of multisets of integers or multisets of weighted objects (such as edges in a graph, or jobs to be scheduled). Such number-of-numbers parameterized problems often reduce to subproblems about transition systems of various kinds, parameterized by the size of the system descripti...

  7. 红嘴相思鸟的种群繁殖密度与杜鹃巢寄生率的关系%Population Breeding Density and Brood Parasitism Rate in the Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 杨灿朝; 梁伟

    2012-01-01

    Population breeding density of hosts is regarded as a valuable index to predict cuckoo parasitism rate in avi- an brood parasitism. To test this hypothesis, population breeding density and brood parasitism rate of Red-billed Leio- thrix (Leiothrix lutea) were investigated from April to August, 2011 in Kuankuoshui National Natural Reserve (KKS), Guizhou, south-western China. Our results showed that the Red-billed Leiothrix is a widespread and dominant species with a population breeding density of 108.37±28.68 individuals per km2 in KKS. The highest density was detected in sec- ondary forest, with 201.41±7.3 individuals per km2, followed by shrub and primary forest. Residential area has the lowest density of 34.15±7.86 individuals per km2. A total of 347 nests of the Red-billed Leiothrix were found from 1999 to 2011 and the cuckoo brood parasitism rate of this host is 0. Breeding time and population density could not explain the ab- sence of cuckoo parasitism in the Red-billed Leiothrix.%在杜鹃与其宿主的协同进化中,宿主种群繁殖密度被认为是预测其是否被杜鹃寄生的重要指标.2011年4-8月,在贵州宽阔水国家级自然保护区对不同类型生境的红嘴相思鸟(Leiothrixlutea)的种群繁殖密度进行调查,以分析其种群繁殖密度与杜鹃(CuculWspp.)寄生之间的关系.红嘴相思鸟在宽阔水自然保护区分布广泛,平均种群繁殖密度为108.37±28.68只/km2,其中在次生林中最高,达201.41±7.36/km2,其次为灌丛和原生林.居民点的密度最低,为34.15±7.86只/km2.1999—2011年的繁殖季,共找到红嘴相思鸟的巢347个,均未发现被杜鹃寄生,巢寄生率为0.分析表明,繁殖时间和种群繁殖密度不是杜鹃未利用红嘴相思鸟的原因.

  8. Haplosufficient genomic androgen receptor signaling is adequate to protect female mice from induction of polycystic ovary syndrome features by prenatal hyperandrogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A S L; Eid, S; Kay, C R; Jimenez, M; McMahon, A C; Desai, R; Allan, C M; Smith, J T; Handelsman, D J; Walters, Kirsty A

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. Because hyperandrogenism is the most consistent PCOS feature, we used wild-type (WT) and androgen receptor (AR) knockout (ARKO) mice, together with a mouse model of PCOS, to investigate the contribution of genomic AR-mediated actions in the development of PCOS traits. PCOS features were induced by prenatal exposure to dihydrotestosterone (250 μg) or oil vehicle (control) on days 16-18 of gestation in WT, heterozygote, and homozygote ARKO mice. DHT treatment of WT mice induced ovarian cysts (100% vs 0%), disrupted estrous cycles (42% vs 100% cycling), and led to fewer corpora lutea (5.0±0.4 vs 9.8±1.8). However, diestrus serum LH and FSH, and estradiol-induced-negative feedback as well as hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin, were unaffected by DHT treatment in WT mice. DHT-treated WT mice exhibited a more than 48% increase in adipocyte area but without changes in body fat. In contrast, heterozygous and homozygous ARKO mice exposed to DHT maintained comparable ovarian (histo)morphology, estrous cycling, and corpora lutea numbers, without any increase in adipocyte size. These findings provide strong evidence that genomic AR signaling is an important mediator in the development of these PCOS traits with a dose dependency that allows even AR haplosufficiency to prevent induction by prenatal androgenization of PCOS features in adult life.

  9. Faillure in the effect of the analogue (hCG of luteinizing hormone on the luteal angiogenesis in rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonçalves Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the control of the ovarian activity is essential for the success of reproduction biotechnologies. Although a number of studies have been carried out in which the luteinizing hormone (LH was used to control the ovarian activity, little is known about its influence in the morphology and vascular formation of the corpus luteum, aiming to increase the local blood flow. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was the quantification of the vascular density of corpora lutea (Cls in animals treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG just after ovulation. Therefore, eighteen wistar rats were used in this experiment. Eight rats in the treated group and ten rats in the control group. Corpora lutea were divided into two groups: group (A treated with hCG in the following morning after copulation, and group (B control animals which received an injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Ovaries from each group were used for preparation of histological sections for vascular density qualification. No statistical significance was found between the two groups tested.

  10. Successful embryo transfer in Tianzhu white yak using standard protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of superovulation, oestrus synchronization, and embryo recovery in Tianzhu white yaks and also to confirm the pregnancy rate of black yaks, to which embryos collected from white yaks were transplanted. Forty-seven yaks were selected from different experiment groups, including 10 Tianzhu white female yaks (donor, group A) and 37 black female yaks (recipient, groups B and C). Superovulation of the donor was induced by the application procedure of CIDR-B + FSH + PG. Oestrus synchronization of recipients was induced using two methods: group B was given the same treatment as group A, except that the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) injection was not administered, whereas group C was injected with cloprostenol only once when corpus luteum (corpora lutea) was (were) palpated. The results showed that the oestrous rates in group A were higher (80%) than those in group B (60%) and group C (44.5%). As for the efficiency of superovulation, it was indicated that the mean numbers (±SD) of total corpora lutea, follicles, viable (transferable), and degenerated embryos were 4.75 ± 2.19, 1.13 ± 0.83, 2.50 ± 1.31, and 1.38 ± 0.92, respectively. The mean embryo recovery rates were 55.6%. All together, 18 viable embryos of Tianzhu white yak were obtained and 12 of them were transplanted to 10 recipients. The pregnancy rate was 50% and the delivery rate was 40%.

  11. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  12. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KEVSER AKTAS; M RAM MURTY

    2017-06-01

    For lack of a better word, a number is called special if it has mutually distinct exponents in its canonical prime factorizaton for all exponents. Let $V (x)$ be the number of special numbers $\\leq x$. We will prove that there is a constant $c$ > 1 such that $V (x) \\sim \\frac{cx}{log x}$. We will make some remarks on determining the error term at the end. Using the explicit abc conjecture, we will study the existence of 23 consecutive special integers.

  13. Numbers and Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Eugene; Ginsburg, Jekuthiel

    Counting, naming numbers, numerals, computation, and fractions are the topics covered in this pamphlet. Number lore and interesting number properties are noted; the derivation of some arithmetic terms is briefly discussed. (DT)

  14. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  15. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  16. δ-FIBONACCI NUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Slota; Roman Witula

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the definition and discussion of the polynomial generalizations of the {sc Fibonacci} numbers called here $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers. Many special identities and interesting relations for these new numbers are presented. Also, different connections between $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers and {sc Fibonacci} and {sc Lucas} numbersare proven in this paper.

  17. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  18. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  19. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  20. Relating numeric cognition and language processing: do numbers and words share a common representational platform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Numerical processing and language processing are both grounded in space. In the present study we investigated whether these are fully independent phenomena, or whether they share a common basis. If number processing activates spatial dimensions that are also relevant for understanding words, then we can expect that processing numbers may influence subsequent lexical access to words. Specifically, if high numbers relate to upper space, then they can be expected to facilitate understanding of words such as bird that are having referents typically found in the upper vertical space. The opposite should hold for low numbers. These should facilitate the understanding of words such as ground referring to entities with referents in the lower vertical space. Indeed, in two experiments we found evidence for such an interaction between number and word processing. By eliminating a contribution of linguistic factors gained from additional investigations on large text corpora, this strongly suggests that understanding numbers and language is based on similar modal representations in the brain. The implications of these findings for a broader perspective on grounded cognition will be discussed.

