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Sample records for corot space mission

  1. News from the CoRoT Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, R; Lammer, H; Barge, P; Wuchterl, G

    2009-01-01

    The up to 150 day uninterrupted high-precision photometry of about 100000 stars - provided so far by the exoplanet channel of the CoRoT space telescope - gave a new perspective on the planet population of our galactic neighbourhood. The seven planets with very accurate parameters widen the range of known planet properties in almost any respect. Giant planets have been detected at low metallicity, rapidly rotating and active, spotted stars. CoRoT-3 populated the brown dwarf desert and closed the gap of measured physical properties between standard giant planets and very low mass stars. CoRoT extended the known range of planet masses down to 5 Earth masses and up to 21 Jupiter masses, the radii to less than 2 Earth radii and up to the most inflated hot Jupiter found so far, and the periods of planets discovered by transits to 9 days. Two CoRoT planets have host stars with the lowest content of heavy elements known to show a transit hinting towards a different planet-host-star-metallicity relation then the one f...

  2. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollivier, M.; Gillon, M.; Santerne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We report the discovery of CoRoT-16b, a low density hot jupiter that orbits a faint G5V star (mV = 15.63) in 5.3523 ± 0.0002 days with slight eccentricity. A fit of the data with no a priori assumptions on the orbit leads to an eccentricity of 0.33 ± 0.1. We discuss this value and also deri...

  3. The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology and Search for Extrasolar Planets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annie Baglin; Gerard Vauclair; Corot team

    2000-09-01

    The main scientific objectives, asteroseismology and search for extrasolar planets for the COROT photometric mission are presented, and its interest in terms of stellar variability. A description of the payload, details of the scientific program, the ground based preparatory observations and bibliography can be found at http://www.astrsp-mrs.fr/corot/pagecorot.html.

  4. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission: VII. The "hot-Jupiter"-type planet CoRoT-5b

    CERN Document Server

    Rauer, H; Csizmadia, Sz; Deleuil, M; Alonso, R; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Carpano, S; De la Reza, R; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Guillot, T; Günther, E; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Kabath, P; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Paetzold, M; Pont, F; Rabus, M; Renner, S; Rouan, D; Shporer, A; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Triaud, A H M J; Wuchterl, G

    2009-01-01

    Aims. The CoRoT space mission continues to photometrically monitor about 12 000 stars in its field-of-view for a series of target fields to search for transiting extrasolar planets ever since 2007. Deep transit signals can be detected quickly in the "alarm-mode" in parallel to the ongoing target field monitoring. CoRoT's first planets have been detected in this mode. Methods. The CoRoT raw lightcurves are filtered for orbital residuals, outliers, and low-frequency stellar signals. The phase folded lightcurve is used to fit the transit signal and derive the main planetary parameters. Radial velocity follow-up observations were initiated to secure the detection and to derive the planet mass. Results. We report the detection of CoRoT-5b, detected during observations of the LRa01 field, the first long-duration field in the galactic anticenter direction. CoRoT-5b is a "hot Jupiter-type" planet with a radius of 1.388(+0.046, -0.047) R_Jup, a mass of 0.467(+0.047, -0.024) M_Jup, and therefore, a mean density of 0.21...

  5. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XX. CoRoT-20b: A very high density, high eccentricity transiting giant planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuil, M.; Bonomo, A. S.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Erikson, A.; Bouchy, F.; Havel, M.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.-M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bordé, P.; Bruntt, H.; Cabrera, J.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Damiani, C.; Deeg, H. J.; Dvorak, R.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Jorda, L.; Léger, A.; Lammer, H.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Ofir, A.; Parviainen, H.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2012-02-01

    We report the discovery by the CoRoT space mission of a new giant planet, CoRoT-20b. The planet has a mass of 4.24 ± 0.23 MJup and a radius of 0.84 ± 0.04 RJup. With a mean density of 8.87 ± 1.10 g cm-3, it is among the most compact planets known so far. Evolutionary models for the planet suggest a mass of heavy elements of the order of 800 M⊕ if embedded in a central core, requiring a revision either of the planet formation models or both planet evolution and structure models. We note however that smaller amounts of heavy elements are expected by more realistic models in which they are mixed throughout the envelope. The planet orbits a G-type star with an orbital period of 9.24 days and an eccentricity of 0.56.The star's projected rotational velocity is vsini = 4.5 ± 1.0 km s-1, corresponding to a spin period of 11.5 ± 3.1 days if its axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane. In the framework of Darwinian theories and neglecting stellar magnetic breaking, we calculate the tidal evolution of the system and show that CoRoT-20b is presently one of the very few Darwin-stable planets that is evolving toward a triple synchronous state with equality of the orbital, planetary and stellar spin periods. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany, and Spain.

  6. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XVIII. CoRoT-18b: a massive hot Jupiter on a prograde, nearly aligned orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, G.; Evans, T. M.; Alonso, R.; Fridlund, M.; Ofir, A.; Aigrain, S.; Guillot, T.; Almenara, J. M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Gandolfi, D.; Gibson, N.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Parviainen, H.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Wuchterl, G.

    2011-09-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-18b, a massive hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 1.9000693 ± 0.0000028 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite combined with spectroscopic and photometric ground-based follow-up observations. The planet has a mass Mp = 3.47 ± 0.38 MJup, a radius Rp = 1.31 ± 0.18 RJup, and a density ρp = 2.2 ± 0.8 g cm-3. It orbits a G9V star with a mass M⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.15 M⊙, a radius R⋆ = 1.00 ± 0.13 R⊙, and arotation period Prot = 5.4 ± 0.4 days. The age of the system remains uncertain, with stellar evolution models pointing either to a few tens Ma or several Ga, while gyrochronology and lithium abundance point towards ages of a few hundred Ma. This mismatch potentially points to a problem in our understanding of the evolution of young stars, with possibly significant implications for stellar physics and the interpretation of inferred sizes of exoplanets around young stars. We detected the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly in the CoRoT-18 system thanks to the spectroscopic observation of a transit. We measured the obliquity ψ = 20° ± 20° (sky-projected value λ = -10° ± 20°), indicating that the planet orbits in the same way as the star is rotating and that this prograde orbit is nearly aligned with the stellar equator. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 2006 December 27, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain.Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXIII. CoRoT-21b: a doomed large Jupiter around a faint subgiant star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pätzold, M.; Endl, M.; Csizmadia, Sz.;

    2012-01-01

    CoRoT-21, a F8IV star of magnitude V = 16 mag, was observed by the space telescope CoRoT during the Long Run 01 (LRa01) in the first winter field (constellation Monoceros) from October 2007 to March 2008. Transits were discovered during the light curve processing. Radial velocity follow-up observ...

  8. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXVII. CoRoT-28b, a planet orbiting an evolved star, and CoRoT-29b, a planet showing an asymmetric transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Montagnier, G.; Fridlund, M.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Chaintreuil, S.; Damiani, C.; Deleuil, M.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Ferrigno, A.; Gandolfi, D.; Guillot, T.; Guenther, E. W.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Klagyivik, P.; Parviainen, H.; Pasternacki, Th.; Pätzold, M.; Sebastian, D.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.; Wuchterl, G.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Almenara, J.-M.; Armstrong, J. D.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carpano, S.; Chaffey, C.; Deeg, H. J.; Díaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Grziwa, S.; Korth, J.; Lammer, H.; Lindsay, C.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Ollivier, M.; Pallé, E.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. We present the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets by the satellite CoRoT. Aims: We aim at a characterization of the planetary bulk parameters, which allow us to further investigate the formation and evolution of the planetary systems and the main properties of the host stars. Methods: We used the transit light curve to characterize the planetary parameters relative to the stellar parameters. The analysis of HARPS spectra established the planetary nature of the detections, providing their masses. Further photometric and spectroscopic ground-based observations provided stellar parameters (log g, Teff, v sin i) to characterize the host stars. Our model takes the geometry of the transit to constrain the stellar density into account, which when linked to stellar evolutionary models, determines the bulk parameters of the star. Because of the asymmetric shape of the light curve of one of the planets, we had to include the possibility in our model that the stellar surface was not strictly spherical. Results: We present the planetary parameters of CoRoT-28b, a Jupiter-sized planet (mass 0.484 ± 0.087 MJup; radius 0.955 ± 0.066 RJup) orbiting an evolved star with an orbital period of 5.208 51 ± 0.000 38 days, and CoRoT-29b, another Jupiter-sized planet (mass 0.85 ± 0.20 MJup; radius 0.90 ± 0.16 RJup) orbiting an oblate star with an orbital period of 2.850 570 ± 0.000 006 days. The reason behind the asymmetry of the transit shape is not understood at this point. Conclusions: These two new planetary systems have very interesting properties and deserve further study, particularly in the case of the star CoRoT-29. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, was developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany, and Spain. Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland

  9. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXIII. CoRoT-21b: a doomed large Jupiter around a faint subgiant star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pätzold, M.; Endl, M.; Csizmadia, Sz.

    2012-01-01

    CoRoT-21, a F8IV star of magnitude V = 16 mag, was observed by the space telescope CoRoT during the Long Run 01 (LRa01) in the first winter field (constellation Monoceros) from October 2007 to March 2008. Transits were discovered during the light curve processing. Radial velocity follow-up observ......CoRoT-21, a F8IV star of magnitude V = 16 mag, was observed by the space telescope CoRoT during the Long Run 01 (LRa01) in the first winter field (constellation Monoceros) from October 2007 to March 2008. Transits were discovered during the light curve processing. Radial velocity follow...

  10. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission: XXIV. CoRoT-24: A transiting multi-planet system

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R; Endl, M; Almenara, J M; Guenther, E W; Deleuil, M; Hatzes, A; Aigrain, S; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Cavarroc, C; Cabrera, J; Carpano, S; Csizmadia, Sz; Cochran, W D; Deeg, H J; Díaz, R F; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Fruth, T; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Grziwa, S; Guillot, T; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Léger, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; MacQueen, P J; Mazeh, T; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pasternacki, T; Patzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Santos, M Tadeu dos; Tingley, B; Titz-Weider, R; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of a candidate multiply-transiting system, the first one found in the CoRoT mission. Two transit-like features with periods of 5.11 and 11.76d are detected in the CoRoT light curve, around a main sequence K1V star of r=15.1. If the features are due to transiting planets around the same star, these would correspond to objects of 3.7$\\pm$0.4 and 5.0$\\pm$0.5 R_earth respectively. Several radial velocities serve to provide an upper limit of 5.7 M_earth for the 5.11~d signal, and to tentatively measure a mass of 28$^{+11}_{-11}$ M_earth for the object transiting with a 11.76~d period. These measurements imply low density objects, with a significant gaseous envelope. The detailed analysis of the photometric and spectroscopic data serve to estimate the probability that the observations are caused by transiting Neptune-sized planets as $>$26$\\times$ higher than a blend scenario involving only one transiting planet, and $>$900$\\times$ higher than a scenario involving two blends and no planets....

  11. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space missionXIX. CoRoT-19b: A low density planet orbiting an old inactive F9V-star

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, E W; Gazzano, J -C; Mazeh, T; Rouan, D; Gibson, N; Csizmadia, Sz; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Cavarroc, C; Deeg, H J; Deleuil, M; Dreizler, S; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Havel, M; Hebrard, G; Jehin, E; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Leger, A; Moutou, C; Nortmann, L; Ollivier, M; Ofir, A; Pasternacki, Th; Paetzold, M; Parviainen, H; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Samuel, B; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tal-Or, L; Tingley, B; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. The CoRoT space mission allows us to achieve a very high photometric accuracy. By combining CoRoT data with high-precision radial velocity measurements, we derive precise planetary radii and masses. We report the discovery of CoRoT-19b, a gas-giant planet transiting an old, inactive F9V-type star with a period of four days. After excluding alternative physical configurations mimicking a planetary transit signal, we determine the radius and mass of the planet by combining CoRoT photometry with high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the echelle spectrographs SOPHIE, HARPS, FIES, and SANDIFORD. To improve the precision of its ephemeris and the epoch, we observed additional transits with the TRAPPIST and Euler telescopes. Using HARPS spectra obtained during the transit, we then determine the projected angle between the spin of the star and the orbi...

  12. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . XIX. CoRoT-23b: a dense hot Jupiter on an eccentric orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouan, D.; Parviainen, H.; Moutou, C.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-23b, a hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 3.6314 ± 0.0001 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite, combined with spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements. A photometric sear...

  13. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . XIX. CoRoT-23b: a dense hot Jupiter on an eccentric orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouan, D.; Parviainen, H.; Moutou, C.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-23b, a hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 3.6314 ± 0.0001 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite, combined with spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements. A photometric sear...

  14. GAUDI: A Preparatory Archive for the COROT Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The GAUDI database (Ground-based Asteroseismology Uniform Database Interface) is a preparatory archive for the COROT (Convection, Rotation, and Planetary Transits) mission developed at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical

  15. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XXV. CoRoT-27b: a massive and dense planet on a short-period orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Parviainen, H; Deleuil, M; Moutou, C; Deeg, H J; Ferraz-Mello, S; Samuel, B; Csizmadia, Sz; Pasternacki, T; Wuchterl, G; Havel, M; Fridlund, M; Agnus, R; Tingley, B; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J M; Alonso, R; Baglin, A; Barros, S; Bordé, A S P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Díaz, R; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Mazeh, T; Montagnier, G; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a massive and dense transiting planet CoRoT-27b on a 3.58 day orbit around a 4.2 Gyr-old G2~star. The planet candidate was identified from the CoRoT photometry, and was confirmed as a planet with ground-based spectroscopy. The confirmation of the planet candidate is based on radial velocity observations combined with imaging to rule out blends. The characterisation of the planet and its host star is carried out using a Bayesian approach where all the data (CoRoT photometry, radial velocities, and spectroscopic characterisation of the star) are used jointly. The Bayesian analysis includes a study whether the assumption of white normally distributed noise holds for the CoRoT photometry, and whether the use of a non-normal noise distribution offers advantages in parameter estimation and model selection. CoRoT-27b has a mass of $10.39 \\pm 0.55$ $\\mathrm{M}_{\\rm Jup}$, a radius of $1.01 \\pm 0.04$ $\\mathrm{R}_{\\rm Jup}$, a mean density of $12.6_{-1.67}^{+1.92}$ $\\mathrm{g\\,cm^{-3}}$, and ...

  16. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XVII. The hot Jupiter CoRoT-17b: a very old planet

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Sz; Deleuil, M; Cabrera, J; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Cavarroc, C; Cochran, W; Deeg, H J; Diaz, R F; Dvorak, R; Endl, M; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fruth, Th; Gazzano, J C; Gillon, M; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Havel, M; Hebrard, G; Jehin, E; Jorda, L; Leger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; MacQueen, P J; Mazeh, T; Ollivier, M; Paetzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tingley, B; Titz-Weider, R; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a hot Jupiter-type exoplanet, CoRoT-17b, detected by the CoRoT satellite. It has a mass of $2.43\\pm0.30$\\Mjup and a radius of $1.02\\pm0.07$\\Rjup, while its mean density is $2.82\\pm0.38$ g/cm$^3$. CoRoT-17b is in a circular orbit with a period of $3.7681\\pm0.0003$ days. The host star is an old ($10.7\\pm1.0$ Gyr) main-sequence star, which makes it an intriguing object for planetary evolution studies. The planet's internal composition is not well constrained and can range from pure H/He to one that can contain $\\sim$380 earth masses of heavier elements.

  17. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first Super-Earth with measured radius

    CERN Document Server

    Léger, A; Schneider, J; Barge, P; Fridlund, M; Samuel, B; Ollivier, M; Günther, E; Deleuil, M; Deeg, H J; Auvergne, M; Alonso, R; Aigrain, S; Alapini, A; Almenara, J M; Baglin, A; Barbieri, M; Bruntt, H; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Catala, C; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Csizmadia, Sz; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Foing, B; Fressin, F; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Gondoin, Ph; Grasset, O; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Llebaria, A; Loeillet, B; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Paetzold, M; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Renner, S; Samadi, R; Shporer, A; Sotin, Ch; Tingley, B; Wuchterl, G

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of very shallow (DF/F = 3.4 10-4), periodic dips in the light curve of an active V = 11.7 G9V star observed by the CoRoT satellite, which we interpret as due to the presence of a transiting companion. We describe the 3-colour CoRoT data and complementary ground-based observations that support the planetary nature of the companion. Methods. We use CoRoT color information, good angular resolution ground-based photometric observations in- and out- of transit, adaptive optics imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy and preliminary results from Radial Velocity measurements, to test the diluted eclipsing binary scenarios. The parameters of the host star are derived from optical spectra, which were then combined with the CoRoT light curve to derive parameters of the companion. We examine carefully all conceivable cases of false positives, and all tests performed support the planetary hypothesis. Blends with separation larger than 0.40 arcsec or triple systems are almost excluded with a 8 10-4 ris...

  18. Ageing of a space-based CCD: photometric performance development of the low Earth orbiting detectors of the CoRoT mission

    CERN Document Server

    Asensio-Torres, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have analysed the time evolution of the photometric precision achieved by the space-based exoplanet-hunting mission CoRoT during its flight phase (2007-2012). This study of the noise level of CoRoT light curves has been based on a previous paper by Aigrain et al. 2009, where they found a gradual degradation of the photometric performance over time for the first 14 months of data. Here we have analysed the anti-center runs IRa01 (2007), LRa01 (2008), LRa03 (2010) and LRa06 (2012). The two first runs were studied by Aigrain as well, so we are able to compare our results. The two last runs allowed us to evaluate the trend of photometric degradation over more than 5 years. We obtain low observational point-to-point noise, although a factor 3 bigger than the source photon noise. We find effects showing the ageing of the CoRoT CCDs. On 2h time scales we notice a receding photometric performance, with a noise increase of about 2.1 times across the four analysed runs, corresponding to a 15% increase...

  19. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission: XIII. CoRoT-14b: an unusually dense very hot Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Tingley, B; Gazzano, J -C; Alonso, R; Mazeh, T; Jorda, L; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J -M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carpano, S; Carone, L; Cochran, W D; Csizmadia, Sz; Deleuil, M; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; MacQueen, P J; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Ofir, A; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Shporer, A; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the CoRoT Exoplanet Science Team announces its 14th discovery. Herein, we discuss the observations and analyses that allowed us to derive the parameters of this system: a hot Jupiter with a mass of $7.6 \\pm 0.6$ Jupiter masses orbiting a solar-type star (F9V) with a period of only 1.5 d, less than 5 stellar radii from its parent star. It is unusual for such a massive planet to have such a small orbit: only one other known exoplanet with a higher mass orbits with a shorter period.

  20. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - XIX. CoRoT-23b: a dense hot Jupiter on an eccentric orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Rouan, D; Moutou, C; Deleuil, M; Fridlund, M; Ofir, A; Havel, M; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Cavarroc, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Deeg, H; Diaz, R F; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; Mazeh, T; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Samuel, B; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tingley, B; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-23b, a hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 3.6314 \\pm 0.0001 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite, combined with spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements. A photometric search for possible background eclipsing binaries conducted at CFHT and OGS concluded with a very low risk of false positives. The usual techniques of combining RV and transit data simultaneously were used to derive stellar and planetary parameters. The planet has a mass of Mp = 2.8 \\pm 0.3 MJup, a radius of Rpl = 1.05 \\pm 0.13 RJup, a density of \\approx 3 g cm-3. RV data also clearly reveal a non zero eccentricity of e = 0.16 \\pm 0.02. The planet orbits a mature G0 main sequence star of V =15.5 mag, with a mass M\\star = 1.14 \\pm 0.08 M\\odot, a radius R\\star = 1. 61 \\pm 0.18 R\\odot and quasi-solar abundances. The age of the system is evaluated to be 7 Gyr, not far from the transition to subgiant, in agreement with the r...

  1. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XX. CoRoT-18b: a massive hot jupiter on a prograde, nearly aligned orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Hebrard, G; Alonso, R; Fridlund, M; Ofir, A; Aigrain, S; Guillot, T; Almenara, J M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Cavarroc, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Deeg, H J; Deleuil, M; Diaz, R F; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Gandolfi, D; Gibson, N; Gillon, M; Guenther, E; Hatzes, A; Havel, M; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Leger, A; Llebaria, A; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Parviainen, H; Patzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tingley, B; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-18b, a massive hot jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 1.9000693 +/- 0.0000028 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite combined with spectroscopic and photometric follow-up ground-based observations. The planet has a mass M_p = 3.47 +/- 0.38 M_Jup, a radius R_p = 1.31 +/- 0.18 R_Jup, and a density rho_p = 2.2 +/- 0.8 g/cm3. It orbits a G9V star with a mass M_* = 0.95 +/- 0.15 M_Sun, a radius R_* = 1.00 +/- 0.13 R_Sun, and a rotation period P_rot = 5.4 +/- 0.4 days. The age of the system remains uncertain, stellar evolution models pointing either to a few tens Ma or several Ga, while gyrochronology and lithium abundance point towards ages of a few hundred Ma. This mismatch potentially points to a problem in our understanding of the evolution of young stars, with possible significant implications for stellar physics and the interpretation of inferred sizes of exoplanets around young stars. We detected...

  2. The CoRoT Mission - Status and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, M.

    2007-08-01

    The CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) space mission is the first dedicated space mission designed to search for exo-planets akin to our own. It is a joint effort by France, Austria Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Spain and the European Space Agency. It is specifically designed to search for exo-planets much smaller than hitherto discovered. It was launched in December 2006 on a mission lasting not less than 3 years. Verification and first operations have proven the mission to superceed all expectations. This is of course most relevant in the fact that planets as small as our own Earth are detectable. In this presentation we describe the experiences of the first 6 mo0nths of the mission, the actual status of the mission, the supporting ground based program, and what we expect in the near future. After giving examples of data relevant to the topic of this session, we turn to describing the expected impact of the results of CoRoT on future endeavours such as KEPLER, Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT's) and ultimately Darwin.

  3. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission VI. CoRoT-Exo-3b: The first secure inhabitant of the brown-dwarf desert

    CERN Document Server

    Deleuil, M; Alonso, R; Bouchy, F; Rouan, D

    2008-01-01

    Context. The CoRoT space mission routinely provides high-precision photometric measurements of thousands of stars that have been continuously observed for months. Aims. The discovery and characterization of the first very massive transiting planetary companion with a short orbital period is reported. Methods. A series of 34 transits was detected in the CoRoT light curve of an F3V star, observed from May to October 2007 for 152 days. The radius was accurately determined and the mass derived for this new transiting, thanks to the combined analysis of the light curve and complementary ground-based observations: high-precision radial-velocity measurements, on-off photometry, and high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations. Results. CoRoT-Exo-3b has a radius of 1.01+-0.07 RJup and transits around its F3-type primary every 4.26 days in a synchronous orbit. Its mass of 21.66+-1.0 MJup, density of 26.4+-5.6 g cm^-3, and surface gravity of log g = 4.72 clearly distinguish it from the regular close-in planet popula...

  4. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission II. CoRoT-Exo-2b: A transiting planet around an active G star

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R; Baglin, A; Ollivier, M; Moutou, C; Rouan, D; Deeg, H J; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J M; Barbieri, M; Barge, P; Benz, W; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Kabath, P; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Loeillet, B; Magain, P; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Shporer, A; Schneider, J; Stecklum, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G

    2008-01-01

    Context. The CoRoT mission, a pioneer in exoplanet searches from space, has completed its first 150 days of continuous observations of ~12000 stars in the galactic plane. An analysis of the raw data identifies the most promising candidates and triggers the ground-based follow-up. Aims. We report on the discovery of the transiting planet CoRoT-Exo-2b, with a period of 1.743 days, and characterize its main parameters. Methods. We filter the CoRoT raw light curve of cosmic impacts, orbital residuals, and low frequency signals from the star. The folded light curve of 78 transits is fitted to a model to obtain the main parameters. Radial velocity data obtained with the SOPHIE, CORALIE and HARPS spectro-graphs are combined to characterize the system. The 2.5 min binned phase-folded light curve is affected by the effect of sucessive occultations of stellar active regions by the planet, and the dispersion in the out of transit part reaches a level of 1.09x10-4 in flux units. Results. We derive a radius for the planet...

  5. GAUDI: a preparatory archive for the COROT mission

    CERN Document Server

    Solano, E; Garrido, R; Poretti, E; Janot-Pacheco, E; Gutíerrez, R; González, R; Mantegazza, L; Neiner, C; Frémat, Y; Charpinet, S; Weiss, W; Amado, P J; Rainer, M; Tsymbal, V V; Lyashko, D; Ballereau, D; Bouret, J C; Hua, T; Katz, D; Lignières, F; Lüftinger, T; Mittermayer, P; Nesvacil, N; Soubiran, C; Veer-Menneret, C V; Goupil, M J; Costa, V; Rolland, A; Antonello, E; Bossi, M; Buzzoni, A; Rodrigo, C; Aerts, C; Butler, C J; Günther, E; Hatzes, A

    2004-01-01

    The GAUDI database (Ground-based Asteroseismology Uniform Database Interface, http://sdc.laeff.esa.es/gaudi/) is a preparatory archive for the COROT (COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits, http://www.astrsp-mrs.fr/projets/corot/) mission developed at LAEFF (Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics, http://www.laeff.esa.es). Its intention is to make the ground-based observations obtained in the preparation of the asteroseismology programme available in a simple and efficient way. It contains spectroscopic and photometric data together with inferred physical parameters for more than 1500 objects gathered since January 1998 in 6 years of observational campaigns. In this paper, the main functionalities and characteristics of the system are described. The observations have been collected at ESO-La Silla, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Observatoire de Haute-Provence, South African Astronomical Observatory, Tautenberg Observatory and Sierra Nevada Observatory.

  6. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXI. CoRoT-19b: a low density planet orbiting an old inactive F9V-star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, E. W.; Díaz, R. F.; Gazzano, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    to the end of its main-sequence life. The host star has a mass M∗ = 1.21 ± 0.05  M⊙ and radius R∗ = 1.65  ±  0.04 R⊙. The planet has a mass of MP = 1.11 ± 0.06 MJup and radius of RP = 1.29  ± 0.03 RJup. The resulting bulk density is only ρ = 0.71  ± 0.06 g cm-3, which is much lower than that for Jupiter......Context. Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. These measurements indicate that planets of similar mass can have very different radii. For low-density planets......, it is generally assumed that they are inflated owing to their proximity to the host-star. To determine the causes of this inflation, it is necessary to obtain a statistically significant sample of planets with precisely measured masses and radii. Aims. The CoRoT space mission allows us to achieve a very high...

  7. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XXVIII. CoRoT-28b, a planet orbiting an evolved star, and CoRoT-29b, a planet showing an asymmetric transit

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, J; Montagnier, G; Fridlund, M; Eiff, M Ammler-von; Chaintreuil, S; Damiani, C; Deleuil, M; Ferraz-Mello, S; Ferrigno, A; Gandolfi, D; Guillot, T; Guenther, E W; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Klagyivik, P; Parviainen, H; Pasternacki, Th; Pätzold, M; Sebastian, D; Santos, M Tadeu dos; Wuchterl, G; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J -M; Armstrong, J D; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Barros, S C C; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Carpano, S; Chaffey, C; Deeg, H J; Díaz, R F; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Grziwa, S; Korth, J; Lammer, H; Lindsay, C; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pallé, E; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Santerne, A; Schneider, J

    2015-01-01

    Context. We present the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets by the satellite CoRoT. Aims. We aim at a characterization of the planetary bulk parameters, which allow us to further investigate the formation and evolution of the planetary systems and the main properties of the host stars. Methods. We used the transit light curve to characterize the planetary parameters relative to the stellar parameters. The analysis of HARPS spectra established the planetary nature of the detections, providing their masses. Further photometric and spectroscopic ground-based observations provided stellar parameters (log g,Teff,v sin i) to characterize the host stars. Our model takes the geometry of the transit to constrain the stellar density into account, which when linked to stellar evolutionary models, determines the bulk parameters of the star. Because of the asymmetric shape of the light curve of one of the planets, we had to include the possibility in our model that the stellar surface was not strictly spherical...

  8. The CoRoT mission's exoplanet program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg H.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT space observatory was launched at the end of 2006 and has been delivering scientific data from early 2007 until its recent interruption, on 2 Nov. 2012, leading to the discovery of over 30 transiting planets. Here we give an overview over the most relevant results from CoRoT's exoplanet detection program.

  9. GAUDI: A Preparatory Archive for the COROT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.; Catala, C.; Garrido, R.; Poretti, E.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Gutiérrez, R.; González, R.; Mantegazza, L.; Neiner, C.; Fremat, Y.; Charpinet, S.; Weiss, W.; Amado, P. J.; Rainer, M.; Tsymbal, V.; Lyashko, D.; Ballereau, D.; Bouret, J. C.; Hua, T.; Katz, D.; Lignières, F.; Lüftinger, T.; Mittermayer, P.; Nesvacil, N.; Soubiran, C.; van't Veer-Menneret, C.; Goupil, M. J.; Costa, V.; Rolland, A.; Antonello, E.; Bossi, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Rodrigo, C.; Aerts, C.; Butler, C. J.; Guenther, E.; Hatzes, A.

    2005-01-01

    The GAUDI database (Ground-based Asteroseismology Uniform Database Interface) is a preparatory archive for the COROT (Convection, Rotation, and Planetary Transits) mission developed at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics, Spain). Its intention is to make the ground-based observations obtained in preparation of the asteroseismology program available in a simple and efficient way. It contains spectroscopic and photometric data together with inferred physical parameters for more than 1500 objects gathered since 1998 January 1998 in 6 years of observational campaigns. In this paper, the main functions and characteristics of the system are described. Based on observations collected at La Silla (ESO proposals 67.D-0169, 69.D-0166, and 70.D-0110), Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (proposal 6-20-068), Observatoire de Haute-Provence, the South African Astronomical Observatory, Tautenburg Observatory, and Sierra Nevada Observatory.

  10. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XI. CoRoT-8b: a hot and dense sub-Saturn around a K1 dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Bordé, P; Deleuil, M; Cabrera, J; Jorda, L; Lovis, C; Csizmadia, S; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J M; Alonso, R; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Benz, W; Bonomo, A S; Bruntt, H; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Deeg, H; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Gazzano, J -C; Gillon, M; Guenther, E; Guillot, T; Guterman, P; Hatzes, A; Havel, M; Hébrard, G; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Ollivier, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of CoRoT-8b, a dense small Saturn-class exoplanet that orbits a K1 dwarf in 6.2 days, and we derive its orbital parameters, mass, and radius. We analyzed two complementary data sets: the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-8b as measured by CoRoT and the radial velocity curve of CoRoT-8 as measured by the HARPS spectrometer. We find that CoRoT-8b is on a circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.063 +/- 0.001 AU. It has a radius of 0.57 +/- 0.02 RJ, a mass of 0.22 +/- 0.03 MJ, and therefore a mean density 1.6 +/- 0.1 g/cm^3. With 67 % of the size of Saturn and 72 % of its mass, CoRoT-8b has a density comparable to that of Neptune (1.76 g/cm^3). We estimate its content in heavy elements to be 47-63 Earth masses, and the mass of its hydrogen-helium envelope to be 7-23 Earth masses. At 0.063 AU, the thermal loss of hydrogen of CoRoT-8b should be no more than about 0.1 % over an assumed integrated lifetime of 3~Ga.

  11. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XIV. CoRoT-11b: a transiting massive "hot-Jupiter" in a prograde orbit around a rapidly rotating F-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, D; Alonso, R; Deleuil, M; Guenther, E W; Fridlund, M; Endl, M; Eigmüller, P; Csizmadia, Sz; Havel, M; Aigrain, S; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carpano, S; Carone, L; Cochran, W D; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Eislöffel, J; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Gazzano, J -C; Gibson, N P; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hartmann, M; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Kabath, P; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; MacQueen, P J; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Stecklum, B; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015132

    2010-01-01

    The CoRoT exoplanet science team announces the discovery of CoRoT-11b, a fairly massive hot-Jupiter transiting a V=12.9 mag F6 dwarf star (M*=1.27 +/- 0.05 Msun, R*=1.37 +/- 0.03 Rsun, Teff=6440 +/- 120 K), with an orbital period of P=2.994329 +/- 0.000011 days and semi-major axis a=0.0436 +/- 0.005 AU. The detection of part of the radial velocity anomaly caused by the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect shows that the transit-like events detected by CoRoT are caused by a planet-sized transiting object in a prograde orbit. The relatively high projected rotational velocity of the star (vsini=40+/-5 km/s) places CoRoT-11 among the most rapidly rotating planet host stars discovered so far. With a planetary mass of mp=2.33+/-0.34 Mjup and radius rp=1.43+/-0.03 Rjup, the resulting mean density of CoRoT-11b (rho=0.99+/-0.15 g/cm^3) can be explained with a model for an inflated hydrogen-planet with a solar composition and a high level of energy dissipation in its interior.

  12. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XII. CoRoT-12b: a short-period low-density planet transiting a solar analog star

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Csizmadia, Sz; Fridlund, M; Deleuil, M; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Barnes, S I; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Cochran, W D; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Endl, M; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Gandolfi, D; Gazzano, J C; Guenther, E; Guillot, T; Havel, M; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Montalbán, J; Moutou, C; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery by the CoRoT satellite of a new transiting giant planet in a 2.83 days orbit about a V=15.5 solar analog star (M_* = 1.08 +- 0.08 M_sun, R_* = 1.1 +- 0.1 R_sun, T_eff = 5675 +- 80 K). This new planet, CoRoT-12b, has a mass of 0.92 +- 0.07 M_Jup and a radius of 1.44 +- 0.13 R_Jup. Its low density can be explained by standard models for irradiated planets.

  13. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XXVIII. CoRoT-33b, an object in the brown dwarf desert with 2:3 commensurability with its host star

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Sz; Gandolfi, G; Deleuil, M; Bouchy, M; Fridlund, M; Szabados, L; Parviainen, H; Cabrera, J; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J M; Baglin, A; Bordé, P; Bonomo, A S; Deeg, H J; Dıaz, R F; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Santos, M Tadeu dos; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Grziwa, S; Hébrard, G; Klagyivik, P; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Mazeh, T; Wuchterl, G; Carpano, S; Ofir, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of a rare transiting brown dwarf with a mass of 59 M_Jup and radius of 1.1 R_Jup around the metal-rich, [Fe/H] = +0.44, G9V star CoRoT-33. The orbit is eccentric (e = 0.07) with a period of 5.82 d. The companion, CoRoT-33b, is thus a new member in the so-called brown dwarf desert. The orbital period is within 3% to a 3:2 resonance with the rotational period of the star. CoRoT-33b may be an important test case for tidal evolution studies. The true frequency of brown dwarfs close to their host stars (P < 10 d) is estimated to be approximately 0.2% which is about six times smaller than the frequency of hot Jupiters in the same period range. We suspect that the frequency of brown dwarfs declines faster with decreasing period than that of giant planets.

  14. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission I - CoRoT-Exo-1b: a low-density short-period planet around a G0V star

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, P; Auvergne, M; Rauer, H; Léger, A; Schneider, J; Pont, F; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J -M; Alonso, R; Barbieri, M; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Deeg, H -J; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Kabath, P; Lammer, H; Llebaria, A; Loeillet, B; Magain, P; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Patzold, M; Queloz, D; Rouan, D; Shporer, A; Wuchterl, G

    2008-01-01

    Context. The pioneer space mission for photometric planet searches, CoRoT, steadily monitors about 12,000 stars in each of its fields of view; it is able to detect transit candidates early in the processing of the data and before the end of a run. Aims. We report the detection of the first planet discovered by CoRoT and characterizing it with the help of follow-up observations. Methods. Raw data were filtered from outliers and residuals at the orbital period of the satellite. The orbital parameters and the radius of the planet were estimated by best fitting the phase folded light curve with 34 successive transits. Doppler measurements with the SOPHIE spectrograph permitted us to secure the detection and to estimate the planet mass. Results. The accuracy of the data is very high with a dispersion in the 2.17 min binned phase-folded light curve that does not exceed 3.10-4 in flux unit. The planet orbits a mildly metal-poor G0V star of magnitude V=13.6 in 1.5 days. The estimated mass and radius of the star are 0...

  15. CoRoT space photometry of seven Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Poretti, Ennio; Rainer, Monica; Baglin, Annie; Benko, Jozsef; Debosscher, Jonas; Weiss, Werner W

    2015-01-01

    A few Galactic classical Cepheids were observed in the programmes of space missions as Coriolis, MOST and Kepler. An appealing opportunity was to detect additional nonradial modes, thus opening the possibility to perform asteroseismic studies and making the pulsational content of Galactic Cepheids more similar to that of Magellanic Clouds ones. However, only hints of cycle-to-cycle variations were found, without any strict periodicity. In this context the potential of the CoRoT exoplanetary data base was not fully exploited despite the wide area covered on the Galactic plane. Therefore, we investigated all the candidate Cepheids pointed out by the automatic classification of the CoRoT curves. At the end we could identify seven bona-fide Cepheids. The light curves were investigated to remove some instrumental effects. The frequency analysis was particularly delicate since these small effects can be enhanced by the large amplitude, resulting in the presence of significant, but spurious, peaks in the power spect...

  16. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XIII. CoRoT-13b: a dense hot Jupiter in transit around a star with solar metallicity and super-solar lithium content

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, J; Ollivier, M; Diaz, R F; Csizmadia, Sz; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J -M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Deleuil, M; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gandolfi, D; Gazzano, J -C; Gillon, M; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Havel, M; Hebrard, G; Jorda, L; Leger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ofir, A; von Paris, P; Patzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tingley, B; Titz-Weider, R; Wuchterl, G

    2010-01-01

    We announce the discovery of the transiting planet CoRoT-13b. Ground based follow-up in CFHT and IAC80 confirmed CoRoT's observations. The mass of the planet was measured with the HARPS spectrograph and the properties of the host star were obtained analyzing HIRES spectra from the Keck telescope. It is a hot Jupiter-like planet with an orbital period of 4.04 days, 1.3 Jupiter masses, 0.9 Jupiter radii, and a density of 2.34 g cm-3. It orbits a G0V star with Teff=5945K, M*=1.09 Msun, R*=1.01 Rsun, solar metallicity, a lithium content of +1.45 dex, and an estimated age between 0.12 and 3.15 Gyr. The lithium abundance of the star is consistent with its effective temperature, activity level, and age range derived from the stellar analysis. The density of the planet is extreme for its mass. It implies the existence of an amount of heavy elements with a mass between about 140 and 300 Mearth.

