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Sample records for coronary ostial stenosis

  1. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  2. Early neonatal death and congenital left coronary abnormalities: ostial atresia, stenosis and anomalous aortic origin.

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    Laux, Daniela; Bessières, Bettina; Houyel, Lucile; Bonnière, Maryse; Magny, Jean-François; Bajolle, Fanny; Boudjemline, Younes; Bonnet, Damien

    2013-04-01

    Congenital left coronary artery abnormalities such as ostial stenosis or atresia are extremely rare. Diagnosis in the neonate has not been reported. To describe five neonates with left coronary artery orifice abnormalities and discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options, with a focus on the importance of autopsy in unexpected neonatal death. Retrospective assessment of medical files of neonates with left coronary abnormalities seen during a 12-year period (2000-2012). Three neonates with anatomical (n=2) and functional (n=1) left coronary stenosis and two neonates with ostial atresia were identified. The three infants with coronary stenosis died within minutes to days after birth because of cardiac failure refractory to intensive care treatment; at autopsy, left coronary ostial stenosis (n=2) and high take-off with acute angle origin and tangential vertical course (n=1) were diagnosed. The fourth neonate was in cardiac failure due to critical aortic stenosis; left coronary ostial atresia was diagnosed during an emergency catheter procedure and the infant died after aortic valve dilatation. The fifth infant had a cardiac arrest on the third day of life; she was diagnosed with left coronary ostial atresia by coronary angiography and died during attempted revascularization surgery at 2 weeks of life. Congenital coronary ostial abnormalities can lead to severe heart failure and unexpected neonatal death. Systematic examination of the coronary arteries should be part of any neonatal autopsy. Coronary angiography remains the diagnostic method of choice despite advances in non-invasive imaging. Revascularization surgery seems indicated in symptomatic children based on small patient series. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Acute Right Coronary Ostial Stenosis during Aortic Valve Replacement

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    Sarwar Umran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of acute right coronary artery stenosis developing in a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to coronary artery occlusion associated with cardiac valve surgery - the theories and treatments are discussed. A 85 year-old female was admitted under the care of the cardiothoracic team with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Investigations, including cardiac echocardiography and coronary angiography, indicated a critical aortic valve stenosis. Intraoperative right ventricular failure ensued post aortic valve replacement. Subsequent investigations revealed an acute occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery with resultant absence of distal flow supplying the right ventricle. An immediate right coronary artery bypass procedure was performed with resolution of the right ventricular failure. Subsequent weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass was uneventful and the patient continued to make excellent recovery in the postoperative phase. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of intraoperative acute coronary artery occlusion developing during valve surgery. However, surgeons should be aware of the potential for acute occlusion so that early recognition and rapid intervention can be instituted.

  4. Re-implant of the right coronary artery: a surgical technique for the treatment of ostial lesions

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    Bongiovani Hércules Lisboa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously described surgical treatment for ostial coronary artery stenosis relied on either venous or arterial bypasses or ostial patch angioplasty. These surgical procedures are performed with bovine pericardium, saphenous vein or internal thoracic artery. We describe a technique of right coronary artery re-implantation into the aorta. The procedure was performed in four patients with right coronary artery ostial stenosis along with other left coronary artery lesions.

  5. Diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography for detecting aorto-ostial lesions compared with catheter coronary angiography: multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography is superior to catheter angiography in detection of aorto-ostial lesions.

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    Kantarci, Mecit; Ceviz, Naci; Sevimli, Serdar; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Ceyhan, Elvan; Duran, Cihan; Karaman, Adem; Durur, Irmak; Okur, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to determine the use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in detection of aorto-ostial lesions. Thirty-three patients suspected to have aorto-ostial lesion by either catheter angiography (CA) or MDCT coronary angiography comprised our study population. In 19 patients (group 1), aorto-ostial lesion was suspected based on CA, then MDCT coronary angiography was performed. In the remaining 14 patients (group 2), aorto-ostial lesion diagnosis was made by MDCT coronary angiography, and then afterward, CA was performed. A cardiologist and a radiologist reevaluated both the CA and MDCT coronary angiography recordings of all patients and their consensus formed the diagnosis. We accepted this consensus diagnosis as our criterion standard because a universal criterion standard to compare CA and MDCT findings with is not available. Then, the previous diagnoses by CA and MDCT coronary angiography were compared with the consensus diagnoses. Finally, 26 patients were diagnosed with aorto-ostial lesion, whereas 5 patients were found not to have aorto-ostial lesions. Two patients were diagnosed with abnormal origination of a coronary artery. When the results were evaluated in terms of the presence of aorto-ostial lesion, MDCT coronary angiography correctly diagnosed all 26 patients, and in the 5 patients with normal ostium, MDCT coronary angiography finding was also normal. However, 7 of 26 patients with aorto-ostial lesion were reported to be normal by CA, and also 5 patients with normal ostia were reported to have aorto-ostial lesion by CA. That is, 12 of 33 patients were misdiagnosed by CA. Moreover, CA missed the abnormal origination of the coronary arteries in 2 patients. When the results were evaluated in terms of the degree of stenosis in 26 patients with aorto-ostial lesion; MDCT coronary angiography predicted the final diagnosis in all 26 patients correctly. However, CA predicted the final degree of stenosis only in 12 patients. Catheter

  6. Prediction of Coronary Atherosclerotic Ostial Lesion with a Damping of the Pressure Tracing during Diagnostic Coronary Angiography.

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    Her, Ae Young; Ann, Soe Hee; Singh, Gillian Balbir; Kim, Yong Hoon; Koo, Bon Kwon; Shin, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    When performing coronary angiography (CAG), diagnostic catheter intubation to the ostium can cause damping of the pressure tracing. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of atherosclerotic ostial stenosis in patients showing pressure damping during CAG. In total, 2926 patients who underwent diagnostic CAG were screened in this study. Pressure damping was defined as an abrupt decline of the coronary blood pressure with a blunted pulse pressure after engagement of the diagnostic catheter. According to CAG and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), we divided damped ostia into two groups: atherosclerotic ostial lesion group (true lesion group) and non-atherosclerotic ostium group (false lesion group). Clinical and angiographic characteristics were compared between the two groups. The overall incidence of pressure damping was 2.3% (68 patients and 76 ostia). Among the pressure damped ostia, 40.8% (31 of 76 ostia) were true atherosclerotic ostial lesions (true lesion group). The true lesion group had more frequent left main ostial damping and more percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed on non-ostial lesions, compared to the false lesion group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, left main ostial damping [hazard ratio (HR) 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-13.67, p=0.021] and PCI on non-ostial lesion (HR 5.34, 95% CI 1.34-21.27, p=0.018) emerged as independent predictors for true atherosclerotic ostial lesions in patients with pressure damping. Left main ostial damping and the presence of a non-ostial atherosclerotic lesion may suggest a significant true atherosclerotic lesion in the coronary ostium.

  7. Comparison of interventional versus conservative treatment of isolated ostial lesions of coronary diagonal branch arteries.

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    Brueck, Martin; Heidt, Martin; Kramer, Wilfried; Ludwig, Josef

    2004-05-01

    This study compares percutaneous coronary intervention of isolated ostial stenosis of diagonal branches with a luminal diameter >/=2.0 mm with medical treatment with regard to cardiac events during hospitalization and follow-up. Medical treatment is an alternative to percutaneous intervention without a greater incidence of death or myocardial infarction at 12-month follow-up. Interestingly, patients with isolated ostial stenosis of diagonal branches who were treated interventionally showed a significantly greater probability of rehospitalization for severe angina, recatheterization, and reintervention compared with medically treated patients.

  8. Left coronary artery stenosis causing left ventricular dysfunction in two children with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

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    Yildiz, Okan; Altin, Firat H; Kaya, Mehmet; Ozyılmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Erek, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) is an arteriopathy associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and other isolated elastin gene deletions. Cardiovascular manifestations associated with WBS are characterized by obstructive arterial lesions such as SVAS and pulmonary artery stenosis in addition to bicuspid aortic valve and mitral valve prolapse. However, coronary artery ostial stenosis may be associated with SVAS, and it increases the risk of sudden death and may complicate surgical management. In this report, we present our experience with two patients having SVAS and left coronary artery ostial stenosis with associated left ventricular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Severe Ostial Left Main Stem Stenosis in a Patient with Syphilitic Aortitis.

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    Predescu, L M; Zarma, L; Platon, P; Postu, M; Bucsa, A; Croitoru, M; Prodan, B; Chioncel, O; Deleanu, D

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections are uncommon, but represent an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Syphilitic aortitis is characterized by aortic regurgitation, dilatation of ascending aorta and ostial coronary artery lesions. We report a case of 36 years old man admitted to our hospital for acute anterior ST segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated with cardiogenic shock (hypotension 75/50 mmHg). Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a dilated left ventricle with severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction = 25%), severe mitral regurgitation, moderate aortic regurgitation and mildly dilated ascending aorta. Coronary angiography showed a severe ostial lesion of left main coronary artery which was treated by urgent stent implantation and an intra-aortic contrapulsation balloon was implanted. Blood tests for syphilitic infection were positive. The patient was discharged with treatment including benzathine penicillin. In our case, we present an acute manifestation of a syphilitic ostial left main stenosis treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. Long term follow-up of the patient is crucial as a result of potential rapid in-stent restenosis caused by continuous infection of the ascending aorta. This case is particular because it shows that syphilitic aortitis can be diagnosed in acute settings, like ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  10. Plastia cirúrgica de óstio coronariano esquerdo com estenose não aterosclerótica Surgical ostial angioplasty of non-atherosclerotic left coronary artery stenosis

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    Fábio ARGENTA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se o caso clínico de um paciente homem, 38 anos, com insuficiência cardíaca classe IV (NYHA e angina de repouso em razão de insuficiência aórtica severa, oclusão de óstio da artéria coronária direita e lesão subtotal do óstio da artéria coronária esquerda, em razão de aortite de origem luética. O tratamento constituiu-se de prótese aórtica mecânica e plastia do óstio coronariano esquerdo com "telhado" de veia safena. A evolução clínica pós-operatória foi excelente, tendo o paciente retornado à vida ativa e sem sintomas.A clinical case of a 38 year old male, with heart failure grade IV (NYHA and angina at rest related to severe aortic regurgitation, right coronary ostial occlusion, and a sub-total occlusion of the left coronary ostium owing to syphilitic infection in the past is reported and discussed. Treatment was established implanting a mechanical aortic prosthesis and a direct left main angioplasty suturing a patch made of safenous vein. Follow up has been excellent and the patient is today having a normal life, free of symptoms.

  11. ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Severe Ostial Left Main Stem Stenosis in a Patient with Syphilitic Aortitis

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    Predescu L.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections are uncommon, but represent an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Syphilitic aortitis is characterized by aortic regurgitation, dilatation of ascending aorta and ostial coronary artery lesions.

  12. Comparison of outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention of ostial versus nonostial narrowing of the major epicardial coronary arteries.

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    Mavromatis, Kreton; Ghazzal, Ziyad; Veledar, Emir; Diamandopoulos, Laura; Weintraub, William S; Douglas, John S; Kalynych, Anna M

    2004-09-01

    Outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the ostia of the major epicardial coronary arteries in the modern era of stenting have not been clearly defined. We evaluated data from all PCIs performed from 1998 to 2001 in the proximal segments of the major epicardial coronary arteries entered into a large cardiac database and compared ostial with nonostial PCI outcomes. Of 2,484 patients who underwent PCI of a proximal coronary artery (left anterior descending, left circumflex, or right coronary), 223 patients had ostial narrowing and 2,261 patients had proximal, nonostial narrowing. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups, except that patients with ostial narrowing tended to be older and have shorter narrowings than did patients with nonostial narrowings. Stenting occurred in 89% of all patients and was similar in patients with ostial or nonostial narrowings. Procedural success was the same for ostial and nonostial PCI (96% vs 95%, p = 0.95). One-year event-free survival rate was lower in patients who underwent ostial PCI (69% vs 80%, p = 0.0019), largely due to a greater need for repeat PCI (19% vs 10%, p <0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that ostial location, age, angina class, and number of diseased vessels were independent predictors of the occurrence of cardiac events. PCI of ostial narrowings of the major epicardial coronary arteries was relatively safe. However, at 1 year, patients who underwent ostial PCI had an increased rate of repeat revascularization compared with patients who underwent nonostial, proximal PCI. Copyright 2004 Excerpta Medica, Inc.

  13. Coronary arteries bypass grafting stenosis

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    Mahmoud Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a major global problem. In addition, it is higher risk of mortality for women more than men are when develop in female gender Atherosclerotic plaques consist of deposits of fatty material in the tunica intima. The role of inflammatory process in CAD has been known from 1980’s. Several studies investigated the innate immunity and adaptive immunity roles in atherosclerosis and they concluded that it plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is a widely used method for the treatment of CAD. Based on the literature, CABG is the most common surgical operation done worldwide. In During the first 10 years after CABG, up to 50% of saphenous grafts will occlude. Graft restenosis is beginning with acute thrombosis, intima hyperplasia, and plaque formation. In this review, some molecular pathways of graft failure and restenosis such as apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB are described.

  14. Coronary ostial involvement in acute aortic dissection: detection with 64-slice cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, E Ronan

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old man collapsed after lifting weights at a gym. Following admission to the emergency department, a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CT) revealed a Stanford Type A aortic dissection arising from a previous coarctation repair. Multiphasic reconstructions demonstrated an unstable, highly mobile aortic dissection flap that extended proximally to involve the right coronary artery ostium. Our case is an example of the application of electrocardiogram-gated cardiac CT in directly visualizing involvement of the coronary ostia in acute aortic dissection, which may influence surgical management.

  15. Quantitative coronary CT angiography: absolute lumen sizing rather than %stenosis predicts hemodynamically relevant stenosis

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    Plank, Fabian [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III - Cardiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Burghard, Philipp; Mayr, Agnes; Klauser, Andrea; Feuchtner, Gudrun [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy; Dichtl, Wolfgang [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III - Cardiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Florian [Vienna Medical University, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-11-15

    To identify the most accurate quantitative coronary stenosis parameter by CTA for prediction of functional significant coronary stenosis resulting in coronary revascularization. 160 consecutive patients were prospectively examined with CTA. Proximal coronary stenosis was quantified by minimal lumen area (MLA) and minimal lumen diameter (MLD), %area and %diameter stenosis. Lesion length (LL) was measured. The reference standard was invasive coronary angiography (ICA) (>70 % stenosis, FFR <0.8). 210 coronary segments were included (59 % positive). MLA of ≤1.8 mm{sup 2} was identified as the optimal cut-off (c = 0.97, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.94-0.99) (sensitivity 90.9 %, specificity 89.3 %) for prediction of functional-relevant stenosis (for MLA >2.1 mm{sup 2} sensitivity was 100 %). The optimal cut-off for MLD was 1.2 mm (c = 0.92; p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.88-95) (sensitivity 90.9, specificity 85.2) while %area and %diameter stenosis were less accurate (c = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.84-93, c = 0.87; 95 % CI 0.82-92, respectively, with thresholds at 73 % and 61 % stenosis). Accuracy for LL was c = 0.74 (95 % CI 0.67-81), and for LL/MLA and LL/MLD ratio c = 0.90 and c = 0.84. MLA ≤1.8 mm{sup 2} and MLD ≤1.2 mm are the most accurate cut-offs for prediction of haemodynamically significant stenosis by ICA, with a higher accuracy than relative % stenosis. (orig.)

  16. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting versus coronary angioplasty for isolated type C stenosis of the left anterior descending artery

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    Mariani, MA; Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; Monnink, SHJ; denHeijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    Background: Isolated stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery can be treated with medication, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting. Recently a new treatment has been developed, which is called minimally invasive direct coronary artery

  17. Role of 320-slice multislice computed tomography coronary angiography in the assessment of coronary artery stenosis

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    Mohamed Ahmed Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, MSCT coronary angiography is a very helpful and rapid non-invasive coronary imaging modality that was able to detect and grade coronary artery stenosis better than other noninvasive examinations used to detect CAD, such as exercise stress testing. Due to its very high negative predictive value, it may eliminate the need for invasive coronary procedures in the presence of normal coronary imaging.

  18. Recurrent Syncope Attributed to Left Main Coronary Artery Severe Stenosis

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    Min Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS rarely manifest as recurrent syncope due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. We report a case of a 56-year-old Chinese male with complaints of paroxysmal chest burning sensation and distress for 2 weeks as well as loss of consciousness for 3 days. The electrocardiogram (ECG revealed paroxysmal multimorphologic ventricular tachycardia during attack and normal heart rhythm during intervals. Coronary angiograph showed 90% stenosis in left main coronary artery and 80% stenosis in anterior descending artery. Two stents sized 4.0*18 mm and 2.75*18 mm were placed at left main coronary artery and anterior descending artery, respectively, during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The patient was discharged and never had ventricular arrhythmia again during a 3-month follow-up since the PCI. This indicated that ventricular tachycardia was correlated with persistent severe myocardial ischemia. Coronary vasospasm was highly suspected to be the reason of the sudden attack and acute exacerbation. PCI is recommended in patients with both severe coronary artery stenosis and ventricular arrhythmia. Removing myocardial ischemia may stop or relieve ventricular arrhythmia and prevent cardiac arrest.

  19. Functional and structural adaptations of coronary microvessels distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Sorop (Oana); D. Merkus (Daphne); V.J. de Beer (Vincent Jacob); B. Houweling (Birgit); A. Pistea (Adrian); E.O. McFalls (Edward); F. Boomsma (Frans); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); E. VanBavel (Ed); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDistal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis, structural remodeling of the microvasculature occurs. The microvascular functional changes distal to the stenosis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that microvascular structural remodeling is accompanied by altered

  20. Successful Implantation of Coronary Sinus Lead after Balloon Angioplasty of a Coronary Vein Stenosis

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    Mohammad Hasan Namazi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old man referred for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT due to severe heart failure. A severe stenosis in the coronary sinus vein after the posterior branch disallowed the insertion of the lead. Nevertheless, the stenosis was dilated and the left ventricle (LV lead was implanted in the lateral marginal branch.

  1. Simulation of Blood Flow Coronary Artery with Consecutive Stenosis and Coronary-Coronary Bypass

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    Omid Arjmandi-Tash

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the behavior of coronary arteries has been studied with symmetric and asymmetric consecutive stenosis, and grafted vessels. Methods: The incompressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations were discretized with second-order upwind method. Assumptions such as Newtonian fluid, wall rigidity and steady-flow were used. Results: All the calculations showed the same results with Newtonians and non-Newtonian fluids. It was found that the possibility of stenosis be reduced by increasing the graft angle. However, there exists further stenosis possibility. Among the three graft angles 20, 30 ̊ and 40, the 30 ̊ was found to be the reliable ones. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be deduced that there would be a high risk of further atherosclerosis when the first stenose has the maximum percentage.

  2. A case of valvular pulmonic stenosis and an aberrant coronary artery in a Brittany spaniel.

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    Estey, Chelsie

    2011-05-01

    Valvular pulmonic stenosis and aberrancy of the right coronary artery with subsequent subvalvular stenosis was found on echocardiographic evaluation of a 9-month-old Brittany spaniel. Previous echocardiography at 4 mo of age revealed the pulmonic stenosis; however, the aberrant coronary artery only became apparent during the second evaluation.

  3. Intracranial cerebral artery stenosis with associated coronary artery and extracranial carotid artery stenosis in Turkish patients

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    Alkan, Ozlem [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: yalinozlem@hotmail.com; Kizilkilic, Osman; Yildirim, Tulin [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Atalay, Hakan [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: Although it has been demonstrated that there is a high prevalence of extracranial carotid artery stenosis (ECAS) in patients with severe coronary artery disease, intracranial cerebral artery stenosis (ICAS) is rarely mentioned. We evaluated the prevalence of ICAS in patients with ECAS having elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery to determine the relations between ICAS, ECAS and atherosclerotic risk factors. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the digital subtraction angiography findings of 183 patients with ECAS {>=} 50% preparing for CABG surgery. The analyses focused on the intracranial or extracranial location and degree of the stenosis. The degree of extracranial stenoses were categorized as normal, <50%, 50-69%, 70-89%, and 90-99% stenosis and occluded. The degree of intracranial stenosis was classified as normal or {<=}25%, 25-49%, and {>=}50% stenosis and occluded. Traditional atherosclerotic risk factors were recorded. Results: ECAS < 70% in 42 patients and ECAS {>=} 70% in 141 patients. ICAS was found in 51 patients and ICAS {>=} 50% in 30 patients. Regarding risk factors, we found hypertension in 135 patients, diabetes mellitus in 91 patients, hyperlipidemia in 84 patients, and smoking in 81 patients. No risk factor was significant predictors of intracranial atherosclerosis. The severity of ICAS was not significantly associated with that of the ECAS. Conclusions: We found ICAS in 27.8% of the patients with ECAS > 50% on digital subtraction angiography preparing for CABG. Therefore a complete evaluation of the neck vessels with magnetic resonance or catheter angiography seems to be indicated as well as intracranial circulation for the risk assessment of CABG.

  4. Extent of Coronary Stenosis and Anxiety Symptoms among Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

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    Shervin Assari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between coronary angiographic findings and the level of anxiety symptoms among patients who undergo coronary angiography is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the extent of coronary stenosis and anxiety symptoms in patients who undergo coronary angiography.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 106 patients who underwent coronary angiography and had varying degrees of coronary artery disease were enrolled. Demographic characteristics (i.e., age and gender, socioeconomic status (i.e., educational attainment, income, and marital status, and traditional risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were measured. The independent variable was the extent of coronary stenosis shown by coronary angiography, coded as single-vessel disease (n = 19, 2-vessel disease (n = 28, or 3-vessel disease (n = 59. The main outcome was symptoms of anxiety measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for bivariate analysis, and linear regression was applied for multivariable analysis. Results:  Participants were mostly men (n = 78, 73%, at a mean age of 50.14 ± 10.60 years. We found an inverse association between the extent of coronary stenosis and anxiety symptoms in our samples. Anxiety symptoms were lowest in the patients with 3-vessel disease and highest in those with single-vessel disease. The above association remained significant in a linear regression model, controlled for the demographic, socioeconomic, and traditional risk factors.Conclusion: An inverse association may exist between the extent of coronary stenosis and the severity of anxiety symptoms in patients who undergo coronary angiography. Patients who undergo angiography and have fewer angiographic findings require screening for anxiety symptoms.

  5. Aortic Valve Stenosis and Left Main Coronary Disease: Hybrid Approach.

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    Al-Amodi, Hussein A; Alhabib, Hamad F; St-Amand, Marc; Iglesias, Ivan; Teefy, Patrick; Chu, Michael W A; Kiaii, Bob

    2015-01-01

    We describe a technique of combined transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), off-pump single coronary artery bypass, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a high-risk patient presenting with unstable angina and severe heart failure. This patient had documented moderate to severe aortic stenosis, left ventricular dysfunction, and a heavily calcified ascending aorta. A robotic-assisted left internal thoracic artery harvesting was aborted owing to inability to tolerate single-lung ventilation. A median sternotomy was done, then successful off-pump single-vessel bypass, PCI, and TAVR were achieved. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital in stable condition.

  6. Multidetector CT and MRI of ostial atresia of the coronary sinus, associated collateral venous pathways and cardiac anomalies.

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    Shum, J S F; Kim, S M; Choe, Y H

    2012-12-01

    To analyse the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with atresia of the coronary sinus orifice (CSA). MDCT findings of 15 consecutive adult patients with CSAs were retrospectively analysed. The patients underwent contrast-enhanced electrocardiography-gated MDCT (n = 13) or both CT and MRI (n = 2). The mean size of the coronary sinus (CS) was 14.2 mm (range 5.5-24 mm) and 11 patients (73.3%) showed CS dilatation (diameter ≥12 mm). The mean length of the atretic CS segment was 2.9 mm (range 0-8 mm). Different forms of venous collateral pathways were observed in the CSA patients. Nine (60%) of the 15 CSA patients had communication between the right atrium (RA; n = 6) or LA (n = 5) and CS via intraseptal veins; six patients (40%) had persistent left superior caval veins; communications were also observed between the CS and RA (n = 4) or LA (n = 4); two patients had collateral venous pathways between dilated cardiac veins with RA; two patients had unroofing of the CS as outlet channels. Nine patients (60%) had cardiac anomalies: coronary artery fistula to the pulmonary artery (n = 6) or left ventricular base and CS (n = 1), atrial septal defects (n = 2), and a ventricular septal defect (n = 1). CSA patients have venous collateral pathways and a high incidence of associated cardiovascular anomalies such as coronary artery fistulae and atrial septal defects. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling Bleeding from Proximal and Coronary Ostial Anastomoses by Using Blood Cardioplegia Delivering Antegradely while Performing Bentall Procedure

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    Erol Şener

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bentall procedure is one of the valved conduit techniques which is used in the treatment of aortic valve diseases accompanied by ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection and it is used commonly around the world. In Bentall procedure, which is a complicated and long surgery, the rate of mortality and morbidity are not only related to the operation itself but also to the complications like major neurological events, myocardial damage and bleeding which take place during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Although the quantity and frequency of bleeding is declined with teflon strips and biological tissue glues, modifications of Bentall procedure are still an important problem. This study was conducted retrospectively with 48 patients in terms of early results of complication of bleeding caused specifically by proximal suture line and coronary ostium anastomosis lines controlled by the method of blood cardioplegia while performing Bentall procedure and supracoronary aort replacement in our clinic.

  8. Functional and structural adaptations of coronary microvessels distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis.

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    Sorop, Oana; Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Houweling, Birgit; Pistea, Adrian; McFalls, Edward O; Boomsma, Frans; van Beusekom, Heleen M; van der Giessen, Wim J; VanBavel, Ed; Duncker, Dirk J

    2008-04-11

    Distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis, structural remodeling of the microvasculature occurs. The microvascular functional changes distal to the stenosis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that microvascular structural remodeling is accompanied by altered regulation of coronary vasomotor tone with increased responsiveness to endothelin-1. Vasomotor tone was studied in coronary microvessels from healthy control swine and from swine 3 to 4 months after implantation of an occluder that causes a progressive coronary narrowing, resulting in regional left ventricular dysfunction and blunted myocardial vasodilator reserve. Arterioles (approximately 200-microm passive inner diameter at 60 mm Hg) were isolated from regions perfused by the stenotic left anterior descending and normal left circumflex coronary arteries and studied in vitro. Passive pressure-diameter curves demonstrated reduced distensibility of subendocardial left anterior descending compared with subendocardial left circumflex or control arterioles, suggestive of structural remodeling. Myogenic responses were blunted in subendocardial left anterior descending compared with left circumflex arterioles, reflecting altered smooth muscle function. However, vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and bradykinin were not different in the endocardium, suggesting preserved endothelium and smooth muscle responsiveness. Finally, vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1 were enhanced in left anterior descending arterioles compared with left circumflex or control arterioles. Regional myocardial vascular conductance responses to bradykinin and endothelin in vivo confirmed the in vitro observations. In conclusion, inward remodeling of coronary microvessels distal to a stenosis is accompanied by exaggerated vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1. These structural and functional alterations may aggravate flow abnormalities distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis.

  9. Lesão bilateral dos óstios coronários na sífilis cardiovascular: relato de caso Bilateral ostial coronary lesion in cardiovascular syphilis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio de Nassau Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sífilis é uma doença infecciosa que se desenvolve em estágios e pode acometer o sistema cardiovascular e neurológico. Em 30% dos pacientes não tratados, a sífilis desenvolve sua forma terciária. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 46 anos, admitido por edema pulmonar agudo por cardiopatia isquêmica com bloqueio completo do ramo esquerdo, submetido a terapia fibrinolítica com sucesso. Angiografia coronária mostrou lesão ostial de 90% na artéria coronária esquerda e oclusão do óstio da artéria coronária direita. Os títulos de VDRL foram de 1/128. O paciente foi submetido a revascularização do miocárdio e recebeu alta após tratamento antibiótico com penicilina cristalina.Syphilis is an infectious disease occurring through a series of frequently overlapping stages. It can impair the cardiovascular and neurological system. In 30% of the non treated patients, syphilis develops your tertiary form. We report a case of a 46-year-old male patient admitted due to edema pulmonary and acute coronary syndrome with left bundle branch block, submitted to fibrinolytic therapy successfully. Coronary angiography showed a 90% ostial lesion of left main coronary artery and occlusion of the right coronary artery ostium. VDRL was titrated to 1/128. The patient was undergone to CABG and was discharged after treatment with crystalline penicillin.

  10. Coronary artery disease: Which degree of coronary artery stenosis is indicative of ischemia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, Olivio F. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Kozerke, Sebastian [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Plass, Andre [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Wyss, Christophe [Cardiovascular Center, Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Falk, Volkmar [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Scheffel, Hans, E-mail: hans.scheffel@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the best cut-off value of stenosis degree for low-dose computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) to predict the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenoses compared to catheter angiography (CA) using a cardiac magnetic resonance based approach as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Fifty-two patients (mean age, 64 {+-} 10 years) scheduled for CA underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1.5-T and dual-source CTCA using prospective ECG-triggering the same day. Diagnostic performance of CTCA and CA to detect myocardial ischemia was evaluated with CMR as the standard of reference. The diagnostic performance and best cut-off values to predict the hemodynamic significance of coronary were determined from receiver operating characteristics analysis (ROC). Results: CA revealed >50% stenoses in 131/832 segments (15.7%) in 78/156 (50.0%) coronary arteries in 32/52 (62%) patients. CTCA revealed >50% stenoses in 148/807 (18.3%) segments, corresponding to 83/156 (53.2%) coronary arteries in 34/52 (65.4%) patients. CMR revealed ischemia in 118/832 (14.2%) myocardial segments corresponding to the territories of 60/156 (38.5%) coronary arteries in 29/52 (56%) patients. ROC analysis showed equal diagnostic performance for low-dose CTCA and CA with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.82 and 0.83 (P = 0.64). The optimal cut-off value was determined at stenosis of >60% for the prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis by CTCA. Using this cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV to predict hemodynamic significance by CTCA were 100%, 83%, 100%, and 88% on a per-patient basis and 88%, 73%, 83% and 81% on a per-artery analysis, respectively. Conclusion: By considering coronary stenosis >60%, diagnostic performance for predicting the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by CTCA is optimal and equals that of CA.

  11. Coronary artery problems late after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takeshi; Bhat, Abdul M; Robinson, Bradley W; Baffa, Jeanne M; Radtke, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of late coronary artery abnormalities after arterial switch operation (ASO) for d-loop transposition of the great arteries may be underestimated. We retrospectively reviewed coronary artery morphology in 40 of 97 patients who survived the first year after ASO. Seven asymptomatic patients developed significant late coronary artery abnormalities. One patient died suddenly at home with severe left coronary artery (LCA) ostial stenosis at age 3.8 years. The second patient collapsed during exercise at age 9.6 years due to ventricular fibrillation and severe LCA ostial stenosis despite prior negative exercise stress test (EST) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The third patient was found to have moderate ostial stenosis of the LCA with negative EST and MPI. The fourth patient with exercise-induced ST-T depression and myocardial perfusion defect was shown to have complete LCA occlusion with collateral vessel formation. Three other patients had complete proximal obliteration of either of the coronary arteries with collateral supply. An additional 4 asymptomatic patients had trivial-mild narrowing of the LCA on routine selective coronary angiogram. Incidence of late coronary stenosis or occlusion was not infrequent after ASO (11.3%) and presented usually without preceding symptoms and often after negative non-invasive screening. We advocate routine coronary imaging in all patients after ASO before they participate in competitive sports.

  12. Non-modifiable Factors of Coronary Artery Stenosis in Late Onset Patients with Coronary Artery Disease in Southern Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Bager Tabei

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: These researches show that ageing increases the risk of coronary heart stenosis; also, females are more than men protected against this disease. The impact of family history of myocardial infarction and consanguineous marriage were not associated with of CAD.

  13. The Effects of Metabolic Syndrome on Left Main Coronary Artery Stenosis in Coronary Angiograms of Patients: A Two Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in many countries. Metabolic syndrome (MS is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. The effects of MS on left main coronary artery stenosis are not well-defined. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MS on left main coronary artery stenosis.Methods: A total number of 495 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography in the Catheter Laboratory of Cardiovascular in Shariati Hospital 2008-2010 were included in the study. MS definition was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP- Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria. The stenosis in left main coronary arteries was determined by examining the coronary angiograms of the patients.Results: The study population consisted of 249 (50.3% men, and 246 (49.7% women. The mean age of the participants was 58.01±10 years. MS was present in 86 (17.4% of the patients based on NCEP- ATP III criteria. LMCA stenosis was seen in 25 (5% patients. A positive correlation was found between MS and LMCA stenosis (r=0.305, P=0.012. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between age (r=0.192, P=0.05, sex (r=0.334, P=0.007, smoking (r=0.336, P=0.01 and diabetes (r=0.253, P=0.03 and LMCA stenosis.Conclusion: The metabolic syndrome correlates with LMCA stenosis. LMCA stenosis and its correlation with MS is precipitated by high FBG, age, male sex, and smoking which may synergistically increase the risk for the disease.

  14. Accuracy of noninvasive coronary stenosis quantification of different commercially available dedicated software packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikkers, Riksta; Willems, Tineke P; de Jonge, Gonda J; Marquering, Henk A; Greuter, Marcel J W; van Ooijen, Peter M A; van der Weide, Marijke C Jansen; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the noninvasive quantification of coronary artery stenosis using cardiac software packages and vessel phantoms with known stenosis severity. Four different sizes of vessel phantoms were filled with contrast agent and scanned on a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography. Diameter and area stenosis were evaluated by 2 observers blinded from the true measures using 5 different software packages. Measurements were compared with the true measure of the vessel phantoms. The absolute difference in stenosis measurements and intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were assessed. All software packages show a trend toward larger differences for the smaller vessel phantoms. The absolute difference of the automatic measurements was significantly higher compared with that of the manual measurements in all 5 evaluated software packages for all vessel phantoms (P < 0.05). Manual stenosis measurements are significantly more accurate compared with automatic measurements, and therefore, manual adjustments are still essential for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery stenosis.

  15. Improved stenosis geometry by quantitative coronary arteriography after vigorous risk factor modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, K L; Ornish, D; Kirkeeide, R; Brown, S; Stuart, Y; Buchi, M; Billings, J; Armstrong, W; Ports, T; Scherwitz, L

    1992-04-01

    This study is a randomized, controlled, blinded, arteriographic trial to determine the effects of a low-cholesterol, low-fat, vegetarian diet, stress management and moderate aerobic exercise on geometric dimensions, shape and fluid dynamic characteristics of coronary artery stenoses in humans. Complex changes of different primary stenosis dimensions in opposite directions or to different degrees cause stenosis shape change with profound effects on fluid dynamic severity, not accounted for by simple percent narrowing. Accordingly, all stenosis dimensions were analyzed, including proximal, minimal, distal diameter, integrated length, exit angles and exit effects, determining stenosis shape and a single integrated measure of stenosis severity, stenosis flow reserve reflecting functional severity. In the control group, complex shape change and a stenosis-molding characteristic of statistically significant progressing severity occurred with worsening of stenosis flow reserve. In the treated group, complex shape change and stenosis molding characteristic of significant regressing severity was observed with improved stenosis flow reserve, thereby documenting the multidimensional characteristics of regressing coronary artery disease in humans.

  16. Radiotherapy-induced concomitant coronary artery stenosis and mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboga, Mehmet Kadri; Akyel, Ahmet; Sahinarslan, Asife; Cengel, Atiye

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy is extensively used in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. One of its untoward effects is on heart. Coronary arteries and heart valves can be adversely affected from radiotherapy. However, co-existence of both conditions is very rare. In this report, we present a patient with Hodgkin's disease who developed both coronary artery stenosis and severe mitral valve regurgitation after radiotherapy.

  17. Coronary Physiology During Exercise and Vasodilation in the Healthy Heart and in Severe Aortic Stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumley, Matthew; Williams, Rupert; Asrress, Kaleab N.; Arri, Satpal; Briceno, Natalia; Ellis, Howard; Rajani, Ronak; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J.; Clapp, Brian; Redwood, Simon R.; Marber, Michael S.; Chambers, John B.; Perera, Divaka

    2016-01-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) can manifest as exertional angina even in the presence of unobstructed coronary arteries. The authors describe coronary physiological changes during exercise and hyperemia in the healthy heart and in patients with severe AS. Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and flow

  18. An investigation of correlation between left coronary bifurcation angle and hemodynamic changes in coronary stenosis by coronary computed tomography angiography-derived computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chaichana, Thanapong

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between left coronary bifurcation angle and coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-generated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis when compared to the CCTA analysis of coronary lumen stenosis and plaque lesion length with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method. Thirty patients (22 males, mean age: 59±6.9 years) with calcified plaques at the left coronary artery were included in the study with all patients undergoing CCTA and ICA examinations. CFD simulation was performed to analyze hemodynamic changes to the left coronary artery models in terms of wall shear stress, wall pressure and flow velocity, with findings correlated to the coronary stenosis and degree of bifurcation angle. Calcified plaque length was measured in the left coronary artery with diagnostic value compared to that from coronary lumen and bifurcation angle assessments. Of 26 significant stenosis at left anterior descending (LAD) and 13 at left circumflex (LCx) on CCTA, only 14 and 5 of them were confirmed to be >50% stenosis at LAD and LCx respectively on ICA, resulting in sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, 52%, 49% and 100%. The mean plaque length was measured 5.3±3.6 and 4.4±1.9 mm at LAD and LCx, respectively, with diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV being 92.8%, 46.7%, 61.9% and 87.5% for extensively calcified plaques. The mean bifurcation angle was measured 83.9±13.6º and 83.8±13.3º on CCTA and ICA, respectively, with no significant difference (P=0.98). The corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100%, 78.6%, 84.2% and 100% based on bifurcation angle measurement on CCTA, 100%, 73.3%, 78.9% and 100% based on bifurcation angle measurements on ICA, respectively. Wall shear stress was noted to increase in the LAD and LCx models with significant stenosis and wider angulation (>80º), but

  19. Correlation of ascending aorta elasticity and the severity of coronary artery stenosis in hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease assessed by M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qixiu; Liu, Houlin

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between ascending aorta elasticity and the severity of coronary artery stenosis in essential hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) using M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography. A total of 184 hypertensive patients with CHD were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups based on the severity of coronary stenosis measured by coronary arteriography (CAG): slight stenosis (group 1), moderate stenosis (group 2) and serious stenosis (group 3). M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed, and elasticity indexes of ascending aorta including stiffness index, distensibility index, and S wave speed of anterior wall were calculated and correlated with the severity of coronary stenosis. Ascending aorta stiffness index was increased, whereas distensibility index and S wave speed of anterior wall were decreased in moderate and severe stenosis groups compared with slight stenosis group (P Elasticity indexes change in a stepwise pattern with the narrowness of coronary artery, and there was a significant correlation between aortic elasticity and severity of coronary artery by Pearson correlation analysis (P Elasticity indexes of ascending aorta correlate well with severity of coronary stenosis. Elasticity indexes of ascending aorta can serve as predictors for coronary arterial lesion in hypertensive patients.

  20. Detection of severe left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis by transthoracic evaluation of resting coronary flow velocity dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Abinader

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of severe stenosis, coronary artery flow may be reduced at rest. Recent advances in echocardiography have made non-invasive sampling of velocities in the left an­terior descending coronary artery (LAD possible. The aim of our study was to evaluate feasi­bility and capability of transthoracic Doppler to detect severe stenosis of the LAD. The study population consisted of 42 subjects with suspected coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography. All had complete transthoracic echocardiography and Doppler sampling of LAD velocities. Quantitative cor­onary angiography was performed within 24 hours of the echocardiogram. Correlations between LAD velocity profile, measurements and calculations, and the angiographic results were performed. Six subjects had LAD occlusion, 10 had severe (>80% diameter LAD stenosis, and 26 had normal or non-occlusive LAD disease. In all six subjects with LAD occlusion, distal LAD velocities were not detectable, while in the other 36 subjects, LAD velocities were recorded indicating the vessels were patent. In the 10 subjects with severe LAD stenosis, the diastolic/systolic velocity ratio was <1.5, while in those with non-signifi­cant LAD disease, the diastolic/systolic velocity ratio was >1.5 (P<0.005. Diastolic LAD flow was 21.8±13 mL/min in the presence of severe stenosis as compared to 48.5±20 mL/min in subjects without severe stenosis (P<0.0013. LAD velocities had high sensitiv­ity and specificity for the prediction of severe angiographic stenosis. Thus transthoracic Doppler measurement of LAD velocities is feas­ible and can predict the presence of severe LAD stenosis or occlusion.

  1. Does coronary calcium scoring with a SCORE better predict significant coronary artery stenosis than without? Correlation with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhan, Gamze; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale; Karaagaoglu, Ergun [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-03

    To determine effectiveness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) alone and combined with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in adult patients for significant coronary artery stenosis by using computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as reference standard. Two thousand twenty-one patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS test and CTCA. Patients were examined with dual-source CT and were grouped according to their age, gender, CACS, and estimated SCORE risk. Coronary plaque existence and degree of stenosis were assessed with CTCA. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were analyzed. CACS was the single independent variable in estimating relative risk of critical stenosis and had superior outcome when compared with SCORE risk in logistic regression and ROC curve. Area under the ROC curve was greatest in the interval between 50-59 years. When SCORE was combined with CACS in patients with zero CACS, percentage of significant stenosis increased from 1.4% to 7.0% in patients with high or very high SCORE risk, and decreased to 0.9 % in patients with low or moderate SCORE risk. CACS combination with SCORE risk predicts coronary artery stenosis. When CACS is zero, CTCA can be performed in patients with high or very high SCORE risk. (orig.)

  2. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Shuang; Gai, Lu-Yue; Han, Zhi-Qi; Xin, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Jun-Jie; Jin, Qin-Hua

    2016-12-05

    The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age, 59.6 ± 10.2 years; 76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA, invasive coronary angiography, and invasive FFR measurement. An FFR significant coronary stenosis. Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80. We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR. The statistical methods included unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Coronary lesions with FFR Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80. Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r = -0.48, P arteries and a single artery. Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  3. A Case of Critical Aortic Stenosis Masquerading as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth A. Wayangankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum cardiac troponins I and T are reliable and highly specific markers of myocardial injury. Studies have shown that at least 20% of patients with severe aortic stenosis have detectable serum troponins. This case report describes a patient who presented as suspected acute coronary syndrome with markedly elevated troponin levels, who was later found to have normal coronaries and critical aortic stenosis. This case highlights the need for comprehensive and accurate physical examination in patients who present with angina. Critical aortic stenosis may cause such severe subendocardial ischemia as to cause marked elevation in cardiac markers and mimic an acute coronary syndrome. Careful physical examination will lead to an earlier use of non invasive techniques, such as echocardiography to confirm the correct diagnosis and the avoidance of inappropriate treatments such as intravenous nitroglycerin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  4. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  5. The coronary calcium score is a more accurate predictor of significant coronary stenosis than conventional risk factors in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In this retrospective study we assessed the predictive value of the coronary calcium score for significant (>50%) stenosis relative to conventional risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 5515 symptomatic patients from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA. All had...... predictor of significant stenosis to be male gender (B=1.07) followed by diabetes mellitus (B=0.70) smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, family history of CAD and age but not obesity. When the log transformed CAC score was included, it became the most powerful predictor (B=1.25), followed by male...... gender (B=0.48), diabetes, smoking, family history and age but hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension lost significance. The CAC score is a more accurate predictor of >50% stenosis than risk factors regardless of the means of assessment of stenosis. The sensitivity of risk factors, CAC score...

  6. Epicardial and Pericardial Fat Volume Correlate with the Severity of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslanabadi Naser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epicardial fat volume (EFV has been reported to correlate with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD. Pericardial fat volume (PFV has recently been reported to be strongly associated with CAD severity and presence. We aimed to investigate the relationship between EFV and PFV with severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients undergoing 64-slice multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT. Methods: One hundred and fifty one patients undergoing MSCT for suspected CAD were enrolled. Non-enhanced images were acquired to assess calcium score. Contrast enhanced images were used to quantify EFV, PFV and severity of luminal stenosis. Results: Coronary artery stenosis was mild in 25 cases (16.6%, moderate in 58 cases (38.4% and severe in 68 cases (45%. With increase in severity of coronary artery stenosis, there was significant increase in PFV, EFV as well as epicardial fat thickness in right ventricle free wall in basal view and epicardial fat thickness in left ventricle posterior wall in mid and apical view. There was significant linear correlation between PFV with coronary calcification score (r=0.18, P=0.02, between coronary artery stenosis severity and PFV (r=0.75, P<0.001, EFV (r=0.79, P<0.001, apical epicardial fat thickness in right ventricle free wall (r=0.29, P<0.001, Mid (r=0.28, P<0.001 and basal (r=0.23, P=0.004 epicardial fat thickness in left ventricle posterior wall. Conclusion: PFV, EFV and regional epicardial thickness are correlated with severity of CAD and could be used as a reliable marker in predicting CAD severity.