  1. Hyper Space Complex Number

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shanguang

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  2. Possible number systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Lance J; Thompson, Samantha

    2014-03-01

    Number systems-such as the natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, or complex numbers-play a foundational role in mathematics, but these systems can present difficulties for students. In the studies reported here, we probed the boundaries of people's concept of a number system by asking them whether "number lines" of varying shapes qualify as possible number systems. In Experiment 1, participants rated each of a set of number lines as a possible number system, where the number lines differed in their structures (a single straight line, a step-shaped line, a double line, or two branching structures) and in their boundedness (unbounded, bounded below, bounded above, bounded above and below, or circular). Participants also rated each of a group of mathematical properties (e.g., associativity) for its importance to number systems. Relational properties, such as associativity, predicted whether participants believed that particular forms were number systems, as did the forms' ability to support arithmetic operations, such as addition. In Experiment 2, we asked participants to produce properties that were important for number systems. Relational, operation, and use-based properties from this set again predicted ratings of whether the number lines were possible number systems. In Experiment 3, we found similar results when the number lines indicated the positions of the individual numbers. The results suggest that people believe that number systems should be well-behaved with respect to basic arithmetic operations, and that they reject systems for which these operations produce ambiguous answers. People care much less about whether the systems have particular numbers (e.g., 0) or sets of numbers (e.g., the positives).

  3. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  4. All square chiliagonal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aṣiru, Muniru A.

    2016-10-01

    A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers. The study revealed that the determination of square chiliagonal numbers naturally leads to a generalized Pell equation x2 - Dy2 = N with D = 1996 and N = 9962, and has six fundamental solutions out of which only three yielded integer values for use as indices of chiliagonal numbers. The crossing/independent recurrence relations satisfied by each class of indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers are obtained. Finally, the generating functions serve as a clothesline to hang up the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers for easy display and this was used to obtain the first few sequence of square chiliagonal numbers.

  5. Study on activity of corpora allata in vitro in Tenebrio molitor adult%离体黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor L.)成虫咽侧体的活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳迎春; 唐爽; 关雪辰

    2003-01-01

    采用放射化学的方法,测定黄粉虫咽侧体(Corpora allata,CA)体外保幼激素(Juvenile hormone,JH)合成的时间进程、左右侧CA合成JH的对称性以及成虫发育期CA的活性变化.发现CA在离体条件下,培养3 h即可,再增加培养时间,JH的合成基本维持不变.一对CA的左侧和右侧的JH合成不是很一致,它们的合成是随机的.成虫发育期,雌雄成虫CA活性在第15天时达到最大.雄成虫CA活性较雌成虫高.

  6. Constructivism-Based English Writing Teaching Through Teaching and Language Corpora%基于语料库的建构主义大学英语写作教学新模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳; 张青妹

    2012-01-01

    The authentic language samples in Teaching and Language Corpora can be used in college writing teaching, which helps to realize students-centered interactive teaching model proposed by constructivism. Under this teaching model, students can be motivated by lan- guage data materials to explore writing senses, so as to improve their writing skills.%语料库拥有大量精心采集的真实的语言样本,将其应用在大学英语写作教学中,有助于实现建构主义所倡导的在真实情境中以学生为中心的交互式教学模式,让学生在数据的驱动下积极主动地探索写作的奥妙,从而达到提高写作水平的目的。

  7. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known.......Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  8. Odd Multiperfect Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shi-Chao

    2011-01-01

    A natural number $n$ is called {\\it multiperfect} or {\\it$k$-perfect} for integer $k\\ge2$ if $\\sigma(n)=kn$, where $\\sigma(n)$ is the sum of the positive divisors of $n$. In this paper, we establish the structure theorem of odd multiperfect numbers analogous as Euler's theorem on odd perfect numbers. We prove the divisibility of the Euler part of odd multiperfect numbers and characterize the forms of odd perfect numbers $n=\\pi^\\alpha M^2$ such that $\\pi\\equiv\\alpha(\\text{mod}8)$. We also present some examples to show the nonexistence of odd perfect numbers as applications.

  9. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA and protein level of corpora striata in ischemic side at the early stage of middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanmin Gao; Rui Zhang; Yunliang Guo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-1), as one of the important members of growth factor family,participants in the regulation of many physiological functions and behaviors, having very strong neuroprotective effect. However, the expression of IGF-1 following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is still disputed.OBJ ECTIVE: To observe the expression of IGF-1 and protein of corpora striata in ischemic side at the early stage of middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion in rhesus monkey.DESIGN: A completely randomized grouping design, controlled animal experimentSETTING: Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: ① Totally 17 rhesus monkeys , of either gender, aged 4 to 5 years, were enrolled . Seven rhesus monkeys observed with gene chip were randomly divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (n=3)and ischemia/reperfusion group (n=4). Ten rhesus monkeys observed with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry method were randomly divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (n=3)and ischemia/reperfusion group (n=7). Rhesus monkeys observed under microscope were divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (n=6) and ischamia/reperfusion group (n=11). ② Materials used in the experiment: cresyl violet (Sigma Company, America); immunohistochemical reagent kit ( Huamei Bio-engineering Company); In situ hybridization reagent kit (Boshide Bio-engineering Co. Ltd, Wuhan); 12 800 dots chip (Boxing Company,Shanghai).METHODS: This experiment was carried out at the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University from January 2001 to December 2003. ① The onset area of middle cerebral artery was blocked for 2 hours, middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion models were created.② After ischemia/reperfusion for 24 hours, cerebral tissue sections of rhesus monkeys were prepared and stained with cresyl violet. Image analysis was performed with 500IW

  10. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  11. Survey on fusible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the recursive formula that appears in Erickson's presentation "Fusible Numbers" is incorrect, and pose an alternate conjecture about the structure of fusible numbers. Although we are unable to solve the conjecture, we succeed in establishing some basic properties of fusible numbers. We suggest some possible approaches to the conjecture, and list further problems in the final chapter.

  12. Estimating Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  13. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  14. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  15. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  16. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto...... numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  17. Music By Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cocos, Mihail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical way of defining musical modes, we derive a formula for the total number of modes and define the musicality of a mode as the total number of harmonic chords whithin the mode. We also give an algorithm for the construction of a duet of melodic lines given a sequence of numbers and a mode. We attach the .mus files of the counterpoints obtained by using the sequence of primes and several musical modes.

  18. Quantum Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. We discuss the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multipl...

  19. Wireless Telegraphy Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-09

    from one of the Moscow institutes. In childhood he played at hypnosis with his sister and hypnotized her. He studies In the 11th grade at night school...O R M I N G OR G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( s ) 8 C O N T R A C T OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Lev Kolodnyy 9. PERFORMING O R G A N I Z A T I O N NAME AND

  20. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  1. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’.......We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...

  2. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  3. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  4. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  5. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Superovulation Effect on Follicular Development after Autologous Ovarian Transplantation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tamadon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superovulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG on autologous transplanted ovaries in the lumbar muscles of mice was histomorphometrically evaluated using the indices of number and volume of different kind of follicles and volume of corpora lutea, ovary, and stroma. Angiogenesis was observed after mouse ovarian transplantation on days 14 and 21 after ovarian grafting. After transplantation, the total number and volume of primary and secondary follicles reduced, while PMSG superovulation increased the total number and total volume of tertiary follicles and also the ovarian volume after transplantation. Transplantation increased the average size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Therefore, primary and secondary follicles can survive after autologous transplantation but their reservations diminished by increasing the time of transplantation. However, number of tertiary follicles and their response to superovulation increased over time after transplantation.