  17. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission IX. CoRoT-6b: a transiting `hot Jupiter' planet in an 8.9d orbit around a low-metallicity star

    CERN Document Server

    Fridlund, M; Alonso, R; Deleuil, M; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Bruntt, H; Alapini, A; Csizmadia, Sz; Guillot, T; Lammer, H; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Deeg, H J; De la Reza, R; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Guenther, E; Gondoin, P; Hartog, R den; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Leger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Patzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Shporer, A; Stecklum, B; Tingley, B; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G

    2010-01-01

    The CoRoT satellite exoplanetary team announces its sixth transiting planet in this paper. We describe and discuss the satellite observations as well as the complementary ground-based observations - photometric and spectroscopic - carried out to assess the planetary nature of the object and determine its specific physical parameters. The discovery reported here is a `hot Jupiter' planet in an 8.9d orbit, 18 stellar radii, or 0.08 AU, away from its primary star, which is a solar-type star (F9V) with an estimated age of 3.0 Gyr. The planet mass is close to 3 times that of Jupiter. The star has a metallicity of 0.2 dex lower than the Sun, and a relatively high $^7$Li abundance. While thelightcurveindicatesamuchhigherlevelof activity than, e.g., the Sun, there is no sign of activity spectroscopically in e.g., the [Ca ] H&K lines.

  18. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXI. CoRoT-19b: a low density planet orbiting an old inactive F9V-star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, E. W.; Díaz, R. F.; Gazzano, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. These measurements indicate that planets of similar mass can have very different radii. For low-density planets, it is gener......Context. Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. These measurements indicate that planets of similar mass can have very different radii. For low-density planets...... physical configurations mimicking a planetary transit signal, we determine the radius and mass of the planet by combining CoRoT photometry with high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the echelle spectrographs SOPHIE, HARPS, FIES, and SANDIFORD. To improve the precision of its ephemeris and the epoch...... to the end of its main-sequence life. The host star has a mass M∗ = 1.21 ± 0.05  M⊙ and radius R∗ = 1.65  ±  0.04 R⊙. The planet has a mass of MP = 1.11 ± 0.06 MJup and radius of RP = 1.29  ± 0.03 RJup. The resulting bulk density is only ρ = 0.71  ± 0.06 g cm-3, which is much lower than that for Jupiter...

  19. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission IV: CoRoT-Exo-4b: A transiting planet in a 9.2 day synchronous orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Aigrain, S; Ollivier, M; Pont, F; Jorda, L; Almenara, J M; Alonso, R; Barge, P; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Deeg, H; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gondoin, P; Gillon, M; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Lammer, H; Lanza, A F; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Paetzold, M; Pinte, C; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Schneider, J; Wuchter, G; Zucker, S

    2008-01-01

    CoRoT, the first space-based transit search, provides ultra-high precision light curves with continuous time-sampling over periods, of up to 5 months. This allows the detection of transiting planets with relatively long periods, and the simultaneous study of the host star's photometric variability. In this letter, we report on the discovery of the transiting giant planet CoRoT-Exo-4b and use the CoRoT light curve to perform a detailed analysis of the transit and to determine the stellar rotation period. The CoRoT light curve was pre-processed to remove outliers and correct for orbital residuals and artefacts due to hot pixels on the detector. After removing stellar variability around each transit, the transit light curve was analysed to determine the transit parameters. A discrete auto-correlation function method was used to derive the rotation period of the star from the out-of-transit light curve. We derive periods for the planet's orbit and star's rotation of 9.20205 +/- 0.00037 and 8.87 +/- 1.12 days resp...

  20. Classical variables in the era of space photometric missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The space photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler transformed our view of pulsating stars, including the well-known RR Lyrae and Cepheid classes. The K2, TESS and PLATO missions will expand these investigations to larger sample sizes and to specific stellar populations.

  1. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.

    2001-03-01

    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  2. Detection of small-size planetary candidates with CoRoT data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutou C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of CoRoT-7b, the first transiting super-Earth, the CoRoT space mission has shown the capability to detect short-period rocky planets around solar-like stars. By performing a blind test with real CoRoT light curves, we want to establish the detection threshold of small-size planets in CoRoT data. We investigate the main obstacles to the detection of transiting super-Earths in CoRoT data, notably the presence of short-time scale variability and hot pixels.

  3. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollivier, M.; Gillon, M.; Santerne, A.

    2012-01-01

    RoT-16b is a 0.535 −0.083/+0.085 MJ, 1.17 −0.14/+0.16 RJ hot Jupiter with a density of 0.44 −0.14/+0.21 g cm-3. Despite its short orbital distance (0.0618 ± 0.0015 AU) and the age of the parent star (6.73 ± 2.8 Gyr), the planet orbit exhibits significantly non-zero eccentricity. This is very uncommon...

  4. A study of the performance of the transit detection tool DST in space-based surveys. Application of the CoRoT pipeline to Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, J; Erikson, A; Rauer, H; Kirste, S; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219337

    2012-01-01

    Context. Transit detection algorithms are mathematical tools used for detecting planets in the photometric data of transit surveys. In this work we study their application to space-based surveys. Aims: Space missions are exploring the parameter space of the transit surveys where classical algorithms do not perform optimally, either because of the challenging signal-to-noise ratio of the signal or its non-periodic characteristics. We have developed an algorithm addressing these challenges for the mission CoRoT. Here we extend the application to the data from the space mission Kepler. We aim at understanding the performances of algorithms in different data sets. Methods: We built a simple analytical model of the transit signal and developed a strategy for the search that improves the detection performance for transiting planets. We analyzed Kepler data with a set of stellar activity filtering and transit detection tools from the CoRoT community that are designed for the search of transiting planets. Results: We...

  5. CoRoT pictures transiting exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Moutou, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The detection and characterization of exoplanets have made huge progresses since the first discoveries in the late nineties. In particular, the independent measurement of the mass and radius of planets, by combining the transit and radial-velociy techniques, allowed exploring their density and hence, their internal structure. With CoRoT (2007-2012), the pioneering CNES space-based mission in this investigation, about thirty new planets were characterized. CoRoT has enhanced the diversity of giant exoplanets and discovered the first telluric exoplanet. Following CoRoT, the NASA Kepler mission has extended our knowledge to small-size planets, multiple systems and planets orbiting binaries. Exploring these new worlds will continue with the NASA/TESS (2017) and ESA/PLATO (2024) missions.

  6. The tip of the iceberg: the frequency content of the δ Sct star HD 50844 from CoRoT space photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretti, E.; Mantegazza, L.; Rainer, M.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Michel, E.; Baglin, A.; Auvergne, M.; Catala, C.; Samadi, R.; Rodríguez, E.; Garrido, R.; Amado, P.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Moya, A.; Suárez, J. C.; Baudin, F.; Zima, W.; Alvarez, M.; Mathias, P.; Paparó, M.; Pápics, P.; Plachy, E.

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that the detection of a wealth of very low amplitude modes in δ Sct stars was only a matter of signal-to-noise ratio. Access to this treasure, impossible from the ground, is one of the scientific aims of the space mission CoRoT, developed and operated by CNES. This work presents the results obtained on HD 50844: the 140,016 datapoints allowed us to reach the level of 10-5 mag in the amplitude spectra. The frequency analysis of the CoRoT timeseries revealed hundreds of terms in the frequency range 0-30 d-1. The initial guess that δ Sct stars have a very rich frequency content is confirmed. The spectroscopic mode identification gives theoretical support since very high-degree modes (up to = 14) are identified. We also prove that cancellation effects are not sufficient in removing the flux variations associated to these modes at the noise level of the CoRoT measurements. The ground-based observations indicate that HD 50844 is an evolved star that is slightly underabundant in heavy elements, located on the Terminal Age Main Sequence. The predominant term (f1 = 6.92 d-1) has been identified as the fundamental radial mode combining ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data.

  7. The tip of the iceberg: the frequency content of the Delta Sct star HD 50844 from CoRoT space photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Michel, E; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Catala, C; Samadi, R; Rodríguez, E; Garrido, R; Amado, P; Martin-Ruiz, S; Moya, A; Suarez, C; Baudin, F; Zima, W; Alvarez, M; Mathias, P; Paparo, M; Papics, P; Plachy, E

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the detection of a wealth of very low amplitude modes in Delta Sct stars was only a matter of signal--to--noise ratio. Access to this treasure, impossible from the ground, is one of the scientific aims of the space mission CoRoT, developed and operated by CNES. This work presents the results obtained on HD 50844: the 140,016 datapoints allowed us to reach the level of 10^{-5} mag in the amplitude spectra. The frequency analysis of the CoRoT timeseries revealed hundreds of terms in the frequency range 0--30 d^{-1}. The initial guess that Delta Sct stars have a very rich frequency content is confirmed. The spectroscopic mode identification gives theoretical support since very high--degree modes (up to ell=14) are identified. We also prove that cancellation effects are not sufficient in removing the flux variations associated to these modes at the noise level of the CoRoT measurements. The ground--based observations indicate that HD 50844 is an evolved star that is slightly underabunda...

  8. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  9. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  10. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D str....... The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68 degrees to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR....

  11. Evidence for nonlinear resonant mode coupling in the Beta Cep star HD 180642 (V1449 Aql) from CoRoT space-based photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, P; Catala, C; Uytterhoeven, K; Lefever, K; Morel, T; Aerts, C; Carrier, F; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Michel, E

    2009-01-01

    We present the CoRoT light curve of the Beta Cep star HD 180642, assembled during the first long run of the space mission, as well as archival single-band photometry. Our goal is to analyse the detailed behaviour present in the light curve and interpret it in terms of excited mode frequencies. After describing the noise properties in detail, we use various time series analysis and fitting techniques to model the CoRoT light curve, for various physical assumptions. We apply statistical goodness-of-fit criteria that allow us to select the most appropriate physical model fit to the data. We conclude that the light curve model based on nonlinear resonant frequency and phase locking provides the best representation of the data. The interpretation of the residuals is dependent on the chosen physical model used to prewhiten the data. Our observational results constitute a fruitful starting point for detailed seismic stellar modelling of this large-amplitude and evolved Beta Cep star.

  12. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  13. Planetary transit candidates in COROT-IRa01 field

    CERN Document Server

    Carpano, S; Alonso, R; Barge, P; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J -M; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Carone, L; Deeg, H J; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fressin, F; Fridlund, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Moutou, C; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pacheco, E J; Pátzold, M; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Régulo, C; Renner, S; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Wuchterl, G

    2009-01-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and the photometric detection of extrasolar planets. Aims: We present the list of planetary transit candidates detected in the first field observed by CoRoT, IRa01, the initial run toward the Galactic anticenter, which lasted for 60 days. Methods: We analysed 3898 sources in the coloured bands and 5974 in the monochromatic band. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were taken into account using detrending tools before applying various transit search algorithms. Results: Fifty sources were classified as planetary transit candidates and the most reliable 40 detections were declared targets for follow-up ground-based observations. Two of these targets have so far been confirmed as planets, COROT-1b and COROT-4b, for which a complete characterization and specific studies were performed.

  14. Space Mission : Y3K

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  15. Europe looks forward to COROT launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    While CNES is completing preparations for the launch from Baikonur/Kazakhstan, ESA and a large number of European scientists involved in the mission are eagerly awaiting this event and the first scientific results to come through. What is COROT? COROT stands for ‘Convection Rotation and planetary Transits’. The name describes the mission’s scientific goals. ‘Convection and rotation’ refer to the satellite’s capability to probe stellar interiors, studying the acoustic waves that ripple across the surface of stars, a technique called asteroseismology. ‘Transit’ refers to the technique whereby the presence of a planet orbiting a star can be inferred from the dimming starlight caused when the planet passes in front of it. To achieve its twin scientific objectives, COROT will monitor some 120,000 stars with its 30-centimetre telescope. COROT will lead a bold new search for planets around other stars. In the decade since the first discovery in 1995 of an exoplanet (51 Pegasi b), more than 200 other such planets outside our solar system have been detected using ground-based observatories. The COROT space telescope promises to find many more during its two-and-a-half-year mission, expanding the frontiers of our knowledge towards ever-smaller planets. Many of the planets COROT will detect are expected to be 'hot Jupiters', gaseous worlds. An unknown percentage of those detected are expected to be rocky planets, maybe just a few times larger than the Earth (or smaller, even). If COROT finds such planets, they will constitute a new class of planet altogether. While it is looking at a star, COROT will also be able to detect 'starquakes', acoustic waves generated deep inside a star that send ripples across its surface, altering its brightness. The exact nature of the ripples allows astronomers to calculate the star's precise mass, age and chemical composition. COROT’s European dimension The COROT mission was first proposed by CNES back in 1996. A call for

  16. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  17. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  18. Disruptive Propulsive Technologies for European Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advanced space technologies have been reviewed and analysed in view of heavy interplanetary missions of interest for Europe and European industry capabilities. Among the missions of interest: o Heavy robotic missions to outer planets, o Asteroid deflection missions, o Interplanetary manned mission (at longer term). These missions involve high speed increments, generally beyond the capability of chemical propulsion (except if gravitational swing-by can be used). For missions bey...

  19. Detection of frequency spacings in the young O-type binary HD 46149 from CoRoT photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, P; Auvergne, M; Simon-Diaz, S; Aerts, C; Noels, A; Rainer, M; Hareter, M; Poretti, E; Mahy, L; Oreiro, R; Vuckovic, M; Smolders, K; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2010-01-01

    Using the CoRoT space based photometry of the O-type binary HD46149, stellar atmospheric effects related to rotation can be separated from pulsations, because they leave distinct signatures in the light curve. This offers the possibility of characterising and exploiting any pulsations seismologically. Combining high-quality space based photometry, multi-wavelength photometry, spectroscopy and constraints imposed by binarity and cluster membership, the detected pulsations in HD46149 are analyzed and compared with those for a grid of stellar evolutionary models in a proof-of-concept approach. We present evidence of solar-like oscillations in a massive O-type star, and show that the observed frequency range and spacings are compatible with theoretical predictions. Thus, we unlock and confirm the strong potential of this seismically unexplored region in the HR diagram.

  20. Automated Classification of Variable Stars in the Asteroseismology Program of the Kepler Space Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomme, J.; Debosscher, J.; De Ridder, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results of the application of supervised classification methods to the Kepler Q1 long-cadence light curves of a subsample of 2288 stars measured in the asteroseismology program of the mission. The methods, originally developed in the framework of the CoRoT and Gaia space...... missions, are capable of identifying the most common types of stellar variability in a reliable way. Many new variables have been discovered, among which a large fraction are eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries unknown prior to launch. A comparison is made between our classification from the Kepler data...

  1. CoRoT data reduction by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingrill, J.

    2015-02-01

    Data reduction techniques published so far for the CoRoT N2 data product were targeted primarily on the detection of extrasolar planets. Since the whole dataset has been released, specific algorithms are required to process the lightcurves from CoRoT correctly. Though only unflagged datapoints must be chosen for scientific processing, some flags might be reconsidered. The reduction of data along with improving the signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved by applying a one dimensional drizzle algorithm. Gaps can be filled by linear interpolated data without harming the frequency spectrum. Magnitudes derived from the CoRoT color channels might be used to derive additional information about the targets. Depending on the needs, various filters in the frequency domain remove either the red noise background or high frequency noise. The autocorrelation function or the least squares periodogram are appropriate methods to identify periodic signals. The methods described here are not strictly limited to CoRoT data but may also be applied on Kepler data or the upcoming PLATO mission. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 2006 December 27, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain.

  2. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  3. OMV servicing missions from Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Wright, Jerome L.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will provide a means of bringing large observatories to the Space Station for servicing and redeployment to their operating altitudes. However, there are many constraints which must be met in mission planning. The missions must be designed so that propellant consumption is within the usable allowance, but contingency operations can still be accomplished. The vehicle was designed specifically to accommodate such missions, with emphasis upon servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The OMV has been designed for operations from the Shuttle Orbiter and the Space Station. It will readily accommodate basing at the Space Station and executing observatory retrieval and redeployment missions. Mission profiles have been designed which allow retrieval with contingency hold before descent, and which allow contingency return of the observatory if it fails to reactivate properly. This capability will be a major addition to the Space Transportation System and will increase the utility of the Space Station.

  4. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in

  5. Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in astrophysics

  6. Multiple star systems observed with CoRoT and Kepler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southworth John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler satellites were the first space platforms designed to perform high-precision photometry for a large number of stars. Multiple systems display a wide variety of photometric variability, making them natural benefactors of these missions. I review the work arising from CoRoT and Kepler observations of multiple systems, with particular emphasis on eclipsing binaries containing giant stars, pulsators, triple eclipses and/or low-mass stars. Many more results remain untapped in the data archives of these missions, and the future holds the promise of K2, TESS and PLATO.

  7. Multiple star systems observed with CoRoT and Kepler (invited review)

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    The CoRoT and Kepler satellites were the first space platforms designed to perform high-precision photometry for a large number of stars. Multiple systems display a wide variety of photometric variability, making them natural benefactors of these missions. I review the work arising from CoRoT and Kepler observations of multiple systems, with particular emphasis on eclipsing binaries containing giant stars, pulsators, triple eclipses and/or low-mass stars. Many more results remain untapped in the data archives of these missions, and the future holds the promise of K2, TESS and PLATO.

  8. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  9. Technology transfer and space science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer and space science missions are provided. Topics covered include: project scientist role within NASA; role of universities in technology transfer; role of government laboratories in research; and technology issues associated with science.

  10. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  11. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  12. Autonomy requirements engineering for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space exploration is performed by unmanned missions with integrated autonomy in both flight and ground systems. Risk and feasibility are major factors supporting the use of unmanned craft and the use of automation and robotic technologies where possible. Autonomy in space helps to increase the amount of science data returned from missions, perform new science, and reduce mission costs.Elicitation and expression of autonomy requirements is one of the most significant challenges the autonomous spacecraft engineers need to overcome today. This book discusses the Autonomy Requirements Eng

  13. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  14. The VSOP-2 Space VLBI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Murphy, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission, VSOP-2, is currently being planned. Higher observing frequencies, cooled receivers, increased bandwidths and larger telescope diameters will result in gains in resolution and interferometer sensitivity by factors of 10 over the VSOP mission. The use of phase-referencing by fast switching between a calibrator source and the target source is now being studied as this technique allows sources 50-150 times weaker to be observed depending on the frequency band. Such a capability would greatly enhance the VSOP-2 mission. Several other enhancements to the VSOP-2 mission are also presently under investigation including the VSOP-2 spacecraft operating at the same time as a US spacecraft to form what has come to be known as the iARISE (international ARISE) mission.

  15. Stellar hydrodynamics caught in the act: Asteroseismology with CoRoT and Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Thompson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Asteroseismic investigations, particularly based on data on stellar oscillations from the CoRoT and Kepler space missions, are providing unique possibilities for investigating the properties of stellar interiors. This constitutes entirely new ways to study the effects of dynamic phenomena on stel...... obtained from such investigations, across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram....

  16. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  17. Limits to the presence of transiting circumbinary planets in CoRoT data

    CERN Document Server

    Klagyivik, P; Cabrera, J; Csizmadia, Sz; Almenara, J M

    2016-01-01

    The CoRoT mission during its flight-phase 2007-2012 delivered the light-curves for over 2000 eclipsing binaries. Data from the Kepler mission have proven the existence of several transiting circumbinary planets. Albeit light-curves from CoRoT have typically lower precision and shorter coverage, CoRoT's number of targets is similar to Kepler, and some of the known circumbinary planets could potentially be detected in CoRoT data as well. The aim of this work has been a revision of the entire CoRoT data-set for the presence of circumbinary planets, and the derivation of limits to the abundances of such planets. We developed a code which removes the light curve of the eclipsing binaries and searches for quasi-periodic transit-like features in a light curve after removal of binary eclipses and instrumental features. The code needs little information on the sample systems and can be used for other space missions as well, like Kepler, K2, TESS and PLATO. The code is broad in the requirements leading to detections, b...

  18. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  19. Advanced power sources for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  20. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  1. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  2. Periodic variable stars in CoRoT field LRa02 observed with BEST II

    CERN Document Server

    Kabath, P; Rauer, H; Pasternacki, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M; Fruth, T; Titz, R; Eigmueller, P

    2009-01-01

    The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) is a small wide field-of-view photometric survey telescope system located at the Observatorio Cerro Armazones, Chile. The high duty cycle combined with excellent observing conditions and millimagnitude photometric precision makes this instrument suitable for ground based support observations for the CoRoT space mission. Photometric data of the CoRoT LRa02 target field collected between November 2008 and March 2009 were analysed for stellar variability. The presented results will help in the future analysis of the CoRoT data, particularly in additional science programs related to variable stars. BEST II observes selected CoRoT target fields ahead of the space mission. The photometric data acquired are searched for stellar variability, periodic variable stars are identified with time series analysis of the obtained stellar light curves. We obtained the light curves of 104335 stars in the CoRoT LRa02 field over 41 nights. Variability was detected in light curves...

  3. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  4. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states over a wide range of parameter space. We find two distinct regions of instability: one related to the buildup and release of mass in the disc outside corotation, and the other to mass storage with...

  5. Multiple Space Debris Collecting Mission -- Optimal Mission Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, Max

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of planning successive Space Debris Collecting missions so that they can be achieved at minimal cost by a generic vehicle. The problem mixes combinatorial optimization to select and order the debris among a list of candidates, and continuous optimization to fix the rendezvous dates and to define the minimum fuel orbital maneuvers. The solution method proposed consists in three stages. Firstly the orbital transfer problem is simplified by considering a generic transfer strategy suited either to a high thrust or a low thrust vehicle. A response surface modelling is built by solving the reduced problem for all pairs of debris and for discretized dates, and storing the results in cost matrices. Secondly a simulated annealing algorithm is applied to find the optimal mission planning. The cost function is assessed by interpolation on the response surface based on the cost matrices. This allows the convergence of the simulated algorithm in a limited computation time, yielding an opti...

  6. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, I.; Carvalho, C. S.; Dinis, J.; Scaramella, R.; Amiaux, J.; Burigana, C.; Cuillandre, J. C.; da Silva, A.; Derosa, A.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Oliveira, D.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gomez-Alvarez, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Wachter, S.; Wachter

    2014-05-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  7. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tereno, I; Dinis, J; Scaramella, R; Amiaux, J; Burigana, C; Cuillandre, J C; da Silva, A; Derosa, A; Maiorano, E; Maris, M; Oliveira, D; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gomez-Alvarez, P; Meneghetti, M; Wachter, S

    2015-01-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  8. Characterization of CoRoT target fields with BEST: Identification of periodic variable stars in the IR01 field

    CERN Document Server

    Kabath, P; Erikson, A; Hedelt, P; Rauer, H; Titz, R; Wiese, T; 10.1086/521554

    2009-01-01

    We report on observations of the CoRoT IR01 field with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST). BEST is a small aperture telescope with a wide field of view (FOV). It is dedicated to search for variable stars within the target fields of the CoRoT space mission to aid in minimizing false-alarm rates and identify potential targets for additional science. CoRoT's observational programm started in February 2007 with the "initial run" field (IR01) observed for about two months. BEST observed this field for 12 nights spread over three months in winter 2006. From the total of 30426 stars observed in the IR01 field 3769 were marked as suspected variable stars and 54 from them showed clear periodicity. From these 19 periodic stars are within the part of the CoRoT FOV covered in our data set.

  9. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CoRoT observation log (N2-4.4) (CoRoT 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    COROT Team

    CoRoT, a space astronomy mission, has measured photometric micro-variability of stars from minutes to months (up to 150 days) with a high duty cycle (more than 90%). The mission was led by CNES in association with four French laboratories and 7 participating countries and agencies (Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the ESA Science Programme). The satellite was composed of a PROTEUS platform (the 3rd in the series) and a unique instrument: a stellar rapid photometer. It was launched on December 27th 2006 by a Soyuz Rocket, from Baikonour. The mission has lasted almost 6 years (the nominal 3-year duration and a 3-year extension) and has observed more than 160 000 stars. It stopped sending data on November 2nd 2012. Two regions of the sky were accessible for long period of time: circles of 10 degrees centered on the equator around alpha=06:50 and alpha=18:50. They were called the CoRoT eyes: the "anticenter" and the "center eye" (as they are approximately in these directions). Each pointing covers 1.4x2.8 square degrees within one of those CoRoT eyes. The original scientific objectives were focussed on the study of stellar pulsations (asteroseismology) to probe the internal structure of stars, and the detection of small exoplanets through their "transit" in front of their host star, and the measurement of their size. This lead to introduce two modes of observations, working simultaneously: - The "bright star" mode dedicated to very precise seismology of a small sample of bright and closeby stars - The "faint star" mode, observing a very large number of stars at the same time, to detect transits, which are rare events, as they imply the alignment of the star, the planet and the observer. The large amount of data gathered in this mode turned out to be extremely fruitful for many topics of stellar physics. Beyond these two initial objectives, CoRoT data revealed stellar variability associated with various other phenomena: granulation, rotational modulation by

  11. Reusable space tug concept and mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a space tug to be used in support to Earth satellites transfer manoeuvres. Usually Earth satellites are released in a non-definitive low orbit, depending on the adopted launcher, and they need to be equipped with an adequate propulsion system able to perform the transfer to their final operational location. In order to reduce the mass at launch of the satellite system, an element pre-deployed on orbit, i.e. the space tug, can be exploited to perform the transfer manoeuvres; this allows simplifying the propulsion requirements for the satellite, with a consequent decrease of mass and volume, in favour of larger payloads. The space tug here presented is conceived to be used for the transfer of a few satellites from low to high orbits, and vice versa, if needed. To support these manoeuvres, dedicated refuelling operations are envisaged. The paper starts from on overview of the mission scenario, the concept of operations and the related architecture elements. Then it focuses on the detailed definition of the space tug, from the requirements' assessment up to the budgets' development, through an iterative and recursive design process. The overall mission scenario has been derived from a set of trade-off analyses that have been performed to choose the mission architecture and operations that better satisfy stakeholder expectations: the most important features of these analyses and their results are described within the paper. Eventually, in the last part of the work main conclusions are drawn on the selected mission scenario and space tug and further utilizations of this innovative system in the frame of future space exploration are discussed. Specifically, an enhanced version of the space tug that has been described in the paper could be used to support on orbit assembly of large spacecraft for distant and long exploration missions. The Space Tug development is an activity carried on in the frame of the SAPERE project (Space

  12. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  13. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  14. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Alan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  15. A Space Weather Mission Concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Strugarek, Antoine; Lee, Arrow; Löschl, Philipp; Seifert, Bernhard; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Kraaikamp, Emil; Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Philippe, Thomas; Spina, Sheila; Bröse, Malte; Massahi, Sonny; O'Halloran, Liam; Blanco, Victor Pereira; Stausland, Christoffer; Escoubet, Philippe; Kargl, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1~AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68$^{\\circ}$ to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We ...

  16. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  17. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  18. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  19. High-precision CoRoT space photometry and fundamental parameter determination of the B2.5V star HD 48977

    CERN Document Server

    Thoul, Anne; Catala, Claude; Aerts, Conny; Morel, Thierry; Briquet, Maryline; Hillen, Michel; Raskin, Gert; Van Winckel, Hans; Auvergne, Michel; Baglin, Annie; Baudin, Frédéric; Michel, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We present the CoRoT light curve of the bright B2.5V star HD 48977 observed during a short run of the mission in 2008, as well as a high-resolution spectrum gathered with the HERMES spectrograph at the Mercator telescope. We use several time series analysis tools to explore the nature of the variations present in the light curve. We perform a detailed analysis of the spectrum of the star to determine its fundamental parameters and its element abundances. We find a large number of high-order g-modes, and one rotationally induced frequency. We find stable low-amplitude frequencies in the p-mode regime as well. We conclude that HD 48977 is a new Slowly Pulsating B star with fundamental parameters found to be Teff = 20000 $\\pm$ 1000 K and log(g)=4.2 $/pm$ 0.1. The element abundances are similar to those found for other B stars in the solar neighbourhood. HD 48977 was observed during a short run of the CoRoT satellite implying that the frequency precision is insufficient to perform asteroseismic modelling of the s...

  20. Antimatter Driven Sail for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Jackson, Gerald P.

    2005-02-01

    The concept of the Antimatter Driven Sail (ADS) has been examined in three major areas: Mission Architecture, Subsystem Technologies, and a Technology Roadmap. The Mission Architecture effort has focused on developing an integrated systems model to evaluate the performance of the entire spacecraft for a mission. The Subsystem Technologies investigation examined 1) the fundamental reactions between the antiprotons and the sail material and the subsequent momentum transfer, 2) a concept for storing antihydrogen at high densities, and 3) an entirely new concept for electrical power production. The new electrical-power concept may have applicability to nearer-term space missions as a power supply if the availability of antiprotons becomes common. In developing the Technology Roadmap, we examined the potential 1) for using recent developments in antiproton storage and antihydrogen formation to create a path to ultra-high density antihydrogen storage, and 2) for increasing production of antiprotons by modifying the existing Fermilab facility. Our system analysis indicates that a 10 kg instrument pay load could be sent to 250 AU in 10 years using 30 milligrams of antihydrogen. This amount of antimatter is clearly within the production potential of the US within the next 40 years using currently accepted accelerator technologies. Major aspects of the architecture remain to be investigated but the first-cut assessment of the mission profile, the subsystem technologies, and the technology development path have all been identified. The antimatter driven sail may in-fact allow humanity to consider sending probes to the stars.

  1. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  2. Study of HD 169392A observed by CoRoT and HARPS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, S; Catala, C; Benomar, O; Davies, G R; Garcia, R A; Salabert, D; Ballot, J; Mosser, B; Regulo, C; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Mantegazza, L; Michel, E; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Roxburgh, I W; Samadi, R; Steslicki, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Verner, G A; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Forteza, S Barcelo; Baudin, F; Cortes, T Roca

    2012-01-01

    The numerous results obtained with asteroseismology thanks to space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler are providing a new insight on stellar evolution. After five years of observations, CoRoT is going on providing high-quality data. We present here the analysis of the double star HD169392 complemented by ground-based spectroscopic observations. This work aims at characterizing the fundamental parameters of the two stars, their chemical composition, the acoustic-mode global parameters including their individual frequencies, and their dynamics. We have analysed HARPS observations of the two stars to retrieve their chemical compositions. Several methods have been used and compared to measure the global properties of acoustic modes and their individual frequencies from the photometric data of CoRoT. The new spectroscopic observations and archival astrometric values suggest that HD169392 is a wide binary system weakly bounded. We have obtained the spectroscopic parameters for both components, suggesting the origin...

  3. Radial velocity follow-up of CoRoT transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleuil M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results from the radial-velocity follow-up program performed to establish the planetary nature and to characterize the transiting candidates discovered by the space mission CoRoT. We use the SOPHIE at OHP, HARPS at ESO and the HIRES at Keck spectrographs to collect spectra and high-precision radial velocity (RV measurements for several dozens different candidates from CoRoT. We have measured the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of several confirmed planets, especially CoRoT-1b which revealed that it is another highly inclined system. Such high-precision RV data are necessary for the discovery of new transiting planets. Furthermore, several low mass planet candidates have emerged from our Keck and HARPS data.

  4. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  5. New Space at Airbus Defence & Space to facilitate science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boithias, Helene; Benchetrit, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    In addition to Airbus legacy activities, where Airbus satellites usually enable challenging science missions such as Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta with an historic landing on a comet, Bepi Colombo mission to Mercury and JUICE to orbit around Jupiter moon Ganymede, Swarm studying the Earth magnetic field, Goce to measure the Earth gravitational field and Cryosat to monitor the Earth polar ice, Airbus is now developing a new approach to facilitate next generation missions.After more than 25 years of collaboration with the scientists on space missions, Airbus has demonstrated its capacity to implement highly demanding missions implying a deep understanding of the science mission requirements and their intrinsic constraints such as- a very fierce competition between the scientific communities,- the pursuit of high maturity for the science instrument in order to be selected,- the very strict institutional budget limiting the number of operational missions.As a matter of fact, the combination of these constraints may lead to the cancellation of valuable missions.Based on that and inspired by the New Space trend, Airbus is developing an highly accessible concept called HYPE.The objective of HYPE is to make access to Space much more simple, affordable and efficient.With a standardized approach, the scientist books only the capacities he needs among the resources available on-board, as the HYPE satellites can host a large range of payloads from 1kg up to 60kg.At prices significantly more affordable than those of comparable dedicated satellite, HYPE is by far a very cost-efficient way of bringing science missions to life.After the launch, the scientist enjoys a plug-and-play access to two-way communications with his instrument through a secure high-speed portal available online 24/7.Everything else is taken care of by Airbus: launch services and the associated risk, reliable power supply, setting up and operating the communication channels, respect of space law

  6. Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

  7. Target Analysis for the Twinkle Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Malena; Tinetti, Giovanna; Zingales, Tiziano; Twinkle Consortium

    2016-10-01

    Twinkle is a dedicated exoplanet space mission planned for launch in 2019 to observe and characterize the atmospheres of planets around F, G, K, and M type stars. By obtaining high-resolution near-infrared transit spectra (0.5 – 4.5 microns), Twinkle will identify molecules of interest within planetary atmospheres. Twinkle will provide critical data for the characterization of individual exoplanets, leading to an improved understanding of planetary systems as a whole. In this study, we provide an analysis of potential targets for the Twinkle space mission, and we find that the spacecraft will be capable of observing a wide range of planet types, including Earths, Super Earths, Sub Neptunes, Large Neptunes, and Hot Jupiters. We discuss the population distribution of observable targets in terms of planet temperature and radius, host star temperature, and observation time necessary to achieve the desired signal-to-noise ratios. We also include sample Twinkle spectra from a simulated data set, as well as an example retrieval using the TauRex program to retrieve molecules in these simulated spectra. We conclude with a discussion of these results and their implications for the Twinkle mission.

  8. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  9. Ultralightweight PV Array Materials for Deep Space Mission Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photovoltaic arrays for future deep space NASA missions demand multiple functionalities. They must efficiently generate electrical power, have very large areas and...

  10. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  11. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  12. Spreadsheets for Analyzing and Optimizing Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Raphael R.; Agrawal, Anil K.; Czikmantory, Akos J.; Weisbin, Charles R.; Hua, Hook; Neff, Jon M.; Cowdin, Mark A.; Lewis, Brian S.; Iroz, Juana; Ross, Rick

    2009-01-01

    XCALIBR (XML Capability Analysis LIBRary) is a set of Extensible Markup Language (XML) database and spreadsheet- based analysis software tools designed to assist in technology-return-on-investment analysis and optimization of technology portfolios pertaining to outer-space missions. XCALIBR is also being examined for use in planning, tracking, and documentation of projects. An XCALIBR database contains information on mission requirements and technological capabilities, which are related by use of an XML taxonomy. XCALIBR incorporates a standardized interface for exporting data and analysis templates to an Excel spreadsheet. Unique features of XCALIBR include the following: It is inherently hierarchical by virtue of its XML basis. The XML taxonomy codifies a comprehensive data structure and data dictionary that includes performance metrics for spacecraft, sensors, and spacecraft systems other than sensors. The taxonomy contains >700 nodes representing all levels, from system through subsystem to individual parts. All entries are searchable and machine readable. There is an intuitive Web-based user interface. The software automatically matches technologies to mission requirements. The software automatically generates, and makes the required entries in, an Excel return-on-investment analysis software tool. The results of an analysis are presented in both tabular and graphical displays.

  13. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  14. Identification of Variable Stars in COROT's First Main Observing Field (LRc1)

    CERN Document Server

    Karoff, C; Erikson, A; Voss, H; Kabath, P; Wiese, T; Deleuil, M; Moutou, C; Meunier, J C; Deeg, H; 10.1086/519524

    2009-01-01

    The COROT space mission will monitor several target fields for up to 150 days to perform asteroseismology and to search for extrasolar planets by photometric transits. Variable stars in the target fields are important objects for additional scientific studies but can also disturb the search for planetary transits. A variability characterization of the target fields prior to COROT observations is therefore important for two reasons: to find interesting variable stars to monitor further and to make an analysis of the impact of the variable stars on detecting extrasolar planet transits with COROT. The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST) is a small wide-angle telescope dedicated to high-precision photometry. It has observed a 9 square degree field of view centered at (alpha, delta)=(19h00m00.0s, +00deg01'55.2") (J2000.0) over 98 nights to search for variable stars in the surroundings of the first long-run target field (LRc1) of the COROT space mission. In this data set we identified 92 periodic variable star...

  15. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  16. Space-time Dynamics Estimation from Space Mission Tracking Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic; Visser, Pieter; Gurvits, Leonid; Vermeersen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of (interplanetary) transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, requiring a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. We develop a framework for the simultaneous estimation of the initial translational state and the initial proper time of an observer, with the goal of facilitating robust tracking data analysis from next-generation space missions carrying highly accurate clocks and tracking equipment. Using our approach, the influence of physical parameters on both translational and time dynamics are considered at the same level in the analysis, and mutual co...

  17. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  18. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  19. Exoplanet Searches by Future Deep Space Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccone C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for exoplanets could benefit from gravitational lensing if we could get to 550 AU from the Sun and beyond. This is because the gravitational lens of the Sun would highly intensify there any weak electromagnetic wave reaching the solar system from distant planets in the Galaxy (see Maccone 2009. The gravitational lens of the Sun, however, has a drawback: the solar Corona. Electrons in the Corona make electromagnetic waves diverge and this pushes the focus out to distances higher than 550 AU. Jupiter is the second larger mass in the solar system after the Sun, but in this focal game not only the mass matters: rather, what really matters is the ratio between the radius of the body squared and the mass of the body. In this regard, Jupiter qualifies as the second best choice for a space mission, requiring the spacecraft to reach 6,077 AU. In this paper, we study the benefit of exoplanet searches by deep space missions.