  7. Hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by vessel attenuation measurement on CT compared with adenosine perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, Martijn A.M. den; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Pundziute, Gabija; Heuvel, Edwin R. van den; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn, E-mail: r.vliegenthart@umcg.nl

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The majority of anatomical coronary stenoses do not cause myocardial ischemia. • cCTA-derived CCO decrease expresses luminal density gradient across stenosis. • CCO decrease differentiates between anatomical stenoses with and without associated myocardial ischemia. • CCO decrease assessment can exclude the majority of stenoses without hemodynamic significance. - Abstract: Purpose: We assessed the association between corrected contrast opacification (CCO) based on coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) and inducible ischemia by adenosine perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (APMR). Methods: Sixty cardiac asymptomatic patients with extra-cardiac arterial disease (mean age 64.4 ± 7.7 years; 78% male) underwent cCTA and APMR. Luminal CT attenuation values (Hounsfield Units) were measured in coronary arteries from proximal to distal, with additional measurements across sites with >50% lumen stenosis. CCO was calculated by dividing coronary CT attenuation by descending aorta CT attenuation. A reversible perfusion defect on APMR was considered as myocardial ischemia. Results: In total, 169 coronary stenoses were found. Seven patients had 8 perfusion defects on APMR, with 11 stenoses in corresponding vessels. CCO decrease across stenoses with hemodynamic significance was 0.144 ± 0.112 compared to 0.047 ± 0.104 across stenoses without hemodynamic significance (P = 0.003). CCO decrease in lesions with and without anatomical stenosis was similar (0.054 ± 0.116 versus 0.052 ± 0.101; P = 0.89). Using 0.20 as preliminary CCO decrease cut-off, hemodynamic significance would be excluded in 82.9% of anatomical stenoses. Conclusions: CCO decrease across coronary stenosis is associated with myocardial ischemia on APMR. CCO based on common cCTA data is a novel method to assess hemodynamic significance of anatomical stenosis.

  8. Usefulness of detecting atherosclerosis by computed tomography. A relation to coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Yokoyama, Kenichi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Reports evaluating coronary artery calcification detection by nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) have verified the usefulness for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. In the condition of a mobile CT scanning at a public health examination, however, determination of coronary calcification remains unclear. We investigated, under this scanning condition, a relation between the characteristic of coronary artery calcification determined by conventional CT and coronary disease on arteriogram. The quantification of aortic wall thickening by enhanced CT was examined on the usefulness of detecting coronary artery disease. The CT density score and the characteristics of aortic atherosclerosis for 159 male patients 30 year-old or more (average age 60.7 years) were examined the relation to coronary artery stenoses. The CT density score was the strongest independent variable for determining the existence of coronary disease. The CT density cutoff score for detection of coronary disease was 50 equal to 50 HU the maximal CT density in the coronary arteries. The maximal aortic wall thickness was the strongest significant variable independent of the noted coronary risk factors for the severity of coronary stenosis on arteriogram. (author)

  9. MTHFR , prothrombin and Factor V gene variants in Turkish patients with coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Caner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have reported an association between hemostatic factors and risk of both coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis, we investigated the association between coronary artery disease and polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR C677T and A1298C, prothrombin (G20210A, and factor V (A4070G genes. We screened these gene variants in 174 subjects who had undergone coronary angiography - 115 patients with patent coronary artery disease (grade 3 vessel disease, i.e. , significant coronary stenosis, and 59 healthy controls with grade 0 vessel disease. The analysis of our data did not show any statistically significant association between coronary artery disease (CAD and the investigated polymorphisms.

  10. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  11. CT coronary angiography: impact of adapted statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on coronary stenosis and plaque composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Tobias A; Fiechter, Michael; Gebhard, Cathérine; Stehli, Julia; Ghadri, Jelena R; Kazakauskaite, Egle; Herzog, Bernhard A; Husmann, Lars; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2013-03-01

    To assess the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on coronary plaque volume and composition analysis as well as on stenosis quantification in high definition coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We included 50 plaques in 29 consecutive patients who were referred for the assessment of known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) with contrast-enhanced CCTA on a 64-slice high definition CT scanner (Discovery HD 750, GE Healthcare). CCTA scans were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) with no ASIR (0 %) or with increasing contributions of ASIR, i.e. 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % (no FBP). Plaque analysis (volume, components and stenosis degree) was performed using a previously validated automated software. Mean values for minimal diameter and minimal area as well as degree of stenosis did not change significantly using different ASIR reconstructions. There was virtually no impact of reconstruction algorithms on mean plaque volume or plaque composition (e.g. soft, intermediate and calcified component). However, with increasing ASIR contribution, the percentage of plaque volume component between 401 and 500 HU decreased significantly (p reconstruction algorithms such as ASIR, which has been developed for noise reduction in latest high resolution CCTA scans, can be used reliably without interfering with the plaque analysis and stenosis severity assessment.

  12. Acute Myocardial Infarction in an Elderly Patient With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis (AS is common in the elderly and is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, acute myocardial infarction (AMI in patients with severe AS and “normal” coronary arteries is very rare. We present an elderly male with severe AS and angiographically normal coronary arteries who experienced AMI. Platelet hyperaggregability, activation of blood coagulation, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, imbalance of supply and demand in the hypertrophied myocardium, and subendocardial ischemia predisposed by AS are possible mechanisms. The relevant literature is reviewed and discussed in the report.

  13. Diagnostic value of quantitative stenosis predictors with coronary CT angiography compared to invasive fractional flow reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Renker, Matthias [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Benekestrasse 2-8, 61231 Bad Nauheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Wichmann, Julian L. [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Fuller, Stephen R.; Rier, Jeremy D.; Bayer, Richard R.; Steinberg, Daniel H. [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Departments of Radiological Sciences, Oncology, and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”-Polo Pontino, Latina, Viale Regina Elena, 324-00161 Roma (Italy); Baumann, Stefan [Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); First Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of CCTA predictors for coronary stenosis. • TAG was unable to detect hemodynamically significant coronary lesions. • CT-FFR, LL/MLD{sup 4} and CCO provide enhanced diagnostic performance over CCTA. • CT-FFR was the best parameter. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CCTA-derived stenosis predictors including CT-FFR for the detection of ischemia-inducing stenosis compared to invasive FFR. Materials and methods: Stenosis parameters were assessed using dual-source CT (DSCT). All patients underwent both CCTA and invasive FFR within 3 months and were retrospectively analyzed. Observers visually assessed all CCTA studies and performed multiple lesion measurements. Lesion length/minimal luminal diameter{sup 4} (LL/MLD{sup 4}), transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), corrected coronary attenuation (CCO) and CT-FFR were calculated. Results: The cohort included 32 patients (58 ± 12 years, 66%male). Among 32 coronary lesions, 8 (25%) were considered hemodynamically significant with an FFR <0.80. Compared to invasive FFR, the per-vessel sensitivity and specificity of CCTA, CT-FFR, LL/MLD{sup 4}, CCO and TAG for detecting hemodynamically significant lesions were 100% and 54%, 100% and 91%, 85% and 92%, 66% and 88%, 37% and 58%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in an area under the curve of 0.91 for CT-FFR (p = 0.0005), 0.88 for LL/MLD{sup 4} (p < 0.0001), 0.85 for CCO (p < 0.0001). TAG with an AUC of 0.67 (p = 0.152) was unable to discriminate between vessels with or without hemodynamically significant lesions. Conclusion: CT-FFR, LL/MLD{sup 4} and CCO provide enhanced diagnostic performance over CCTA analysis alone for discrimination of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis.

  14. Limitations of four-slice multirow detector computed tomography in the detection of coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, Eugenio; Razzini, Cinzia; D'Eliseo, Alessia; Marchei, Massimo; Pisani, Eliana; Romeo, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    Our aim was to compare 4-slice spiral computed tomography with conventional coronary angiography in the detection of significant (> 50%) coronary stenosis. Sixty-two patients (41 males, 21 females, mean age 60 +/- 8 years) with suspected coronary artery disease were submitted to coronary angiography and then to multislice spiral computed tomography (GE Light Speed 4 slice) performed 12 +/- 5 days later. We excluded 25% of the patients from analysis because of a heart rate > 70 b/min or because of frequent ectopic beats. We also excluded from analysis 23% of all the angiographic segments judged not evaluable at multislice spiral computed tomography. Within these limits, the sensitivity was 65%, the specificity 98%, the positive predictive value 88%, and the negative predictive value 92%. By considering the intrinsic limitations such as its low temporal and spatial resolution, 4-slice spiral computed tomography has a limited applicability and has to be used with caution in the evaluation of native coronary arteries.

  15. Coupled oxygen transport analysis in the avascular wall of a coronary artery stenosis during angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Kwon, Ohwon; Vaidya, Vinayak S; Back, Lloyd H

    2008-01-01

    The coupled oxygen transport in the avascular wall of a coronary artery stenosis is studied numerically by solving the convection-diffusion equations. Two geometries replicating stenosis before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) are used for the analysis. The results are compared to evaluate the effect of the degree of stenosis on oxygen transport. Important physiological aspects, such as oxygen consumption in the wall, oxygen carried by the hemoglobin, non-Newtonian viscosity of the blood, and supply of oxygen from the vasa vasorum are included. The results show that the PO2 in the medial region of the arterial wall is approximately 10mmHg. The oxygen flux to the wall increases in the flow acceleration region, whereas it decreases at the flow reattachment zone. Near the location of flow separation, there is a small rise followed by a sharp fall in the oxygen flux. The drop in the oxygen flux to the wall at the point of flow reattachment for pre-PTCA stenosis is four times that for post-PTCA stenosis. The minimum PO2 in the avascular wall, PO2,min, at this location decreases to approximately 6.0 and 4.2mmHg for post- and pre-PTCA stenosis, respectively. The drop in PO2,w and PO2,min at the point of flow reattachment for pre-PTCA is approximately 2 times that for post-PTCA stenosis. Thus, the present study quantifies the oxygen transport to the arterial wall before and after cardiovascular intervention.

  16. Results of simultaneous intervention in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. Д. Зубарев

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study was aimed at comparing the immediate and long-term results of aortic valve replacement in combination with various techniques of intervention for myocardial revascularization, namely: coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA.Methods. This randomized prospective controlled study involved 120 cardiac patients over 18 years old with combined aortic valve stenosis and arterial sclerotic disease of coronary arteries. The inclusion criteria were a combination of aortic valve stenosis and a hemodynamically significant lesion of the coronary bed. A comparative analysis of the results obtained in the nearest postoperative period and during 1-year follow-up is presented. Results. Hybrid intervention (aortic valve replacement + percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty produces the results which are comparable with those of the control (aortic valve replacement + CABG, with a significantly greater decrease in the peak gradient on the aortic valve. During long-term follow-up, the group of patients who underwent hybrid intervention demonstrated a much higher myocardial infarction rate (12.5 versus 2.5 %, however, the severity of infarctions was significantly lower.Conclusion. PTCA, as compared to CABG, with concomitant coronary artery disease significantly improves the indicators of aortic valve insufficiency and the survival after repeated myocardial infarction, with the matching frequency of acute cerebral circulation abnormalities and the lethality rate in the long-term period.Received 29 August 2016. Accepted 5 October 2016.Funding: The study had no sponsorship. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  17. Numerical Simulation and Clinical Implications of Stenosis in Coronary Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Mei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional flow reserve (FFR is the gold standard to guide coronary interventions. However it can only be obtained via invasive angiography. The objective of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to determine FFRCT by combining computed tomography angiographic (CTA images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique. Utilizing the method, this study explored the effects of diameter stenosis (DS, stenosis length, and location on FFRCT. The baseline left anterior descending (LAD model was reconstructed from CTA of a healthy porcine heart. A series of models were created by adding an idealized stenosis (with DS from 45% to 75%, stenosis length from 4 mm to 16 mm, and at 4 locations separately. Through numerical simulations, it was found that FFRCT decreased (from 0.89 to 0.74, when DS increased (from 45% to 75%. Similarly, FFRCT decreased with the increase of stenosis length and the stenosis located at proximal position had lower FFRCT than that at distal position. These findings are consistent with clinical observations. Applying the same method on two patients’ CTA images yielded FFRCT close to the FFR values obtained via invasive angiography. The proposed noninvasive computation of FFRCT is promising for clinical diagnosis of CAD.

  18. The use of coronary stent in hepatic artery stenosis after orthotopic liver transplantation

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    Huang Mingsheng [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Shan Hong [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China)]. E-mail: gzshsums@public.guangzhou.gd.cn; Jiang Zaibo [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Li Zhengran [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Zhu Kangshun [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Guan Shouhai [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Qian Jiesheng [Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Chen Guihua [Transplantation Center, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Lu Minqiang [Transplantation Center, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China); Yang Yang [Transplantation Center, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province (China)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of coronary stent placement in hepatic artery stenosis after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Materials and methods: Of 430 consecutive adult orthotopic liver transplant recipients between November 2003 and September 2005, 17 had hepatic artery stenosis (HAS). Fourteen of them underwent coronary stent placement in the HAS. The technical results, complications, hepatic artery patency and clinical outcome were reviewed. Results: Technical and immediate success was 100%. After a mean follow-up of 159.4 days (range, 9-375 days), all patients obtained patent hepatic arteries except 2 patients occurred hepatic artery restenoses at 26 and 45 days after stent placement, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curve of patency showed cumulated stent patency at 3, 6, and 12 months of 78%, 58% and 45%, respectively. During the follow-up, 8 patients survived, 5 died of septic multiple-organ failure, 1 received retransplantation because of refractory biliary infection. Hepatic artery dissection induced by a guiding catheter occurred in one patient and was successfully treated with a coronary stent. Conclusion: Hepatic artery stenosis after OLT can be successfully treated with coronary stent placement with low complication rate and an acceptable 1-year hepatic artery patency rate.

  19. Peripheral arterial stenosis and coronary artery disease coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic slow-developing condition affecting medium-size and large blood vessels. It is the principal underlying pathology of coronary heart disease and stroke. In some countries, coronary artery disease (CAD is the cause of nearly half (48% of the deaths and, loss of productivity life. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is defined as atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries instead of coronary arteries. CAD and PAD have same risk factors and underlying pathophysiological processes. Therefore, patient with CAD should be considered for PAD. Ankle brachial index (ABI, duplex sonography, and some other non-invasive techniques are recommended for PAD diagnosis in patients with the history of CAD. Pharmacotherapy, endovascular interventions, and surgical management could be chosen according to the patient’s situation. Cardiologists and general practitioners should consider PAD in a patient with CAD or DM as a strong correlated disease.      

  20. Renal artery stenosis in patients with established coronary artery disease: Prevalence and predicting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khatami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between renal artery stenosis (RAS and other atherosclerotic diseases (particularly coronary artery diseases is well known. In general, the risk factors for atherosclerosis have been clarified, but whether these risk factors operate equally in all forms of atherosclerotic diseases is not known. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of RAS in patients with established coronary artery diseases and then to define the most important risk factors that may help to predict the RAS in this population. In this cross-sectional study, 146 patients with established coronary artery stenosis by angiography simultaneously underwent renal angiography; RAS >50% was considered significant. We found that 25.3% of patients with coronary artery diseases had RAS. The prevalence of significant stenosis was 17.1%. Females were more vulnerable to this disorder than males (47.1% vs. 13.7%, P = 0.001. There was no relationship between the severity and number of stenosed coronary arteries and those of stenosed renal arteries (P = 0.716. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis revealed that among the risk factors for atherosclerosis, female sex (P = 0.001, duration of hypertension (P = 0.032, age (P = 0.046 and serum creatinine (P = 0.018 were strong predictors of the presence of RAS. We concluded that RAS is a common finding in patients with coronary artery disease. We suggest that all older females with deteriorating renal function and long-standing hypertension should be carefully evaluated for early detection of the RAS.

  1. [Percutaneous approach for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary stenosis. New perspectives with the use of coronary stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, A V; Rodrigues, C; Fuks, V; Murad, H; Murad, M

    1997-03-01

    We describe a case of coronary stenosis located in an unprotected left main coronary artery, treated primarily and electively with the placement of a coronary stent. As a function of the large mass of myocardium involved, this patient would be considered a classical candidate for direct surgery, because the inherent risk involved with conventional balloon angioplasty, mainly due to the eventual occurrence of acute closure during the procedure. Since the previsibility of the immediate results with the use of coronary stents was significantly improved, we propose this new therapeutic approach for this traditionally surgical case, that has been performed with success and without any complication. This strategy for the treatment of unprotected left main lesions with the elective placement of Palmaz-Schatz stents, has not yet been proposed or applied in our country, and may represent a new universe of indication of percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease, no longer approaching the left main stem only in special or emergency situations, usually a result of complications of left main manipulation during angioplasty of the coronary system. The patient involved in this case did not show any contraindication for the treatment with conventional open heart surgery.

  2. Computed tomography angiography and perfusion to assess coronary artery stenosis causing perfusion defects by single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochitte, Carlos E; George, Richard T; Chen, Marcus Y

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed ...

  3. Surgical Treatment of Anomalous Origin of Right Coronary Artery in a Patient with Mitral Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refatllari, Ali; Likaj, Ermal; Dumani, Selman; Hasimi, Endri; Goda, Artan

    2016-03-15

    An anomalous origin of the right coronary artery is rarely observed, with a reported incidence between 0.026% and 0.25%. This condition is often completely asymptomatic and is found incidentally during angiographic evaluation for other cardiac diseases. However some patients present with exertion angina or sudden death. Surgical treatment in patients with anomalous RCA is still controversial. Treatment can be conservative, angioplasty or surgery. A 59-year-old man was admitted with severe mitral stenosis. He complained exertion and rest dyspnea, NYHA III class. He had sequels of embolic stroke, results of left atrial thrombus. Echocardiography showed calcified severe mitral stenosis with mitral orifice area of 1.1 square centimeters with PSPAP 60 mmHg and normal LV function. Routine coronary angiography before surgery showed aberrant origin of RCA from the left sinus of Valsalva with 90% stenosis at his origin. Multi-slice computed tomography proved the diagnosis of anomalous RCA arising from the left sinus of Valsalva and taking an inter-arterial course between the aorta and pulmonary artery. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement with mechanical St. Jude prosthesis No 29 and saphenous vein graft to RCA. We chose by-pass grafting techniques because after aortotomy, RCA was too close to LMCA, intramural course was too short and stenosis of RCA was outside of aortic wall. The patient's perioperative course was without complications and patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. Correction of anomalous of the origin of right coronary artery is mandatory in cases where patient has to be operated for other cardiac causes.

  4. Angiography-Based Quantitative Flow Ratio for Online Assessment of Coronary Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Bo; Tu, Shengxian; Qiao, Shubin

    2017-01-01

    of hyperemia. The accuracy of QFR when assessed online in the catheterization laboratory has not been adequately examined to date. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter trial enrolled patients who had at least one lesion with diameter stenosis of 30-90% and reference diameter ≥ 2mm by visual estimation. QFR......, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), and wire-based FFR were assessed online in blinded fashion during coronary angiography and re-analyzed offline at an independent core laboratory. The primary endpoint was that QFR would improve the diagnostic accuracy of coronary angiography such that the lower boundary...... of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of this estimate exceeded 75%. RESULTS: Between June and July 2017, 308 patients were consecutively enrolled at 5 centers. Online QFR and FFR results were both obtained in 328 of 332 interrogated vessels. Patient-level and vessel-level diagnostic accuracy of QFR...

  5. Microparticle-Induced Coagulation Relates to Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Horn

    Full Text Available Circulating microparticles (MPs derived from endothelial cells and blood cells bear procoagulant activity and promote thrombin generation. Thrombin exerts proinflammatory effects mediating the progression of atherosclerosis. Aortic valve stenosis may represent an atherosclerosis-like process involving both the aortic valve and the vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MP-induced thrombin generation is related to coronary atherosclerosis and aortic valve calcification.In a cross-sectional study of 55 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, we assessed the coronary calcification score (CAC as indicator of total coronary atherosclerosis burden, and aortic valve calcification (AVC by computed tomography. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc levels were measured as a marker for thrombin formation. Circulating MPs were characterized by flow cytometry according to the expression of established surface antigens and by measuring MP-induced thrombin generation.Patients with CAC score below the median were classified as patients with low CAC, patients with CAC Score above the median as high CAC. In patients with high CAC compared to patients with low CAC we detected higher levels of TATc, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs, endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation. Increased level of PMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation were independent predictors for the severity of CAC. In contrast, AVC Score did not differ between patients with high and low CAC and did neither correlate with MPs levels nor with MP-induced thrombin generation.In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis MP-induced thrombin generation was independently associated with the severity of CAC but not AVC indicating different pathomechanisms involved in coronary artery and aortic valve calcification.

  6. Surgical Treatment of 13-year-old Patient with Coronary Artery Disease and Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis with Familial Hypercholesterolemia

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    Yüksel Atay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in low density lipoprotein (LDL gene. The homozygous type of the disease is rare and causes tendon xanthomas and coronary artery disease during the early years of life. Because of that, some of these patients needs early coronary revascularization. We presented 13-year-old patient who underwent coronary artery bypass graft due to familial hypercholesterolemia and repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis at the same time.

  7. Direct visualization of a significant stenosis of the right coronary artery by transthoracic echocardiography. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiseth Rune

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries by transthoracic echocardiography is an emerging diagnostic tool to study the left main (LM, left descending artery (LAD, circumflex (Cx and right coronary artery (RCA. Impaired coronary circulation can be assessed by measuring coronary velocity flow reserve (CVFR by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Coronary artery stenoses can be identified as localized colour aliasing and accelerated flow velocities. We report a case with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS of a 46-year-old man. With non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, we identified a segment of the mid right coronary artery (RCA suggestive of stenosis with localized colour aliasing and accelerated flow velocity. We found a high ratio between the stenotic peak velocity and the prestenotic peak velocity, and a pathologic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR distal to the stenosis in the posterior interventricular descending branch (RDP. Subsequent coronary angiography demonstrated one vessel disease with a stenosis in segment 3 of RCA, which was successfully treated with percutaneos coronary intervention PCI. Two weeks following the PCI procedure he was readmitted to hospital with chest pain. A subacute stent thrombosis was questioned, and repeated echocardiography was preformed. The mid portion of RCA showed normal and laminar flow. The CVFR of RCA measured in the RDP showed normal vasodilatory response, confirming an open RCA without any flow limitation. A repeated coronary angiogram demonstrated only a mild in stent intimal hyperplasia. This case illustrates the value of transthoracic echocardiography as a tool both in the diagnosis and the follow-up of chest pain disorders and coronary flow problems. Transthoracic echocardiography allows both direct visualization of the various coronary segments and assessment of the CVFR.

  8. Isolated Unilateral Absent Branch Pulmonary Artery with Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease

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    Sunil Abhishek B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated Unilateral Absent Pulmonary Artery (UAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually associated with congenital heart defects. A 45 year old male patient presented with complaints of fever with cough and expectoration for 15 days and retrosternal chest discomfort for the previous 2 days. ECG showed diffuse ST segment depression with T wave inversion in the inferior and lateral leads. Coronary Angiogram done through the right femoral approach revealed diffusely diseased Left Anterior Descending (LAD artery that was totally cut off at the mid segment. The Left Circumflex (LCx artery was providing blood supply to the right middle and lower lung areas. There was another collateral arising from the Left Subclavian Artery supplying the right middle and lower lung areas. The left pulmonary artery was normal, but branches supplying the middle and lower lobes of the right lung were absent and the upper lobe branch had pulmonary stenosis. UAPA is a rare clinical entity; collaterals from coronaries are extremely rare in this condition and till now there has not been any case report of unilateral absent branch pulmonary artery with peripheral stenosis of other branches, on the affected side and associated coronary artery disease.

  9. In-Vitro Evaluation of Coronary Stents and 64-Detector-Row Computed Tomography Using a Newly Developed Model of Coronary Artery Stenosis

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    Schlosser, T.; Scheuermann, T.; Ulzheimer, S.; Mohrs, O.K.; Kuehling, M.; Albrecht, P.E.; Voigtlaender, T.; Barkhausen, J.; Schmermund, A. (Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt (DE))

    2008-02-15

    Background: Stent implantation is the predominant therapy for non-surgical myocardial revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease. However, despite substantial advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary imaging, a reliable detection of coronary in-stent restenosis is currently not possible. Purpose: To examine the ability of 64-detector-row CT to detect and to grade in-stent stenosis in coronary stents using a newly developed ex-vivo vessel phantom with a realistic CT density pattern, artificial stenosis, and a thorax phantom. Material and Methods: Four different stents (Liberte and Lunar ROX, Boston Scientific; Driver, Medtronic; Multi-Link Vision, Guidant) were examined. The stents were placed on a polymer tube with a diameter of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 mm. Different degrees of stenosis (0%, 30%, 50%, 70-80%) were created inside the tube. For quantitative analysis, attenuation values were measured in the non-stenotic vessel outside the stent, in the non-stenotic vessel inside the stent, and in the stenotic area inside the stent. The grade of stenosis was visually assessed by two observers. Results: All stents led to artificial reduction of attenuation, the least degree of which was found in the Liberte stent (11.3+-10.2 HU) and the Multi-Link Vision stent (17.6+-17.9 HU; P 0.25). Overall, the non-stenotic vessel was correctly diagnosed in 55.5%, the low-grade stenosis in 58.3%, the intermediate stenosis in 63.8%, and the high-grade stenosis in 80.5%. In the 3.0-, 3.5-, and 4.0-mm vessels, in none of the cases was a non-stenotic or low-grade stenotic vessel misdiagnosed as intermediate or high-grade stenosis. The average deviation from the real grade of stenosis was 0.40 for the Liberte stent, 0.46 for the Lunar ROX stent, 0.45 for the Driver stent, and 0.58 for the Multi-Link Vision stent. Conclusion: Our ex-vivo data show that non-stenotic stents and low-grade in-stent stenosis can be reliably differentiated from intermediate and

  10. Serum ox-LDL Level is Reduced with the Extent of Stenosis in Coronary Arteries

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    Mohammad Najafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85; SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80. The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05. The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.

  11. Transluminal attenuation gradient in coronary computed tomography angiography for determining stenosis severity of calcified coronary artery: a primary study with dual-source CT

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    Zheng, Minwen; Wei, Mengqi; Wen, Didi; Zhao, Hongliang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jian [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China); Li, Jiayi [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) for stenosis severity of calcified lesions assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). One hundred seven patients who underwent CCTA and coronary angiography (CAG) were enrolled. TAGs of 309 major epicardial coronary arteries were measured. The impact of plaque composition, Agatston scores, and lesion length ratio on TAG were analyzed. Diagnostic performance vs. CAG of TAG, CCTA, and combined TAG/CCTA were evaluated, and incremental value of TAG for reclassification of CCTA stenosis severity in calcified lesions was also analyzed. TAG decreased consistently with stenosis severity. TAG was significantly lower in coronary arteries with calcification scores >300 and lesion length ratios >2/3. TAG improved diagnostic accuracy of CCTA (c-statistic =0.982 vs. 0.942, P = 0.0001) in calcified lesions, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of TAG cutoff ≤ -11.33 were 72 %, 91 %, 88 %, and 78 %, respectively. The addition of TAG to CCTA resulted in significant reclassification (NRI =0.093, P = 0.022) in calcified vessels. Measurement of TAG may improve diagnostic performance and reclassification of CCTA in coronary stenosis caused by calcified lesions. (orig.)

  12. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy With Significant Coronary Stenosis and Atrioventricular Conduction Block: A Rare Case Report With 3 Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Saadatifar, Hakimeh; Khoshhal Dehdar, Fahimeh; Saadatifar, Samira; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCMP) is a rare acute cardiomyopathy characterized by acute chest pain syndrome, similar to myocardial infarction, except that no significant stenosis is observed on coronary angiography in patients with this condition; these findings aid the diagnosis of TCMP. Case Presentation We discuss an unusual case of TCMP in a 45-year-old woman with complete heart block and significant coronary artery...

  13. Association Of Serum Pentraxin-3 And High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein With The Extent Of Coronary Stenosis In Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković-Dejanović Vesna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared factors of inflammation – high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and pentraxin-3 (PTX3, and we explored their relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD. Also, we tested the usefulness of hsCRP and PTX3 in the risk assessment of coronary stenosis development and the diagnostic ability of these biomarkers to detect disease severity.

  14. Concurrent assessment of epicardial coronary artery stenosis and microvascular dysfunction using diagnostic endpoints derived from fundamental fluid dynamics principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Ashtekar, Koustubh D; Effat, Mohamed A; Helmy, Tarek A; Kim, Edward; Schneeberger, Eric W; Sinha, Roy A; Gottliebson, William M; Back, Lloyd H

    2009-10-01

    Simultaneously measured pressure and flow distal to coronary stenoses can be combined, in conjunction with anatomical measurements, to assess the status of both the epicardial and microvascular circulations. Assessments of coronary hemodynamics were performed using fundamental fluid dynamics principles. We hypothesized that the pressure-drop coefficient (CDPe; trans-stenotic pressure drop divided by the dynamic pressure in the distal vessel) correlates linearly with epicardial and microcirculatory resistances concurrently. In 14 pigs, simultaneous measurements of distal coronary arterial pressure and flow were performed using a dual sensor-tipped guidewire in the setting of both normal and disrupted microcirculation, with the presence of epicardial coronary lesions of lt; 50% area stenosis (AS) and > 50% AS. The CDPe progressively increased from lesions of 50% AS and had a higher resolving power (45 +/- 22 to 193 +/- 140 in normal microcirculation; 248 +/- 137 to 351 +/- 140 in disrupted microcirculation) as compared to fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). Strong multiple linear correlation was observed for CDPe with combined FFR and CFR (r = 0.72; p < 0.0001). Further, the ratio of maximum pressure drop coefficient evaluated at the site of stenosis and its theoretical limiting value of minimum cross-sectional area was also able to distinguish different combinations of coronary artery diseases. The CDPe can be readily obtained during routine pressure and flow measurements during cardiac catheterization. It is a promising clinical diagnostic parameter that can independently assess the severity of epicardial stenosis and microvascular impairment.

  15. [Association of myocardial bridge of the left anterior descending coronary artery with coronary atherosclerotic stenosis in the segment proximal to the site of bridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shu-ping; Li, Chun-ping; Song, Xiang; Gan, Lu; Wu, Fang; Chen, Min; Xiao, Hua-feng; Yang, Li

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether myocardial bridging (MB) is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis proximal to MB in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) identified by computed tomographic coronary angiography (CCTA). From March 2011 to December 2012, patients (n=9 862) with suspected coronary disease underwent CCTA using dual-source CT scanner. The baseline clinical characteristics (age, gender, smoking history, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of heart attack, and body mass index) and the results of CCTA were reviewed. Two radiologists evaluated the coronary artery for MB and coronary atherosclerosis stenosis (CAS) in LAD and made a diagnosis by consensus. Significant independent risk factors for CAS were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 3 182 (32.3%) cases of MB and 3 359 cases of CAS of LAD were identified. No patient with CAS in the tunneled segment was found. The mean length of bridges and the mean thickness of the overlying myocardium was (17.3±5.2) mm and (1.2±0.9) mm, respectively. There were 1658 MB cases in 3 359 cases of LAD stenosis and 1 524 MB cases in 6 503 cases of no LAD stenosis (χ(2)=681.12, Pheart attack, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and resting heart rate (OR=2.86, 95% CI=2.60-3.16, P < 0.001). MB in the LAD is independently associated with CAS in the proximal segment to MB.

  16. Alterations in cholesterol homeostasis are associated with coronary heart disease in patients with aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Weingärtner, Nadja; Scheller, Bruno; Lütjohann, Dieter; Gräber, Stefan; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2009-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for aortic stenosis (AS) and for coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum cholesterol concentrations are determined by intestinal cholesterol absorption and endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Vascular effects of differences in cholesterol metabolism in patients with AS are so far unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in cholesterol metabolism in relation to vascular diseases in this subset of patients. In addition to identifying conventional coronary risk factors, we determined plant sterols (indicators of cholesterol absorption) and lathosterol (indicator of cholesterol synthesis) levels in 40 consecutive men and women with AS. Coronary angiograms before the aortic valve replacement determined the extent of CAD. Patients with a positive history of cardiovascular disease exhibited an increased campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio in plasma (PCoronary vessel score strongly correlated with the campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio in plasma (r = 0.52; Pcoronary risk factors tested (Pcholesterol is related to a positive family history of cardiovascular diseases and the development of concomitant CAD in patients with AS.

  17. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy With Significant Coronary Stenosis and Atrioventricular Conduction Block: A Rare Case Report With 3 Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatifar, Hakimeh; Khoshhal Dehdar, Fahimeh; Saadatifar, Samira; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam

    2016-02-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCMP) is a rare acute cardiomyopathy characterized by acute chest pain syndrome, similar to myocardial infarction, except that no significant stenosis is observed on coronary angiography in patients with this condition; these findings aid the diagnosis of TCMP. We discuss an unusual case of TCMP in a 45-year-old woman with complete heart block and significant coronary artery stenosis. Maximal exercise test and perfusion scan after 1 month from the acute event did not show any ischemia; therefore, revascularization was not recommended. Her follow-up with normal echocardiographic data 3 years after the first event showed no recurrence. The present case and a few previous cases have showed that severe coronary artery disease may be occur in patients with TCMP and that TCMP may be associated with a high-degree atrioventricular block. The association between atrioventricular conduction block and TCMP as well as significant coronary stenosis is rarely reported; therefore, coronary angiography should be performed in all patients with clinical TCMP and the previous definition should be reconsidered. The occurrence of arrhythmia and later recovery is expected in these patients (due to a catecholamine surge).

  18. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for breath-holding spells followed by cardiac arrest due to left main coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Altin, Husnu Fırat; Yildiz, Okan; Erek, Ersin; Ergul, Yakup; Guzeltas, Alper

    2015-06-01

    Non-syndromic congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) leads to ventricular hypertrophy and increased oxygen consumption, and when combined with other factors reduces coronary blood flow, potentially resulting in myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death. While the anatomic obstruction of coronary circulation is as common in non-syndromic SVAS as in Williams syndrome, it often remains unacknowledged. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an elective procedure that can be used to support patients with cardiac arrest during diagnosis as a way to reduce cardiopulmonary load in preparation for surgery or further treatment. In this report, we describe the rare case of an infant with severe SVAS and mild valvular pulmonary and left main coronary artery stenosis, as well as breath-holding spells. After multiple cardiac arrests, the infant underwent diagnostic catheter angiography on ECMO and had the pathology surgically corrected. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Computer-aided stenosis detection at coronary CT angiography: effect on performance of readers with different experience levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilo, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herzzentrum Augsburg-Schwaben, Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Gebregziabher, Mulugeta [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Arnoldi, Elisabeth M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Goldenberg, Roman [Rcadia Medical Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Nance, John W.; Soma, Lashonda D.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Blanke, Philip; Coursey, Richard L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Rosenblum, Michael A.; Zwerner, Peter L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of a computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm for coronary CT angiography (cCTA) on the performance of readers with different experience levels. We studied 50 patients (18 women, 58 ± 11 years) who had undergone cCTA and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Eight observers with varying experience levels evaluated all studies for ≥50 % coronary artery stenosis. After 3 months, the same observers re-evaluated all studies, this time guided by a CAD system. Their performance with and without the CAD system (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) was assessed using the Likelihood Ratio Χ{sup 2} test both at the per-patient and per-vessel levels. The sensitivity of the CAD system alone for stenosis detection was 71 % per-vessel and 100 % per-patient. There were 54 false positive (FP) findings within 199 analyzed vessels, most of them associated with non-obstructive (<50 %) lesions. With CAD, one (out of three, 33 %) inexperienced reader's per-patient sensitivity and negative predictive value significantly improved from 79 % to 100 % (P = 0.046) and from 90 % to 100 % (P = 0.034), respectively. Other readers' performance indices showed no statistically significant change. Our results suggest that CAD can improve some inexperienced readers' sensitivity for diagnosing coronary artery stenosis at cCTA. (orig.)

  20. Detection of coronary stenosis with myocardial contrast echocardiography using regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, D Elizabeth; Bragadeesh, Thanjavur; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yue-Gang; Zha, Daogang; Kaul, Sanjiv

    2012-04-01

    Regadenoson is comparable to adenosine in pharmacologic radionuclide stress tests but has not been studied with stress myocardial contrast echocardiography. This study assessed the haemodynamic profile and ability of regadenoson, a novel selective A(2A) receptor agonist, to detect coronary artery stenosis during myocardial contrast echocardiography. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed to measure myocardial blood volume, myocardial blood flow velocity, and total regional myocardial blood flow before and after administration of regadenoson (5 µg kg(-1), 10 s bolus) in 10 open-chest dogs with mild-to-moderate coronary stenosis that was not flow limiting at rest. Regadenoson decreased blood pressure but did not change heart rate. It increased coronary blood flow significantly (P regadenoson. No arrhythmias were noted with regadenoson either prior to or during myocardial contrast echocardiography. Regadenoson can be used as a vasodilator stress agent with myocardial contrast echocardiography to detect the presence of physiologically significant coronary stenosis. The optimum time for image acquisition was 3-10 min after drug administration.

  1. High-risk plaque detected on coronary CT angiography predicts acute coronary syndromes independent of significant stenosis in acute chest pain: results from the ROMICAT-II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Stefan B; Liu, Ting; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Truong, Quynh A; Lee, Hang; Fleg, Jerome L; Nagurney, John T; Udelson, James E; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2014-08-19

    It is not known whether high-risk plaque, as detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), permits improved early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) independently to the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute chest pain. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether high-risk plaque features, as detected by CTA in the emergency department (ED), may improve diagnostic certainty of ACS independently and incrementally to the presence of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment in patients with acute chest pain but without objective evidence of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction (MI). We included patients randomized to the coronary CTA arm of the ROMICAT-II (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer-Assisted Tomography II) trial. Readers assessed coronary CTA qualitatively for the presence of nonobstructive CAD (1% to 49% stenosis), significant CAD (≥50% or ≥70% stenosis), and the presence of at least 1 of the high-risk plaque features (positive remodeling, low acute chest pain but negative initial electrocardiogram and troponin, presence of high-risk plaques on coronary CTA increased the likelihood of ACS independent of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment (age, sex, and number of cardiovascular risk factors). (Multicenter Study to Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Computed Tomography [ROMICAT-II]; NCT01084239). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal artery stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease: the prevalence and risk factors, an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edalati fard M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The relationship between Coronary Artery Disease (CAD and the prevalence of Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS has been demonstrated. Despite high incidence of heart diseases and high frequency of CAD risk factors among Iranian population, this relation has not been clearly determined. This study estimated the prevalence of RAS and its determinants in Iranian angiographic candidates. We also tried to find which risk factors of atherosclerosis are associated more frequently with renal artery stenosis."n "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study that was performed at the Tehran Heart Center, in Tehran, Iran, 146 patients who were candidate for angiography with suspected CAD were consecutively included. Selective renal angiography was performed following coronary angiography in all patients with established coronary artery stenosis and the presence and severity of RAS was evaluated."n "nResults: Prevalence of RAS in study patients was 25.3% (men, 13.7% and women 47.1%, (p<0.001. We found that only 6.2% of the patients had bilateral R.A.S. Also, RAS≥50% was found in 17.1% of patients. Regarding number of defected coronary vessels, two- and three-vessel diseases were found in 30.0% and 39.0% of participants, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the number of involved coronaries and the severity as well as side of RAS (p=0.716 Significant multivariate predictors of RAS were female gender (p=0.001, advanced age, (p=0.046 duration of hypertension (p=0.032 and baseline serum creatinine concentration (p=0.018. "n "nConclusions: Routine angiographic assessment of renal arteries following coronary angiography is recommended especially in women as well as those with long-term duration of hypertension or renal dysfunction.

  3. Internal mammary artery dilatation in a patient with aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, and coronary disease. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Cereijo Jose M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ideal surgical approach is unclear in adult patients with coarctation of the aorta that is associated with other cardiovascular pathologies that require intervention. Standard median sternotomy allows simultaneous, coronary revascularization surgery, valve replacement and repair of aortic coarctation. However the collateral circulation and the anatomy of the mammary arteries must be determined, to avoid possible complications. We report a case of a 69 year-old man with aortic coarctation, aortic stenosis, coronary artery disease and internal mammary artery dilatation who underwent concomitant surgical procedures through a median sternotomy.

  4. Aorta-LITA Bypass Grafting with Saphenous Vein in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery with Subclavian Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çağlı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal thoracic artery (ITA is the primary graft for coronary artery bypass grafting and can not be used if there is subclavian artery stenosis (SAS. Aorto-axillary, carotid-subclavian bypass and also angioplasty with stenting or other interventional treatments are acceptable procedures for SAS treatment. Aorta-ITA bypass with saphenous vein can be alternative and simple technique for SAS to save Winslow pathway for patients with peripheral artery disease.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study in a Lebanese Cohort Confirms PHACTR1 as a Major Determinant of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Jörg; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Youhanna, Sonia; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Platt, Daniel E.; Abchee, Antoine B.; Romanos, Jihane; Khazen, Georges; Othman, Raed; Badro, Danielle A; Haber, Marc; Salloum, Angelique K.; Douaihy, Bouchra; Shasha, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    The manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) follows a well-choreographed series of events that includes damage of arterial endothelial cells and deposition of lipids in the sub-endothelial layers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple populations with distinctive genetic and lifestyle backgrounds are a crucial step in understanding global CAD pathophysiology. In this study, we report a GWAS on the genetic basis of arterial stenosis as measured by cardiac catheterization in...

  6. [Prognostic value of aortic stenosis in patients after acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakova, O S; Selezneva, N D; Evdokimova, M A; Osmolovskaia, B S; Kochkina, M S; Aseĭcheva, O Iu; Minushkina, L O; Baklanova, T N; Talyzin, P A; Tereshchenko, S N; Dzhaiani, N A; Akatova, E V; Glezer, M G; Galiavich, A S; Zakirova, V B; Koziolova, N A; Polianskaia, E A; Iagoda, A V; Boeva, O I; Khorolets, E V; Shlyk, S V; Volkova, E G; Rodicheva, O A; Levashov, S Iu; Konstantinov, V O; Kalishevich, N B; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to assess prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) and prognostic value of its detection among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we examined 851 patients included into multicenter prospective study of risk factors of serious vascular events and death after acute coronary syndrome. The patients were enrolled into the study in stable condition on 10th day after onset of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA). Examination involved medical history, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Afterwards all cases of death and serious vascular events were registered. Severity of AS was specified by maximal aortic flow rate: 1st degree > 2.5, 2nd degree 3.0-4.0, 3rd degree > 4.0 m/s. AS was detected in 16 patients (1.9%). AS severity was 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree in 9, 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Patients with AS were significantly older (77.4 vs. 61.3 years, p p = 0.021) and lowered renal function (66.7 vs. 34.0%, p 75 years (OR 1,395 [1.023-1.902], p = 0.036), history of CHF (1.319 [1.015-1.713], p = 0.038), history of MI (1.692 [1.320-2.170], p p = 0.012), left atrial diameter (1.024 [1.001-1.047], p = 0.037) and presence of AS (3.211 [1.742-.,916], p < 0.001). Prevalence of preexisting AS among patients who have had MI/UA is 1.9% what is similar to data of European Heart Survey ACS-II (1.8%). Presence of AS of any severity in a survivor of ACS worsens prognosis independently of other known risk factors.

  7. Relative atherosclerotic plaque volume by CT coronary angiography trumps conventional stenosis assessment for identifying flow-limiting lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Nahoko; Kishi, Satoru; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Rybicki, Frank J; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Aoki, Jiro; Watanabe, Mika; Horiuchi, Yu; Furui, Koichi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ibukuro, Kenji; Lima, Joao A C; Tanabe, Kengo

    2017-11-01

    The new methods for diagnosing the ischemia with coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) as a noninvasive test have been investigated. To compare the relative plaque volume to quantitative CTA and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) for detecting flow-limiting coronary artery stenoses. We studied 49 patients with 55 intermediate lesions (30-69% diameter stenosis) who underwent CTA, coronary angiography (CAG), and FFR. CTA and QCA measures included lesion length, percent diameter stenosis (%DS), minimal lumen diameter (MLD), target main vessel percent plaque volume (%PV), lesion %PV, target main vessel percent lumen volume (%LV), and lesion %LV. FFR ≤0.80 was considered diagnostic of a flow-limiting lesion. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to determine the accuracy of detecting flow-limiting lesions. We also investigated the AUC of discrimination of flow-limiting lesion according to calcium score. Eighteen of 55 lesions (32.7%) had an FFR ≤0.80. Only vessel %PV differentiated between lesions with and without flow obstruction (67.6 vs. 62.7%, p = 0.018). The AUC for vessel %PV was greatest (0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.87). The AUC for the discrimination of the flow-limiting lesions according to low calcium score (≤400) improved to 0.82 (95% CI 0.57-0.94). In intermediate coronary artery stenoses, vessel %PV is more accurate than conventional stenosis assessment for detecting flow-limiting lesions. In low calcium score, vessel %PV is more useful for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease compared with conventional quantitative measures.

  8. Clinical and angiographic features of coronary artery disease after chest irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEniery, P.T.; Dorosti, K.; Schiavone, W.A.; Pedrick, T.J.; Sheldon, W.C.

    1987-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) developed in 15 patients at a mean of 16 years (range 3 to 29) after chest irradiation. The mean dose of radiation was 42 +/- 7 grays; irradiation was performed for Hodgkin's disease in 9 patients, lymphoma in 2, breast carcinoma in 3 and cystic hygroma in 1 patient. Mean age was 48 years (range 26 to 63) at diagnosis of CAD; 4 patients were younger than 35 years. Nine were women. Ten presented with angina, 3 with acute myocardial infarction, 1 patient with syncope and 1 with dyspnea. Twelve had no more than 2 risk factors of atherosclerosis. At coronary angiography, 8 had at least 50% diameter narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 4 had severe ostial stenosis of the right coronary artery. Eight patients also had valvular heart disease, 4 pericardial disease and 4 complete heart block. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 67 +/- 11% (range 53 to 80%). Nine had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, but surgery was difficult or impossible in 3 because of severe mediastinal and pericardial fibrosis. Radiation-associated CAD is characterized by a high incidence of left main and right ostial coronary disease and often occurs in women with relatively few conventional risk factors for CAD.