  6. Lack of dominant lethality in mice following 1-bromopropane treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wook-Joon; Kim, Jong-Choon; Chung, Moon-Koo

    2008-03-29

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is widely used in spray adhesives, precision cleaner, and degreaser. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of 1-BP to induce dominant lethality in mice. 1-BP was orally administered to males at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg for 10 days before mating. Cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control (PC), which was administered intraperitoneally to males at 40 mg/kg for 5 days. The vehicle control (VC) group received corn oil only. Thereafter, males were mated with untreated females during six sequential mating periods of a week each. Males were sacrificed at the end of mating and so were the pregnant females on days 15-17 of gestation. Clinical signs, gross findings, mating index, gestation index, the numbers of corpora lutea, implantations, live fetuses, resorptions and dead fetuses, pre- and post-implantation losses, and dominant lethal mutation rate were examined. There were no treatment-related changes in clinical signs, gross findings, mating index, gestation index, number of corpora lutea and implantations, pre-implantation loss, live fetuses, resorptions, dead fetuses, post-implantation loss at any 1-BP doses tested. In the PC group, there were no treatment-related changes in mating index, gestation index, number of corpora lutea, and dead fetuses. However, a decrease in the number of implantations and an increase in pre-implantation loss were observed during the first 2 weeks as compared to those of the VC group. No treatment-related changes were observed in the third to sixth weeks. Increases in resorptions, fetal deaths and post-implantation loss, and a decrease in the number of live fetuses were observed in the first 3 weeks of the PC group compared to those of the VC group. However, no treatment-related changes were observed during the forth to sixth weeks. An increase in dominant lethal mutation rate was observed in 1-3 weeks of mating of the PC group, but there was no significant difference in 1-6 weeks of mating of

  7. Hyperquarks and generation number

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmann, Alfons J

    2013-01-01

    In a model in which quarks and leptons are built up from two spin 1/2 preons as fundamental entities, a new class of fermionic bound states (hyperquarks) arises. It turns out that these hyperquarks are necessary to fulfill the 't Hooft anomaly constraint, which then links the number of fermionic generations to the number of colors and hypercolors.

  8. Multispecies quantum Hurwitz numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, J

    2014-01-01

    The construction of hypergeometric 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for quantum Hurwitz numbers is extended here to multispecies families. Both the enumerative geometrical significance of these multispecies quantum Hurwitz numbers as weighted enumerations of branched coverings of the Riemann sphere and their combinatorial significance in terms of weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ are derived.

  9. The Fibonacci Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, Torgeir

    1991-01-01

    After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

  10. A Numbers Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective riboso...

  11. On the Lyapunov numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolyada, Sergiy; Rybak, Oleksandr

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and study the Lyapunov numbers -- quantitative measures of the sensitivity of a dynamical system $(X,f)$ given by a compact metric space $X$ and a continuous map $f:X \\to X$. In particular, we prove that for a minimal topologically weakly mixing system all Lyapunov numbers are the same.

  12. Numbers in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL.

  13. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  14. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  15. Generalized Erdos Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple real-valued generalization of the well known integer-valued Erdos number as a topological, non-metric measure of the `closeness' felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph. These real-valued Erdos numbers are asymmetric and are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical. We use this measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks, and show the utility of our measure to devise a ratings scheme based on the generalized Erdos number that we deploy on the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement in our ratings prediction over a baseline.

  16. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  17. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  18. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N

    1987-01-01

    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  19. Brief history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the

  20. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  1. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  2. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  3. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  4. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  5. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent...

  6. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  7. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  8. Quantum random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  9. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Resilient memory for melodies: The number of intervening melodies does not influence novel melody recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herff, Steffen A; Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T

    2017-04-12

    In many memory domains, a decrease in recognition performance between the first and second presentation of an object is observed as the number of intervening items increases. However, this effect is not universal. Within the auditory domain, this form of interference has been demonstrated in word and single-note recognition, but has yet to be substantiated using relatively complex musical material such as a melody. Indeed, it is becoming clear that music shows intriguing properties when it comes to memory. This study investigated how the number of intervening items influences memory for melodies. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, one melody was presented per trial in a continuous recognition paradigm. After each melody, participants indicated whether they had heard the melody in the experiment before by responding 'old' or 'new'. In Experiment 4, participants rated perceived familiarity for every melody without being told that melodies reoccur. In four experiments using two corpora of music, two different memory tasks, transposed and untransposed melodies, and up to 195 intervening melodies, no sign of a disruptive effect from the number of intervening melodies beyond the first was observed. We propose a new 'regenerative multiple representations' conjecture to explain why intervening items increase interference in recognition memory for most domains but not music. This conjecture makes several testable predictions and has the potential to strengthen our understanding of domain specificity in human memory, while moving one step closer to explaining the 'paradox' that is memory for melody.

  11. Fibonacci's Forgotten Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

  12. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  13. The LHC in numbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine.   Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km   Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245   Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...

  14. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  15. Quantum random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which have important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness—coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. On the basis of the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modelling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, in which verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category that provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.

  16. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Document Server

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  17. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Document Server

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  18. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  19. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  20. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  1. Minimal Niven Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-26

    265–275. [7] H. G. Grundman, ‘ Sequences of consecutive Niven numbers’, Fibonacci Quart. 32 (1994), 174–175. [8] D. R. Heath-Brown and S. Konyagin...paper, we define a natural sequence in relation to q-Niven numbers. For a fixed but arbitrary k ∈ N and a base q ≥ 2, one may ask whether or not there...other words, ak is the smallest Niven number whose sum of the digits is a given positive integer k. We denote by ck the companion sequence ck = ak/k

  2. Revisiting the Sunspot Number

    CERN Document Server

    Clette, Frédéric; Vaquero, José M; Cliver, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the long-term evolution of solar activity and of its primary modulation, the 11-year cycle, largely depends on a single direct observational record: the visual sunspot counts that retrace the last 4 centuries, since the invention of the astronomical telescope. Currently, this activity index is available in two main forms: the International Sunspot Number initiated by R. Wolf in 1849 and the Group Number constructed more recently by Hoyt and Schatten (1998a,b). Unfortunately, those two series do not match by various aspects, inducing confusions and contradictions when used in crucial contemporary studies of the solar dynamo or of the solar forcing on the Earth climate. Recently, new efforts have been undertaken to diagnose and correct flaws and biases affecting both sunspot series, in the framework of a series of dedicated Sunspot Number Workshops. Here, we present a global overview of our current understanding of the sunspot number calibration. While the early part of the sunspot record befor...

  3. Baryon Number Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Al-Binni, U; Banerjee, S; Baxter, D V; Berezhiani, Z; Bergevin, M; Bhattacharya, S; Brice, S; Brock, R; Burgess, T W; Castellanos, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M-C; Church, E; Coppola, C E; Cowen, D F; Cowsik, R; Crabtree, J A; Davoudiasl, H; Dermisek, R; Dolgov, A; Dutta, B; Dvali, G; Ferguson, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Gabriel, T; Gal, A; Gallmeier, F; Ganezer, K S; Gogoladze, I; Golubeva, E S; Graves, V B; Greene, G; Handler, T; Hartfiel, B; Hawari, A; Heilbronn, L; Hill, J; Jaffe, D; Johnson, C; Jung, C K; Kamyshkov, Y; Kerbikov, B; Kopeliovich, B Z; Kopeliovich, V B; Korsch, W; Lachenmaier, T; Langacker, P; Liu, C-Y; Marciano, W J; Mocko, M; Mohapatra, R N; Mokhov, N; Muhrer, G; Mumm, P; Nath, P; Obayashi, Y; Okun, L; Pati, J C; Pattie, R W; Phillips, D G; Quigg, C; Raaf, J L; Raby, S; Ramberg, E; Ray, A; Roy, A; Ruggles, A; Sarkar, U; Saunders, A; Serebrov, A; Shafi, Q; Shimizu, H; Shiozawa, M; Shrock, R; Sikdar, A K; Snow, W M; Soha, A; Spanier, S; Stavenga, G C; Striganov, S; Svoboda, R; Tang, Z; Tavartkiladze, Z; Townsend, L; Tulin, S; Vainshtein, A; Van Kooten, R; Wagner, C E M; Wang, Z; Wehring, B; Wilson, R J; Wise, M; Yokoyama, M; Young, A R

    2013-01-01

    This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted.