  20. Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Joel Michael

    Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical

  1. Space-time dynamics estimation from space mission tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, and will require a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. Methods: We develop a framework for the simultaneous estimation of the initial translational state and the initial proper time of an observer, with the goal of facilitating robust tracking data analysis from next-generation space missions carrying highly accurate clocks and tracking equipment. Using our approach, the influence of physical parameters on both translational and time dynamics are considered at the same level in the analysis, and mutual correlations between the signatures of the two are automatically identified. We perform a covariance analysis using our proposed method with simulated laser data from Earth-based stations to both a Mars and Mercury lander. Results: Using four years of tracking data for the Mars lander simulations, we find a difference between our results using the simultaneous space-time dynamics estimation and the classical analysis technique (with an a priori time ephemeris) of around 0.1% in formal errors and correlation coefficients. For a Mercury lander this rises to around 1% for a one-month mission and 10% for a four-year mission. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we find that using an a priori time ephemeris of representative accuracy will result in estimation errors that are orders of magnitude above the formal error when processing highly accurate laser time transfer data.

  2. CubeSat Capabilities for Space Science Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat Capabilities for Space Science Missions combines science and engineering talent at Goddard Space Flight Center and the Wallops Flight Facility to...

  3. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  4. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  5. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  6. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strugarek Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68° to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR.

  7. An asteroseismic study of the O9V star HD 46202 from CoRoT space-based photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; Baglin, A; Nieva, M F; Degroote, P; Przybilla, N; Noels, A; Schiller, F; Vuckovic, M; Oreiro, R; Smolders, K; Auvergne, M; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2011-01-01

    The O9V star HD 46202, which is a member of the young open cluster NGC 2244, was observed by the CoRoT satellite in October/November 2008 during a short run of 34 days. From the very high-precision light curve, we clearly detect beta Cep-like pulsation frequencies with amplitudes of ~0.1 mmag and below. A comparison with stellar models was performed using a chi^2 as a measure for the goodness-of-fit between the observed and theoretically computed frequencies. The physical parameters of our best-fitting models are compatible with the ones deduced spectroscopically. A core overshooting parameter alpha_ov = 0.10 +- 0.05 pressure scale height is required. None of the observed frequencies are theoretically excited with the input physics used in our study. More theoretical work is thus needed to overcome this shortcoming in how we understand the excitation mechanism of pulsation modes in such a massive star. A similar excitation problem has also been encountered for certain pulsation modes in beta Cep stars recentl...

  8. The study of Be stars with the CoRoT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, P. D.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Fabregat, J.; Suso, J.; COROT Be Team

    2011-11-01

    The CoRoT space mission, launched in December 2006, is a spacecraft devoted to the study of the stellar interiors and the exo-planet search. Concerning the seismology of the Be stars, the presence of pulsations in late-type Be stars is still a matter of controversy. It constitutes an important issue to establish the relationship between non-radial pulsations and the mass-loss mechanism in Be stars. In this field, the CoRoT satellite is providing data with an unprecedent quality and precision that is confirming non-radial pulsations in Be stars. The CoRoT Be Team is an international collaboration composed by members from France, Spain, Brazil and Belgium and is in charge of the exploitation and analysis of the Be stars data. In this work we present the highlighted results of the observed Be stars by CoRoT and the future prospects of the CoRoT Be Team. These results include the detection of the Be star HD 49 330 during an outburst phase and the measurement of the change in the oscillation spectrum during this rare event. These observations gave insight into the nature of the explosion. It will help to solve a question that has been pending for years: are oscillations the cause of the outbursts? Moreover, for the first time, the CoRoT satellite has detected simultaneously the rotational and the pulsational frequencies for the Be star HD 50 209, which constitutes a proof of the presence of pulsations in the Be stars. %J Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI, Proceedings of the IX Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), held in Madrid, September 13 - 17, 2010, Eds.: M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. Gorgas, J. Maiz Apellaniz, J. R. Pardo, and A. Gil de Paz., p. 531-531

  9. The CoRoT B-type binary HD50230: a prototypical hybrid pulsator with g-mode period and p-mode frequency spacings

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, P; Michel, E; Briquet, M; Pápics, P I; Amado, P; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Lombaert, R; Hillen, M; Morel, T; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Samadi, R

    2012-01-01

    B-type stars are promising targets for asteroseismic modelling, since their frequency spectrum is relatively simple. We deduce and summarise observational constraints for the hybrid pulsator, HD50230, earlier reported to have deviations from a uniform period spacing of its gravity modes. The combination of spectra and a high-quality light curve measured by the CoRoT satellite allow a combined approach to fix the position of HD50230 in the HR diagram. To describe the observed pulsations, classical Fourier analysis was combined with short-time Fourier transformations and frequency spacing analysis techniques. Visual spectra were used to constrain the projected rotation rate of the star and the fundamental parameters of the target. In a first approximation, the combined information was used to interpret multiplets and spacings to infer the true surface rotation rate and a rough estimate of the inclination angle. We identify HD50230 as a spectroscopic binary and characterise the two components. We detect the simu...

  10. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  11. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  12. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  13. Results from the Deep Space One Technology Validation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, M.; Varghese, P.; Lehman, D.; Livesay, L.

    1999-01-01

    Launched on October 25, 1998, Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium Program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, new technologies important for future space and Earth science programs.

  14. Critical Need for Radiation Damage Tools for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram

    2005-04-01

    NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA, as much as ever, is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is `the show stopper.' Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance for the new vision. There is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for the mission and the habitat. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on the accuracy of the input information about the interaction of ions with materials, electronics and tissues. A huge amount of essential experimental information for all the ions in space, across the periodic table, for a wide range of energies of several (up to a Trillion) orders of magnitude are needed for the radiation protection engineering for space missions that is simply not available (due to the high costs) and probably never will be. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop reliable accurate models of nuclear reactions and structures that form the basic input ingredients. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, however a considerable number of tools need to be developed to alleviate the situation. The vital role and importance of nuclear physics for space missions will be discussed.

  15. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...

  16. The LAEX and NASA portals for CoRoT public data

    CERN Document Server

    Solano, E; Velasco, A; Ciardi, D R; Gutíerrez, R; McElroy, D L; López, M; Abajian, M; García, M; Ali, B; Sarro, L M; Berriman, G B; Bryden, G; Chan, B; Good, J; Kane, S R; Laity, A C; Lau, C; Payne, A N; Plavchan, P; Ramírez, S; Schmitz, M; Stauffer, J R; Wyatt, P L; Zhang, A

    2009-01-01

    * Aims. We describe here the main functionalities of the LAEX (Laboratorio de Astrofisica Estelar y Exoplanetas/Laboratory for Stellar Astrophysics and Exoplanets) and NASA portals for CoRoT Public Data. The CoRoT archive at LAEX was opened to the community in January 2009 and is managed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory. NStED (NASA Star and Exoplanet Database) serves as the CoRoT portal for the US astronomical community. NStED is a general purpose stellar and exoplanet archive with the aim of providing support for NASA planet finding and characterisation goals, and the planning and support of NASA and other space missions. CoRoT data at LAEX and NStED can be accessed at http://sdc.laeff.inta.es/corotfa/ and http://nsted.ipac.caltech.edu,respectively. * Methods. Based on considerable experience with astronomical archives, the aforementioned archives are designed with the aim of delivering science-quality data in a simple and efficient way. * Results. LAEX and NStED not only provide access t...

  17. Planetary transit candidates in the CoRoT LRa01 field

    CERN Document Server

    Carone, L; Cabrera, J; Hatzes, A P; Deeg, H J; Csizmadia, Sz; Paetzold, M; Weingrill, J; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Alapini, A; Almenara, J -M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Carpano, S; Cochran, W D; Deleuil, M; Díaz, R F; Dreizler, S; Dvorak, R; Eisloeffel, J; Eigmueller, P; Endl, M; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gazzano, J -C; Gibson, N; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Grziwa, S; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Hartmann, M; Havel, M; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Kabath, P; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; MacQueen, P J; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Nortmann, L; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Parviainen, H; Pepe, F; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rabus, M; Rauer, H; Régulo, C; Renner, S; de la Reza, R; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Shporer, A; Stecklum, B; Tal-Or, L; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission whose primary goals are stellar seismology and extrasolar planets search. Its surveys of large stellar fields generate numerous planetary candidates whose lightcurves have transit-like features. An extensive analytical and observational follow-up effort is undertaken to classify these candidates. Aims: The list of planetary transit candidates from the CoRoT LRa01 star field in the Monoceros constellation towards the Galactic anti-center is presented. The CoRoT observations of LRa01 lasted from 24 October 2007 to 3 March 2008. Methods: 7470 chromatic and 3938 monochromatic lightcurves were acquired and analysed. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were treated with several filtering tools by different teams from the CoRoT community. Different transit search algorithms were applied to the lightcurves. Results: Fifty-one stars were classified as planetary transit candidates in LRa01. Thirty-seven (i.e., 73 % of all candidates) are "good" planetary candidates ba...

  18. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  19. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Overview of RICOR tactical cryogenic refrigerators for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Livni, Dorit; Regev, Itai; Segal, Victor; Gover, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic refrigerators represent a significant enabling technology for Earth and Space science enterprises. Many of the space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to enable the use of advanced detectors to explore a wide range of phenomena from space. RICOR refrigerators involved in various space missions are overviewed in this paper, starting in 1994 with "Clementine" Moon mission, till the latest ExoMars mission launched in 2016. RICOR tactical rotary refrigerators have been incorporated in many space instruments, after passing qualification, life time, thermal management testing and flight acceptance. The tactical to space customization framework includes an extensive characterization and qualification test program to validate reliability, the design of thermal interfacing with a detector, vibration export control, efficient heat dissipation in a vacuum environment, robustness, mounting design, compliance with outgassing requirements and strict performance screening. Current RICOR development is focused on dedicated ultra-long-life, highly reliable, space cryogenic refrigerator based on a Pulse Tube design

  1. Ares V an Enabling Capability for Future Space Astrophysics Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

  2. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to extend current ground-based Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool to more effectively...

  3. Flight Opportunities: Space Technology Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Flight Opportunities enables maturation of new space technologies by funding access to commercially available space-relevant test environments. The program also supports capability development in the commercial suborbital and orbital small satellite launcher markets.

  4. Derivation of the parameters of CoRoT planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We explore the influence that limb darkening and stellar activity have in the determination of planetary parameters, highlighting the impact that they have in space-based surveys, such as CoRoT.

  5. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory Super Pressure Balloon Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Olinto, Angela; Adams, Jim; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB) mission will make the first fluorescence observations of high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers by looking down on the atmosphere from near space. A long duration flight of at least 50 nights launched from Wanaka NZ is planned for 2017. We describe completed instrument, and the planned mission. We acknowledge the support of NASA through grants NNX13AH53G and NNX13AH55G.

  6. Exposure-based Algorithm for Removing Systematics out of the CoRoT Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Guterman, P; Faigler, S

    2015-01-01

    The CoRoT space mission was operating for almost 6 years, producing thousands of continuous photometric light curves. The temporal series of exposures are processed by the production pipeline, correcting the data for known instrumental effects. But even after these model-based corrections, some collective trends are still visible in the light curves. We propose here a simple exposure-based algorithm to remove instrumental effects. The effect of each exposure is a function of only two instrumental stellar parameters, position on the CCD and photometric aperture. The effect is not a function of the stellar flux, and therefore much more robust. As an example, we show that the $\\sim2\\%$ long-term variation of the early run LRc01 is nicely detrended on average. This systematics removal process is part of the CoRoT legacy data pipeline.

  7. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  8. Potential anesthesia protocols for space exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Watkins, Sharmila D; Lebuffe, Gilles; Clark, Jonathan B

    2013-03-01

    In spaceflight beyond low Earth's orbit, medical conditions requiring surgery are of a high level of concern because of their potential impact on crew health and mission success. Whereas surgical techniques have been thoroughly studied in spaceflight analogues, the research focusing on anesthesia is limited. To provide safe anesthesia during an exploration mission will be a highly challenging task. The research objective is thus to describe specific anesthesia procedures enabling treatment of pre-identified surgical conditions. Among the medical conditions considered by the NASA Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability element, those potentially necessitating anesthesia techniques have been identified. The most appropriate procedure for each condition is thoroughly discussed. The substantial cost of training time necessary to implement regional anesthesia is pointed out. Within general anesthetics, ketamine combines the unique advantages of preservation of cardiovascular stability, the protective airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Ketamine side effects have for decades tempered enthusiasm for its use, but recent developments in mitigation means broadened its indications. The extensive experience gathered in remote environments, with minimal equipment and occasionally by insufficiently trained care providers, confirms its high degree of safety. Two ketamine-based anesthesia protocols are described with their corresponding indications. They have been designed taking into account the physiological changes occurring in microgravity and the specific constraints of exploration missions. This investigation could not only improve surgical care during long-duration spaceflights, but may find a number of terrestrial applications in isolated or austere environments.

  9. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  10. Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

    Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

  11. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  12. Limits to the presence of transiting circumbinary planets in CoRoT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagyivik, P.; Deeg, H. J.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Almenara, J. M.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: During its flight phase, from 2007-2012, the CoRoT mission delivered light curves for over 2000 eclipsing binaries. Data from the Kepler mission have proven the existence of several transiting circumbinary planets. While light curves from CoRoT typically have lower precision and shorter coverage, the number of CoRoT targets is similar to that of Kepler and some of the known circumbinary planets could potentially be detected in CoRoT data as well. The aim of this work was to reanalyse the entire CoRoT Data set to search for the presence of circumbinary planets and to derive limits on the abundances of such planets. Methods: We developed a code that removes the signatures of eclipsing binaries from the light curves, and searches for quasi-periodic, transit-like features in the light curves after removal of binary eclipses and instrumental features. The code requires little information on sample systems and can also be used for other space missions, such as Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLATO. The code is broad in the requirements leading to detections, but was tuned to deliver an amount of detections that are manageable in a subsequent, mainly visual, assessment of their origin. Results: We identified three planet candidates in the CoRoT sample whose transits would have arisen from a single pass across the central binary; however, no candidates with transit events from multiple planetary orbits remained. We calculated the upper limits for the number of Jupiter, Saturn-, and Neptune-sized planets in co-planar orbits for different orbital period ranges. We found that there are much fewer giant planets in short periodic orbits around close binary systems than around single stars. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A117

  13. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  14. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Telepresence sessions between the crew, family members and medical doctors require visual and acoustic privacy.  This environment is best achieved in the...

  15. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  16. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  17. Precision Laser Development for Gravitational Wave Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, such as the gravitational-wave mission LISA, and GRACE follow-on, by fully utilizing the mature wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where a simple and reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Non-planar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier, which are widely used for sensitive laser applications on the ground.

  18. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  19. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  20. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-07-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  1. Timeline based autonomous mission planning system for deep space exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞; 崔平远; 徐晓飞; 崔祜涛; 栾恩杰

    2004-01-01

    In order to realize the explorer autonomy, the software architecture of autonomous mission management system (AMMS) is given for the deep space explorer, and the autonomous mission planning system, the kernel part of this architecture, is designed in detail. In order to describe the parallel activity, the state timeline is introduced to build the formal model of the planning system and based on this model, the temporal constraint satisfaction planning algorithm is proposed to produce the explorer's activity sequence. With some key subsystems of the deep space explorer as examples, the autonomous mission planning simulation system is designed.The results show that this system can calculate the executable activity sequence with the given mission goals and initial state of the explorer.

  2. Major Breakthroughs In Shenzhou 7 Manned Space Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2008-01-01

    @@ The complete success of the Shenzhou 7 manned space mission has realized significant progress in the development of China's space technology, making China the third country capable of carrying out extravehicular activities (EVA),independently, following the forhaer Soviet Union and the United States.Recently Aerospace China interviewed Mr. Ma Xingrui, Vice Chief Commander of China's Manned Space Program and President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC).

  3. Heritage Systems Engineering Lessons from NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for all five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to be the result of technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the systemwide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications

  4. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  5. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  6. Radiation effects on microelectronics and future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeffrey D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the three basic radiation effect mechanisms, and how they interrupt the functionality of currently available non-volatile memory technologies. This paper also presents a very general overview of the radiation environments expected in future space exploration missions. Unfortunately, these environments will be very harsh, from a radiation standpoint, and thus a significant effort is required to develop non-volatile technologies that will meet future mission requirements.

  7. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  8. A search for circumbinary planets in CoRoT eclipsing binary light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klagyivik Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several transiting circumbinary planets have been found in data of the Kepler mission [1–5]. Both CoRoT and Kepler have surveyed similar numbers of stars, and the photometric precision of CoRoT is sufficient that it could detect most of the known circumbinary planets; the main draw-back by CoRoT is the much shorter coverage. Still, there is a high chance that some circumbinary planets may be found in its sample of eclipsing binaries (hereafter EBs. Here we report on an ongoing search for circumbinary planets in the full CoRoT data set.

  9. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  10. The CoRoT Exoplanet program: status & results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutou C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT satellite is the first instrument hunting for planets from space. We will review the status of the CoRoT/Exoplanet program. We will then present the CoRoT exoplanetary systems and how they widen the range of properties of the close-in population and contribute to our understanding of the properties of planets.

  11. Space missions to the exoplanets: Will they ever be possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, Giancarlo

    There is no doubt that the discovery of exoplanets has made interstellar space mission much more interesting than they were in the past. The possible discovery of a terrestrial type plane at a reasonable distance will give a strong impulse in this direction. However, there are doubts that such long range space mission will ever become feasible at all and, in case they will be, it is impossible to forecast a timeframe for them. At present, precursor interstellar missions are planned, but they fall way short from yielding interesting information about exoplanets, except perhaps in the case of missions to the focal line of the Sun’s gravitational lens, whose usefulness in this context is still to be demonstrated. They are anyway an essential step in the roadmap toward interstellar missions. Often the difficulties linked with interstellar missions are considered as related with the huge quantity of energy required for reaching the target star system within a reasonable timeframe. While this may well be a showstopper, it is not the only problem to be solved to make them possible. Two other issues are those linked with the probe’s autonomy and the telecommunications required to transmit large quantities of information at those distances. Missions to the exoplanets may be subdivided in the following categories: 1) robotic missions to the destination system, including flybys; 2) robotic missions including landing on an exoplanet; 3) robotic sample return missions; 4) human missions. The main problem to be solved for missions of type 1 is linked with propulsion and with energy availability, while autonomy (artificial intelligence) and telecommunication problems are more or less manageable with predictable technologies. Missions of type 2 are more demanding for what propulsion is concerned, but above all require a much larger artificial intelligence and also will generate a large amount of data, whose transmission back to Earth may become a problem. The suggestion of

  12. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  13. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  14. Plyades: A Python Library for Space Mission Design

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Plyades: A Python Library for Space Mission Design Designing a space mission is a computation-heavy task. Software tools that conduct the necessary numerical simulations and optimizations are therefore indispensable. The usability of existing software, written in Fortran and MATLAB, suffers because of high complexity, low levels of abstraction and out-dated programming practices. We propose Python as a viable alternative for astrodynamics tools and demonstrate the proof-of-concept library Plyades which combines powerful features with Pythonic ease of use.

  15. Characterization of CoRoT target fields with BEST: Identification of periodic variable stars in the LRa1 field

    CERN Document Server

    Kabath, P; Erikson, A; Hedelt, P; Von Paris, P; Rauer, H; Renner, S; Titz, R; Wiese, T

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on observations of the CoRoT LRa1 field with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST). The current paper is part of the series of papers describing the results of our stellar variability survey. BEST is a small aperture telescope with a wide field-of-view (FOV). It is dedicated to search for stellar variability within the target fields of the CoRoT space mission to aid in minimizing false-alarm rates and identify potential targets for additional science. The LRa1 field is CoRoT's third observed field and the second long run field located in the galactic anticenter direction. We observed the LRa1 stellar field on 23 nights between November and March 2005/2006. From 6099 stars marked as variable, 39 were classified as periodic variable stars and 27 of them are within the CoRoT FOV. We also confirmed the variability for 4 stars listed in GCVS catalog.

  16. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  17. Navigation of space VLBI missions: Radioastron and VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Russian and Japanese space agencies will each place into highly elliptic earth orbit a radio telescope consisting of a large antenna and radio astronomy receivers. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques will be used to obtain high resolution images of radio sources observed by the space and ground based antennas. Stringent navigation accuracy requirements are imposed on the space VLBI missions by the need to transfer an ultra-stable ground reference frequency standard to the spacecraft and by the demands of the VLBI correlation process. Orbit determination for the mission will be the joint responsibility of navigation centers in the U.S., Russia, and Japan with orbit estimates based on combining tracking data from NASA, Russian, and Japanese sites. This paper describes the operational plans, the inter-agency coordination, and data exchange between the navigation centers required for space VLBI navigation.

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  19. Composite Materials for Radiation Shielding During Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Watts, J.; Adams, J. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Minimizing radiation exposure from the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment during deep space missions is essential to human health and sensitive instrument survivability. Given the fabrication constraints of space transportation vehicles protective shielding is, consequently, a complicated materials issue. These concerns are presented and considered in view of some novel composite materials being developed/suggested for GCR shielding applications. Advantages and disadvantages of the composites will be discussed as well as the need for coordinated testing/evaluation and modeling efforts.

  20. Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500 km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100 MT payload into a 1500 km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10 MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space nuclear reactor technology are assumed. It is shown that nuclear electric ion propulsion offers more than twice the payload for the Mars mission relative to the case when a nuclear thermal rocket is used for the trans-Mars injection maneuver at Earth, and about the same payload advantage relative to the case when solar electric propulsion is used for the Mars heliocentric transfer. For missions to the outer planets nuclear electric ion propulsion increases the payload mass fraction by a factor of two or more compared with high thrust systems that utilize gravity assist trajectories.

  1. PUS Services Software Building Block Automatic Generation for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, S.; Sgaramella, F.; Mele, G.

    2008-08-01

    The Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) has been specified by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and issued as ECSS-E-70-41A to define the application-level interface between Ground Segments and Space Segments. The ECSS-E- 70-41A complements the ECSS-E-50 and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for packet telemetry and telecommand. The ECSS-E-70-41A characterizes the identified PUS Services from a functional point of view and the ECSS-E-70-31 standard specifies the rules for their mission-specific tailoring. The current on-board software design for a space mission implies the production of several PUS terminals, each providing a specific tailoring of the PUS services. The associated on-board software building blocks are developed independently, leading to very different design choices and implementations even when the mission tailoring requires very similar services (from the Ground operative perspective). In this scenario, the automatic production of the PUS services building blocks for a mission would be a way to optimize the overall mission economy and improve the robusteness and reliability of the on-board software and of the Ground-Space interactions. This paper presents the Space Software Italia (SSI) activities for the development of an integrated environment to support: the PUS services tailoring activity for a specific mission. the mission-specific PUS services configuration. the generation the UML model of the software building block implementing the mission-specific PUS services and the related source code, support documentation (software requirements, software architecture, test plans/procedures, operational manuals), and the TM/TC database. The paper deals with: (a) the project objectives, (b) the tailoring, configuration, and generation process, (c) the description of the environments supporting the process phases, (d) the characterization of the meta-model used for the generation, (e) the

  2. Satellite-On-A-Chip Feasibility for Distributed Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-10

    measure variations in magnetic fields 3 Copyright © 2006 ASME around a spacecraft, perform visual inspection of a spacecraft exterior for signs of damage...Table 5. SpaceChip System Specifications Simple low-resolution Earth observation mission, imagenative problem of low efficiency solar cells on

  3. Use of Concurrent Engineering in Space Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, S.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, conceptual-phase (proposal level) design of space missions has been improved considerably. Team structures, tool linkage, specialized facilities known as design centers and scripted processes have been demonstrated to cut proposal-level engineering design time from a few months to a few weeks.

  4. Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

  5. Orbital mechanics and astrodynamics techniques and tools for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Hintz, Gerald R

    2015-01-01

    This textbook covers fundamental and advanced topics in orbital mechanics and astrodynamics to expose the student to the basic dynamics of space flight. The engineers and graduate students who read this class-tested text will be able to apply their knowledge to mission design and navigation of space missions. Through highlighting basic, analytic and computer-based methods for designing interplanetary and orbital trajectories, this text provides excellent insight into astronautical techniques and tools. This book is ideal for graduate students in Astronautical or Aerospace Engineering and related fields of study, researchers in space industrial and governmental research and development facilities, as well as researchers in astronautics. This book also: ·       Illustrates all key concepts with examples ·       Includes exercises for each chapter ·       Explains concepts and engineering tools a student or experienced engineer can apply to mission design and navigation of space missions ·�...

  6. Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2008-04-01

    The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics.

  7. The variability behavior of CoRoT M-giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, C E Ferreira; Leão, I C; de Freitas, D B; Martins, B L Canto; da Costa, A D; Paz-Chinchón, F; Chagas, M L Das; Baglin, A; Janot-Pacheco, E; De Medeiros, J R

    2015-01-01

    For 6 years the Convection, Rotation, and Planetary Transits (CoRoT) space mission has acquired photometric data from more than one hundred thousand point sources towards and directly opposite from the inner and outer regions of the Galaxy. The high temporal resolution of the CoRoT data combined with the wide time span of the observations has enabled the study of short and long time variations in unprecedented detail. From the initial sample of 2534 stars classified as M-giants in the CoRoT databasis, we selected 1428 targets that exhibit well defined variability, using visual inspection. The variability period and amplitude of C1 stars (stars having Teff < 4200 K) were computed using Lomb-Scargle and harmonic fit methods. The trends found in the V-I vs J-K color-color diagram are in agreement with standard empirical calibrations for M-giants. The sources located towards the inner regions of the Galaxy are distributed throughout the diagram while the majority of the stars towards the outer regions of the G...

  8. Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis of space mission vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Viviani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an up-to-date view on the most important space vehicle configurations, this book contains detailed analyses for several different type of space mission profiles while considering important factors such as aerodynamic loads, aerodynamic heating, vehicle stability and landing characteristics. With that in mind, the authors provide a detailed overview on different state-of-the-art themes of hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, and consider different space vehicle shapes useful for different space mission objectives. These include: ·        Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) ·        Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) ·        Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) ·        Flying Test Bed (FTB). Throughout Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Space Mission Vehicles many examples are given, with detailed computations and results for the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of all such configurations. Moreover, a final chapter on future launchers is provided and an Appendix on...

  9. Cryogenic Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Candidate Materials for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, JIm; Canavan, Ed; Jahromi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Spacecraft and instruments on space missions are built using a wide variety of carefully-chosen materials. In addition to having mechanical properties appropriate for surviving the launch environment, these materials generally must have thermal conductivity values which meet specific requirements in their operating temperature ranges. Space missions commonly propose to include materials for which the thermal conductivity is not well known at cryogenic temperatures. We developed a test facility in 2004 at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to measure material thermal conductivity at temperatures between 4 and 300 Kelvin, and we have characterized many candidate materials since then. The measurement technique is not extremely complex, but proper care to details of the setup, data acquisition and data reduction is necessary for high precision and accuracy. We describe the thermal conductivity measurement process and present results for several materials.

  10. Dream missions space colonies, nuclear spacecraft and other possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a journey through the history of extremely ambitious, large and complex space missions that never happened. What were the dreams and expectations of the visionaries behind these plans, and why were they not successful in bringing their projects to reality thus far? As spaceflight development progressed, new technologies and ideas led to pushing the boundaries of engineering and technology though still grounded in real scientific possibilities. Examples are space colonies, nuclear-propelled interplanetary spacecraft, space telescopes consisting of multiple satellites and canon launch systems. Each project described in this book says something about the dreams and expectations of their time, and their demise was often linked to an important change in the cultural, political and social state of the world. For each mission or spacecraft concept, the following will be covered: • Description of the design. • Overview of the history of the concept and the people involved. • Why it...

  11. The Virtual Space Telescope: A New Class of Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Many science investigations proposed by GSFC require two spacecraft alignment across a long distance to form a virtual space telescope. Forming a Virtual Space telescope requires advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) enabling the distribution of monolithic telescopes across multiple space platforms. The capability to align multiple spacecraft to an intertial target is at a low maturity state and we present a roadmap to advance the system-level capability to be flight ready in preparation of various science applications. An engineering proof of concept, called the CANYVAL-X CubeSat MIssion is presented. CANYVAL-X's advancement will decrease risk for a potential starshade mission that would fly with WFIRST.

  12. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  13. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  14. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  15. [Style of communication between mission control centers and space crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iusupova, A K; Gushchin, V I; Shved, D M; Cheveleva, L M

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with a pilot investigation into the audio communication of cosmonauts with ground controllers. The purpose was to verify in space flight the patterns and trends revealed in model tests of intergroup communication, and to pinpoint the signature of multinational crew communication with 2 national mission control centers (MCCs). The investigation employed authors' content-analysis adapted to the scenario of long-duration mission. The investigation resulted in a phenomenon of double-loop ground-orbit communication, divergence, difference in opinion predictable from the concept formulated by G.T.Beregovoi. Also, there was a notable difference of expressions used by controllers of 2 MCCs.

  16. Future astrophysics space missions in gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik)

    1990-04-01

    An overview about presently approved space missions in gamma ray astronomy is given. Special emphasis is devoted to the Gamma Ray Observatory GRO of NASA - a multi-instrument observatory which covers more than 5 orders of magnitude in photon energy from about 100 keV to 30 GeV. Significant progress in the exploration and understanding of the gamma ray sky can be expected in the very near future. The next generation of gamma ray missions will have to focus on high resolution spectroscopy, on high resolution imaging and on broad band studies of gamma ray burst sources. (orig.).

  17. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  18. Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

  19. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  20. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  1. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Weiss, Daniel S.; Gushin, Vadim; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2001-03-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2 nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  2. European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or

  3. Selection criteria for waste management processes in manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, S; Cothran, B; McGhee, J

    1991-10-01

    Management of waste produced during manned space exploration missions will be an important function of advanced life support systems. Waste materials can be thrown away or recovered for reuse. The first approach relies totally on external supplies to replace depleted resources while the second approach regenerates resources internally. The selection of appropriate waste management processes will be based upon criteria which include mission and hardware characteristics as well as overall system considerations. Mission characteristics discussed include destination, duration, crew size, operating environment, and transportation costs. Hardware characteristics include power, mass and volume requirements as well as suitability for a given task. Overall system considerations are essential to assure optimization for the entire mission rather than for an individual system. For example, a waste management system designed for a short trip to the moon will probably not be the best one for an extended mission to Mars. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to identify and compare viable waste management options for selection of an appropriate waste management system.

  4. Space Weather Mission of SmartSat Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Miyake, W.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ohtaka, K.; Kimura, S.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

    2009-06-01

    The SmartSat Program is a collaborative program of government agency (NICT,JAXA) and private sector (MHI) in Japan to develop small satellite about 200 Kg. The space weather experiment of the SmartSat consists of Wide Field CME Imager (WCI), Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA), and mission processor (MP). Both of the instruments will be principal components of the L5 mission. WCI is a imager to track CME as far as earth orbit. CME brightness near earth orbit is expected 1E-15 solar brightness or 1/200 of zodiacal light brightness. To observe such a extreme faint target, we are developing wide field of view camera with very high sensitivity and large dynamic range. These highly challenging experiment and demonstration will be implemented in SmartSat program.

  5. Warm Spitzer Photometry of the Transiting Exoplanets CoRoT-1 and CoRoT-2 at Secondary Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P; Lewis, Nikole K

    2010-01-01

    We measure secondary eclipses of the hot giant exoplanets CoRoT-1 at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, and CoRoT-2 at 3.6 microns, both using Warm Spitzer. We find that the Warm Spitzer mission is working very well for exoplanet science. For consistency of our analysis we also re-analyze archival cryogenic Spitzer data for secondary eclipses of CoRoT-2 at 4.5 and 8 microns. We compare the total data for both planets, including optical eclipse measurements by the CoRoT mission, and ground-based eclipse measurements at 2 microns, to existing models. Both planets exhibit stronger eclipses at 4.5 than at 3.6 microns, which is often indicative of an atmospheric temperature inversion. The spectrum of CoRoT-1 is best reproduced by a 2460K blackbody, due either to a high altitude layer that strongly absorbs stellar irradiance, or an isothermal region in the planetary atmosphere. The spectrum of CoRoT-2 is unusual because the 8 micron contrast is anomalously low. Non-inverted atmospheres could potentially produce the CoRoT-2 spect...

  6. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  7. Customer and mission influence on space station architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Overall Space Station architecture is presented in schematic outlines and plans. How the customer and mission needs influence this design is studied. The uses, occupants, activities, interfaces, utilities, locomotion, environments, and technological costs are all factors which influence the architecture. User and system functions are profiled, interfaces are characterized and functions are grouped. These lead to packaging of functions into modules and the design of system and user accommodations.

  8. New space vehicle archetypes for human planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Contemporary, archetypal, crew-carrying spacecraft concepts developed for NASA are presented for: a lunar transportation system, two kinds of Mars landers, and five kinds of Mars transfer vehicles. These cover the range of propulsion technologies and mission modes of interest for the Space Exploration Initiative, and include both aerobraking and artificial gravity as appropriate. They comprise both upgrades of extant archetypes and completely new ones. Computer solid models, configurations and mass statements are presented for each.

  9. Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

  10. Solid Freeform Fabrication: An Enabling Technology for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) employs a focused energy beam and metal feedstock to build structural parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data. Some variations on existing SFF techniques have potential for application in space for a variety of different missions. This paper will focus on three different applications ranging from near to far term to demonstrate the widespread potential of this technology for space-based applications. One application is the on-orbit construction of large space structures, on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size. Such structures are too large to launch intact even in a deployable design; their extreme size necessitates assembly or erection of such structures in space. A low-earth orbiting satellite with a SFF system employing a high-energy beam for high deposition rates could be employed to construct large space structures using feedstock launched from Earth. A second potential application is a small, multifunctional system that could be used by astronauts on long-duration human exploration missions to manufacture spare parts. Supportability of human exploration missions is essential, and a SFF system would provide flexibility in the ability to repair or fabricate any part that may be damaged or broken during the mission. The system envisioned would also have machining and welding capabilities to increase its utility on a mission where mass and volume are extremely limited. A third example of an SFF application in space is a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. If damage is detected using a low power beam scan, the beam power can be increased to perform repairs within the spacecraft or satellite structure without the requirement of human interaction or commands. Due to low gravity environment for all of these applications, wire feedstock is preferred to powder from a containment, handling, and safety

  11. Bringing Space Science to the Undergraduate Classroom: NASA's USIP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Christian, J. A.; Keesee, A. M.; Spencer, E. A.; Gross, J.; Lusk, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its participation in NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP), a team of engineering and physics students at West Virginia University (WVU) built a series of sounding rocket and balloon missions. The first rocket and balloon missions were flown near-simultaneously in a campaign on June 26, 2014 (image). The second sounding rocket mission is scheduled for October 5, 2015. Students took a course on space science in spring 2014, and followup courses in physics and aerospace engineering departments have been developed since then. Guest payloads were flown from students affiliated with WV Wesleyan College, NASA's IV&V Facility, and the University of South Alabama. Students specialized in electrical and aerospace engineering, and space physics topics. They interacted regularly with NASA engineers, presented at telecons, and prepared reports. A number of students decided to pursue internships and/or jobs related to space science and technology. Outreach to the campus and broader community included demos and flight projects. The physics payload includes plasma density and temperature measurements using a Langmuir and a triple probe; plasma frequency measurements using a radio sounder (WVU) and an impedance probe (U.S.A); and a magnetometer (WVWC). The aerospace payload includes an IMU swarm, a GPS experiment (with TEC capability); a cubesat communications module (NASA IV&V), and basic flight dynamics. Acknowledgments: staff members at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and at the Orbital-ATK Rocket Center, WV.

  12. Mars Missions Using Emerging Commercial Space Transportation Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    New Discoveries regarding the Martian Environment may impact Mars mission planning. Transportation of investigation payloads can be facilitated by Commercial Space Transportation options. The development of Commercial Space Transportation. Capabilities anticipated from various commercial entities are examined objectively. The potential for one of these options, in the form of a Mars Sample Return mission, described in the results of previous work, is presented to demonstrate a high capability potential. The transportation needs of the Mars Environment Team Project at ISU 2016 may fit within the payload capabilities of a Mars Sample Return mission, but the payload elements may or may not differ. Resource Modules will help you develop a component of a strategy to address the Implications of New Discoveries in the Martian Environment using the possibility of efficient, commercial space transportation options. Opportunities for open discussions as appropriate during the team project formulation period at the end of each Resource Module. The objective is to provide information that can be incorporated into your work in the Team Project including brainstorming.

  13. STS-31 Mission Onboard Photograph-Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was being deployed on April 25, 1990. The photograph was taken by the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) mounted in a container on the port side of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery (STS-31 mission). The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. During four spacewalks, new instruments were installed into the HST that had optical corrections. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. Photo Credit: NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation.

  14. Russian Space Probes Scientific Discoveries and Future Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet Union began the exploration of space with the launch of Sputnik in 1957, well over 50 years ago, and sent the first probes to the Moon, Mars, and Venus. Less well known is what these probes actually found out. What were the discoveries of Russian space science? What new discoveries may we expect in the future? Who were Russia's most important scientists? Russian Space Probes gives for the first time the definitive history of Soviet-Russian space science, and is the first book to assess the actual achievements of the Russian space program in furthering our knowledge of the Solar System. Among other projects covered are missions such as Elektron, which mapped the Earth's radiation belts; the astrophysical observatories Astron, Kvant, Gamma, and Granat; Proton, which trapped cosmic rays; Prognoz, which measured solar radiation; and the Interball, Aktivny, APEX, and Magion mission in which satellites chased each other in the Earth's magnetic tail. The final part of the book examines the future of Russ...