  9. Hibernating myocardium caused by isolated, radiation induced left main stem coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, G.R.; Penny, W.J. [University Hospital of Wales, Cardiology Dept., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    A 45-year old man presented with a five week history of worsening exertional dyspnoea and orthopnoea. He had also noted mild, bilateral ankle swelling. The patient hads been diagnosed with stage III Hodgkins lymphoma in 1968 at the age of 21. During the same year he underwent total nodal irradiation followed by chemotherapy in 1971. He had remained entirely asymptomatic over the course of the next 24 years with no evidence of relapse. Cardiac catheterisation undertaken soon after admission revealed a tight left main stem stenosis with a left dominant system. Left ventriculogram showed severe, global hypokinesia, and raised left ventricular end diastolic pressure (22 mm Hg). Urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was carried out. He made an uncomplicated recovery and his condition improved sufficiently to allow discharge eight days following the procedure. His heart failure slowly resolved and repeat transthoracic echocardiogram performed six months after surgery showed an unequivocal improvement in left ventricular function. Left ventricular ejection fraction continued to improve and increased from 23% at two months to 42% at two years. He currently remains entirely asymptomatic off all medication. (Author).

  10. Hibernating myocardium caused by isolated, radiation induced left main stem coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G R; Penny, W J

    1997-10-01

    A 45 year old man presented with a five week history of worsening exertional dyspnoea and orthopnoea. He had also noted mild, bilateral ankle swelling. The patient had been diagnosed with stage III Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1968 at the age of 21. During the same year he underwent total nodal irradiation followed by chemotherapy in 1971. He had remained entirely asymptomatic over the course of the next 24 years with no evidence of relapse. Cardiac catheterisation undertaken soon after admission revealed a tight left main stem stenosis with a left dominant system. Left ventriculogram showed severe, global hypokinesia, and raised left ventricular end diastolic pressure (22 mm Hg). Urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was carried out. He made an uncomplicated recovery and his condition improved sufficiently to allow discharge eight days following the procedure. His heart failure slowly resolved and repeat transthoracic echocardiogram performed six months after surgery showed an unequivocal improvement in left ventricular function. Left ventricular ejection fraction continued to improve and increased from 23% at two months to 42% at two years. He currently remains entirely asymptomatic off all medication.

  11. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and large infrarenal aorta in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis: a prospective monocenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Anne; Bui, Huu Tri; Barbe, Coralie; Henni, Amine Hadj; Journet, Julien; Metz, Damien; Nazeyrollas, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary heart disease. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the prevalence of AAA and of large abdominal aorta in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome and coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. AAA ultrasound screening was prospectively performed in 306 patients after they gave informed consent. AAA and large abdominal aorta were defined by maximum anteroposterior diameter of 30 mm or greater and of 20 to 29 mm, respectively. Patient characteristics were prospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for AAA and large abdominal aorta. A p value Prevalence reached 7.7% in patients older than 50 years. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04. 95% confidence [CI] 1.00-1.09 per year of age, p = 0.06) and previous coronary events (OR 2.44, 95% CI 0.96-6.25, p = 0.06) showed a borderline significant association with AAA. Large infrarenal aortic diameter was observed in 32% of patients. Age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05 per year of age, p prevalence seems high in patients with acute coronary syndrome and proven coronary stenosis of 50% or greater. Previous coronary events and older age might be associated with higher risk of AAA, and age, male gender, and obesity are significantly associated with large infrarenal aorta. If these results are confirmed in larger studies, further guidelines concerning AAA screening in this well-defined population should be considered. Copyright (c) 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining Personality Traits with Traditional Risk Factors for Coronary Stenosis: An Artificial Neural Networks Solution in Patients with Computed Tomography Detected Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Compare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary artery disease (CAD is a complex, multifactorial disease in which personality seems to play a role but with no definition in combination with other risk factors. Objective. To explore the nonlinear and simultaneous pathways between traditional and personality traits risk factors and coronary stenosis by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN data mining analysis. Method. Seventy-five subjects were examined for traditional cardiac risk factors and personality traits. Analyses were based on a new data mining method using a particular artificial adaptive system, the autocontractive map (AutoCM. Results. Several traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors (CRF present significant relations with coronary artery plaque (CAP presence or severity. Moreover, anger turns out to be the main factor of personality for CAP in connection with numbers of traditional risk factors. Hidden connection map showed that anger, hostility, and the Type D personality subscale social inhibition are the core factors related to the traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CRF specifically by hypertension. Discussion. This study shows a nonlinear and simultaneous pathway between traditional risk factors and personality traits associated with coronary stenosis in CAD patients without history of cardiovascular disease. In particular, anger seems to be the main personality factor for CAP in addition to traditional risk factors.

  13. Genome-wide association study in a Lebanese cohort confirms PHACTR1 as a major determinant of coronary artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Hager

    Full Text Available The manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD follows a well-choreographed series of events that includes damage of arterial endothelial cells and deposition of lipids in the sub-endothelial layers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of multiple populations with distinctive genetic and lifestyle backgrounds are a crucial step in understanding global CAD pathophysiology. In this study, we report a GWAS on the genetic basis of arterial stenosis as measured by cardiac catheterization in a Lebanese population. The locus of the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1 showed association with coronary stenosis in a discovery experiment with genome wide data in 1,949 individuals (rs9349379, OR = 1.37, p = 1.57×10(-5. The association was replicated in an additional 2,547 individuals (OR = 1.31, p = 8.85×10(-6, leading to genome-wide significant association in a combined analysis (OR = 1.34, p = 8.02×10(-10. Results from this GWAS support a central role of PHACTR1 in CAD susceptibility irrespective of lifestyle and ethnic divergences. This association provides a plausible component for understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of stenosis in cardiac vessels and a potential drug target against CAD.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study in a Lebanese Cohort Confirms PHACTR1 as a Major Determinant of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Jörg; Youhanna, Sonia; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Platt, Daniel E.; Abchee, Antoine B.; Romanos, Jihane; Khazen, Georges; Othman, Raed; Badro, Danielle A.; Haber, Marc; Salloum, Angelique K.; Douaihy, Bouchra; Shasha, Nabil; Kabbani, Samer; Sbeite, Hana; Chammas, Elie; el Bayeh, Hamid; Rousseau, Francis; Zelenika, Diana; Gut, Ivo; Lathrop, Mark; Farrall, Martin; Gauguier, Dominique; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    The manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) follows a well-choreographed series of events that includes damage of arterial endothelial cells and deposition of lipids in the sub-endothelial layers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple populations with distinctive genetic and lifestyle backgrounds are a crucial step in understanding global CAD pathophysiology. In this study, we report a GWAS on the genetic basis of arterial stenosis as measured by cardiac catheterization in a Lebanese population. The locus of the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1) showed association with coronary stenosis in a discovery experiment with genome wide data in 1,949 individuals (rs9349379, OR = 1.37, p = 1.57×10−5). The association was replicated in an additional 2,547 individuals (OR = 1.31, p = 8.85×10−6), leading to genome-wide significant association in a combined analysis (OR = 1.34, p = 8.02×10−10). Results from this GWAS support a central role of PHACTR1 in CAD susceptibility irrespective of lifestyle and ethnic divergences. This association provides a plausible component for understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of stenosis in cardiac vessels and a potential drug target against CAD. PMID:22745674

  15. Coronary artery disease and symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis: clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMancio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of coronary artery disease (CAD on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has not been clarified. Furthermore, less is known about the indication and strategy of revascularization in these high risk patients. Aims: This study sought to determine the prevalence and prognostic impact of CAD in patients undergoing TAVI, and to assess the safety and feasibility of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI before TAVI.Methods: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS undergoing TAVI were included into a prospective single centre registry from 2007 to 2012. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with and without CAD. In some patients with CAD it was decided to perform elective PCI before TAVI after decision by the Heart Team. The primary endpoints were 30-day and 2-year all-cause mortality.Results: A total of 91 consecutive patients with mean age of 79±9 years (52% men underwent TAVI with a median follow-up duration of 16 months (interquartile range of 27.6 months. CAD was present on 46 patients (51%. At 30-day, the incidences of death were similar between CAD and non-CAD patients (9% and 5%, p=0.44, but at 2 years were 50% in CAD patients and 24% in non-CAD patients (crude hazard ratio with CAD, 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 4.6; p=0.04. Adjusting for age, gender, left ventricular ejection fraction and glomerular filtration rate the hazard of death was 2.6-fold higher in patients with CAD (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; p=0.03. Elective PCI before TAVI was performed in 13 patients (28% of CAD patients. There were no more adverse events in patients who underwent TAVI+PCI when compared with those who underwent isolated TAVI. Conclusions: In severe symptomatic AS who underwent TAVI, CAD is frequent and adversely impacts long-term outcomes, but not procedure outcomes. In selected patients, PCI before TAVI appears to be feasible and safe.

  16. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt–Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment. PMID:26629289

  17. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-10-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt-Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment.

  18. Cerebral Lesions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Relation to Asymptomatic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Schoos, Mikkel; Sillesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) are associated with cerebral infarction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). It remains unclear whether this association is causal. We investigated the associations between neurologically asymptomatic CAS...... and VAS and the occurrence of subclinical cerebral lesions after CABG verified by magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: CABG patients were included and CAS and VAS were identified by magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify new post-operative subclinical...... cerebral lesions. The associations between CAS/VAS post-operative cerebral lesions were investigated. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were included in the study. 13% had significant CAS and 11% had significant VAS. Thirty-five percent had new cerebral infarction postoperatively. We found a significant...

  19. Carotid artery stenting in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a possible primary therapy for symptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Renato; Halliday, Alison; Bianchi, Paolo; Fresa, Emanuele; Silani, Vincenzo; Parati, Gianfranco; Blengino, Simonetta; Cireni, Lea; Adobbati, Laura; Calvillo, Laura; Tolva, Valerio S

    2013-08-01

    To report the results of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in symptomatic patients (stroke/transient ischemic attack) after recent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Between January 2009 and July 2011, 28 consecutive patients (18 women; mean age 66 years, range 42-82) underwent protected CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis following recent PTCA that included bare or drug-eluting stents requiring uninterrupted dual antiplatelet therapy. Primary technical success, neurological complications, major adverse cardiovascular events, and death were evaluated at 30 days and over midterm follow-up. Technical success was 96%; 1 patient suffered a nonfatal major stroke (3.5% 30-day stroke rate) during the procedure. During a median 21.6-month follow-up, 4 (14%) patients died of myocardial infarction (all diabetic smokers with ejection fractions 34 kg/m(2). This preliminary experience demonstrated that CAS is a reasonable, safe, and effective treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis who were recently treated with coronary stents requiring uninterrupted dual antiplatelet therapy.

  20. The Association Between Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein,Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 Ratio and coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Zavarehee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Recently,small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL has been highlighted as a new risk factor for the coronary artery disease(CAD.Small dense LDLs are believed to be atherogenic since these particles are taken up more easily by arterial wall.They are readily oxidized and have reduced affinity for low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor and increased affinity for arterial proteoglicans.LDL cholesterol is only a measure of the cholesterol level in the LDL whereas apolipoprotein B(apo B is a measure of the cholesterol levels of all the atherogenic particles,including very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density, and low density lipoproteins. Therefore,it might be a better marker than other traditional lipids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum small dense LDL, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1 and apoB/apoA1 ratio and the coronary stenosis.Methods: 86 patients with coronary stenosis, 35 patients without coronary stenosis   identified by angiography who were referred to Rajaii Heart Center , and 30 healthy individuals were studied.SdLDL was measured by a direct homogenous LDL-C assay in the supernatant of serum which remained after heparin-magnesium precipitation.Serum apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B were measured by using immunoturbidimetric method.Results: The results showed that the sdLDL levels were higher in patients with coronary stenosis than patients without coronary stenosis and healthy individuals   (21.54±7.1, 16.88±4.4 and 15.45±5mg/dl, p=0.001, respectively. In addition the level   of apoB (with stenosis: 113.71±21.8, without stenosis:100.88±18.7 and healthy:102.30±9.6, p=0.003 and apoB/apoA1 ratio (with stenosis:1.100±0.24, without stenosis :0.589±0.26 and healthy:0.751±0.16, p=0.001 were significantly higher in patients with coronary stenosis. SdLDL levels were positively correlated with the level of apoB(r=0.589, apoB/apoA1 ratio(r=0.416, triglyceride

  1. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Zhang; Shuang Yang; Lu-Yue Gai; Zhi-Qi Han; Qian Xin; Xiao-Bo Yang; Jun-Jie Yang; Qin-Hua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, us...

  2. Successful resuscitation from two cardiac arrests in a female patient with critical aortic stenosis, severe mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijušković Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is up to 34% and resuscitation is described as highly unsuccessful. Case report. A 72-year-old female patient with severe aortic stenosis combined with severe mitral regurgitation and three-vessel coronary artery disease was successfully resuscitated following two in-hospital cardiac arrests. The first cardiac arrest occurred immediately after intraarterial injection of low osmolar iodinated agent during coronary angiography. Angiography revealed 90% occlusion of the proximal left main coronary artery and circumflex branch. The second arrest followed induction of anesthesia. Following successful open-chest resuscitation, aortic valve replacement, mitral valvuloplasty and three-vessel aortocoronary bypass were performed. Postoperative pericardial tamponade required surgical revision. The patient recovered completely. Conclusion. Decision to start resuscitation may be justified in selected patients with critical aortic stenosis, even though cardiopulmonary resuscitation in such cases is generally considered futile.

  3. A Case of Severe Carotid Stenosis in a Patient with Familial Hypercholesterolemia without Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lima Barros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood. In its heterozygous form, it occurs in 1 in 500 individuals in the general population. It is an important contributor to the early onset of coronary artery disease (CAD, accounting for 5–10% of cases of cardiovascular events in people younger than 50 years. Atherogenesis triggered by hypercholesterolemia generally progresses faster in the coronary arteries, followed by the subsequent involvement of other arteries such as the carotids. Thus, symptoms of CAD commonly appear before the onset of significant carotid stenosis. Herein, we report the case of a patient with untreated FH who had severe carotid atherosclerosis at the age of 46 years but had no evidence of significant CAD.

  4. Effectiveness of same day percutaneous coronary intervention followed by minimally invasive aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and moderate coronary disease ("hybrid approach").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Derek R; Byrne, Margaretta; Rogers, Campbell D; Baim, Donald S; Simon, Daniel I; Couper, Gregory S; Cohn, Lawrence H

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the investigators described a "hybrid" cardiovascular interventional strategy combining percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary artery disease (CAD) followed by valve surgery for patients with urgent complex CAD and valve disease to reduce morbidity and mortality. This hybrid approach has been extended prospectively in elderly, high-risk patients with aortic stenosis scheduled for elective minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MI-AVR) who, on preoperative coronary angiography, were found to have moderate CAD amenable to PCI. In this prospective, observational series, 18 patients (mean age 76 years) underwent elective hybrid MI-AVR with PCI from May 2003 to February 2006. Five patients had undergone previous coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients underwent coronary angiography the day of (n = 12) or evening before (n = 6) MI-AVR, and after identifying moderately severe CAD, all 18 underwent the implantation of drug-eluting stents to the affected coronary arteries, followed by MI-AVR. Although all patients received standard doses of antiplatelet medications, including acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg before PCI and 325 mg/day thereafter) and clopidogrel (300 mg after PCI, 75 mg/day thereafter for 90 days for the Cypher stent), there were no reoperations for bleeding; only 8 of 18 patients required postoperative blood transfusions. One patient died postoperatively from a colonic perforation, and there were no late mortalities after a mean follow-up of 19 months. In conclusion, this hybrid strategy has low morbidity and mortality and may be a new therapeutic option for older, high-risk patients with combined CAD and aortic valve disease.

  5. Use of ECG-gated computed tomography, echocardiography and selective angiography in five dogs with pulmonic stenosis and one dog with pulmonic stenosis and aberrant coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda-Vidal, P; Pedro, B; Baker, M; Gelzer, A R; Dukes-McEwan, J; Maddox, T W

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonic stenosis (PS) is the most common congenital cardiac disease in dogs. Boxers and English bulldogs are among the most commonly affected breeds and also commonly associated with an aberrant coronary artery (CA). If an aberrant CA is suspected and balloon valvuloplasty indicated, an intra-operative angiography is recommended prior to the procedure. ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) can be used to screen for CA anomalies in a quick and minimally-invasive way (preventing side effects associated with selective catheter angiography) and allowing early planning of the procedure. The aim of this case series was to report CT findings associated with PS diagnosed by echocardiography. Our database was retrospectively searched for cases of dogs with PS diagnosed by echocardiography, where an ECG-gated CT was performed. A total of six cases were retrieved: all were diagnosed with severe PS. Four dogs had concurrent congenital defects: two dogs had a patent ductus arteriosus, one dog had a ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta, one dog had an aberrant CA. Detailed CT findings of all cases were reported, including one case of a patent ductus arteriosus and an overriding aorta not identified by transthoracic echocardiography. In addition, an abnormal single left coronary ostium, with a pre-pulmonic right CA was described. In conclusion, despite echocardiography remaining the gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of PS, ECG-gated-CT angiography is a complementary diagnostic method that may provide additional relevant information, shorten surgery/anaesthesia time and reduce the amount of radiation to which the clinician is subjected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The assessment of serum levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity after the use of atorvastatin in patients with coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Shahsavari

    2015-02-01

    significant reduction of plasma MDA levels as well as a significant enhancement of TAC in coronary artery stenosis patients with long time receiving atorvastatin contribute to the lowering oxidative stress in this patients.

  7. Comparative effects of arotinolol, labetalol and propranolol on regional myocardial dysfunction induced by flow-limiting coronary stenosis in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Kato, T; Kinjo, N; Moromizato, H; Sakanashi, M

    1990-07-01

    Effects of arotinolol, a combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, on regional myocardial dysfunction produced by severe coronary stenosis in anesthetized dogs were examined and compared with those of labetalol and propranolol. Doses of these three antagonists were selected to produce a comparable degree of the negative chrono- and inotropic effect but a different potency of alpha-adrenoceptor blockade (labetalol greater than arotinolol). Regional myocardial function measured as segment shortening (%SS) was decreased to around 2-3% by constriction of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), and then drug or saline was administered i.v. The stenosis of LCX was released 30 min after the administration. No significant alteration in hemodynamic and contractility parameters was seen as compared to the predrug value up to at least 30 min after saline i.v. Arotinolol and propranolol both reduced heart rate and peak positive left ventricular dP/dt (LVdP/dt) without a significant change in LCX flow. Concomitantly, %SS distal to a coronary stenosis was significantly improved by arotinolol and propranolol. On the other hand, labetalol significantly reduced LCX flow probably due to systemic hypotension and failed to improve %SS in the ischemic area, although the agent markedly decreased heart rate and LVdP/dt. These results indicate that arotinolol improves impaired regional myocardial function distal to a coronary stenosis in a similar manner with propranolol.

  8. Fractional Flow Reserve and Coronary Bifurcation Anatomy: A Novel Quantitative Model to Assess and Report the Stenosis Severity of Bifurcation Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Shengxian; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; von Birgelen, Clemens; Holm, Niels R.; Pyxaras, Stylianos A.; Kumsars, Indulis; Lam, Ming Kai; Valkenburg, Ilona; Toth, Gabor G.; Li, Yingguang; Escaned, Javier; Wijns, William; Reiber, Johan H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new model for assessment of stenosis severity in a bifurcation lesion including its core. The diagnostic performance of this model, powered by 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography to predict the functional significance of obstructive

  9. Regadenoson-Stress Dynamic Myocardial Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Performance of CT Angiography in Assessment of Intermediate Coronary Artery Stenosis in Asymptomatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxa, Jan; Hromádka, Milan; Šedivý, Jakub; Štěpánková, Lucie; Moláček, Jiří; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Ferda, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The prospective study included 54 asymptomatic high-risk patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA) and regadenoson-induced stress CT perfusion (rsCTP). Diagnostic accuracy of significant stenosis (≥50%) determination was evaluated for CTA alone and CTA + rsCTP in 27 patients referred to ICA due to the positive rsCTP findings. Combined evaluation of CTA + rsCTP had higher diagnostic accuracy over CTA alone (per-segment: specificity 96 versus 68%, p = 0.002; per-vessel: specificity 95 versus 75%, p = 0.012) and high overruling rate of rsCTP was proved in intermediate stenosis (40–70%). Results demonstrate a significant additional value of rsCTP in the assessment of intermediate coronary artery stenosis found with CTA. PMID:26236712

  10. Regadenoson-Stress Dynamic Myocardial Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Performance of CT Angiography in Assessment of Intermediate Coronary Artery Stenosis in Asymptomatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baxa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective study included 54 asymptomatic high-risk patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA and regadenoson-induced stress CT perfusion (rsCTP. Diagnostic accuracy of significant stenosis (≥50% determination was evaluated for CTA alone and CTA + rsCTP in 27 patients referred to ICA due to the positive rsCTP findings. Combined evaluation of CTA + rsCTP had higher diagnostic accuracy over CTA alone (per-segment: specificity 96 versus 68%, p=0.002; per-vessel: specificity 95 versus 75%, p=0.012 and high overruling rate of rsCTP was proved in intermediate stenosis (40–70%. Results demonstrate a significant additional value of rsCTP in the assessment of intermediate coronary artery stenosis found with CTA.

  11. Diagnosing coronary artery disease by sound analysis from coronary stenosis induced turbulent blood flow: diagnostic performance in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Simon; Schmidt, Samuel Emil; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

    2016-02-01

    Optimizing risk assessment may reduce use of advanced diagnostic testing in patients with symptoms suggestive of stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Detection of diastolic murmurs from post-stenotic coronary turbulence with an acoustic sensor placed on the chest wall can serve as an easy, safe, and low-cost supplement to assist in the diagnosis of CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an acoustic test (CAD-score) to detect CAD and compare it to clinical risk stratification and coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We prospectively enrolled patients with symptoms of CAD referred to either coronary computed tomography or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). All patients were tested with the CAD-score system. Obstructive CAD was defined as more than 50 % diameter stenosis diagnosed by quantitative analysis of the ICA. In total, 255 patients were included and obstructive CAD was diagnosed in 63 patients (28 %). Diagnostic accuracy evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves was 72 % for the CAD-score, which was similar to the Diamond-Forrester clinical risk stratification score, 79 % (p = 0.12), but lower than CACS, 86 % (p < 0.01). Combining the CAD-score and Diamond-Forrester score, AUC increased to 82 %, which was significantly higher than the standalone CAD-score (p < 0.01) and Diamond-Forrester score (p < 0.05). Addition of the CAD-score to the Diamond-Forrester score increased correct reclassification, categorical net-reclassification index = 0.31 (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the potential use of an acoustic system to identify CAD. The combination of clinical risk scores and an acoustic test seems to optimize patient selection for diagnostic investigation.

  12. Accuracy of 16-slice multi-detector CT to quantify the degree of coronary artery stenosis: Assessment of cross-sectional and longitudinal vessel reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: rcury@partners.org; Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Erlangen (Germany); Pomerantsev, Eugene [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Nieman, Koen [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Moselewski, Fabian [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Background: Sixteen-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable noninvasive detection of significant coronary stenosis based on qualitative visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of MDCT to quantify the degree of coronary stenosis as compared to quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) using two different reconstruction methods. Methods: We studied 69 coronary artery lesions from 38 consecutive patients that underwent 16-slice MDCT as a part of research study, which enrolled consecutive subjects scheduled for clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. Nine coronary artery lesions with motion artifacts, heavily calcified plaques or stents were excluded from the analysis. The degree of stenosis was calculated by two independent readers non-blinded to the location of the stenosis, but blinded to the results of the QCA. MDCT luminal diameters were measured in cross-sectional multi-planar reformatted (CS-MPR) images created perpendicular to the centerline of the vessel and in 5 mm thin-slab maximum intensity projections (MIP) parallel to the long axis of the vessel. Both MDCT methods were compared against QCA. Results: The mean degree of stenosis as measured by MDCT was closely correlated to QCA for both methods (CS-MPR versus QCA: 61 {+-} 23% versus 64 {+-} 29%; r {sup 2} = 0.83, p < 0.001 and MIP versus QCA: 64 {+-} 22% versus 64 {+-} 29%; r {sup 2} = 0.84, p < 0.001 for MIP. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a negative bias of the degree of stenosis of -2.8 {+-} 12% using CS-MPR and a minimally positive bias of 0.6 {+-} 12% for MIP. In stratified analysis for lesion severity (mild, 0-40%; moderate, 41-70% or severe, >70%) the agreement between both CS-MPR and MIP was high when compared to QCA ({kappa} = 0.74 and 0.71, respectively). Conclusion: Multi-detector spiral CT permits accurate quantitative assessment of the degree of coronary stenosis in selected data sets of sufficient quality using both

  13. Randomized Comparisons Between Different Stenting Approaches for Bifurcation Coronary Lesions With or Without Side Branch Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Ahn, Jung-Min; Yoon, Sung-Han; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Jong-Young; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Seung, Ki Bae; Shin, Won-Yong; Lee, Nae-Hee; Lee, Bong-Ki; Lee, Sang-Gon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Junghan; Yang, Joo-Young; Hyon, Min-Su; Lee, Keun; Jang, Jae-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2015-04-20

    This study sought to evaluate the optimal percutaneous coronary intervention techniques using drug-eluting stents for bifurcation coronary lesions. The optimal bifurcation stenting technique needs to be evaluated. The trial included 2 randomization studies separated by the presence of side branch (SB) stenosis for patients having non-left main bifurcation lesions. For 306 patients without SB stenosis, the routine final kissing balloon or leave-alone approaches were compared. Another randomization study compared the crush or single-stent approaches for 419 patients with SB stenosis. Between the routine final kissing balloon and leave-alone groups for nondiseased SB lesions, angiographic restenosis occurred in 17.9% versus 9.3% (p=0.064), comprising 15.1% versus 3.7% for the main branch (p=0.004) and 2.8% versus 5.6% for the SB (p=0.50) from 214 patients (69.9%) receiving 8-month angiographic follow-up. Incidence of major adverse cardiac events including death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization over 1 year was 14.0% versus 11.6% between the routine final kissing balloon and leave-alone groups (p=0.57). In another randomization study for diseased SB lesions, 28.2% in the single-stent group received SB stents. From 300 patients (71.6%) receiving angiographic follow-up, between the crush and single-stent groups, angiographic restenosis rate was 8.4% versus 11.0% (p=0.44), comprising 5.2% versus 4.8% for the main branch (p=0.90) and 3.9% versus 8.3% for the SB (p=0.12). One-year major adverse cardiac events rate between the crush and single-stent groups was 17.9% versus 18.5% (p=0.84). Angiographic and clinical outcomes were excellent after percutaneous coronary intervention using drug-eluting stents with any stent technique for non-left main bifurcation lesions once the procedure was performed successfully. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Redistribution of 201 Tl after myocardial scintigraphy with dipyridamole: value in the detection of coronary stenosis and ventricular kinetic anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, J L; Wolff, F

    1985-12-01

    One hundred and eight-four patients suspected of having coronary artery disease underwent coronary and left ventricular angiography and Tl 201 myocardial scintigraphy with dipyridamole including images of redistribution after 3-4 hours. The results of scintigraphy were assessed visually in all cases and by quantitative analysis in 91 patients. Comparison of early (DIP) and late (REDIS) images showed three types of response: 1) no hypofixation on either (10 patients), 2) a constant defect (59 patients), 3) a reversible defect (115 patients, including 21 cases of "paradoxical" redistribution). The value of the redistribution images was assessed in the diagnosis of coronary stenosis and in the evaluation of ventricular wall function in post-stenotic zones. The following results were obtained: Visual analysis of the DIP scintigraphy alone gave 17 false positive and 8 false negative results (sens: 95%, spec: 41%). The false negative results were all observed in patients at high risk. The DIP/REDIS scintigraphy (considered normal if both images were normal) gave 20 false positive but only 1 false negative result (sens: 99%, spec: 32%). In addition, the negative predictivity increased from 60 to 90%. The considerable reduction in the number of false negative results was due to the detection of "paradoxical" redistribution. The finding indicates that late films must be taken systematically even if the early scintigraphy is normal. Quantitative analysis of DIP scintigraphy was less sensitive and more specific than visual analysis (sens: 82.7%, spec: 68.7%; NVP: 46%). The same was observed when the redistribution films were processed (DIP/REDIS): significantly increased sensitivity and negative predictive value at the cost of a lower specificity (sens: 96%, spec: 41%; NPV: 70%). No significant differences were observed between the type of scintigraphic defect (constant or reversible) and the probability of coronary stenosis (positive predictive value 93 and 86% respectively

  15. Hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by vessel attenuation measurement on CT compared with adenosine perfusion MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dekker, Martijn A. M.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Pundziute, Gabija; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    Purpose: We assessed the association between corrected contrast opacification (CCO) based on coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) and inducible ischemia by adenosine perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (APMR). Methods: Sixty cardiac asymptomatic patients with extra-cardiac arterial

  16. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in a pediatric patient with coronary aneurysm and stenosis due to Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossner, David M; Chappell, Clay; Rab, Tanveer; Kim, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of an acutely ill 3-year-old female, with a previous medical history of Kawasaki disease, who presented to care with an acute myocardial infarction. We describe the coordinated therapies employed by pediatric and adult cardiologists aimed to establish coronary revascularization.

  17. Scanning protocol optimization and dose evaluation in coronary stenosis using multi-slices computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-hui; Chen, Chia-lin; Sheu, Chin-yin; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2007-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common incidence for premature death in developed countries. A major fraction is attributable to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, which may result in sudden cardiac failure. A reduction of mortality caused by myocardial infarction may be achieved if coronary atherosclerosis can be detected and treated at an early stage before symptoms occur. Therefore, there is need for an effective tool that allows identification of patients at increased risk for future cardiac events. The current multi-detector CT has been widely used for detection and quantification of coronary calcifications as a sign of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to optimize the diagnostic values and radiation exposure in coronary artery calcium-screening examination using multi-slice CT (MSCT) with different image scan protocols. The radiation exposure for all protocols is evaluated by using computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom measurements. We chose an optimal scanning protocol and evaluated patient radiation dose in the MSCT coronary artery screenings and preserved its expecting diagnostic accuracy. These changes make the MSCT have more operation flexibility and provide more diagnostic values in current practice.

  18. Urinary bisphenol a concentration and angiography-defined coronary artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Melzer

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is widely used in food and drinks packaging. There is evidence of associations between raised urinary bisphenol A (uBPA and increased incidence of reported cardiovascular diagnoses.To estimate associations between BPA exposure and angiographically graded coronary atherosclerosis. 591 patients participating in The Metabonomics and Genomics in Coronary Artery Disease (MaGiCAD study in Cambridgeshire UK, comparing urinary BPA (uBPA with grades of severity of coronary artery disease (CAD on angiography. Linear models were adjusted for BMI, occupational social class and diabetes status. Severe (one to three vessel CAD was present in 385 patients, 86 had intermediate disease (n=86 and 120 had normal coronary arteries. The (unadjusted median uBPA concentration was 1.28 ng/mL with normal coronary arteries, and 1.53 ng/mL with severe CAD. Compared to those with normal coronary arteries, uBPA concentration was significantly higher in those with severe CAD (OR per uBPA SD=5.96 ng/ml OR=1.43, CI 1.03 to 1.98, p=0.033, and near significant for intermediate disease (OR=1.69, CI 0.98 to 2.94, p=0.061. There was no significant uBPA difference between patients with severe CAD (needing surgery and the remaining groups combined.BPA exposure was higher in those with severe coronary artery stenoses compared to those with no vessel disease. Larger studies are needed to estimate true dose response relationships. The mechanisms underlying the association remain to be established.

  19. When stenting in renal artery stenosis? Update on pathophysiology of ischemic nephropathy and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zuccalà

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, decisions taken on the optimal management of patients with renal artery stenosis have triggered off controversy and debate among clinicians dealing with renovascular disease. The main reason underlying this ongoing controversy may be the heterogeneity of the clinical entities that are normally associated with the umbrella definition of renal artery stenosis. Indeed a causal link between the stenosis and its clinical consequences (i.e. hypertension, renal failure can often demonstrated in some entities, such as fibromuscular dysplasia, truncal stenosis or arterial stenosis in the transplanted kidney, which can be defined as pure renal artery stenosis. On the contrary, the entity generally called ostial stenosis is a disease of the abdominal aorta where it encroaches the ostium of the renal artery at the end of a long process involving the entire vascular tree. Patients affected by ostial stenosis also suffer from generalized atherosclerosis, and kidney damage is often caused by the atherosclerotic environment with the stenosis acting as an innocent bystander. This may account for the low rate of renal function recovery in subjects with ostial stenosis. In our view, keeping the different entities separate along with a careful understanding of the mechanisms underpinning renal damage, particularly the intrarenal activation of the renin angiotensin system which in turn induces renal inflammation and oxidative stress, may enable clinicians to make the right decisions in regard to revascularization.

  20. Early results after synchronous carotid stent placement and coronary artery bypass graft in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Juan Guillermo; Rojas, Kristin E; Balestrini, Carlos; Espinel, Camilo; Figueredo, Antonio; Saaibi, Jose Federico; Machuca, Santiago; Murcia, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    The optimal management of patients with combined carotid and coronary artery disease requiring cardiac surgery is still unknown. Staged carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting (CAS), each followed by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), are options frequently employed. However, for patients with severe carotid artery disease in urgent need of open cardiac revascularization, staged operations may not be the most appropriate alternative. The aim of this study was to describe our experience using a synchronous CAS-CABG method with minimal interprocedural time. We used this synchronous combination of procedures in patients with combined carotid and coronary artery disease admitted for urgent CABG. Patients with concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease scheduled for synchronous CAS and urgent CABG between December 2006 and January 2010 were included in the study. All procedures were performed at a single center: the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia, in Floridablanca, Santander, Colombia. The study cohort was characterized according to demographic and clinical characteristics, which included degree of carotid stenosis, presence/absence of preoperative neurological symptoms, and cardiac operative risk profile. All patients underwent CAS under embolic protection devices and then CABG within the next 2 hours. Patients received aspirin pre- and postprocedure but were started on clopidogrel only after CABG. The primary end point of the study was the composite incidence rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death 30 days after CAS-CABG. Fifteen patients with concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease underwent synchronous CAS-CABG. Most patients (60%) were men, and mean (± standard deviation) age was 65.2 (± 8.4) years. Most patients (93%) were neurologically asymptomatic. The median (interquartile range) ejection fraction and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) for the cohort were 55% (36

  1. Tissue Doppler echocardiography improves the diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Soren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine if colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) performed at rest in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP) is able to predict the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprises 296 consecutive patients with clinically...... performed at rest is an independent predictor of significant CAD, and colour TDI improves the diagnostic performance of exercise ECG....... suspected SAP, no previous cardiac history, and a normal ejection fraction. All patients were examined by colour TDI, exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), and coronary angiography (CAG). Regional longitudinal systolic (s'), early diastolic (e'), and late diastolic (a') myocardial velocities were measured...

  2. [A case of severe left main isolated stenosis in a young woman with previous history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinconze, Sebastian; Coppini, Lucia; Lina, Daniela; Tadonio, Iacopo; Cattabiani, Maria Alberta; Solinas, Emilia; Vignali, Luigi; Menozzi, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old female treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 16. The patient came to our attention because of progressive dyspnea on effort and a positive result on a pharmacologic stress echo test. Coronary angiography revealed focal critical ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. Considering the high surgical risk due to possible post-radiation thoracic adherence and the young patient age, she underwent successful stenting of the left main stenosis with drug-eluting stent, followed by an intravascular ultrasound-guided post-dilation and final kissing balloon inflation. The procedure was uncomplicated.Heart diseases are among the frequently seen long-term effects of chemo/radiotherapy used for lymphoma treatment. The pathogenesis of radiation-induced coronary artery disease is complex and not yet fully understood, the mechanism is multifactorial and likely involves direct damage from radiation exposure or mediated by inflammatory cytokine secretion. Surgery management is often challenging due to radiation sequences, and a percutaneous approach is therefore used. The risk of long-term radiotherapy damage depends on radiation dose and the field of exposure. Modern techniques with lower radiation exposure and smaller treatment volumes may reduce these risks in future.

  3. Outcome in high risk patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Kaltoft, Anne; Thayssen, Per

    2010-01-01

    be an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk surgical patients. METHODS: From January 2005 to May 2007, all patients who had unprotected LM PCI with stent implantation were identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. The indications for PCI were: (1) ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), (2......) non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina, and (3) stable angina. All patients were followed up for 18 months. RESULTS: A total of 344 patients were treated with LM PCI (STEMI: 71, NSTEMI/unstable angina: 157, and stable angina: 116). In STEMI patients, the median logistic EuroSCORE was 22...

  4. Comparison of three-dimensional volume-targeted thin-slab FIESTA magnetic resonance angiography and 64-multidetector computed tomographic angiography for the identification of proximal coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liuquan; Ma, Lin; Schoenhagen, Paul; Ye, Huiyi; Lou, Xin; Gao, Yuangui; Zhao, Xihai; Wang, Xinjiang; Dong, Wei

    2013-09-10

    Based on recent clinical data, an imaging strategy of identifying proximal coronary disease allows further management decisions in patients with stable angina pectoris. We aimed to compare diagnostic accuracy of non-contrast fast steady-state (FIESTA) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with 64-multidetector computed tomographic angiography (CTA), using conventional coronary angiography (CA) as the reference standard. Thirty patients with suspected coronary artery disease consented to participate in an institutional review board-approved protocol. Coronary MRA was performed at 1.5 T using a respiratory navigator and electrocardiogram-gated three-dimensional FIESTA pulse sequence. CTA images were acquired using a 64-multidetector computed tomographic scanner, using beta blockade to reduce the heart rate to less than 70 bpm. Coronary luminal stenosis >50% was identified. Plaques were classified as non-calcified, mixed, or calcified on CTA, and as high-, intermediate-, or low-signal on FIESTA MRA. Compared to CA, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for detection of >50% proximal coronary stenoses were 83.0%, 86.9%, and 86.1% for MRA and 85.1%, 87.2%, and 86.8% for CTA, respectively. For the 24 calcified stenoses, MRA corrected 16 segments that overestimated on CTA and MRA had an accuracy of 75% in evaluating calcified plaques. High-resolution three-dimensional FIESTA MRA and CTA have a similar accuracy in detecting proximal coronary stenosis. The clinical impact of identification of proximal disease in patients with stable CAD needs to be examined in future studies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Myocardial Mass Contributes to the Discrepancy Between Anatomic Stenosis Severity Assessed by Intravascular Ultrasound and Fractional Flow Reserve in Intermediate Lesions of the Coronary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Lim, Hong-Seok; Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Seo, Kyoung-Woo; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Choi, So-Yeon; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated the major contributors to the discrepancy between the minimal lumen area (MLA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR). There was considerable discrepancy between MLA or diameter stenosis (DS) and FFR. We enrolled 744 patients with intermediate stenoses of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Summed epicardial coronary artery length distal to the target stenosis was obtained from each longest view of the vessels on the coronary angiograms. Mismatching was defined as a lesion with FFR of >0.80 and MLA smaller than the best cut-off value (BCV) for predicting FFR of ≤0.80. Reverse mismatching was defined as a lesion with FFR of ≤0.80 and MLA larger than the BCV. Summed epicardial coronary artery length was longer at the lesions of proximal LAD than that of middle LAD (380 mm ± 82 mm vs. 341 mm ± 80 mm, P MLA, DS, plaque burden at distal reference, lesion length and summed epicardial coronary artery length. Proximal LAD lesion was an independent predictor of reverse mismatching (hazard ratio 3.162, 1.858-5.382, P MLA. Myocardial mass subtended by a lesion should be considered when determining the revascularization therapy by intravascular ultrasound parameters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive anatomic and functional assessment with dual-source CT and adenosine-induced stress dual-energy CT for detection of significant coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sung Min; Choi, Jin Woo; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Keun

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to prospectively evaluate the incremental diagnostic value of combined dual-source coronary CT angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the detection of significant coronary stenoses. Forty-five patients with known coronary artery disease detected by dual-source coronary CTA were investigated by adenosine-induced stress dual-source CTA and conventional coronary angiography. Analysis was performed in three steps: classification of coronary stenosis severity using dual-source coronary CTA, identification of myocardial perfusion defects using rest and stress CT MPI, and reclassification of coronary stenosis severity according to combined dual-source coronary CTA and CT MPI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of dual-source coronary CTA before and after CT MPI were calculated on a per-vessel basis compared with conventional coronary angiography as the standard of reference. Dual-source coronary CTA revealed 87 significantly stenotic vessels in 45 patients. Conventional coronary angiography revealed significant stenoses in 73 vessels in 42 patients. CT MPI showed myocardial perfusion defects in 81 vessel territories in 43 patients. After the CT MPI analysis, dual-source coronary CTA identified significant stenoses in 77 coronary vessels in 42 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the dual-source coronary CTA on a per-vessel basis before CT MPI were 91.8%, 67.7%, 73.6%, and 87.5%, respectively, and after CT MPI were 93.2%, 85.5%, 88.3%, and 91.4%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased significantly from 0.798 to 0.893 (p = 0.004). Combined dual-source coronary CTA and CT MPI provides incremental diagnostic value compared with dual-source coronary CTA alone for the detection of significant coronary stenoses.

  7. Effects of beta-blockade and atropine on ischemic responses in left ventricular regions subtending coronary stenosis during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Ma, L; de Prada, V A; Chen, M; Feng, Y J; Waters, D; Gillam, L; Chen, C

    1996-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent on the ischemic response to dobutamine stress and to determine the degree to which these effects can be abolished by the addition of atropine. Whether beta-blockade affects the sensitivity of dobutamine stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease has been controversial. In nine pigs, a left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis was created to reduce flow reserve (maximal/rest flow) to 1.1 to 1.9 without baseline regional wall motion abnormalities. This corresponded to a 50% to 90% diameter stenosis. Wall thickening was measured using epicardial echocardiography. Regional lactate production and coronary venous pH were monitored from an adjacent cardiac vein. A standard protocol of dobutamine stress echocardiography was first performed. After normalization of the ischemic abnormalities elicited with this infusion, esmolol was infused at 50 micrograms/kg body weight per min and the dobutamine test was repeated, with 1.0 mg of atropine added at the maximal dobutamine dose. Without esmolol, dobutamine stress induced myocardial ischemia with a reduction in regional wall thickening and lactate production in all nine pigs. Multiple regression analysis revealed that coronary flow per heartbeat (p rate and regional oxygen consumption and altered the relation between coronary flow per heartbeat and regional wall thickening (p heartbeat was demonstrated during baseline dobutamine stress. Beta-blockade shifted this relation so that dobutamine stress-induced myocardial ischemia was attenuated. The mechanisms by which beta-blockade prevents dobutamine-induced ischemia appeared to be mainly through decreases in heart rate and rate of rise in left ventricular pressure, improvement of regional coronary flow per heartbeat and attenuation of regional ischemic lactate production. Adding atropine in conventional doses enhanced the ability of dobutamine stress to induce

  8. [Analysis of the prevalence and risk factors of preoperative angiography confirmed coronary artery stenosis in patients with degenerative valvular heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z J; Pan, J; Zhou, Q; Wang, D J

    2017-10-24

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and the risk factors of preoperative coronary angiography (CAG) confirmed coronary stenosis in patients with degenerative valvular heart disease. Methods: A total of 491 patients who underwent screening CAG before valvular surgery due to degenerative valvular heart disease were enrolled from January 2011 to September 2014 in our hospital, and clinical data were analyzed. According to CAG results, patients were divided into positive CAG result (PCAG) group or negative CAG (NCAG) group. Positive CAG result was defined as stenosis ≥50% of the diameter of the left main coronary artery or stenosis ≥70% of the diameter of left anterior descending, left circumflex artery, and right coronary artery.Risk factors of positive CAG result were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression analysis, and Bootstrap method was used to verify the results. Results: There were 47(9.57%)degenerative valvular heart disease patients with PCAG. Patients were older ((68.0±7.6)years vs.(62.6±7.1)years, P disease patients. Bootstrap method revealed satisfactory repeatability of multivariable logistic regression analysis results (age: OR =1.118, 95% CI 1.068-1.178, P =0.001; typical angina: OR =8.970, 95% CI 2.338-35.891, P =0.001; serum concentration of apolipoprotein B: OR =20.311, 95% CI 4.639-91.977, P =0.001). Conclusions: A low prevalence of PCAG before valvular surgery is observed in degenerative valvular heart disease patients in this patient cohort. Age, typical angina, and serum concentration of apolipoprotein B are independent risk factors of PCAG in this patient cohort.

  9. Features of electrocardiogram in patients with stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Moo Seong; Lee, Jae Hoon; Jeong, Jin Woo; Chung, Jun Young

    2017-03-01

    Prediction of lesions of the proximal right coronary artery (pRCA) through electrocardiogram (ECG) is very important because pRCA occlusion has many complications and a high mortality rate, which has frequently been related with right ventricular infarction. The purpose of this study was to devise a screening tool that takes into account multiple leads from a 12-lead ECG to predict the pRCA lesion. A hundred and fifty-eight patients who were diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and had a pure lesion of RCA or left circumf lex artery (LCX) by ECGs and angiographic findings were enrolled retrospectively. Forty-eight patients with a pure pRCA occlusion were compared to a control group of 110 patients who were diagnosed as having either a pure mid to distal RCA lesion (57 patients) or a pure LCX lesion (53 patients). ECGs of patients in the pRCA group showed more prominent ST depression in lead I ( p = 0.001) and ST elevation in V1 ( p = 0.002) than in the control group. The combination of ST depression (≤ 0 mm) in I and ST elevation (> 0.5 mm) in V1 was the best diagnostic tool (area under the curve, 0.84). ST changes in leads V1 and I allow more accurate prediction of pRCA occlusion than other criteria, such as the difference between ST elevation of leads II and III or vector direction and amplitude. These variables could help to screen for right ventricular infarction before performing reverse ECG and predicting prognosis.