  4. Surveys in Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alladi, Krishnaswami

    2008-01-01

    Contains chapters on number theory and related topics. This title covers topics that focus on multipartitions, congruences and identities, the formulas of Koshliakov and Guinand in Ramanujan's "Lost Notebook", alternating sign matrices and the Weyl character formulas, theta functions in complex analysis, and elliptic functions

  5. The magic of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric Temple

    1991-01-01

    From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics

  6. Safety in glomerular numbers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    A low nephron number is, according to Brenner's hyperfiltration hypothesis, associated with hypertension, glomerular damage and proteinuria, and starts a vicious cycle that ends in renal failure over the long term. Nephron endowment is set during foetal life, and there is no formation of nephrons

  7. Introducing Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgian, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

  8. Haida Numbers and Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Experienced traders in furs, blankets, and other goods, the Haidas of the 1700's had a well-developed decimal system for counting and calculating. Their units of linear measure included the foot, yard, and fathom, or six feet. This booklet lists the numbers from 1 to 20 in English and Haida; explains the Haida use of ten, hundred, and thousand…

  9. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  10. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, C.B.; Suetens, S.; Tyran, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the "law of small numbers" using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto

  11. A Universidade e o Estado Novo: De “corporação orgânica” do regime a território de dissidência social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Garrido

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio procura relacionar os discursos do Estado Novo sobre a Universidade e acerca dos organismos associativos estudantis (a reprodução com as estratégias de sobrevivência e imaginação do próprio movimento de estudantes (a contestação. Como ponto de partida para uma análise dos movimentos estudantis entre o termo da Segunda Guerra Mundial e meados da década de sessenta do século XX tomam-se os estereótipos salazaristas da Universidade enquanto “corporação orgânica” do regime ditatorial e a matriz legal das associações de estudantes como “sindicatos corporativos” inibidos de expressar quaisquer conotações classistas. O texto revisita anteriores discussões relativas à emergência do “sindicalismo estudantil” na primavera de 1962, procurando aferir por que modos e razões a Universidade se constitui em palco relevante de dissidência do regime, acompanhando as sucessivas crise que a ditadura enfrenta de 1958 em diante.

  12. Viana, V.; Tagnin, S. E. O. (orgs.. Corpora no ensino de línguas estrangeiras DOI: 10.5007/2175-7968.2011v1n27p294

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rebollo Couto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Os trabalhos agrupados neste volume exploram através do viés da Linguística de Corpus, aplicações para o ensino de línguas e de tradução, além de oferecerem subsídios teóricos e reflexões sobre essa emergente subárea dos estudos lingüísticos. Corpora no Ensino de Línguas Estrangeiras é o primeiro volume de seu gênero no mercado editorial brasileiro e inova pelo tema e por congregar pesquisadores experientes e professores de línguas que juntos oferecem ao leitor elementos para aguçar a sua curiosidade e colocar em prática, na sua sala de aula, algumas das sugestões oferecidas pelos autores. O livro, além de estabelecer mais firmemente o perfil da pesquisa e das aplicações da Linguística de Corpus no Brasil, é de interesse para professores de línguas, tradutores, lingüistas e outros profissionais da área de Letras, que certamente nele encontrarão o alicerce para o desenvolvimento de suas competências nas metodologias e aplicações desse estimulante campo do saber.

  13. Os regimentos das corporações dos ofícios mecânicos: O caso do Retábulo-mor da Sé de Lamego (1506-1511 do pintor português Vasco Fernandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Salgueiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O núcleo em estudo: Retábulo-mor da Sé de Lamego (1506-1511, obra de incontestável importância histórico-artística do pintor quinhentista Vasco Fernandes, “Grão Vasco”, é um conjunto valiosamente documentado pelo seu contrato de obra, que subsistiu até à actualidade. No entanto, sabe-se que muitas vezes os dados empiricamente percepcionados ou mesmo presentes nos actos notariais relativos à feitura do retábulo, por inúmeras razões, nem sempre correspondem na íntegra à realidade. O trabalho que se segue, tem como objectivo, cruzar o conhecimento técnico e material dos suportes destas pinturas, com os dados analisados nos regimentos das corporações dos ofícios mecânicos do trabalho das madeiras: carpinteiros, carpinteiros de marcenaria, marceneiros, entalhadores (e por comparação pintores; de modo a determinar, através das metodologias de examinação dos aprendizes dos ofícios, e restantes normativas, as técnicas e materiais de execução exigidas, no contexto histórico do período Renascentista português.

  14. Isolation and structure of a novel charged member of the red-pigment-concentrating hormone-adipokinetic hormone family of peptides isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G; Wilps, H; Kellner, R

    1990-01-01

    A hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptide from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae has been isolated by reversed-phase h.p.l.c., and its primary structure was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman chemistry after enzymically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. The C-terminus was also blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion when the peptide was incubated with carboxypeptidase A. The octapeptide has the sequence pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2 and is clearly defined as a novel member of the RPCH/AKH (red-pigment-concentrating hormone/adipokinetic hormone) family of peptides. It is the first charged member of this family to be found. The synthetic peptide causes an increase in the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration in a dose-dependent fashion in blowflies and therefore is named 'Phormia terraenovae hypertrehalosaemic hormone' (Pht-HrTH). In addition, receptors in the fat-body of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) recognize the peptide, resulting in carbohydrate elevation in the blood. However, fat-body receptors of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) do not recognize this charged molecule, and thus no lipid mobilization is observed in this species. PMID:2386478

  15. Links BetweenCognitive Linguistics andSecond Language Pedagogy:Corpora and its Great Potential%语料库:认知语言学与二语教学法的桥梁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽然

    2014-01-01

    文章用认知语言学的视角来讲授动词 find 的语法特点及其在实际交流中的使用,指出学习者语料库和认知语言学“牢固深化”的概念对语法教学有积极贡献。在二语教学法中,基于学习者语料库和母语者语料库的数据分析对于解释“牢固深化”概念是必不可少。因此,在数据分析方面的成果不仅局限于中国学生对于动词 find 的使用,也包含了英语为母语者对于它的使用。%This paper aims at analyzing the uses of the verb ‘find’ in communicative activities from the perspective of cognitive linguistics .It is suggested that the concept of ‘entrenchment’ contributes significantly to grammar pedagogy .In view of the great necessity of the corpora of second language learners and that of the native speakers ,the research in the paper is not confined to the Chinese learners’ use of the verb ,but also that of the native users .

  16. Report of detection of H5N1 RNA from leiothrix lutea clinical specimens in Lishi city%丽水市红嘴相思鸟H5N1禽流感病毒核酸检测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷永良; 王晓光

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To detect of H5N1 RNA from Leiothrix lutea clinical specimens in Lishi city. Methods: The typing and sub - typing were detectioned according to H5N1 and H7 and H9 gene respectively, and the real - time PCR were used by these gene primers. Results: RNA samples positive for H5N1, and H7/H9 subtypes negative. Conclusion: Avian influenza in winter and spring is a common season. Presence of migratory birds of avian influenza in Lishi city. Migratory birds infected with avian influenza indicate the bird flu is no longer a regional phenomenon.%目的:检测丽水市红嘴相思鸟标本禽流感病毒.方法:荧光定量PCR方法检测禽流感病毒H5N1、H7和H9亚型核酸.结果:标本禽流感病毒H5N1核酸检测阳性,H7、H9亚型检测阴性.结论:冬春季是禽流感的多发季节.候鸟禽流感在本市存在.迁徙禽类禽流感的发生预示禽流感不再是某个区域的现象.