  15. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. IV.: No asymmetries in the transit of Corot-29b

    CERN Document Server

    Palle, E; Alonso, R; Nowak, G; Deeg, H; Cabrera, J; Murgas, F; Parviainen, H; Nortmann, L; Hoyer, S; Prieto-Arranz, J; Nespral, D; Lavers, A Cabrera; Iro, N

    2016-01-01

    Context. The launch of the exoplanet space missions obtaining exquisite photometry from space has resulted in the discovery of thousands of planetary systems with very different physical properties and architectures. Among them, the exoplanet CoRoT-29b was identified in the light curves the mission obtained in summer 2011, and presented an asymmetric transit light curve, which was tentatively explained via the effects of gravity darkening. Aims. Transits of CoRoT-29b are measured with precision photometry, to characterize the reported asymmetry in their transit shape. Methods. Using the OSIRIS spectrograph at the 10-m GTC telescope, we perform spectro-photometric di?erential observations, which allow us to both calculate a high-accuracy photometric light curve, and a study of the color-dependence of the transit. Results. After careful data analysis, we find that the previously reported asymmetry is not present in either of two transits, observed in July 2014 and July 2015 with high photometric precisions of 3...

  16. CoRoT: harvest of the exoplanet program

    CERN Document Server

    Moutou, Claire; Guillot, Tristan; Baglin, Annie; Bordé, Pascal; Bouchy, François; Cabrera, Juan; Csizmadia, Szilàrd; Deeg, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the CoRoT mission is the search for transiting extrasolar planets using high-precision photometry, and the accurate characterization of their fundamental parameters. The CoRoT satellite consecutively observes crowded stellar fields since February 2007, in high-cadence precise photometry; periodic eclipses are detected and analysed in the stellar light curves. Then complementary observations using ground-based facilities allows establishing the nature of the transiting body and its mass. CoRoT has acquired more than 163,000 light curves and detected about 500 planet candidates. A fraction of them (5%) are confirmed planets whose masses are independently measured. Main highlights of the CoRoT discoveries are: i) the variety of internal structures in close-in giant planets, ii) the characterisation of the first known transiting rocky planet, CoRoT-7 b, iii) multiple constraints on the formation, evolution, role of tides in planetary systems.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was

  18. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  19. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc

    2013-05-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

  20. Active Radiation Shield for Space Exploration Missions (ARSSEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, R; Calvelli, V; Musenich, R; Choutko, V; Datskov, V I; Della Torre, A; Venditti, F; Gargiulo, C; Laurenti, G; Lucidi, S; Harrison, S; Meinke, R

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues to be solved is the protection from the effects of ionizing radiation. Exploration mission, lasting two to three years in space, represents a very significant step from the point of view of radiation protection: both the duration (up to 5 times) and the intensity (up to 5 times) of the exposure to radiation are increased at the same time with respect to mission on the ISS reaching and sometime exceeding professional career limits. In this ARSSEM report, after reviewing the physics basis of the issue of radiation protection in space, we present results based for the first time on full physics simulation to understand the interplay among the the various factors determining the dose absorbed by the astronauts during a long duration mission: radiation composition and energy spectrum, 3D particle propagation through the magnetic field, secondary production on the spacecraft structural materia, dose sensitivity of the various parts of the human body. As first application of this approach, we...

  1. OCEANSAT_2 : an Indian space mission devoted to Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Rao, M.; de Cosmo, V.; Vespe, F.

    The first OCEANSAT a satellite devoted to Ocean applications was launched in May 1999 and had a lifetime of 6 years It carried two Payloads the Ocean Color Monitor OCM and Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer MSMR These payloads provided valuable data which were used for various applications helpful for India as well as by International users The main applications of the OCM were the identification of Potential Fishery Zones PFZ while from the sea surface field of temperatures got by the MSMR the prediction of Monsoon arrival The second OCEANSAT mission is exactly a follow on of the first but with improved releases of the payloads The OCM is 8-narrow Band multi-spectral camera with 360 m Resolution 1420 Kms Swath and 2 days revisiting time The scatterometer is a Ku-band 13 515GHz radar with V H polarization and works with two-beam conical scanning On last October a memorandum of Understanding between the Indian and the Italian qSpace Agencies ISRO ASI was signed just to enrich the mission with another payload developed by ASI the space-borne GPS receiver devoted to radio occultation ROSA The goals of the mission the payloads and their applications will be described in detail

  2. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  3. SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen (Editor); Turyshev, Slava (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, in close collaboration with two industry partners, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, and TRW Inc., Space and Electronics Group. Launch of SIM is currently planned for 2009. In its wide-angle astrometric mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute position and parallax measurements. Astrometric planet searches will be done in a narrow-angle mode, with an accuracy of 4 microarcseconds or better in a single measurement. As a pointed rather than a survey instrument, SIM will maintain.its astrometric accuracy down to the faintest, magnitudes, opening up the opportunity for astrometry of active galactic nuclei to better than 10 pas. SIM will define a new astrometric reference frame, using a grid of approximately 1500 stars with positions accurate to 4 microarcseconds. The SIM Science Team comprises the Principal Investigators of ten Key Projects, and five Mission Scientists contributing their expertise to specific areas of the mission. Their science programs cover a wide range of topics in Galactic and extragalactic astronomy. They include: searches for low-mass planets - including analogs to our own solar system - tlie formation and dynamics of our Galaxy, calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and fundamental stellar astrophysics. All of the science observing on SIM is competitively awarded; the Science Team programs total about 40% of the total available, and the remainder will be assigned via future NASA competitions. This report is a compilation of science summaries by members of the Science Team, and it illustrates the wealth of scientific problems that microarcsecond-precision astrometry can contribute to. More information on SIM

  4. Prospects for improved instrumentation on future solar space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, P.

    1993-06-01

    The status of space based instrumentation at the time of the Soho launch is summarized, the areas where improvements are foreseeable are examined, and an overview of the gains that can be achieved is presented. Special attention is paid to identifying intrinsic limitations related to classical mountings in the UV and EUV range. Some mountings are discussed, with their limitations, in the context of missions already proposed. The present capabilities of solar physics instrumentation in space are on the 1 arcsec angular resolution domain, with a resolving power near 30,000, and the ability to fit spectral line profiles and to establish line of sight velocities down to 1 km/s. Few rocket instruments have yet crossed the 1 arcsec angular resolution threshold. The goal of the next generation of solar instrumentation in space is to achieve 0.1 arcsec angular resolution whilst retaining the same spectral resolution and improving the temporal resolution.

  5. Mission-level performance verification approach for the Euclid space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Roland D.; Laureijs, René J.; Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Amiaux, Jérôme; Mellier, Yannick; Azzollini, Ruyman; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Cropper, Mark; Dabin, Christophe; Ealet, Anne; Garilli, Bianca; Gregorio, Anna; Hoekstra, Henk; Jahnke, Knud; Kilbinger, Martin; Kitching, Tom; Hoar, John; Percival, Will; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Sauvage, Marc; Scaramella, Roberto; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Wang, Yun; Zacchei, Andrea; Wachter, Stefanie

    2016-08-01

    ESA's Dark Energy Mission Euclid will map the 3D matter distribution in our Universe using two Dark Energy probes: Weak Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (GC). The extreme accuracy required for both probes can only be achieved by observing from space in order to limit all observational biases in the measurements of the tracer galaxies. Weak Lensing requires an extremely high precision measurement of galaxy shapes realised with the Visual Imager (VIS) as well as photometric redshift measurements using near-infrared photometry provided by the Near Infrared Spectrometer Photometer (NISP). Galaxy Clustering requires accurate redshifts (Δz/(z+1)team with the collaboration of the Euclid Consortium. The plan includes the definition of key performance parameters and their process of verification, the input and output identification and the management of applicable mission configurations in the parameter database.

  6. Invariant Manifolds, Lagrangian Trajectories and Space Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belló, Miguel; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.

    The last 30 years have produced an explosion in the capabilities of designing and managing libration point missions. The starting point was the ground-breaking mission of the third International Sun-Earth Explorer spacecraft (ISEE-3). The ISEE-3 was launched August 12, 1978 to pursue studies of the Earth-Sun interactions, in a first step of what now is known as Space Weather. After a direct transfer of the ISEE-3 to the vicinity of the Sun-Earth Lagrange point, it was inserted into a nearly-periodic halo orbit, in order to monitor the solar wind about 1 h before it reached the Earth's magneto-sphere as well as the ISEE-1 and 2 spacecraft (which where in an elliptical orbit around the Earth).

  7. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) space to ground mission data architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack L.; Ames, J.A.; Williams, J.; Patschke, R.; Mott, C.; Joseph, J.; Garon, H.; Mah, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a scientific endeavor to extend the longest continuous multi-spectral imaging record of Earth's land surface. The observatory consists of a spacecraft bus integrated with two imaging instruments; the Operational Land Imager (OLI), built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), an in-house instrument built at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Both instruments are integrated aboard a fine-pointing, fully redundant, spacecraft bus built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Gilbert, Arizona. The mission is scheduled for launch in January 2013. This paper will describe the innovative end-to-end approach for efficiently managing high volumes of simultaneous realtime and playback of image and ancillary data from the instruments to the reception at the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Landsat Ground Network (LGN) and International Cooperator (IC) ground stations. The core enabling capability lies within the spacecraft Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system and Radio Frequency (RF) communications system implementation. Each of these systems uniquely contribute to the efficient processing of high speed image data (up to 265Mbps) from each instrument, and provide virtually error free data delivery to the ground. Onboard methods include a combination of lossless data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data formatting, a file-based/managed Solid State Recorder (SSR), and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) forward error correction. The 440 Mbps wideband X-Band downlink uses Class 1 CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), and an earth coverage antenna to deliver an average of 400 scenes per day to a combination of LGN and IC ground stations. This paper will also describe the integrated capabilities and processes at the LGN ground stations for data reception using adaptive filtering, and the mission operations approach fro- the LDCM

  8. Orthostatic Intolerance After ISS and Space Shuttle Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Stein, Sydney; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning apparently progresses with flight duration, resulting in a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance following long-duration missions. Therefore, we anticipated that the proportion of astronauts who could not complete an orthostatic tilt test (OTT) would be higher on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after International Space Station (ISS) than after Space Shuttle missions. There were 20 ISS and 65 Shuttle astronauts who participated in 10-min 80° head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch, on landing day (R+0), and 3 d after landing (R+3). Fisher's Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the OTT. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters associated with OTT completion and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between groups. The proportion of astronauts who completed the OTT on R+0 (2 of 6) was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (52 of 65). On R+3, 13 of 15 and 19 of 19 of the ISS and Shuttle astronauts, respectively, completed the OTT. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a good prediction of OTT completion and was altered by spaceflight similarly for both astronaut groups, but recovery was slower in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts. The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the OTT on R+0 was greater and the recovery rate slower after ISS compared to Shuttle missions. Thus, mission planners and crew surgeons should anticipate the need to tailor scheduled activities and level of medical support to accommodate protracted recovery after long-duration microgravity exposures.

  9. The e-ASTROGAM gamma-ray space mission

    CERN Document Server

    Tatischeff, V; von Ballmoos, P; Hanlon, L; Oberlack, U; Aboudan, A; Argan, A; Bernard, D; Brogna, A; Bulgarelli, A; Bykov, A; Campana, R; Caraveo, P; Cardillo, M; Coppi, P; De Angelis, A; Diehl, R; Donnarumma, I; Fioretti, V; Giuliani, A; Grenier, I; Grove, J E; Hamadache, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Isern, J; Kanbach, G; Kiener, J; Knödlseder, J; Labanti, C; Laurent, P; Limousin, O; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; Mereghetti, S; Mirabel, F; Morselli, A; Nakazawa, K; Peyré, J; Piano, G; Pittori, C; Sabatini, S; Stawarz, L; Thompson, D J; Ulyanov, A; Walter, R; Wu, X; Zdziarski, A; Zoglauer, A

    2016-01-01

    The e-ASTROGAM is a gamma-ray space mission to be proposed as the M5 Medium-size mission of the European Space Agency. It is dedicated to the observation of the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity in the energy range 0.2 - 100 MeV, extending up to GeV energies, together with a groundbreaking polarization capability. It is designed to substantially improve the COMPTEL and Fermi sensitivities in the MeV-GeV energy range and to open new windows of opportunity for astrophysical and fundamental physics space research. e-ASTROGAM will operate as an open astronomical observatory, with a core science focused on (1) the activity from extreme particle accelerators, including gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei and the link of jet astrophysics to the new astronomy of gravitational waves, neutrinos, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, (2) the high-energy mysteries of the Galactic center and inner Galaxy, including the activity of the supermassive black hole, the Fermi Bubbles, the origin of the Galactic positrons,...

  10. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. population. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits.

  11. The Space Mission Design Example Using LEO Bolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four sample space launch missions were designed using rotating momentum transfer tethers (bolos within low Earth orbit and a previously unknown phenomenon of “aerospinning” was identified and simulated. The momentum transfer tethers were found to be only marginally more efficient than the use of chemical rocket boosters. Insufficient power density of modern spacecrafts was identified as the principal inhibitory factor for tether usage as a means of launch-assistance, with power densities at least 10 W/kg required for effective bolos operation.

  12. Printed Circuit Board Assembly for Use in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, David J. (Inventor); Vo, Luan (Inventor); Albaijes, Dennis (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An electronic assembly for use in space missions that includes a PCB and one or more multi-pin CGA devices coupled to the PCB. The PCB has one or more via-in-pad features and each via-in-pad feature comprises a land pad configured to couple a pin of the one or more multi-pin CGA devices to the via. The PCB also includes a plurality of layers arranged symmetrically in a two-halves configuration above and below a central plane of the PCB.

  13. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  14. A twenty-first century perspective. [NASA space communication infrastructure to support space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Robert O.; Miller, Albert

    1990-01-01

    The status of the NASA assets which are operated by the Office of Space Operations is briefly reviewed. These assets include the ground network, the space network, and communications and data handling facilities. The current plans for each element are examined, and a projection of each is made to meet the user needs in the 21st century. The following factors are noted: increasingly responsive support will be required by the users; operational support concepts must be cost-effective to serve future missions; and a high degree of system reliability and availability will be required to support manned exploration and increasingly complex missions.

  15. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-06

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact.

  16. Characterization of CoRoT Target Fields with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope: Identification of Periodic Variable Stars in the LRa1 Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kabath, P; Erikson, A; Hedelt, P; Von Paris, P; Rauer, H; Renner, S; Titz, R; Karoff, C; 10.1088/0004-6256/136/2/654

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report on observations of the CoRoT LRa1 field with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST). The current paper is part of a series of papers describing the results of our stellar variability survey. The BEST is a small aperture telescope with a wide field of view (FOV). It is dedicated to searching for stellar variability within the target fields of the CoRoT space mission to aid in minimizing false-alarm rates and identify potential targets for additional science. The LRa1 field is CoRoT's second long run field located in the galactic anticenter direction. We observed the LRa1 stellar field on 23 nights between November and March 2005/2006. From 6099 stars marked as variable, 39 were classified as periodic variable stars and 27 of them are within the CoRoT FOV. We also confirmed the variability for four stars listed in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS).

  17. 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Riometer for Heliospheric Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a new three-dimensional embedded reconfigurable Riometer for performing remote sensing of planetary magnetospheres. The system couples the in situ measurements of probe or orbiter magnetospheric space missions. The new prototype features a multi-frequency mode that allows measurements at frequencies, where heliospheric physics events' signatures are distinct on the ionized planetary plasma. For our planet similar measurements are meaningful for frequencies below 55 MHz. Observation frequencies above 55 MHz yield to direct measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background intensity. The system acts as a prototyping platform for subsequent space exploration phased-array imaging experiments, due to its high-intensity scientific processing capabilities. The performance improvement over existing systems in operation is in the range of 80%, due to the state-of-the-art hardware and scientific processing used.

  18. World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission: state of art 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Gomez De Castro, Ana; Shustov, Boris M.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 300 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. The observatory includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy and long slit low-resolution spectroscopy with the WUVS instrument; moreover UV imaging will be available with cameras. WSO-UV is a Russian led mission that will be operating in high Earth orbit (geosynchronous with inclination 51.^o6) for five+five years grating access to the UV range to the world-wide astronomical community in the post-Hubble era. Spain is a major partner to the project. Updated information of the WSO-UV project is provided periodically in the COSPAR meetings. Henceforth, this review provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last COSPAR Assembly.

  19. Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

  20. The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, A.; Fusi, R.; Longoni, F.

    1999-12-01

    The future space missions span over a wide range of scientific objectives. After different successful scientific missions, other international cornerstone experiments are planned to study of the evolution of the universe and of the primordial stellar systems, and our solar system. Space missions for the survey of the microwave cosmic background radiation, deep-field search in the near and mid-infrared region and planetary exploration will be carried out. Several fields are open for research and development in the space business. Three major categories can be found: detector technology in different areas, electronics, and software. At LABEN, a Finmeccanica Company, we are focusing the technologies to respond to this challenging scientific demands. Particle trackers based on silicon micro-strips supported by lightweight structures (CFRP) are studied. In the X-ray field, CCD's are investigated with pixels of very small size so as to increase the spatial resolution of the focal plane detectors. High-efficiency and higly miniaturized high-voltage power supplies are developed for detectors with an increasingly large number of phototubes. Material research is underway to study material properties at extreme temperatures. Low-temperature mechanical structures are designed for cryogenic ( 20 K) detectors in order to maintain the high precision in pointing the instrument. Miniaturization of front end electronics with low power consumption and high number of signal processing channels is investigated; silicon-based microchips (ASIC's) are designed and developed using state-of-the-art technology. Miniaturized instruments to investigate the planets surface using X-Ray and Gamma-Ray scattering techniques are developed. The data obtained from the detectors have to be processed, compressed, formatted and stored before their transmission to ground. These tasks open up additional strategic areas of development such as microprocessor-based electronics for high-speed and parallel data

  1. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  2. Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

    2008-05-01

    Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

  3. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  4. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, D. J.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established.

  5. Pre-discovery observations of CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b with the BEST survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rauer, H; Kabath, P; Hedelt, P; Boër, M; Carone, L; Csizmadia, Sz; Eigmueller, P; Paris, P v; Renner, S; Tournois, G; Titz, R; Voss, H

    2009-01-01

    The BEST wide-angle telescope installed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and operated in remote control from Berlin by the Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, has observed the CoRoT target fields prior to the mission. The resulting archive of stellar photometric lightcurves is used to search for deep transit events announced during CoRoT's alarm-mode to aid in fast photometric confirmation of these events. The "initial run" field of CoRoT (IRa01) has been observed with BEST in November and December 2006 for 12 nights. The first "long run" field (LRc01) was observed from June to September 2005 for 35 nights. After standard CCD data reduction, aperture photometry has been performed using the ISIS image subtraction method. About 30,000 lightcurves were obtained in each field. Transits of the first detected planets by the CoRoT mission, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b, were found in archived data of the BEST survey and their lightcurves are presented here. Such detections provide useful information at the early stag...

  6. Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerators for Future Sub-Millimetre Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, I. D.; Davenport, I.; Smith, A.

    1995-10-01

    Space worthy refrigeration capable of providing a 100 mK and below heat load sink for bolometric detectors will be required for the next generation of sub-millimetre space missions. Adiabatic demagnetisation refrigeration (ADR), being a gravity independent laboratory method for obtaining such temperatures, is a favourable technique for utilisation in space. We show that by considering a 3 salt pill refrigerator rather than the classic single salt pill design the space prohibitive laboratory ADR properties of high magnetic field (6 Tesla) and alow temperature hold time and short recycle time. The additional salt pills, composed of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) provide intermediate cooling stages, enabling operation from a 4 K environment provided by a single 4 K mechanical cooler, thereby providing consumable free operation. Such ADRs could operate with fields as low as 1 Tesla allowing the use of high temperature, mechanically cooled superconducting magnets and so effectively remove the risk of quenching. We discuss the possibility of increasing the hold time from 3 hours, for the model presented, to between 40 and 80 hours, plus reducing the number of salt pills to two, through the use of a more efficient Garnet. We believe the technical advances necessitated by the envisaged ADRs are minimal and conclude that such ADRs offer a long orbital life time, consumable free, high efficiency means of milli-Kelvin cooling, requiring relatively little laboratory development.

  7. The Emergent 1.1-1.7 Micron Spectrum of the Exoplanet CoRoT-2b as Measured Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Ashlee; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Knutson, Heather; McCullough, Peter; Ranjan, Sukrit

    2014-01-01

    We have used Hubble/WFC3 and the G141 grism to measure the secondary eclipse of the transiting very hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b in the 1.1-1.7$\\mu$m spectral region. We find an eclipse depth averaged over this band equal to $395^{+69}_{-45}$ parts per million, equivalent to a blackbody temperature of $1788\\pm18$K. We study and characterize several WFC3 instrumental effects, especially the "hook" phenomenon described by Deming et al. (2013). We use data from several transiting exoplanet systems to find a quantitative relation between the amplitude of the hook and the exposure level of a given pixel. Although the uncertainties in this relation are too large to allow us to develop an empirical correction for our data, our study provides a useful guide for optimizing exposure levels in future WFC3 observations. We derive the planet's spectrum using a differential method. The planet-to-star contrast increases to longer wavelength within the WFC3 bandpass, but without water absorption or emission to a $3\\sigma$ limit of 8...

  8. 1,000 days in space: contribution of accurate space interferometer to GAIA mission results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, ESA released the data of the first 1,000 days of measurements from the Gaia mission. The large data package included 1.1 billion star positions, motions, brightness values and more, as well as surprises such as supernova detections. Thanks in part to the accurate space

  9. On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space - Deep Space Mission Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandridge, Chris a.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steve A.; Spangler, Jan L.

    2011-01-01

    The On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS, https://oltaris.nasa.gov) is a web-based set of tools and models that allows engineers and scientists to assess the effects of space radiation on spacecraft, habitats, rovers, and spacesuits. The site is intended to be a design tool for those studying the effects of space radiation for current and future missions as well as a research tool for those developing advanced material and shielding concepts. The tools and models are built around the HZETRN radiation transport code and are primarily focused on human- and electronic-related responses. The focus of this paper is to highlight new capabilities that have been added to support deep space (outside Low Earth Orbit) missions. Specifically, the electron, proton, and heavy ion design environments for the Europa mission have been incorporated along with an efficient coupled electron-photon transport capability to enable the analysis of complicated geometries and slabs exposed to these environments. In addition, a neutron albedo lunar surface environment was also added, that will be of value for the analysis of surface habitats. These updates will be discussed in terms of their implementation and on how OLTARIS can be used by instrument vendors, mission designers, and researchers to analyze their specific requirements.12

  10. The e-ASTROGAM gamma-ray space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatischeff, V.; Tavani, M.; von Ballmoos, P.; Hanlon, L.; Oberlack, U.; Aboudan, A.; Argan, A.; Bernard, D.; Brogna, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bykov, A.; Campana, R.; Caraveo, P.; Cardillo, M.; Coppi, P.; De Angelis, A.; Diehl, R.; Donnarumma, I.; Fioretti, V.; Giuliani, A.; Grenier, I.; Grove, J. E.; Hamadache, C.; Hartmann, D.; Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Kanbach, G.; Kiener, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Labanti, C.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; McBreen, S.; McEnery, J. E.; Mereghetti, S.; Mirabel, F.; Morselli, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Peyré, J.; Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Sabatini, S.; Stawarz, L.; Thompson, D. J.; Ulyanov, A.; Walter, R.; Wu, X.; Zdziarski, A.; Zoglauer, A.

    2016-07-01

    e-ASTROGAM is a gamma-ray space mission to be proposed as the M5 Medium-size mission of the European Space Agency. It is dedicated to the observation of the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity in the energy range 0.2 { 100 MeV, extending up to GeV energies, together with a groundbreaking polarization capability. It is designed to substantially improve the COMPTEL and Fermi sensitivities in the MeV-GeV energy range and to open new windows of opportunity for astrophysical and fundamental physics space research. e-ASTROGAM will operate as an open astronomical observatory, with a core science focused on (1) the activity from extreme particle accelerators, including gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei and the link of jet astrophysics to the new astronomy of gravitational waves, neutrinos, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, (2) the high-energy mysteries of the Galactic center and inner Galaxy, including the activity of the supermassive black hole, the Fermi Bubbles, the origin of the Galactic positrons, and the search for dark matter signatures in a new energy window; (3) nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution, including the life cycle of elements produced by supernovae in the Milky Way and the Local Group of galaxies. e-ASTROGAM will be ideal for the study of high-energy sources in general, including pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae, accreting neutron stars and black holes, novae, supernova remnants, and magnetars. And it will also provide important contributions to solar and terrestrial physics. The e-ASTROGAM telescope is optimized for the simultaneous detection of Compton and pair-producing gamma-ray events over a large spectral band. It is based on a very high technology readiness level for all subsystems and includes many innovative features for the detectors and associated electronics.

  11. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states

  12. Optimal selection of space transportation fleet to meet multi-mission space program needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Montoya, Alex J.

    1989-01-01

    A space program that spans several decades will be comprised of a collection of missions such as low earth orbital space station, a polar platform, geosynchronous space station, lunar base, Mars astronaut mission, and Mars base. The optimal selection of a fleet of several recoverable and expendable launch vehicles, upper stages, and interplanetary spacecraft necessary to logistically establish and support these space missions can be examined by means of a linear integer programming optimization model. Such a selection must be made because the economies of scale which comes from producing large quantities of a few standard vehicle types, rather than many, will be needed to provide learning curve effects to reduce the overall cost of space transportation if these future missions are to be affordable. Optimization model inputs come from data and from vehicle designs. Each launch vehicle currently in existence has a launch history, giving rise to statistical estimates of launch reliability. For future, not-yet-developed launch vehicles, theoretical reliabilities corresponding to the maturity of the launch vehicles' technology and the degree of design redundancy must be estimated. Also, each such launch vehicle has a certain historical or estimated development cost, tooling cost, and a variable cost. The cost of a launch used in this paper includes the variable cost plus an amortized portion of the fixed and development costs. The integer linear programming model will have several constraint equations based on assumptions of mission mass requirements, volume requirements, and number of astronauts needed. The model will minimize launch vehicle logistic support cost and will select the most desirable launch vehicle fleet.

  13. AN/FPS-108 COBRA DANE Space Surveillance Mission Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorman, P.; Boggs, J.

    2013-09-01

    It has been ten years since the COBRA DANE radar was restored to continuous full power operations in a more dedicated role of space debris tracking. Over this time, the satellite catalog population has grown and the overall average RCS value of cataloged objects has decreased dramatically, due to a combination of breakups and collisions together with the increased sensitivity offered by COBRA DANE's support to the network. This shift in catalog composition places new challenges on COBRA DANE and other debris tracking radars (PARCS and Eglin/FPS-85) to consistently track the ever-increasing number of small objects. Space Surveillance Network radars now operate at the limits of their detection performance, tracking several thousand new objects in a size category that only the most powerful and sensitive radars can observe (i.e., system's overall architectural design (power-aperture envelope and radar resources). This paper captures specific opportunities to improve COBRA DANE's Spacetrack mission performance, several of which are currently implemented and slated to become operational with the next two software releases. With one of the more prominent enhancements, COBRA DANE will be capable of autonomously 'fence tasking' all newly acquired small objects. Under the current operating paradigm, the radar detects satellites in its debris fences, correlates them to known (cataloged) objects, and subsequently drops the correlated objects from track, many times per day for thousands of objects. This response occurs under the (false) premise that the known objects will be successfully reacquired later by automatic satellite acquisition searches, when the objects are expected to present more optimal data collection passes, as determined by the radar's Spacetrack mission planning algorithm. Unfortunately, for the bulk of the challenging objects in question, this opportunity seldom presents itself and most reacquisition attempts are unsuccessful, causing the radar to

  14. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  15. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  16. Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    .The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  17. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  18. The European Space Agency {\\Gaia} mission: exploring the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Jordi, C

    2011-01-01

    The {\\Gaia} astrometric mission was approved by the European Space Agency in 2000 and the construction of the spacecraft and payload is on-going for a launch in late 2012. {\\Gaia} will continuously scan the entire sky for 5 years, yielding positional and velocity measurements with the accuracies needed to produce a stereoscopic and kinematic census of about one billion stars throughout our Galaxy and beyond. The main scientific goal is to quantify early formation and the subsequent dynamic and chemical evolution of the Milky way. The stellar survey will have a completeness to $V = 20$ mag, with a precision of about 25 $\\mu$as at 15 mag. The astrometric information will be combined with astrophysical data acquired through on-board spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, allowing the chemical composition and age of the stars to be derived. Data acquired and processed as a result of the {\\Gaia} mission are estimated to amount to about 1 petabyte. One of the challenging problems is the close relationship between astr...

  19. Science performance of Gaia, ESA's space-astrometry mission

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2012-01-01

    Gaia is the next astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), following up on the success of the Hipparcos mission. With a focal plane containing 106 CCD detectors, Gaia will survey the entire sky and repeatedly observe the brightest 1,000 million objects, down to 20th magnitude, during its 5-year lifetime. Gaia's science data comprises absolute astrometry, broad-band photometry, and low-resolution spectro-photometry. Spectroscopic data with a resolving power of 11,500 will be obtained for the brightest 150 million sources, down to 17th magnitude. The thermo-mechanical stability of the spacecraft, combined with the selection of the L2 Lissajous point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system for operations, allows stellar parallaxes to be measured with standard errors less than 10 micro-arcsecond (muas) for stars brighter than 12th magnitude, 25 muas for stars at 15th magnitude, and 300 muas at magnitude 20. Photometric standard errors are in the milli-magnitude regime. The spectroscopic data allows the measurem...

  20. Relativistic stellar aberration for the Space Interferometry Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the relativistic stellar aberration requirements for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). We address the issue of general relativistic deflection of light by the massive self-gravitating bodies. Specifically, we present estimates for corresponding deflection angles due to the monopole components of the gravitational fields of a large number of celestial bodies in the solar system. We study the possibility of deriving an additional navigational constraints from the need to correct for the gravitational bending of light that is traversing the solar system. It turns out that positions of the outer planets presently may not have a sufficient accuracy for the precision astrometry. However, SIM may significantly improve those simply as a by-product of its astrometric program. We also consider influence of the higher gravitational multipoles, notably the quadrupole and the octupole ones, on the gravitational bending of light. Thus, one will have to model and account for their influence while o...

  1. An Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Wheeler, Raymond; Jackson, William; Pickering, Karen; Meyer, Caitlin; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael

    A new wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multi-filtration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP has been operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to maximum based on available carbon. To date, the FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater.

  2. An Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Meyer, Caitlin; Pennsinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, Andrew; Wheeler, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    A new wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration human space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multi-filtration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP has been operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to stoichiometric maximum based on available carbon. To date, the FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater

  3. Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Rowe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available William J RoweFormer Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Medical University of Ohio at Toledo, Keswick, VA, USAAbstract: Space flight (SF and dust inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone there is no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 mm Hg (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute. There was no acute renal insult. Irwin’s apparent spontaneous remission is suggested to be related to the increase of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP reduced with SF because of reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001 reductions of magnesium (Mg required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%, endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years and vicious cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now

  4. The emergent 1.1-1.7 μm spectrum of the exoplanet COROT-2B as measured using the Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCullough, Peter [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ranjan, Sukrit, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We have used Hubble/WFC3 and the G141 grism to measure the secondary eclipse of the transiting, very hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b in the 1.1-1.7 μm spectral region. We find an eclipse depth averaged over this band equal to 395{sub −45}{sup +69} parts per million, equivalent to a blackbody temperature of 1788 ± 18 K. We study and characterize several WFC3 instrumental effects, especially the 'hook' phenomenon described by Deming et al. We use data from several transiting exoplanet systems to find a quantitative relation between the amplitude of the hook and the exposure level of a given pixel. Although the uncertainties in this relation are too large to allow us to develop an empirical correction for our data, our study provides a useful guide for optimizing exposure levels in future WFC3 observations. We derive the planet's spectrum using a differential method. The planet-to-star contrast increases to longer wavelength within the WFC3 bandpass, but without water absorption or emission to a 3σ limit of 85 ppm. The slope of the WFC3 spectrum is significantly less than the slope of the best-fit blackbody. We compare all existing eclipse data for this planet to a blackbody spectrum, and to spectra from both solar abundance and carbon-rich (C/O = 1) models. A blackbody spectrum is an acceptable fit to the full data set. Extra continuous opacity due to clouds or haze, and flattened temperature profiles, are strong candidates to produce quasi-blackbody spectra, and to account for the amplitude of the optical eclipses. Our results show ambiguous evidence for a temperature inversion in this planet.

  5. A SLAM II simulation model for analyzing space station mission processing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Space station mission processing is modeled via the SLAM 2 simulation language on an IBM 4381 mainframe and an IBM PC microcomputer with 620K RAM, two double-sided disk drives and an 8087 coprocessor chip. Using a time phased mission (payload) schedule and parameters associated with the mission, orbiter (space shuttle) and ground facility databases, estimates for ground facility utilization are computed. Simulation output associated with the science and applications database is used to assess alternative mission schedules.

  6. Conceptual design of a habitation module for a deep space exploration mission

    OpenAIRE

    Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Viola, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a habitable module conceived for long duration space exploration missions. The pressurized habitation module (HAB) was specifically sized for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission, named AENEA ―humAn Exploration mission to a Near Earth Asteroid‖. This mission is conceived as an intermediate step before going to further destinations and aims at testing technologies necessary for reaching more challenging targets. In accordance to the mission objectiv...

  7. Human and Robotic Space Mission Use Cases for High-Performance Spaceflight Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Richard; Bergman, Larry; Some, Raphael; Whitaker, William; Powell, Wesley; Johnson, Michael; Goforth, Montgomery; Lowry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight computing is a key resource in NASA space missions and a core determining factor of spacecraft capability, with ripple effects throughout the spacecraft, end-to-end system, and the mission; it can be aptly viewed as a "technology multiplier" in that advances in onboard computing provide dramatic improvements in flight functions and capabilities across the NASA mission classes, and will enable new flight capabilities and mission scenarios, increasing science and exploration return per mission-dollar.

  8. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  9. Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission

  10. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  11. Analytical chemistry in water quality monitoring during manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyeva, Anastasia A.

    2016-09-01

    Water quality monitoring during human spaceflights is essential. However, most of the traditional methods require sample collection with a subsequent ground analysis because of the limitations in volume, power, safety and gravity. The space missions are becoming longer-lasting; hence methods suitable for in-flight monitoring are demanded. Since 2009, water quality has been monitored in-flight with colorimetric methods allowing for detection of iodine and ionic silver. Organic compounds in water have been monitored with a second generation total organic carbon analyzer, which provides information on the amount of carbon in water at both the U.S. and Russian segments of the International Space Station since 2008. The disadvantage of this approach is the lack of compound-specific information. The recently developed methods and tools may potentially allow one to obtain in-flight a more detailed information on water quality. Namely, the microanalyzers based on potentiometric measurements were designed for online detection of chloride, potassium, nitrate ions and ammonia. The recent application of the current highly developed air quality monitoring system for water analysis was a logical step because most of the target analytes are the same in air and water. An electro-thermal vaporizer was designed, manufactured and coupled with the air quality control system. This development allowed for liberating the analytes from the aqueous matrix and further compound-specific analysis in the gas phase.

  12. A new space technology for ocean observation: the SMOS mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Font

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Capability for sea surface salinity observation was an important gap in ocean remote sensing in the last few decades of the 20th century. New technological developments during the 1990s at the European Space Agency led to the proposal of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, an Earth explorer opportunity mission based on the use of a microwave interferometric radiometer, MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis. SMOS, the first satellite ever addressing the observation of ocean salinity from space, was successfully launched in November 2009. The determination of salinity from the MIRAS radiometric measurements at 1.4 GHz is a complex procedure that requires high performance from the instrument and accurate modelling of several physical processes that impact on the microwave emission of the ocean’s surface. This paper introduces SMOS in the ocean remote sensing context, and summarizes the MIRAS principles of operation and the SMOS salinity retrieval approach. It describes the Spanish SMOS high-level data processing centre (CP34 and the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, and presents a preliminary validation of global sea surface salinity maps operationally produced by CP34.

  13. Asteroid Perturbations and Mass Determination for the ASTROD Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, C J; Tang, Chien-Jen; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high-precision nature of the ASTROD (Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) mission concept, the asteroid perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft is crucial. These perturbations need to be modelled and determined together with relativistic effects and other solar-system parameters. In a previous investigation (Su et al., Planetary and Space Science, 47, 339-43[1999]), we used the mass estimation of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta in the literature to calculate their perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft. Recently, we established an ephemeris framework (CGC 1) including the 3 big asteroids and used this ephemeris framework to simulate the determination of their masses together with other solar-system parameters and relativistic-gravity parameters. In this paper, we extend the CGC 1 to CGC 2 ephemeris framework to include 492 asteroids (with diameter > 65 km) . We then use CGC 2 to simulate the determination of ten parameters -- the masses of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta, the six average d...

  14. Mini AERCam Inspection Robot for Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2004-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate of NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam free flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35 pound, 14 inch AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations including automatic stationkeeping and point-to-point maneuvering. Mini AERCam is designed to fulfill the unique requirements and constraints associated with using a free flyer to perform external inspections and remote viewing of human spacecraft operations. This paper describes the application of Mini AERCam for stand-alone spacecraft inspection, as well as for roles on teams of humans and robots conducting future space exploration missions.

  15. Rotation period distribution of CoRoT and Kepler Sun-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, I. C.; Pasquini, L.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Neves, V.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; de Oliveira, L. L. A.; Freire da Silva, D.; de Freitas, D. B.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Baglin, A.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    -like stars within the accuracy of current data. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain.

  16. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in Polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1 % over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  18. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1% over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  19. A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned Missions and Planetary Deep Space Orbiters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Plasma Magnetoshell is based on demonstrated experimental results and the successful implementation would dramatically decrease mission risk, launch cost, mass,...