  10. Detection of coronary artery stenosis with sub-milliSievert radiation dose by prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral CT angiography and iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei-Hua; Lu, Bin; Hou, Zhi-Hui; Li, Nan; Han, Lei; Wu, Yong-Jian; Niu, Hong-Xia; Silverman, Justin R; Nicola De Cecco, Carlo; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sub-milliSievert (mSv) coronary CT angiography (cCTA) using prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral CT acquisition combined with iterative image reconstruction. Forty consecutive patients (52.9 ± 8.7 years; 30 men) underwent dual-source cCTA using prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition. The tube current-time product was set to 50 % of standard-of-care CT examinations. Images were reconstructed with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction. Image quality was scored and diagnostic performance for detection of ≥50 % stenosis was determined with catheter coronary angiography (CCA) as the reference standard. CT was successfully performed in all 40 patients. Of the 601 assessable coronary segments, 543 (90.3 %) had diagnostic image quality. Per-patient sensitivity for detection of ≥50 % stenosis was 95.7 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 76.0-99.8 %] and specificity was 94.1 % (95 % CI, 69.2-99.7 %). Per-vessel sensitivity was 89.5 % (95 % CI, 77.8-95.6 %) with 93.2 % specificity (95 % CI, 86.0-97.0 %). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve on per-patient and per-vessel levels was 0.949 and 0.913. Mean effective dose was 0.58 ± 0.17 mSv. Mean size-specific dose estimate was 3.14 ± 1.15 mGy. High-pitch prospectively ECG-triggered cCTA combined with iterative image reconstruction provides high diagnostic accuracy with a radiation dose below 1 mSv for detection of coronary artery stenosis. • Cardiac CT with sub-milliSievert radiation dose is feasible in many patients • High-pitch spiral CT acquisition with iterative reconstruction detects coronary stenosis accurately. • Iterative reconstruction increases who can benefit from low-radiation cardiac CT.

  11. Parental consanguinity and family history of coronary artery disease strongly predict early stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youhanna, Sonia; Platt, Daniel E; Rebeiz, Abdallah; Lauridsen, Michael; Deeb, Mary E; Nasrallah, Antoine; Alam, Samir; Puzantian, Houry; Kabbani, Samer; Ghoul, Melanie; Zreik, Tony G; el Bayeh, Hamid; Abchee, Antoine; Zalloua, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease with acquired and inherited components. We investigated the roles of family history and consanguinity on CAD risk and age at diagnosis in 4284 patients. The compounded impact of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, and BMI, which are known CAD risk factors, on CAD risk and age at diagnosis was also explored. CAD was determined by cardiac catheterization. Logistic regression and stratification were performed to determine the impact of family history and consanguinity on risk and onset of CAD, controlling for diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, and BMI. Family history of CAD and gender significantly increased the risk for young age at diagnosis of CAD (pConsanguinity did not promote risk of CAD (p=0.38), but did affect age of disease diagnosis (pconsanguinity were considered as unique risk factors for CAD, compared to 62.8 years for the no-risk-factor patient category (pconsanguinity in the presence of family history lowers the age of disease diagnosis significantly for CAD, emphasizing the role of strong genetic and cultural CAD modifiers. These findings highlight the increased role of genetic determinants of CAD in some population subgroups, and suggest that populations and family structure influence genetic heterogeneity between patients with CAD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of coronary artery disease using coronary computed tomography angiography in patients with aortic valve stenosis referred for surgical aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Kofoed, K Fuglsang; Dalsgaard, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) a pre-surgical assessment of coronary artery disease is mandatory to determine the possible need for additional coronary artery bypass grafting. The diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) w...... with low age, no chronic obstructive lung disease, NYHA function class...

  13. Chronotropic response to vasodilator-stress in patients submitted to myocardial perfusion imaging: impact on the accuracy in detecting coronary stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Coceani, Michele; Quaranta, Angela; Emdin, Michele [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Liga, Riccardo [University Hospital of Pisa, Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Department, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); CNR, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    A lower heart rate response (HRR) during vasodilator MPI has been shown to have a relevant adverse prognostic impact. We sought to evaluate the interaction among individual HRR to vasodilator stress and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accuracy in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease (IHD). One hundred and sixty-five consecutive patients were submitted to vasodilator-stress MPI on a cardiac camera equipped with cadmium-zinc-thelluride detectors and coronary angiography. A coronary stenosis >70 % was considered significant. In every patient, the summed difference score (SDS) was computed from MPI images. Patients were categorized according to the tertiles of the distribution of individual HRR during dipyridamole: ''Group 1'' (HRR < 8 bpm; lowest tertile); ''Group 2'' (8 ≤ HRR ≤ 12 bpm; middle tertile); ''Group 3'' (HRR >12 bpm; highest tertile). Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was present in 102 (62 %) patients. In the overall population, MPI showed a significant accuracy (AUC: 0.81, 95 % CI 0.74-0.86; p < 0.001) in unmasking the presence of significant coronary stenosis. Interestingly, in patients with a blunted HRR during dipyridamole (''Group 1'') MPI showed a significantly lower sensitivity (68 %) in detecting CAD than in those with a higher HRR (''Group 3'') (91 %, p = 0.007), despite a preserved specificity (76 % vs 77 %, P=NS). Similarly, the correlation among CAD extent and post-stress LV functional stunning was limited to ''Group 3'' patients, while it disappeared in those with blunted HRR. In patients with suspected IHD, MPI sensitivity is strongly influenced by the magnitude of patient heart rate increase to the pharmacologic stressor, suggesting an interaction among blunted HRR and lower accuracy in unmasking CAD. (orig.)

  14. Text mining applied to electronic cardiovascular procedure reports to identify patients with trileaflet aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Aeron M; Kiss, Daniel H; Zlatsin, Yevgeny; Birtwell, David L; Williams, Heather; Guerraty, Marie A; Han, Yuchi; Anwaruddin, Saif; Holmes, John H; Chirinos, Julio A; Wilensky, Robert L; Giri, Jay; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Interrogation of the electronic health record (EHR) using billing codes as a surrogate for diagnoses of interest has been widely used for clinical research. However, the accuracy of this methodology is variable, as it reflects billing codes rather than severity of disease, and depends on the disease and the accuracy of the coding practitioner. Systematic application of text mining to the EHR has had variable success for the detection of cardiovascular phenotypes. We hypothesize that the application of text mining algorithms to cardiovascular procedure reports may be a superior method to identify patients with cardiovascular conditions of interest. We adapted the Oracle product Endeca, which utilizes text mining to identify terms of interest from a NoSQL-like database, for purposes of searching cardiovascular procedure reports and termed the tool "PennSeek". We imported 282,569 echocardiography reports representing 81,164 individuals and 27,205 cardiac catheterization reports representing 14,567 individuals from non-searchable databases into PennSeek. We then applied clinical criteria to these reports in PennSeek to identify patients with trileaflet aortic stenosis (TAS) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Accuracy of patient identification by text mining through PennSeek was compared with ICD-9 billing codes. Text mining identified 7115 patients with TAS and 9247 patients with CAD. ICD-9 codes identified 8272 patients with TAS and 6913 patients with CAD. 4346 patients with AS and 6024 patients with CAD were identified by both approaches. A randomly selected sample of 200-250 patients uniquely identified by text mining was compared with 200-250 patients uniquely identified by billing codes for both diseases. We demonstrate that text mining was superior, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.95 compared to 0.53 by ICD-9 for TAS, and a PPV of 0.97 compared to 0.86 for CAD. These results highlight the superiority of text mining algorithms applied to electronic

  15. A new method of detecting subendocardial ischemia in patients with aortic valvular stenosis without coronary artery disease using thallium-201 single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umamoto, Ikuo; Sugihara, Hiroki; Harada, Yoshiaki (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect myocardial ischemia in aortic valvular stenosis (AVS) without coronary artery disease by using exercise Tl-201 SPECT. The subjects were 18 AVS patients. Twenty other patients were served as controls. Transient 'left ventricular subendocardial dilation and decreased wall thickness', obtained on early SPECT images, were quantitatively determined by transient dilation index (TDI). Washout rates (WR) were calculated from overlapping early and delayed images to obtain WR map. According to TDI, 18 AVS patients were classified as having TDI[<=]1.11 (Group A, n=9) and TDI>1.11 (Group B, n=9). WR map in Group B presented the direction from the pericardial toward the endocardial side, revealing a pattern of decreased WR and a decreased coronary flow reserve on the endocardial side. Both pressure gradient between the aorta and left ventricle and left ventricular wall thickness were significantly greater in Group B than Group A. In 3 patients in Group B, TDI returned to normal and WR map became homogeneous after aortic valve replacement. In addition, fibrosis was noted in the endocardial site on biopsy. In AVS associated with great pressure gradient, endocardial ischemia may occur on exercise, resulting from a decreased coronary flow reserve, and a decreased compliance due to fibrosis and hypertrophy. Exercise Tl-201 myocardial SPECT is capable of detecting distribution patterns of subendocardial ischemia and coronary flow reserve in AVS. (N.K.).

  16. Effect of guidewire on contribution of loss due to momentum change and viscous loss to the translesional pressure drop across coronary artery stenosis: An analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back Lloyd H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidewire (GW size and stenosis dimensions are the two major factors affecting the translesional pressure drop. Studying the combined effect of these parameters on the mean pressure drop (Δp across the stenosis is of high practical importance. Methods In this study, time averaged mass and momentum conservation equations are solved analytically to obtain pressure drop-flow, Δp-Q, curves for three different percentage area blockages corresponding to moderate (64%, intermediate (80%, and severe (90% stenoses. Stenosis is considered to be axisymmetric consisting of three different sections namely converging, throat, and diverging regions. Analytical expressions for pressure drop are obtained for each of these regions separately. Using this approach, effects of lesion length and GW insertion on the mean translesional pressure drop and its component (loss due to momentum change and viscous loss are analyzed. Results and Conclusion It is observed that for a given percent area stenosis (AS, increase in the throat length only increases the viscous loss. However, increase in the severity of stenosis and GW insertion increase both loss due to momentum change and viscous loss. GW insertion has greater contribution to the rise in viscous loss (increase by 2.14 and 2.72 times for 64% and 90% AS, respectively than loss due to momentum change (1.34% increase for 64% AS and 25% decrease for 90% AS. It also alters the hyperemic pressure drop in moderate (48% increase to intermediate (30% increase stenoses significantly. However, in severe stenoses GW insertion has a negligible effect (0.5% increase on hyperemic translesional pressure drop. It is also observed that pressure drop in a severe stenosis is less sensitive to lesion length variation (4% and 14% increase in Δp for without and with GW, respectively as compared to intermediate (10% and 30% increase in Δp for without and with GW, respectively and moderate stenoses (22% and 48

  17. Rubidium-82 PET-CT for quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow: validation in a canine model of coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Higuchi, Takahiro; Merrill, Jennifer; Voicu, Corina; Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); George, Richard T.; Kitagawa, Kakuya; DiPaula, Anthony; Lima, Joao A.C. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nekolla, Stephan G. [Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Lardo, Albert C. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow expands the diagnostic potential of PET for assessment of coronary artery disease. {sup 82}Rb has significantly contributed to increasing utilization of PET; however, clinical studies are still mostly analysed qualitatively. The aim of this study was to reevaluate the feasibility of {sup 82}Rb for flow quantification, using hybrid PET-CT in an animal model of coronary stenosis. Nine dogs were prepared with experimental coronary artery stenosis. Dynamic PET was performed for 8 min after {sup 82}Rb(1480-1850 MBq) injection during adenosine-induced vasodilation. Microspheres were injected simultaneously for reference flow measurements. CT angiography was used to determine the myocardial regions related to the stenotic vessel. Two methods for flow calculation were employed: a two-compartment model including a spill-over term, and a simplified retention index. The two-compartment model data were in good agreement with microsphere flow (y=0.84x+0.20; r=0.92, p<0.0001), although there was variability in the physiological flow range <3 ml/g per minute (y=0.54x+0.53; r=0.53, p=0.042). Results from the retention index also correlated well with microsphere flow (y=0.47x+0.52; r=0.75, p=0.0004). Error increased with higher flow, but the correlation was good in the physiological range (y=0.62x+0.29; r=0.84, p=0.0001). Using current state-of-the-art PET-CT systems, quantification of myocardial blood flow is feasible with {sup 82}Rb. A simplified approach based on tracer retention is practicable in the physiological flow range. These results encourage further testing of the robustness and usefulness in the clinical context of cardiac hybrid imaging. (orig.)

  18. Effects of combination lipid therapy on coronary stenosis progression and clinical cardiovascular events in coronary disease patients with metabolic syndrome: a combined analysis of the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), and the Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Krasuski, Richard A; Baer, Jefferson; Whitney, Edwin J; Neradilek, Blazej; Chait, Alan; Marcovina, Santica; Albers, John J; Brown, B Greg

    2009-12-01

    We examined the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronary stenosis progression and major cardiovascular (CV) events and investigated the mitigating effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering and LDL cholesterol lowering plus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increasing. This analysis combined individual patient data from 445 subjects who participated in 3 double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (FATS, HATS, and AFREGS) comparing intensive lipid therapy to placebos on coronary stenosis progression by quantitative coronary angiography and on major CV events. The primary end points were change in mean proximal coronary diameter stenosis (Delta%S(prox)) over 3 years and the frequency of the predefined composite of coronary artery disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization due to worsening ischemia. Patients with MS had 50% more rapid coronary stenosis progression and 64% increased CV event frequency compared to those without. More rapid coronary stenosis progression was significantly and independently associated with a 3.5-fold increased event risk (p <0.001). Combination lipid therapy significantly decreased stenosis progression by 83% (Delta%S(prox) 0.5 vs 2.9, p <0.001) in patients with MS and induced a small net regression in those without (Delta%S(prox) -0.3 vs 2.0, p <0.001). Combination therapy decreased the event rate by 54% (13% vs 28%, p = 0.03) in those with MS and by 82% (3% vs 17%, p = 0.002) without. On average, each 10% decrease in LDL cholesterol or 10% increase in HDL cholesterol was significantly associated with a 0.3 Delta%S(prox) decrease. Each 10% decrease in LDL cholesterol or 10% increase in HDL cholesterol was associated with 11% (p = 0.02) or 22% (p <0.001) event risk decrease. In conclusion, patients with MS have significantly more rapid coronary stenosis progression and a higher frequency of CV events. Greater stenosis progression rate is associated with a higher

  19. Stenosis differentially affects subendocardial and subepicardial arterioles in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, D.; Vergroesen, I.; Hiramatsu, O.; Tachibana, H.; Nakamoto, H.; Toyota, E.; Goto, M.; Ogasawara, Y.; Spaan, J. A.; Kajiya, F.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a coronary stenosis results primarily in subendocardial ischemia. Apart from the decrease in coronary perfusion pressure, a stenosis also decreases coronary flow pulsations. Applying a coronary perfusion system, we compared the autoregulatory response of subendocardial (n = 10) and

  20. Meatal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urethral meatal stenosis ... Meatal stenosis can affect both males and females. It is more common in males. In males, it is often ... in the urethra may also lead to meatal stenosis. In females, this condition is present at birth ( ...

  1. Reduction of late in-stent stenosis in a porcine coronary artery model by cobalt chromium stents with a nanocoat of polyphosphazene (Polyzene-F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfl, Ulrike; Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Thierjung, Heidi; Stampfl, Sibylle; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Radeleff, Boris; Berger, Irina; Richter, Goetz M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of nanoscale coating with the highly biocompatible polymer Polyzene-F (PZF), in combination with cobalt chromium and stainless steel stents, to reduce in-stent stenosis, thrombogenicity, and vessel wall injury and inflammation. One bare cobalt chromium, PZF-nanocoated stainless steel or PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stent was implanted in right coronary artery of 30 mini-pigs (4- or 12-week follow-up). Primary study end points were in-stent stenosis and thrombogenicity. Secondary study end points were vessel wall injury and inflammation as evaluated by microscopy and a new immunoreactivity score applying C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and TGFbeta. At 12 weeks, angiography showed a significantly lower average loss in lumen diameter (2.1% +/- 3.05%) in PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stents compared with stents in the other groups (9.73% +/- 4.93% for bare cobalt chromium stents and 9.71% +/- 7% for PZF-nanocoated stainless steel stents; p = 0.04), which was confirmed at microscopy (neointima 40.7 +/- 16 lm in PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stents, 74.7 +/- 57.6 lm in bare cobalt chromium stents, and 141.5 +/- 109 lm in PZF-nanocoated stainless steel stents; p = 0.04). Injury and inflammation scores were low in all stents and were without significant differences. PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stents provided the highest efficacy in reducing in-stent stenosis at long-term follow-up. The PZF nanocoat proved to be biocompatible with respect to thromboresistance and inflammation. Our data suggest that its combination with cobalt chromium stents might provide an interesting passive stent platform.

  2. Impaired subendocardial wall thickening and post-systolic shortening are signs of critical myocardial ischemia in patients with flow-limiting coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomoko; Seo, Yoshihiro; Baba, Masako; Machino, Tomoko; Higuchi, Haruhiko; Shiotsuka, Junji; Noguchi, Yuichi; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2011-01-01

    The early diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is still challenging. The aim of the present study was to determine whether subendocardial hypokinesis and post-systolic contraction could be early markers of myocardial ischemia. Thirty-one consecutive patients with flow-limiting severe coronary stenosis but without visually abnormal left ventricular wall motion underwent quantitative echocardiography. Myocardial strain was measured using layer-by-layer analysis in severely hypoperfused segments. Radial strain (RS) was measured in the subendocardial, subepicardial, and total wall (innerRS, outerRS, and totalRS, respectively). Circumferential strain (CS) was also measured as 3 separate layers: subendocardial, mid-layer, and subepicardial layers (innerCS, midCS, and outerCS, respectively). Post-systolic shortening (PSS) was defined as the peak strain after end systole, and post-systolic strain index (PSI) was calculated as PSS divided by end-systolic strain. TotalRS was similar between ischemic and normally perfused segments, but innerRS and inner/outer RS ratio were significantly smaller in the ischemic segments than in corresponding segments in healthy subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified an optimum cut-off for PSI of 0.6. The combined criteria of inner/outer RS ratio 0.6 achieved 95% specificity for the presence of flow-limiting stenosis. Combined assessment of both subendocardial contractile impairment and PSS is very useful in identifying a severely hypoperfused left ventricular wall even without visual wall motion abnormality.

  3. Impact of hyperaemic microvascular resistance on fractional flow reserve measurements in patients with stable coronary artery disease: insights from combined stenosis and microvascular resistance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Nolte, Froukje; EchavarrÍa-Pinto, Mauro; van Lavieren, Martijn A; Damman, Peter; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Voskuil, Michiel; Verberne, Hein J; Henriques, José P S; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; Koch, Karel T; de Winter, Robbert J; Spaan, Jos A E; Siebes, Maria; Tijssen, Jan G P; Meuwissen, Martijn; Piek, Jan J

    2014-06-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) aims to identify the extent of epicardial disease, but may be obscured by involvement of the coronary microvasculature. We documented the impact of hyperaemic stenosis resistance (HSR) and hyperaemic microvascular resistance (HMR) on FFR, and its relationship with myocardial ischaemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. We evaluated 255 coronary arteries with stenoses of intermediate severity by means of intracoronary pressure and flow measurements to determine FFR, HSR and HMR. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) was performed to identify inducible myocardial ischaemia. In 178 patients, HMR was additionally determined in a reference coronary artery. Target vessel HMR was stratified according to reference vessel HMR tertiles. The diagnostic OR for inducible ischaemia on MPS of a positive compared with a negative FFR was significantly higher only in the presence of a high HMR (at the 0.75 and 0.80 FFR cut-off). Among stenoses with a positive FFR, the prevalence of ischaemia was significantly higher when HMR was high despite equivalent FFR across the HMR groups. This was paralleled by a concomitant significant increase in HSR with increasing HMR across groups. The relation between FFR and HSR (r(2)=0.54, pdisease of equivalent severity, FFR increased with increasing HMR. Identification of epicardial disease severity by FFR is partly obscured by the microvascular resistance, which illustrates the necessity of combined pressure and flow measurements in daily practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Impaired Health Status, Psychological Distress, and Personality in Women and Men With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease: Sex and Gender Differences: The TWIST (Tweesteden Mild Stenosis) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Arts, Lindy; Zijlstra, Wobbe; Widdershoven, Jos W; Aarnoudse, Wilbert; Denollet, Johan

    2017-02-01

    Patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD; wall irregularities, stenosis personality between patients with NOCAD and the general population, as well as S&G differences within the NOCAD population. In total, 523 patients with NOCAD (61±9 years, 52% women) were included via coronary angiography and computed tomography as part of the TWIST (Tweesteden Mild Stenosis) study. Generic health status (12-item Short Form physical and mental scales and fatigue), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depressive symptoms and Global Mood Scale negative and positive affect), and personality (Type D personality) were compared between patients with NOCAD and an age- and sex-matched group of 1347 people from the general population. Frequency matching was performed to obtain a similar sex distribution in each age-decile group. Both men and women with NOCAD reported impaired health status, more psychological distress, and Type D personality compared with men and women in the reference group. Women reported more psychosocial distress compared with men, but no significant sex-by-group interaction effects were observed. Women with NOCAD reported impaired health status, more anxiety, and less positive affect, but no differences in depressive symptoms, angina, or Type D personality when compared with men with NOCAD. Age, education, employment, partner, and alcohol use explained these S&G differences within the NOCAD group. In both men and women, NOCAD was associated with impaired health status, more psychological distress, and Type D personality when compared with a reference population. Factors reflecting S&G differences explained these S&G findings in patient-reported outcomes. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01788241. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Aortic valve replacement with the freestyle stentless bioprosthesis with respect to spacial orientation of patient coronary ostia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalangos, A; Trigo-Trindade, P; Vala, D; Panos, A; Faidutti, B

    2000-06-01

    This study evaluates our results for safety and efficacy of aortic valve replacement using the Freestyle bioprosthesis (Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) with a new modified subcoronary implantation technique. This technique takes into account the spacial orientation of the stentless bioprosthesis in the aortic root with respect to the patient's coronary ostia rather than the native commissures. Fifty-two consecutive patients with predominant aortic valve stenosis underwent aortic valve replacement with a Freestyle bioprosthesis by means of the described modified subcoronary technique over a 15-month period. Fifty of them were followed up by means of echocardiography at discharge, 6 months, and 1 year. There were 19 men and 31 women, with a mean age of 76 +/- 7 years (range, 58-87 years). Valve size ranged from 21 to 27 mm. Patients with bicuspid aortic valves had a significantly larger angle between both coronary ostia than patients with tricuspid aortic valves (P =.0001). The peak and mean systolic gradients decreased significantly during the first postoperative year for each valve size (P spacial orientation of the patient's coronary ostia, has hemodynamic results similar to those of other series with different subcoronary implantation techniques. This technique is reproducible, safe at the coronary ostial level, and effective in accommodating variability in angles between human coronary ostia, ranging from 130 degrees to 170 degrees. Moreover, the great preoperative discrepancies between aortic anulus and sinotubular junction diameters are corrected immediately after operation.

  6. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Miraldi, Fabio; Frati, Giacomo; Macrina, Francesco; Toscano, Michele

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >70% receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). From January 2004 to December 2009, 185 patients with unilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis >70%, candidates for CABG, were randomized into two groups. In group A, 94 patients received a CABG with previous or simultaneous CEA. In group B, 91 patients underwent CABG, followed by CEA. All patients underwent preoperative helical computed tomography scans, excluding significant atheroma of the ascending aorta or aortic arch. Baseline characteristics of the patients, type of coronary artery lesion, and preoperative myocardial function were comparable in the two groups. In group A, all patients underwent CEA under general anesthesia with the systematic use of a carotid shunt, and 79 patients had a combined procedure and 15 underwent CEA a few days before CABG. In group B, all patients underwent CEA, 1 to 3 months after CABG, also under general anesthesia and with systematic carotid shunting. Two patients (one in each group) died of cardiac failure in the postoperative period. Operative mortality was 1.0% in group A and 1.1% in group B (P = .98). No strokes occurred in group A vs seven ipsilateral ischemic strokes in group B, including three immediate postoperative strokes and four late strokes, at 39, 50, 58, and 66 days, after CABG. These late strokes occurred in patients for whom CEA was further delayed due to an incomplete sternal wound healing or because of completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program. The 90-day stroke and death rate was 1.0% (one of 94) in group A and 8.8% (eight of 91) in group B (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.91; P = .02). Logistic regression analysis showed that only delayed CEA (OR, 14.2; 95% CI, 1.32-152.0; P = .03) and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .004) reliably predicted

  7. Everolimus-eluting stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis. The PRECOMBAT-2 (Premier of Randomized Comparison of Bypass Surgery versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hak; Park, Duk-Woo; Ahn, Jung-Min; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Song, Hae Geun; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Won-Jang; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Jang, Yangsoo; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Hur, Seung-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Lim, Do-Sun; Her, Sung-Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Seong, In-Whan; Park, Seung-Jung

    2012-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) for patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis. The clinical benefit of second-generation DES for ULMCA stenosis has not been determined. The authors assessed 334 consecutive patients who received everolimus-eluting stents (EES) for ULMCA stenosis between 2009 and 2010. The 18-month incidence rates of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (TVR), were compared with those of a randomized study comparing patients who received sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) (n = 327) or coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) (n = 272). EES (8.9%) showed a comparable incidence of MACCE as SES (10.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] of EES: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51 to 1.40; p = 0.51) and CABG (6.7%, aHR of EES: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.54; p = 0.26). The composite incidence of death, MI, or stroke also did not differ among patients receiving EES (3.3%), SES (3.7%; aHR of EES: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.27 to 1.47; p = 0.29), and CABG (4.8%; aHR of EES: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.54; p = 0.34). However, the incidence of ischemia-driven TVR in the EES group (6.5%) was higher than in the CABG group (2.6%, aHR of EES: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.17 to 6.58; p = 0.02), but comparable to SES (8.2%, aHR of EES: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.64 to 2.06; p = 0.65). Angiographic restenosis rates were similar in the SES and EES groups (13.8% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.16). Second-generation EES had a similar 18-month risk of MACCE for ULMCA stenosis as first-generation SES or CABG. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower rate of invasive revascularisation in acute coronary syndrome patients with significant stenosis on coronary angiography when angiography is performed on a diagnostics only hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    Purpose We studied the population of all acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients examined with coronary angiography (CAG) in order to evaluate differences in invasive revascularisation rate. Denmark (population 5.5 million) has a universal health insurance coverage system and uniform national...... guidelines for the treatment of ACS. There are 5 tertiary invasive centres performing CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 8 hospitals with diagnostic units performing CAG only, and a further 36 hospitals without these facilities receiving patients...... with ACS. We investigated if there was a difference in revascularisation after CAG following admission with ACS, depending on distance between place of residence and invasive centre. Methods All patients hospitalised with a first ACS from January 2005 to December 2007 were identified in the National...

  9. Single-vessel coronary artery stenosis: myocardial perfusion imaging with Gadomer-17 first-pass MR imaging in a swine model of comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard L; Bluemke, David A; Chin, Bennett B; Boston, Raymond C; Heldman, Alan W; Lima, João A C; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the ability of Gadomer-17 to depict perfusion defects in a closed-chest swine model of single-vessel coronary artery disease. Twelve pigs underwent closed-chest placement of a flow reducer for 70%-90% luminal stenosis in the proximal left anterior coronary artery. Magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging with Gadomer-17 and gadopentetate dimeglumine, microsphere blood flow (MBF) testing, and technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) 2 methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed during dipyridamole vasodilation. Comparisons of percentage signal intensity (SI) increase (PSIC) in remote and ischemic myocardium were made with repeated measurements analysis of variance after injection of both tracers. Perfusion defects and reduced PSIC in the anterior ischemic versus the inferior remote myocardium could be identified after injection of both Gadomer-17 (PSIC, 66% +/- 30 [mean +/- SD] vs 100% +/- 32, respectively; P gadopentetate dimeglumine (PSIC, 49% +/- 31 vs 81% +/- 43, respectively; P gadopentetate dimeglumine) and with areas of reduced MBF (r = 0.70, P gadopentetate dimeglumine). PSIC also correlated with MBF (r = 0.89, P gadopentetate dimeglumine). Gadomer-17 allowed differentiation of ischemic from nonischemic myocardium, as demonstrated by reduced PSIC (PSIC, 48% +/- 38 vs 72% +/- 31, respectively; P gadopentetate dimeglumine (PSIC, 36% +/- 24 vs 56% +/- 27, respectively; P gadopentetate dimeglumine.

  10. Tomografía computarizada con multidetectores en el diagnóstico de la estenosis coronaria Computed tomography with multidetectors in the diagnosis of coronary stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Lombo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La angiografía coronaria que emplea tomografía multidetector, es una técnica no invasiva para la detección de estenosis coronaria, que ha tenido avances tecnológicos significativos en los últimos años. La introducción de tomógrafos de 16 y 64 detectores, la posibilidad de poder sincronizar la toma de imágenes con el electrocardiograma y las técnicas de reconstrucción permiten una mejor resolución temporal y espacial que logra la identificación de placas ateromatosas y lesiones obstructivas significativas a nivel de las arterias coronarias. En los próximos años continuará su maduración y se convertirá en una herramienta útil como técnica no invasiva para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad coronaria y se integrará de forma definitiva a los protocolos de manejo. La siguiente revisión se enfocará en los aspectos básicos de la tomografía, su técnica, su desempeño diagnóstico y sus aplicaciones clínicas.Coronary angiography that uses multislice spiral computed tomography is a noninvasive technique for the detection of coronary stenosis that has had significant improvements in recent years. The introduction of 16 and 64 row scanners, the development of synchronized scanning electrocardiogram and better reconstruction techniques permit higher spatial and temporal resolution that allows better identification of coronary plaques and significant obstructive coronary lesions. In the next years Multislice spiral computed tomography will continue maturing and it will become a useful non invasive diagnostic imaging tool for the diagnosis of coronary disease and will be integrated to the cardiologic management protocols. Our next review will be focused on the basic and technical aspects of the scanner, diagnostic performance and clinical applications of this new technology.

  11. Head-to-head comparison of dipyridamole, dobutamine and pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia in an animal model of coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available To compare the sensitivity of dipyridamole, dobutamine and pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia we produced a physiologically significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery of 14 open-chest dogs (range: 50 to 89% reduction in luminal diameter. In each study, dobutamine (5 to 40 µg kg-1 min-1 in 3-min stages and pacing (20 bpm increments, each 2 min, up to 260 bpm were performed randomly, and then followed by dipyridamole (up to 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min. The positivity of stress echocardiography tests was quantitatively determined by a significant (P<0.05 reduction of or failure to increase absolute and percent systolic wall thickening in the stenotic artery supplied wall, as compared to the opposite wall (areas related to the left anterior descending artery. Systolic and diastolic frozen images were analyzed off-line by two blinded observers in the control and stress conditions. The results showed that 1 the sensitivity of dobutamine, dipyridamole and pacing stress tests was 57, 57 and 36%, respectively; 2 in animals with positive tests, the mean percent change of wall thickening in left ventricular ischemic segments was larger in the pacing (-19 ± 11% and dipyridamole (-18 ± 16% tests as compared to dobutamine (-9 ± 6% (P = 0.05, but a similar mean reduction of wall thickening was observed when this variable was normalized to a control left ventricular segment (area related to the left anterior descending artery (pacing: -16 ± 7%; dipyridamole: -25 ± 16%; dobutamine: -26 ± 10%; not significant, and 3 a significant correlation was observed between magnitude of coronary stenosis and left ventricular segmental dysfunction induced by ischemia in dogs submitted to positive stress tests. We conclude that the dobutamine and dipyridamole stress tests showed identical sensitivities for the detection of myocardial ischemia in this one-vessel disease animal model with a wide range of left circumflex artery

  12. Spinal Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and allows you to stand and bend. Spinal stenosis causes narrowing in your spine. The narrowing puts ... and spinal cord and can cause pain. Spinal stenosis occurs mostly in people older than 50. Younger ...

  13. Early and long-term results of cardiosurgical treatment of coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis in patients over 80 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budniak, Wiktor; Buczkowski, Piotr; Perek, Bartłomiej; Katyńska, Izabela; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, patients over 80 years of age have been a growing group of individuals referred to cardiac surgeons. They pose a serious challenge and usually require a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and late outcomes of cardiosurgical treatment of patients over 80 years of age suffering from coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis. The study involved 96 patients aged over 80 years treated between January, 2004 and December, 2012. The mortality and morbidity in the early postoperative period, as well as throughout the follow-up period, were analyzed. The majority of patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (58.3%; Group I), while 29.2% of them underwent an isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) (Group II). Combined procedures (CABG + AVR) were carried out in 12.5% of patients (Group III). The mean operational risk calculated according to the logistic EuroSCORE was 11.6%, 11.9%, and 9.5%, respectively in Group I, Group II and in Group III. In the early postoperative period, 4 patients died (all from Group I). The 30-day mortality rate was 4.2% and the morbidity rate was 56.3%. During the post-discharge follow-up period that lasted from 1 to 100 months, 4 patients died (2 from Group I and 2 from Group III). The 2-year probability of survival was 91.9 ± 3.0%. During the last follow-up clinical assessment, half of the patients were asymptomatic. The perioperative mortality of the patients is acceptably and markedly lower than that predicted by the logistic EuroSCORE calculator. However, the complication rate, particularly in the early postoperative period, is relatively high.

  14. Pre-test probability of obstructive coronary stenosis in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography: Comparative performance of the modified diamond-Forrester algorithm versus methods incorporating cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António Miguel; Marques, Hugo; Tralhão, António; Santos, Miguel Borges; Santos, Ana Rita; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Dores, Hélder; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Madeira, Sérgio; Machado, Francisco Pereira; Cardim, Nuno; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of the Modified Diamond-Forrester (MDF) method to assess the pre-test likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to compare the performance of the MDF method with two contemporary algorithms derived from multicenter trials that additionally incorporate cardiovascular risk factors: the calculator-based 'CAD Consortium 2' method, and the integer-based CONFIRM score. We assessed 1069 consecutive patients without known CAD undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for stable chest pain. Obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of coronary stenosis ≥50% on 64-slice dual-source CT. The three methods were assessed for calibration, discrimination, net reclassification, and changes in proposed downstream testing based upon calculated pre-test likelihoods. The observed prevalence of obstructive CAD was 13.8% (n=147). Overestimations of the likelihood of obstructive CAD were 140.1%, 9.8%, and 18.8%, respectively, for the MDF, CAD Consortium 2 and CONFIRM methods. The CAD Consortium 2 showed greater discriminative power than the MDF method, with a C-statistic of 0.73 vs. 0.70 (ppre-test likelihood using the 'CAD Consortium 2' or CONFIRM scores resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 0.19 and 0.18, respectively, which would change the diagnostic strategy in approximately half of the patients. Newer risk factor-encompassing models allow for a more precise estimation of pre-test probabilities of obstructive CAD than the guideline-recommended MDF method. Adoption of these scores may improve disease prediction and change the diagnostic pathway in a significant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recurrence of pulmonary vein conduction and atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial of the ostial versus the extraostial ablation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen

    2006-01-01

    . METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 56 +/- 10; 71 men) with symptomatic AF (paroxysmal, 51; persistent, 49) were randomized to segmental ostial (n = 54) or circumferential extraostial (n = 46) PV isolation. A circular catheter positioned at the ostium of each target PV guided the ostial PV...... who underwent ostial PV isolation (P paroxysmal AF (65% and 46%, respectively; P = .26). CONCLUSIONS: Overall...

  16. Personality subtypes and chest pain in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease from the TweeSteden Mild Stenosis study: mediating effect of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, P M C; Widdershoven, J W; Aarnoudse, W; Denollet, J

    2016-03-01

    Patients presenting with chest pain in nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD, luminal narrowing patients with nonobstructive CAD (mean age 61.4 years, SD = 9.4; 48% men), who participate in the TweeSteden Mild Stenosis (TWIST) observational cohort. Personality was categorized into a 'reference group', a high social inhibition ('SI only'), a high negative affectivity ('NA only') and a 'Type D' (NA and SI) group. Negative mood states included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and cognitive and somatic depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The PROCESS macro was used to examine the relation between personality subtypes and chest pain presence, with the negative mood states as potential mediators. Persistent chest pain was present in 44% of the patients with nonobstructive CAD. Type D personality (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.24-2.95), but not the 'NA only' (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.89-2.44) or the 'SI only' (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.53-1.64) group was associated with chest pain, adjusted for age and sex. Negative mood states mediated the association between personality and chest pain. Type D personality, but not negative affectivity or social inhibition, was related to chest pain in nonobstructive CAD, which was mediated by negative mood states. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Randomized Comparison of Ridaforolimus- and Zotarolimus-Eluting Coronary Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Primary Results From the BIONICS Trial (BioNIR Ridaforolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in Coronary Stenosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandzari, David E; Smits, Pieter C; Love, Michael P; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Banai, Shmuel; Robinson, Simon D; Jonas, Michael; Kornowski, Ran; Bagur, Rodrigo; Iniguez, Andres; Danenberg, Haim; Feldman, Robert; Jauhar, Rajiv; Chandna, Harish; Parikh, Manish; Perlman, Gidon Y; Balcells, Mercedes; Markham, Peter; Ozan, Melek Ozgu; Genereux, Philippe; Edelman, Elazer R; Leon, Martin B; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-10-03

    The safety and efficacy of a novel cobalt alloy-based coronary stent with a durable elastomeric polymer eluting the antiproliferative agent ridaforolimus for treatment of patients with coronary artery disease is undetermined. A prospective, international 1:1 randomized trial was conducted to evaluate in a noninferiority design the relative safety and efficacy of ridaforolimus-eluting stents (RESs) and slow-release zotarolimus-eluting stents among 1919 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at 76 centers. Inclusion criteria allowed enrollment of patients with recent myocardial infarction, total occlusions, bifurcations lesions, and other complex conditions. Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics were similar between the groups. Overall, mean age was 63.4 years, 32.5% had diabetes mellitus, and 39.7% presented with acute coronary syndromes. At 12 months, the primary end point of target lesion failure (composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization) was 5.4% for both devices (upper bound of 1-sided 95% confidence interval 1.8%, Pnoninferiority=0.001). Definite/probable stent thrombosis rates were low in both groups (0.4% RES versus 0.6% zotarolimus-eluting stent, P=0.75); 13-month angiographic in-stent late lumen loss was 0.22±0.41 mm and 0.23±0.39 mm (Pnoninferiority=0.004) for the RES and zotarolimus-eluting stent groups, respectively, and intravascular ultrasound percent neointimal hyperplasia was 8.10±5.81 and 8.85±7.77, respectively (Pnoninferiority=0.01). In the present trial, which allowed broad inclusion criteria, the novel RESs met the prespecified criteria for noninferiority compared with zotarolimus-eluting stents for the primary end point of target lesion failure at 12 months and had similar measures of late lumen loss. These findings support the safety and efficacy of RESs in patients who are representative of clinical practice. URL: http

  18. Discrepant findings of computed tomography quantification of minimal lumen area of coronary artery stenosis: Correlation with intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuehua, E-mail: andrewradiologist@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai No. 6 People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 600, Yishan Rd, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhang, Jiayin, E-mail: andrewssmu@msn.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai No. 6 People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 600, Yishan Rd, Shanghai 200233 (China); Lu, Zhigang, E-mail: andrewradiologist@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai No. 6 People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University (China); Pan, Jingwei, E-mail: andrewssmu@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai No. 6 People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To study the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) quantification of minimal lumen area (MLA) based on multiple factors (image quality, calcification and lesion locations), with reference to intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods: Consecutive clinically ordered patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. CT quantification of MLA was manually measured on cross-sectional view and further compared with IVUS findings. A significant lesion was defined as {<=}6 mm{sup 2} MLA for the left main (LM) coronary artery and a {<=}4 mm{sup 2} MLA for other epicardial vessels. Results: Non-calcified lesions had good correlation between CT and IVUS (r = 0.96) and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 85% (51/60), 93.94% (31/33), 96.23% (51/53) and 77.5% (31/40) respectively. Decreased correlation (r = 0.814) lower specificity (23.81% (5/21)) and positive predictive value (60.98% (25/41)) were observed in calcified subgroup. Artifact-absent lesions demonstrated excellent correlation (r = 0.967) and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 96% (48/50), 93.94% (31/33), 96% (48/50) and 93.94% (31/33) respectively. Impaired correlation (r = 0.584) was noted in artifact-present lesions and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 80% (28/35), 23.81% (5/21), 63.64% (28/44) and 41.67% (5/12) respectively. Excellent correlation between CT and IVUS was noted in proximal epicardial vessels (r = 0.908) and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 92.31% (36/39), 78.13% (25/32), 83.72% (36/43) and 89.29% (25/28) respectively. Middle right coronary artery lesions showed non-significant correlation (r = 0.54, p = 0.055). Conclusions: CT quantification of MLA can only be accurately achieved in non-calcified lesions with absence of artifact. Diagnostic performance is impaired in calcified lesions.

  19. The effects of uncinectomy and natural ostial dilatation on maxillary sinus ventilation: a clinical experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluhan, Ahmet; Şalvız, Mehti; Bozdemir, Kazım; Kanbak, Orhan; Ulu, Mustafa; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Bilgen, Akif Sinan

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of uncinectomy without sinusotomy and natural ostial dilatation on maxillary sinus ventilation in chronic rhinosinusitis. Twenty patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with uncinectomy (n = 10), while group 2 was made up of patients treated with natural ostial dilatation (n = 10). The CO(2) tension and pressure levels of the maxillary sinus during inspiration and expiration phases were obtained and compared before and after the procedures within and between the groups. The mean CO(2) tension levels in both groups were significantly decreased after the procedures. The mean maxillary sinus pressure during inspiration was significantly decreased to a negative value after uncinectomy; however, no significant change was observed during expiration. There were no significant changes in maxillary sinus pressures after natural ostial dilatation procedure. Both uncinectomy and natural ostial dilatation seem to be equally effective in decreasing maxillary sinus pCO(2) levels. The effects of decreased maxillary sinus pressure during inspiration after uncinectomy on mucociliary clearance and development mechanisms of chronic rhinosinusitis seem to be worth investigating.

  20. Aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but most often it develops later in life. Children with aortic stenosis may have other conditions present from birth. Aortic ... children may need aortic valve repair or replacement. Children with mild aortic stenosis may be able to take part in most ...

  1. Spinal Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vasculitis Enfermedades y Condiciones I Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Spinal Stenosis Spinal Stenosis Fast Facts Spinal ... weakness, since it greatly affects your ability to work and enjoy life. The natural course of the disease is one of slow progression over time. There ...

  2. Prospective Assessment of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio to Assess Coronary Stenosis Relevance: Results of ADVISE II International, Multicenter Study (ADenosine Vasodilator Independent Stenosis Evaluation II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escaned, Javier; Echavarría-Pinto, Mauro; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; de Vries, Ton; Kaul, Prashant; Raveendran, Ganesh; Altman, John D.; Kurz, Howard I.; Brechtken, Johannes; Tulli, Mark; von Birgelen, Clemens; Schneider, Joel E.; Khashaba, Ahmed A.; Jeremias, Allen; Baucum, Jim; Moreno, Raul; Meuwissen, Martijn; Mishkel, Gregory; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Levite, Howard; Lopez-Palop, Ramon; Mayhew, Marc; Serruys, Patrick W.; Samady, Habib; Piek, Jan J.; Lerman, Amir; Khashaba, A.; Lasorda, D.; Meuwissen, M.; Levite, H.; Allaqaband, S.; Roberts, J.; Nseir, G.; Jones, S.; Samady, H.; van Geuns, R.; Raveendran, G.; Preli, R.; Blankenship, J.; Baucum, J.; Orlando, Q.; Escaned, J.; Palop, R.; Moreno, R.; Legutko, J.; Möllman, H.; Tulli, M.; Stables, R.; Gulati, R.; Powers, E.; Gil, R.; Carrabus, B.; Reczuch, K.; Brechtken, J.; Schneider, J.; Della Siega, A.; Mahoney, P.; Altman, J.; Mishkel, G.; Jeremias, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Kaul, P.; Fernandes, V.; Kurz, H.; Mayhew, M.; Tai, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) to characterize, outside of a pre-specified range of values, stenosis severity, as defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR) ≤0.80, in a prospective, independent, controlled, core

  3. Long-term Prognosis of Patients With Non-ST-segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Arteries Without Significant Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Diéguez, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Ferreiro, Rocío; Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubin, Sergio; Aidhodjayeva, Ozoda; López-López, Andrea; Castiñeira-Busto, María; Peña-Gil, Carlos; García-Acuña, Jose María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-09-01

    There is debate regarding the prognostic significance of the absence of significant coronary lesions in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. We investigated long-term prognosis in a contemporary cohort of these patients. Retrospective observational study of 5203 patients with acute coronary syndrome. Propensity score matching was used to create 2 groups of 367 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction matched by the absence or presence of significant coronary lesions. In the matched cohort, we determined the impact of the absence of significant coronary lesions on mortality or readmission for acute coronary syndrome for 4.8 (2.6) years after discharge. Mortality or readmission for acute coronary syndrome was lower among patients without significant lesions (26.4% vs 32.7%; P = .09). Mortality in both groups was 19.1%. In contrast, patients without significant lesions had a lower incidence of readmission for acute coronary syndrome (2.0/100 vs 3.9/100 person-years; P = .003). The incidence of mortality or readmission for acute coronary syndrome was similar in patients without significant lesions and those with significant 1-vessel disease (26.4% vs 27.5%; P = .19), but lower than that in patients with 2-vessel disease (37.8%; P = .007) and 3-vessel disease or left main coronary artery disease (41.1%; P = .002). Patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction and coronary arteries without significant lesions have similar long-term mortality but lower readmission rates for acute coronary syndrome than patients with significant lesions. Mortality or readmission for acute coronary syndrome is similar in patients without significant lesions and patients with 1-vessel disease, but lower than in patients with disease in 2 or more vessels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurements of pulmonary vein ostial diameter and distance to first bifurcation: A comparison of different measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, Paul [Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: pcronin@med.umich.edu; Saab, Ali [Des Moines University, College of Osteopathic Medicine 3200 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, IA (United States); Kelly, Aine Marie; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carlos, Ruth C. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement between axial, multiplanar reformatted (MPR) and semi-automated software measurements of pulmonary vein ostial diameters and distance to the first bifurcation. CT examinations of the thorax were retrospectively reviewed in 150 consecutive patients. The pulmonary vein ostial diameter and distance to the first bifurcation of the four main pulmonary veins were independently measured. The three measurement methods were compared using a Bland-Altman test. There was no significant variation between pulmonary vein ostial diameter measurements for the superior pulmonary veins across the three measurement methods. There was significant variation between the semi-automated program and both the axial (p = 0.001) and MPR (p < 0.001) measured diameters for the right inferior pulmonary vein ostial diameter and between the MPR and semi-automated program measurements (p = 0.02) for the left inferior pulmonary vein ostial diameter. There was no significant variation between the pulmonary vein distance to first bifurcation measurements for any pulmonary vein across the three measurement methods. However, from a clinical perspective, differences were negligible; therefore, the clinician may confidently use any of the three measurement methods presented.