  17. Developmental toxicity study of pentachlorophenol in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, B K; Ranpuria, A K; Hoberman, A M

    2001-01-01

    The potential for developmental toxicity of pentachlorophenol (penta) was studied in New Zealand white rabbits at doses of 0 (corn oil), 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg/day administered by gavage on days 6 to 18 of gestation. The rabbits were sacrificed on day 29 of presumed gestation and necropsied. Measurements included number of corpora lutea, pregnancy, number and distribution of implantations, early and late resorptions, live and dead fetuses, fetal weight, gender, and gross external, soft tissue, and skeletal alterations. The mid and high doses reduced maternal body weight gain; the high dose caused transient weight loss and reduced feed consumption. There were no effects on embryofetal development at any of the doses evaluated. Based on these data, the maternal no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is 7.5 mg/kg/day, while the developmental NOAEL is 30 mg/kg/day. Penta is not a developmental toxicant in a nonrodent animal model.

  18. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  19. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome.

  20. Activity of glycosidases (β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase, α-mannosidase, and β-galactosidase) in the uterine luminal fluid of cows after multiple ovulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Theodora; Amiridis, Georgios S.; Vainas, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the activity of β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase (β-NAGASE), α-mannosidase, and β-galactosidase in the uterine luminal fluid of cows after superovulation treatment, along with the possible associations between the activity of these 3 glycosidases and the superovulatory response. Embryos and a sample of fluid flushed from each uterine horn were collected on day 7 after artificial insemination (on estrus day 0) from 32 cows in which superovulation was induced with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone. Glycosidase activity was assayed colorimetrically. The cows were classified as to superovulatory response according to the number of corpora lutea per ovary (group 1, 1 to 4; group 2,> 4) and according to the total number of embryos per horn (T1, 0; T2, 1 to 2; T3, 3 to 4; T4, > 4) and the number of transferable embryos per horn (TR1, 0; TR2, 1 to 2; TR3, 3 to 4; TR4, > 4). The mean activity of β-NAGASE was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group 2 than in group 1, at 95.99 (standard error 20.43) versus 226.72 (46.77) IU/L. It was also significantly lower (P < 0.01) in group T4 compared with groups T1, T2, and T3, at 50.09 (8.21) versus 129.25 (34.60), 222.27 (62.62), and 290.26 (93.77) IU/L, respectively, as well as in group T1 compared with group T3. There was a positive relationship between β-NAGASE activity and both the total number of embryos (P = 0.047) and the number of transferable embryos per horn (P = 0.013) when 1 to 4 corpora lutea developed per ipsilateral ovary. No difference in α-mannosidase or β-galactosidase activity was detected among the groups. PMID:17955905

  1. Calling Dunbar's Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    MacCarron, Pádraig; Dunbar, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis predicts that humans have an average of about 150 relationships at any given time. Within this 150, there are layers of friends of an ego, where the number of friends in a layer increases as the emotional closeness decreases. Here we analyse a mobile phone dataset, firstly, to ascertain whether layers of friends can be identified based on call frequency. We then apply different clustering algorithms to break the call frequency of egos into clusters and compare the number of alters in each cluster with the layer size predicted by the social brain hypothesis. In this dataset we find strong evidence for the existence of a layered structure. The clustering yields results that match well with previous studies for the innermost and outermost layers, but for layers in between we observe large variability.

  2. Numbers and sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruffino

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the intuition behind Frege's and Russell's definitions of numbers as sets, as well as Benacerraf's criticism of it. I argue that Benacerraf's argument is not as strong as some philosophers tend to think. Moreover, I examine an alternative to the Fregean-Russellian definition of numbers proposed by Maddy, and point out some problems faced by it.Neste artigo discuto a intuição subjacente à definição de n∨meros como conjuntos proposta por Frege e Russell, assim como a crítica de Benacerraf a esta definição. Eu tento mostrar que o argumento de Benacerraf não é tão forte como alguns filósofos o tomaram. Adicionalmente, examino uma alternativa à definição de Frege e Russell proposta por Maddy, e indico algumas dificuldades encontrada pela mesma.

  3. Sierpinski and Carmichael Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    appear. 31 [21] E. M. Matveev, ‘An explicit lower bound for a homogeneous rational linear form in logarithms of algebraic numbers. II,’ Izv. Ross. Akad...Math. Comp. 37 (1981), 587–593. [23] C. Pontreau, ‘A Mordell- Lang plus Bogomolov type result for curves in G2m,’ Monatsh. Math. 157 (2009), 267–281. [24

  4. Number Needed To… $ave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Graeme M; Verma, Jennifer Y; Demmons, Jillian; Mittmann, Nicole

    2015-02-06

    The 'Number Needed to Treat' (NNT) is a useful measure for estimating the number of patients that would need to receive a therapeutic intervention to avoid one of the adverse events that the treatment is designed to prevent. We explored the possibility of an adaption of NNT to estimate the 'Number Needed to $ave' (NN$) as a new, conceptual systems metric to estimate potential cost-savings to the health system from implementation of a treatment, or in this case, a program. We used the outcomes of the INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to calculate that 26 patients would need to complete the program to avoid healthcare expenditures of $100,000, based on hospital bed days avoided. The NN$ does not translate into 'cost savings' per se, but redirection of resource expenditures for other purposes. We propose that the NN$ metric, if further developed, could help to inform system-level resource allocation decisions in a manner similar to the way that the NNT metric helps to inform individual-level treatment decisions.

  5. Generalizations of Euler Numbers and Euler Numbers of Higher Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOQiu-ming; QIFeng

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the generalized Euler numbers and the generalized Euler numbers of higher order, their recursion formula and some properties were established, accordingly Euler numbers and Euler numbers of higher order were extended.

  6. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  7. The number system

    CERN Document Server

    Thurston, H A

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics has undergone extensive changes in approach, with a shift in emphasis from rote memorization to acquiring an understanding of the logical foundations and methodology of problem solving. This book offers guidance in that direction, exploring arithmetic's underlying concepts and their logical development.This volume's great merit lies in its wealth of explanatory material, designed to promote an informal and intuitive understanding of the rigorous logical approach to the number system. The first part explains and comments on axioms and definitions, making their subseq

  8. Is Baryon Number Conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Jogesh C.; Salam, Abdus

    We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength G Bmp2≲ 10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime ≳ 1028 y). Motivation for these ideas appears to arise within a unified theory of hadrons and leptons and their gauge interactions. We emphasize the consequences of such a possibility for real quark searches.

  9. Cohomology of number fields

    CERN Document Server

    Neukirch, Jürgen; Wingberg, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The second edition is a corrected and extended version of the first. It is a textbook for students, as well as a reference book for the working mathematician, on cohomological topics in number theory. The first part provides algebraic background: cohomology of profinite groups, duality groups, free products, and homotopy theory of modules, with new sections on spectral sequences and on Tate cohomology of profinite groups. The second part deals with Galois groups of local and global fields: Tate duality, structure of absolute Galois groups of local fields, extensions with restricted ramificatio

  10. Quantum random number generator

    CERN Document Server

    Stipcevic, M

    2006-01-01

    We report upon a novel principle for realization of a fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The bit extraction method based on restartable clock theoretically eliminates both bias and autocorrelation while reaching efficiency of almost 0.5 bits per random event. A prototype has been built and statistically tested.