  20. Identifying the upper atmosphere structure of the inflated hot sub-Neptune CoRoT-24b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvan, Ines; Lammer, Helmut; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Fossati, Luca; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Guenther, Eike; Odert, Petra; Kislyakova, Kristina G.; Lendl, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The CoRoT satellite mission discovered two Neptune-type planets, CoRoT-24b and CoRoT-24c, with observed transit radii of ≈3.7REarth and ≈4.9REarth and masses of ≤5.7MEarth and ≈28MEarth, respectively. From the deduced low mean densities it can be expected that their planetary cores are most likely surrounded by H2 dominated envelopes. While having very similar radii, the outer planet CoRoT-24c is at least 4.9 times more massive than its neighbour, indicating that their atmospheres can be fundamentally different. Therefore, we have investigated the upper atmosphere structure and escape rates of these two planets. We applied a hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model including heating by absorption of stellar extreme ultraviolet and X-ray (XUV) radiation, under the assumption that the observed transit radius RT is produced by Rayleigh scattering and H2-H2 collision absorption in a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This corresponds to a pressure level near 1 bar. We find an unsustainably high hydrodynamic escape rate of 1.6 × 1011 g/s for the atmosphere of CoRoT-24b. If real, such high atmospheric escape would lead to substantial mass loss from the planetary atmosphere, shrinking it to ≈2.2REarth within ≈4 Myr, which is inconsistent with the old age of the system. The solution to this discrepancy is that the observed transit radius RT must be 30-60% larger than the actual planetary radius at the 1 bar pressure level. We suggest that the observed transit radius RT is produced by absorption through scattering processes due to high altitude clouds or hazes. The Kepler satellite has discovered similar close-in low-density Neptune-type planets. We propose that it is very likely that the observed transit radii for the vast majority of these planets also differ from their actual planetary radii at the 1 bar pressure level. This would introduce a systematic bias in the measured radii and has dramatic implications in the determination of the mass-radius relation and for planet

  1. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  2. Galactic Archaeology with asteroseismology and spectroscopy: Red giants observed by CoRoT and APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, F; Rodrigues, T S; Miglio, A; Montalbán, J; Mosser, B; Girardi, L; Valentini, M; Noels, A; Morel, T; Johnson, J A; Schultheis, M; Baudin, F; Peralta, R de Assis; Hekker, S; Themeßl, N; Kallinger, T; García, R A; Mathur, S; Baglin, A; Santiago, B X; Martig, M; Minchev, I; Steinmetz, M; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Prieto, C Allende; Cunha, K; Beers, T C; Epstein, C; Pérez, A E García; García-Hernández, D A; Harding, P; Holtzman, J; Majewski, S R; Mészáros, Sz; Nidever, D; Pan, K; Pinsonneault, M; Schiavon, R P; Schneider, D P; Shetrone, M D; Stassun, K; Zamora, O; Zasowski, G

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the space missions CoRoT and Kepler, it has become feasible to determine precise asteroseismic masses and ages for large samples of red-giant stars. In this paper, we present the CoRoGEE dataset -- obtained from CoRoT lightcurves for 606 red giant stars in two fields of the Galactic disc which have been co-observed for an ancillary project of APOGEE. We have used the Bayesian parameter estimation code PARAM to calculate distances, extinctions, masses, and ages for these stars in a homogeneous analysis, resulting in relative statistical uncertainties of $\\sim2\\%$ in distance, $\\sim4\\%$ in radius, $\\sim9\\%$ in mass and $\\sim25\\%$ in age. We also assess systematic age uncertainties due to different input physics and mass loss. We discuss the correlation between ages and chemical abundance patterns of field stars over a large radial range of the Milky Way's disc (5 kpc $

  3. XX. CoRoT-20b: A very high density, high eccentricity transiting giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Deleuil, M; Ferraz-Mello, S; Erikson, A; Bouchy, F; Havel, M; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J -M; Alonso, R; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bordé, P; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carpano, S; Cavarroc, C; Csizmadia, Sz; Damiani, C; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Fridlund, M; Hébrard, G; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Guenther, E; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Léger, A; Lammer, H; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Ofir, A; Parviainen, H; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rodríguez, A; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Tal-Or, L; Tingley, B; Weingrill, J; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery by the CoRoT space mission of a new giant planet, CoRoT-20b. The planet has a mass of 4.24 +/- 0.23 MJ and a radius of 0.84 +/- 0.04 RJ. With a mean density of 8.87 +/- 1.10 g/cm^3, it is among the most compact planets known so far. Evolution models for the planet suggest a mass of heavy elements of the order of 800 ME if embedded in a central core, requiring a revision either of the planet formation models or of planet evolution and structure models. We note however that smaller amounts of heavy elements are expected from more realistic models in which they are mixed throughout the envelope. The planet orbits a G-type star with an orbital period of 9.24 days and an eccentricity of 0.56. The star's projected rotational velocity is vsini = 4.5 +/- 1.0 km/s, corresponding to a spin period of 11.5 +/- 3.1 days if its axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane. In the framework of Darwinian theories and neglecting stellar magnetic breaking, we calculate the tidal evolution of t...

  4. A new planetary mapping for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Kokhanov, Alexander; Rodionova, Janna; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Kreslavsky, Mikhail; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The wide studies of Solar system, including different planetary bodies, were announced by new Russian space program. Their geodesy and cartography support provides by MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (http://mexlab.miigaik.ru/eng) in frames of the new project "Studies of Fundamental Geodetic Parameters and Topography of Planets and Satellites". The objects of study are satellites of the outer planets (satellites of Jupiter - Europa, Calisto and Ganymede; Saturnine satellite Enceladus), some planets (Mercury and Mars) and the satellites of the terrestrial planets - Phobos (Mars) and the Moon (Earth). The new research project, which started in 2014, will address the following important scientific and practical tasks: - Creating new three-dimensional geodetic control point networks of satellites of the outer planets using innovative photogrammetry techniques; - Determination of fundamental geodetic parameters and study size, shape, and spin parameters and to create the basic framework for research of their surfaces; - Studies of relief of planetary bodies and comparative analysis of general surface characteristics of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury, as well as studies of morphometric parameters of volcanic formations on the Moon and Mars; - Modeling of meteoritic bombardment of celestial bodies and the study of the dynamics of particle emissions caused by a meteorite impacts; - Development of geodatabase for studies of planetary bodies, including creation of object catalogues, (craters and volcanic forms, etc.), and thematic mapping using GIS technology. The significance of the project is defined both by necessity of obtaining fundamental characteristics of the Solar System bodies, and practical tasks in preparation for future Russian and international space missions to the Jupiter system (Laplace-P and JUICE), the Moon (Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource), Mars (Exo-Mars), Mercury (Bepi-Colombo), and possible mission to Phobos (project Boomerang). For cartographic support of

  5. Formation of plasmasphere in the non-ideal corotation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumin, Yurii

    It is well-known that the standard model of plasmasphere formation by the combined action of convection and the ideal corotation fields is too simplified and does not describe some important features. One of attempts to improve it was undertaken a few years ago in our paper [1], where we considered generation of the corotation field in the strongly-anisotropic magnetospheric plasma and took into account distortion of this field in high latitudes due to escape of the polarization charges along the open magnetic field lines. In the present report, we further develop the idea of refinement of the corotation field, particularly, by the consideration of the magnetic dipole inclined with respect to the rotation axis. It will be shown that all the above-mentioned improvements result in the more adequate description of the position of plasmapause both in the quiet and disturbed conditions. References: 1. Yu.V. Dumin. The Corotation Field in Collisionless Magnetospheric Plasma and Its Influence on Average Electric Field in the Lower Atmosphere. Advances in Space Research, v.30, p.2209 (2002).

  6. Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

    1993-09-01

    The annual report Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions is presented. The reporting period is 16 Aug. 1992 to 15 Aug. 1993. However, the primary focus will be work performed since submission of our semi-annual progress report in Feb. 1993. Substantial progress was made. We currently feel confident in providing guidelines for motor and control strategy selection in electromechanical actuators to be used in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. A small portion was presented in the semi-annual report. At this point, we have implemented highly detailed simulations of various motor/drive systems. The primary motor candidates were the brushless dc machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, and the induction machine. The primary control implementations were pulse width modulation and hysteresis current control. Each of the two control strategies were applied to each of the three motor choices. With either pulse width modulation or hysteresis current control, the induction machine was always vector controlled. A standard test position command sequence for system performance evaluation is defined. Currently, we are gathering all of the necessary data for formal presentation of the results. Briefly stated for TVC application, we feel that the brushless dc machine operating under PWM current control is the best option. Substantial details on the topic, with supporting simulation results, will be provided later, in the form of a technical paper prepared for submission and also in the next progress report with more detail than allowed for paper publication.

  7. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  8. High-Efficiency Reliable Stirling Generator for Space Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs advanced power-conversion technologies to improve the efficiency and reliability of power conversion for space exploration missions. We propose to develop...

  9. Conceptual Design Methods and the Application of a Tradespace Modeling Tool for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melissa A.; Chase, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Concept studies for deep space missions are typically time-consuming and costly, given the variety of missions and uniqueness of each design. Yet, in an increasingly cost-constrained environment, it is critical to identify the most scientifically valuable and cost-effective designs early in the design process. Modeling is an integral part in helping to identify the most desirable design option. While some spacecraft design models currently exist for Earth-orbiting spacecraft, there has been less success with deep space missions. Instead, these missions require a modified design and modeling approach to enable the same construction of a comprehensive, yet credible, mission tradespace. This paper presents an approach for efficiently constructing such a mission tradespace. In addition to a proposed design and modeling approach, three case study missions are presented including a solar orbiter, a Europa orbiter, and a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) sample return mission.

  10. Probing the Earth from space - The Aristoteles mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyer, M.; Silvestrin, P.; Aguirre, M.

    1992-11-01

    The Aristoteles mission has been under study by the Agency since 1987. Its aim is to provide global models of the Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and accuracy. Following earlier discussions, in 1990 NASA confirmed its intention to participate in the mission with the provision of a dedicated launch and of additional instruments. This has made it possible to enhance the scientific and application-orientated value of the mission and to optimize the spacecraft design. This article reviews the new joint ESA-NASA Aristoteles mission, as well as the status of the system definition and of the associated technological pre-development activities.

  11. 48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... System Personnel Reliability Program. 1852.246-70 Section 1852.246-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Reliability Program. As prescribed in 1846.370(a), insert the following clause: Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program (MAR 1997) (a) In implementation of the Mission Critical Space...

  12. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will

  13. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will a

  14. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will a

  15. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  16. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight.

  17. High pressure rotating reverse osmosis for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen Pederson, Cynthia Lynn

    Rotating reverse osmosis, which uses reverse osmosis to purify water and rotating filtration to improve the efficacy of filtration, has great potential for wastewater recycling on a long term space mission. Previous investigations of a proof-of-concept device indicated that the most efficient method to improve rotating reverse osmosis performance is to increase the operational pressure. Thus, a second generation device and fluid circuit were designed, fabricated, and tested to permit high pressure operation for long time periods. The design overcame several obstacles including membrane attachment, rotating seal design, and fluid and pressure management. A theoretical model of rotating reverse osmosis was modified to properly account for the flow conditions in the new design. Tests lasting a week were conducted with a variety of model wastewaters. Significant fouling and a decrease in flux were observed after three days of testing regardless of the operational parameters. A semi-empirical model, the fouling potential, was added to the theoretical model to account for the fouling. This allowed the simulation of 48 hour cleaning cycles that significantly increased the flux of the device. Experimental investigation of the rotational speed and concentrate flow rate indicated that an increase in either parameter decreased the fouling slightly. A week long test of a wastewater ersatz with a biocide did not exhibit a decrease in flux around day three that otherwise occurred. Therefore, biofouling was identified as the primary mechanism of fouling. Rotating reverse osmosis was compared with conventional spiral wound reverse osmosis and displayed increased rejection under dead end filtration conditions. The rotating device exhibited similar rejection and increased flux compared to a tubular reverse osmosis device previously used in a NASA wastewater recovery system. The integration of the rotating device into a NASA water recovery management system was evaluated. Lastly, a

  18. Radiometer effect in the μSCOPE space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Comandi, G. L.; Toncelli, R.; Polacco, E.

    2002-12-01

    Space experiments to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) are affected by a systematic radiometer effect having the same signature as the target signal. In [PhRvD 63 (2001) 101101(R)] we have investigated this effect for the three proposed experiments currently under study by space agencies: μSCOPE, STEP and GG, setting the requirements to be met—on temperature gradients at the level of the test masses—for each experiment to reach its goal. We have now re-examined the radiometer effect in the case of μSCOPE and carried out a quantitative comparative analysis, on this issue, with the proposed heliocentric LISA mission for the detection of gravity waves. We find that, even assuming that the μSCOPE spacecraft and payload be built to meet all the challenging requirements of LISA, temperature gradients along its test masses would still make the radiometer effect larger than the target signal of an EP violation because of flying in the low geocentric orbit required for EP testing. We find no way to separate with certainty the radiometer systematic disturbance from the signal. μSCOPE is designed to fly a second accelerometer whose test masses have the same composition, in order to separate out systematic effects which—not being composition dependent like the signal—must be detected by both accelerometers. We point out that this accelerometer is in fact insensitive to the radiometer effect, just as it is to an EP violation signal, and therefore even having it onboard will not allow this disturbance to be separated out. μSCOPE is under construction and it is scheduled to fly in 2004. If it will detect a signal to the expected level, it will be impossible to establish with certainty whether it is due to the well known classical radiometer effect or else to a violation of the equivalence principle—which would invalidate General Relativity. The option to increase the rotation speed of the spacecraft (now set at about 10 -3 Hz) so as to average out the temperature

  19. The external respiration and gas exchange in space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Kotov, A. N.

    Literature data and results of our own studies into an effect of micro- and macro-gravity on an external respiration function of man are presented. It is found that in cosmonauts following the 7-366 day space missions there is an enhanced tendency associated with an increased flight duration toward a decrease in the lung volume and breathing mechanics parameters: forced vital capacity of the lungs (FVC) by 5-25 percent, peak inspiratory and expiratory (air) flows (PIF, PEF) by 5-40 percent. A decrease in FVC appears to be explained by a new balance of elastic forces of the lungs, chest and abdomen occuring in microgravity as well as by an increased blood filling and pulmonary hydration. A decline of PIF and PEF is probalbly resulted from antigravitational deconditioning of the respiratory muscles with which a postflight decreased physical performance can in part be associated. The ventilation/perfusion ratios during orthostasis and +G Z and +G X accelerations are estimated. The biophysical nature of developing the absorption atelectases on a combined exposure to accelerations and 100% oxygen breathing is confirmed. A hypothesis that hypervolemia and pulmonary congestion can increase the tendency toward the development of atelectases in space in particular during pure oxygen breathing is suggested. Respiratory physiology problem area which is of interest for space medicine is defined. It is well known that due to present-day technologic progress and accomplishments in applied physiology including applied respiration physiology there currently exist sophisticated technical facilities in operation maintaining the life and professional working capacity of a man in various natural environments: on Earth, under water and in space. By the way, the biomedical involvement in developing and constructing such facilities has enabled an accumulation of a great body of information from experimental studies and full-scale trails to examine the effects of the changed environments

  20. Revisiting the Corotation Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, P. L.

    2001-05-01

    The rotation of the Earth's dipole magnetic field produces a corotation electric field in the nonrotating frame of reference. A quick calculation implies that this field might arise from the relative motion of an observer in the nonrotating frame and the motion of rotating magnetic field lines. However, upon applying Faraday's Law one finds that total time rate of change of the magnetic field as seen in the nonrotating frame is zero due to the azimuthal symmetry of the dipole. Therefore, classical EM theory(1) predicts a zero corotation electric field in the nonrotating frame for a vacuum. This conundrum has been traditionally treated in the following manner(2,3). 1) Start with a vacuum state with no conductors and plasma present. The transformation between E (the electric field in the nonrotating frame) and E' (the electric field in the rotating frame)implies that in the rotating frame E' is nonzero while E = 0. 2) In the presence of a thin conducting spherical shell (the ionosphere) polarization charges form in the shell due to the magnetic force on the electrons. A polarization electric field Ep is created such that in the idealized case the shell has a uniform electric potential. This Ep has a component along the magnetic field lines outside the shell. 3) Plasma will polarize along B, thus canceling the parallel component of Ep which allows the potential on the shell to be mapped along the magnetic field lines setting E' = 0. From the transformation equation E is now nonzero. This is the electric field required in the nonrotating frame for the plasma to corotate with the dipole. The presence of the corotation electric field is not a local result, but a nonlocal effect that requires the presence of an ionosphere and a conducting plasma. (1) W.K.H. Panofsky and M. Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, Addison-Wesley, 1956. (2) H. Alfven and C.-G. Falthammar, Cosmical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., Oxford Press, 1963. (3) E.W.Hones and J.E.Bergeson, J. Geophys

  1. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  2. Non-Solar Photovoltaics for Small Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Clark, Eric B.; Myers, Matthew G.; Piszazor, Michael F.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has missions planned to targets in the solar system ranging from the permanently shadowed craters of Mercury to the icy reaches of the Kuiper belt and beyond. In 2011, the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) requested the NASA Ames and Glenn Research Centers to assess the potential of small power supplies based on direct conversion of energy from radioisotope sources for future NASA missions; and in particular to assess whether alphavoltaic and betavoltaic power sources could be of potential benefit in small missions, as well as examining the use of miniaturized thermophotovoltaic power supplies. This paper summarizes the results of that assessment.

  3. An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Rauwolf, Gerald A.; Maggio, Gaspare; Patel, Saroj; Sorensen, Kirk

    2002-01-01

    A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the crewed portion of the mission performed in one year or less. This study used exploration propulsion system team technology specialist advocates to identify seven meaningful, representative mission architecture scenarios to ``best'' demonstrate the capability of such in-space propulsion technology options to support the near-term crewed Mars mission requirement. Additionally, a common set of top-level mission/system requirements was established for the study, which was incorporated in the assessment of all the mission options considered. Mission performance for abundant chemical (Ab-Chem), bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR), high power nuclear electric propulsion (HP-NEP), momentum tether/chemical, solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar electric propulsion/chemical (SEP-Chem) and Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) based missions were estimated for this quick trip, 2018 crewed Mars flight opportunity. Each of these mission options are characterized in terms of their overall mission performance capability, crewed mission duration, Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), which including dry and propellant weight required, overall mission time, number of flight elements (propulsion units/tank sets), and number of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicle launches. Potential top-level development, implementation, and operational issues/risks for each mission scenario considered are also identified. .

  4. The Development and Mission of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, David B.; Irace, William R.; Werner, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SIRTF mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, orbit, operations and project management approach; and this paper serves as an introduction to the accompanying set of detailed papers about specific aspects of SIRTF.

  5. Space and Astrophysical Plasmas : High energy universe – Satellite missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinod Krishan

    2000-11-01

    A variety of satellite missions to observe the high energy universe are currently operating and some more with more versatility and capability are on the anvil. In this paper, after giving a brief introduction to the constituents of the high energy universe and the related plasma physical problems, general as well as specific features of the current and future x-ray and gamma-ray satellite missions are described.

  6. Stellar classification of CoRoT targets

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Moutou, C; Deleuil, M; Ysard, N; Baudin, F; Deeg, H

    2016-01-01

    The CoRoT faint stars channel observed about 163 600 targets to detect transiting planetary companions. Because CoRoT targets are faint (11< r <16) and close to the galactic plane, only a small subsample has been observed spectroscopically. We describe the latest classification scheme used to derive the spectral type of CoRoT targets, which is based on broadband multi-colour photometry. We assess the accuracy of this spectral classification for the first time. We find that the classification method performs better for stars that were observed during the mission-dedicated photometric ground-based campaigns.The luminosity class is wrong for less than 7% of the targets. Generally, the effective temperature of stars classified as early type (O, B, and A) is overestimated. Conversely, the temperature of stars classified as later type tends to be underestimated. This is mainly due to the adverse effect of interstellar reddening. We find that the median error on the effective temperature is less than 5% for dw...

  7. Generating an optimal target list for a space mission dedicated to transit spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingales, Tiziano

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays several space missions and ground-based surveys discovered more than 3000 exoplanets. The characterization of their atmospheres is necessary to understand how were they formed, how do they evolve, how are they affected by starlight, stellar winds and other fundamental questions. ARIEL and Twinkle are two dedicated space mission for the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. ARIEL is one the three candidates for the next ESA medium class mission expected to be launched in 2026. Twinkle, proposed to be launched in 2019, is a small, low-cost mission. In order to draft the target lists of the two missions, it is important to look for the best targets that can be observed with the instrumentationassembled on the two satellites. The final lists have to take into account both the number of already known exoplanets and the number of existing exoplanets still not discovered (thanks to the Kepler space mission we can estimate the occurrence rate of exoplanets around the stars, Fressin et al, 2013). Future space missions (GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, Kepler II and TESS) and ground-based surveys will deliver many new exoplanets in the next decade. For this reason a trustworthy target list of exoplanets for a space mission planned to be launched in 2026 (or 2019) needs to take intoaccount a more complete list than the currently available.

  8. Precision Laser Development for Interferometric Space Missions NGO, SGO, and GRACE Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, including the gravitational-wave missions NGO/SGO (formerly LISA) and the climate monitoring mission GRACE Follow-On, by fully utilizing the matured wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where simpler and more reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Nonplanar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier.

  9. Mixed modes in red-giant stars observed with CoRoT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosser, B.; Barban, C.; Montalban, J.; Beck, P.G.; Miglio, A.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M.J.; Hekker, S.; de Ridder, J.; Dupret, M.A.; Elsworth, Y.; Noels, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, A.E.; Samadi, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Catala, C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The CoRoT mission has provided thousands of red-giant light curves. The analysis of their solar-like oscillations allows us to characterize their stellar properties. Aims. Up to now, the global seismic parameters of the pressure modes have been unable to distinguish red-clump giants from

  10. A Virtual Social Support System for Long-Duration Space Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our overall goal is to enhance the overall behavior health and performance of personnel on (future potential) long-duration missions. We propose to use a local...

  11. Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Griffin, Devon

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

  12. High Rate Tellecommunications for Mars Planetary and Proximity Ranges and other Deep-Space Missions-A Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space vehicles for deep space exploration rely on microwave and millimeter wave links for communication with earth stations. As the mission of space probes expands,...

  13. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2 (JMS Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2 (JMS Inc 2) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE...DSN Phone: DSN Fax: Date Assigned: May 16, 2014 Program Information Program Name Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2

  14. The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

  15. Astrometric Gravitation Probe: a space mission concept for fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Fienga, Agnes; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Riva, Alberto; Busonero, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    Modern technological developments have pushed the accuracy of astrometric measurements in the visible band down to the micro-arcsec level. This allows to test theories of gravity in the weak field limit to unprecedented level, with possible consequences spanning from the validity of fundamental physics principles, to tests of theories describing cosmological and galactic dynamics without resorting to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.This is the main goal of Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) mission, which will be achieved by highly accurate astrometric determination of light deflection (as a modern rendition of the Dyson, Eddington, and Robertson eclipse experiment of 1919), aberration, and of the orbits of selected Solar System objects, with specific reference to the excess shift of the pericentre effect.The AGP concept was recently proposed for the recent call for ESA M4 missions as a collaboration among several scientists coming from many different European and US institutions. Its payload is based on a 1.15 m diameter telescope fed through a coronagraphic system by four fields, two set in symmetric positions around the Sun, and two in the opposite direction, all imaged on a CCD detector. Large parts of the instrument are common mode to all fields. The baseline operation mode is the scan of the ±1.13 deg Ecliptic strip, repeated for a minimum of 3 years and up to an optimal duration of 5 years. Operations and calibrations are simultaneous, defined in order to ensure common mode instrumental effects, identified and removed in data reduction. The astrometric and coronagraphic technologies build on the heritage of Gaia and Solar Orbiter.We review the mission concept and its science case, and discuss how this measurement concepts can be scaled to different mission implementations.

  16. Low-Cost Approaches to Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, G. F.; Edwards, C. D.; Schober, W. R.; Hooke, A. J.; Tai, W. S.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has brought about a radical transformation in NASA's planetary exploration program. At the beginning of this decade, NASA was focused on the Cassini mission to Saturn. Following on the heels of the successful Voyager and Galileo missions, Cassini represents the culmination of an evolution towards successively larger, more complex, and more expensive spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft weighs in at over 5 metric tons, and carries an entry probe and a sophisticated suite of sensors supporting 27 different science investigations enabling a comprehensive scientific investigation of Saturn with a single spacecraft. The cost of this spacecraft exceeded $2B, including the cost of the large Titan IV launch vehicle. During Cassini development, NASA realized that it could no longer afford these "flagship" missions, and the agency moved aggressively towards a "faster, better, cheaper" design philosophy of focused science goals and simpler, rapidly-developed spacecraft, allowing much more frequent launches of smaller, lower-cost missions. The Mars Global Surveyor, launched in November 1996, is an example of this new paradigm. Developed in less than 3-years, MGS is only one-fifth the mass of Cassini, and only cost on the order of $220M. The reduced spacecraft mass allows use of the smaller, lower cost Delta launch vehicle. Currently in orbit about Mars, MGS carries a focused suite of six science instruments that are currently returning high-resolution remote sensing of the Martian surface. The future calls for continued even more aggressive mass and cost targets. Examples of these next-generation goals are embodied in the Mars Micromission spacecraft concept, targeted for launch in 2003. With a mass of only 200kg, this lightweight bus can be tailored to carry a variety of payloads to Mars or other inner-planet destinations. The design of the Micromission spacecraft enable them to be launched at extremely low cost as a secondary "piggyback" payload.

  17. Spacebuoy: A University Nanosat Space Weather Mission (III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    model , utilizing a low-cost satellite infrastructure • Student education Mission Overview 3 • SRI International Cubesat “Tiny” Ionospheric...nighttime F-region ionosphere, 135.6 nm photons emitted from the recombination of atomic oxygen ions • On-board attitude control – Blue Canyon XACT...Payload to Preheat • Record Payload Health (low rate) • Exercise Manual Control of ADCS system • Command Magnetorquers • Validate Attitude & Rate

  18. Development of a simulation environment to test space missions COTS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, S.; Knoll, A.; Melanson, P.; Tafazoli, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Software and Ground Segment Section (SGS) has the mandate to develop innovative emerging software and on-board satellite and ground segment computer technologies. To that end, there is an ongoing development of a simulation environment to test COTS (Commercial-Of-The-Shelf) technologies. There are severe cost constraints in all aspects of many space missions due to the limited return on investment and scarce commercialization opportunities that come with many science missions. There is an opportunity to explore the innovative implementation of COTS technologies to reduce the mission cost and maximize performance available from COTS components. However, using COTS technologies in the space environment has ist constraints and therefore designing a spacecraft mission has to involve some new techniques that allow implementation of these components and minimize the risk of failure. The goal of our project is to develop a simulation environment, itself using COTS components, and then to allow the seamless integration of various components to test spacecraft mission concepts. For example, one of the aspects of using COTS processors in space is to protect them from the radiation environment. The current state of the simulation tests an innovative software EDAC (Error Detection and Correction) package and a redundant processor configuration to investigate protection against the effects of radiation and other failures on a generic mission. It also includes the capability to test formation-flying concepts that have the potential to revolutionize cost reduction efforts for space missions and to enable new space applications. This paper describes the simulation environment in detail and illustrates some of the technologies being tested for possible future space missions. The paper concludes with a look at the future development of the simulation environment and possible benefits of its use as well as the lessons learned to date.

  19. Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2001 NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Also under development are several technologies for low cost sample return missions. These include a low cost Hall effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA s future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

  20. Products from NASA's in-space propulsion technology program applicable to low-cost planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Since September 2001, NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Under development are several technologies for low-cost sample return missions. These include a low-cost Hall-effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light-weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA's future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

  1. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission III. The spectroscopic transit of CoRoT-Exo-2b with SOPHIE and HARPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchy, F; Deleuil, M; Loeillet, B; Hatzes, A P; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Benz, W; Bordé, P; Deeg, H J; De la Reza, R; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Mayor, M; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Pont, F; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Schneider, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G

    2008-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic transit of the massive hot-Jupiter CoRoT-Exo-2b observed with the high-precision spectrographs SOPHIE and HARPS. By modeling the radial velocity anomaly occurring during the transit due to the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, we determine the sky-projected angle between the stellar spin and the planetary orbital axis to be close to zero lambda=7.2+-4.5 deg, and we secure the planetary nature of CoRoT-Exo-2b. We discuss the influence of the stellar activity on the RM modeling. Spectral analysis of the parent star from HARPS spectra are presented.

  2. Transit timing analysis of CoRoT-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Sz; Barge, P; Agol, E; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J M; Bonomo, A S; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Deeg, H J; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Guenther, E W; Fridlund, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Lázaro, C; Leger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Paetzold, M; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Schneider, J; Wuchterl, G; Gandolfi, D

    2009-01-01

    CoRoT, the pioneer space-based transit search, steadily provides thousands of high-precision light curves with continuous time sampling over periods of up to 5 months. The transits of a planet perturbed by an additional object are not strictly periodic. By studying the transit timing variations (TTVs), additional objects can be detected in the system. A transit timing analysis of CoRoT-1b is carried out to constrain the existence of additional planets in the system. We used data obtained by an improved version of the CoRoT data pipeline (version 2.0). Individual transits were fitted to determine the mid-transit times, and we analyzed the derived $O-C$ diagram. N-body integrations were used to place limits on secondary planets. No periodic timing variations with a period shorter than the observational window (55 days) are found. The presence of an Earth-mass Trojan is not likely. A planet of mass greater than $\\sim 1$ Earth mass can be ruled out by the present data if the object is in a 2:1 (exterior) mean mot...

  3. The Space Missions WAXS/WFXT and SWIFT New Targets for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Chincarini, G L

    1999-01-01

    At OAB we were, during the year 1998, deeply involved in planning two important space missions for which very large ground based telescopes, VLT in particular, would play a very large and important role in the optical followup. The study of the first mission, Wide Angle X-ray Survey using a Wide Field X-ray Telescope, was coordinated by the Observatory of Brera, involved mainly Italian industries and resulted in a proposal to the Italian Space Agency under the Small Satellite Program. The second mission, SWIFT, has been coordinated and directed by the Goddard Space Flight Center and resulted in the submission of a proposal to NASA under the MIDEX program. The science goal of this mission is the detection and study of the Gamma-ray bursts.

  4. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  5. Perspectives &advanced projects for small satellite missions at Carlo Gavazzi Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morea, G.; Sabatini, P.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents the Planned and on-going programs in Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) for the next five years. Thanks to the success of the first MITA platform mission, CGS has acquired a consolidated experience in Satellite System Design and of Prime Contractor in Satellite programmes. After four years from launch of first MITA platform from Plesetsk (CSI) several mission concept and satellite program have started and are under developing. The common elements to these program is the low mission cost and short development plan. The first ASI Scientific Small Mission using the MITA platform, AGILE is a Gamma Ray detector aimed to identify Gamma Ray Bursts. The Payload has been developed with the contribution of a large group of Italian Research Centres and Institutes, Carlo Gavazzi Space is also responsible for the overall mission as leader of an Italian Consortium. In the frame of ASI's Earth Observation Programmes, Carlo Gavazzi Space has also successfully concluded the Phase B/C of the HypSEO (HyperSpectral Earth Observer) mission. The Desertsat satellite, devoted to the study of the sand dunes movements and to the assessment of the desertification process, is a joint collaboration with ASI and Egypt. Desertsat is equipped with an Multispectral imager. PALAMEDE, whose peculiar characteristics are two: the first is to use components and technologies not space qualified and therefore by far cheaper than those normally used for space systems, the second is that it is entirely realised by the students of Politecnico.

  6. Integrated Modeling, Analysis, and Verification for Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will further MBSE technology in fundamental ways by strengthening the link between SysML tools and framework engineering execution environments. Phoenix...

  7. LunarCube for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co., Inc. and Morehead State University propose to develop a 6U CubeSat capable of reaching a lunar orbit from GEO. The primary objective is to demonstrate...

  8. Space Station Workshop: Commercial Missions and User Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The topics of discussion addressed during a three day workshop on commercial application in space are presented. Approximately half of the program was directed towards an overview and orientation to the Space Station Project; the technical attributes of space; and present and future potential commercial opportunities. The remaining time was spent addressing technological issues presented by previously-formed industry working groups, who attempted to identify the technology needs, problems or issues faced and/or anticipated by the following industries: extraction (mining, agriculture, petroleum, fishing, etc.); fabrication (manufacturing, automotive, aircraft, chemical, pharmaceutical and electronics); and services (communications, transportation and retail robotics). After the industry groups presented their technology issues, the workshop divided into smaller discussion groups composed of: space experts from NASA; academia; industry experts in the appropriate disciplines; and other workshop participants. The needs identified by the industry working groups, space station technical requirements, proposed commercial ventures and other issues related to space commercialization were discussed. The material summarized and reported are the consensus from the discussion groups.

  9. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  10. Spectroscopic determination of the fundamental parameters of 66 B-type stars in the field-of-view of the CoRoT satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Lefever, K; Morel, T; Aerts, C; Decin, L; Briquet, M

    2009-01-01

    We aim to determine the fundamental parameters of a sample of B stars with apparent visual magnitudes below 8 in the field-of-view of the CoRoT space mission, from high-resolution spectroscopy. We developed an automatic procedure for the spectroscopic analysis of B-type stars with winds, based on an extensive grid of FASTWIND model atmospheres. We use the equivalent widths and/or the line profile shapes of continuum normalized hydrogen, helium and silicon line profiles to determine the fundamental properties of these stars in an automated way. After thorough tests, both on synthetic datasets and on very high-quality, high-resolution spectra of B stars for which we already had accurate values of their physical properties from alternative analyses, we applied our method to 66 B-type stars contained in the ground-based archive of the CoRoT space mission. We discuss the statistical properties of the sample and compare them with those predicted by evolutionary models of B stars. Our spectroscopic results provide a...

  11. Characterizing the Radiation Survivability of Space Solar Cell Technologies for Heliospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Walker, D.; Mann, C. J.; Yue, Y.; Nocerino, J. C.; Smith, B. S.; Mulligan, T.

    2016-12-01

    Space solar cells are responsible for powering the majority of heliospheric space missions. This paper will discuss methods for characterizing space solar cell technologies for on-orbit operations that rely on a series of laboratory tests that include measuring the solar cells' beginning of life performance under simulated (e.g. AM0 or air mass zero) sunlight over different operating temperatures and observing their end of life performance following exposure to laboratory-generated charged particle radiation (protons and electrons). The Aerospace Corporation operates a proton implanter as well as electron gun facilities and collaborates with external radiation effects facilities to expose space solar cells or other space technologies to representative space radiation environments (i.e. heliosphere or magnetosphere of Earth or other planets), with goals of characterizing how the technologies perform over an anticipated space mission timeline and, through the application of precision diagnostic capabilities, understanding what part of the solar cell is impacted by varying space radiation environments. More recently, Aerospace has been hosting solar cell flight tests on its previously-flown CubeSat avionics bus, providing opportunities to compare the laboratory tests to on-orbit observations. We hope through discussion of the lessons learned and methods we use to characterize how solar cells perform after space radiation exposure that similar methodology could be adopted by others to improve the state of knowledge on the survivability of other space technologies required for future space missions.

  12. High-performing simulations of the space radiation environment for the International Space Station and Apollo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Matthew Lawrence

    The space radiation environment is a significant challenge to future manned and unmanned space travels. Future missions will rely more on accurate simulations of radiation transport in space through spacecraft to predict astronaut dose and energy deposition within spacecraft electronics. The International Space Station provides long-term measurements of the radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); however, only the Apollo missions provided dosimetry data beyond LEO. Thus dosimetry analysis for deep space missions is poorly supported with currently available data, and there is a need to develop dosimetry-predicting models for extended deep space missions. GEANT4, a Monte Carlo Method, provides a powerful toolkit in C++ for simulation of radiation transport in arbitrary media, thus including the spacecraft and space travels. The newest version of GEANT4 supports multithreading and MPI, resulting in faster distributive processing of simulations in high-performance computing clusters. This thesis introduces a new application based on GEANT4 that greatly reduces computational time using Kingspeak and Ember computational clusters at the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) to simulate radiation transport through full spacecraft geometry, reducing simulation time to hours instead of weeks without post simulation processing. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new set of detectors besides the historically used International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) spheres for calculating dose distribution, including a Thermoluminescent Detector (TLD), Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), and human phantom combined with a series of new primitive scorers in GEANT4 to calculate dose equivalence based on the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) standards. The developed models in this thesis predict dose depositions in the International Space Station and during the Apollo missions showing good agreement with experimental measurements

  13. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  14. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  15. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios.

  16. Space weathering of primitive bodies: From laboratory measurements to space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Cateline; Brunetto, Rosario; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Fornasier, Sonia; Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard; Fulchignoni, Marcello

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering (SpWe) is a combination of micrometeorite bombardment and irradiation by energetic particles leading to surface alterations of airless bodies and affecting their reflectance spectra. Numerous studies have been made on S-type asteroids, including laboratory experiments on silicate materials and a direct confirmation measured on Itokawa grains showing darkening and reddening trends. Few results have been obtained for C-types, no general trend has been found. In order to understand the influence of SpWe on primitive asteroids, we present an experimental study on ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites, simulating solar wind. The goal of our work is to better constrain the SpWe processes of low albedo objects and to develop a model that will also support sample return missions (OSIRIS-REx/NASA and Hayabusa-2/JAXA).The irradiations were performed on pressed pellets of several CC types, as well as on some silicate samples. We used 40 keV He+ with fluences up to 6.1016 ions/cm2. Reflectance spectra were acquired ex situ before and after irradiations in the visible to mid-infrared range (0.4 - 16 µm). In the MIR range, we observe a shift of the phyllosilicates (near 3 and 10 µm) and silicates (near 10 µm) bands toward longer wavelength. In the visible-NIR range, we confirm the red/dark trends on silicates, but CCs present a continuum of behaviors after ion irradiation correlated with the initial albedo/composition: from red to blue and from dark to bright.We propose a model for SpWe effects on low albedo objects, showing that those with initial albedo between 5 and 9 % do not suffer SpWe effects in the visible range.These new spectral alterations due to SpWe can be used by future and ongoing space missions to detect pristine/altered materials. To do so, we have started looking at VIR data on Ceres. Craters are ideal for this purpose as they expose both old and young surfaces in the same area. We have been looking at HAMO data on several craters

  17. Life sciences payloads analyses and technical program planning studies. [project planning of space missions of space shuttles in aerospace medicine and space biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Contractural requirements, project planning, equipment specifications, and technical data for space shuttle biological experiment payloads are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) urine collection and processing on the space shuttle, (2) space processing of biochemical and biomedical materials, (3) mission simulations, and (4) biomedical equipment.