  5. Success Rate of Szabo Technique in Ostial Coronary Pci. Techniques, Angiographic and IVUS Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this prospective study is to quantify the risk of lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT in patients requiring temporary transvenous femoral pacing and to evaluate the use of different enoxaparin dosages (prophylactic or therapeutic for thrombus prevention. Transvenous temporary cardiac pacemaker, with catheters frequently used along the femoral vein is useful to relieve difficult bradyarrythmias and some tachyarrythmias. Up to one-third of patients receiving transfemoral pacing develop asymptomatic DVT. At present, there are no recommendations for thrombus prophylaxis in these patients. Besides, the efficacy in this specific condition has not been studied.Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who underwent transvenous femoral pacing and had no contraindication to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH therapy were divided into 3 groups each group consisted of 20 patients. Group I received prophylactic enoxaparin (1mg/kg/day; subcutaneously, group II received therapeutic enoxaparin (1 mg/kg/day every 12 hours; subcutaneously, and group III consisting of patients who were not treated with enoxaparin was considered as control group. Patients were evaluated daily for clinical features of DVT. Color Doppler sonography imaging was performed on both lower limbs of all patients within 24 hours after removal of the temporary pacemakers.Results: Of the sixty patients, two who belonged to group III, had definitive evidence of right lower limb DVT by color Doppler sonography. These two cases of DVT were asymptomatic and had thrombosis of femoral vein. No evidence of thrombus was detected in contra lateral lower limb. No DVT was detected among patients who received prophylactic or therapeutic doses of enoxaparin. No heparin related complications were detected in this study. There were no significant difference in the clinical characteristics among 2 groups (I, II and control group. Correlations of age and gender with occurrence of DVT were not significant (P= 0.512, 0.737.Conclusions: This study showed that DVT is a common complication of femoral pacing, and that its incidence can be reduced with the use of prophylaxis and therapeutic intravenous enoxaparin.

  6. Catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: segmental pulmonary vein ostial ablation versus left atrial ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Hakan; Scharf, Christoph; Chugh, Aman; Hall, Burr; Cheung, Peter; Good, Eric; Veerareddy, Srikar; Pelosi, Frank; Morady, Fred

    2003-11-11

    Segmental ostial catheter ablation (SOCA) to isolate the pulmonary veins (PVs) and left atrial catheter ablation (LACA) to encircle the PVs both may eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The relative efficacy of these 2 techniques has not been directly compared. Of 80 consecutive patients with symptomatic PAF (age, 52+/-10 years), 40 patients underwent PV isolation by SOCA and 40 patients underwent LACA to encircle the PVs. During SOCA, ostial PV potentials recorded with a ring catheter were targeted. LACA was performed by encircling the left- and right-sided PVs 1 to 2 cm from the ostia and was guided by an electroanatomic mapping system; ablation lines also were created in the mitral isthmus and posterior left atrium. The mean procedure and fluoroscopy times were 156+/-45 and 50+/-17 minutes for SOCA and 149+/-33 and 39+/-12 minutes for LACA, respectively. At 6 months, 67% of patients who underwent SOCA and 88% of patients who underwent LACA were free of symptomatic PAF when not taking antiarrhythmic drug therapy (P=0.02). Among the variables of age, sex, duration and frequency of PAF, ejection fraction, left atrial size, structural heart disease, and the ablation technique, only an increased left atrial size and the SOCA technique were independent predictors of recurrent PAF. The only complication was left atrial flutter in a patient who underwent LACA. In patients undergoing catheter ablation for PAF, LACA to encircle the PVs is more effective than SOCA.

  7. Porokeratotic adnexal ostial naevus: review on the entity and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Velasco, M; Hilty, N; Kempf, W

    2015-10-01

    Porokeratotic adnexal ostial nevus (PAON) is a term that encompass porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct naevus and porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle naevus. PAON is a rare adnexal hamartoma characterized by the presence of a cornoid lamella exclusively overlying eccrine acrosyringia or over both, eccrine acrosyringia and hair follicles. Most of the articles on PAON report its clinical or histopathological characteristics but literature review offer scarce data on the evolution or treatment. We have reviewed it. We report an 8-year-old boy with presence of bilateral asymtomatic verrucous lesions mostly in left side of the body without other added abnormalities through the twelve-year follow-up. As our case presented cornoid lamella overlying eccrine acrosyringia and hair follicles we diagnosed PEHFN. He received treatment with CO2 ablation in 2004 and in 2012 with marked improvement. Review of the previous reported cases of PAON show that it is mostly unilateral and that some patients have coexisting problems like seizures, left hemiparesis, scoliosis, deafness, developmental delay, palmoplantar keratoderma, psoriasis, hyperthyroidism, polinerupathy, breast hipoplasia and KID. PAON responded with tazaroten gel, dithranol short-contact treatment and topical photodynamic therapy but laser treatments appear to be more efficient in most patients. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rapid, fluttering heartbeat Not eating enough (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis) Not gaining enough weight (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis) The heart-weakening effects of aortic valve stenosis ...

  9. The 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES have raised the bar of clinical performance. These stents are mostly made from cobalt chromium alloy. A newer generation DES has been developed from platinum chromium alloy, but clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of the platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES is limited, with no comparison data against the cobalt chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-ZES. In addition, an antiplatelet regimen is an integral component of medical therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. A 1-week duration of doubling the dose of clopidogrel (double-dose antiplatelet therapy (DDAT was shown to improve outcome at 1 month compared with conventional dose in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients undergoing PCI. However in Asia, including Korea, the addition of cilostazol (triplet antiplatelet therapy (TAT is used more commonly than doubling the dose of clopidogrel in high-risk patients. Methods In the 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE trial, approximately 3,750 patients are being prospectively and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design according to the type of stent (PtCr-EES vs CoCr-ZES and antiplatelet regimen (TAT vs DDAT. The first primary endpoint is target lesion failure at 1 year for the stent comparison, and the second primary endpoint is net clinical outcome at 1 month for comparison of antiplatelet therapy regimen. Discussion The HOST-ASSURE trial is the largest study yet performed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the PtCr-EES versus CoCr-ZES in an 'all-comers' population. In addition, this study will also compare the clinical outcome of TAT versus DDAT for 1-month post PCI. Trial registration ClincalTrials.gov number NCT01267734.

  10. The 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have raised the bar of clinical performance. These stents are mostly made from cobalt chromium alloy. A newer generation DES has been developed from platinum chromium alloy, but clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of the platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES) is limited, with no comparison data against the cobalt chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-ZES). In addition, an antiplatelet regimen is an integral component of medical therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A 1-week duration of doubling the dose of clopidogrel (double-dose antiplatelet therapy (DDAT)) was shown to improve outcome at 1 month compared with conventional dose in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI. However in Asia, including Korea, the addition of cilostazol (triplet antiplatelet therapy (TAT)) is used more commonly than doubling the dose of clopidogrel in high-risk patients. Methods In the 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE) trial, approximately 3,750 patients are being prospectively and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design according to the type of stent (PtCr-EES vs CoCr-ZES) and antiplatelet regimen (TAT vs DDAT). The first primary endpoint is target lesion failure at 1 year for the stent comparison, and the second primary endpoint is net clinical outcome at 1 month for comparison of antiplatelet therapy regimen. Discussion The HOST-ASSURE trial is the largest study yet performed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the PtCr-EES versus CoCr-ZES in an 'all-comers' population. In addition, this study will also compare the clinical outcome of TAT versus DDAT for 1-month post PCI. Trial registration ClincalTrials.gov number NCT01267734. PMID:22463698

  11. Anomalous origin of coronary artery: taxonomy and clinical implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anomalous origin of coronary artery is uncommon. The taxonomies of anomalous origin of coronary artery are inconsistent and complex. Conceptual and therapeutic debates remain. The aim of the present study is to reappraise the concept of anomalous origin of coronary artery and to discuss the potential hazards and treatment rationale of this anomaly on basis of literature review. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was made in terms of the taxonomies including “simple”, “multiple” and “complex” types of anomalous origin of coronary artery. Results: Anomalous origin of coronary artery can be simply categorized according to the ectopically originated coronary artery. There are a couple of complex anatomical variants: “multiple” type, involving more than one coronary artery or branch, which can be subdivided into 2 subtypes, A more than one coronary arteries or branches arising from one place; and B two coronary arteries/branches arising from separate ectopic sites; and “complex” type, associated with acquired heart disease, or congenital heart defects. Conclusion: Sudden cardiac death in anomalous origin of coronary artery is associated with the anatomical features including abnormal coursing, acute angle take-off and ostial abnormalities. Atherosclerosis is prone to be in the right-sided ectopic and retroaortic coursing coronary artery. Surgical treatment is a definitive therapy. Simple coronary artery bypass grafting is not recommended due to the potential hazards of coronary steal phenomenon and poor patency of mammary arterial grafts, and modified maneuvers such as coronary ostial reimplantation, impinged coronary segment unroofing and coronary stent deployment are advocated instead.

  12. Personality subtypes and chest pain in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease from the TweeSteden Mild Stenosis study : Mediating effect of anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Aarnoudse, W.; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients presenting with chest pain in nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD, luminal narrowing <60%) are at risk for emotional distress and future events. We aimed to examine the association of personality subtypes with persistent chest pain, and investigated the potential

  13. Zotarolimus-eluting Resolute Integrity versus everolimus-eluting Xience Xpedition stents in the management of very long (>30 mm) de novo coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Soumya, E-mail: dr_soumyapatra@rediffmail.com; Chakraborty, Rabindra Nath; Pande, Arindam; Banerjee, Suvro; Jena, Manabhanjan; Mandal, Prakash Chandra; De, Swapan Kumar; Khan, Aftab; Das, Sankha Suvro; Ghosh, Debashish; Nag, Raja

    2017-04-15

    Background: Procedural and clinical outcomes in patients with very long (>30 mm) coronary lesions who underwent stent-based percutaneous coronary interventions are still unfavorable. Therefore, we compared the relative efficacy and safety of resolute zotarolimus-eluting stents (R-ZES) and Xpedition everolimus-eluting stents (X-EES) for patients with de novo very long coronary lesions. Methods: This comparative single-centre, retrospective study compared long R-ZES and X-EES in consecutive patients admitted with very long (≥30 mm) native ACC/AHA type C coronary lesions in 2014. All patients were followed up clinically at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. In this study, only symptom-driven angiogram was advised. The study end point was to evaluate immediate procedural success and one-year rate of target lesion failure (TLF), which is a composite of cardiac death, target lesion myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization (TLR). Results: Total number of patients enrolled in this study was 185 (R-ZES = 107; X-EES = 78). The baseline characteristics and post procedural success rate were similar between R-ZES and X-EES groups, including the post stenting lesion lengths (36.6 ± 1.92 mm vs 40.71 ± 6.175 mm, P = 0.09). At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences in the rate of adverse clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, target lesion revascularization, and composite outcomes). Procedural success was achieved in 94% in R-ZES group and 93% in X-EES group (P = 0.24). The incidence of TLF was 5% in R-ZES and 4% in X-EES groups (HR-1.25; 95% CI-0.86-5.6; P = 0.19). Conclusion: Patients with de novo long coronary artery disease, R-ZES implantation showed similar clinical outcome as compared with X-EES implantation. - Highlights: • This is the first study comparing between R-ZES (Resolute Integrity) and X-EES (Xience Xpedition) used in PCI for long coronary artery disease. Here, single stent length of more than 30

  14. Pyloric Stenosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Pyloric Stenosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Pyloric Stenosis Print A A ... Doctor? en español Estenosis pilórica What Is Pyloric Stenosis? Pyloric stenosis is a condition that can affect ...

  15. Long-term outcome in patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stents in complex coronary artery lesions: 3-year results of the SCANDSTENT (Stenting Coronary Arteries in Non-Stress/Benestent Disease) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H.; Klovgaard, L.; Helqvist, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to evaluate the long-term use of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with complex coronary artery lesions. BACKGROUND: Although the use of SES has proved to be effective in patients with simple coronary artery lesions, there are limited...... data of the long-term outcome of patients with complex coronary artery lesions. METHODS: We randomly assigned 322 patients with total coronary occlusions or lesions located in bifurcations, ostial, or angulated segments of the coronary arteries to have SES or BMS implanted. RESULTS: At 3 years, major...

  16. Coronary microvascular dysfunction equivalent to left main coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panç, Cafer; Kocaağa, Mehmet; Erdoğan, Onur; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Umman, Sabahattin

    2017-04-01

    Coronary microvascular dysfunction, also known as cardiac syndrome X, is a clinical syndrome presenting with typical angina and evidence of myocardial ischemia in the absence of flow-limiting stenosis on coronary angiography. Of patients undergoing coronary angiography due to suspected myocardial ischemia, 50% are found to have normal or near-normal coronary arteries. Described in this case report is a patient who developed hypotension and ST segment depressions during treadmill exercise test. Left main coronary artery or multivessel disease was suspected. Coronary angiography was normal, but coronary flow reserve measurement revealed severe microvascular dysfunction.

  17. Diagnostic value of transmural perfusion ratio derived from dynamic CT-based myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of haemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, Adriaan; Lubbers, Marisa M.; Dedic, Admir; Chelu, Raluca G.; Geuns, Robert-Jan M. van; Nieman, Koen [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kurata, Akira; Kono, Atsushi; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rossi, Alexia [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Barts Health NHS Trust, NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Barts, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London and Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the additional value of transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) in dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease were prospectively included and underwent a CT-MPI examination. From the CT-MPI time-point data absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were temporally resolved using a hybrid deconvolution model. An absolute MBF value was measured in the suspected perfusion defect. TPR was defined as the ratio between the subendocardial and subepicardial MBF. TPR and MBF results were compared with invasive FFR using a threshold of 0.80. Forty-three patients and 94 territories were analysed. The area under the receiver operator curve was larger for MBF (0.78) compared with TPR (0.65, P = 0.026). No significant differences were found in diagnostic classification between MBF and TPR with a territory-based accuracy of 77 % (67-86 %) for MBF compared with 70 % (60-81 %) for TPR. Combined MBF and TPR classification did not improve the diagnostic classification. Dynamic CT-MPI-based transmural perfusion ratio predicts haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. However, diagnostic performance of dynamic CT-MPI-derived TPR is inferior to quantified MBF and has limited incremental value. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of mid-term clinical outcomes between "complete full-metal jacket strategy" versus "incomplete full-metal jacket strategy" for diffuse right coronary artery stenosis with drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Sakakura, Kenichi; Adachi, Yusuke; Taniguchi, Yousuke; Wada, Hiroshi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Hideo

    2017-06-01

    The optimal strategy for diffuse right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the mid-term outcomes of "complete full-metal jacket (c-FMJ) stenting strategy" with "incomplete full-metal jacket (i-FMJ) stenting strategy" for the diffuse long RCA lesion using drug-eluting stents (DES). Between July 2007 and October 2015, 121 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for diffuse RCA lesions using DES. Fifty-three patients underwent c-FMJ PCI, whereas 68 patients underwent i-FMJ. Thirty patients received angiographical follow-up in the c-FMJ group, while 34 patients received angiographical follow-up in the i-FMJ group. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiac death, stent thrombosis (ST), target lesion revascularization (TLR), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the c-FMJ group (13.3%) as compared to the i-FMJ group (41.2%) (p=0.013). There was no cardiac death in either group. The incidence of ST was comparable between the i-FMJ group (2.9%) and c-FMJ group (3.3%) (p=1.00), while TLR was significantly less in the c-FMJ group (6.7%) compared to the i-FMJ group (32.4%) (p=0.011). The mid-term MACE was significantly less in the c-FMJ group than in the i-FMJ group, indicating that c-FMJ stenting was a favorable strategy for the diffuse long RCA lesion. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of multidetector spiral computed tomography in detecting significant coronary stenosis in patient populations with differing pre-test probabilities of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontone, G. [Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: gianluca.pontone@ccfm.it; Andreini, D.; Quaglia, C.; Ballerini, G.; Nobili, E.; Pepi, M. [Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: To investigate the clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with a low versus a high pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: A cohort of 120 patients with suspected CAD, scheduled for conventional coronary angiography, underwent MDCT. Using the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines, the population was divided into two groups: patients with a low (group 1) and a high (group 2) likelihood of CAD. Results: Analysis of all segments showed a high feasibility (92%), and a patient based-model showed excellent sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV; both 100%) and acceptable specificity and positive predictive values (PPV; 86 and 90%, respectively), with an accuracy of 94%. Using MDCT in patients with lower pre-test likelihoods of CAD, according to the ACC/AHA guidelines, the accuracy remained high (93%); conversely, in patient groups with a high prevalence of CAD, a non-significant reduction in accuracy (85%) occurred using MDCT. Particularly, MDCT can be used effectively to exclude a diagnosis of CAD because of its high sensitivity and NPV (100%), but shows a significant reduction in specificity (58%). This reduction was due to an increase in the false-positive:true-negative ratio because of the higher percentage of calcified plaque (a relative but non-significant increase in false positives), and the high prevalence of CAD (significant reduction in true negatives). No differences were found between MDCT and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) concerning the number of vessels narrowed. Conclusion: Because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity in patients with a low pre-test likelihood of CAD, MDCT could be helpful in clinical decision-making in this population.

  20. Microvascular Coronary Artery Spasm Presents Distinctive Clinical Features With Endothelial Dysfunction as Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (

  1. Diagnostic cutoff for pressure drop coefficient in relation to fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve: A patient-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolli, Kranthi K.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Effat, Mohamed A.; Banerjee, Rupak K.; Peelukhana, Srikara V.; Succop, Paul; Leesar, Massoud A.; Imran, Arif; Piek, Jan J.; Helmy, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional assessment of intermediate coronary stenosis during cardiac catheterization is conducted using diagnostic parameters like fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR), hyperemic stenosis resistance index (HSR), and hyperemic microvascular resistance (HMR). CDP (ratio of

  2. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  3. Carotid stenosis: what is the high-risk population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prevention is the best treatment for cerebrovascular disease, which is why early diagnosis and the immediate treatment of carotid stenosis contribute significantly to reducing the incidence of stroke. Given its silent nature, 80% of stroke cases occur in asymptomatic individuals, emphasizing the importance of screening individuals with carotid stenosis and identifying high-risk groups for the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the most frequent risk factors for carotid stenosis. METHODS: A transversal study was conducted in the form of a stroke prevention campaign held on three nonconsecutive Saturdays. During the sessions, carotid stenosis diagnostic procedures were performed for 500 individuals aged 60 years or older who had systemic arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus and/or coronary heart disease and/or a family history of stroke. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid stenosis in the population studied was 7.4%, and the most frequent risk factors identified were mean age of 70 years, carotid bruit, peripheral obstructive arterial disease, coronary insufficiency and smoking. Independent predictive factors of carotid stenosis include the presence of carotid bruit or peripheral obstructive heart disease and/or coronary insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The population with peripheral obstructive heart disease and carotid bruit should undergo routine screening for carotid stenosis.

  4. Meatal stenosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meatal stenosis results from irritation of the urethral opening at the end of the penis, which leads to tissue ... also bleeding at the end of urination. Meatal stenosis can usually be treated in the physician's office ...

  5. Mitral stenosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitral stenosis is a heart valve disorder that narrows or obstructs the mitral valve opening. Narrowing of the mitral ... the body. The main risk factor for mitral stenosis is a history of rheumatic fever but it ...

  6. Sirolimus-eluting versus bare-metal stent implantation in patients with ostial lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kelbæk, Henning; Kløvgaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in the ostium of coronary arteries.......To investigate the efficacy of implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in the ostium of coronary arteries....

  7. Efficacy of Optical Coherence Tomography-derived Morphometric Assessment in Predicting the Physiological Significance of Coronary Stenosis: Head-to-Head Comparison with Intravascular Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Eisuke; Yonetsu, Taishi; Kanaji, Yoshihisa; Hoshino, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Masao; Hada, Masahiro; Hamaya, Rikuta; Kanno, Yoshinori; Murai, Tadashi; Lee, Tetsumin; Kakuta, Tsunekazu

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in identifying functional significance via fractional flow reserve (FFR) compared with that of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We investigated 203 de novo intermediate coronary lesions of 186 patients who underwent frequency-domain OCT, IVUS and FFR measurements. Diagnostic efficacy of the minimal lumen area (MLA) obtained by OCT (OCT-MLA) and IVUS (IVUS-MLA) in predicting an FFRMLA had significantly better diagnostic efficacy than IVUS-MLA in identifying functional ischemia. OCT analysis revealed that the incidence of false positives (OCT-MLA≤1.39 mm2 and FFR≥0.75) was 46% (41/90), whereas the incidence of false negatives (OCT-MLA>1.39 mm2 and FFRMLA criteria, whereas younger age and low left ventricular ejection fraction were independent predictors of false-negative results. Intravascular imaging is not interchangeable with FFR in clinical decision making. However, OCT may have superior efficacy to IVUS in detecting functional ischemia. Discrepancies between OCT-MLA and FFR should be taken into account for OCT-guided decision making.

  8. Superdominant Right Coronary Artery with Absence of Left Circumflex and Anomalous Origin of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary from the Right Sinus: An Unheard Coronary Anomaly Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Danillo Peixoto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Most of them are discovered as incidental findings during coronary angiographic studies or at autopsies. We present herein the case of a 70-year-old man with symptomatic severe aortic valvar stenosis whose preoperative coronary angiogram revealed a so far unreported coronary anomaly circulation pattern.

  9. A case of William's syndrome associated peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hwang, Mi Soo; Kim, Sun Yong; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Yeungam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    William's syndrome, in order to more completely delineate the total spectrum of the disorder, indicates that 'infantile hypercalcemia', 'peculiar facies' and 'supravalvular aortic stenosis.' In has other many vascular anomalies, such as peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, coronary arterial stenosis, celiac arterial stenosis, and renal aterial stenosis. Only 32% of the patients have evidence of supravalvular aortic stenosis. And it is very rare disease entity that has been reported rarely in Korea. Recently authors experienced a case that was questioned William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, clinically and preliminary radiologically and this case was confirmed by operation. Here we report a case of William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis and reviewed literatures.

  10. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  11. Long-term safety and efficacy of stenting versus coronary artery bypass grafting for unprotected left main coronary artery disease: 5-year results from the MAIN-COMPARE (Revascularization for Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Stenosis: Comparison of Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty Versus Surgical Revascularization) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duk-Woo; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Won-Jang; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Jang, Yang-Soo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Kim, Pum Joon; Seong, In-Whan; Park, Hun Sik; Ahn, Taehoon; Chae, In-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Chung, Wook-Sung; Park, Seung-Jung

    2010-07-06

    We performed the long-term follow-up of a large cohort of patients in a multicenter study receiving left main coronary artery (LMCA) revascularization. Limited information is available on long-term outcomes for patients with unprotected LMCA disease who underwent coronary stent procedure or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We evaluated 2,240 patients with unprotected LMCA disease who received coronary stents (n = 1,102; 318 with bare-metal stents and 784 with drug-eluting stents) or underwent CABG (n = 1,138) between 2000 and 2006 and for whom complete follow-up data were available for at least 3 to 9 years (median 5.2 years). The 5-year adverse outcomes (death; a composite outcome of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction [MI], or stroke; and target vessel revascularization [TVR]) were compared with the use of the inverse probability of treatment weighted method and propensity-score matching. After adjustment for differences in baseline risk factors with the inverse probability of treatment weighting, the 5-year risk of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88 to 1.44, p = 0.35) and the combined risk of death, Q-wave MI, or stroke (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.37, p = 0.59) were not significantly different for patients undergoing stenting versus CABG. The risk of TVR was significantly higher in the stenting group than in the CABG group (HR: 5.11; 95% CI: 3.52 to 7.42, p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained in comparisons of bare-metal stent with concurrent CABG and of drug-eluting stent with concurrent CABG. In further analysis with propensity-score matching, overall findings were consistent. During 5-year follow-up, stenting showed similar rates of mortality and of the composite of death, Q-wave MI, or stroke but higher rates of TVR as compared with CABG for patients with unprotected LMCA disease. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of niacin on glucose levels, coronary stenosis progression, and clinical events in subjects with normal baseline glucose levels (Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS), and Carotid Plaque Composition by MRI during lipid-lowering (CPC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Binh An P; Muñoz, Luis; Shadzi, Pey; Isquith, Daniel; Triller, Michael; Brown, B Greg; Zhao, Xue-Qiao

    2013-02-01

    Although the effect of niacin on the glucose levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus has been investigated, niacin's effects on the glucose levels and atherosclerosis in subjects with normal glucose levels have not been well established. We examined the effect of niacin on the glucose levels, coronary stenosis progression using quantitative coronary angiography, and clinical events in 407 subjects who had a baseline glucose level <100 mg/dl and were enrolled in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS), or Carotid Plaque Composition by MRI during lipid-lowering (CPC) study testing active niacin therapy. Although the fasting glucose levels increased significantly within 3 years in both subjects treated with niacin (from 85.6 ± 9.5 to 95.5 ± 19.7 mg/dl, p <0.001) and without niacin (from 85.2 ± 9.6 to 90 ± 17.9 mg/dl, p = 0.009), those treated with niacin had a significantly larger increase in glucose levels than those not taking niacin (9.88 vs 4.05 mg/dl, p = 0.002). Overall, 29% of subjects developed impaired fasting glucose within 3 years. Incident impaired fasting glucose was significantly more likely to be observed in subjects treated with niacin than in those who were not. However, the frequency of new-onset diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (5.6% vs 4.8%, p = 0.5). Niacin-treated subjects compared to untreated subjects had significantly less change in mean coronary stenosis (0.1 ± 0.3% vs 2 ± 12%, p <0.0001) and less major cardiovascular events (8% vs 21%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the use of niacin for 3 years in subjects with normal baseline glucose levels was associated with an increase in blood glucose levels and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose, but not diabetes mellitus, and was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of coronary stenosis progression and major cardiovascular events. Copyright

  13. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-delhoyo, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Loughlin, Gerard; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Vázquez-Álvarez, María Eugenia; Sarnago-Cebada, Fernando; Angulo-Llanos, Rocío; Casado-Plasencia, Ana; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández Avilés Diáz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough assessment of coronary physiology. PMID:26413229

  14. Non-obstructive coronary artery disease assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Bøtker, H. E.; Sorensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary CT angiography (CTA) detects non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) that may not be recognized by functional testing, but the prognostic impact is not well understood. This study aimed to compare the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality...... in patients without or with non-obstructive and obstructive CAD assessed by coronary CTA. Methods: Consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) and with chest pain who underwent coronary CTA (>64-detector row) between January 2007 and December 2012 in the 10 centers participating...... in the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry were included. The endpoints were 3-year MI or all-cause mortality. The coronary CTA result was defined as normal (0% luminal stenosis), non-obstructive CAD (1%-49% luminal stenosis) or obstructive CAD (>50% luminal stenosis; 1-vessel, 2-vessel, or 3...

  15. [Stenosis in kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, M; Giudice, C; Gueglio, G; Daels, F; Tejerizo, J C; Damia, O; Schiappapietra, J

    1999-02-01

    Evaluate the incidence of ureterovesical stenosis in the renal transplant and its outcomes in the evolution of the allograft. Seventy three renal transplants were made between August 1988 and December 1995 in Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires. The mean follow up period was 35 months. The incidence of ureterovesical stenosis and its outcomes in the renal allograft were evaluated. Seven cases of ureterovesical stenosis were found. Clinic diagnosis was made in all cases (decreased filtration, diuresis rythm diminished, pain over the implant) confirmed with ecography that showed hydronefrosis and pielography percutaneous anterograde to check the cause of obstruction. Time elapsed between transplant and diagnosis of stenosis varied from 2 to 23 months. Inicial treatment was percutaneous derivation and then in all cases where renal function was recovered ureterovesical reimplant was made out, but ureterotomy in one of them. Incidence of ureterovesical stenosis was 9.58% (seven patients). Two of the patients keep an adequate renal function, one has altered renal function, the forth lost the implant due to pyelonephritis, and the other three lost the implant due to cronic rejection between 6 and 18 months after diagnosis and treatment of stenosis. Ureterovesical stenosis is an important cause for lost of renal allograft. Imaging is outstanding for diagnosis. Definitive treatment can be made by open reconstructive operation or endoscopy.

  16. A randomized comparison of platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stents versus cobalt chromium-based Zotarolimus-Eluting stents in all-comers receiving percutaneous coronary intervention: HOST-ASSURE (harmonizing optimal strategy for treatment of coronary artery stenosis-safety & effectiveness of drug-eluting stents & anti-platelet regimen), a randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kang, Si-Hyuck; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Park, Byoung-Eun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Rhew, Jay Young; Jeon, Hui-Kyoung; Shin, Eun-Seok; Oh, Ju Hyeon; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Kim, Sanghyun; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Yoon, Jung-Han; Lee, Sung Yun; Park, Tae-Ho; Moon, Keon Woong; Kwon, Hyuck-Moon; Hur, Seung-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Kean; Lee, Bong-Ryul; Park, Yong Whi; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-07-01

    This study sought to test whether the newly developed platinum chromium (PtCr)-based everolimus-eluting stent (EES) is noninferior to the cobalt chromium (CoCr)-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) in all-comers receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PtCr provides improved radial strength, conformability, and visibility compared with the CoCr alloy, but PtCr-based stents have not been tested in a wide range of patients receiving PCI. Also, recent case series have raised the issue of longitudinal stent deformation (LSD) with newer drug-eluting stents. We randomly assigned 3,755 all-comers receiving PCI to PtCr-EES or CoCr-ZES. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF) at 1-year post-PCI, defined as the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal target vessel-related myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization. Post-hoc angiographic analysis was performed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze LSD. At 1 year, TLF occurred in 2.9% and 2.9% of the population in the PtCr-EES and CoCr-ZES groups, respectively (superiority p = 0.98, noninferiority p = 0.0247). There were no significant differences in the individual components of TLF as well as the patient-oriented clinical outcome. Of 5,010 stents analyzed, LSD occurred in 0.2% and 0% in the PtCr-EES and CoCr-ZES groups, respectively (p = 0.104). There was no significant difference in post-deployment stent length ratio between the 2 stents (p = 0.352). At 1 year, PtCr-EES was noninferior to CoCr-ZES in all-comers receiving PCI. Although LSD was observed only in PtCr-EES, both the stent length ratio and the frequency of LSD were not significantly different between the 2 stent types, and PtCr-EES was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. (Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of Coronary Artery Stenosis-SAfety & EffectiveneSS of Drug-ElUting Stents & Anti-platelet REgimen [HOST-ASSURE]; NCT01267734). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology

  17. Decreased coronary flow reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is related to remodeling of the coronary microcirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Kofflard (Marcel); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); C. von Birgelen (Clemens); S.G. Carlier (Stephan); M. Kliffen (Mike); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); R. Krams (Rob); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Ischemia occurs frequently in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) without evidence of epicardial stenosis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that the occurrence of ischemia in HCM is related to remodeling of the coronary microcirculation. METHODS AND

  18. Mitral Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve stenosis include: Rheumatic fever. A complication of strep throat, rheumatic fever can damage the mitral valve. Rheumatic ... children see your doctor for sore throats. Untreated strep throat infections can develop into rheumatic fever. Fortunately, strep ...

  19. Association of coronary plaque burden with fractional flow reserve: should we keep attempting to derive physiology from anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Thura T; George, Richard T

    2015-02-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been used increasingly for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease over the past decade. Compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary CTA has the ability to visualize and quantify atherosclerotic plaque both calcified and non-calcified. Traditional measures of evaluating a coronary stenosis such as diameter stenosis, area stenosis, minimal lumen diameter and minimal luminal area are limited in their ability to predict its functional significance especially when diameter stenosis ranges between 30-69% (intermediate range). Measurement of invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered the gold standard for assessment of the hemodynamic significance of a stenosis. The current study by Nakazato et al. evaluates the performance of an emerging coronary CTA-derived anatomical measure "percent aggregate plaque volume" to improve the detection of hemodynamic significant stenosis as compared with invasive FFR.

  20. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion of right coronary artery in patient with dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Muhammad; Hartono, Beny; Iskandarsyah, Kurniawan; Nguyen, Thach N

    2013-07-01

    Situs inversus with dextrocardia is rare congenital anomaly. Coronary artery disease in such patients is quite rare. We reported a 52-year-old man with dextrocardia and chronic total occlusion at the proximal right coronary artery just after conus branch and severe stenosis at the proximal left anterior descending artery. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting of total occluded right coronary artery and simultaneously stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery.

  1. Concomitant aorto-right subclavian artery bypass with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazume, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Ken; Fukui, Toshihiro

    2017-10-11

    Atherosclerotic stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery sometimes occurs in patients with coronary artery disease, and can cause stroke during the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. We describe the case of a 77-year old male with severe stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery and severe coronary artery disease. He successfully underwent aorto-right subclavian artery bypass that was performed concomitantly with off-pump coronary artery bypass. Concomitant aorto-subclavian artery bypass with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is a therapeutic option that minimizes the risk of perioperative stroke in patients with brachiocephalic artery stenosis and coronary artery disease.

  2. Coronary artery anatomy and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagò, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicolì, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions.

  3. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  4. C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in non-obstructive coronary artery disease as related to depressive symptoms and anxiety : Findings from the TweeSteden Mild Stenosis Study (TWIST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M. C.; Meeuwis, Stefanie H.; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, J.W.G.M.; Aarnoudse, Wilbert; Westerhuis, Bert L. Wjj. M.; Kop, Willem Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The majority of acute coronary syndromes occur in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), and the underlying biobehavioral processes are not well understood. Depressive symptoms and anxiety are predictive of prognosis, and have been associated with markers of inflammation

  5. Influence of the amount of myocardium subtended to a coronary stenosis on the index of microcirculatory resistance. Implications for the invasive assessment of microcirculatory function in ischaemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echavarría-Pinto, Mauro; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Gonzalo, Nieves; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Ibañez, Borja; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan J.; Cerrato, Enrico; Salinas, Pablo; Quirós, Alicia; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Davies, Justin; Piek, Jan; Escaned, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is increasingly used to quantify microcirculatory function. However, in normal coronary arteries, resistance increases with the branching structure of the coronary tree, which suggests that IMR could be influenced by the amount of downstream

  6. Aortic stenosis: From diagnosis to optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavčiovski Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most frequent valvular heart disease. Aortic sclerosis is the first characteristic lesion of the cusps, which is considered today as the process similar to atherosclerosis. Progression of the disease is an active process leading to forming of bone matrix and heavily calcified stiff cusps by inflammatory cells and osteopontin. It is a chronic, progressive disease which can remain asymptomatic for a long time even in the presence of severe aortic stenosis. Proper physical examination remains an essential diagnostic tool in aortic stenosis. Recognition of characteristic systolic murmur draws attention and guides further diagnosis in the right direction. Doppler echocardiography is an ideal tool to confirm diagnosis. It is well known that exercise tests help in stratification risk of asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Serial measurements of brain natriuretic peptide during a follow-up period may help to identify the optimal time for surgery. Heart catheterization is mostly restricted to preoperative evaluation of coronary arteries rather than to evaluation of the valve lesion itself. Currently, there is no ideal medical treatment for slowing down the disease progression. The first results about the effect of ACE inhibitors and statins in aortic sclerosis and stenosis are encouraging, but there is still not enough evidence. Onset symptoms based on current ACC/AHA/ESC recommendations are I class indication for aortic valve replacement. Aortic valve can be replaced with a biological or prosthetic valve. There is a possibility of percutaneous aortic valve implantation and transapical operation for patients that are contraindicated for standard cardiac surgery.

  7. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  8. Influence of the coronary calcium score on the ability to rule out coronary artery stenoses by coronary CT angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Schmid, Jasmin; Zimmer, Thomas; Muschiol, Gerd; Hell, Michaela M; Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidelines for the workup of patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease include coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). However, its diagnostic value may be limited in patients with severe coronary calcification. We investigated the relationship between the extent of coronary calcium and the ability of coronary CTA to rule out significant stenoses in a series of consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. 2614 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease in whom coronary calcium scoring and coronary CTA had been performed by Dual Source CT were analyzed. The ability of coronary CTA to rule out coronary artery stenoses (fully evaluable coronary arteries and absence of any luminal stenosis >75%) was analyzed relative to the coronary calcium score. The median coronary calcium score was 12, with calcium present in 60.5% of all patients. Coronary CTA ruled out stenoses in 82% of patients, while in 18% of patients at least one stenosis was found or could not be excluded. The threshold above which coronary CTA permitted to rule out stenoses in less than 50% of patients was an "Agatston Score" of 287. This threshold was significantly lower for male patients (213 vs. 330), for patients with a heart rate >65 beats/min (157 vs. 317) and for patients with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) (208 vs. 392). The evaluability of coronary arteries decreased with increasing amounts of calcium and differed significantly between heart rates ≤65 beats/min and >65 beats/min (p coronary CTA permits to rule out coronary artery stenoses in less than 50% of cases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case of Double Right Coronary Artery with Separate Ostium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Kheirkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare, with their incidence varying from 1 to 5%. Angiography is a commonly used modality for the assessment of coronary artery anomalies. Based on previous reports, a majority of coronary artery anomalies are of origin or distribution, with separate ostia of the left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery. Coronary artery anomalies may cause myocardial ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis in the same artery. We present a rare case of duplicated right coronary artery with a separate ostium, which caused myocardial ischemia. Our patient was a 51-year-old diabetic woman with typical chest pain and dyspnea on exertion. Electrocardiography showed left axis deviation, poor R progression, and biphasic T wave in the precordial leads. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular ejection fraction of 30-35% and global hypokinesia. Coronary angiography demonstrated three-vessel disease and a double ostial right coronary artery. We recommended coronary artery bypass graft surgery, but the patient refused it and we continued her treatment with anti-ischemic drugs.

  10. Sex-specific assessment of reduced coronary sinus flow in non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Access to data on the coronary flow in the coronary sinus (CS) can aid in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We tested the hypothesis that assessing the CS flow by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) at rest can detect coronary artery stenosis in non-hypertensive patients. Methods: The ...

  11. [Coronary angiographic characteristics in septuagenarian patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Habib; Bouzouita, Khaled; Hamdi, Imen; Ben Hassan, Fadoua; Mokaddem, Aida; Ben Ameur, Youssef; Boujnah, Mohamed R

    2013-05-01

    Although the prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in elderly patients is bleak , elderly population is less well treated both in medical and interventional terms. aims: to analyse angiographic findings in septuagenarian patients admitted with ACS and its impact on the therapeutic strategy. We retrospectively analysed 250 patients 70 years or older hospitalised for ACS who underwent a coronary angiography between january 2006 to September 2010. This population was more likely to be male with mean age 74 years and 93 % of ACS were inaugural events (60% N STEM, 40% STEMI).Coronary angiograms showed complex, diffuse coronary lesions with a high incidence of multivessel coronary artery disease , bifurcation lesions , and calcified stenosis. Angiographic findings after ACS in elderly were characterised by multivessel disease and complex lesions .Surgical or percutaneous coronary revascularizaion was possible in the majority of these patients.

  12. Diagnostic performance of algorithm for computer-assisted detection of significant coronary artery disease in patients with acute chest pain: comparison with invasive coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ji Hye; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Jin-Ho; Chang, Sung-A; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an automated computer-assisted detection (CAD) algorithm to detect coronary artery stenosis on coronary CT angiography (CTA). We investigated 128 consecutive patients (76 men, 52 women; mean [SD] age, 64 ± 11 years) who had acute chest pain and underwent 128-slice dual-source coronary CTA and invasive coronary angiography at an emergency department. All coronary CTA data were analyzed using customized software for the detection of coronary artery stenosis without human interaction. The diagnostic performance of a CAD algorithm for evaluation of stenosis of at least 50% of vessel diameter was compared with that of human interpretation of coronary CTA, with invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. Of the 128 patients, 25 patients were excluded because of failure of data processing (n = 9) or history of stent insertion or coronary artery bypass graft (n = 16). Invasive coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis in 62% (64/103) of the remaining patients. In detecting significant stenosis, the CAD algorithm yielded 100% sensitivity, 23.1% specificity, 68.1% positive predictive value (PPV), and 100% negative predictive value (NPV) in per-patient analysis. On per-vessel analysis, the CAD algorithm yielded 90.0% sensitivity, 62.4% specificity, 40.1% PPV, and 95.7% NPV. Human interpretation of coronary CTA yielded 98.4% and 96.7% sensitivities, 79.5% and 95.0% specificities, 88.7% and 84.5% PPVs, and 96.9% and 99.0% NPVs for diagnosing significant stenosis on per-patient and per-vessel analyses, respectively. The CAD algorithm yields a high NPV in detecting stenosis of at least 50% on coronary CTA. As a second "reader," the CAD algorithm may help to exclude significant coronary stenosis in patients with acute chest pain at an emergency department.

  13. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis. This final recommendation statement applies to adults who ...

  14. Lumbar canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, D J; Drucker, Y; Segal, A M

    1997-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis is an increasingly recognized condition in patients more than 65 years of age. The clinical syndrome is dominated by neurogenic claudication. The natural history of the Condition is not yet well described. Long-term results of surgical therapy are frequently disappointing, and reoperation is required in more than 10% of patients. Nonoperative treatment options include physical therapy exercise programs, calcitonin, analgesics, and epidural steroid injections. A clinical pathway for management of symptomatic stenosis, emphasizing an initial nonoperative approach, is suggested.

  15. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sá

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation.

  16. Nuclear cardiology and coronary surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, R.; Andersen, L.I.; Hesse, B.

    2008-01-01

    the operation. Identification of culprit lesions and estimation of the severity of coronary stenoses of intermediate or uncertain degree are important in preoperative decision-making. Location and extent of a perfusion abnormality must reflect the anatomical distribution of an angiographic stenosis, supporting...

  17. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography by using different generations of multisection scanners: Single-center experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Pugliese (Francesca); N.R.A. Mollet (Nico); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); K. Nieman (Koen); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); W.B. Meijboom (Willem Bob); C.A.G. van Mieghem (Carlos); A.C. Weustink (Annick); M.L. Dijkshoorn (Marcel); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To retrospectively compare sensitivity and specificity of four generations of multidetector computed tomographic (CT) scanners for diagnosing significant (≥50%) coronary artery stenosis, with quantitative conventional coronary angiography as reference standard. Materials and

  18. Stroke in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders Møller; Dalsgaard, Morten; Bang, Casper N

    2014-01-01

    ], 1.1-6.6), CHA2DS2-VASc score (HR 1.4 per unit; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), diastolic blood pressure (HR, 1.4 per 10 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), and AVR with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.2, all P≤0.026) were independently associated with stroke. Incident stroke predicted......, and poststroke survival a secondary outcome. Cox models treating AVR as a time-varying covariate were adjusted for atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years and female sex (CHA2DS2-VASc......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are limited data on risk stratification of stroke in aortic stenosis. This study examined predictors of stroke in aortic stenosis, the prognostic implications of stroke, and how aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting...

  19. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Neess; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present epidemiologic data on infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) from seven well-defined European regions, and to compare incidence and changes in incidence over time between these regions. METHODS: This was a population-based study using...

  20. Coronary Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to diagnose coronary heart disease and coronary microvascular disease after chest pain, sudden cardiac arrest, or abnormal ... Cardiac CT Scan Clinical Trials Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Microvascular Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Stents Stress ...

  1. Coronary artery fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Subbotin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistulas are classified as abnormalities of termination and referred to as major congenital anomalies. Most coronary artery fistulas are small, unaccompanied by clinical symptoms, and diagnosed by echocardiography or coronarography performed for an unrelated cause. Such fistulas usually do not cause any complications and can spontaneously resolve. However, larger fistulas are usually >3 tones the size of a normal caliber of a coronary artery and may give rise to clinical symptoms in these cases. The clinical symptoms of coronary artery fistulas may mimic those of various heart diseases depending on which chamber a fistula drains into. Most fistulas are congenital. Congenital coronary artery fistulas may occur as an isolated malformation or be concurrent with other cardiac anomalies, more frequently with critical pulmonary stenosis or atresia with an intact interventricular septum and pulmonary stenoses, Fallot's tetralogy, aortic coarctation, and left heart hypoplasia. When choosing a treatment modality, one should take into account the number of fistula communications, the feeding vessel, localization of drainage, degree of myocardial damage, and hemodynamic relevance of the shunt caused by the presence of a fistula. The goal of treatment is to obliterate a fistula by preserving normal coronary blood flow. The risk for persisting fistula should be balanced with the potential risk of complications related to a procedure of coronarography and fistula occlusion. Percutaneous transcatheter coil occlusion of coronary artery fistulas is the modality of choice in children with the suitable anatomy of fistula communications and without concomitant congenital heart diseases.