  11. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  12. A Study of Synonym Discrimination of“Learn” and“Study”Based on COCA, BNC and CLEC Corpora%基于 COCA、 BNC 和 CLEC 语料库辨析同义词--以learn与study为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠丽

    2015-01-01

    正确运用英语词汇,尤其是同义词是学生英语学习的一个难点,而基于语料库进行教学方法的研究是语言教学的一个新趋势。基于美国当代英语语料库( COCA)、英国国家语料库( BNC)、中国英语学习者语料库( CLEC)三个语料库从语域、类连接和搭配三个方面对动词同义词learn和study进行辨析,可以发现这learn与study在类连接、搭配方面存在明显差异,而在语域的运用方面差别不明显。 learn与study在不同语料库中存在语域方面的差异,而在类连接与动词搭配方面无显著性差异。%The correct use of English vocabulary , especially a synonym is one of the students'difficulties in English learning , while the teaching methods research based on corpus is a new trend of language teaching .This paper, based on the Contemporary English Corpus (COCA), the British National Corpus (BNC), and Chinese Learners of English Corpus (CLEC), aims to analyze verb synonyms “learn” and“study” from registers, colliga-tion structures and collocation features , and finds that the two words have obvious differences in colligation struc-tures and collocation features , while little difference in registers .However , the usages of these two words in regis-ters have differences among these three corpora , while no significant differences in colligation structures and verb collocation.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    University of Lagos, and 2Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo. University, Ikene ... corpora lutea, embryonic implants and a disruption of the hormonal pattern of LH, ... Therefore, this research work intends to further elucidate ... International ethical standards on biomedical.

  14. The progression of small-follicle reserves in the ovaries of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from puberty to reproductive senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Allen, W R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the follicle reserve in the ovary of the African elephant declines progressively after puberty and whether its depletion constrains the fertility of older females. Elephant ovaries were fixed in 4% neutral buffered formalin and small-follicle counts made using stereological protocols. Excepting a slight rise in small-follicle numbers between 16 and 25 years of age, there was a trend for follicle numbers to fall from puberty to 70 years. Reproductive status did not impact significantly on small-follicle numbers (P=0.31). The number of early primary follicles, initially higher in number than true primary follicles, fell from post-puberty to nil at 45 years of age. Six of the seven oldest animals in the study showed signs of recent ovarian activity in the form of antral follicles, corpora lutea or large corpora nigra. The four oldest elephants (mean age 69 years) had a median small-follicle count of 11,113. In summary, it appears that the elephant ovary is capable of supplying oocytes for ovulation right up to the time of death at the age of maximum life expectancy, although the follicle reserve becomes depleted in some older elephants.

  15. Toxicity of the styrene metabolite, phenylglyoxylic acid, in rats after three months' oral dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, Henrik Rye; Ostergaard, G.

    1998-01-01

    , and DA uptake rate were not affected. When dosed males were mated with naive females, there were no differences between groups in the pregnancy rate, number of corpora luteae, implantations, live or dead fetuses, resorptions, preimplantation loss, or postimplantation loss. It is concluded that a part...... in electroretinography. The noradrenaline (NA) concentration decreased in pens and thalamus whereas it increased in medulla oblongata and whole brain. The dopamine (DA) concentration increased in cerebellum, hippocampus, pens, and whole brain. The most marked DA increase was seen in hippocampus (Controls: 0.56 +/-0.......10 nmol/g tissue; 5000 mg/l: 1.04 +/- 0.11 nmol/g tissue; pdecreased in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and medulla oblongata, whereas it increased in thalamus. The yield of synaptosomal protein, synaptosomal NA, DA, and 5-HT concentrations...

  16. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  17. The effect of treatment with a slow-releasing oxytocin preparation at the onset of oestrus on the ovulation rate of Merino ewes : research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. King

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a slow-releasing oxytocin preparation on the ovulation rate of Merino ewes was investigated. Synchronised Merino ewes were subcutaneously injected with a slow-re-leasing preparation containing 10 IU oxytocin, 48 hours after sponge withdrawal. Laparo-scopic examination of the ovaries of all ewes was performed 10 d after the oxytocin treatment in order to determine the number of corpora lutea per ewe. The ovulation rate of the adult ewes of the treated and control groups was 179.1 % and 159.1 % respectively (p < 0.05 while that of the 2-tooth ewes was 108.3 % and 112.8 % respectively (p > 0.05. It would appear that a higher ovulation rate can be obtained by a single injection of a slow-releasing oxytocin preparation at the onset of oestrus. The lack of response in the 2-tooth ewes was probably due to their relatively low body weight.

  18. Effects of melatonin on superovulation and transgenic embryo transplantation in small-tailed han sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chai, Menglong; Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Fu, Yao; He, Changjiu; Deng, Shoulong; Lian, Zhengxing; Feng, Jiangzhong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Liu, Guoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin on superovulation and the transfer of transgenic embryos were investigated in Small-Tailed Han sheep. Different doses of melatonin (0, 40 or 80 mg/animal) were subcutaneously implanted into both multiparous (4-5 years old) donors and recipients before superovulation and estrus synchronization. The one-year-old young ewes without melatonin treatment served to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of the adult multiparous ewes. Ewes with superovulation were used as embryo donors. The estrus were induced in embryo recipients after embryo transpimplanted. The results showed that the number of corpora lutea of the ewes received subcutaneous 40 or 80 mg melatonin implant (13.4±1.05/ewe, 15.1±1.62/ewe) were significantly higher than that of in control group (8.8±0.37/ewe) (psuperovulation and transgenic embryo transplantation efficiency in sheep.

  19. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  20. Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference 6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  1. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  2. Lepton family number violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herczeg, P.

    1999-03-01

    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

  3. Beyond Natural Numbers: Negative Number Representation in Parietal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Kristen P.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-relate...

  4. On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are Elliptic Korselt Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    On Fibonacci numbers which are elliptic Korselt numbers Florian Luca School of Mathematics University of the Witwatersrand P. O. Box Wits 2050, South...is a CM elliptic curve with CM field Q( √ −d), then the set of n for which the nth Fibonacci number Fn satisfies an elliptic Korselt criterion for Q...SUBTITLE On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are Elliptic Korselt Numbers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  5. Rapid changes in ovarian mRNA induced by brief photostimulation in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; McMichael, Carling F; Young, Kelly A

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to characterize the rapid intraovarian mRNA response of key folliculogenic factors that may contribute to the restoration of folliculogenesis during 2-10 days of photostimulation in Siberian hamsters. Adult hamsters were exposed to short photoperiod (8L:16D) for 14 weeks (SD). A subset were then transferred to long photoperiod (16L:8D) for 2 (PT day-2), 4 (PT day-4), or 10 days (PT day-10). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure intraovarian mRNA expression of: gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone β-subunit (FSHβ-subunit), luteinizing hormone β-subunit (LHβ-subunit), FSH and LH receptors, estrogen receptors α and β (Esr1 and Esr2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α subunit, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Compared to SD, plasma FSH concentrations increased on PT day-4 and the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased on PT day-10. FSHR and inhibin-α mRNA expression also increased on PT day-4, whereas LHR and proliferation marker PCNA both increased on PT day-10 as compared to SD. Esr1 mRNA increased on PT day-2 and remained significantly increased as compared to SD, whereas Esr1 mRNA increased only on PT day-2, similar to FGF-2 and MMP-2 results. No differences were observed in mRNA expression in ovarian GnRH, FSHβ- and LHβ-subunits, AMH, and MMP-9 mRNA with 2-10 days of photostimulation. Rapid increases in intraovarian FSHR and inhibin-α mRNA and antral follicle/corpora lutea numbers suggest that the ovary is primed to react quickly to the FSH released in response to brief periods of photostimulation.