  18. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  19. Private ground infrastructures for space exploration missions simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchier, Alain

    2010-06-01

    The Mars Society, a private non profit organisation devoted to promote the red planet exploration, decided to implement simulated Mars habitat in two locations on Earth: in northern Canada on the rim of a meteoritic crater (2000), in a US Utah desert, location of a past Jurassic sea (2001). These habitats have been built with large similarities to actual planned habitats for first Mars exploration missions. Participation is open to everybody either proposing experimentations or wishing only to participate as a crew member. Participants are from different organizations: Mars Society, Universities, experimenters working with NASA or ESA. The general philosophy of the work conducted is not to do an innovative scientific work on the field but to learn how the scientific work is affected or modified by the simulation conditions. Outside activities are conducted with simulated spacesuits limiting the experimenter abilities. Technology or procedures experimentations are also conducted as well as experimentations on the crew psychology and behaviour.

  20. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  1. BIO-TELEMETRY PROBLEMS DURING PROLONGED SPACE MISSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    spacecraft) bio -telemetry systems present a relatively large number of problems. In fact, those involving important technical and experimental...research of radio waves propagation in solid, closed spaces and for the implementation of radio channels offering a highly reliable transmission of bio -telemetry data. (Author)

  2. Observing Ultra High Energy Cosmic Particles from Space: SEUSO, the Super Extreme Universe Space Observatory Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Santangelo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The experimental search for ultra high energy cosmic messengers, from $E\\sim 10^{19}$ eV to beyond $E\\sim 10^{20}$ eV, at the very end of the known energy spectrum, constitutes an extraordinary opportunity to explore a largely unknown aspect of our universe. Key scientific goals are the identification of the sources of ultra high energy particles, the measurement of their spectra and the study of galactic and local intergalactic magnetic fields. Ultra high energy particles might, also, carry evidence of unknown physics or of exotic particles relics of the early universe. To meet this challenge a significant increase in the integrated exposure is required. This implies a new class of experiments with larger acceptances and good understanding of the systematic uncertainties. Space based observatories can reach the instantaneous aperture and the integrated exposure necessary to systematically explore the ultra high energy universe. In this paper, after briefly summarising the science case of the mission, we desc...

  3. LUVOIR and HabEx mission concepts enabled by NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; MSFC Advanced Concept Office

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed candidate concepts for the 'decadal' LUVOIR and HabEx missions. ATLAST-12 is a 12.7 meter diameter on-axis telescope designed to meet the science objectives of the AURA Cosmic Earth to Living Earth report. HabEx-4 is a 4.0 meter diameter off-axis telescope designed to both search for habitable planets and perform general astrophysics observations. These mission concepts take advantage of the payload mass and volume capacity enabled by NASA Space Launch System to make the design architectures as simple as possible. Simplicity is important because complexity is a significant contributor to mission risk and cost. This poster summarizes the two mission concepts.

  4. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  5. Radiometer effect in space missions to test the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Comandi, G.; Toncelli, R.; Polacco, E.; Catastini, G.

    2001-05-01

    Experiments to test the equivalence principle in space by testing the universality of free fall in the gravitational field of the Earth have to take into account the radiometer effect, caused by temperature differences in the residual gas inside the spacecraft as it is exposed to the infrared radiation from Earth itself. We report the results of our evaluation of this effect for the three proposed experiments currently under investigation by space agencies: μSCOPE, STEP, and GG. It is found that in μSCOPE, which operates at room temperature, and even in STEP, where the effect is greatly reduced by means of very low temperatures, the radiometer effect is a serious limitation to the achievable sensitivity. Instead, by axially spinning the whole spacecraft and with an appropriate choice of the sensitivity axes-as proposed in GG-the radiometer effect averages out and becomes unimportant even at room temperature.

  6. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  7. The STEREO Mission: A New Approach to Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, michael L.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of the twin STEREO spacecraft in July 2006, a new capability will exist for both real-time space weather predictions and for advances in space weather research. Whereas previous spacecraft monitors of the sun such as ACE and SOH0 have been essentially on the sun-Earth line, the STEREO spacecraft will be in 1 AU orbits around the sun on either side of Earth and will be viewing the solar activity from distinctly different vantage points. As seen from the sun, the two spacecraft will separate at a rate of 45 degrees per year, with Earth bisecting the angle. The instrument complement on the two spacecraft will consist of a package of optical instruments capable of imaging the sun in the visible and ultraviolet from essentially the surface to 1 AU and beyond, a radio burst receiver capable of tracking solar eruptive events from an altitude of 2-3 Rs to 1 AU, and a comprehensive set of fields and particles instruments capable of measuring in situ solar events such as interplanetary magnetic clouds. In addition to normal daily recorded data transmissions, each spacecraft is equipped with a real-time beacon that will provide 1 to 5 minute snapshots or averages of the data from the various instruments. This beacon data will be received by NOAA and NASA tracking stations and then relayed to the STEREO Science Center located at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland where the data will be processed and made available within a goal of 5 minutes of receipt on the ground. With STEREO's instrumentation and unique view geometry, we believe considerable improvement can be made in space weather prediction capability as well as improved understanding of the three dimensional structure of solar transient events.

  8. Gas Pressure Measurements on Space Shuttle Mission-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    there have been numerous in-situ experiments designed to measure the gaseous contamination near the Shuttle [Green et al., 1985; Erlers et al., 1984...engines [ Erlers , 1984; Machuzak et al., 1993; Hunton, 19941. Engine-related pressure spikes were investigated by Narcisi et al. [19831, Wulf and von Zahn...Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1976. Erlers , H.K.F., S. Jacobs, L. Leger, and E. Miller (1984) Space Shuttle contamination measurements from

  9. Microgravity Playscapes: Play in Long-Term Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapi, Marianthi; Ackermann, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Th?e authors examine the potential impact of play on astronauts adapting to the extreme conditions of space travel. Th?ey cite research showing that well-trained astronauts, though in general physically fi?t and emotionally stable, can suffer from--among other things--boredom and sensory deprivation in the con?fines of the microgravity capsules…

  10. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  11. Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion For Manned Deep Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Dr Friedwardt

    2009-01-01

    Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite well possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the Oort cloud, rockets driven by deuterium fusion, can there be refueled. To obtain a high thrust with a high specific impulse, favors the propulsion by deuterium micro-bombs, and it is shown that the ignition of deuterium micro-bombs is possible by intense GeV proton beams, generated in space by using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated billion volt capacitor. The cost to develop this kind of propulsion system in space would be very high, but it can also be developed on earth by a magnetically insulated Super Marx Generator. Since the ignition of deuterium is theoretically possible with the Super Marx Generator, rather than deuterium-tritium ...

  12. The Tanpopo: An Astrobiology Mission on the International Space Station to Test Panspermia and Quasi-Panspermia Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Fushimi, H.; Hirako, T.; Kawai, J.; Obayashi, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Mita, H.; Yabuta, H.; Imai, E.; Nakagawa, K.; Takahashi, J.; Yokobori, S.; Yoshida, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawai, H.; Marumo, K.; Okudaira, K.; Tabata, M.; Yamashita, M.; Yano, H.; Yamagishi, A.; Tanpopo Wg

    2010-04-01

    The "TANPOPO mission" was proposed, where space dusts are to be captured with aerogel to analyze microorganisms and organics in them. Both pansermia and quasi-panspermia (interplanetary delivery of chemical seeds of life) are tested in the mission.

  13. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. III. No asymmetries in the transit of CoRoT-29b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallé, E.; Chen, G.; Alonso, R.; Nowak, G.; Deeg, H.; Cabrera, J.; Murgas, F.; Parviainen, H.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Nespral, D.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Iro, N.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The launch of the exoplanet space missions obtaining exquisite photometry from space has resulted in the discovery of thousands of planetary systems with very different physical properties and architectures. Among them, the exoplanet CoRoT-29b was identified in the light curves the mission obtained in summer 2011, and presented an asymmetric transit light curve, which was tentatively explained via the effects of gravity darkening. Aims: Transits of CoRoT-29b are measured with precision photometry, to characterize the reported asymmetry in their transit shape. Methods: Using the OSIRIS spectrograph at the 10-m GTC telescope, we perform spectro-photometric differential observations, which allow us to both calculate a high-accuracy photometric light curve, and a study of the color-dependence of the transit. Results: After careful data analysis, we find that the previously reported asymmetry is not present in either of two transits, observed in July 2014 and July 2015 with high photometric precisions of 300 ppm over 5 min. Due to the relative faintness of the star, we do not reach the precision necessary to perform transmission spectroscopy of its atmosphere, but we see no signs of color-dependency of the transit depth or duration. Conclusions: We conclude that the previously reported asymmetry may have been a time-dependent phenomenon, which did not occur in more recent epochs. Alternatively, instrumental effects in the discovery data may need to be reconsidered. Light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A62

  14. A high power ion thruster for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan M.; Snyder, John S.; Schneider, Analyn C.; Johnson, Lee K.; Sengupta, Anita

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System ion thruster was developed for potential outer planet robotic missions using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). This engine was designed to operate at power levels ranging from 13 to 28 kW at specific impulses of 6000-8500 s and for burn times of up to 10 years. State-of-the-art performance and life assessment tools were used to design the thruster, which featured 57-cm-diameter carbon-carbon composite grids operating at voltages of 3.5-6.5 kV. Preliminary validation of the thruster performance was accomplished with a laboratory model thruster, while in parallel, a flight-like development model (DM) thruster was completed and two DM thrusters fabricated. The first thruster completed full performance testing and a 2000-h wear test. The second successfully completed vibration tests at the full protoflight levels defined for this NEP program and then passed performance validation testing. The thruster design, performance, and the experimental validation of the design tools are discussed in this paper.

  15. The MOST Asteroseismology Mission: Ultraprecise Photometry from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gordon; Matthews, Jaymie; Kuschnig, Rainer; Johnson, Ron; Rucinski, Slavek; Pazder, John; Burley, Gregory; Walker, Andrew; Skaret, Kristina; Zee, Robert; Grocott, Simon; Carroll, Kieran; Sinclair, Peter; Sturgeon, Don; Harron, John

    2003-09-01

    The Microvariablity and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) mission is a low-cost microsatellite designed to detect low-degree acoustic oscillations (periods of minutes) with micromagnitude precision in solar-type stars and metal-poor subdwarfs. There are also plans to detect light reflected from giant, short-period, extrasolar planets and the oscillations of roAp stars and the turbulent variability in the dense winds of Wolf-Rayet stars. This paper describes the experiment and how we met the challenge of ultraprecise photometry despite severe constraints on the mass, volume, and power available for the instrument. A side-viewing, 150 mm aperture Rumak-Maksutov telescope feeds two frame-transfer CCDs, one for tracking and the other for science. There is a single 300 nm wide filter centered at 525 nm. Microlenses project Fabry images of the brighter (Vwheels and magnetotorquers. A solar safety shutter over the telescope diagonal is the only other moving part. Accumulated photometry will be used to calibrate response across the target field stop, and data will be compressed and downloaded to three dedicated ground stations.

  16. Probability of Causation for Space Radiation Carcinogenesis Following International Space Station, Near Earth Asteroid, and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer risk is an important concern for International Space Station (ISS) missions and future exploration missions. An important question concerns the likelihood of a causal association between a crew members radiation exposure and the occurrence of cancer. The probability of causation (PC), also denoted as attributable risk, is used to make such an estimate. This report summarizes the NASA model of space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties, including improvements to represent uncertainties in tissue-specific cancer incidence models for never-smokers and the U.S. average population. We report on tissue-specific cancer incidence estimates and PC for different post-mission times for ISS and exploration missions. An important conclusion from our analysis is that the NASA policy to limit the risk of exposure-induced death to 3% at the 95% confidence level largely ensures that estimates of the PC for most cancer types would not reach a level of significance. Reducing uncertainties through radiobiological research remains the most efficient method to extend mission length and establish effective mitigators for cancer risks. Efforts to establish biomarkers of space radiation-induced tumors and to estimate PC for rarer tumor types are briefly discussed.

  17. Background and applications of astrodynamics for space missions of the johns hopkins applied physics laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W; Farquhar, Robert W

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes astrodynamic techniques applied to develop special orbital designs for past and future space missions of the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of Johns Hopkins University, and background about those techniques. The paper does not describe the long history of low Earth-orbiting missions at APL, but rather concentrates on the astrodynamically more interesting high-altitude and interplanetary missions that APL has undertaken in recent years. The authors developed many of their techniques in preparation for, and during, the Third International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) halo orbit mission while they worked for the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) of NASA during the 1970s and 1980s. Later missions owed much to the ground breaking work of the trajectory designs for ISEE-3 (later known as the International Cometary Explorer, or ICE). This experience, and other new ideas, were applied to the APL near Earth asteroid rendezvous (NEAR) and comet nucleus tour (CONTOUR) discovery missions, as well as to APL's future MESSENGER, STEREO, and New Horizons missions. These will be described in the paper.

  18. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  19. Trade Space Specification Tool (TSST) for Rapid Mission Architecture (Version 1.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Schrock, Mitchell; Borden, Chester S.; Moeller, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Trade Space Specification Tool (TSST) is designed to capture quickly ideas in the early spacecraft and mission architecture design and categorize them into trade space dimensions and options for later analysis. It is implemented as an Eclipse RCP Application, which can be run as a standalone program. Users rapidly create concept items with single clicks on a graphical canvas, and can organize and create linkages between the ideas using drag-and-drop actions within the same graphical view. Various views such as a trade view, rules view, and architecture view are provided to help users to visualize the trade space. This software can identify, explore, and assess aspects of the mission trade space, as well as capture and organize linkages/dependencies between trade space components. The tool supports a user-in-the-loop preliminary logical examination and filtering of trade space options to help identify which paths in the trade space are feasible (and preferred) and what analyses need to be done later with executable models. This tool provides multiple user views of the trade space to guide the analyst/team to facilitate interpretation and communication of the trade space components and linkages, identify gaps in combining and selecting trade space options, and guide user decision-making for which combinations of architectural options should be pursued for further evaluation. This software provides an environment to capture mission trade space elements rapidly and assist users for their architecture analysis. This is primarily focused on mission and spacecraft architecture design, rather than general-purpose design application. In addition, it provides more flexibility to create concepts and organize the ideas. The software is developed as an Eclipse plug-in and potentially can be integrated with other Eclipse-based tools.

  20. A temporal forecast of radiation environments for future space exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Cucinotta, Francis A; Wilson, John W

    2007-06-01

    The understanding of future space radiation environments is an important goal for space mission operations, design, and risk assessment. We have developed a solar cycle statistical model in which sunspot number is coupled to space-related quantities, such as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) deceleration potential (phi) and the mean occurrence frequency of solar particle events (SPEs). Future GCR fluxes were derived from a predictive model, in which the temporal dependence represented by phi was derived from GCR flux and ground-based Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last four decades. These results showed that the point dose equivalent inside a typical spacecraft in interplanetary space was influenced by solar modulation by up to a factor of three. It also has been shown that a strong relationship exists between large SPE occurrences and phi. For future space exploration missions, cumulative probabilities of SPEs at various integral fluence levels during short-period missions were defined using a database of proton fluences of past SPEs. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences for energies greater than 30 MeV were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV for the analysis of representative exposure levels at those fluences. Results will guide the design of protection systems for astronauts during future space exploration missions.

  1. The Space Launch System and Missions to the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Post, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: America’s heavy lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System, enables a variety of planetary science missions. The SLS can be used for most, if not all, of the National Research Council’s Planetary Science Decadal Survey missions to the outer planets. The SLS performance enables larger payloads and faster travel times with reduced operational complexity.Europa Clipper: Our analysis shows that a launch on the SLS would shorten the Clipper mission travel time by more than four years over earlier mission concept studies.Jupiter Trojan Tour and Rendezvous: Our mission concept replaces Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs) in the original design with solar arrays. The SLS capability offers many more target opportunities.Comet Surface Sample Return: Although in our mission concept, the SLS launches later than the NRC mission study (November 2022 instead of the original launch date of January 2021), it reduces the total mission time, including sample return, by two years.Saturn Apmospheric Entry Probe: Though Saturn arrivial time remains the same in our concept as the arrival date in the NRC study (2034), launching on the SLS shortens the mission travel time by three years with a direct ballistic trajectory.Uranus Orbiter with Probes: The SLS shortens travel time for an Uranus mission by four years with a Jupiter swing-by trajectory. It removes the need for a solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage used in the NRC mission concept study.Other SLS Science Mission Candidates: Two other mission concepts we are investigating that may be of interest to this community are the Advanced Technology Large Aperature Space Telescope (ATLAST) and the Interstellar Explorer also referred to as the Interstellar Probe.Summary: The first launch of the SLS is scheduled for 2018 followed by the first human launch in 2021. The SLS in its evolving configurations will enable a broad range of exploration missions which will serve to recapture the enthusiasm and

  2. Trade space evaluation of multi-mission architectures for the exploration of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibay, F.; Strange, N. J.

    Recent cuts to NASA's planetary exploration budget have precipitated a debate in the community on whether large flagship missions to planetary bodies in the outer solar system or sequences of smaller missions as part of a long-term exploration program would be more beneficial. The work presented explores the trade between these two approaches as applied to the exploration of Europa and concentrates on identifying combinations of flyby, orbiter and/or lander missions that achieve high value at a lower cost than the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) flagship mission concept. The effects of the value attributed to the four main science objectives for Europa, which can be broadly classified as investigating the ocean, ice-shell, composition and geology, are demonstrated. The current approach proposed to complete the ocean exploration objective is shown to have conflicting requirements with the other three objectives. For missions that fully address all the science objectives, such as JEO, the ocean goal is therefore found to be the main cost driver. Instrument combinations for low-cost flyby missions are also presented, and simple lander designs able to achieve a wide range of objectives at a low additional cost are identified. Finally, the current designs for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) are compared to others in the trade space, based on the prioritization given to the science goals for the exploration of Europa. The current EHM flyby mission (Clipper) is found to be highly promising in terms of providing very high potential science value at a low cost.

  3. In-orbit assembly mission for the Space Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, ZhengAi; Hou, Xinbin; Zhang, Xinghua; Zhou, Lu; Guo, Jifeng; Song, Chunlin

    2016-12-01

    The Space Solar Power Station (SSPS) is a large spacecraft that utilizes solar power in space to supply power to an electric grid on Earth. A large symmetrical integrated concept has been proposed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). Considering its large scale, the SSPS requires a modular design and unitized general interfaces that would be assembled in orbit. Facilities system supporting assembly procedures, which include a Reusable Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, orbital transfer and space robots, is introduced. An integrated assembly scheme utilizing space robots to realize this platform SSPS concept is presented. This paper tried to give a preliminary discussion about the minimized time and energy cost of the assembly mission under best sequence and route This optimized assembly mission planning allows the SSPS to be built in orbit rapidly, effectively and reliably.

  4. In-Space Propulsion Technology Products for NASA's Future Science and Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered, as well as having broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models: and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Flagship, and Exploration technology demonstration missions

  5. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  6. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  7. Status of MICROSCOPE, a mission to test the Equivalence Principle in space

    CERN Document Server

    Bergé, Joel; Rodrigues, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    MICROSCOPE is a French Space Agency mission that aims to test the Weak Equivalence Principle in space down to an accuracy of $10^{-15}$. This is two orders of magnitude better than the current constraints, which will allow us to test General Relativity as well as theories beyond General Relativity which predict a possible Weak Equivalence Principle violation below $10^{-13}$. In this communication, we describe the MICROSCOPE mission, its measurement principle and instrument, and we give an update on its status. After a successful instrument's commissioning, MICROSCOPE is on track for on-schedule launch, expected in 2016.

  8. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  9. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO) Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey; McNamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a space-based gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return.

  10. Dishing up the Data: A Decade of Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkissian, John

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen Parkes once again involved in a wide range of space tracking activities that have added to its illustrious legacy. This contribution is a personal recollection of those tracking efforts - both real and celluloid. We begin in a light-hearted vein with some behind-the-scenes views of the popular film, "The DISH", and then turn to more serious contributions; discussing the vital role of the telescope in alleviating the great "traffic jam" at Mars in 2003/04 and salvaging the Doppler Wind Experiment as the Huygens probe descended though the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in mid-decade. We cap off the decade with a discussion of the search for the missing Apollo 11 slow-scan TV tapes.

  11. Results from the NASA Spacecraft Fault Management Workshop: Cost Drivers for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; McDougal, John; Barley, Bryan; Stephens Karen; Fesq, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    Fault Management, the detection of and response to in-flight anomalies, is a critical aspect of deep-space missions. Fault management capabilities are commonly distributed across flight and ground subsystems, impacting hardware, software, and mission operations designs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for five missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that four out of the five missions studied had significant overruns due to underestimating the complexity and support requirements for fault management. As a result of this and other recent experiences, the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD) commissioned a workshop to bring together invited participants across government, industry, and academia to assess the state of the art in fault management practice and research, identify current and potential issues, and make recommendations for addressing these issues. The workshop was held in New Orleans in April of 2008. The workshop concluded that fault management is not being limited by technology, but rather by a lack of emphasis and discipline in both the engineering and programmatic dimensions. Some of the areas cited in the findings include different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; unclear ownership of end-to-end fault management engineering; inadequate understanding of the impact of mission-level requirements on fault management complexity; and practices, processes, and tools that have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of mission requirements and spacecraft systems. This paper summarizes the

  12. Exoplanets and Formation of Planetary Systems: Studies With Esa Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    Several space missions from the ESA Science Horizons 2000 Programme address key questions on the formation/evolution of planetary systems and on the study of ex- oplanets: - How do solar systems form ? (with HST, ISO, NGST, FIRST/Herschel, Rosetta, Gaia) - Geological evolution of terrestrial planets (with Living planet, Mars- express, SMART-1, Venus-express, Bepi-Colombo) - History and Role of impacts (with SMART-1, Bepi-Colombo, outer planets missions) - How to detect other solar systems and habitable zones (with space photometry, COROT, Eddington, Gaia, Dar- win) - Water and ices on other planets and comets (with instruments on Mars Express, Rosetta and other planetary missions) - Signature of biosphere and photosynthesis evolution (living Planet missions, Darwin) We shall review how the results from these ESA missions (and other relevant missions from other agencies) can be exploited in synergy to advance our knowledge on the formation of solar systems and on exoplanets.

  13. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  14. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  15. Psychological and Behavioral Health Issues of Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksuzian, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    It will be the responsibility of the long-duration space flight crew to take the actions necessary to maintain their health and well-being and to cope with medical emergencies without direct assistance from support personnel, including maintaining mental health and managing physiological and psychological changes that may impair decision making and performance. The Behavior and Performance Integrated Product Team at Johnson Space Center, working, within the Space Medicine, Monitoring, and Countermeasures Program, has identified critical questions pertaining to long-duration space crew behavioral health, psychological adaptation, human factors and habitability, and sleep and circadian rhythms. Among the projects addressing these questions are: the development of tools to assess cognitive functions during space missions; the development of a model of psychological adaptation in isolated and confined environments; tools and methods for selecting individuals and teams well-suited for long-duration missions; identification of mission-critical tasks and performance evaluation; and measures of sleep quality and correlation to mission performance.

  16. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  17. Galileo Galilei (GG): the space mission and the prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, A.

    "GALILEO GALILEI (GG)" is a proposal to fly a small satellite in low Earth orbit aiming to test the Equivalence Principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein to 1 part in 1017 at room temperature. Ground tests carried out with artificial test bodies on rotating torsion balances, and tests with celestial bodies based on Lunar Laser Ranging data, have found no violation to about 1 part in 1013 . Competing space pro jects are SCOPE (also at room temperature) aiming to 1 part in 1015 , and STEP (at very low temperature) aiming to 1 part in 1018 . GG is characterized by fast rotation and by the possibility to perform a full scale test on the ground. This talk will present the main features of the GG design, as compared to STEP and SCOPE, and report the experimental results obtained with the first and the second generation laboratory prototypes (natural frequencies, quality factor, stability, sensitivity). Interested scientists are welcome to visit the GG webpage at http://eotvos.dm.unipi.it/nobili.

  18. MERLIN : a Franco-German active space mission dedicated to atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Philippe; Gibert, Fabien; Marshall, Julia; Pierangelo, Clémence; Ehret, Gerhard; Bacour, Cédric; Chevallier, Frédéric; Crevoisier, Cyril; Edouart, Dimitri; Esteve, Frédéric; Chinaud, Jordi; Armante, Raymond; Kiemle, Christoph; Alpers, Matthias; Tinto, Fransesc; Millet, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase B, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a space LIDAR dedicated to the retrieval of total methane (CH4) atmospheric columns. Atmospheric methane is the second most anthropogenic gas, contributing 20% to climate radiative forcing but also plying an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and low-stratosphere water vapour. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging), with a precision (target 20 ppb for a 50km aggregation along the trace) and accuracy (target 3 ppb) sufficient to improve the constraints on methane fluxes compared to current observation networks. The very low systematic error target is ambitious compared to current methane space mission, but achievable because of the differential active measurements of MERLIN, which guarantees almost no contamination by aerosols or water vapour cross-sensitivity. As an active mission, MERLIN will deliver data for all seasons and all altitudes, day and night. Here, we present the MERLIN mission and its objectives in terms of reduction of uncertainties on methane surface emissions. To do so, we propose an OSSE analysis (observing system simulation experiment) to estimate the uncertainty reduction brought by MERLIN. An analysis of causes of errors has been done for the MERLIN mission and is presented. The originality of our system is to transfer both random and systematic errors from the observation space to the flux space, thus providing more realistic error reductions than currently provided in OSSE only using the random part of errors. Error reductions are presented using two different atmospheric transport models, TM3 and LMDZ, and compared with error reductions achieved with the GOSAT passive mission.

  19. Theoretical planetary mass spectra - a predition for COROT

    CERN Document Server

    Broeg, C

    2008-01-01

    The satellite COROT will search for close-in exo-planets around a few thousand stars using the transit search method. The COROT mission holds the promise of detecting numerous exo-planets. Together with radial velocity follow-up observations, the masses of the detected planets will be known. We have devised a method for predicting the expected planetary populations and compared it to the already known exo-planets. Our method works by looking at all hydrostatic envelope solutions of giant gas planets that could possibly exist in arbitrary planetary nebulae and comparing the relative abundance of different masses. We have completed the first such survey of hydrostatic equilibria in an orbital range covering periods of 1 to 50 days. Statistical analysis of the calculated envelopes suggests division into three classes of giant planets that are distinguished by orbital separation. We term them classes G (close-in), H, and J (large separation). Each class has distinct properties such as a typical mass range. Furthe...

  20. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by replacing some items on the manifest. Examples include reuse of trash as radiation shielding or propellant. This paper provides the status of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACS) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station (ISS) technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags (MCTBs) for potential reuse on orbit. Autonomous logistics management (ALM) is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew requirements for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. Development of a heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is underway. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology

  1. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items, and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by one manifest item having two purposes rather than two manifest items each having only one purpose. This paper provides the status of each of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACSs) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags for potential reuse on-orbit. Autonomous logistics management is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew time for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. A heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is under way. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology.

  2. The CoRoT satellite in flight : description and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Auvergne, M; Boisnard, L; Buey, J -T; Chaintreuil, S

    2009-01-01

    CoRoT is a space telescope dedicated to stellar seismology and the search for extrasolar planets. The mission is led by CNES in association with French laboratories and has a large international participation: the European Space Agency (ESA), Austria, Belgium and Germany contribute to the payload, and Spain and Brazil contribute to the ground segment. Development of the spacecraft, which is based on a PROTEUS low earth orbit recurrent platform, commenced in October 2000 and the satellite was launched on December 27th 2006. The instrument and platform characteristics prior to launch have been described in ESA publication (SP-1306) . In the present paper we detail the behaviour in flight, based on raw and corrected data. Five runs have been completed since January 2007. The data used here are essentially those acquired during the commissioning phase and from a long run which lasted 146 days, these enable us to give a complete overview of the instrument and platform behaviour for all environmental conditions. Th...

  3. The 2π charged particles analyzer: All-sky camera concept and development for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthellier, J.-J.; Moore, T.; Avanov, L.; Leblanc, F.; Leblanc, F.; Moiseev, P.; Moiseenko, D.; Becker, J.; Collier, M.; Laky, G.; Keller, J.; Koynash, G.; Lichtenneger, H.; Leibov, A.; Zhuravlev, R.; Shestakov, A.; Burch, J.; McComas, D.; Shuvalov, S.; Chornay, D.; Torkar, K.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing the temporal resolution and instant coverage of velocity space of space plasma measurements is one of the key issues for experimentalists. Today, the top-hat plasma analyzer appears to be the favorite solution due to its relative simplicity and the possibility to extend its application by adding a mass-analysis section and an electrostatic angular scanner. Similarly, great success has been achieved in MMS mission using such multiple top-hat analyzers to achieve unprecedented temporal resolution. An instantaneous angular coverage of charged particles measurements is an alternative approach to pursuing the goal of high time resolution. This was done with 4-D Fast Omnidirectional Nonscanning Energy Mass Analyzer and, to a lesser extent, by DYMIO instruments for Mars-96 and with the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer instrument for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging mission. In this paper we describe, along with precursors, a plasma analyzer with a 2π electrostatic mirror that was developed originally for the Phobos-Soil mission with a follow-up in the frame of the BepiColombo mission and is under development for future Russian missions. Different versions of instrument are discussed along with their advantages and drawbacks.

  4. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity Using Optical Devices i (astrod i) — Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2013-01-01

    ASTROD I is the first planned space mission in a series of ASTROD missions for testing relativity in space using optical devices. The main aims are (i) to test general relativity with an improvement of three orders of magnitude compared to current results, (ii) to measure solar and solar system parameters with improved accuracy, (iii) to test the constancy of the gravitational constant and in general to get a deeper understanding of gravity. The first ideas for the ASTROD missions go back to the last century when new technologies in the area of laser physics and time measurement began to appear on the horizon. ASTROD is a mission concept that is supported by a broad international community covering the areas of space technology, fundamental physics, high performance laser and clock technology and drag-free control. While ASTROD I is a single-spacecraft concept that performs measurements with pulsed laser ranging between the spacecraft and earthbound laser ranging stations, ASTROD-GW is planned to be a three spacecraft mission with inter-spacecraft laser ranging. ASTROD-GW would be able to detect gravitational waves at frequencies below the eLISA/NGO bandwidth. As a third step Super-ASTROD with larger orbits could even probe primordial gravitational waves. This paper gives an overview on the basic principles especially for ASTROD I.

  5. Swarm - The European Space Agency's Constellation Mission: Mapping Earth's Magnetic and Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floberghagen, Rune

    2016-07-01

    Launched on 22 November 2013, the three-satellite Swarm constellation is about halfway into its four-year nominal mission. Embarking identical, high accuracy and high spatial as well as temporal resolution instrumentation on all satellites, the mission has ambitious goals reaching from the deep Earth interior (the liquid outer core) all the way out to the solar-terrestrial interaction in the magnetosphere. One may safely state that the mission addresses a diverse range of science issues, and therefore acts as a true discoverer in many fields. Measurements of the magnetic field (magnitude and vector components), the electric field (through ion drift velocity, ion density, ion temperature, electron density, electron temperature and spacecraft potential), the gas density and horizontal winds as well as precise positioning are supported by a range of derived products for the magnetic field, geophysics, aeronomy and space physics communities. Indeed, Swarm is at the forefront of cross-cutting science issues that involve significant parts of the space and earth physics community. In recent data exploitation and science projects we have also seen a high number of coupling studies emerging. This contribution details the status and achievements of the mission in the field of magnetic field, electric field and geospace research. It furthermore discusses the the Agency's further plans, beyond the currently foreseen nominal end of mission in spring 2018. The role of Swarm for space weather research will also be discussed.

  6. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  7. Enhancing Science from Future Space Missions and Planetary Radar with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dayton L

    2014-01-01

    Both Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the full SKA have the potential to dramatically increase the science return from future astrophysics, heliophysics, and especially planetary missions, primarily due to the greater sensitivity (AEFF / TSYS) compared with existing or planned spacecraft tracking facilities. While this is not traditional radio astronomy, it is an opportunity for productive synergy between the large investment in the SKA and the even larger investments in space missions to maximize the total scientific value returned to society. Specific applications include short-term increases in downlink data rate during critical mission phases or spacecraft emergencies, enabling new mission concepts based on small probes with low power and small antennas, high precision angular tracking via VLBI phase referencing using in-beam calibrators, and greater range and signal/noise ratio for bi-static planetary radar observations. Future use of higher frequencies (e.g., 32 GHz and optical) for spac...

  8. Space Station user traffic model analysis for mission payload servicing into the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station-based Customer Servicing Facility service bay requirements for service accommodation to the Initial Orbit Capability (IOC) and far-term Station Accommodation Test Sets (SETS) missions are analyzed using the developed mission traffic model. Analysis results are presented which indicate that one servicing bay will be sufficient to accommodate IOC customer servicing requirements. Growth servicing requirements indicate that an additional servicing bay will be needed for accommodation of the far-term SATS mission payloads. Even though the level of total mission accommodation is below 100 percent for one bay at IOC and two bays during growth operations, the levels are such that operational work-around exists so that additional servicing bays will not be required.

  9. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  10. Space Station user traffic model analysis for mission payload servicing into the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station-based Customer Servicing Facility service bay requirements for service accommodation to the Initial Orbit Capability (IOC) and far-term Station Accommodation Test Sets (SETS) missions are analyzed using the developed mission traffic model. Analysis results are presented which indicate that one servicing bay will be sufficient to accommodate IOC customer servicing requirements. Growth servicing requirements indicate that an additional servicing bay will be needed for accommodation of the far-term SATS mission payloads. Even though the level of total mission accommodation is below 100 percent for one bay at IOC and two bays during growth operations, the levels are such that operational work-around exists so that additional servicing bays will not be required.

  11. Exo-C: A Space Mission for Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; Belikov, Ruslan; Marley, Mark; Bryden, Geoff; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McElwain, Michael; Meadows, Victoria; hide

    2015-01-01

    Exo-C is NASAs first community study of a modest aperture space telescope designed for high contrast observations of exoplanetary systems. The mission will be capable of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, discovering previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in a large sample of circumstellar disks. It will obtain unique science results on planets down to super-Earth sizes and serve as a technology pathfinder toward an eventual flagship-class mission to find and characterize habitable Earth-like exoplanets. We present the mission/payload design and highlight steps to reduce mission cost/risk relative to previous mission concepts. Key elements are an unobscured telescope aperture, an internal coronagraph with deformable mirrors for precise wavefront control, and an orbit and observatory design chosen for high thermal stability. Exo-C has a similar telescope aperture, orbit, lifetime, and spacecraft bus requirements to the highly successful Kepler mission (which is our cost reference). The needed technology development is on-course for a possible mission start in 2017. This paper summarizes the study final report completed in January 2015. During 2015 NASA will make a decision on its potential development.

  12. Response of Earth and Venus ionospheres to corotating solar wind stream of 3 July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H.A. Jr.; Cloutier, P.A.; Dryer, M.; Suess, S.T.; Barnes, A.; Wolff, R.S.

    1985-06-01

    Corotating solar wind streams emanating from stable coronal structures provide an unique opportunity to compare the response of planetary ionospheres to the energy conveyed in the streams. For recurrent solar conditions the signal propagating outward along spiral paths in interplanetary space can at times exhibit rather similar content at quite different downstream locations in the ecliptic plane. Using solar wind measurements from plasma detectors on ISEE-3, Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Helios-A, as well as in-situ ion composition measurements from Bennett Ion Mass Spectrometers on the Atmosphere Explorer-E and PVO spacecraft, corotating stream interactions are examined at Earth and Venus.

  13. Technical Challenges and Opportunities of Centralizing Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Haisam; Burns, Rich

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Science Mission Operations project (SSMO) is performing a technical cost-benefit analysis for centralizing and consolidating operations of a diverse set of missions into a unified and integrated technical infrastructure. The presentation will focus on the notion of normalizing spacecraft operations processes, workflows, and tools. It will also show the processes of creating a standardized open architecture, creating common security models and implementations, interfaces, services, automations, notifications, alerts, logging, publish, subscribe and middleware capabilities. The presentation will also discuss how to leverage traditional capabilities, along with virtualization, cloud computing services, control groups and containers, and possibly Big Data concepts.