  2. Digital densitometric determination of clinical relative coronary flow distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, G.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Storm, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is widely used to determine the presence of a stenosis. This paper discusses an approach towards the detection of the functional severity of a stenosis using the relative velocity of the contrast agent. The velocity of the contrast is measured using the arrival time at

  3. A Combined Therapy Using Encircling Pulmonary Vein Isolation and Supplemental Segmental Ostial Isolation for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tsuboi, MD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins (PV has become a curative treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. Recently, there have been many reports that circumferential PV isolation (CPI on the atrial side has a better outcome than segmental ostial PV isolation (SOPI. However, reports on the combination of CPI using electoroanatomic mapping and SOPI using a circular mapping catheter have been few. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of a combined therapy using CPI and supplemental SOPI for the treatment of AF. We performed CPI in 120 patients with drugrefractory AF. In 27 of those patients CPI resulted in a disconnection between the left atrium (LA and PVs. In the remaining patients, supplemental SOPI completed the LA-PV disconnection. After an average follow-up period of 10.4 months, 81.7%, 90.5% and 71.4% of the patients with paroxysmal, persistent and chronic AF, respectively, have been free of AF. In 14.1% of the patients with paroxysmal AF, a greatly reduced frequency and/or duration of the episodes of AF were observed after the ablation. No fatal complications were encountered. The present results suggest that the combination of CPI and supplemental SOPI is efficient and safe for the treatment of AF.

  4. Woven coronary artery: differential diagnosis with diffuse intracoronary thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, E; Romeo, F; Giovannini, M; Nigri, A

    2000-04-01

    Woven coronary malformation is characterized by the branching of a major epicardial coronary artery into thin channels which then merge again in a normal conduit. The angiogram can suggest a filling defect instead of a malformation and an undue coronary angioplasty could be performed determining some damage to the arterial wall. In this case report we describe a patient with a stenosis on the left anterior descending coronary artery and a woven coronary artery on the right coronary artery. In 1995 a coronary angioplasty was performed on the left anterior descending coronary artery. Four years later a coronary angiogram did not show any changes in the right coronary artery. In this patient the malformation did not induce any reduction in the coronary reserve as shown at cardiac scintigraphy. We need more information about the natural history of such a malformation.

  5. Tandem Spinal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zulkefli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A 42 years old gentleman presented with predominant low back pain associated with bilateral lower limb neurological deficit leading to an initial diagnosis of lumbar stenosis. Further history taking and examination revealed upper limb neurological deficit, and the lower limbs actually presented with upper motor neuron instead of lower motor neuron signs. Imaging studies confirmed the clinical findings with presence of both cervical and lumbar spinal stenosis. Two- stage decompression procedures were performed at 6 month- intervals starting with cervical decompression. Post- operative improvement was noted on follow-up. This case highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of cervical pathology for patients presenting with or referred for predominantly lumbar symptomology.

  6. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease : 2-year follow-up of the FAME (fractional flow reserve versus angiography for multivessel evaluation) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pijls, NHJ Nico; Fearon, WF; Tonino, PAL; Siebert, U; Ikeno, F; Bornschein, B; Veer, van 't, M Marcel; Klauss, V Volker; Manoharan, G; Engstrøm, T; Oloyd, KG Keith; Ver Lee, PN Peter; MacCarthy, PA; Bruyne, de, B

    2010-01-01

    ... ). Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index of the physiologic significance of a coronary stenosis and is defined as maximal blood flow in a stenotic artery as a ratio to normal maximal flow (4 ). It can be easily measured during coronary angiography by the ratio of distal coronary pressure measured with a coronary pressure guidewire t...

  7. Pulmonary infundibular stenosis following mediastinal radiation; Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Masashi; Satoh, Fumihiko; Igarashi, Keiichi; Takenaka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Masafumi (Sapporo National Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)); Takahashi, Wataru

    1993-07-01

    Two cases are reported in which pulmonary infundibular stenosis and valvular regurgitation developed after mediastinal irradiation. A 57-year-old woman received a total of 54 Gy of irradiation to the upper and lower parts of the mediastinum after radical mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 43. Four years later, the patient began to have chest pain. Eleven years after irradiation, she developed angina of effort and pericardial effusion caused by chronic pericarditis. The other patient, a 61-year-old woman, received a total of 90 Gy of irradiation to the mediastinum after radical mastectomy at the age of 33 years. Twenty-seven years later, the patient developed acute inferior myocardial infarction. In both patients, pulmonary infundibular stenosis and valvular regurgitation were considered attributable to irradiation because of the lack of risk factors for coronary artery disease and the presence of cartilage necrosis of the sternum and rib corresponding to the irradiation field. Fibrotic thickness and contraction seemed to be responsible for the mechanism of pulmonary infundibular stenosis after irradiation. The findings in these patients were concordant with the previously reported findings, in that coronary artery lesions were confined to the origin or proximal part of the coronary artery. (N.K.).

  8. Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with anomalous origin of coronary artery presenting with acute coronary syndrome: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karur, Satish; Patra, Soumya; Shankarappa, Ravindranath K; Agrawal, Navin; Math, Ravi S; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2013-09-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are found in 0.6%-1.5% of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiogram. Intervention in these patients poses a particular technical challenge secondary to the aberrancies in the vessel origin and course. From March 2011 to February 2013, 13 cases with complex coronary artery anomalies were observed among 2482 patients undergoing CAG (0.52%) at our cath lab. Only three patients had severe stenosis in the anomalous artery sufficient to require an intervention and had presented with myocardial infarction. PCI was performed successfully in these 3 patients two of which had anomalous left circumflex artery and the other having an anomalous right coronary artery.

  9. Coronary Spastic Angina Induced after Oral Desmopressin (DDAVP) Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yusuke; Sakakura, Kenichi; Akashi, Naoyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Hideo

    A 60-year-old man was prescribed oral desmopressin (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin acetate trihydrate; DDAVP) for nocturnal polyuria. One week after starting to take desmopressin, he frequently felt chest pain while resting. Coronary angiography revealed no organic stenosis; however, an acetylcholine provocation test showed severe coronary spasm with ST elevation. He was diagnosed with coronary spastic angina, and we stopped the oral desmopressin and added diltiazem. While DDAVP should dilate the coronary vessels in healthy subjects, it may provoke coronary vasospasm in patients with endothelial dysfunction. We should be careful to avoid triggering coronary spasm when administering DDAVP to patients that may have potential endothelial dysfunction.

  10. A doença coronária aumenta a mortalidade hospitalar de portadores de estenose aórtica submetidos à substituição valvar? Does the coronary disease increase the hospital mortality in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing valve replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Lima Oliveira Júnior

    2009-12-01

    revascularização completa do miocárdio (Grupo IIA e 20,9% (nove óbitos nos com revascularização incompleta do miocárdio (Grupo IIB. CONCLUSÕES: Nos pacientes submetidos à substituição valvar aórtica isolada, a presença de doença aterosclerótica arterial coronária crítica associada, em pelo menos duas artérias, influenciou a mortalidade hospitalar. Nos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico combinado, o número de artérias coronárias com doença aterosclerótica crítica e a extensão da revascularização do miocárdio (RM completa ou incompleta, não influenciaram a mortalidade hospitalar, mas a realização de mais de três anastomoses distais interferiu.OBJECTIVES: With the increase in life expectancy occurred in recent decades, it has been noted the concomitant increase in the prevalence of aortic stenosis and degenerative disease of atherosclerotic coronary artery. This study aims to evaluate the influence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients with critical aortic stenosis undergoing isolated or combined implant valve prosthesis and coronary artery by pass grafting. METHODS: In the period of January 2001 to March 2006, there were analyzed 448 patients undergoing isolated implant aortic valve prosthesis (Group I and 167 patients undergoing aortic valve prosthesis implant combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (Group II. Pre- and intra-operative variables elected for analysis were: age, gender, body mass index, stroke, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatic fever, hypertension, endocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, smoking, Fraction of the left ventricular ejection, critical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, aortic valve operation prior (conservative, functional class of congestive heart failure, value serum creatinine, total cholesterol, size of the prosthesis used, length and number of distal anastomoses held in myocardial revascularization, duration of

  11. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting for proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Derk Jan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes and discusses the results of a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial comparing percutaneous coronary angioplasty with stenting (stenting) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery (surgery) in patients with a high-grade stenosis

  12. Proposal of renal artery's ostial projection under virtual geometric correction in infrarenal aneurysms: initial results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Giovani José Dal Poggetto; Dalbem, Andreia Marques de Oliveira; Menezes, Fabio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair requires the precise deployment of the graft. In order to achieve accurate positioning, the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the aorta and its branches is mandatory. Software that perform three dimensional reformatting of multislice tomographic images, allow for the study of the whole aorto-iliac axis and the perpendicular visualization of the origin of the renal arteries. The correct length of the proximal neck can be evaluated and adequate graft fixation and sealing may be foreseen. A technique is presented, using an software, for the orthogonal correction of the position of the renal arteries in relation to the proximal neck, which may guide the radioscopic orientation intraoperatively. Within a multiplanar tomographic image reconstruction, virtual triangulation allows for the three dimensional orthogonal correction of the renal arteries' ostia position. The predetermined best angulations for visualization are annotated and used for the positioning of the surgical C-arm. Some authors discuss that the anatomic position of the renal vessels seen on the tomographic scan can change during the surgical procedure. It is known that the renal arterys' angular positioning does not alter, even after insertion of stiff guidewires, introducers, and the endograft itself. Therefore, it is possible, using concepts of spacial geometry and orthogonal correction, to predict the ideal bidimensional intraoperative positioning of the radioscopy device in order to reproduce the optimized renal artery ostial projection, ensuring the best accuracy during endograft deployment. As closer to the tomographic reproduction was the radioscopic correction, more careful is the visualization of the ostium of the renal artery, better is the exploitation of the lap for fixing and sealing and the endoprosthesis deployment is more accurate.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: supravalvular aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Supravalvular aortic stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a heart defect that develops before ...

  14. Relation between bone mineral density and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Tohodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are the two important life threatening factors that cause morbidity and mortality. Previous studies had showed that bone mineral density is decreased with progression of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease is more common in the osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density and coronary artery stenosis in patients who underwent coronary angiography . Materials and Methods: In this study 197 patients (111female and 86 male that underwent coronary angiography and bone mineral densitometry were evaluated. According to angiographic data ,patients were divided to two group :first group had coronary stenosis in ≥50% in one or more major coronary arteries and second group with normal coronary artery or stenosis -1 as normal , T-score -1 to -2.5 as osteopenia, and T-score <-2.5 as osteoporosis were described. Finally the relationship between coronary artery stenosis and bone mineral density was evaluated by SPSS statistical software version 15 with using suitable statistical test. Results: The mean age of sample was 57±11.32. 33% of patients had osteoporosis in lumbar spine and 24.2% of them in femoral neck.Significant coronary artery stenosis were seen in 67.9% of patients. There were no significant difference between lumbar and hip bone mineral density in patients with significant coronary disease and subjects without coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There were no associations between coronary artery disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of this relationship.

  15. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, B.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805; Bergknut, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314418059

    2010-01-01

    Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 983-1009 (September 2010) Degenerative Lumbosacral Stenosis in Dogs Björn P. Meij, DVM, PhDa, Niklas Bergknut, DVM, MSab Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is the most common disorder of the caudal lumbar spine in dogs. This article reviews the management of this

  16. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  17. Coronary plaque quantification and fractional flow reserve by coronary computed tomography angiography identify ischaemia-causing lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaur, Sara; Øvrehus, Kristian Altern; Dey, Damini

    2016-01-01

    tomography angiography (CTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and lesion-specific ischaemia identified by FFR in a substudy of the NXT trial (Analysis of Coronary Blood Flow Using CT Angiography: Next Steps). METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary CTA stenosis, plaque volumes, FFRCT, and FFR were assessed...

  18. Coronary artery bypass grafts: assessment of graft patency and native coronary artery lesions using 16-slice MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauder, Norbert I.; Drosch, Tanja; Claussen, Claus D.; Kopp, Andreas F. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kuettner, Axel [Friedrich-Alexander-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schroeder, Stephen; Beck, Torsten [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Internal Medicine, Division Cardiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Stauder, Heidrun [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Tuebingen (Germany); Blumenstock, Gunnar [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Medical Information Processing, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 16-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in detection of stenosis of bypass grafts and native coronary arteries in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). ECG-gated contrast-enhanced MDCT using 12 x 0.75-mm collimation was performed in 20 patients with recurrent angina 4.75 years after undergoing CABG. A total of 50 grafts, 16 arterial and 34 venous, were examined. All graft and coronary segments were evaluated for stenosis in comparison with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Among the 80 arterial graft segments, 62 could be assessed (77.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for stenosis were 96.2%, 97.2%, 96.2%, and 97.2%, respectively. In a total of 180 venous graft segments, 167 could be assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for stenosis were 98.5%, 93.9%, 91.8%, and 98.9%, respectively. MDCT could assess 179 of 260 native coronary artery segments (68.8%).Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for stenosis were 92.1%, 76.9%, 87.5%, and 84.7%, respectively. Sixteen-slice MDCT provides excellent image quality and diagnostic accuracy in detection of graft and coronary artery lesions in patients with suspected graft dysfunction. (orig.)

  19. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Enhances Accelerative Wave Intensity in Coronary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Narayan

    Full Text Available The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA.Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003 and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001. The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002 and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01. Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55-280% (P<0.0001 increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27-509% (P = 0.001 increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity.Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis.

  20. Reproducibility of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in populations with low, intermediate, and high prevalence of coronary artery disease by multidetector computer tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina C; Linde, Jesper J; Fuchs, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    coronary segments were evaluated for overall image quality, evaluability, presence of CAD, coronary stenosis, plaque composition, plaque focality, and spotty calcification by four readers. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Fleiss' Kappa (κ) and intra-class correlation (ICC). Widely used clinical...... parameters (overall scan quality, presence of CAD, and determination of coronary stenosis) showed good agreement among the four readers, (ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.73, ICC = 0.74, respectively). When accounting for heart rate, body mass index, plaque location, and coronary stenosis above/below 50 %, interobserver....... Reproducibility estimates are influenced by heart rate, body size, plaque location, and degree of luminal stenosis....

  1. Neonatal aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, K; Bove, E L; Amato, J J; Iannettoni, M; Yeh, J; Cotroneo, J V; Galdieri, R J

    1990-04-01

    Aortic stenosis in the neonate has been associated in the past with a high operative mortality. As a result, in the current era of percutaneous balloon dilatation, the optimal mode of therapy remains controversial. An approach of stabilization with cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, was used at three institutions, and the results are presented. During the period 1983 to 1989, 40 neonates with isolated aortic stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus or coarctation of the aorta, or both, underwent operative therapy. Ages ranged from 1 to 30 days, median of 12 days, including 17 patients in the first week of life. There were 30 boys and 10 girls; weights ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 kg with a mean of 3.6 kg. Perioperative conditions included congestive heart failure in 38 and mitral regurgitation in 16; left ventricular-aortic gradients ranged from 15 to 130 mm Hg, with a mean of 67 mm Hg. There were 30 open valvotomies and 10 transventricular dilatations. The hospital survival rate was 87.5% (35/40) with no significant difference between the methods of valvotomy (9/10 in the transventricular dilatation group, 90%; 26/30 in the open valvotomy group, 87%). Although multiple methods of perfusion and valvotomy were used, the single unifying factor of cardiopulmonary bypass stabilization was present in all 40 patients. No significant difference in survival was noted between institutions, methods of cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiopulmonary bypass times, crossclamp times, or method of valvotomy. There have been five reoperations, with one late death in a patient requiring mitral valve replacement and an apical-aortic conduit. One sudden death occurred; autopsy revealed endocardial fibroelastosis. Results demonstrate that in the three institutions using the methods described, a high operative and late survival rate is possible. The results of this technique, against which percutaneous dilatation should be compared, are standard in

  2. Escore de cálcio coronariano prediz estenose e eventos na insuficiência renal crônica pré-transplante Score de calcio coronario predice estenosis y eventos en la insuficiencia renal crónica pre trasplante Coronary calcium score as predictor of stenosis and events in pretransplant renal chronic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Abraão Rosário

    2010-02-01

    as compared to quantitative invasive coronary angiography (ICA. METHODS: Ninety-seven (97 CRF patients aged > 35 were evaluated. Obstructive CAD was considered as >50% or >70% stenosis on ICA. Descriptive data, concordance, diagnostic tests, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analysis were used. RESULTS: Agatston mean score was 580.6 ± 1,102.2. Minimum and maximum values were 0 and 7,994, with median at 176. Only 14 patients had zero calcium score. No differences were reported in regard to ethnicity. Highest regional calcium was associated to the highest probability of coronary stenosis in the same segment. Agatston calcium score showed high accuracy for the diagnosis of >50% and >70% stenosis, with area under ROC curve (AUC of 0.75 and 0.70, respectively. At the threshold of 400, calcium score identified a subgroup with a higher rate of cardiovascular events at an average follow-up time of 29±11.0 months. CONCLUSION: CCS proved to have good diagnostic and prognostic performance for cardiovascular events evaluation in CRF patients.

  3. The relationship between renal artery stenosis and ischemic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghadimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic nephropathy is defined as a clinically significant progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate that is usually associated with significant renal artery stenosis (unilateral or bilateral involvement. Atherosclerotic renal artery disease is known as the most common cause of the ischemic nephropathy. These patients may develop secondary hypertension. In  addition, epidemiologic data has showed a clear association  between atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular disease. Despite the preserving function of kidney on various autoregulation processes, unusual microvascular function will be resulted due to sustained decline in renal perfusion. The ischemic nephropathy of asymptomatic cases may result in renovascular hypertension and renal failure. The reduction of renal function in these patients might be decreased or stopped by early appropriate diagnosis and also might be treated with renal artery angioplasty or surgery, after medical management. There is a debate about the occurrence of ischemic nephropathy as a result of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. In this study we aimed to review the prevalence of ischemic nephropathy due to atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

  4. Association of ischemic heart disease to global and regional longitudinal strain in asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helle Gervig; Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Hassager, Christian

    2015-01-01

    independent of aortic valve area, stroke volume index, pro-BNP, valvulo-arterial impedance, body mass index and heart rate. In linear regression models with both aortic valve area and significant coronary stenosis, apical (p ...Longitudinal deformation has been shown to deteriorate with progressive aortic stenosis as well as ischemic heart disease. Despite that both conditions share risk factors and are often coexisting, studies have not assessed the influence on longitudinal deformation for both conditions simultaneously....... Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between subclinical ischemic heart disease and global and regional longitudinal strain in asymptomatic patients with significant aortic stenosis. Prevalent patients with a diagnosis of aortic stenosis at six hospitals in the Greater...

  5. Using coronary CT angiography for guiding invasive coronary angiography: potential role to reduce intraprocedural radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Christophe T; Tischendorf, Patricia; Wichmann, Julian L; Messerli, Michael; Jörg, Lucas; Ehl, Niklas; Gohmann, Robin F; Wildermuth, Simon; Vogl, Thomas J; Bauer, Ralf W

    2018-02-07

    We investigated the potential reduction of patient exposure during invasive coronary angiography (ICA) if the procedure had only been directed to the vessel with at least one ≥ 50% stenosis as described in the CT report. Dose reports of 61 patients referred to ICA because of at least one ≥ 50% stenosis on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were included. Dose-area product (DAP) was documented separately for left (LCA) and right coronary arteries (RCA) by summing up the single DAP for each angiographic projection. The study population was subdivided as follows: coronary intervention of LCA (group 1) or RCA (group 2) only, or of both vessels (group 3), or further bypass grafting (group 4), or no further intervention (group 5). 57.4% of the study population could have benefitted from reduced exposure if catheterization had been directly guided to the vessel of interest as described on CCTA. Mean relative DAP reductions were as follows: group 1 (n = 18), 11.2%; group 2 (n = 2), 40.3%; group 3 (n = 10), 0%; group 4 (n = 3), 0%; group 5 (n = 28), 28.8%. Directing ICA to the vessel with stenosis as described on CCTA would reduce intraprocedural patient exposure substantially, especially for patients with single-vessel stenosis. • Patients with CAD can benefit from decreased radiation exposure during coronary angiography. • ICA should be directed solely to significant stenoses as described on CCTA. • Severely calcified plaques remain a limitation of CCTA leading to unnecessary ICA referrals.

  6. Does coronary vasodilation after adenosine override endothelin-1-induced coronary vasoconstriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghin, Catalin; Sdringola, Stefano; Gould, K Lance

    2007-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is a powerful coronary vasoconstrictor that is overexpressed in coronary artery disease. Adenosine is a powerful coronary vasodilator used for myocardial perfusion imaging to identify flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis. Therefore, in an animal model we tested the hypothesis that intracoronary endothelin-1 may cause myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography (PET) at resting conditions that may persist or only partially improve after intravenous adenosine stress in the absence of myocardial scar and flow-limiting stenosis. Fourteen dogs underwent serial PET perfusion imaging with rubidium-82 before and after subselective intracoronary infusion of endothelin-1, followed by intravenous and then intracoronary adenosine. Small physiological doses of endothelin-1 infused into the mid-left circumflex coronary artery caused quantitatively significant resting perfusion abnormalities that normalized after intracoronary adenosine but not consistently after intravenous adenosine used for diagnostic imaging. After effects of adenosine abated, resting perfusion defects returned, lasting up to 5 h in some animals. Cumulative doses of endothelin-1 caused perfusion defects that did not normalize after intravenous adenosine. In an animal model without myocardial scar or flow-limiting stenosis, intracoronary endothelin-1 causes visually apparent, quantitatively significant, long-lasting myocardial perfusion defects at resting conditions that may persist or only partially improve after intravenous adenosine used for diagnostic imaging. These results may potentially explain resting perfusion abnormalities or heterogeneity by clinical PET that may persist or only partially improve after adenosine stress perfusion imaging in the absence of myocardial scar and flow-limiting stenosis.

  7. Coronary CT angiography and MR angiography of Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Poongnap-2dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea); Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-07-15

    Although the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms has diminished in patients with Kawasaki disease, coronary artery involvement is still regarded as a major complication of the disease, significantly affecting morbidity and mortality. Recent technical advances in coronary CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) have led to the possibility of using these two imaging methods as minimally invasive alternatives to the more invasive diagnostic catheter angiography in evaluating coronary artery abnormalities, such as aneurysm, stenosis, and occlusion. In this article, we describe imaging techniques and findings of coronary CTA and MRA in Kawasaki disease. (orig.)

  8. Acute coronary syndrome in a 100-year-old woman treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęćkowski, Maciej; Szwed, Hanna; Ciszewski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 100-year-old woman living alone with ST-elevation myocardial infarction acute coronary syndrome of the infero-lateral wall treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary angiography revealed critical 99% stenosis in the marginal branch of the circumflex artery and insignificant lesions in other arteries. Two bare metal stents were implanted successfully in the same session. The patient was discharged home in good general condition, able to live and function independently. PMID:24570714

  9. The proper use of coronary calcium score and coronary computed tomography angiography for screening asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Shee Yen; Chang, Po-Yen; Lao, Wilson T; Lin, Ying Chin; Chung, Yi-Han; Chan, Wing P

    2017-12-15

    Early detection and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) can reduce incidences of acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we determined the proper use of contributing risk factors and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) when screening asymptomatic patients with coronary arterial stenoses using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We reviewed 934 consecutive patients who received CACS and CCTA between December 2013 and November 2016. At least one cardiovascular disease risk factor was present in each of the 509 asymptomatic participants. Patients were grouped based on CACS into "zero," "minimal" (0  400). Males over 45 years old with diabetes mellitus and hypertension had a higher risk of significant coronary stenosis. In multivariate analysis, age, sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus remained significant predictors of stenosis. A CACS of zero occurred in 227 patients (44.6%). There were no significant differences between the "zero" and "minimal" groups (p = 0.421), but the "mild," "moderate," and "excessive" groups showed correlations with significant coronary stenosis. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were associated with higher risk of significant coronary stenosis. Asymptomatic patients with CACSs of zero do not require CCTA, and thereby avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.

  10. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwankong, N.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLS) is now recognized as a significant cause of caudal lumbar pain and pelvic limb lameness in dogs. The condition includes lumbosacral intervertebral disc degeneration and protrusion, spondylosis deformans, sclerosis of the vertebral end plates, osteoarthrosis of

  11. Multidetector computed tomography imaging of coronary artery anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Güray, Yeşim; Altınsoy, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of coronary artery anomalies and to demonstrate in which cases multidetector computed tomography has an additional clinical value compared with the conventional angiography. A total of 2375 multidetector computed tomography studies were retrospectively reviewed to determine the dominance of the coronary artery anomalies. The classification of coronary artery anomalies was made according to anatomical criteria--origin, course, intrinsic anatomy, and termination--and clinical relevance--benign versus malignant. The coronary artery system was right dominant in 83.99%, left dominant in 8.0%, and co-dominant in 9.01% of the cases. The incidence of the origin and/or course anomalies was 1.76%, that of fistulas was 0.42%, and that of myocardial bridges was 10.82%. Multidetector computed tomography was performed after conventional angiography in 23 cases and it provided additional information regarding its origin and proximal course, as well as its relationship with the aortic root and main pulmonary trunk in 100% of the cases; eight malignant cases were found. In addition, in all of (100%) the six cases with coronary artery fistulas, conventional angiography failed to detect their terminations, which were clearly depicted by multidetector computed tomography. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography is superior to conventional angiography in delineating the ostial origin and proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries. Furthermore, it reveals the exact relationship of anomalous coronary arteries with the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Anomalies of the intrinsic anatomy and the termination of coronary arteries are also better visualised with multidetector computed tomography.

  12. Coronary Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other organ or ... the heart by its own vascular system, called coronary circulation. The aorta (the main blood supplier to the ...

  13. Computational simulation of postoperative pulmonary flow distribution in Alagille patients with peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiguang; Hanley, Frank L; Chan, Frandics P; Marsden, Alison L; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E; Feinstein, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-01

    Up to 90% of individuals with Alagille syndrome have congenital heart diseases. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS), resulting in right ventricular hypertension and pulmonary flow disparity, is one of the most common abnormalities, yet the hemodynamic effects are ill-defined, and optimal patient management and treatment strategies are not well established. The purpose of this pilot study is to use recently refined computational simulation in the setting of multiple surgical strategies, to examine the influence of pulmonary artery reconstruction on hemodynamics in this population. Based on computed tomography angiography and cardiac catheterization data, preoperative pulmonary artery models were constructed for 4 patients with Alagille syndrome with PPS (all male, age range: 0.6-2.9 years), and flow simulations with deformable walls were performed. Surgeon directed virtual surgery, mimicking the surgical procedure, was then performed to derive postoperative models. Postoperative simulation-derived hemodynamics and blood flow distribution were then compared with the clinical results. Simulations confirmed substantial resistance, resulting from preoperative severe ostial stenoses, and the use of newly developed adaptive outflow boundary conditions led to excellent agreement with in vivo measurements. Relief of PPS decreased pulmonary artery pressures and improved pulmonary flow distribution both in vivo and in silico with good correlation. Using adaptive outflow boundary conditions, computational simulations can estimate postoperative overall pulmonary flow distribution in patients with Alagille syndrome after pulmonary artery reconstruction. Obstruction relief along with pulmonary artery vasodilation determines postoperative pulmonary flow distribution and newer methods can incorporate these physiologic changes. Evolving blood flow simulations may be useful in surgical or transcatheter planning and in understanding the complex interplay among various

  14. Neonatal aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Benson, Lee N

    2005-09-01

    Neonatal aortic stenosis is a complex and heterogeneous condition, defined as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at valvular level, presenting and often requiring treatment in the first month of life. Initial presentation may be catastrophic, necessitating hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic resuscitation. Subsequent management is focused on maintaining systemic blood flow, either via a univentricular Norwood palliation or a biventricular route, in which the effective aortic valve area is increased by balloon dilation or surgical valvotomy. In infants with aortic annular hypoplasia but adequately sized left ventricle, the Ross-Konno procedure is also an attractive option. Outcomes after biventricular management have improved in recent years as a consequence of better patient selection, perioperative management and advances in catheter technology. Exciting new developments are likely to significantly modify the natural history of this disorder, including fetal intervention for the salvage of the hypoplastic left ventricle; 3D echocardiography providing better definition of valve morphology and aiding patient selection for a surgical or catheter-based intervention; and new transcutaneous approaches, such as duel beam echo, to perforate the valve.

  15. Coronary bypass grafting without use of cardiopulmonary bypass for dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujanovic, Emir; Bergsland, Jacob; Tursic, Ademir; Stanimirovic-Mujanovic, Sanja; Kabil, Emir

    2011-01-01

    Dextrocardia is a condition in which the heart is pointed toward the right side of the chest instead of normally pointing to the left. The rate of atherosclerotic heart disease in subjects with this condition is similar to that of the general population. We present a patient with situs inversus totalis with dextrocardia who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting without use of cardiopulmonary bypass (OPCAB). A 74-year-old man who was known to have dextrocardia with situs inversus was admitted to the hospital because of angina. Coronary angiography was performed and showed ostial occlusion of the left anterior descendng artery (LAD) unsuitable for percutaneous coronary interventions but collatereralised from the right coronary artery. Patient underwent OPCAB under general anestesia. Right internal mammary artery was anastomosed to LAD on the beating heart with the surgeon standing on the right side of the patient. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 6th postoperative day in good condition. Performing OPCAB surgery is not technically more demanding, and present no unusual challenge on patients with dextrocardia.

  16. Management options for coronary microvascular dysfunction: Present status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Ram Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary micro vessels are not visible on coronary angiography. These include prearterioles, arterioles, and capillaries. Significant number of patients of angina have coronary microvascular dysfunction alone or in combination with stenosis and/or spasm of epicardial coronary arteries. Its management is challenging. Several different therapeutic options have been tried with variable success. The present review provides overview of the available evidence with various therapeutic modalities for the treatment of microvascular angina.

  17. Long-term outcome of FFR-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease in daily clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Biasco, Luigi; Lønborg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the strength of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in daily practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this study, 3,512 patients with stable CAD and at least one 50-89% coronary stenosis...

  18. Ureteral Stenosis of Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklusica J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ureteral stenosis is one of the most commonly reported urological complications after kidney transplantation. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the risk factors for ureteral stenosis (type of donor, age of donor, presence of interior polar arteria, unilateral dual transplantation, diabetes mellitus of the recipient and the donor, BK positivity, child recipient, cold ischaemia time, and delayed graft function, as well as the causes and types of treating ureteral stenoses. Results: In the group of 278 patients, the occurrence was 7.2 %. The medial of occurrence of ureteral stenoses was 24.6 months. The independent risk factor for ureteral stenosis in our group was the age of the donor ≥ 70 years [HR 6.5833; 95 % CI 2.2448-19,3070 (P = 0.0006], BK positivity [HR 13.6667; 95 % CI 6.9127-27.0196 (P 1080 min [HR 4.0368; 95 % CI 1.7250-9,4465 (P = 0.0013], and diabetes mellitus in the donor’s history [HR 16.2667; 95 % CI 7.8629-33.6525 (P <0.0001]. The most frequent type of treating the ureteral stenosis in our group was retroureteroneocystostomy. After surgical treatment, we recorded no recurrence of stenosis. Conclusion: In our analysis, the confirmed independent risk factor was diabetes mellitus of the donor. However, further monitoring and analyses of large groups of patients are necessary. Surgical treatment of ureteral stenosis is safe. However, the most important momentum in surgical treatment of ureteral stenosis still remains the surgeon´s experience in the given type of treatment.

  19. Hemodynamic diagnostics of epicardial coronary stenoses: in-vitro experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Ashtekar, Koustubh D; Helmy, Tarek A; Effat, Mohamed A; Back, Lloyd H; Khoury, Saeb F

    2008-08-27

    The severity of epicardial coronary stenosis can be assessed by invasive measurements of trans-stenotic pressure drop and flow. A pressure or flow sensor-tipped guidewire inserted across the coronary stenosis causes an overestimation in true trans-stenotic pressure drop and reduction in coronary flow. This may mask the true severity of coronary stenosis. In order to unmask the true severity of epicardial stenosis, we evaluate a diagnostic parameter, which is obtained from fundamental fluid dynamics principles. This experimental and numerical study focuses on the characterization of the diagnostic parameter, pressure drop coefficient, and also evaluates the pressure recovery downstream of stenoses. Three models of coronary stenosis namely, moderate, intermediate and severe stenosis, were manufactured and tested in the in-vitro set-up simulating the epicardial coronary network. The trans-stenotic pressure drop and flow distal to stenosis models were measured by non-invasive method, using external pressure and flow sensors, and by invasive method, following guidewire insertion across the stenosis. The viscous and momentum-change components of the pressure drop for various flow rates were evaluated from quadratic relation between pressure drop and flow. Finally, the pressure drop coefficient (CDPe) was calculated as the ratio of pressure drop and distal dynamic pressure. The pressure recovery factor (eta) was calculated as the ratio of pressure recovery coefficient and the area blockage. The mean pressure drop-flow characteristics before and during guidewire insertion indicated that increasing stenosis causes a shift in dominance from viscous pressure to momentum forces. However, for intermediate (approximately 80%) area stenosis, which is between moderate (approximately 65%) and severe (approximately 90%) area stenoses, both losses were similar in magnitude. Therefore, guidewire insertion plays a critical role in evaluating the hemodynamic severity of coronary

  20. Noninvasive Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease: Fractional Flow Reserved Derived from Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (FFRCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rațiu Mihaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive coronary angiography (ICA completed by fractional flow reserve (FFR assessment represents the main procedure that is performed in the decision process for coronary revascularization. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA is an effective method used in the noninvasive anatomic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD. However, CCTA tends to overestimate and does not offer hemodynamic data about the coronary lesions. Recent progresses made in the research involving computational fluid dynamics and image modeling permit the evaluation of FFRCT noninvasively, using data obtained in a standard CCTA. Studies have shown an improved precision and discrimination of FFRCT compared to CCTA for the diagnosis of significant coronary artery stenosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the role of CCTA in CAD evaluation, the impact of FFRCT, the scientific basis of this novel method and its potential clinical applications.

  1. Acute coronary syndrome without critical epicardial coronary disease: prevalence, characteristics, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Wong, Vincent; Brunelli, Michele; von Korn, Hubertus; Farah, Ahmed; Memisevic, Nedim; Richter, Stefan; Tukhiashvili, Ketevan; Lauer, Bernward

    2015-02-01

    Absence of significant epicardial coronary artery stenosis in patients with acute onset of chest pain and elevation of myocardial necrosis markers is occasionally observed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics and the outcome of such patients. All patients with myocardial infarction (MI) but without significant coronary artery stenosis (≥50%) on angiography from May 2002 to April 2011 were compared with patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention due to non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). Of 4311 consecutive patients with MI, 272 patients (6.3%) did not show significant coronary artery stenosis (group I) and were compared with 253 NSTEMI patients (group II). Younger age (61.9±14.0 vs 65.4±12.0 years; P=.003), female sex (49.3% vs 28.9%; Pcoronary stenosis accounts for a minority of patients presenting with MI and is associated with a better outcome compared to patients with NSTEMI, and the prognosis is inversely related to the troponin level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Usefulness of the Electrocardiogram in Predicting Cardiovascular Mortality in Asymptomatic Adults With Aortic Stenosis (from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders M; Dalsgaard, Morten; Bang, Casper N

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension and coronary heart disease are common in aortic stenosis (AS) and may impair prognosis for similar AS severity. Different changes in the electrocardiogram may be reflective of the separate impacts of AS, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, which could lead to enhanced risk...... stratification in AS. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if combining prognostically relevant electrocardiographic (ECG) findings improves prediction of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic AS. All patients with baseline electrocardiograms in the SEAS study were included. The primary end point...

  3. Coronary artery atherosclerosis associated with shift work in chemical plant workers by using coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WonYang; Park, Won-Ju; Jang, Keun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Gwon, Do-Hyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sung; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work is related to elevated risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by determining the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the presence of coronary artery stenosis by using coronary artery CT angiography (CCTA). In this study, 110 male workers participated and underwent a CCTA examination for CAC scoring, which represents coronary artery plaque, and were evaluated for luminal stenosis. All of the participants were working in the same chemical plant, of whom 70 worked day shifts and 40 worked rotating shifts. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise and waist circumference, shift work was associated with a 2.89-fold increase in the odds of developing coronary plaque compared with day work (OR, 2.89; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.82). The association between shift work and coronary plaque was strong after adjustment for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.92; 95% CI 1.02 to 8.33). In addition, the number of years of shift work employment was associated with coronary plaque. However, no association was found between shift work and coronary artery stenosis. Shift work could induce CAD onset via the atherosclerotic process, and shift work employment duration was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis in male workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hagen

    2012-04-01

    identified. The first addressed ethical aspects regarding the principles of beneficence, autonomy and justice, and the second addressed those regarding radiation exposition, especially when used within studies.Discussion: The discriminatory power of CT coronary angiography to identify patients with obstructive (above 50 % coronary stenoses should be regarded as “high diagnostic evidence”, to identify patients without coronary stenoses as “persuasive diagnostic evidence”. The discriminatory power of both types of coronary angiography to identify patients with or without functionally relevant coronary stenoses should be regarded as “weak diagnostic evidence”. It can be assumed that patients with a high pretest probability of CHD will need invasive coronary angiography and patients with a low pretest probability of CHD will not need subsequent revascularisation. Therefore, CT coronary angiography may be used before performing invasive coronary angiography in patients with an intermediate pretest probability of CHD. For identifying or excluding of obstructive coronary stenosis, CT coronary angiography was shown to be more cost-saving at a pretest probability of CHD of 50 % or lower, and invasive coronary angiography at a pretest probability of CHD of 70 % or higher. The use of both types of coronary angiography to identify or to exclude functionally relevant coronary stenoses should be regarded as highly cost-consuming. With regard to ethical, social or legal aspects, the following possible implications were identified: under-provision or over-provision of health care, unnecessary complications, anxiety, social stigmatisation, restriction of self-determination, unequal access to health care, unfair resource distribution and legal disputes.Conclusion: From a medical point of view, CT coronary angiography using scanners with at least 64 slices should be recommended as a test to rule out obstructive coronary stenoses in order to avoid inappropriate invasive coronary

  5. Carotid artery stenosis -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000717.htm Carotid artery stenosis - self-care To use the sharing features on ... feel their pulse under your jawline. Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or ...

  6. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on the stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic ateriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Min; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su; Kang, Jin MMo; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seonam University College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCF) for hemodialysis and to determine the factors influencing patency. This retrospective study included 136 patients referred for PTA of RCF stenosis between March 2005 and July 2014. The technical success rate, complications, and patency rate were evaluated. The following factors were analyzed as they might influence patency: age, gender, site and duration of arteriovenous fistula, underlying disease, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, peripheral artery or coronary artery occlusive disease, stenosis length/grade, cutting balloon, and balloon size. The initial technical success rate was 91.9% (125/136). Complications included vessel rupture (n = 2) and vessel dissection (n = 2). The patency rates at 6, 12, 24, and 48 months after PTA were 81.9, 67.1, 52.7, and 42.3%, respectively. The patency rate was higher in cases with longer (> 3 cm) stenosis (p = 0.04). Use of cutting balloon and larger size of balloon catheter made the patency longer, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.637, 0.258). PTA is a safe and effective way to manage stenosis in RCF. The length of stenosis was the only factor which affected the patency rate in this study.

  7. [Management of aortic stenosis in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Vincent; Ederhy, Stéphane; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Cohen, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis (valve area angina, syncope, or heart failure). Before any surgery, clinical assessment should search for signs of aortic stenosis which justifies echocardiographic examination, particularly in the elderly. A systematic rest echocardiography with searching aortic stenosis should be considered in patients undergoing high risk surgery. The key points of pre-operative cardiac risk assessment are: assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis, measurement of the functional capacity, evaluation of the left ventricular systolic function, search of associated coronary artery disease, estimate of the surgical risk of cardiac events, and achievement of risk indices. In symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, only urgent non-cardiac surgery should be performed under careful haemodynamic monitoring. Aortic valve replacement should be considered before elective non-cardiac surgery. In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement should be considered before non-cardiac high risk surgery. Non-cardiac surgery at low/intermediate risk can be performed provided an adapted anaesthetic technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemodynamic diagnostics of epicardial coronary stenoses: in-vitro experimental and computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Mohamed A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The severity of epicardial coronary stenosis can be assessed by invasive measurements of trans-stenotic pressure drop and flow. A pressure or flow sensor-tipped guidewire inserted across the coronary stenosis causes an overestimation in true trans-stenotic pressure drop and reduction in coronary flow. This may mask the true severity of coronary stenosis. In order to unmask the true severity of epicardial stenosis, we evaluate a diagnostic parameter, which is obtained from fundamental fluid dynamics principles. This experimental and numerical study focuses on the characterization of the diagnostic parameter, pressure drop coefficient, and also evaluates the pressure recovery downstream of stenoses. Methods Three models of coronary stenosis namely, moderate, intermediate and severe stenosis, were manufactured and tested in the in-vitro set-up simulating the epicardial coronary network. The trans-stenotic pressure drop and flow distal to stenosis models were measured by non-invasive method, using external pressure and flow sensors, and by invasive method, following guidewire insertion across the stenosis. The viscous and momentum-change components of the pressure drop for various flow rates were evaluated from quadratic relation between pressure drop and flow. Finally, the pressure drop coefficient (CDPe was calculated as the ratio of pressure drop and distal dynamic pressure. The pressure recovery factor (η was calculated as the ratio of pressure recovery coefficient and the area blockage. Results The mean pressure drop-flow characteristics before and during guidewire insertion indicated that increasing stenosis causes a shift in dominance from viscous pressure to momentum forces. However, for intermediate (~80% area stenosis, which is between moderate (~65% and severe (~90% area stenoses, both losses were similar in magnitude. Therefore, guidewire insertion plays a critical role in evaluating the hemodynamic severity of

  9. Heart failure in which coronary spasms played an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinsuke; Fujii, Yuichi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Toyota, Yasushi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Teragawa, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted for further examinations and treatment of chest pain. Emergency cardiac catheterization showed no significant stenosis on coronary angiograms; however, diffuse wall hypokinesis was observed on a left ventriculogram. After treating the patient's heart failure, cardiac catheterization was performed again. A spasm provocation test showed coronary spasms of the right and left coronary arteries. A right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed denaturation and fibrosis of the myocardium under the endocardium, thus suggesting the presence of myocardial ischemia. This case highlights coronary spasms as a cause of heart failure.

  10. Differences in sex, angiographic frequency, and parameters in patients with coronary artery anomalies: single-center screening of 25 368 patients by coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Ibrahim; Sayin, Muhammet R; Karabag, Turgut; Gursoy, Yusuf C; Kucuk, Emrah; Kiran, Sibel; Dogan, Sait M; Aydin, Mustafa

    2013-06-01

    Although the prevalence of coronary artery anomalies varies in different series, the precise population frequency is unknown. The medical records of all patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2002 and August 2012 were retrieved, and 238 cases with coronary anomalies were evaluated. Unlike other studies, we compared several angiographic parameters (fluoroscopy time, number of images, and catheters used) in addition to frequency and sex data. The angiographic frequency of coronary artery anomalies was 0.94%. The most common coronary anomaly was a left anterior descending-circumflex artery originating from separate ostia (0.29%). The second most common anomaly was a right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left sinus of Valsalva (sV) (0.23%). Overall, coronary artery anomalies (1.28 vs. 0.80%; P<0.001) and a left anterior descending-circumflex artery originating from separate ostia (41.3 vs. 25.3%, P=0.010) were more frequent in women than in men. The percentage of patients requiring more than two catheters during the procedure was significantly higher for an RCA originating from the left sV (45.7 vs. 16.7%, P<0.001) and in hypertensive patients (85.7 vs. 70.8%, P=0.015). On comparing the three most common coronary anomalies, an anomalous RCA originating from the left sV had a significantly higher value for at least one angiographic parameter. An anomalous RCA originating from the left sV is the most difficult type of anomaly to perform the ostial coronary cannulation during procedure. The results of this study may lead to the development of more suitable diagnostic catheters for an anomalous RCA originating from the left sV.

  11. Familial idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Lilam

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiographic features of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS are described. Systolic anterior motion (SAM of anterior mitral leaflet and asymetric septal hypertrophy (ASH are considered as the diagnostic criteria of IHSS. Effects of amyl nitrite and propranolol-a beta blocker are studied. Echocardio-graphic screening of family members revealed this as a case of fami-lial IHSS.

  12. Coronary heart disease risk assessment and characterization of coronary artery disease using coronary CT angiography: comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y., E-mail: yookkim@ewha.ac.k [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, I.-M. [Division of Cardiology in Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, J.; Park, H. [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and assess plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and ninety consecutive patients [asymptomatic group, n = 138; symptomatic group (atypical or non-anginal chest pain), n = 252] were retrospectively enrolled. They were subsequently classified into three CHD risk categories, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, and 10 year risks of coronary events were calculated using Framingham risk score. CT was evaluated for stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary calcium scores. Results: CAD was observed in 42% of the asymptomatic group and 62% of the symptomatic group. In the former, the prevalence of CAD in low-, moderate- and high-risk subgroups was 21.4, 47.4 and 65%, respectively, and was 33.3, 74.4, and 72.4% in the symptomatic group. Framingham 10-year risks of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than in normal participants, and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that discriminatory power was poor in the asymptomatic group and symptomatic men, and good in symptomatic women. Of the participants in the asymptomatic group, 12% exhibited only non-calcified plaques and of the symptomatic group, 7% exhibited only non-calcified plaques. The coronary calcium score was significantly higher for significant stenosis than for non-significant stenosis in both groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD was not negligible even in subgroups with low-to-moderate CHD risk. Additionally, the Framingham risk score was effective for predicting CAD only in symptomatic women. Coronary calcium scores correlated with significant stenosis; however, a sizeable percentage of both groups had only non-calcified plaques.