  6. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  7. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  8. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  9. Axiomatic of Fuzzy Complex Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Garrido

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the set of real numbers satisfying some additional conditions. Fuzzy numbers allow us to model very difficult uncertainties in a very easy way. Arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers have also been developed, and are based mainly on the crucial Extension Principle. When operating with fuzzy numbers, the results of our calculations strongly depend on the shape of the membership functions of these numbers. Logically, less regular membership functions may lead ...

  10. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  11. Pauli Pascal Pyramids, Pauli Fibonacci Numbers, and Pauli Jacobsthal Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin Erik

    2007-01-01

    The three anti-commutative two-dimensional Pauli Pascal triangles can be generalized into multi-dimensional Pauli Pascal hyperpyramids. Fibonacci and Jacobsthal numbers are then generalized into Pauli Fibonacci numbers, Pauli Jacobsthal numbers, and Pauli Fibonacci numbers of higher order. And the question is: are Pauli rabbits killer rabbits?

  12. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  13. On Types of Distance Fibonacci Numbers Generated by Number Decompositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Szynal-Liana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce new types of distance Fibonacci numbers which are closely related with number decompositions. Using special decompositions of the number n we give a sequence of identities for them. Moreover, we give matrix generators for distance Fibonacci numbers and their direct formulas.

  14. A hipótese da instabilidade financeira e o encontro de Minsky com a economia brasileira : a experiência das corporações nacionais nos anos 2000 e o caso da Sadia na crise de 2007/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Luma Souza Ramos

    2014-01-01

    A partir de 2003-2004, inaugurou-se um novo ciclo conjuntural virtuoso na economia brasileira. Ao longo da conjuntura de expansão, as perspectivas e performances dos agentes nacionais se diferenciaram, aproveitando um leque mais amplo de oportunidades que se abriu. As corporações brasileiras utilizaram as melhorias no cenário interno e externo para aprimorar os seus parques industriais, os modelos de gestão, as estratégias concorrenciais e as estruturas patrimoniais. Elas também intensificara...

  15. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  16. Research and application of automatic profiling technologies based on 3-tuple comparable corpora%三元组可比语料库自动剖析技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琦; 肖健; 宋金平; 朱姝; 万缨; 许亮

    2012-01-01

    At present, the Corpus-Based Translation Studies(CBTS) at home and abroad mainly focus on the studies of translation universals, translation norms, translator's style and translation training, which involve studies in both translation theory and practice. The research and application of the automatic language profiling technologies proposed in this paper expand CBTS' s scientific connotation to include the NLP-oriented research and application. Based on the consideration of project feasibility, this paper puts forward the building of 3-tuple comparable corpora and apply the automatic extracting technologies like n-grams, key clusters and semantic multi-word expressions to exploit the English native language models, so as to achieve improvement and further development of natural language processing applications such as machine translation and cross-language information retrieval.%国内外基于语料库的翻译研究主要集中在翻译共性、翻译规范、译者风格和翻译培训等涉及翻译理论和翻译实践方面的研究;提出的基于三元组可比语料库的自动语言剖析技术扩大了该研究领域的内涵,使其包括面向自然语言处理的应用研究.从工程可实现性考虑,创新性地提出了建造三元组可比语料库,利用n-元词串、关键词簇和语义多词表达等自动抽取技术,通过对比中式英语表达,发掘英语本族语言模型,实现改进和发展机器翻译、跨语言信息检索等自然语言处理应用的目标.

  17. Axiomatic of Fuzzy Complex Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the set of real numbers satisfying some additional conditions. Fuzzy numbers allow us to model very difficult uncertainties in a very easy way. Arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers have also been developed, and are based mainly on the crucial Extension Principle. When operating with fuzzy numbers, the results of our calculations strongly depend on the shape of the membership functions of these numbers. Logically, less regular membership functions may lead to very complicated calculi. Moreover, fuzzy numbers with a simpler shape of membership functions often have more intuitive and more natural interpretations. But not only must we apply the concept and the use of fuzzy sets, and its particular case of fuzzy number, but also the new and interesting mathematical construct designed by Fuzzy Complex Numbers, which is much more than a correlate of Complex Numbers in Mathematical Analysis. The selected perspective attempts here that of advancing through axiomatic descriptions.

  18. Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, James D

    2011-01-01

    Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik

  19. On Bernoulli Numbers and Stirling Numbers%Bernoulli数与Stirling数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高泽图

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,using the method of formal power series, we study the Bernoulli numbers and the Stirling numbers,and point out the relation between Bernoulli numbers and Stirling numbers,and obtain several identities of including Bernoulli numbers and Stirling numbers.%应用形式幂级数的方法,研究Bernoulli数与Stirling数,指出它们之间的关系,获得几个包含Bernoulli数和Stirling数的恒等式.

  20. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  1. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in increasing the numbers of animals inseminated by 90 d post partum. The once-daily suckling + alfaprostol treatment resulted in the shortest postpartum interval.

  2. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases during stimulated ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salverson, Trevor J; McMichael, Greer E; Sury, Jonathan J; Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2008-02-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix-cleaving enzymes involved in ovarian remodeling. In many non-tropical species, including Siberian hamsters, ovarian remodeling is necessary for the functional changes associated with seasonal reproduction. We evaluated MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), during photoperiod-induced ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters. Hamsters were transferred from long day (LD; 16:8) to short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods for 14weeks, and then returned to LD for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8weeks for collection of ovaries and plasma. Post-transfer (PT) LD exposure increased body and ovarian mass. Number of corpora lutea and antral, but not preantral follicles increased in PT groups. Plasma estradiol concentrations were lower in PT weeks 0-4, and returned to LD levels at PT week 8. No change was observed in relative MMP/TIMP mRNA levels at PT week 0 (SD week 14) as compared to LD. Photostimulation increased MMP-2 mRNA at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-1. MMP-14 mRNA expression peaked at PT weeks 1-2 as compared to LD levels, while MMP-13 expression was low during this time. TIMP-1 mRNA peaked at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-4. No changes were noted in MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. In general, MMP/TIMP protein immunodetection followed the same patterns with most staining occurring in granulosa cells of follicles and corpora lutea. Our data suggest that mRNA and protein for several members of the MMP/TIMP families are expressed in Siberian hamster ovaries during recrudescence. Because of the variation observed in expression patterns, MMPs and TIMPs may be differentially involved with photostimulated return to ovarian function.

  3. Bondage number of grid graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dettlaff, Magda; Yero, Ismael G

    2012-01-01

    The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some Cartesian product, strong product or direct product of two paths.

  4. Bondage number of grid graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dettlaff, Magda; Lemanska, Magdalena; Yero, Ismael G.

    2012-01-01

    The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some strong product and direct product of two paths.

  5. Number sense as the bridge to number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I compare number sense, which is understood as an innate capacity to know about the magnitude and relations of numbers, with number understanding, which is understood as the ability to manipulate the symbolic arithmetic developed in a culture. My research focuses on the question...... of how number sense and number understanding can be used in a synergetic process in learning mathematics. Different research results have shown that consistent training in number sense (K-10) influences mathematical competencies in a positive manner, and that young children aged 5-6 years are able...... to solve symbolic problems that involve the approximate addition and subtraction of large two-digit numbers. Our experiment was conducted in a kindergarten class (age 5-6 years) and in a Grade 2 class (age 7-8 years) with students who had difficulties in number reading and symbolic arithmetic. Keywords...

  6. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  7. GRAPHS WHOSE CIRCULAR CLIQUE NUMBER EQUAL THE CLIQUE NUMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Baogang; ZHOU Xinghe

    2005-01-01

    The circular clique number of a graph G is the maximum fractional k/d such that Gkd admits a homomorphism to G. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for graphs whose circular clique number equal the clique number, we also characterize the K1,3-free graphs and planar graphs with the desired property.