  14. Stability of Formulations Contained in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf life are essential for successful space medical operations in support of space exploration missions. Physical and environmental factors unique to space missions such as vibration, G forces and ionizing radiation may adversely affect stability of pharmaceuticals intended for standard care of astronauts aboard space missions. Stable pharmaceuticals, therefore, are of paramount importance for assuring health and wellness of astronauts in space. Preliminary examination of stability of formulations from Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) medical kits revealed that some of these medications showed physical and chemical degradation after flight raising concern of reduced therapeutic effectiveness with these medications in space. A research payload experiment was conducted with a select set of formulations stowed aboard a shuttle flight and on ISS. The payload consisted of four identical pharmaceutical kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms that were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the Space Shuttle, STS 121. One of the four kits was stored on the shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at six months intervals on a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit; the shuttle kit was returned to Earth on the same flight. Standard stability indicating physical and chemical parameters were measured for all pharmaceuticals returned from the shuttle and from the first ISS increment payload along with ground-based matching controls. Results were compared between shuttle, ISS and ground controls. Evaluation of data from the three paradigms indicates that some of the formulations exhibited significant degradation in space compared to respective ground controls; a few formulations were unstable both on the ground and in space. An increase in the number of pharmaceuticals from ISS failing USP standards was noticed compared to those from the shuttle

  15. Stability of Formulations Contained in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf life are essential for successful space medical operations in support of space exploration missions. Physical and environmental factors unique to space missions such as vibration, G forces and ionizing radiation may adversely affect stability of pharmaceuticals intended for standard care of astronauts aboard space missions. Stable pharmaceuticals, therefore, are of paramount importance for assuring health and wellness of astronauts in space. Preliminary examination of stability of formulations from Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) medical kits revealed that some of these medications showed physical and chemical degradation after flight raising concern of reduced therapeutic effectiveness with these medications in space. A research payload experiment was conducted with a select set of formulations stowed aboard a shuttle flight and on ISS. The payload consisted of four identical pharmaceutical kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms that were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the Space Shuttle, STS 121. One of the four kits was stored on the shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at six months intervals on a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit; the shuttle kit was returned to Earth on the same flight. Standard stability indicating physical and chemical parameters were measured for all pharmaceuticals returned from the shuttle and from the first ISS increment payload along with ground-based matching controls. Results were compared between shuttle, ISS and ground controls. Evaluation of data from the three paradigms indicates that some of the formulations exhibited significant degradation in space compared to respective ground controls; a few formulations were unstable both on the ground and in space. An increase in the number of pharmaceuticals from ISS failing USP standards was noticed compared to those from the shuttle

  16. Enhancing International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC) Operations Using Tcl/Tk

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHagan, Brian; Long, Stephen K., Sr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the use of Tcl/Tk to enhance the abilities of flight controllers to control the International Space Station (ISS) from the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center. We will discuss why existing tools where not able to meet these needs as easily as Tcl/Tk. In addition, we will also discuss how we interfaced with the existing MCC infrastructure to receive ISS telemetry, find servers, register services, and send commands to ISS.

  17. Enhancing the Meaningfulness of Work for Astronauts on Long Duration Space Exploration Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Thomas W; Sytine, Anton; Brady, Ashley; Wilkes, Russ; Pittman, Rebecca; Jennings, Kristen; Goguen, Kandice

    2017-08-01

    Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts. The present article identifies how engagement in meaningful work during long duration missions may mitigate the adverse effects of demands and increase the potential for benefits resulting from the missions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine NASA personnel, including astronauts, flight directors, and flight surgeons. Questions addressed sources of meaning for astronauts, characteristics of tasks that enhance vs. detract from meaning, and recommendations for enhancing meaning. Personnel mentioned contributing to humanity and the next generation, contributing to the mission, and exploration as the most meaningful aspects of their work. Characteristics of tasks that enhanced meaning included using a variety of skills, feeling personal control over their schedule, autonomy in the execution of tasks, and understanding the importance of the experiments conducted on the mission. Top recommendations to sustain meaning were insuring social needs were met through such activities as the strategic use of social media, giving astronauts autonomy as well as structure, and conducting training during transit. Implications are addressed for tailoring meaning-based interventions for astronauts participating on long duration missions and assessing the effectiveness of these interventions.Britt TW, Sytine A, Brady A, Wilkes R, Pittman R, Jennings K, Goguen K. Enhancing the meaningfulness of work for astronauts on long duration space exploration missions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):779-783.

  18. Communicating LightSail: Embedded Reporting and Web Strategies for Citizen-Funded Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverda, M.; Davis, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planetary Society (TPS) is a non-profit space advocacy group with a stated mission to "empower the world's citizens to advance space science and exploration." In 2009, TPS began work on LightSail, a small, citizen-funded spacecraft to demonstrate solar sailing propulsion technology. The program included a test flight, completed in June 2015, with a primary mission slated for late 2016. TPS initiated a LightSail public engagement campaign to provide the public with transparent mission updates, and foster educational outreach. A credentialed science journalist was given unrestricted access to the team and data, and provided regular reports without editorial oversight. An accompanying website, sail.planetary.org, provided project updates, multimedia, and real-time spacecraft data during the mission. Design approaches included a clean layout with text optimized for easy reading, balanced by strong visual elements to enhance reader comprehension and interest. A dedicated "Mission Control" page featured social media feeds, links to most recent articles, and a ground track showing the spacecraft's position, including overflight predictions based on user location. A responsive, cross-platform design allowed easy access across a broad range of devices. Efficient web server performance was prioritized by implementing a static content management system (CMS). Despite two spacecraft contingencies, the test mission successfully completed its primary objective of solar sail deployment. Qualitative feedback on the transparent, embedded reporting style was positive, and website metrics showed high user retention times. The website also grew awareness and support for the primary 2016 mission, driving traffic to a Kickstarter campaign that raised $1.24 million. Websites constantly evolve, and changes for the primary mission will include a new CMS to better support multiple authors and a custom dashboard to display real-time spacecraft sensor data.

  19. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  20. In-Space Propulsion Technology Products Ready for Infusion on NASA's Future Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. They have a broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, providing higher performance for lower cost, was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models; and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, SMD Flagship, or technology demonstration missions.

  1. Earthbound mission how UK funding fails to match enthusiasm for space exploration

    CERN Multimedia

    Nordling, L

    2004-01-01

    Article discussing the UK governments reluctance to fund space research projects. An example is the ESA Aurora programme which is aiming to put humans on Mars by 2030, with interim visits to the moon and a series of unmanned probes preparing the way for interplanetary manned missions (1 page)

  2. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory’s space GRB mission and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using...

  3. Engineering Feasibility and Trade Studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalik, Ossama O.; Nairouz, Bassem; Weaver, Timothy; Newman, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of airborne CO concentrations is critical for accurate scientific prediction of global scale atmospheric behavior. MicroMaps is an existing NASA owned gas filter radiometer instrument designed for space-based measurement of atmospheric CO vertical profiles. Due to programmatic changes, the instrument does not have access to the space environment and is in storage. MicroMaps hardware has significant potential for filling a critical scientific need, thus motivating concept studies for new and innovative scientific spaceflight missions that would leverage the MicroMaps heritage and investment, and contribute to new CO distribution data. This report describes engineering feasibility and trade studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission. Conceptual studies encompass: 1) overall mission analysis and synthesis methodology, 2) major subsystem studies and detailed requirements development for an orbital platform option consisting of a small, single purpose spacecraft, 3) assessment of orbital platform option consisting of the International Space Station, and 4) survey of potential launch opportunities for gaining assess to orbit. Investigations are of a preliminary first-order nature. Results and recommendations from these activities are envisioned to support future MicroMaps Mission design decisions regarding program down select options leading to more advanced and mature phases.

  4. On-Orbit Maintenance of a Short Duration Mission: Space Technology 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Alexander C.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission, a review of the Post-separation anomaly that occurred, and the patches and work-arounds that were implemented to correct the problems caused by the anomaly. The events that involved multi-bit errors and the actions that occurred to correct these are also reviewed.

  5. Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts' risk from space radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2007-07-01

    Space programmes are shifting towards planetary exploration and, in particular, towards missions by human beings to the Moon and to Mars. Radiation is considered to be one of the major hazards for personnel in space and has emerged as the most critical issue to be resolved for long-term missions both orbital and interplanetary. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. Predictions of cancer risk and acceptable radiation exposure in space are extrapolated from minimal data and are subject to many uncertainties. The paper describes present-day estimates of equivalent doses from GCR and solar cosmic radiation behind various shields and radiation risks for astronauts on a mission to Mars.

  6. CoRoT's view of newly discovered B-star pulsators: results for 358 candidate B pulsators from the initial run's exoplanet field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Ollivier, M.; Miglio, A.; Debosscher, J.; Cuypers, J.; Briquet, M.; Montalbán, J.; Thoul, A.; Noels, A.; De Cat, P.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Maceroni, C.; Ribas, I.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Deleuil, M.; Weiss, W. W.; Jorda, L.; Baudin, F.; Samadi, R.

    2009-10-01

    Context: We search for new variable B-type pulsators in the CoRoT data assembled primarily for planet detection, as part of CoRoT's additional programme. Aims: We aim to explore the properties of newly discovered B-type pulsators from the uninterrupted CoRoT space-based photometry and to compare them with known members of the β Cep and slowly pulsating B star (SPB) classes. Methods: We developed automated data analysis tools that include algorithms for jump correction, light-curve detrending, frequency detection, frequency combination search, and for frequency and period spacing searches. Results: Besides numerous new, classical, slowly pulsating B stars, we find evidence for a new class of low-amplitude B-type pulsators between the SPB and δ Sct instability strips, with a very broad range of frequencies and low amplitudes, as well as several slowly pulsating B stars with residual excess power at frequencies typically a factor three above their expected g-mode frequencies. Conclusions: The frequency data we obtained for numerous new B-type pulsators represent an appropriate starting point for further theoretical analyses of these stars, once their effective temperature, gravity, rotation velocity, and abundances will be derived spectroscopically in the framework of an ongoing FLAMES survey at the VLT. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. All frequency tables, including the identification of combination frequencies, are only available as online material. Frequency Tables are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/506/471 Bâtiment 121, 91405, Orsay Cedex, France. Postdoctoral Researcher, Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique - FNRS, Belgium. Postdoctoral Fellow of the Fund for Scientific Research

  7. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Catala, C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Castro, N.; Schmid, V. S.; Scardia, M.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, E.; Samadi, R.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD 46769 (V = 5.79). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target. Methods: We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending and spectroscopic follow-up data using standard Fourier analysis and phase dispersion minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assuming a dipole field. Results: In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84 d with an amplitude of 87 ppm and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69 d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not reveal any sign of pulsations. Our results are consistent with the absence of variability in the Hipparcos light curve. The spectroscopy leads to a projected rotational velocity of 72 ± 2 km s-1 and does not reveal periodic variability or the need to invoke macroturbulent line broadening. No signature of a magnetic field is detected in our data. A field stronger than ~500 G at the poles can be excluded, unless the possible non-detected field were more complex than dipolar. Conclusions: The absence of pulsations and macroturbulence of this evolved B-type supergiant is placed into the context of instability computations and of observed variability of evolved B-type stars. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions

  9. Corotational Tomography of Heliospheric Features Using Global Thomson Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul

    2002-12-01

    The Air Force/NASA Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) will provide two-dimensional images of the sky in visible light with high (0.1%) photometric precision, and unprecedented sky coverage and cadence. To optimize the information available from these images they must be interpreted in three dimensions. We have developed a Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) technique that fits a three-dimensional kinematic heliospheric model to remotely-sensed Thomson scattering observations. This technique is designed specifically to determine the corotating background solar wind component from data provided by instruments like SMEI. Here, we present results from this technique applied to the Helios spacecraft photometer observations. The tomography program iterates to a least-squares solution of observed brightnesses using solar rotation, spacecraft motion and solar wind outflow to provide perspective views of each point in space covered by the observations. The corotational tomography described here is essentially the same as used by Jackson et al. (1998) for the analysis of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. While IPS observations are related indirectly to the solar wind density through an assumed (and uncertain) relationship between small-scale density fluctuations and density, Thomson scattering physics is more straightforward, i.e., the observed brightness depends linearly on the solar wind density everywhere in the heliosphere. Consequently, Thomson scattering tomography can use a more direct density-convergence criterion to match observed Helios photometer brightness to brightness calculated from the model density. The general similarities between results based on IPS and Thomson scattering tomography validate both techniques and confirm that both observe the same type of solar wind structures. We show results for Carrington rotation 1653 near solar minimum. We find that longitudinally segmented dense structures corotate with the Sun and emanate from near the

  10. Vacuum-Compatible Multi-Axis Manipulator/Machining Center for Long-Duration Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has many needs for maintenance and repair technologies for long-duration human space missions. We propose to continue developing a compact, portable,...

  11. Dried Colony in Cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 — Several high Space Environment Tolerances for ``Tanpopo'' Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Kimura, S.; Kimura, Y.; Igarashi, Y.; Ajioka, R.; Sato, S.; Katoh, H.; Baba, K.

    2013-11-01

    A cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01, has high several space environmental tolerance. Nostoc sp HK-01 would have high contribution for the “Tanpopo” mission in Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station.

  12. Vacuum-Compatible Multi-Axis Manipulator/Machining Center for Long-Duration Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has many needs for maintenance and repair technologies for long-duration human space missions. We propose to develop a compact, portable, vacuum-compatible,...

  13. CoRoT 223992193: A new, low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary with evidence of a circumbinary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Gillen, Edward; McQuillan, Amy; Bouvier, Jerome; Hodgkin, Simon; Alencar, Silvia H P; Terquem, Caroline; Southworth, John; Gibson, Neale P; Cody, Ann Marie; Lendl, Monika; Morales-Calderón, Maria; Favata, Fabio; Stauffer, John; Micela, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of CoRoT 223992193, a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, comprising two pre-main sequence M dwarfs, discovered by the CoRoT space mission during a 23-day observation of the 3 Myr old NGC 2264 star-forming region. Using multi-epoch optical and near-IR follow-up spectroscopy with FLAMES on the Very Large Telescope and ISIS on the William Herschel Telescope we obtain a full orbital solution and derive the fundamental parameters of both stars by modelling the light curve and radial velocity data. The orbit is circular and has a period of $3.8745745 \\pm 0.0000014$ days. The masses and radii of the two stars are $0.67 \\pm 0.01$ and $0.495 \\pm 0.007$ $M_{\\odot}$ and $1.30 \\pm 0.04$ and $1.11 ~^{+0.04}_{-0.05}$ $R_{\\odot}$, respectively. This system is a useful test of evolutionary models of young low-mass stars, as it lies in a region of parameter space where observational constraints are scarce; comparison with these models indicates an apparent age of $\\sim$3.5-6 Myr. The systemic ve...

  14. [From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

    2011-01-01

    The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine.

  15. Performance testing of lidar components subjected to exposure in space via MISSE 7 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  16. Salad Machine - A vegetable production unit for long duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    A review of NASA CELSS development specific to vegetable cultivation during space missions is presented in terms of enhancing the quality of life for space crews. A cultivation unit is being developed to permit the production of 600 grams of edible salad vegetables per week, thereby allowing one salad per crew member three times weekly. Plant-growth requirements are set forth for the specific vegetables, and environmental subsystems are listed. Several preprototype systems are discussed, and one particular integrated-systems design concept is presented in detail with views of the proposed rack configuration. The Salad Machine is developed exclusively from CELSS-derived technology, and the major challenge is the mitigation of the effects of plant-growth requirements on other space-mission facility operations.

  17. Space Weather opportunities from the Swarm mission including near real time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Floberghagen, Rune; Luehr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    observations of the solar and interplanetary conditions. New opportunities lie in the implementation of in-situ observations of the ionosphere and upper atmosphere onboard low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. The multi-satellite mission Swarm is equipped with several instruments which will observe...... these products in timely manner will add significant value in monitoring present space weather and helping to predict the evolution of several magnetic and ionospheric events. Swarm will be a demonstrator mission for the valuable application of LEO satellite observations for space weather monitoring tools.......Sophisticated space weather monitoring aims at nowcasting and predicting solar-terrestrial interactions because their effects on the ionosphere and upper atmosphere may seriously impact advanced technology. Operating alert infrastructures rely heavily on ground-based measurements and satellite...

  18. Servicing Mission 4 and the Extraordinary Science of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Just two years ago, NASA astronauts performed a challenging and flawless final Space Shuttle servicing mission to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. With science instruments repaired on board and two new ones installed, the observatory. is more powerful now than ever before. I will show the dramatic highlights of the servicing mission and present some of the early scientific results from the refurbished telescope. Its high sensitivity and multi-wavelength capabilities are revealing the highest redshift galaxies ever seen, as well as details of the cosmic web of intergalactic medium, large scale structure formation, solar system bodies, and stellar evolution. Enlightening studies of dark matter, dark energy, and exoplanet atmospheres add to the profound contributions to astrophysics that are being made with Hubble, setting a critical stage for future observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Theory of Relativistic Reference Frames for High-Precision Astrometric Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, S M

    2000-01-01

    Recent modern space missions deliver invaluable information about origin of our universe, physical processes in the vicinity of black holes and other exotic astrophysical objects, stellar dynamics of our galaxy, etc. On the other hand, space astrometric missions make it possible to determine with unparalleled precision distances to stars and cosmological objects as well as their physical characteristics and positions on the celestial sphere. Permanently growing accuracy of space astronomical observations and the urgent need for adequate data processing algorithms require corresponding development of an adequate theory of reference frames along with unambiguous description of propagation of light rays from a source of light to observer. Such a theory must be based on the Einstein's general relativity and account for numerous relativistic effects both in the solar system and outside of its boundary. The main features of the relativistic theory of reference frames are presented in this work. A hierarchy of the f...

  20. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  1. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  2. Wide-Band Data Transmission System Expected in the Next Generation Space VLBI Mission: VSOP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission (VSOP-2) is currently being planned. We expect the data rate of more than 1 Gbps to get more sensitivity. Here we will present: (1) How to sample the data (on board), including the radiation test results which show we can have the 10 Gbps sampler LSI which can use in space; (2) Possibility of the bit rate more than 1 Gbps to downlink the VLBI data. We studied the link budget for the wide band data transmission, and discussed the various ideas which can get more than 1 Gbps; and (3) What kind of VLBI tracking station and recording system will be expected for the VSOP-2 mission? We will present the idea of using normal radio telescopes as a tracking station, and also review the possibility of recording and processing at the tracking stations and correlators.

  3. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E. S.; Woods, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  4. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  5. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

  6. Size, Albedo, and Taxonomy of the Don Quijote Space Mission Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Rendezvous and lander missions are a very effective but very expensive way of investigating Solar-System bodies. The planning, optimization and success of space missions depends crucially on prior remotely-sensed knowledge of target bodies. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), which are mainly fragments of main-belt asteroids, are seen as important goals for investigation by space missions, mainly due to the role their forebears played in planet formation and the evolution of the Solar System, but also for the pragmatic reason that these objects can collide with the Earth with potentially devastating consequences. The European Space Agency is currently planning the Don Quijote mission to a NEA, which includes a rendezvous (and perhaps a lander) spacecraft and an impactor vehicle. The aim is to study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of the impact on its dynamical state, as a first step in considering realistic mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous NEA. Two potential targets have been selected for the mission, the preferred one being (10302) 1989 ML, which is energetically easier to reach and is possibly a scientifically interesting primitive asteroid. However, due to the ambiguity of available spectral data, it is currently not possible to confidently determine the taxonomic type and mineralogy of this object. Crucially, the albedo is uncertain by a factor of 10, which leads to large uncertainties in the size and mass and hence the planned near-surface operations of Don Quijote. Thermal-infrared observations are urgently required for accurate size and albedo determination. These observations, which can only be carried out by Spitzer and would require only a modest amount of observing time, would enable an accurate diameter to be derived for the first time and the resulting albedo would remove the taxonomic ambiguity. The proposed Spitzer observations are critical for effective mission planning and would greatly increase our

  7. Radioisotope fueled pulsed power generation system for propulsion and electrical power for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Troy

    Space exploration missions to the moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies have allowed for great scientific leaps to enhance our knowledge of the universe; yet the astronomical cost of these missions limits their utility to only a few select agencies. Reducing the cost of exploratory space travel will give rise to a new era of exploration, where private investors, universities, and world governments can send satellites to far off planets and gather important data. By using radioisotope power sources and thermal storage devices, a duty cycle can be introduced to extract large amounts of energy in short amounts of time, allowing for efficient space travel. The same device can also provide electrical power for subsystems such as communications, drills, lasers, or other components that can provide valuable scientific information. This project examines the use of multiple radioisotope sources combined with a thermal capacitor using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which can collect energy over a period of time. The result of this design culminates in a variety of possible spacecraft with their own varying costs, transit times, and objectives. Among the most promising are missions to Mars which cost less than 17M, missions that can provide power to satellite constellations for decades, or missions that can deliver large, Opportunity-sized (185kg) payloads to mars for less than 53M. All made available to a much wider range of customer with commercially available satellite launches from earth. The true cost of such progress though lies in the sometimes substantial increase in transit times for these missions.

  8. The Human Space Life Sciences Critical Path Roadmap Project: A Strategy for Human Space Flight through Exploration-Class Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    The product of the critical path roadmap project is an integrated strategy for mitigating the risks associated with human exploration class missions. It is an evolving process that will assure the ability to communicate the integrated critical path roadmap. Unlike previous reports, this one will not sit on a shelf - it has the full support of the JSC Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SA) and is already being used as a decision making tool (e.g., budget and investigation planning for Shuttle and Space Station mission). Utility of this product depends on many efforts, namely: providing the required information (completed risk data sheets, critical question information, technology data). It is essential to communicate the results of the critical path roadmap to the scientific community - this meeting is a good opportunity to do so. The web site envisioned for the critical path roadmap will provide the capability to communicate to a broader community and to track and update the system routinely.

  9. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joe

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes, in viewgraph form, the faster, better, cheaper approach to space missions. The topics include: 1) What drives "Faster, Better, Cheaper"? 2) Why Space Programs are Costly; 3) Background; 4) Aerospace Project Management (Old Culture); 5) Aerospace Project Management (New Culture); 6) Scope of Analysis Limited to Engineering Management Culture; 7) Qualitative Analysis; 8) Some Basic Principles of the New Culture; 9) Cause and Effect; 10) "New Ways of Doing Business" Survey Results; 11) Quantitative Analysis; 12) Recent Space System Cost Trends; 13) Spacecraft Dry Weight Trend; 14) Complexity Factor Trends; 15) Cost Normalization; 16) Cost Normalization Algorithm; 17) Unnormalized Cost vs. Normalized Cost; and 18) Concluding Observations.

  10. Parallel satellite orbital situational problems solver for space missions design and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Atanas Marinov

    2016-11-01

    Solving different scientific problems for space applications demands implementation of observations, measurements or realization of active experiments during time intervals in which specific geometric and physical conditions are fulfilled. The solving of situational problems for determination of these time intervals when the satellite instruments work optimally is a very important part of all activities on every stage of preparation and realization of space missions. The elaboration of universal, flexible and robust approach for situation analysis, which is easily portable toward new satellite missions, is significant for reduction of missions' preparation times and costs. Every situation problem could be based on one or more situation conditions. Simultaneously solving different kinds of situation problems based on different number and types of situational conditions, each one of them satisfied on different segments of satellite orbit requires irregular calculations. Three formal approaches are presented. First one is related to situation problems description that allows achieving flexibility in situation problem assembling and presentation in computer memory. The second formal approach is connected with developing of situation problem solver organized as processor that executes specific code for every particular situational condition. The third formal approach is related to solver parallelization utilizing threads and dynamic scheduling based on "pool of threads" abstraction and ensures a good load balance. The developed situation problems solver is intended for incorporation in the frames of multi-physics multi-satellite space mission's design and simulation tools.

  11. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - Mission Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Selig, Hanns; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2012-01-01

    ASTROD I is the first planned space mission in a series of ASTROD missions for testing relativity in space using optical devices. The main aims are: (i) to test General Relativity with an improvement of three orders of magnitude compared to current results, (ii) to measure solar and solar system parameters with improved accuracy, (iii) to test the constancy of the gravitational constant and in general to get a deeper understanding of gravity. The first ideas for the ASTROD missions go back to the last century when new technologies in the area of laser physics and time measurement began to appear on the horizon. ASTROD is a mission concept that is supported by a broad international community covering the areas of space technology, fundamental physics, high performance laser and clock technology and drag free control. While ASTROD I is a single-spacecraft concept that performes measurements with pulsed laser ranging between the spacecraft and earthbound laser ranging stations, ASTROD-GW is planned to be a three...

  12. Architecture for space habitats. Role of architectural design in planning artificial environment for long time manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Vera

    2007-02-01

    The paper discusses concepts about the role of architecture in the design of space habitats and the development of a general evaluation criteria of architectural design contribution. Besides the existing feasibility studies, the general requisites, the development studies, and the critical design review which are mainly based on the experience of human space missions and the standards of the NASA-STD-3000 manual and which analyze and evaluate the relation between man and environment and between man and machine mainly in its functionality, there is very few material about design of comfort and wellbeing of man in space habitat. Architecture for space habitat means the design of an artificial environment with much comfort in an "atmosphere" of wellbeing. These are mainly psychological effects of human factors which are very important in the case of a long time space mission. How can the degree of comfort and "wellbeing atmosphere" in an artificial environment be measured? How can the quality of the architectural contribution in space design be quantified? Definition of a criteria catalogue to reach a larger objectivity in architectural design evaluation. Definition of constant parameters as a result of project necessities to quantify the quality of the design. Architectural design analysis due the application and verification within the parameters and consequently overlapping and evaluating results. Interdisciplinary work between architects, astronautics, engineers, psychologists, etc. All the disciplines needed for planning a high quality habitat for humans in space. Analysis of the principles of well designed artificial environment. Good quality design for space architecture is the result of the interaction and interrelation between many different project necessities (technological, environmental, human factors, transportation, costs, etc.). Each of this necessities is interrelated in the design project and cannot be evaluated on its own. Therefore, the design

  13. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors.

  14. Behavioral and biological effects of autonomous versus scheduled mission management in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Peter G.; Hursh, Steven R.; Hienz, Robert D.; Emurian, Henry H.; Gasior, Eric D.; Brinson, Zabecca S.; Brady, Joseph V.

    2011-05-01

    Logistical constraints during long-duration space expeditions will limit the ability of Earth-based mission control personnel to manage their astronaut crews and will thus increase the prevalence of autonomous operations. Despite this inevitability, little research exists regarding crew performance and psychosocial adaptation under such autonomous conditions. To this end, a newly-initiated study on crew management systems was conducted to assess crew performance effectiveness under rigid schedule-based management of crew activities by Mission Control versus more flexible, autonomous management of activities by the crews themselves. Nine volunteers formed three long-term crews and were extensively trained in a simulated planetary geological exploration task over the course of several months. Each crew then embarked on two separate 3-4 h missions in a counterbalanced sequence: Scheduled, in which the crews were directed by Mission Control according to a strict topographic and temporal region-searching sequence, and Autonomous, in which the well-trained crews received equivalent baseline support from Mission Control but were free to explore the planetary surface as they saw fit. Under the autonomous missions, performance in all three crews improved (more high-valued geologic samples were retrieved), subjective self-reports of negative emotional states decreased, unstructured debriefing logs contained fewer references to negative emotions and greater use of socially-referent language, and salivary cortisol output across the missions was attenuated. The present study provides evidence that crew autonomy may improve performance and help sustain if not enhance psychosocial adaptation and biobehavioral health. These controlled experimental data contribute to an emerging empirical database on crew autonomy which the international astronautics community may build upon for future research and ultimately draw upon when designing and managing missions.

  15. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission is one of four selected for Phase A Concept Study in NASA's current call for MIDEX class missions. ABE is a cooled space telescope equipped with spectrographs covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral range. The ABE mission is devoted to the detection and identification of organic and related molecular species in space. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace.

  16. Overview of EVA PRA for TPS Repair for Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Mark; Duncan, Gary; Roeschel, Eduardo; Canga, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Following the Columbia accident in 2003, NASA developed techniques to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) in the event of damage to the TPS as one of several actions to reduce the risk to future flights from ascent debris, micro-meteoroid and/or orbital debris (MMOD). Other actions to help reduce the risk include improved inspection techniques, reduced shedding of debris from the External Tank and ability to rescue the crew with a launch on need vehicle. For the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission the crew rescue capability was limited by the inability to safe haven on the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in a greater reliance on the repair capability. Therefore it was desirable to have an idea of the risk associated with conducting a repair, where the repair would have to be conducted using an Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Previously, focused analyses had been conducted to quantify the risk associated with certain aspects of an EVA, for example the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) or Space Suit; however, the analyses were somewhat limited in scope. A complete integrated model of an EVA which could quantify the risk associated with all of the major components of an EVA had never been done before. It was desired to have a complete integrated model to be able to assess the risks associated with an EVA to support the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) in making risk informed decisions. In the case of the HST Servicing Mission, this model was developed to assess specifically the risks associated with performing a TPS repair EVA. This paper provides an overview of the model that was developed to support the HST mission in the event of TPS damage. The HST Servicing Mission was successfully completed on May 24th 2009 with no critical TPS damage; therefore the model was not required for real-time mission support. However, it laid the foundation upon which future EVA quantitative risk assessments could be based.

  17. Secondary eclipses in the CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmonte Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We identify and characterize secondary eclipses in the original light curves of published CoRoT planets using uniform detection and evaluation criteria. Our analysis is based on a Bayesian statistics: the eclipse search is carried out using Bayesian model selection, and the characterization of the plausible eclipse candidates using Bayesian parameter estimation. We discover statistically significant eclipse events for two planets, CoRoT-6b and CoRoT-11b, and for one brown dwarf, CoRoT-15b. We also find marginally significant eclipse events passing our plausibility criteria for CoRoT-3b, 13b, 18b, and 21b, and confirm the previously published CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b eclipses.

  18. Assessment of DSN Communication Coverage for Space Missions to Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Bittner, David; Gati, Frank; Bhasin, Kul

    2012-01-01

    A communication coverage gap exists for Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas. This communication coverage gap is on the southern hemisphere, centered at approximate latitude of -47deg and longitude of -45deg. The area of this communication gap varies depending on the altitude from the Earth s surface. There are no current planetary space missions that fall within the DSN communication gap because planetary bodies in the Solar system lie near the ecliptic plane. However, some asteroids orbits are not confined to the ecliptic plane. In recent years, Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) have passed within 100,000 km of the Earth. NASA s future space exploration goals include a manned mission to asteroids. It is important to ensure reliable and redundant communication coverage/capabilities for manned space missions to dangerous asteroids that make a sequence of close Earth encounters. In this paper, we will describe simulations performed to determine whether near-Earth objects (NEO) that have been classified as PHAs fall within the DSN communication coverage gap. In the study, we reviewed literature for a number of PHAs, generated binary ephemeris for selected PHAs using JPL s HORIZONS tool, and created their trajectories using Satellite Took Kit (STK). The results show that some of the PHAs fall within DSN communication coverage gap. This paper presents the simulation results and our analyses

  19. Toward a reverse osmosis membrane system for recycling space mission wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Lueptow, R M

    2000-01-01

    Essential to extended human exploration and utilization of space is providing a clean supply of potable water as well as water for washing. Recycling of space mission wastewater is necessary for long-term space missions due to the limited capacity of water storage. In this study, initial measurements toward a wastewater reclamation system that provides a clean water supply using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been made using stirred cell filtration experiments. Low-pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes were used to obtain high flux of permeate as well as high rejection. Detergent removal was above 99%, and dissolved salt removal was above 90% in single-pass treatment, while total organic carbon (TOC) removal was nearly 80%. Most problematic is nitrogen rejection, which was 74% at best. Comparison of feed water before and after urea hydrolysis shows that the rejection of nitrogen compounds can be increased to 95% by allowing urea hydrolysis to occur. The removal efficiency for nitrogen compounds was also improved by increasing the shear rate near membrane surface. As a result, the product water in two passes could meet the hygiene water requirements for human space missions, and the product water in three passes could meet potable water regulations with overall recovery of 77%. This study also suggests that dynamic rotating membrane filtration, which can produce a high shear rate, will be useful to increase the system recovery as well as pollutant rejection. Grant numbers: NAG9-1053

  20. Cost Effective Space Science Telescopes for Astrophysics Mission in the Upcoming Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Astrophysics programs are dealing with an exciting but challenging dichotomy. On one hand, there has been and will continue to be countless advances in scientific discovery, but on the other the astronomical community is faced with what unfortunately is considered by many to be an insurmountable budgetary impasse for the foreseeable future. The National Academy of Sciences’ Astro2010: Decadal Survey was faced with the difficult challenge of prioritizing sciences and missions for the upcoming decade while still allowing room for new, yet to be discovered opportunities to receive funding. To this end, we propose the consideration of a paradigm shift to the astronomical community that may enable more cost efficient space-based telescope missions to be funded and still provide a high science return per dollar invested. The discussion will provide high level parameters that drive cost and complexity of a telescope system in order to help guide potential PI's in the early concept development for future missions.

  1. Space station short-term mission planning using ontology modelling and time iteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijiao Bu; Jin Zhang; Yazhong Luo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the space station short-term mission planning, which aims to alocate the exe-cuting time of missions effectively, schedule the correspon- ding resources reasonably and arrange the time of the as-tronauts properly. A domain model is developed by using the ontology theory to describe the concepts, constraints and relations of the planning domain formaly, abstractly and normatively. A method based on time iteration is adopted to solve the short-term planning problem. Meanwhile, the re-solving strategies are proposed to resolve different kinds of conflicts induced by the constraints of power, heat, resource, astronaut and relationship. The proposed approach is evalu-ated in a test case with fifteen missions, thirteen resources and three astronauts. The results show that the developed domain ontology model is reasonable, and the time iteration method using the proposed resolving strategies can suc-cessfuly obtain the plan satisfying al considered constraints.

  2. Assembling and supplying the ISS the space shuttle fulfills its mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is a milestone in space exploration. But without the Space Shuttle, it would have remained an impossible dream. Assembling and Supplying the ISS is the story of how, between 1998 and 2011, the Shuttle became the platform which enabled the construction and continued operation of the primary scientific research facility in Earth orbit. Fulfilling an objective it had been designed to complete decades before, 37 Shuttle missions carried the majority of the hardware needed to build the ISS and then acted as a ferry and supply train for early resident crews to the station. Building upon the decades of development and experience described in the companion volume Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations: Early Docking Technologies from Concept to Implementation, this book explores • a purpose-built hardware processing facility • challenging spacewalking objectives • extensive robotic operations • undocking a unmanned orbiter The experie...

  3. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  4. Plaskett's Star: Analysis of the CoRoT photometric data

    CERN Document Server

    Mahy, L; Baudin, F; Rauw, G; Godart, M; Morel, T; Degroote, P; Aerts, C; Blomme, R; Cuypers, J; Noels, A; Michel, E; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Catala, C; Samadi, R

    2010-01-01

    The SRa02 of the CoRoT space mission for Asteroseismology was partly devoted to stars belonging to the Mon OB2 association. An intense monitoring was performed on Plaskett's Star (HD47129) and the unprecedented quality of the light curve allows us to shed new light on this very massive, non-eclipsing binary system. We particularly aimed at detecting periodic variability which might be associated with pulsations or interactions between both components. We also searched for variations related to the orbital cycle which could help to constrain the inclination and the morphology of the binary system. A Fourier-based prewhitening and a multiperiodic fitting procedure were applied to analyse the time series and extract the frequencies of variations. We describe the noise properties to tentatively define an appropriate significance criterion, to only point out the peaks at a certain significance level. We also detect the variations related to the orbital motion and study them by using the NIGHTFALL program. The peri...

  5. Benefits to the Europa Clipper Mission Provided by the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Patel, Keyur

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) proposed Europa Clipper mission would provide an unprecedented look at the icy Jovian moon, and investigate its environment to determine the possibility that it hosts life. Focused on exploring the water, chemistry, and energy conditions on the moon, the spacecraft would examine Europa's ocean, ice shell, composition and geology by performing 32 low-altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years, allowing detailed investigations of globally distributed regions of Europa. In hopes of expediting the scientific program, mission planners at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are working with the Space Launch System (SLS) program, managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. Designed to be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, SLS is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS rocket will offer an initial low-Earth-orbit lift capability of 70 metric tons (t) beginning with a first launch in 2017 and will then evolve into a 130 t Block 2 version. While the primary focus of the development of the initial version of SLS is on enabling human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit using the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the rocket offers unique benefits to robotic planetary exploration missions, thanks to the high characteristic energy it provides. This paper will provide an overview of both the proposed Europa Clipper mission and the Space Launch System vehicle, and explore options provided to the Europa Clipper mission for a launch within a decade by a 70 t version of SLS with a commercially available 5-meter payload fairing, through comparison with a baseline of current Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) capabilities. Compared to that baseline, a mission to the Jovian system could reduce transit times to less than half, or increase mass to more than double, among other benefits. In addition to these primary benefits, the paper will

  6. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  7. Attitude-dependent launch window analysis for the Hubble Space Telescope Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenio, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Launch window analysis for Space Shuttle missions determines the launch times which will ensure that all payload and Shuttle requirements for the mission are met. Attitude and pointing analysis determines Shuttle Orbiter attitudes that meet various communication, viewing, and thermal requirements for the Orbiter and its payloads. Historically, launch window analysis and attitude and pointing analysis for Shuttle missions have been done separately, without directly influencing each other. However, methods have been developed to consider simultaneously dependencies between launch window and attitude and pointing requirements if they arise. These methods were developed from the launch window analysis for STS-31, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) deployment mission. To release the HST, the Orbiter attitude had to remain inertially fixed while pointing the HST at the Sun. The Orbiter release attitude and the HST release time were determined from the position of the Sun and varied with launch time and launch date. The launch window analysis for STS-31 centered on how to determine the range of launch times for a given launch date that would allow the Shuttle to release the HST and simultaneously satisfy communication, attitude, and lighting requirements for the deployment operations. Discussed here are how the HST deployment requirements determined the launch window and how the Orbiter release attitude affected the launch window.

  8. Space and ground segment performance of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission: four years in orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-J. Fong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate mission consisting of six Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO satellites is the world's first demonstration constellation using radio occultation signals from Global Positioning System (GPS satellites. The radio occultation signals are retrieved in near real-time for global weather/climate monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and space weather research. The mission has processed on average 1400 to 1800 high-quality atmospheric sounding profiles per day. The atmospheric radio occultation soundings data are assimilated into operational numerical weather prediction models for global weather prediction, including typhoon/hurricane/cyclone forecasts. The radio occultation data has shown a positive impact on weather predictions at many national weather forecast centers. A proposed follow-on mission transitions the program from the current experimental research system to a significantly improved real-time operational system, which will reliably provide 8000 radio occultation soundings per day. The follow-on mission as planned will consist of 12 satellites with a data latency of 45 min, which will provide greatly enhanced opportunities for operational forecasts and scientific research. This paper will address the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC system and mission overview, the spacecraft and ground system performance after four years in orbit, the lessons learned from the encountered technical challenges and observations, and the expected design improvements for the new spacecraft and ground system.