  13. The prevalence and clinical predictors of incidental atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Ugur [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana/Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail: radugur@yahoo.com; Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana/Turkey (Turkey); Nursal, Tarik Z. [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara/Turkey (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of incidental renal artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Materials and methods: To determine renal artery stenosis, aortofemoropopliteal digital substraction angiographies (DSA) of 629 consecutive patients with PAD were prospectively reviewed. Angiographies were performed as catheter angiography with automated pump injection. Of the patients, 540 were male (86%) and 89 female (14%) (mean age {+-} S.D.: 61.5 {+-} 11.1 years). Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association of significant renal artery stenosis ({>=}60% diameter stenosis) with patient demographics (age, sex, reason for angiography and smoking status), medical history (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery disease), laboratory values (blood creatinine, fasting glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol) and distribution of PAD (aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and crural diseases and multisegment involvement). Results: Renal artery disease was found in 33% (207 of 629) of all patients with peripheral arterial disease, and 9.6% of patients (n = 60) had significant ({>=}60%) renal artery stenosis. Only age and hypertension (blood pressure systolic >140 mmHg or diastolic >90 mmHg) were independent risk factors for significant renal artery stenosis on multivariate analysis. Mean age of patients with RAS was 66.5 {+-} 8.9 years compared with 61 {+-} 11.2 years for patients without RAS (p < 0.001). Hypertension was found in 41% of the patients in control group and in 63% of the patients in RAS group (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Incidental renal artery stenosis which can be mild or significant is a relatively common finding among patients with peripheral arterial disease. Advance age and hypertension are closely associated with significant renal artery stenosis.

  14. Duplex ultrasonography in the detection of celiac axis stenosis: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Min; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Young Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Chung, Jin Wook [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-01

    To assess the predictive value of duplex ultrasonography in the detection of celiac axis (CA) stenosis. In 127 patients designated for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), lateral aortography for the evaluation of CA stenosis was performed between January and October 2001. Thirty-nine of these patients [M:F=30:9; age, 44-75 (mean, 62) years] underwent CA duplex scanning in the supine position using 2-4 MHz convex probes. CA diameters obtained at lateral aortography were subsequently measured by two radiologists, unaware of the duplex results, and the original duplex velocity values were determined using velocity criteria such as peak systolic velocity (PSV), peak diastolic velocity (PDV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV). CA stenosis was confirmed at lateral aortography in 13 patients (M:F=10:3), in all of whom CA stenosis was greater than 50%. PSV in the CA stenosis group (n=13) was 283{+-}96 cm/sec, PDV was 85{+-}49 cm/sec, and EDV was 55{+-}33 cm/sec, while the corresponding values in the normal CA group were 161{+-}55 cm/sec, 59{+-}21 cm/sec, and 32{+-}9 cm/sec, respectively. PSV was significantly different between the normal and stenosis groups (p<0.01). A threshold of PSV > 250 cm/sec provided high diagnostic accuracy in terms of sensitivity (77%), specificity (85%), positive predictive valve (71%), negative predictive value (88%) and accuracy (82%). EDV > 50 cm/sec provided lower sensitivity (46%), but higher specificity (96%). The most accurate predictive factor for celiac axis (CA) stenosis was increased PSV. Duplex ultrasonography can be used prior to angiographic evaluation as a screening test for patients in whom CA stenosis is suspected.

  15. Multimorbidity in Older Adults with Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Patel, Jay N

    2016-05-01

    Aortic stenosis is a disease of older adults; many have associated comorbidities. With the aging of the population and the emergence of transcatheter aortic valve replacement as a treatment, clinicians will increasingly be confronted with aortic stenosis and multimorbidity, making the evaluation, management, and treatment of aortic stenosis more complex. To optimize patient-centered clinical outcomes, new treatment paradigms are needed that recognize the import and influence of multimorbidity on patients with aortic stenosis. The authors review the prevalence of medical and aging-related comorbidities in patients with aortic stenosis, their impact on outcomes, and discuss how they influence management and treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Statins for progression of aortic valve stenosis and the best evidence for making decisions in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Thiago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Western world, calcified aortic valve stenosis is the most common form of valvular heart disease, affecting up to 3% of adults over the age of 75 years. It is a gradually progressive disease, characterized by a long asymptomatic phase that may last for several decades, followed by a short symptomatic phase associated with severe restriction of the valve orifice. Investigations on treatments for aortic valve stenosis are still in progress. Thus, it is believed that calcification of aortic valve stenosis is similar to the process of atherosclerosis that occurs in coronary artery disease. Recent studies have suggested that cholesterol lowering through the use of statins may have a salutary effect on the progression of aortic valve stenosis

  17. A randomized clinical trial comparing long-term clopidogrel vs aspirin monotherapy beyond dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation: Design and rationale of the Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis-Extended Antiplatelet Monotherapy (HOST-EXAM) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesun; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Park, Kyung Woo; Shin, Eun-Seok; Lim, Sang Wook; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang-Whan; Jeon, Dong Woon; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Hur, Seung-Ho; Kim, Bum-Su; Lee, Jung-Hee; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been developed by drug-eluting stent (DES), but stent implantation has brought the issue of stent thrombosis and optimal antiplatelet therapy. Guidelines recommend at least 6- to 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor such as clopidogrel. Beyond DAPT after PCI with DES, however, there has been still a debate for antiplatelet regimen. Therefore, we report on the upcoming HOST-EXAM trial (NCT02044250), which will evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapies beyond DAPT after DES implantation. The HOST-EXAM is a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter, comparative effectiveness trial, to compare between clopidogrel (75 mg once daily) and aspirin (100 mg once daily) as long-term antiplatelet agents. A total of 5,530 patients with no clinical events during combined antiplatelet therapy for 12±6 months after index PCI will be screened, enrolled, and randomized to either group (1:1 ratio) receiving antiplatelet monotherapy for 2 years. The primary endpoint will be the rate of clinical events defined as a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission due to acute coronary syndrome, or major bleeding at 24 months after randomization. The HOST-EXAM will be the first large-scale randomized controlled study to directly compare the efficacy and safety of long-term antiplatelet monotherapy beyond DAPT after DES implantation. This study will provide clinical evidence to establish optimal regimen for long-term antiplatelet therapy after DES implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of significant carotid artery stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabili K

    2011-10-01

    patients had a history of coronary artery disease, six patients had hypertension, and ten patients had diabetes mellitus. Significant ICA stenosis was present in four patients (4.2% with peripheral arterial disease in one healthy individual (1% of the control group (P > 0.05. In terms of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, no statistically significant relationship was found between individual atherosclerotic risk factors and significant ICA stenosis (P > 0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of significant ICA stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease is low. In addition, there is no relationship between individual atherosclerotic risk factors and significant ICA stenosis.Keywords: carotid artery stenosis, atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, Iranian

  19. Assessment of coronary artery disease by post-mortem cardiac MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruder, Thomas D., E-mail: thomas.ruder@irm.uzh.ch [Center of Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bauer-Kreutz, Regula [Department of Forensic Pathology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia [Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Rosskopf, Andrea B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Pilgrim, Thomas M. [Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, University Hospital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Weber, Oliver M. [Siemens Switzerland AG, Healthcare Sector, CH-3007 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Hatch, Gary M. [Center of Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Objectives: Minimally invasive or virtual autopsies are being advocated as alternative to traditional autopsy, but have limited abilities to detect coronary artery disease. It was the objective of this study to assess if the occurrence of chemical shift artifacts (CSA) along the coronary arteries on non-contrast, post-mortem cardiac MR may be used to investigate coronary artery disease. Methods: We retrospectively compared autopsy and CT findings of 30 cases with significant (≥75%), insignificant (<75%), or absent coronary artery stenosis to post-mortem cardiac MR findings. The chi-square test was used to investigate if the occurrence of CSA depends on the presence or absence of stenosis. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for each finding. Results: CSA indicates the absence of (significant) stenosis (p < 0.001). The occurrence of paired dark bands in lieu of CSA on post-mortem cardiac MR suggests (significant) coronary arteries stenosis (p < 0.001). Both findings have a high specificity but low sensitivity. Conclusions: CSA is a marker of vessel patency. The presence of paired dark bands indicates stenosis. These criteria improve the ability of minimally invasive or virtual autopsy to detect coronary artery disease related deaths.

  20. Reproducibility of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in populations with low, intermediate, and high prevalence of coronary artery disease by multidetector computer tomography: a guide to reliable visual coronary plaque assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Martina C; Linde, Jesper J; Fuchs, Andreas; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Køber, Lars V; Hove, Jens D; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the interobserver agreement of visual coronary plaque characteristics by 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in three populations with low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence and to identify determinants for the reproducible assessment of these plaque characteristics. 150 patients, 50 asymptomatic subjects from the general population (low CAD prevalence), 50 symptomatic non-acute coronary syndrome (non-ACS) patients (intermediate CAD prevalence), and 50 ACS patients (high CAD prevalence), matched according to age and gender, were retrospectively enrolled. All coronary segments were evaluated for overall image quality, evaluability, presence of CAD, coronary stenosis, plaque composition, plaque focality, and spotty calcification by four readers. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Fleiss' Kappa (κ) and intra-class correlation (ICC). Widely used clinical parameters (overall scan quality, presence of CAD, and determination of coronary stenosis) showed good agreement among the four readers, (ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.73, ICC = 0.74, respectively). When accounting for heart rate, body mass index, plaque location, and coronary stenosis above/below 50 %, interobserver agreement for plaque composition, presence of CAD, and coronary stenosis improved to either good or excellent, (κ = 0.61, κ = 0.81, ICC = 0.78, respectively). Spotty calcification was the least reproducible parameter investigated (κ = 0.33). Across subpopulations, reproducibility of coronary plaque characteristics generally decreased with increasing CAD prevalence except for plaque composition, (limits of agreement: ±2.03, ±1.96, ±1.79 for low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence, respectively). 320-slice MDCT can be used to assess coronary plaque characteristics, except for spotty calcification. Reproducibility estimates are influenced by heart rate, body size, plaque location, and degree of luminal stenosis.

  1. Development of bilateral coronary artery aneurysms in a child with Noonan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, David M.; Flors, Lucia; Norton, Patrick T.; Hagspiel, Klaus D. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hoyer, Andrew W. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Pediatric Cardiology Center of Oregon, Portland, OR (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Noonan syndrome is a constellation of congenital malformations including heart defects, facial anomalies and short stature. The cardiovascular defects are variable and extensive, with the most common being pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Coronary artery anomalies have only been reported in a few cases. We report a child with Noonan syndrome status post pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect repair, who developed bilateral coronary artery aneurysms. The aneurysms were diagnosed with both cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary computed tomography angiography. There had been no evidence of them on a cardiac MR exam 5 years previously. (orig.)

  2. Lipid-Rich Plaque Masquerading as a Coronary Thrombus

    OpenAIRE

    Rezkalla, Shereif H.; Holmes, David R.

    2006-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with exertional chest pressure. Right coronary angiography showed a clear filling defect. Intravascular ultrasound revealed a plaque with 80% stenosis and a large lipid pool. Therefore, a stent was placed, and the patient became angina-free. Lipid-rich plaques are a cause of angiographic filling defects. Intravascular ultrasound is an integral part of coronary artery evaluation.

  3. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography – noninvasive diagnostic window for coronary flow reserve assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrow Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on transthoracic Doppler echocardiography as noninvasive method used to assess coronary flow reserve (CFR in a wide spectrum of clinical settings. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is rapidly gaining appreciation as popular tool to measure CFR both in stenosed and normal epicardial coronary arteries (predominantly in left anterior descending coronary artery. Post-stenotic CFR measurement is helpful in: functional assessment of moderate stenosis, detection of significant or critical stenosis, monitoring of restenosis after revascularization. In the absence of stenosis in the epicardial coronary artery, decreased CFR enable to detect impaired microvascular vasodilatation in: reperfused myocardial infarct, arterial hypertension with or without left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, syndrome X, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In these diseases, noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography allows for serial CFR evaluations to explore the effect of various pharmacological therapies.

  4. Comparison of Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy and Coronary Angiography Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Elboga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the most frequent causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Coronary angiography is the gold standard for the anatomical diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis. Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy (MPS is a non-invasive imaging modality used for the diagnosis of CAD. In this study, we aimed to compare the findings of MPS and coronary angiogram. Material and Method: Eighty-one patients (37 males, 44 females; mean age 55 ± 10.95 years with angina and detected perfusion defects on MPS were included in this study. All of the patients underwent coronary angiogram. A narrowing %u2265 50% was considered pathological on the coronary angiography. Results: Findings of the coronary angiogram and MPS were compared and found consistent in 51 (63% patients. A coronary narrowing < 50% was detected by coronary angiogram in 4 (5% of the remaining patients. Coronary angiogram was found to be normal in the remaining 26 patients (32% and these patients were evaluated as cardiac syndrome X (CSX known as microvascular angina (MA. Discussion: The findings showed that MPS is superior to coronary angiogram in the early diagnosis of myocardial perfusion disorders at the microvascular level. Therefore, we concluded that MPS should be the primary diagnostic tool to begin treatment before an anatomically large narrowing occurs in the coronaries.

  5. Coronary flow velocity reserve in three major coronary arteries by transthoracic echocardiography for the functional assessment of coronary artery disease: a comparison with fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Teruaki; Hirata, Kumiko; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Orii, Makoto; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Tanimoto, Takashi; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measurement in three major coronary arteries by transthoracic echocardiography is a promising and non-invasive method for detecting myocardial ischaemia. Its value when compared with fractional flow reserve (FFR) is unknown. Our aim was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CFVR in three major coronary arteries for detecting ischaemia compared with FFR. This is a prospective study in 172 vessels of 140 patients with at least one ≥50% stenosis in a major epicardial artery as determined by visual assessment on computed tomography coronary angiography. We performed CFVR measurement by transthoracic echocardiography within 48 h before coronary angiography and FFR measurement. The cut-off value of CFVR was estimated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based on that of FFR ≤0.75. The CFVR was 1.86 ± 0.36 in coronary arteries with FFR ≤0.75 (n = 79) and 2.54 ± 0.48 in those with FFR >0.75 (n = 93, P coronary artery with FFR ≤0.75 in three major vessels. In each vessel, the sensitivity and specificity were 85 and 78% (left anterior descending coronary artery), 94 and 83% (right coronary artery), and 88 and 88% (left circumflex coronary artery). CFVR was indirect proportional to FFR (r = 0.56, P coronary arteries.

  6. Corrected coronary opacification decrease from coronary computed tomography angiography: Validation with quantitative 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Dominik C; Gräni, Christoph; Ferro, Paola; Neumeier, Luis; Messerli, Michael; Possner, Mathias; Clerc, Olivier F; Gebhard, Catherine; Gaemperli, Oliver; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Buechel, Ronny R

    2017-07-06

    To assess the functional relevance of a coronary artery stenosis, corrected coronary opacification (CCO) decrease derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been proposed. The present study aims at validating CCO decrease with quantitative 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This retrospective study consists of 39 patients who underwent hybrid CCTA/PET-MPI. From CCTA, attenuation in the coronary lumen was measured before and after a stenosis and corrected to the aorta to calculate CCO and its decrease. Relative flow reserve (RFR) was calculated by dividing the stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) of a vessel territory subtended by a stenotic coronary by the stress MBF of the reference territories without stenoses. RFR was abnormal in 11 vessel territories (27%). CCO decrease yielded a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy for prediction of an abnormal RFR of 73%, 70%, 88%, 47%, and 70%, respectively. CCTA-derived CCO decrease has moderate diagnostic accuracy to predict an abnormal RFR in PET-MPI. However, its high negative predictive value to rule out functional relevance of a given lesion may confer clinical implications in the diagnostic work-up of patients with a coronary stenosis.

  7. [Heart and freezer: about one case of hypereosinophilia and coronary spasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voituret, N; Fayard, M; Piszker, G; Quillasi, V; Besancenot, J F; Billard, C; Pryollet, N; Guillemet, P; Cottin, Y

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman, non-smoker, without cardiovascular risk, hospitalised for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. The coronarography showed no significant coronary stenosis and a methylergometrine test performed was positive. After the discovery of a moderate chronic hypereosinophilia, a review of the literature about eosinophile and coronary pathology was realised in order to make a link between hypereosinophilia and coronary spasm.

  8. Relationship of Hypertension to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Events in Patients With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Rine; Baskaran, Lohendran; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; DeLago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Cury, Ricardo; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Bax, Jeroen; Jones, Erica; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is an atherosclerosis factor and is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship between hypertension and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in coronary computed tomographic angiography and cardiac events risk. Of 17 181 patients enrolled in the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry) who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography, we identified 14 803 patients without known coronary artery disease. Of these, 1434 hypertensive patients were matched to 1434 patients without hypertension. Major adverse cardiac events risk of hypertension and non-hypertensive patients was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models. The prognostic associations between hypertension and no-hypertension with increasing degree of coronary stenosis severity (nonobstructive or obstructive ≥50%) and extent of coronary artery disease (segment involvement score of 1-5, >5) was also assessed. Hypertension patients less commonly had no coronary atherosclerosis and more commonly had nonobstructive and 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease than the no-hypertension group. During a mean follow-up of 5.2±1.2 years, 180 patients experienced cardiac events, with 104 (2.0%) occurring in the hypertension group and 76 (1.5%) occurring in the no-hypertension group (hazard ratios, 1.4; 95% confidence intervals, 1.0-1.9). Compared with no-hypertension patients without coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension patients with no coronary atherosclerosis and obstructive coronary disease tended to have higher risk of cardiac events. Similar trends were observed with respect to extent of coronary artery disease. Compared with no-hypertension patients, hypertensive patients have increased presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and tend to have an increase in major adverse cardiac events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Workstation-Based Calculation of CTA-Based FFR for Intermediate Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Mariusz; Wardziak, Łukasz; Demkow, Marcin; Pleban, Weronika; Pręgowski, Jerzy; Dzielińska, Zofia; Witulski, Marek; Witkowski, Adam; Rużyłło, Witold; Kępka, Cezary

    2016-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the proportion of patients with intermediate coronary stenosis diagnosed on computed tomography angiography (CTA), which may be saved from any further testing due to use of CTA-based fractional flow reserve (FFR). Coronary CTA often results in diagnosis of intermediate stenosis, triggering further physiological testing. CTA-based FFR (CTA-FFR) is a promising diagnostic tool, which may obviate the need for further testing. However, the specific thresholds for CTA-FFR values predicting ischemic versus nonischemic FFR with acceptable confidence are unknown, obscuring clinical utility of the diagnostic strategy using CTA-FFR. We analyzed 96 lesions (mean CTA stenosis: 69.7 ± 11.7%) in 90 patients (63.4 ± 8.2 years, 32% were men) who underwent CTA for suspected CAD and were diagnosed with at least 1 intermediate coronary stenosis (50% to 90%) scheduled for further physiological testing. All patients underwent routine invasive FFR and CTA-FFR evaluation. The objective was to determine the proportion of patients falling between the lower and upper CTA-FFR thresholds that predict ischemic and nonischemic stenosis, respectively (on the basis of an invasive FFR cutpoint of ≤0.80), with ≥90% accuracy. The invasive FFR ≤0.8 was observed in 41 of 96 lesions (42.7%). According to Bland-Altman analysis, the CTA-FFR underestimated FFR by 0.01 and the 95% limits of agreement were ±0.19. Receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve was significantly higher for CTA-FFR than that for CTA (per lesion 0.835 vs. 0.660, respectively; p = 0.007). The CTA-FFR thresholds for which the positive and negative predictive values were each ≥90% (corresponding to an FFR of ≤0.80) were >0.87 or <0.74, respectively, encompassing 49 lesions (51%) and 45 of 90 patients. In around one-half of the patients diagnosed with intermediate stenosis, coronary CTA-based FFR may confidently discriminate between ischemic versus nonischemic stenoses. Our

  10. Familial aggregation and heritability of pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Fischer, Thea K; Skotte, Line

    2010-01-01

    for the first year of life, during which 3362 children had surgery for pyloric stenosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Familial aggregation of pyloric stenosis, evaluated by rate ratios. RESULTS: The incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of pyloric stenosis in the first year of life was 1.8 for singletons and 3......CONTEXT: Pyloric stenosis is the most common condition requiring surgery in the first months of life. Case reports have suggested familial aggregation, but to what extent this is caused by common environment or inheritance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate familial aggregation of pyloric...... familial aggregation and heritability....

  11. Effects of vascular structures on the pressure drop in stenotic coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaerim; Choi, Haecheon; Kweon, Jihoon; Kim, Young-Hak; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Namkug

    2016-11-01

    A stenosis, which is a narrowing of a blood vessel, of the coronary arteries restricts the flow to the heart and it may lead to sudden cardiac death. Therefore, the accurate determination of the severity of a stenosis is a critical issue. Due to the convenience of visual assessments, geometric parameters such as the diameter stenosis and area stenosis have been used, but the decision based on them sometimes under- or overestimates the functional severity of a stenosis, i.e., pressure drop. In this study, patient-specific models that have similar area stenosis but different pressure drops are considered, and their geometries are reconstructed from the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Both steady and pulsatile inflows are considered for the simulations. Comparison between two models that have a bifurcation right after a stenosis shows that the parent to daughter vessel angle results in different secondary flow patterns and wall shear stress distributions which affect the pressure downstream. Thus, the structural features of the lower and upper parts of a stenosis significantly affect the pressure drop. Supported by 20152020105600.

  12. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics / Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting What Is Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ... multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of the ...

  13. Association of coronary microvascular dysfunction with restenosis of left anterior descending coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Antonio; Milo, Maria; Sestito, Alfonso; Lamendola, Priscilla; Lanza, Gaetano A; Crea, Filippo

    2016-09-15

    Several patients with successful percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) show evidence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD), which can be responsible for persistent positivity of electrocardiographic exercise stress test (EST). In this study, we assessed whether post-PCI CMVD may predict clinical outcome in patients undergoing successful elective PCI of an isolated stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. We studied 29 patients (age 64±6, 23 M) with stable coronary artery disease and isolated stenosis (>75%) of the LAD coronary artery who underwent successful PCI with stent implantation. Coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity response to adenosine and to cold-pressor test (CPT) was assessed in the LAD coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography 24h and 3months after PCI. The primary end-point was a combination of death, admission for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or target vessel revascularization (TVR). No death or ACS occurred during 36months of follow-up, but TVR was performed in 5 patients (17.2%). CBF response to CPT at 3months after PCI was 1.31±0.2 vs. 1.71±0.4 in patients with or without TVR, respectively (p=0.03), whereas CBF response to adenosine at 3months in these two groups was 1.70±0.3 vs. 2.05±0.4 (p=0.059). Our data suggest that, in patients with successful PCI of LAD coronary artery stenosis, lower CBF response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator stimulus CPT is associated with long-term recurrence of restenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transmural myocardial perfusion gradients in relation to coronary artery stenoses severity assessed by cardiac multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jesper James; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Hove, Jens Dahlgaard

    2015-01-01

    = stress - PI/rest - PI), and the transmural perfusion ratio (TPR = subendocardium/subepicardium) were calculated. A coronary artery stenosis ≥50 % was present in 49 patients (25 %). Rest-PI and rest-TPR values were similar in patients with and without a coronary artery stenosis ≥50 %, whereas stress-PI...... stenosis assessed by MDCT angiography and semi-quantitative myocardial MDCT perfusion in 200 symptomatic patients. The perfusion index (PI = mean myocardial attenuation density/mean left ventricular lumen attenuation density) at rest and during adenosine stress, the myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR......, stress-TPR and MPR were significantly reduced in patients with a stenosis ≥50 % (p PI was significantly higher than subepicardial PI at rest and during stress for patients without a significant stenosis, whereas this difference was blurred...

  15. Quantification of myocardial perfusion using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging correlates significantly to rubidium-82 positron emission tomography in patients with severe coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas A; Hasbak, Philip; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Aim was to compare absolute myocardial perfusion using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) based on Tikhonov's procedure of deconvolution and rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (Rb-82 PET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with coronary artery stenosis underwent ...

  16. Harmonic skeleton guided evaluation of stenoses in human coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen R; Giddens, Don P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that three-dimensionally visualizes and evaluates stenoses in human coronary arteries by using harmonic skeletons. A harmonic skeleton is the center line of a multi-branched tubular surface extracted based on a harmonic function, which is the solution of the Laplace equation. This skeletonization method guarantees smoothness and connectivity and provides a fast and straightforward way to calculate local cross-sectional areas of the arteries, and thus provides the possibility to localize and evaluate coronary artery stenosis, which is a commonly seen pathology in coronary artery disease.

  17. Evaluation of relationship between coronary artery status evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography and development of cardiomyopathy in carbon monoxide poisoned patients with myocardial injury: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yong Sung; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Yoonsuk; Kwon, Woocheol; Son, Jung-Woo; Youk, Hyun; Kim, Hyung Il; Kim, Oh Hyun; Park, Kyung Hye; Cha, Kyoung-Chul; Lee, Kang Hyun; Hwang, Sung Oh

    2018-01-01

    Whether coronary artery changes are a main mechanism in the development of carbon monoxide (CO)-induced cardiomyopathy remains unknown. We investigated the effects of coronary artery stenosis on the presence or patterns of cardiomyopathy in CO-poisoned patients with myocardial injury defined as elevation of troponin I. This prospective observational study collected data from consecutive patients who were diagnosed with CO poisoning and myocardial injury during the 24-month study period. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were performed to evaluate cardiac function and coronary artery status. TTE and CCTA were performed in 32 consecutive patients. The observed echocardiographic patterns included non-cardiomyopathy (59.4%), left ventricular global dysfunction (25%), Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (6.3%), and cardiomyopathy matching the distribution of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (9.4%). Four patients had more than moderate stenosis, while stenoses of the LAD, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries were observed in two (6.3%), three (9.4%), and zero patients, respectively. Patients with coronary artery stenosis did not develop cardiomyopathy except for one patient; this patient also did not have regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) matched with the stenosis territory. Because there was no difference in coronary artery stenosis according to the presence or patterns of CO-induced cardiomyopathy, coronary artery stenosis is not the main mechanism for the development of CO-induced cardiomyopathy. Thus, the evaluation of coronary arteries is not necessary in all patients with CO-induced cardiomyopathy unless there is RWMA consistent with ischemic changes in electrocardiograms and elevated troponin I levels.

  18. Microvascular coronary artery spasm presents distinctive clinical features with endothelial dysfunction as nonobstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2012-10-01

    Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor-borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited-baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate-induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular events over 47.8±27.5 months. Microvascular CAS causes

  19. Is there an indication for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, R.; van der Zaag-Loonen HJ, [No Value; Willems, T.P.; Post, W.J.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bypass graft occlusion and stenosis detection compared with coronary angiography in post-coronary artery bypass graft patients. The indication for noninvasive

  20. Troponin T and N-terminal pro B-Type natriuretic peptide and presence of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette R; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Carlsen, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the effects of exercise intensity, sampling intervals, degree of coronary artery stenosis, and demographic factors on circulating N-terminal pro B-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in subjects suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD...

  1. Evaluation of intermediate coronary stenoses in acute coronary syndromes using pressure guidewire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Indolfi, Ciro; Davies, Justin E

    2017-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is increasingly used to guide myocardial revascularisation. However, supporting evidence regarding its use originates from studies that have enrolled mainly patients with stable angina, while patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have not been included. Notably, multifactorial microvascular dysfunction and an increased sympathetic tone in patients with ACS may lead to blunted response to adenosine and false-negative results of FFR due to submaximal hyperaemia. This may raise the possibility of deferring treatment of stenosis that instead would have needed dilatation, thus leaving a residual risk of preventable cardiac events. In this literature review, we aim at summarising laboratory and clinical investigations concerning the use of FFR in culprit and non-culprit lesions in ACS. Furthermore, we will report recent data on instantaneous wave-free ratio, an adenosine-free index of functional stenosis severity, in stable coronary artery disease and in patients with ACS. PMID:28761673

  2. Comparison of Clinical Interpretation with Visual Assessment and Quantitative Coronary Angiography in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Contemporary Practice: The Assessing Angiography (A2) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Lansky, Alexandra J.; Cohen, David J.; Jones, Philip G.; Kureshi, Faraz; Dehmer, Gregory J.; Drozda, Joseph P.; Walsh, Mary Norine; Brush, John E.; Koenig, Gerald C.; Waites, Thad F.; Gantt, D. Scott; Kichura, George; Chazal, Richard A.; O’Brien, Peter K.; Valentine, C. Michael; Rumsfeld, John S.; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Elmore, Joann G.; Krumholz, Richard A.; Weaver, W. Douglas; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies conducted decades ago described substantial disagreement and errors in physicians’ angiographic interpretation of coronary stenosis severity. Despite the potential implications of such findings, no large-scale efforts to measure or improve clinical interpretation were subsequently made. Methods & Results We compared clinical interpretation of stenosis severity in coronary lesions with an independent assessment using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in 175 randomly selected patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at 7 U.S. hospitals in 2011. To assess agreement, we calculated mean difference in percent diameter stenosis between clinical interpretation and QCA and a Cohen’s weighted kappa statistic. Of 216 treated lesions, median percent diameter stenosis was 80.0% (Q1 and Q3, 80.0 and 90.0%) with 213 (98.6%) assessed as ≥70%. Mean difference in percent diameter stenosis between clinical interpretation and QCA was +8.2 ± 8.4%, reflecting an average higher percent diameter stenosis by clinical interpretation (P<0.001). A weighted kappa of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.36) was found between the 2 measurements. Of 213 lesions considered ≥70% by clinical interpretation, 56 (26.3%) were <70% by QCA though none was <50%. Differences between the 2 measurements were largest for intermediate lesions by QCA (50 to <70%) with variation existing across sites. Conclusions Physicians tended to assess coronary lesions treated with PCI as more severe than measurements by QCA. Almost all treated lesions were ≥70% by clinical interpretation, while approximately a quarter were <70% by QCA. These findings suggest opportunities to improve clinical interpretation of coronary angiography. PMID:23470859

  3. Asymptomatic carotid arterial stenosis - population based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general population is discussed in many countries because of the benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the three trials. Many factors influence the cost-effectiveness of screening. These factors are the prevalence of carotid stenosis, the

  4. Acquired subglottic stenosis : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Bean (Jim)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSubglottic (endolaryngeal) injury can cause a subglottic stenosis. Chronic subglottic stenosis is defined as a partial narrowing (to complete obliteration) of the airway bounded by the inferior margin of the cricoid at the caudal side and cranially by the insertion of the fibres of the

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plouin, P.F.; Bax, L.

    2010-01-01

    A reduction in the diameter of the renal arteries can lead to hypertension, renal dysfunction and/or pulmonary edema. About 90% of patients with renal artery stenosis have atherosclerosis, and 10% have fibromuscular dysplasia. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is a common condition that

  6. [Dendritic cells and coronary collateral circulation in coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanchang; Liu, Wei; Yi, Jun; Li, Zhenyu; Pu, Xiaoqun; Yang, Tianlun; Xie, Qiying; Mo, Long; Chen, Xiaobin

    2010-05-01

    To determine the relationship between the number,phenotype and functional status of dendritic cells (DCs) and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in coronary heart disease (CHD). Forty patients with severe coronary stenosis were recruited and divided into a CCC formation group (Group A, n=22) and a non-CCC formation group (Group B, n=18). Density gradient centrifugation was applied to separate the mononuclear cells (MNCs) from coronary artery blood samples, and MNCs were cultured and proliferated in vitro. The morphology of DCs was observed under converted microscope. The number of harvested cells and DCs was counted by hematocytometer. Flow cytometry was applied to investigate the phenotype and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Mixed lymphocyte reaction was used to test the function of DCs to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Stimulation index (SI) was calculated and compared. (1) After in vitro proliferation, DCs were cultured successfully from the mononuclear cells from coronary artery blood samples and the morphology of DCs was not different in the 2 groups. (2) The number of mononuclear cells (MNC no) was (3.95+/-1.41)*10(6), in the CCC group and (2.76+/-0.92)*10(6) in the non-CCC group. The MNC number was significantly increased in the CCC group (P=0.003). (3) The number of DCs was (1.54+/-0.96)*10(6) in the CCC group, and (0.99+/-0.46)*10(6) in the non-CCC group (P=0.033). (4)There was no statistical significance in the percent of CD1a+, CD1a+CD80+, CD1a+CD83+, CD1a+CD86+ cells, and MFI in the 2 groups (P>0.05). (5) SI was 4.96+/-2.30 in the CCC group, whereas 2.66+/-1.04 in the non-CCC group. The SI in the CCC group increased significantly(P=0.0003). In CHD patients with severe coronary stenosis, patients with CCC formation have higher number of DCs and stronger potential of T lymphocyte stimulation.

  7. ANGIOPLASTIA PERCUTÁNEA CON STENT EN EL TRONCO PRINCIPAL DE LA ARTERIA CORONARIA IZQUIERDA / Percutaneous angioplasty with stent in the left main coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Almeida Gómez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenIntroducción y objetivos: La afectación significativa del tronco común izquierdo, es la más letal de las presentaciones de la enfermedad arterial coronaria. El tratamiento de elección, es la cirugía de derivación aorto-coronaria. En varios estudios multicéntricos, se sugiere la posibilidad de tratar la enfermedad de tronco mediante el intervencionismo coronario percutáneo con implantación de prótesis endoluminal o stent. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la angioplastia percutánea con stent en el tronco principal de la arteria coronaria izquierda. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 21 pacientes con angioplastia percutánea con stent en el tronco principal de la arteria coronaria izquierda, realizadas en el laboratorio de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista del Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras", entre enero 2010 y julio 2011. Resultados: No existió diferencia significativa en el sexo. Predominó el grupo de edad entre 50-64 años (47,6 % y el color de la piel blanca (76,19 %. El factor de riesgo cardiovascular más encontrado fue la HTA (85,71 %, seguido de dislipidemia (47,61 %. El diagnóstico más observado fue la angina de esfuerzo estable, 14 casos (66,66 %. La lesión en el cuerpo del tronco (12 pacientes, 57,1 %, fue la más encontrada, seguida de la ostial (8 casos. El tipo de stent más utilizado fue el liberador de fármacos (61,9 %, y solamente 4 pacientes presentaban troncos protegidos quirúrgicamente. Conclusiones: La mayor cantidad de casos fueron electivos, con predominio de los troncos no protegidos. El factor de riesgo coronario más encontrado fue la HTA. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la diabetes mellitus y la localización ostial de la lesión tratada. / AbstractIntroduction and Objectives: Significant impairment of the left main coronary artery is the most lethal presentation of coronary artery disease. The treatment of choice

  8. Regulation of coronary blood flow in health and ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; Koller, Akos; Merkus, Daphne; Canty, John M

    2015-01-01

    The major factors determining myocardial perfusion and oxygen delivery have been elucidated over the past several decades, and this knowledge has been incorporated into the management of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The basic understanding of the fluid mechanical behavior of coronary stenoses has also been translated to the cardiac catheterization laboratory where measurements of coronary pressure distal to a stenosis and coronary flow are routinely obtained. However, the role of perturbations in coronary microvascular structure and function, due to myocardial hypertrophy or coronary microvascular dysfunction, in IHD is becoming increasingly recognized. Future studies should therefore be aimed at further improving our understanding of the integrated coronary microvascular mechanisms that control coronary blood flow, and of the underlying causes and mechanisms of coronary microvascular dysfunction. This knowledge will be essential to further improve the treatment of patients with IHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic inflammation is related to coronary microvascular dysfunction in obese patients without obstructive coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tona, F; Serra, R; Di Ascenzo, L; Osto, E; Scarda, A; Fabris, R; Montisci, R; Famoso, G; Tellatin, S; Foletto, M; Giovagnoni, A; Iliceto, S; Vettor, R

    2014-04-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation and changes in the heart functions are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate coronary microvascular dysfunction as an early marker of atherosclerosis in obese patients without any evidence of cardiovascular disease. 86 obese subjects (aged 44 ± 12 years, body mass index (BMI) 41 ± 8 kg m(-2)), without evidence of heart disease, and 48 lean controls were studied using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography for detecting coronary flow reserve (CFR). A value of CFR ≤ 2.5 was considered abnormal. We measured interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and adiponectin in all patients. Patients with abnormal CFR underwent coronary multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in order to exclude an epicardial stenosis. CFR in obese subjects was lower than in lean subjects (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.02) and was abnormal in 27 (31%) obese patients and in one (2%) control (p coronary stenosis at MSCT. At multivariable analysis, IL-6 and TNF-α were the only determinants of CFR (p disease, suggesting a coronary microvascular impairment. This microvascular dysfunction seems to be related to a chronic inflammation mediated by adipocytokines. Our findings may explain the increased cardiovascular risk in obesity, independently of BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dworkind, Michael

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a team approach to coronary rehabilitation in a tertiary care hospital and the unique role of the family physician in a shared, multi-disciplinary service for in- and out-patients. Primary care physicians facilitate and supplement the work of the coronary-unit team in establishing an optimal rehabilitative program for MI patients and their families.

  11. Multislice computerized tomography of the heart and coronary arteries; Exploration par tomodensitometrie multidetecteur du coeur et des arteres coronaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, J.N.; Bertrand, D.; Belhiba, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiologie, Dept. d' Imagerie Medicale, LITIS EA 4108, Hopital Charles-Nicolle, 76 - Rouen (France); Tron, Ch. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Cardiologie, Hopital Charles-Nicolle, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2007-12-15

    Due to its excellent spatial and temporal resolution, multislice computerized tomography (M.S.C.T.) allows visualizing the heart and coronary arteries. Although the indications of M.S.C.T. did not reach a consensus level yet, some trends can be stated. The advantages and limitations of M.S.C.T. in cardiac exploration are summarized in this article. The indications are mainly based on the excellent negative predictive value of M.S.C.T. regarding coronary artery disease. Hence, patients at low to moderate risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) mostly benefit of the technique. M.S.C.T. can be an alternate examination in case of non feasible or non contributive stress test. M.S.C.T. is highly contributive in the ostial analysis, in detecting abnormal coronary implantation or course, in assessing a reimplanted artery or in analysing bypass grafts. M.S.C.T. remains limited in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries, and in patients with stented distal arteries. (authors)

  12. Elevated serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Joo; Kim, Donghee; Park, Hyo Eun; Chung, Goh Eun; Choi, Seung Ho; Choi, Su-Yeon; Lee, Whal; Kim, Joo Sung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-10-01

    Inverse correlations of high serum bilirubin with metabolic and cardiovascular disease have been suggested. However, anti-atherogenic effects of bilirubin have not been well-established in terms of the presence of plaques and stenosis identified in coronary computed tomography (CT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2862 men who were free of cardiovascular disease and underwent coronary CT as part of a routine medical screening examination. Coronary stenotic lesions were considered to be incidences of coronary atherosclerosis, and stenosis was classified as stenosis atherosclerosis and stenosis ≥50% in subjects with elevated bilirubin levels (>1.2 mg/dL) were lower than those in subjects with normal bilirubin levels (≤1.2 mg/dL) (19.9% vs. 27.9%, p atherosclerosis (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94 in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile) and calcified plaque (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.84) were inversely associated with the bilirubin grade in a dose-dependent manner. The serum bilirubin level was inversely associated with coronary atherosclerosis and calcified plaques in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that serum bilirubin could be used as a protective biomarker of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: martine.remy@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  14. The EBC TWO Study (European Bifurcation Coronary TWO): A Randomized Comparison of Provisional T-Stenting Versus a Systematic 2 Stent Culotte Strategy in Large Caliber True Bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildick-Smith, David; Behan, Miles W; Lassen, Jens F; Chieffo, Alaide; Lefèvre, Thierry; Stankovic, Goran; Burzotta, Francesco; Pan, Manuel; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Bennett, Lorraine; Hovasse, Thomas; Spence, Mark J; Oldroyd, Keith; Brunel, Philippe; Carrie, Didier; Baumbach, Andreas; Maeng, Michael; Skipper, Nicola; Louvard, Yves

    2016-09-01

    For the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions, a provisional strategy is superior to systematic 2-stent techniques for the most bifurcation lesions. However, complex anatomies with large side branches (SBs) with significant ostial disease length are considered by expert consensus to warrant a 2-stent technique upfront. This consensus view has not been scientifically assessed. Symptomatic patients with large caliber true bifurcation lesions (SB diameter ≥2.5 mm) and significant ostial disease length (≥5 mm) were randomized to either a provisional T-stent strategy or a dual stent culotte technique. Two hundred patients aged 64±10 years, 82% male, were randomized in 20 European centers. The clinical presentations were stable coronary disease (69%) and acute coronary syndromes (31%). SB stent diameter (2.67±0.27 mm) and length (20.30±5.89 mm) confirmed the extent of SB disease. Procedural success (provisional 97%, culotte 94%) and kissing balloon inflation (provisional 95%, culotte 98%) were high. Sixteen percent of patients in the provisional group underwent T-stenting. The primary end point (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at 12 months) occurred in 7.7% of the provisional T-stent group versus 10.3% of the culotte group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.34; P=0.53). Procedure time, x-ray dose, and cost all favored the simpler procedure. When treating complex coronary bifurcation lesions with large stenosed SBs, there is no difference between a provisional T-stent strategy and a systematic 2-stent culotte strategy in a composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at 12 months. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT 01560455. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Comparison of adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia and atherosclerosis measured by coronary calcium tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I. H.; Chun, K. A.; Won, K. C.; Lee, H. W.; Hong, K. L.; Park, J. S.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, Y. C.; Sim, B. S. [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Coronary artery calcium shows a anatomic information and coronary atherosclerotic burde, but myocardial perfusion SPECT shows a physiologic significance of coronary stenosis and stress induced ischemia. Both are valuable in the noninvasive assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. There has been little evaluation regarding the relationship between CAC and adenosine-induced ischemia and how to integrate CAC with myocardial perfusion SPECT. We assessed the relationship between adenosine-induced myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) and magnitude of coronary calcification (CAC) by MDCT in patients undergoing both tests. A total of 111 patients underwent adenosine-induced MPS and CAC within 2days. Coronary angiography was done in 55 patients. The frequency of ischemia by MPS was compared to the magnitude of CAC. Among 56 patients with ischemic MPS, the CAC scores were >0 in 87.5%, >100 in 76.8%, and > 400 in 50.0%. Of 25 normal MPS, the CAC scores were >0 in 70.9%. >100 in 34.5%, and > 400 in 14.5%, respectively. Of 38 patient with coronary artery stenosis proved by coronary angiography, the CAC scores were >0 in 92.1%, >100 in 78.9%, and > 400 in 50.0 %, respectively. Of 12 patient without coronary artery stenosis, the CAC scores were >100 in 66.7%, and > 400 in 41.7%. Ischemic MPS is associated with a high likelihood of subclinical atherosclerosis by CAC, but it can be also seen for CAC scores <100. The patient without significant coronary artery stenosis, however, may have extensive atherosclerosis by CAC criteria. Although, low CAC scores appear to obviate the need for subsequent testing, but MPS is still needed to diagnosis the myocardial ischemia.

  16. The impact of gender on cardiovascular system calcification in very elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Luckmini; Lee, Nam Ju; Cook, Tessa; Herrmann, Howard C; Jagasia, Dinesh; Litt, Harold; Han, Yuchi

    2016-01-01

    There is an established sex difference in cardiovascular disease among pre-menopausal women and age-matched men, with men having greater susceptibility to cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular calcification may be linked to the atherosclerotic process and resulting disease, but the sex difference regarding coronary artery disease susceptibility and calcification is incompletely understood. We thought to measure calcium volume in different chest vascular beds in very elderly men and women with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Computed tomography scans of 94 patients with severe AS were calcium volume scored on Aquarius iNtuition Terarecon (Terarecon Inc., CA, USA) work stations. Coronary beds, aortic valve, mitral valve apparatus, and the thoracic aorta were examined. A significant sex difference in the mean total calcium volume of the coronary arteries was found in elderly (p = 0.001), with men having greater levels of calcification. There is also a significant sex difference in the amount of aortic valve calcium (p = 0.003). Furthermore, aortic and coronary calcification was independently correlated with sex. This study demonstrates a significant sex impact on calcification in the coronary beds and aortic valve in elderly patients with severe AS.

  17. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Part 1: Impact on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruettner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.gruettner@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Walter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.walter@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Saur, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.saur@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Sueselbeck, Tim, E-mail: tim.sueselbeck@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Traunwieser, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.traunwieser@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Takx, Richard, E-mail: richard.takx@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) or “triple-rule-out” CT angiography (TRO-CTA) on patient management in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Materials and methods: 100 patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent coronary CTA or TRO-CTA for the evaluation of chest pain. Patients with a high and low cardiac risk profile were not included in this study. All patients with significant coronary stenosis >50% on coronary CTA underwent invasive coronary catheterization (ICC). Important other pathological findings were recorded. All patients had a 90-day follow-up period for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results: Based on a negative coronary CTA 60 of 100 patients were discharged on the same day. None of the discharged patients showed MACE during the 90-day follow-up. Coronary CTA revealed a coronary stenosis >50% in 19 of 100 patients. ICC confirmed significant coronary stenosis in 17/19 patients. Among the 17 true positive patients, 9 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation, 7 were received intensified medical therapy, and 1 patient underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. A TRO-CTA protocol was performed in 36/100 patients due to elevated D-dimer levels. Pulmonary embolism was present in 5 patients, pleural effusion of unknown etiology in 3 patients, severe right ventricular dysfunction with pericardial effusion in 1 patient, and an incidental bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Coronary CTA and TRO-CTA allow a rapid and safe discharge in the majority of patients presenting with acute chest pain and an intermediate risk for ACS while at the same time identifies those with significant coronary artery stenosis.