  8. Introducing Number and Arithmetic Concepts with Number Sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    This article compares the relative merits of using Cuisenaire rods (unsegmented, unnumbered, and representing continuous quantities) and number sticks (segmented, numbered, and representing discrete quantities) to introduce number and arithmetic concepts to beginning students or students with learning difficulties or mental disabilities. (DB)

  9. Multiple Bracket Function, Stirling Number, and Lah Number Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The author has constructed multiple analogues of several families of combinatorial numbers in a recent article, including the bracket symbol, and the Stirling numbers of the first and second kind. In the present paper, a multiple analogue of another sequence, the Lah numbers, is developed, and certain associated identities and significant properties of all these sequences are constructed.

  10. A Relation between Prime Numbers and Twin Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Every mathematician has been concerned with prime numbers, and has metwith mysterious surprises about them. Besides intuition, using empirical methods has an important role to findrelations between prime numbers. A relation between any prime numberand any twin prime number has been obtained.

  11. BOOTSTRAPPING FOR EXTRACTING RELATIONS FROM LARGE CORPORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new approach of relation extraction is described in this paper. It adopts a bootstrapping model with a novel iteration strategy, which generates more precise examples of specific relation. Compared with previous methods, the proposed method has three main advantages: first, it needs less manual intervention; second, more abundant and reasonable information are introduced to represent a relation pattern; third, it reduces the risk of circular dependency occurrence in bootstrapping. Scalable evaluation methodology and metrics are developed for our task with comparable techniques over TianWang 100G corpus. The experimental results show that it can get 90% precision and have excellent expansibility.

  12. The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how...... the regularity or irregularity of number naming affects children’s formation of number concepts and arithmetic performance. We investigate this issue by reviewing relevant literature and undertaking a design research project addressing the specific irregularities of the Danish number names. In this project...

  14. Bell Numbers, Determinants and Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Saikia; Deepak Subedi

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients.

  15. Distribution theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.

  16. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  17. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  18. The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access From Symbolic Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2016-03-25

    Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a physical number line. However, it remains unclear whether they have a deficit with the mental number line per se or a deficit with accessing it from nonsymbolic and/or symbolic numbers. Quebec French-speaking 8- to 9-year-old children with (24) and without (37) dyscalculia were assessed with transcoding tasks (number-to-positionandposition-to-number) designed to assess the acuity of the mental number line with Arabic and spoken numbers as well as with analogic numerosities. Results showed that children with dyscalculia produced a larger percentage absolute error than children without mathematics difficulties in every task except the number-to-position transcoding task with analogic numerosities. Hence, these results suggested that children with dyscalculia do not have a general deficit of the mental number line but rather a deficit with accessing it from symbolic numbers.

  19. Simple Remarks on Carmichael Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigenori

    An odd composite number n for which an-1 ≡ 1 (mod n) for all integers a coprime to n is called a Carmichael number. This paper shows that some class of Carmichael numbers which have relatively large prime factors can be recognized in deterministic polynomial time under the assumption of the Extended Riemann Hypothesis (ERH). Also some related problems are discussed.

  20. Three Cubes in One Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)

  1. A Lesson in Number Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

  2. Betti Numbers of Gaussian Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Changbom; Pranav, Pratyush; Chingangbam, Pravabati; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard; Vegter, Gert; Kim, Inkang; Hidding, Johan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the relation between the genus in cosmology and the Betti numbers for excursion sets of three- and two-dimensional smooth Gaussian random fields, and numerically investigate the Betti numbers as a function of threshold level. Betti numbers are topological invariants of figures that can be

  3. Linear or Exponential Number Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

  4. Goldbach numbers in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红泽

    1995-01-01

    Suppose B is a sufficiently large positive constant, ε is a sufficiently small positive constant, N is a sufficiently large natural number, and A = N7/81+ε. It is proved that all even numbers in (N, N + A) with O(Alog-BN) exceptions are Goldbach numbers.

  5. A Note on Hurwitzian Numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaikamp, C.; Hartono, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In this note Hurwitzian numbers are defined for the nearest integer, and backward continued fraction expansions, and Nakada's $\\alpha$-expansions. It is shown that the set of Hurwitzian numbers for these continued fractions coincides with the classical set of such numbers.

  6. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  7. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  8. Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2010-08-01

    We report an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state. The photon-number-path entangled state is prepared by means of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is of truly quantum mechanical origin as it comes from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test.

  9. Pell Numbers, Pell-Lucas Numbers and Modular Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q. Mushtaq; U. Hayat

    2007-01-01

    We show that the matrix A(g), representing the element g = ((xy)2(xy2)2)m (m≥) of the modular group PSL(2,Z)=(x,y:x2=y3=1),where x:z →-1/z and y :z → -1/z, is a 2×2 symmetric matrix whose entries are Pell numbers and whose trace is a Pell-Lucas number. If g fixes elements of Q(√d), where d is a square-free positive number, on the circuit of the coset diagram, then d = 2 and there are only four pairs of ambiguous numbers on the circuit.

  10. Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...

  11. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-22

    This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  12. The neuronal code for number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Humans and non-human primates share an elemental quantification system that resides in a dedicated neural network in the parietal and frontal lobes. In this cortical network, 'number neurons' encode the number of elements in a set, its cardinality or numerosity, irrespective of stimulus appearance across sensory motor systems, and from both spatial and temporal presentation arrays. After numbers have been extracted from sensory input, they need to be processed to support goal-directed behaviour. Studying number neurons provides insights into how information is maintained in working memory and transformed in tasks that require rule-based decisions. Beyond an understanding of how cardinal numbers are encoded, number processing provides a window into the neuronal mechanisms of high-level brain functions.

  13. Number Comparison and Number Line Estimation Rely on Different Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sasanguie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance in comparison and number line estimation is assumed to rely on the same underlying representation, similar to a compressed mental number line that becomes more linear with age. We tested this assumption explicitly by examining the relation between the linear/logarithmic fit in a non-symbolic number line estimation task and the size effect (SE in a non-symbolic comparison task in first-, second-, and third graders. In two experiments, a correlation between the estimation pattern in number line estimation and the SE in comparison was absent. An ANOVA showed no difference between the groups of children with a linear or a logarithmic representation considering their SE in comparison. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie both basic number processing tasks.

  14. The Set of Prime Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Iovane, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    In this work we show that the prime distribution is deterministic. Indeed the set of prime numbers P can be expressed in terms of two subsets of N using three specific selection rules, acting on two sets of prime candidates. The prime candidates are obtained in terms of the first perfect number. The asymptotic behaviour is also considered. We obtain for the first time an explicit relation for generating the full set P of prime numbers smaller than n or equal to n.

  15. Number line representations of fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, Merlyn J.; Bright, George W.; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Wagner, Sigrid

    1982-01-01

    The study explored students' interpretations of representations of fractions on number lines and the effect of instruction on those interpretations. Subjects were five fourth-graders, and instruction was a four-day unit on the use of number lines. A 16-item, multiple-choice pre- and posttest was used along with videotaped interviews. Performance improved except when students had to associate a reduced fraction symbol with an equivalent, unreduced fraction representation on a number line. The ...

  16. Brain representations of negative numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.

  17. A Research on a Certain Family of Numbers and Polynomials Related to Stirling Numbers, Central Factorial Numbers, and Euler Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.

  18. Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi

    1993-12-01

    Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author).

  19. Generalized $r$-Lah numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MARK SHATTUCK

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-parameter polynomial generalization, denoted by ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$, of the $r$-Lah numbers which reduces to these recently introduced numbers when $a = b = 1$. We present several identities for ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$ that generalize earlier identities given for the $r$-Lah and $r$-Stirling numbers. We also provide combinatorial proofs of some earlier identities involving the $r$-Lah numbers by defining appropriate sign-changing involutions. Generalizing these arguments yields orthogonality-type relations that are satisfied by ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$.

  20. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.