  9. Remote sensing of aerosol in the terrestrial atmosphere from space: "AEROSOL-UA" mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Milinevsky, Gennadi; Degtyarev, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols on a global scale are not well known in terms of determination of their effects on climate. This mostly is due to extreme variability of aerosol concentrations, properties, sources, and types. Aerosol climate impact is comparable to the effect of greenhouse gases, but its influence is more difficult to measure, especially with respect to aerosol microphysical properties and the evaluation of anthropogenic aerosol effect. There are many satellite missions studying aerosol distribution in the terrestrial atmosphere, such as MISR/Terra, OMI/Aura, AVHHR, MODIS/Terra and Aqua, CALIOP/CALIPSO. To improve the quality of data and climate models, and to reduce aerosol climate forcing uncertainties, several new missions are planned. The gap in orbital instruments for studying aerosol microphysics has arisen after the Glory mission failed during launch in 2011. In this review paper, we describe several planned aerosol space missions, including the Ukrainian project AEROSOL-UA that will obtain the data using a multi-channel scanning polarimeter and wide-angle polarimetric camera. The mission is designed for remote sensing of the aerosol microphysics and cloud properties on a global scale.

  10. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  11. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  12. Dynamic Sampling of Cabin VOCs during the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft is dynamic due to changes in crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition of four modules (Core lab, Veggie Plant Atrium, Hygiene module, and Xhab loft) within the Deep Space Habitat '(DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center. The FTIR was either physically relocated to a new location or the plumbing was changed so that a different location was monitored. An application composed of 20 gases was used and the FTIR was zeroed using N2 gas every time it was relocated. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful as all data was collected and the FTIR worked during the entire MOT mission. Not all the 20 gases in the application sampled were detected and it was possible to measure dynamic VOC concentrations in each DSH location.

  13. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  14. Leadership for long-duration space missions: A shift toward a collective approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Tyler; McIntosh, Tristan; Gibson, Carter; Mumford, Michael D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Connelly, Shane; Day, Eric Anthony; Vessey, Brandon

    2016-12-01

    For many years, leadership operations within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have utilized a primarily hierarchical approach. In the present effort, we investigated the leadership needs and considerations given the increased interest in and potential for long-duration space exploration. Specifically, it is argued that a collective leadership approach in which leadership is shared and distributed based on expertise would be beneficial for these types of missions. Interviews were conducted with eleven subject matter experts with wide-ranging experience in NASA and its missions. A mixed-methods analytic approach applied to these interviews provided support for the viability of a collective leadership framework. Implications for NASA and other similar organizational contexts are discussed.

  15. SuperAGILE: the hard X-ray Imager for the AGILE space mission

    CERN Document Server

    Feroci, M; Soffitta, P; Del Monte, E; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Frutti, M; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Mastropietro, M; Morelli, E; Pacciani, L; Porrovecchio, G; Rapisarda, M; Rubini, A; Tavani, M; Argan, A

    2007-01-01

    SuperAGILE is a coded mask experiment based on silicon microstrip detectors. It operates in the 15-45 keV nominal energy range, providing crossed one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky with an on-axis angular resolution of 6 arcmin, over a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. It was designed as the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE space mission, a small satellite of the Italian Space Agency devoted to image the gamma-ray sky in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV energy band. The AGILE mission was launched in a low-earth orbit on 23^{rd} April 2007. In this paper we describe the SuperAGILE experiment, its construction and test processes, and its performance before flight, based on the on-ground test and calibrations.

  16. Laboratory Spectroscopy of Large Carbon Molecules and Ions in Support of Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salana, Farid; Tan, X.; Cami, J.; Remy, J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of Laboratory Astrophysics is the optimization of data return from space missions by measuring spectra of atomic and molecular species in laboratory environments that mimic interstellar conditions (WhitePaper (2002, 2006)). Among interstellar species, PAHs are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials that represents a particularly difficult challenge for gas-phase laboratory studies. We present the absorption spectra of jet-cooled neutral and ionized PAHs and discuss the implications for astrophysics. The harsh physical conditions of the interstellar medium have been simulated in the laboratory. We are now, for the first time, in the position to directly compare laboratory spectra of PAHs and carbon nanoparticles with astronomical observations. This new phase offers tremendous opportunities for the data analysis of current and upcoming space missions geared toward the detection of large aromatic systems (HST/COS, FUSE, JWST, Spitzer).

  17. ISY Mission to Planet Earth Conference: A planning meeting for the International Space Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    A major theme was the opportunity offered by the International Space Year (ISY) to initiate a long-term program of Earth observation mission coordination and worldwide data standardization. The challenge is immense and extremely time critical. A recommendation was made to inventory the capabilities of Earth observing spacecraft scheduled during the next decade. The ISY effort to strengthen coordination and standardization should emphasize global issues, and also regional initiatives of particular relevance to developing nations. The concepts of a Global Information System Test (GIST) was accepted and applied to specific issues of immediate concern. The importance of ISY Earth observation initiatives extending beyond research to include immediate and direct applications for social and economic development was stressed. Several specific Mission to Planet Earth proposals were developed during the Conference. A mechanism was set up for coordinating participation of the national space agencies or equivalent bodies.

  18. Mission Analysis and Conceptual Design of a Space Ambulance Utilizing the Boeing X-37B Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesser, Nathaniel James

    This paper discusses the concept of operations and modifications for a crew return vehicle from the International Space Station based on the Boeing X-37B platform. The modifications necessary include accommodating a three person crew, adding an environmental control and life support system and modifying the propulsion system to be more conducive to a fast evacuation. Two crew seating configurations were considered and traded for vehicle mass, crew envelope and ease of loading and unloading the injured patient. Computer models were generated to determine key parameters, and the models were validated using physical mock-ups. The mission is considerably shorter than the design reference mission, meaning that there are significant reductions in propellant mass and volume. The results showed that by utilizing the space saved from smaller propellant tanks, and combining the crew's oxygen supply with the propulsion system, the vehicle can be retooled without modifying the outer mold line..

  19. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE... Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS Original Estimate This investment does not have an

  20. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  1. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  2. Waste Management Options for Long-Duration Space Missions: When to Reject, Reuse, or Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Gallo, Christopher A.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Hegde, Uday G.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of waste generated on long-duration space missions away from Earth orbit creates the daunting challenge of how to manage the waste through reuse, rejection, or recycle. The option to merely dispose of the solid waste through an airlock to space was studied for both Earth-moon libration point missions and crewed Mars missions. Although the unique dynamic characteristics of an orbit around L2 might allow some discarded waste to intersect the lunar surface before re-impacting the spacecraft, the large amount of waste needed to be managed and potential hazards associated with volatiles recondensing on the spacecraft surfaces make this option problematic. A second option evaluated is to process the waste into useful gases to be either vented to space or used in various propulsion systems. These propellants could then be used to provide the yearly station-keeping needs at an L2 orbit, or if processed into oxygen and methane propellants, could be used to augment science exploration by enabling lunar mini landers to the far side of the moon.

  3. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Skytland, Nicholas G.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    With the ambitious goals to send manned missions to asteroids and onto Mars, substantial work will be required to ensure the well being of the men and women who will undertake these difficult missions. Unlike current International Space Station or Shuttle missions, astronauts will be required to endure long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation, isolation and reduced gravity. These new operation conditions will pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Therefore, it is essential to develop and apply advanced tools to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. NASA s Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and apply computational models of physiologic response to space flight operation conditions over various time periods and environmental circumstances. The collective application and integration of well vetted models assessing the physiology, biomechanics and anatomy is referred to as the Digital Astronaut. The Digital Astronaut simulation environment will serve as a practical working tool for use by NASA in operational activities such as the prediction of biomedical risks and functional capabilities of astronauts. In additional to space flight operation conditions, DAP s work has direct applicability to terrestrial biomedical research by providing virtual environments for hypothesis testing, experiment design, and to reduce animal/human testing. A practical application of the DA to assess pre and post flight responses to exercise is illustrated and the difficulty in matching true physiological responses is discussed.

  4. Methodological demonstration of laser beam pointing control for space gravitational wave detection missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Hui; Liu, He-Shan; Luo, Zi-Ren; Li, Yu-Qiong; Jin, Gang

    2014-07-01

    In space laser interferometer gravitational wave (G.W.) detection missions, the stability of the laser beam pointing direction has to be kept at 10 nrad/√Hz. Otherwise, the beam pointing jitter noise will dominate the noise budget and make the detection of G.W. impossible. Disturbed by the residue non-conservative forces, the fluctuation of the laser beam pointing direction could be a few μrad/√Hz at frequencies from 0.1 mHz to 10 Hz. Therefore, the laser beam pointing control system is an essential requirement for those space G.W. detection missions. An on-ground test of such beam pointing control system is performed, where the Differential Wave-front Sensing technique is used to sense the beams pointing jitter. An active controlled steering mirror is employed to adjust the beam pointing direction to compensate the jitter. The experimental result shows that the pointing control system can be used for very large dynamic range up to 5 μrad. At the interested frequencies of space G.W. detection missions, between 1 mHz and 1 Hz, beam pointing stability of 6 nrad/√Hz is achieved.

  5. Recommendations for Enabling Manual Component Level Electronic Repair for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Easton, John W.; Funk, Gregory P.; Latta, Gary S.; Ganster, Andrew W.; Estes, Brett E.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration missions to the Moon and Mars pose a number of challenges to mission designers, controllers, and the crews. Among these challenges are planning for corrective maintenance actions which often require a repair. Current repair strategies on the International Space Station (ISS) rely primarily on the use of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), where a faulty unit is replaced with a spare, and the faulty unit typically returns to Earth for analysis and possible repair. The strategy of replace to repair has posed challenges even for the ISS program. Repairing faulty hardware at lower levels such as the component level can help maintain system availability in situations where no spares exist and potentially reduce logistic resupply mass.This report provides recommendations to help enable manual replacement of electronics at the component-level for future manned space missions. The recommendations include hardware, tools, containment options, and crew training. The recommendations are based on the work of the Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task of the Exploration Technology Development Program from 2006 to 2009. The recommendations are derived based on the experience of two experiments conducted by the CLEAR team aboard the International Space Station as well as a group of experienced Miniature/Microminiature (2M) electronics repair technicians and instructors from the U.S. Navy 2M Project Office. The emphasis of the recommendations is the physical repair. Fault diagnostics and post-repair functional test are discussed in other CLEAR reports.

  6. Status of the scientific data acquisition system for the GAMMA-400 space telescope mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, S. G.; Serdin, O. V.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Timina, A.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Topchiev, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The present status of scientific data acquisition system (SDAQ) developed by SRISA for the GAMMA-400 space gamma-ray telescope mission is presented. SDAQ provides the collection of the data from telescope detector subsystems (up to 100 GB per day), the preliminary processing of scientific information and its accumulation in mass memory, transferring the information from mass memory to the satellite radio line for its transmission to the ground station, the control and monitoring of the telescope subsystems. SDAQ includes special space qualified chipset designed by SRISA and has scalable modular net structure based on fast and high-reliable SerialRapidIO 1.25 Gbit/s interface.

  7. Advanced Magnetic-Nuclear Power Systems for Reliability Demanding Applications Including Deep Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The MAGNUS concept, which is based on the FFMCR approach, offers space power and propulsion technology with a number of unique characteristics such as: ï‚· Direct FF energy conversion is uniquely suitable for space operation; ï‚· High efficiency DEC promises reduced thermal control and radiators; ï‚· High specific impulse allows short trip times and extends exploration to the outer reaches of the solar system and beyond; ï‚· Achievability of long-term operation assures power for missions with...

  8. Development of a Temperature Sensor for Jet Engine and Space Missions Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Culley, Dennis E.; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems in aerospace and in space exploration missions are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings. To address the needs for extreme temperature electronics, research efforts exist at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop and evaluate electronics for extreme temperature operations, and to establish their reliability under extreme temperature operation and thermal cycling; conditions that are typical of both the aerospace and space environments. These efforts are supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics/Subsonic Fixed Wing Program and by the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. This work reports on the results obtained on the development of a temperature sensor geared for use in harsh environments.

  9. Radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design and its application to an illustrative space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year. Because of Pluto's long distance from the sun (30-50 A.U.) and the mission's large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. TRGs have been tentatively selected, because they have been successfully flown on many space missions, and have demonstrated exceptional reliability and durability. The only reason for exploring the applicability of the far less mature RTPV systems is their potential for much higher conversion efficiencies, which would greatly reduce the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which—like all NASA missions under current consideration—is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and depicts its integration with the PFF spacecraft. A companion paper presented at this conference presents the results of the thermal, electrical, and structural analysis and the design optimization of the integrated RTPV system. It also discusses the programmatic implications of the analytical results, which

  10. The Atmospheric Monitoring System of the JEM-EUSO Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Frias, M D Rodriguez; Bozzo, E; del Peral, L; Neronov, A; Wada, S

    2015-01-01

    An Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) is a mandatory and key device of a space-based mission which aims to detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and Extremely-High Energy Cosmic Rays (EHECR) from Space. JEM-EUSO has a dedicated atmospheric monitoring system that plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. Our AMS consists of a very challenging space infrared camera and a LIDAR device, that are being fully designed with space qualification to fulfil the scientific requirements of this space mission. The AMS will provide information of the cloud cover in the FoV of JEM-EUSO, as well as measurements of the cloud top altitudes with an accuracy of 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere transmittance in the direction of each air shower with an accuracy of 0.15 degree and a resolution of 500 m. This will ensure that the energy of the primary UHECR and the depth of maximum development of the EAS ( Extensive Air Shower)...

  11. Virtual Mission Operations of Remote Sensors With Rapid Access To and From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, Dave; Walke, Jon; Dikeman, Larry; Sage, Steven; Miller, Eric; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; Heberle, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes network-centric operations, where a virtual mission operations center autonomously receives sensor triggers, and schedules space and ground assets using Internet-based technologies and service-oriented architectures. For proof-of-concept purposes, sensor triggers are received from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to determine targets for space-based sensors. The Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite, the United Kingdom Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC), is used as the space-based sensor. The UK-DMC s availability is determined via machine-to-machine communications using SSTL s mission planning system. Access to/from the UK-DMC for tasking and sensor data is via SSTL s and Universal Space Network s (USN) ground assets. The availability and scheduling of USN s assets can also be performed autonomously via machine-to-machine communications. All communication, both on the ground and between ground and space, uses open Internet standards.

  12. In the footsteps of Columbus European missions to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, John

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency has a long history of cooperating with NASA in human spaceflight, having developed the Spacelab module for carrying in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. This book tells of the development of ESA’s Columbus microgravity science laboratory of the International Space Station and the European astronauts who work in it. From the beginning, ESA has been in close collaboration on the ISS, making a significant contribution to the station hardware. Special focus is given to Columbus and Copula as well as station resupply using the ATV. Each mission is also examined individually, creating a comprehensive picture of ESA's crucial involvement over the years. Extensive use of color photographs from NASA and ESA to depict the experiments carried out, the phases of the ISS construction, and the personal stories of the astronauts in space highlights the crucial European work on human spaceflight.

  13. Variability in the CoRoT photometry of three hot O-type stars. HD 46223, HD 46150 and HD 46966

    CERN Document Server

    Blomme, R; Catala, C; Cuypers, J; Gosset, E; Godart, M; Montalban, J; Ventura, P; Rauw, G; Morel, T; Degroote, P; Aerts, C; Noels, A; Michel, E; Baudin, F; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Samadi, R

    2011-01-01

    The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric data of unprecedented quality and time-coverage for a number of O-type stars. We analyse the CoRoT data corresponding to three hot O-type stars, describing the properties of their light curves and we search for pulsational frequencies, which we then compare to theoretical model predictions. We determine the amplitude spectrum of the data, using the Lomb-Scargle and a multifrequency HMM-like technique. Frequencies are extracted by prewhitening, and their significance is evaluated under the assumption that the light curve is dominated by red noise. We search for harmonics, linear combinations and regular spacings among these frequencies. We use simulations with the same time sampling as the data as a powerful tool to judge the significance of our results. From the theoretical point of view, we use the MAD non-adiabatic p...

  14. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  15. Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

  16. Scientific program construction principles and time allocation scheme for the World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Oleg; Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Kaigorodov, Pavel; Yáñez, Francisco Javier; Gómez de Castro, Ana Ines

    2011-09-01

    We present scientific program construction principles and a time allocation scheme developed for the World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) mission, which is an international space observatory for observation in UV spectral range 100-300 nm. The WSO-UV consists of a 1.7 m aperture telescope with instrumentation designed to carry out high resolution spectroscopy, long-slit low resolution spectroscopy and direct sky imaging. The WSO-UV Ground Segment is under development by Spain and Russia. They will coordinate the Mission and Science Operations and provide the satellite tracking stations for the project. The WSO-UV will work as a targeted scientific observatory. Three scientific programs will be carried out at the observatory. Core Program of scientific observations, which deserves large amounts of observing time, will be defined by the WSO-UV Science Committee to allow the conduction of high impact or legacy scientific projects. Funding Bodies Program is the guaranteed time granted to each one of the national bodies funding the WSO-UV project. Guest observer program for everyone, or Open Program, consists of astronomical observations obtained with the WSO-UV by astronomers who may or may not belong to the WSO-UV international consortium. It is open to excellent scientific projects from the world-wide community and occupies up to 40% of total observational time. Apart from the particularities associated to a science mission, this new mission will be affected by a new concept of observations management, trying to maximize the scientific return of this mission, and the shared operations between the two sites located in Spain and Russia. A brief summary of the algorithmic strategies analyzed for scheduling optimization is also given in the paper.

  17. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  18. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We often look "through a glass, darkly" at solar system bodies with tenuous atmospheres and direct surface exposure to the local space environment. Space weathering exposure acts via universal space-surface interaction processes to produce a thin patina of outer material covering, potentially obscuring endogenic surface materials of greatest interest for understanding origins and interior evolution. Examples of obscuring exogenic layers are radiation crusts on cometary nuclei and iogenic components of sulfate hydrate deposits on the trailing hemisphere of Europa. Weathering processes include plasma ion implantation into surfaces, sputtering by charged particles and solar ultraviolet photons, photolytic chemistry driven by UV irradiation, and radiolytic chemistry evolving from products of charged particle irradiation. Regolith structure from impacts, and underlying deeper structures from internal evolution, affects efficacy of certain surface interactions, e.g. sputtering as affected by porosity and surface irradiation dosage as partly attenuated by local topographic shielding. These processes should be regarded for mission science planning as potentially enabling, e.g. since direct surface sputtering, and resultant surface-bound exospheres, can provide in-situ samples of surface composition to ion and neutral mass spectrometers on orbital spacecraft. Sample return for highest sensitivity compOSitional and structural analyses at Earth will usually be precluded by limited range of surface sampling, long times for return, and high cost. Targeted advancements in instrument technology would be more cost efficient for local remote and in-situ sample analysis. More realistic laboratory simulations, e.g. for bulk samples, are needed to interpret mission science observations of weathered surfaces. Space environment effects on mission spacecraft and science operations must also be specified and mitigated from the hourly to monthly changes in space weather and from longer

  19. Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Summers, G.

    1995-01-01

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPVs are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that—when fully developed—they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g., RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 °C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators.

  20. Space medicine innovation and telehealth concept implementation for medical care during exploration-class missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Annie; Sullivan, Patrick; Beaudry, Catherine; Kuyumjian, Raffi; Comtois, Jean-Marc

    2012-12-01

    Medical care on the International Space Station (ISS) is provided using real-time communication with limited medical data transmission. In the occurrence of an off-nominal medical event, the medical care paradigm employed is 'stabilization and transportation', involving real-time management from ground and immediate return to Earth in the event that the medical contingency could not be resolved in due time in space. In preparation for future missions beyond Low-Earth orbit (LEO), medical concepts of operations are being developed to ensure adequate support for the new mission profiles: increased distance, duration and communication delays, as well as impossibility of emergency returns and limitations in terms of medical equipment availability. The current ISS paradigm of medical care would no longer be adequate due to these new constraints. The Operational Space Medicine group at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is looking towards synergies between terrestrial and space medicine concepts for the delivery of medical care to deal with the new challenges of human space exploration as well as to provide benefits to the Canadian population. Remote and rural communities on Earth are, in fact, facing similar problems such as isolation, remoteness to tertiary care centers, resource scarcity, difficult (and expensive) emergency transfers, limited access to physicians and specialists and limited training of medical and nursing staff. There are a number of researchers and organizations, outside the space communities, working in the area of telehealth. They are designing and implementing terrestrial telehealth programs using real-time and store-and-forward techniques to provide isolated populations access to medical care. The cross-fertilization of space-Earth research could provide support for increased spin-off and spin-in effects and stimulate telehealth and space medicine innovations to engage in the new era of human space exploration. This paper will discuss the benefits

  1. Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

  2. The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II Catalog of Variable Stars. II. Characterization of the CoRoT SRc02 field

    CERN Document Server

    Klagyivik, P; Pasternacki, T; Cabrera, J; Chini, R; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Fruth, T; Kabath, P; Lemke, R; Murphy, M; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R

    2015-01-01

    Time-series photometry of the CoRoT field SRc02 was obtained by the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) in 2009. The main aim was the ground based follow-up of the CoRoT field in order to detect variable stars with better spatial resolution than what can be achieved with the CoRoT space telescope. A total of 1,846 variable stars were detected, of which only 30 have been previously known. For nine eclipsing binaries the stellar parameters were determined by modeling their light curve.

  3. Sequential water disinfection using UV irradiation and iodination for long-term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly

    As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS), a disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary disinfectant, was investigated. The purpose of this research was to support NASA's goal of long-term space missions to destinations such as Mars. Long-term space missions typically refer to missions with durations of one (1) to five (5) years. For a hypothetical mission to Mars, the length of the mission is estimated to be 600 days. All of the items required for survival of the six person crew would need to be readily available during the mission, including safe potable water. Due to cost and logistical considerations associated with supplying the crew with earth-based potable water for the entire mission duration, closed-loop water treatment processes, in which a finite amount of water is continuously used and re-used, are being considered. Closed-loop treatment systems are comprised of many individual processes. The subject research is focused on the water disinfection process using ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and a chemical disinfectant (iodine) as the residual disinfectant. The four main research objectives completed as part of this research are summarized below. (1) Developed a tool that allowed iodine species and concentrations to be predicted based on system characteristics, such as pH and redox potential. (2) Investigated the disinfection efficacy of UV radiation and iodine using a challenge microorganism (Bacillus subtilis spores). Effort was placed on characterizing the response of B. subtilis spores to sequential disinfection (i.e. UV then iodine). Inactivation models were developed to describe the inactivation kinetics. (3) Evaluated a chemical actinometer to monitor the minimum dose within a UV reactor. A continuous-form irradiance field model was developed to estimate the output of a cylindrical non

  4. Quantum Tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle with the STE-QUEST Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Altschul, Brett; Blanchet, Luc; Bongs, Kai; Bouyer, Philippe; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Capozziello, Salvatore; Gaaloul, Naceur; Giulini, Domenico; Hartwig, Jonas; Iess, Luciano; Jetzer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud; Rasel, Ernst; Reynaud, Serge; Schiller, Stephan; Schubert, Christian; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Sterr, Uwe; Tasson, Jay D; Tino, Guglielmo M; Tuckey, Philip; Wolf, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present in detail the scientific objectives in fundamental physics of the Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Space Test (STE-QUEST) space mission. STE-QUEST was pre-selected by the European Space Agency together with four other missions for the cosmic vision M3 launch opportunity planned around 2024. It carries out tests of different aspects of the Einstein Equivalence Principle using atomic clocks, matter wave interferometry and long distance time/frequency links, providing fascinating science at the interface between quantum mechanics and gravitation that cannot be achieved, at that level of precision, in ground experiments. We especially emphasize the specific strong interest of performing equivalence principle tests in the quantum regime, i.e. using quantum atomic wave interferometry. Although STE-QUEST was finally not selected in early 2014 because of budgetary and technological reasons, its science case was very highly rated. Our aim is to expose that science to a large audience in order to ...

  5. Computer-automated evolution of an X-band antenna for NASA's Space Technology 5 mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S; Lohn, Jason D; Linden, Derek S

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the current practice of designing antennas by hand is severely limited because it is both time and labor intensive and requires a significant amount of domain knowledge, evolutionary algorithms can be used to search the design space and automatically find novel antenna designs that are more effective than would otherwise be developed. Here we present our work in using evolutionary algorithms to automatically design an X-band antenna for NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft. Two evolutionary algorithms were used: the first uses a vector of real-valued parameters and the second uses a tree-structured generative representation for constructing the antenna. The highest-performance antennas from both algorithms were fabricated and tested and both outperformed a hand-designed antenna produced by the antenna contractor for the mission. Subsequent changes to the spacecraft orbit resulted in a change in requirements for the spacecraft antenna. By adjusting our fitness function we were able to rapidly evolve a new set of antennas for this mission in less than a month. One of these new antenna designs was built, tested, and approved for deployment on the three ST5 spacecraft, which were successfully launched into space on March 22, 2006. This evolved antenna design is the first computer-evolved antenna to be deployed for any application and is the first computer-evolved hardware in space.

  6. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  7. Remote Sensing of Aerosol in the Terrestrial Atmosphere from Space: New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Ivanov, Yu.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Bovchaliuk, V.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols on a global scale are not well known in terms of determination of their effects on climate. This mostly is due to extreme variability of aerosol concentrations, properties, sources, and types. Aerosol climate impact is comparable to the effect of greenhouse gases, but its influence is more difficult to measure, especially with respect to aerosol microphysical properties and the evaluation of anthropogenic aerosol effect. There are many satellite missions studying aerosol distribution in the terrestrial atmosphere, such as MISR/Terra, OMI/Aura, AVHHR, MODIS/Terra and Aqua, CALIOP/CALIPSO. To improve the quality of data and climate models, and to reduce aerosol climate forcing uncertainties, several new missions are planned. The gap in orbital instruments for studying aerosol microphysics has arisen after the Glory mission failed during launch in 2011. In this review paper, we describe several planned aerosol space missions, including the Ukrainian project Aerosol-UA that obtains data using a multi-channel scanning polarimeter and wide-angle polarimetric camera. The project is designed for remote sensing of the aerosol microphysics and cloud properties on a global scale.

  8. Remote Sensing of Aerosol in the Terrestrial Atmosphere from Space: New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Ivanov, Yu.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Bovchaliuk, V.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols on a global scale are not well known in terms of determination of their effects on climate. This mostly is due to extreme variability of aerosol concentrations, properties, sources, and types. Aerosol climate impact is comparable to the effect of greenhouse gases, but its influence is more difficult to measure, especially with respect to aerosol microphysical properties and the evaluation of anthropogenic aerosol effect. There are many satellite missions studying aerosol distribution in the terrestrial atmosphere, such as MISR/Terra, OMI/Aura, AVHHR, MODIS/Terra and Aqua, CALIOP/CALIPSO. To improve the quality of data and climate models, and to reduce aerosol climate forcing uncertainties, several new missions are planned. The gap in orbital instruments for studying aerosol microphysics has arisen after the Glory mission failed during launch in 2011. In this review paper, we describe several planned aerosol space missions, including the Ukrainian project Aerosol-UA that obtains data using a multi-channel scanning polarimeter and wide-angle polarimetric camera. The project is designed for remote sensing of the aerosol microphysics and cloud properties on a global scale.

  9. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  10. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Evangelos; Schmitt, Jürgen H M M

    2016-01-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5 %, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing...

  11. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, E.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5%, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing that the targets are dwarf stars with spectral types between F and mid-K. Detectable Li i absorption in four of the targets confirms a low age of 100-400 Myr also deduced from gyrochronology. Our study indicates that the photometric beating phenomenon is likely attributable to differential rotation in fast-rotating stars with outer convection zones.

  12. Galactic archaeology with asteroseismology and spectroscopy: Red giants observed by CoRoT and APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, F.; Chiappini, C.; Rodrigues, T. S.; Miglio, A.; Montalbán, J.; Mosser, B.; Girardi, L.; Valentini, M.; Noels, A.; Morel, T.; Johnson, J. A.; Schultheis, M.; Baudin, F.; de Assis Peralta, R.; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.; Kallinger, T.; García, R. A.; Mathur, S.; Baglin, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Martig, M.; Minchev, I.; Steinmetz, M.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Cunha, K.; Beers, T. C.; Epstein, C.; García Pérez, A. E.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Harding, P.; Holtzman, J.; Majewski, S. R.; Mészáros, Sz.; Nidever, D.; Pan, K.; Pinsonneault, M.; Schiavon, R. P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shetrone, M. D.; Stassun, K.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, G.

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of the space missions CoRoT and Kepler, it has recently become feasible to determine precise asteroseismic masses and relative ages for large samples of red giant stars. We present the CoRoGEE dataset, obtained from CoRoT light curves for 606 red giants in two fields of the Galactic disc that have been co-observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We used the Bayesian parameter estimation code PARAM to calculate distances, extinctions, masses, and ages for these stars in a homogeneous analysis, resulting in relative statistical uncertainties of ≲2% in distance, 4% in radius, 9% in mass and 25% in age. We also assessed systematic age uncertainties stemming from different input physics and mass loss. We discuss the correlation between ages and chemical abundance patterns of field stars over a broad radial range of the Milky Way disc (5 kpc

  13. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment: A successful student-run scientific spacecraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Blum, L. W.; Gerhardt, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a spacecraft mission developed and operated by students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The 3U CubeSat was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in September 2012. The massively successful mission far outlived its 4 month estimated lifetime and stopped transmitting data after over two years in orbit in December 2014. CSSWE has contributed to 15 scientific or engineering peer-reviewed journal publications. During the course of the project, over 65 undergraduate and graduate students from CU's Computer Science, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering Departments, as well as the Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department participated. The students were responsible for the design, development, build, integration, testing, and operations from component- to system-level. The variety of backgrounds on this unique project gave the students valuable experience in their own focus area, but also cross-discipline and system-level involvement. However, though the perseverance of the students brought the mission to fruition, it was only possible through the mentoring and support of professionals in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department and CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.

  14. Exploration mission enhancements possible with power beaming. [Space Applications Power Beaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Segna, D.R. (USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A key factor in the exploration and development of the space frontier is the availability of energy where and when it is needed. Currently all space satellites and platforms include self-contained power systems that supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. An alternative approach is to couple advanced high power system with energy beam transmitters and energy receivers to form an infrastructure of a space power utility where a central power system provides power to multiple users. Major space activities, such as low Earth orbit space commercialization and the colonization of the Moon or Mars, would benefit significantly from a central power generation and transmission system. This paper describes the power-beaming concept and system components as applied to space power generation and distribution in support of the Space Exploration Initiative. Beam-power scenarios are discussed including commonality of systems and hardware with cargo transport vehicles, power beaming from orbit to stationary and mobile users on the Lunar and Mars surfaces, and other surface applications. 6 refs.

  15. Variability in the CoRoT photometry of three hot O-type stars. HD 46223, HD 46150, and HD 46966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomme, R.; Mahy, L.; Catala, C.; Cuypers, J.; Gosset, E.; Godart, M.; Montalban, J.; Ventura, P.; Rauw, G.; Morel, T.; Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Noels, A.; Michel, E.; Baudin, F.; Baglin, A.; Auvergne, M.; Samadi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Context. The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric data of unprecedented quality and time-coverage for a number of O-type stars. Aims: We analyse the CoRoT data corresponding to three hot O-type stars, describing the properties of their light curves and search for pulsational frequencies, which we then compare to theoretical model predictions. Methods: We determine the amplitude spectrum of the data, using the Lomb-Scargle and a multifrequency HMM-like technique. Frequencies are extracted by prewhitening, and their significance is evaluated under the assumption that the light curve is dominated by red noise. We search for harmonics, linear combinations, and regular spacings among these frequencies. We use simulations with the same time sampling as the data as a powerful tool to judge the significance of our results. From the theoretical point of view, we use the MAD non-adiabatic pulsation code to determine the expected frequencies of excited modes. Results: A substantial number of frequencies is listed, but none can be convincingly identified as being connected to pulsations. The amplitude spectrum is dominated by red noise. Theoretical modelling shows that all three O-type stars can have excited modes, but the relation between the theoretical frequencies and the observed spectrum is not obvious. Conclusions: The dominant red noise component in the hot O-type stars studied here clearly points to a different origin than the pulsations seen in cooler O stars. The physical cause of this red noise is unclear, but we speculate on the possibility of sub-surface convection, granulation, or stellar wind inhomogeneities being responsible. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany and Spain

  16. Studies of solar flares and CMEs related to the space solar missions in the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Solar eruptions and the related processes involve magnetic fields and plasma flows of various scales in both time and space. These processes include the convective motions of the mass and magnetic field in the photosphere, evolutions of magnetic fields in both the chromosphere and the corona prior to and during the disruption of magnetic fields in response to the photospheric motions. These evolutions constitute a whole process of transporting the magnetic energy and the helicity from the photosphere to the corona, and then to interplanetary space. The present work, on the basis of a solar eruption model, discusses these processes, and the related questions, unanswerable at present, but could be the scientific objectives of the space solar missions in the future.

  17. 16S rRNA beacons for bacterial monitoring during human space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios-Sanz, Maia; Kourentzi, Katerina D; Warmflash, David; Jones, Jeffrey; Pierson, Duane L; Willson, Richard C; Fox, George E

    2007-04-01

    Microorganisms are unavoidable in space environments and their presence has, at times, been a source of problems. Concerns about disease during human space missions are particularly important considering the significant changes the immune system incurs during spaceflight and the history of microbial contamination aboard the Mir space station. Additionally, these contaminants may have adverse effects on instrumentation and life-support systems. A sensitive, highly specific system to detect, characterize, and monitor these microbial populations is essential. Herein we describe a monitoring approach that uses 16S rRNA targeted molecular beacons to successfully detect several specific bacterial groupings. This methodology will greatly simplify in-flight monitoring by minimizing sample handling and processing. We also address and provide solutions to target accessibility problems encountered in hybridizations that target 16S rRNA.

  18. Permanent magnet Hall Thrusters development and applications on future brazilian space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre A.; Miranda, Rodrigo; Schelling, Adriane; de Souza Alves, Lais; Gonçalves Costa, Ernesto; de Oliveira Coelho Junior, Helbert; Castelo Branco, Artur; de Oliveira Lopes, Felipe Nathan

    2015-10-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPLUnB) has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the Space Research Program for Universities (UNIESPAÇO), part of the Brazilian Space Activities Program (PNAE) since 2004. The PHALL project consists on a plasma source design, construction and characterization of the Hall type that will function as a plasma propulsion engine and characterized by several plasma diagnostics sensors. PHALL is based on a plasma source in which a Hall current is generated inside a cylindrical annular channel with an axial electric field produced by a ring anode and a radial magnetic field produced by permanent magnets. In this work it is shown a brief description of the plasma propulsion engine, its diagnostics instrumentation and possible applications of PHALL on orbit transfer maneuvering for future Brazilian geostationary satellite space missions.

  19. HD 174884: a strongly eccentric, short-period early-type binary system discovered by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Maceroni, C; Michel, E; Harmanec, P; Prsa, A; Briquet, M; Niemczura, E; Morel, T; Ladjal, D; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Samadi, R; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    Accurate photometric CoRoT space observations of a secondary seismological target, HD 174884, led to the discovery that this star is an astrophysically important double-lined eclipsing spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit (e of about 0.3), unusual for its short (3.65705d) orbital period. The high eccentricity, coupled with the orientation of the binary orbit in space, explains the very unusual observed light curve with strongly unequal primary and secondary eclipses having the depth ratio of 1-to-100 in the CoRoT 'seismo' passband. Without the high accuracy of the CoRoT photometry, the secondary eclipse, 1.5 mmag deep, would have gone unnoticed. A spectroscopic follow-up program provided 45 high dispersion spectra. The analysis of the CoRoT light curve was performed with an adapted version of PHOEBE that supports CoRoT passbands. The final solution was obtained by simultaneous fitting of the light and the radial velocity curves. Individual star spectra were derived by spectrum disentangling. The uncerta...

  20. Laboratory Spectroscopy of Large Carbon Molecules and Ions in Support of Space Missions. A New Generation of Laboratory & Space Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Tan, Xiaofeng; Cami, Jan; Biennier, Ludovic; Remy, Jerome

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. A long-standing and major challenge for laboratory astrophysics has been to measure the spectra of large carbon molecules in laboratory environments that mimic (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that are associated with the interstellar emission and absorption regions [1]. This objective has been identified as one of the critical Laboratory Astrophysics objectives to optimize the data return from space missions [2]. An extensive laboratory program has been developed to assess the properties of PAHs in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space. We present and discuss the gas-phase electronic absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs measured in the UV-Visible-NIR range in astrophysically relevant environments and discuss the implications for astrophysics [1]. The harsh physical conditions of the interstellar medium characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong VUV radiation fields - have been simulated in the laboratory by associating a pulsed cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) with a supersonic slit jet seeded with PAHs and an ionizing, penning-type, electronic discharge. We have measured for the {\\it first time} the spectra of a series of neutral [3,4] and ionized [5,6] interstellar PAHs analogs in the laboratory. An effort has also been attempted to quantify the mechanisms of ion and carbon nanoparticles production in the free jet expansion and to model our simulation of the diffuse interstellar medium in the laboratory [7]. These experiments provide {\\it unique} information on the spectra of free, large carbon-containing molecules and ions in the gas phase. We are now, for the first time, in the position to directly compare laboratory spectral data on free, cold, PAH ions and carbon nano-sized carbon particles with astronomical observations in the