  18. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Part 1: impact on patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruettner, Joachim; Fink, Christian; Walter, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Apfaltrer, Paul; Schoepf, U Joseph; Saur, Joachim; Sueselbeck, Tim; Traunwieser, Dominik; Takx, Richard; Kralev, Stefan; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) or "triple-rule-out" CT angiography (TRO-CTA) on patient management in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. 100 patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent coronary CTA or TRO-CTA for the evaluation of chest pain. Patients with a high and low cardiac risk profile were not included in this study. All patients with significant coronary stenosis >50% on coronary CTA underwent invasive coronary catheterization (ICC). Important other pathological findings were recorded. All patients had a 90-day follow-up period for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Based on a negative coronary CTA 60 of 100 patients were discharged on the same day. None of the discharged patients showed MACE during the 90-day follow-up. Coronary CTA revealed a coronary stenosis >50% in 19 of 100 patients. ICC confirmed significant coronary stenosis in 17/19 patients. Among the 17 true positive patients, 9 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation, 7 were received intensified medical therapy, and 1 patient underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. A TRO-CTA protocol was performed in 36/100 patients due to elevated d-dimer levels. Pulmonary embolism was present in 5 patients, pleural effusion of unknown etiology in 3 patients, severe right ventricular dysfunction with pericardial effusion in 1 patient, and an incidental bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed in 1 patient. Coronary CTA and TRO-CTA allow a rapid and safe discharge in the majority of patients presenting with acute chest pain and an intermediate risk for ACS while at the same time identifies those with significant coronary artery stenosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anesthesia for subglottic stenosis in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid Essam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Any site in the upper airway can get obstructed and cause noisy breathing as well as dyspnea. These include nasal causes such as choanal atresia or nasal stenosis; pharyngeal causes including lingual thyroid; laryngeal causes such as laryngomalacia; tracheobronchial causes such as tracheal stenosis; and subglottic stenosis. Lesions in the oropharynx may cause stertor, while lesions in the laryngotracheal tree will cause stridor. Subglottic stenosis is the third leading cause of congenital stridors in the neonate. Subglottic Stenosis presents challenges to the anesthesiologist. Therefore, It is imperative to perform a detailed history, physical examination, and characterization of the extent and severity of stenosis. Rigid endoscopy is essential for the preoperative planning of any of the surgical procedures that can be used for correction. Choice of operation is dependent on the surgeon′s comfort, postoperative capabilities, and severity of disease. For high-grade stenosis, single-stage laryngotracheal resection or cricotracheal resection are the best options. It has to be borne in mind that the goal of surgery is to allow for an adequate airway for normal activity without the need for tracheostomy. Anesthesia for airway surgery could be conducted safely with either sevofl uraneor propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia.

  20. [The usefulness of digital angiography in performing coronary angioplasty. An analysis of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, I M; Sousa, A G; Feres, F; Tanajura, L F; Mattos, L A; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G; Fontes, V F; Sousa, J E

    1992-10-01

    To analyse the actual contribution of digital angiography in the angioplasty setting and to assess its utility to optimize angioplasty results. One hundred patients with single vessel coronary artery disease, without previous angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, who underwent angioplasty from January to December 1990. Views were obtained in standard films and also in digitized angiograms. The latter was acquired before angioplasty in order to precisely quantify the stenosis and also to measure the reference diameter of the artery that was used and to choose the balloon catheter for each case. New acquisitions were done during and after the end of the procedure to confirm the residual stenosis and to measure the final diameter. The mean stenosis pre angioplasty was 78.2%, the mean reference diameter 2.8 mm and the mean diameter at the stenotic site 0.8 mm. The balloon artery relation was 0.9:1. After angioplasty the residual stenosis was 13.6% and the dilated segment had a final diameter of 2.6 mm. There were no complications in any patient. Digital angiography is a useful method for laboratories devoted to coronary interventions for it allows confirmation of the severity of the stenosis, optimizes the balloon/artery relation, monitors partial results and measures the residual stenosis as well as the final diameter.

  1. Familial aggregation and heritability of pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Camilla; Fischer, Thea K; Skotte, Line; Biggar, Robert J; Øyen, Nina; Skytthe, Axel; Goertz, Sanne; Christensen, Kaare; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2010-06-16

    Pyloric stenosis is the most common condition requiring surgery in the first months of life. Case reports have suggested familial aggregation, but to what extent this is caused by common environment or inheritance is unknown. To investigate familial aggregation of pyloric stenosis from monozygotic twins to fourth-generation relatives according to sex and maternal and paternal contributions and to estimate disease heritability. Population-based cohort study of 1,999,738 children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008 and followed up for the first year of life, during which 3362 children had surgery for pyloric stenosis. Familial aggregation of pyloric stenosis, evaluated by rate ratios. The incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of pyloric stenosis in the first year of life was 1.8 for singletons and 3.1 for twins. The rate ratios of pyloric stenosis were 182 (95% confidence interval [CI], 70.7-467) for monozygotic twins, 29.4 (95% CI, 9.45-91.5) for dizygotic twins, 18.5 (95% CI, 13.7-25.1) for siblings, 4.99 (95% CI, 2.59-9.65) for half-siblings, 3.06 (95% CI, 2.10-4.44) for cousins, and 1.60 (95% CI, 0.51-4.99) for half-cousins. We found no difference in rate ratios for maternal and paternal relatives of children with pyloric stenosis and no difference according to sex of cohort member or sex of relative. The heritability of pyloric stenosis was 87%. Pyloric stenosis in Danish children shows strong familial aggregation and heritability.

  2. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

  3. Carotid artery stenosis after neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kasuya, Junji; Terasaki, Tadashi [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Uchino, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    Carotid artery stenosis sometimes occurs after cervical radiotherapy. We report a 70-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for thyroid cancer at the age of 28 years. She had no signs and symptoms except the skin lesion at the irradiation site. Duplex ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous plaques showing 50% stenosis of bilateral common carotid arteries. Those lesions were observed within segment of irradiation, where atheromatous plaque usually seldom occurs. These indicated that the carotid stenosis was induced by radiotherapy. Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for radiation-induced plaque is not clear, the plaques remained unchanged for 4 years in spite of aspirin administration. (author)

  4. [Serum proteomic analysis of cicatricial airway stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-huan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Juan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Ying-ying; Xu, Min

    2013-07-01

    To establish serum protein fingerprint profile in patients with cicatricial airway stenosis and compared with healthy control. Serum samples of 17 cicatricial airway stenosis patients and 17 healthy persons were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS to select the differently expressed proteins through Biomarker Wizard software. Compared with healthy control, 49 protein biomarkers were identified. Among them, 25 proteins were up-regulated, 24 proteins were down-regulated. These proteins were confirmed by searching database. There are obvious differentially expressed proteins in patients with cicatricial airway stenosis and controls, which may related with the development of airway scar.

  5. Silent myocardial ischemia during coronary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellborg, M; Emanuelsson, H; Swedberg, K

    1993-01-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is a marker in patients with coronary artery disease identifying those at high risk for subsequent cardiac events. During provoked myocardial ischemia some patients with angina pectoris do not develop chest pain. Are there clinical, angiographic or electrocardiographic differences between patients with chest pain as compared with patients without chest pain during provoked myocardial ischemia? Coronary angioplasty is a well-established method for the treatment of coronary stenosis, but it is also an interesting model for the study of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary occlusion. We monitored 114 patients with angina pectoris during coronary angioplasty with dynamic, computerized vectorcardiography. During inflation of the balloon 33 of 114 patients had silent ischemia. Patients with silent myocardial ischemia had similar reasons for terminating the preangioplasty exercise test and where on similar anti-ischemic drug regimes. Silent myocardial ischemia was significantly associated with a history of diabetes, presence of collaterals, a history of less severe previous angina and less ST segment changes during angioplasty as compared with patients with painful ischemia. It is suggested that during coronary angioplasty silent ischemia may be caused by a less severe degree of ischemia, possibly as a result of the protective effect of collaterals.

  6. Coronary artery to left ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vivek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary cameral fistulas are an uncommon entity, the etiology of which may be congenital or traumatic. They involve abnormal termination of a coronary artery, usually the right coronary, into a cardiac chamber, usually the right ventricle. Case Presentation We describe a case of female patient with severe aortic stenosis and interventricular septal hypertrophy that underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with concomitant septal myectomy. On subsequent follow-up an abnormal flow traversing the septum into the left ventricle was identified and Doppler interrogation demonstrated a continuous flow, with a predominantly diastolic component, consistent with coronary arterial flow. Conclusion The literature on coronary cameral fistulas is reviewed and the etiology of the diagnostic findings discussed. In our patient, a coronary artery to left ventricle fistula was the most likely explanation secondary to trauma to the septal perforator artery during myectomy. Since the patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis no intervention was recommended and has done well on follow-up.

  7. Outcome of coronary lesions with deferred revascularization due to negative fractional flow reserve in subjects with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Andrea; Leone, Antonio Maria; Zilio, Filippo; Cerrato, Enrico; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Fineschi, Massimo; Rigattieri, Stefano; Ferlini, Marco; Cameli, Matteo; Calabria, Paolo; Cresti, Alberto; Limbruno, Ugo

    2017-03-01

    Revascularization of functionally non-significant stenoses in patients with stable coronary artery disease can safely be deferred as rate of adverse cardiovascular events is low. It is not clear whether fractional flow reserve (FFR) is just as accurate in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of coronary lesions whose revascularization was deferred based on negative FFR values in subjects with ACS. Patients with acute coronary syndrome and showing at least one coronary stenosis whose revascularization was deferred based on FFR value >0.80 were included in the study. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction and any coronary revascularization) related to the initially deferred stenosis at three-year follow-up. A total of 319 patients (237 male), mean age 68 [59-74] years and 355 coronary lesions with deferred revascularization based on negative FFR values (0.88±0.05) were selected. The rate of TLF was 6% at 1-year, 9% at 2-year and 12% at 3-year follow-up. TLF was driven by a new acute coronary syndrome in 75% of cases. The median time interval from FFR assessment to TLF was 457 [138-868] days. In patients with acute coronary syndrome, the rate of TLF of the initially deferred coronary stenoses is 12% at 3-year follow-up and TLF occurred because of a new ACS in three quarters of cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic value of MRI for nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. Clinical and anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Kageyama, Kazuhiro; Katakura, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kenji [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken in 26 patients with surgically proven nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. The findings on coronary images were compared with those of selective radiculography to assess the diagnostic ability of MRI to determine the site of nerve root compression. Intermission and partial defect, which reflect nerve root compression, were seen in only 5 (19.2%) of 26 nerve roots on MRI, as compared with 20 (76.9%) on radiculography. Thus MRI alone was difficult to diagnose nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. Furthermore, the optimum angle of coronary views was determined in 13 cadavers. Para-sagittal views were found to be optimal for the observation of the whole running of the nerve root. Three-dimensional MRI was found to have a potential to diagnose nerve root compression in the intervertebral foramen and the distal part of the intervertebral foramen. (N.K.).

  9. Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruyne, Bernard; Fearon, William F; Pijls, Nico H J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that in patients with stable coronary artery disease and stenosis, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed on the basis of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) would be superior to medical therapy. METHODS: In 1220 patients with stable coronary artery disease, we...... years was lower in the PCI group than in the medical-therapy group (4.6% vs. 8.0%, P=0.04). Among registry patients, the rate of the primary end point was 9.0% at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, FFR-guided PCI, as compared with medical therapy alone, improved...

  10. The Association Between Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Coronary Artery Disease: an Echocardiographic Cut-off Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Toufan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: EAT is an independent factor in coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the current study was to define an echocardiographic cut-off point for EAT and to determine its diagnostic value in predicting the increase in CAD risk. Methods: Two hundred patients underwent coronary artery angiography for diagnosis of CAD and transthoracic echocardiography for measurement of EAT on the right ventricle (RV, RV apex and RV outlet tract. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the EAT cut-off points in the three above-mentioned areas for predicting the severity of CAD were measured. The relation between the EAT and CAD risk factors was evaluated as well. Results: EAT was independent from gender, height, hypertension, diabetes, HDL, total cholesterol, ejection fraction, acute coronary syndrome, and the location of the coronary artery stenosis in the coronary artery in all three anatomical areas. EAT on RV and RV apex had a significant relation with CAD (P ≤ 0.05. Overall, RV EAT≥ 10 mm and RV apex EAT ≥ 8 mm had sensitivity and PPV of more than 70% in predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50% and acute coronary syndrome (ACS and RVOT EAT ≥ 13 mm is of PPV=83.5% for predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50%. Conclusion: EAT thickness has an acceptable diagnostic value for predicting severe coronary artery stenosis and ACS. Therefore, non-invasive EAT thickness measurement could be of great assistance to clinicians for detecting the patients at risk and helping them to undergo supplementary evaluations with invasive approaches.

  11. The imaging of lumbar spinal stenosis review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A

    2000-08-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a relatively common condition of varied aetiology which results in chronic compression of the cauda equina. It becomes clinically relevant when giving rise to symptoms of neurogenic claudication or leg pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis can be classified based on anatomy or aetiology and the diagnosis in any single case should include a consideration of both the site and the cause. Plain radiography is of limited value. Myelography with erect lateral flexion/extension views will demonstrate the dynamic component of the stenosis which cannot be appreciated on plain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, in patients with a good history of symptomatic LSS, and a borderline stenosis on MRI, CT myelography is recommended as the definitive pre-operative imaging investigation. Saifuddin, A. (2000)

  12. Mitral stenosis before, during and after pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JW Roos-Hesselink

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitral stenosis is the most common cardiac valvular problem in pregnant women with rheumatic heart disease being the most important cause. As a result of hemodynamic changes associated with pregnancy, previously asymptomatic patients develop symptoms or complications during pregnancy. Pregnancy in women with mitral stenosis is associated with a marked increase in maternal morbidity and adverse fetal outcome. Treatment of symptomatic mitral stenosis during pregnancy consists of bedrest, beta-blockers and diuretics. If symptoms persist despite optimal medical treatment, percutaneous mitral valvulotomy should be considered. If possible, surgery should be postponed until after delivery. It is recommended to treat women with symptomatic mitral stenosis in a tertiary centre with interventional possibilities.

  13. Subclavian steal syndrome without subclavian stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Cwinn, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS has been well described in the setting of subclavian stenosis. We describe an unusual case of SSS caused by a high-flow arteriovenous dialysis fistula in the absence of subclavian stenosis, provide a review of the literature, and propose that arteriovenous fistula-induced SSS is an underdiagnosed cause of syncope in this population of patients.

  14. [Coronary angioplasty of moderate lesions (50 to 60%)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanajura, L F; Sousa, A G; Feres, F; Mattos, L A; Maldonado, G; Cano, M N; Pinto, I M; Sousa, J E

    1991-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with moderate (50-60%) coronary lesions. One hundred and thirty nine patients, 108 (78%) male, mean age was 55 years, who underwent coronary angioplasty from August 1983 to January 1989. Clinical findings included stable angina in 91 (65%) and unstable angina in 48 (35%). Single vessel disease was the case for 117 (84%), whereas 22 (16%) had two vessel coronary artery disease. Primary success rate was 130 (94%). All patients with two vessel disease had complete revascularization. In the failure group there were 2 acute myocardial infarction (1.4%), and 4 (2.8%) emergency coronary artery by-pass surgery. There were no in-hospital deaths. Of the 130 patients with success, 119 (92%) had late follow-up (mean time 31 months). At the end of the follow-up period we found 85 (71%) asymptomatic, while 27 (23%) had recurrence of symptoms. There were 2 late cardiovascular deaths. Fifty four patients underwent late angiography and 42 (78%) had maintenance of the result while 12 (22%) had restenosis, with a mean degree more severe than pre-coronary angioplasty. Coronary angioplasty of moderate lesions has a high success rate (94%); nevertheless the rate of major complications and restenosis is very similar to that of coronary angioplasty for severe stenosis. Such findings led us to reserve the indication of coronary angioplasty for moderate lesions for patients at higher risk with clear evidence of myocardial ischemia.

  15. [Coronary microvascular dysfunction : Clinical aspects, diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P; Sechtem, U

    2016-06-01

    Just as in epicardial coronary stenosis, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) also leads to an imbalance of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. The dysfunction is located at the level of the coronary microcirculation with vessel diameters CMD is found in patients who have symptoms of angina pectoris but no obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease or myocardial disease. The CMD can be diagnosed using non-invasive procedures, such as the combination of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and cardiac stress magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or coronary CT and positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, invasive coronary vasomotor assessment is also suitable. Very little evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment of CMD. The current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease from 2013 recommend using acetylsalicylic acid (ASS) and a statin as well as beta blockers and/or calcium channel blockers. Patients with CMD have an elevated risk for coronary events and death of approximately 1.7 % per year. Moreover, there is an increased morbidity with frequent presentations in practices and emergency admissions. Clinical research efforts should aim at a better characterization of the underlying mechanisms of CMD in order to develop targeted treatment approaches.

  16. Coronary flow reserve measurement in the coronary sinus in pre and post CABG status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajaghaei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary flow reserve (CFR is defined as a maximal(hyperemic to resting ratio of coronary blood flow. It is a physiologicparameter of coronary circulation and depends on the patency of the epicardialcoronary arteries and integrity of the microvascular circulation.CFR measurement has many clinical applications including functional assessmentof intermediate stenosis, detection of critical stenosis monitoring of coronaryflow in the post angioplasty period, assessment of post infarct blood flow andassessment of coronary graft patency. The aim of this study was to measure CFRin the coronary sinus through the transthoracic echocardiographic approach, inpatients who were candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGbefore and one month after operation.Patients and Methods: The present study included 19 patients (meanage=56±9.1 including 15 males and 4 females, admitted for CABG. All patientshad a sinus rhythm, normal wall thickness, normal RV systolic pressure, andtricuspid valvular regurgitation equal or less than grade 2. The antegrade phaseof coronary flow in the coronary sinus moving into the right atrium was analyzedin two phases (systolic and diastolic. Each wave was determined considering thepeak velocity and velocity time integral (VTI. The volumetric blood flow in thecoronary sinus calculated at the baseline and then in hyperemic phase was usedfor determination of CFR both before and after CABG.Results: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the coronarysinus after CABG (9.4±1.2mm compared with that of before CABG values (8.6±1.05mm. Also there was a trend of increasing the diameter in the hyperemicphase before and after CABG. The absolute increase in mean coronary sinusdiameter was 0.5 mm before and 1.5 mm after CABG. Coronary flow reserve (CFRwas significantly higher after surgery, despite a significant increase insystolic velocity ratio (hyperemic/baseline after CABG. This is also true forsystolic

  17. Patient-specific 3D hemodynamics modelling of left coronary artery under hyperemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Nik-Ghazali, N; Badarudin, A; Viswanathan, Girish N; Ahmed, N J Salman; Khan, T M Yunus

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of various degrees of percentage stenosis on hemodynamic parameters during the hyperemic flow condition. 3D patient-specific coronary artery models were generated based on the CT scan data using MIMICS-18. Numerical simulation was performed for normal and stenosed coronary artery models of 70, 80 and 90% AS (area stenosis). Pressure, velocity, wall shear stress and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured and compared with the normal coronary artery model during the cardiac cycle. The results show that, as the percentage AS increase, the pressure drop increases as compared with the normal coronary artery model. Considerable elevation of velocity was observed as the percentage AS increases. The results also demonstrate a recirculation zone immediate after the stenosis which could lead to further progression of stenosis in the flow-disturbed area. Highest wall shear stress was observed for 90% AS as compared to other models that could result in the rupture of coronary artery. The FFR of 90% AS is found to be considerably low.

  18. HDL-bound sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) predicts the severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Katherine; Lehmann, Isa; Gräler, Markus; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Erbel, Raimund; Heusch, Gerd; Levkau, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated a reduction in HDL-bound sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). In the current study, we tested whether HDL-associated S1P is predictive for the degree of coronary stenosis, restenosis and overall CAD severity on follow up in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary angiography of patients with CAD (n=59) undergoing elective PCI and presenting for a follow up after 6 months (n=48) was graded for disease severity defined clinically as 1- or multi-vessel disease. Target lesion stenosis was quantified by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). S1P in plasma and isolated HDL were measured by mass spectrometry in the initial samples and in 32 available follow up samples. HDL-bound S1P levels remained stable over time and correlated closely at first visit and follow up. While not associated with the extent of target lesion stenosis or restenosis, HDL-bound S1P correlated negatively with the overall severity of CAD and discriminated 1-vessel-disease from multi-vessel disease. Furthermore, low HDL-bound S1P was predictive for CAD extent. In stable CAD, HDL-bound S1P does not predict the degree of stenosis or restenosis of the target lesion but constitutes a marker of clinically defined disease burden.

  19. HDL-Bound Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P Predicts the Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sattler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have recently demonstrated a reduction in HDL-bound sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. In the current study, we tested whether HDL-associated S1P is predictive for the degree of coronary stenosis, restenosis and overall CAD severity on follow up in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Methods: Coronary angiography of patients with CAD (n=59 undergoing elective PCI and presenting for a follow up after 6 months (n=48 was graded for disease severity defined clinically as 1- or multi-vessel disease. Target lesion stenosis was quantified by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA. S1P in plasma and isolated HDL were measured by mass spectrometry in the initial samples and in 32 available follow up samples. Results: HDL-bound S1P levels remained stable over time and correlated closely at first visit and follow up. While not associated with the extent of target lesion stenosis or restenosis, HDL-bound S1P correlated negatively with the overall severity of CAD and discriminated 1-vessel-disease from multi-vessel disease. Furthermore, low HDL-bound S1P was predictive for CAD extent. Conclusion: In stable CAD, HDL-bound S1P does not predict the degree of stenosis or restenosis of the target lesion but constitutes a marker of clinically defined disease burden.

  20. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  1. Comparison between intermediate and severe coronary stenoses and clinical outcomes of an OCT-guided PCI strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Luca; Cattabiani, Maria Alberta; Paoletti, Giulia; Yoon, Joo Heung; Chisari, Alberto; Gramegna, Mario; Versaci, Francesco; Castriota, Fausto; Prati, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    We compared optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of intermediate and severe coronary stenoses in patients with stable angina and acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and tested the clinical impact of an OCT-based strategy for treating intermediate stenoses. The study enrolled 135 consecutive patients with either ACS or stable angina and a single de-novo coronary stenosis. Patients were divided into two groups: intermediate stenosis defined as quantitative coronary angiography percentage narrowing less than 70%, or presence of angiographic vessel haziness and severe stenosis with percentage narrowing more than 70%. OCT was performed to assess features of plaque vulnerability and to measure the minimal lumen area. We also appraised the 12-month rate of major adverse event (MACE) of an OCT-guided strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) based on the presence of thrombus and/or minimal lumen area less than 3.0 mm. Fifty-six patients had intermediate stenoses, whilst 79 had severe stenoses. In the 'intermediate stenosis group', patients with stable angina had a lower asymmetric index (P = 0.02) and a greater calcific arc (P = 0.0001). In the 'severe stenosis group', intermediate lesions of patients with ACS exhibited a greater lipid arc as compared with patients with stable angina (P = 0.03). A higher prevalence of thin cap fibroatheroma was seen in patients with ACS of both groups. The incidence of MACE was not significantly different between patients with an intermediate stenosis who received PCI vs. optimal medical therapy on the basis of OCT findings (P = 0.26). Intermediate coronary stenoses showed distinctive OCT-based features according to the initial clinical presentation. The adoption of an OCT-guided PCI strategy, based on the presence of coronary thrombus and significant vessel narrowing, led to encouraging results.

  2. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass grafting in treatment of unprotected left main stenosis (NOBLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkikallio, Timo; Holm, Niels R; Lindsay, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    was used in the analysis if not specified otherwise. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, number NCT01496651. Findings Between Dec 9, 2008, and Jan 21, 2015, 1201 patients were randomly assigned, 598 to PCI and 603 to CABG, and 592 in each group entered analysis by intention...

  3. Rationale, design and goals of the HeartFlow assessing diagnostic value of non-invasive FFRCT in Coronary Care (ADVANCE) registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M; Akasaka, Takashi; Amano, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is a reliable tool for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) that conveys significant prognostic information. It does not provide data on the hemodynamic significance of a given lesion, particularly in intermediate-grade stenosis. Fractional flow...

  4. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in women with nonobstructive ischemic heart disease as assessed by positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Roxana; Marengo, Fernando D

    2017-04-01

    Traditional approaches for risk assessment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) are based on the physiological consequences of an epicardial coronary stenosis. Of note, normal coronary arteries or nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common finding in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia. Therefore, assessment of risk based on a coronary stenosis approach may fail in women. Positron emission tomography (PET) quantifies absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) which may help to elucidate other mechanisms involved such as endothelial dysfunction and alterations in the smooth muscle cell relaxation responsible for IHD in women. The objective of the present review is to describe the current state of the art of PET imaging in assessing IHD in women with nonobstructive CAD.

  5. Left main coronary artery obstruction by dislodged native-valve calculus after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Tahir; Ayhan, Huseyin; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

  6. Is there evidence for statins in the treatment of aortic valve stenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-08-26

    Research revealed that the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis (AS) not merely comprises of a mechanical wear and tear process yet that active biological processes, similar to those of coronary artery disease are involved, a promising role for statins in disease-modifying therapy was suggested. However, recently, many prospective studies could not observe decreased progression nor regression of the disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathomechanisms of AS and its similarities and differences with atherosclerosis. Moreover, we discuss whether there is still a place for statins in the treatment of particular AS patient subgroups.

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia and recurrent carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liewald Florian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a potential risk for atherosclerotic disease in epidemiologic studies. This study investigates the impact of elevated serum homocysteine on restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Methods In a retrospective study, we compared fasting plasma homocysteine levels of 51 patients who developed restenosis during an eight year period after CEA with 45 patients who did not develop restenosis. Restenosis was defined as at least 50% stenosis and was assessed by applying a routine duplex scan follow up investigation. Patients with restenosis were divided into a group with early restenosis (between 3 and 18 months postoperative, a total of 39 patients and late restenosis (19 and more months; a total of 12 patients. Results The groups were controlled for age, sex, and risk factors such as diabetes, nicotine abuse, weight, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Patients with restenosis had a significant lower mean homocysteine level (9.11 μmol/L; range: 3.23 μmol/L to 26.49 μmol/L compared to patients without restenosis (11.01 μmol/L; range: 5.09 μmol/L to 23.29 μmol/L; p = 0.03. Mean homocysteine level in patients with early restenosis was 8.88 μmol/L (range: 3.23–26.49 μmol/L and 9.86 μmol/L (range 4.44–19.06 μmol/L in late restenosis (p = 0.50. Conclusion The finding suggests that high plasma homocysteine concentrations do not play a significant role in the development of restenosis following CEA.

  8. [The features of a functional state of the coronary circulation in women-smokers with non st elevation acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Соломенчук, Тетяна М; Бедзай, Артем О; Процько, Василь В

    2017-01-01

    compensatory hypernormal development collateral blood flow and predominance of right blood supply type. Approximately 59,02% of women have sustainable violation of coronary microcirculation and myocardial perfusion, especially in cases of absence of coronary arteria hemodynamically relevant stenosis; much more often (by half) it is observed in smoking women (75,86%) that can be recognized on a coronarography as rather delayed blood flow and retention of contrast release. One-third of women occurs in the setting of almost unchanged coronary red vessels. durable smoking causes hard vessel damages with the occurrence of hemodynamic stenosis in proximal and medial segments of magistral coronary arteries, which are often connected with their distal (diffusive) changes and more frequent violation in microcirculation system.

  9. A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Zotarolimus- vs. Paclitaxel-eluting stents in de novo occlusive lesions in coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevalier, Bernard; Dimario, Carlo; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2013-01-01

    The ZOMAXX I trial tested the noninferiority of a zotarolimus-eluting coronary stent (ZoMaxx(™) ) when compared with a paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent (Taxus(™) Express(2™) ) in a randomized trial of percutaneous intervention for de novo coronary artery stenosis. Angiographic analysis at the pr......The ZOMAXX I trial tested the noninferiority of a zotarolimus-eluting coronary stent (ZoMaxx(™) ) when compared with a paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent (Taxus(™) Express(2™) ) in a randomized trial of percutaneous intervention for de novo coronary artery stenosis. Angiographic analysis...... at the primary endpoint of 9 months has been reported previously. The purpose of this follow-on analysis was to describe the clinical results of the ZoMaxx and Taxus cohorts of the ZOMAXX I trial after 5 years....

  10. Resting myocardial blood flow quantification using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the presence of stenosis: A computational fluid dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Karsten, E-mail: sommerk@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: Schreiber-L@ukw.de [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz 55131, Germany and Max Planck Graduate Center with the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Bernat, Dominik; Schmidt, Regine; Breit, Hanns-Christian [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Schreiber, Laura M., E-mail: sommerk@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: Schreiber-L@ukw.de [Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Würzburg University Hospital, Würzburg 97078 (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The extent to which atherosclerotic plaques affect contrast agent (CA) transport in the coronary arteries and, hence, quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unclear. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of plaque induced stenosis both on CA transport and on the accuracy of MBF quantification. Methods: Computational fluid dynamics simulations in a high-detailed realistic vascular model were employed to investigate CA bolus transport in the coronary arteries. The impact of atherosclerosis was analyzed by inserting various medium- to high-grade stenoses in the vascular model. The influence of stenosis morphology was examined by varying the stenosis shapes but keeping the area reduction constant. Errors due to CA bolus transport were analyzed using the tracer-kinetic model MMID4. Results: Dispersion of the CA bolus was found in all models and for all outlets, but with a varying magnitude. The impact of stenosis was complex: while high-grade stenoses amplified dispersion, mild stenoses reduced the effect. Morphology was found to have a marked influence on dispersion for a small number of outlets in the post-stenotic region. Despite this marked influence on the concentration–time curves, MBF errors were less affected by stenosis. In total, MBF was underestimated by −7.9% to −44.9%. Conclusions: The presented results reveal that local hemodynamics in the coronary vasculature appears to have a direct impact on CA bolus dispersion. Inclusion of atherosclerotic plaques resulted in a complex alteration of this effect, with both degree of area reduction and stenosis morphology affecting the amount of dispersion. This strong influence of vascular transport effects impairs the accuracy of MRI-based MBF quantification techniques and, potentially, other bolus-based perfusion measurement techniques like computed tomography perfusion imaging.

  11. Evaluation of myocardial bridging by coronary computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz, E-mail: marciovlbarros@uol.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Garretto, Luiza Samarane; Paula, Marcela Mascarenhas De; Carvalho, Marina Oliveira; Alves, Marina Rangel Moreira Barros [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana (FASEH), Vespasiano, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The myocardial bridge (MB) is defined as a segment of an epicardial coronary artery that has an intramural course in the myocardium. Although MB is clinically silent in most cases, has been associated with myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death. Coronary conventional angiography is the gold standard for detection of MB, but is invasive and cannot be sufficiently sensitive compared to autopsy studies. Recently, multislice computed tomography of coronary arteries (MCTCA) has allowed the detection of coronary artery course, including PM. Objectives: to evaluate MB prevalence in patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing MCTCA and to evaluate the predictive value of this method at medium term. Methods: during the period 2008 to 2011, 498 consecutive patients were examined by TMC for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, being conducted to evaluate the presence of BM and followed for a mean follow-up of 23 months for the occurrence of cardiovascular hard events (death, hospitalization or revascularization). Results: patients mean age was 55.3 ± 14.2, being male 71.1%. Among the patients, 7.6% (38 patients) showed MB. Main findings included angina pectoris in 40% and a positive stress test in 34%. 34.2% had atherosclerotic disease, and one patient had significant coronary stenosis. During follow-up, no patients showed adverse events. Conclusion: MCTCA is a noninvasive technique with high accuracy in anatomical evaluation of the coronary arteries and may be particularly useful to assess the incidence, location and morphology of myocardial bridging in vivo. (author)

  12. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  13. Coronary collaterals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerselman, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, in particular coronary artery disease, are the leading cause of death and disease in industrialized countries. Atherosclerotic changes of the arterial vessel wall constitute one of the major causes for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Important risk factors for

  14. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...

  15. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  16. Oriental Medical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis results from the progressive combined narrowing of the central spinal canal, the neurorecesses, and the neuroforaminal canals. In the absence of prior surgery, tumor, or infection, the spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposis posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins, or a combination of two or more of the above factors. Patients with spinal stenosis become symptomatic when pain, motor weakness, paresthesia, or other neurologic compromise causes distress. In one case, we administrated oriental medical treatment with acupuncture treatment and herb-medicine. Oriental medical treatment showed desirable effect on lumbar spinal stenosis.

  17. [Asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a reopened debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Stefano; Sadaba, Rafael; de la Cruz, Elena

    2014-05-06

    Aortic stenosis is a complex disease. About 2-7% of the population over 65 years of age is affected by its degenerative form. In patients with severe aortic stenosis presenting with symptoms or left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF)debate. Recent published data show that about one third of these patients present with low left ventricle stroke volume, which may affect survival. For this reason, and considering that aortic valve replacement is in most cases a low risk procedure, early surgery in this subgroup is a strategy that deserves to be taken into account. In this review we report on these recent findings, which allow understanding why patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis should not be considered and treated as a homogenous population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced computed tomographic anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis for prediction of fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P., E-mail: opolski.mp@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kepka, Cezary, E-mail: c.kepka@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Achenbach, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.achenbach@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Pregowski, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzypregowski74@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kruk, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszkruk2000@yahoo.com [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Staruch, Adam D., E-mail: adstarman@gmail.com [Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Kadziela, Jacek, E-mail: j.kadziela@ikard.pl [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Ruzyllo, Witold, E-mail: w.ruzyllo@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Witkowski, Adam, E-mail: witkowski@hbz.pl [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: To determine the application of advanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) plaque analysis for predicting invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary lesions. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 71 single intermediate coronary lesions (≥50–80% stenosis) on CCTA prospectively underwent coronary angiography and FFR. Advanced anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis was performed based on CCTA data set to determine optimal criteria for significant flow impairment. A significant stenosis was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80. Results: FFR averaged 0.85 ± 0.09, and 19 lesions (27%) were functionally significant. FFR correlated with minimum lumen area (MLA) (r = 0.456, p < 0.001), minimum lumen diameter (MLD) (r = 0.326, p = 0.006), reference lumen diameter (RLD) (r = 0.245, p = 0.039), plaque burden (r = −0.313, p = 0.008), lumen area stenosis (r = −0.305, p = 0.01), lesion length (r = −0.692, p < 0.001), and plaque volume (r = −0.668, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between FFR and CCTA morphometric plaque parameters. By multivariate analysis the independent predictors of FFR were lesion length (beta = −0.581, p < 0.001), MLA (beta = 0.360, p = 0.041), and RLD (beta = −0.255, p = 0.036). The optimal cutoffs for lesion length, MLA, MLD, RLD, and lumen area stenosis were >18.5 mm, ≤3.0 mm{sup 2}, ≤2.1 mm, ≤3.2 mm, and >69%, respectively (max. sensitivity: 100% for MLA, max. specificity: 79% for lumen area stenosis). Conclusions: CCTA predictors for FFR support the mathematical relationship between stenosis pressure drop and coronary flow. CCTA could prove to be a useful rule-out test for significant hemodynamic effects of intermediate coronary stenoses.

  19. Effects of the topographical extent of coronary artery ectasia on coronary blood flow in patients with aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Hiroki; Kurisu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Noriaki; Shimonaga, Takashi; Higaki, Tadanao; Iwasaki, Toshitaka; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Mitsuba, Naoya; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Imai, Katsuhiko; Sueda, Taijiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-11-01

    Aortic aneurysms are associated with coronary artery ectasia (CAE). However, the relation between the extent of CAE and coronary blood flow in patients with aortic aneurysms is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to assess the angiographic characteristics and effects of the topographical extent of CAE on coronary blood flow in patients with aortic aneurysms. This study consisted of 93 consecutive patients with aortic aneurysms (AA group) and 79 patients without aortic aneurysms who had angiographically normal coronary arteries as the control group (Control group). Coronary flow velocity was determined using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC) and the topographical extent of CAE was assessed. In the AA group, 43 patients (46.2 %) had significant coronary artery stenosis and 37 patients (40.2 %) had diffuse CAE. TFC was significantly higher in the AA group than in the control group in all 3 coronary arteries. Furthermore, mean corrected TFC (CTFC) was significantly higher in the AA group than in the control group (40.1 ± 10.7 vs. 25.8 ± 6.5, p < 0.001). In the AA group, mean CTFC in patients with diffuse CAE was significantly higher than that in patients with segmental CAE (50.2 ± 8.7 vs. 33.6 ± 5.2, p < 0.001). The mean CTFC correlated positively with the topographical extent of CAE. Many patients with aortic aneurysms were accompanied with angiographic coronary artery stenosis and CAE. Furthermore, patients with aortic aneurysms had higher CTFC than those without aortic aneurysms and it was primarily driven by more frequent prevalence of diffuse CAE.

  20. Assessment of myocardial fibrosis and coronary arteries in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using combined arterial and delayed enhanced CT: comparison with MR and coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Ma, Xiaohai; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); DeLano, Mark C. [Michigan State University, Division of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, College of Human Medicine, Lancing, MI (United States); Jiang, Tengyong [Capital Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    We sought to determine the feasibility and accuracy of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in assessing coronary artery disease and myocardial fibrosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and coronary angiography (CA). Forty-seven consecutive patients with HCM were prospectively enrolled. DSCT images were acquired in the arterial and late phases following intravenous contrast medium. The CMR and CA were performed within 7 days. Independent blinded readers read each study. Patients were classified according to myocardial delayed enhanced (MDE) CMR, coronary artery stenosis by CA, and arterial and MDE-DSCT. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT in detecting coronary stenosis and MDE was analysed. Wall thickness determined by DSCT was strongly correlated with MR results (r = 0.91). DSCT and CMR MDE showed substantial agreement for the detection of myocardial fibrosis on per-patient and per-segment levels. The CT classification of patients by arterial stenosis and delayed enhancement had excellent agreement with MR and CA methods. The comprehensive cardiac CT examination provides reliable coronary artery and myocardial assessments. MDE-DSCT is a robust alternative method to MDE-CMR in assessing myocardial fibrosis in HCM particularly in patients with pacemakers or other contraindications to CMR. (orig.)

  1. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography compared with positron emission tomography for assessment of coronary microvascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Marie Mide; Mygind, Naja Dam; Pena, Adam

    2017-01-01

    for measuring coronary microvascular function but has limited availability. We compared TTDE CFVR with PET MBFR in women with angina pectoris and no obstructive coronary artery disease and assessed repeatability of TTDE CFVR. METHODS: From a cohort of women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery......BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function can be assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography as a coronary flow velocity reserve (TTDE CFVR) and by positron emission tomography as a myocardial blood flow reserve (PET MBFR). PET MBFR is regarded the noninvasive reference standard...... stenosis at invasive coronary angiography, TTDE CFVR by dipyridamole induced stress and MBFR by rubidium-82 PET with adenosine was successfully measured in 107 subjects. Repeatability of TTDE CFVR was assessed in 10 symptomatic women and in 10 healthy individuals. RESULTS: MBFR was systematically higher...

  2. Left ventricular microfistulization: A rare cause of ischemia in a patient with normal coronary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Dindar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with chest pain occurring on physicalexercise was admitted to cardiology department.Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy revealed inferior andanteroapical segment hypoperfusion. Selective coronaryangiography revealed multiple coronary-cameral fistulasoriginating from the left anterior descending artery andthe right coronary artery and emptying into the left ventriclewithout any significant coronary artery stenosis. Coronaryartery fistulas are defined as abnormal communicationsbetween a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber ormajor vessel. Coronary-cameral fistulas terminating in theleft ventricle are uncommon. Small fistulas usually do notcause any hemodynamic compromise. However, the largerand multiple fistulas may cause myocardial ischemiaascribed to a coronary steal phenomenon. The best wayto manage cameral fistulae is uncertain largely due to therarity of the condition. In the present case, anti-ischemicmedications with metoprolol 50 mg/day provided an uneventfulfollow-up of six months without any intervention.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: retinal arterial macroaneurysm with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions RAMSVPS Retinal arterial macroaneurysm with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Retinal arterial macroaneurysm with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis ( RAMSVPS ) is a disorder that affects blood vessels ...

  4. Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the right carotid artery showing a severe narrowing (stenosis) of the internal carotid artery just past the ... artery or ulceration in the area after the stenosis in this close-up film. Note the narrowed ...

  5. Recurred Post-intubation Tracheal Stenosis Treated with Bronchoscopic Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ryung; Taek Jeong, Joon; Kyu Lee, Myoung; Kim, Sang-Ha; Joong Yong, Suk; Jeong Lee, Seok; Lee, Won-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Post-intubation tracheal stenosis accounts for the greatest proportion of whole-cause tracheal stenosis. Treatment of post-intubation tracheal stenosis requires a multidisciplinary approach. Surgery or an endoscopic procedure can be used, depending on the type of stenosis. However, the efficacy of cryotherapy in post-intubation tracheal stenosis has not been validated. Here, we report a case of recurring post-intubation tracheal stenosis successfully treated with bronchoscopic cryotherapy that had previously been treated with surgery. In this case, cryotherapy was effective in treating web-like fibrous stenosis, without requiring more surgery. Cryotherapy can be considered as an alternative or primary treatment for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. PMID:27853078

  6. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  7. Comparison of the TIMI and the GRACE risk scores with the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mazhar; Achakzai, Abdul Samad; Akhtar, Parveen; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2013-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The cross-sectional study comprising 406 consecutive patients was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from August 2010 to March 2011. For all patients, the GRACE and TIMI RS's relevant scores on the two indices were calculated on admission using specified variables. The patients underwent coronary angiography to determine the extent of the disease. A significant level was defined as > or =70% stenosis in any major epicardial artery or > or =50% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Both the indices showed good predictive value in identifying the extent of the disease. A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score >4 and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score >133 was significantly associated with 3vessel disease and left main disease, while for the former score score risk scores, the discriminatory accuracy of the latter was significantly superior to the former in predicting 2vessel, 3vessel and left main diseases (p<0.05). Although both the indices were helpful in predicting the extent of the disease, the Global Registry showed better performance and was more strongly associated with multi-vessel and left main coronary artery disease.

  8. Evaluation of aortic valve stenosis by cardiac multislice computed tomography compared with echocardiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Sivertsen, Jacob Christian; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: It has not yet been established whether multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is reliable for the quantification of aortic valve area (AVA) in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and simultaneously for assessment of the coronary anatomy. The study aim, via...... a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, was to explore whether MSCT is a reliable method for AVA quantification, and simultaneously to assess the coronary anatomy in patients with AVS. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search and meta-analysis was conducted that included 14 studies...... with invasive coronary angiography. RESULTS: The AVA was measured by MSCT and TTE in all 14 studies, and by TEE in four studies. The results of the meta-analyses showed that planimetry by MSCT overestimated the AVA, with a bias of 0.08 (95% CI 0.04, 0.13) cm2) (p = 0.0001) compared to TTE. The MSCT measurement...

  9. [Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in patients with critical limb ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Carlos; Presas, Ana; Ara, Jordi; Pérez, Paulina; Martorell, Alberto; Lisbona, Carlos; Lerma, Rosa; Romero, Ramón; Callejas, José María

    2007-04-21

    Our purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of renal artery stenosis in patients with critical limb ischemia and to study any clinical or laboratory indicator that could predict this association. One hundred consecutive patients with critical limb ischemia evaluated by angiogram were included in the study from January to July 2003. Cardiovascular risk factors and renal function were analyzed. One hundred angiographic studies have been analyzed. Thirty nine (39%) of our patients had some type of pathology of the renal artery but the rest, 61 (61%), had normal and healthy renal arteries. In 5 patients, a bilateral renal pathology was found. Severe disease (> 60% stenosis, bilateral or renal occlusion) was present in 15 cases including 6 occlusions. Once we compared the patients with healthy renal arteries with the patients with different degrees of stenosis, we did not appreciate significant differences in hypertension, diabetes, coronary disease or smoking habit, nor with laboratory data such as creatinine, urea, c-reactive protein, total cholesterol or atherogenic index. No differences were found either comparing patients with normal renal artery with patients with bilateral pathology or with unilateral occlusion. There is a high prevalence of renal artery pathology in patients with critical limb ischemia although we have not found any clinical or laboratory factors useful to identify them.

  10. Severe familial hypercholesterolemia impairs the regulation of coronary blood flow and oxygen supply during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2016-11-01

    Accelerated development of coronary atherosclerosis is a defining characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the recent data highlight a significant cardiovascular risk prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that FH produces coronary microvascular dysfunction and impairs coronary vascular control at rest and during exercise in a swine model of FH. Coronary vascular responses to drug infusions and exercise were examined in chronically instrumented control and FH swine. FH swine exhibited ~tenfold elevation of plasma cholesterol and diffuse coronary atherosclerosis (20-60 % plaque burden). Similar to our recent findings in the systemic vasculature in FH swine, coronary smooth muscle nitric oxide sensitivity was increased in vivo and in vitro with maintained endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vivo in FH. At rest and during exercise, FH swine exhibited increased myocardial O2 extraction resulting in reduced coronary venous SO2 and PO2 versus control. During exercise in FH swine, the transmural distribution of coronary blood flow was unchanged; however, a shift toward anaerobic cardiac metabolism was revealed by increased coronary arteriovenous H(+) concentration gradient. This shift was associated with a worsening of cardiac efficiency (relationship between cardiac work and O2 consumption) in FH during exercise owing, in part, to a generalized reduction in stroke volume which was associated with increased left atrial pressure in FH. Our data highlight a critical role for coronary microvascular dysfunction as a contributor to impaired myocardial O2 balance, cardiac ischemia, and impaired cardiac function prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis in FH.

  11. Prognostic value of computed tomographic coronary angiography and exercise electrocardiography for cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kye-Hwan; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Kang, Min Gyu; Ahn, Jong Hwa; Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Yongwhi; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Jeong, Young-Hoon; Kwak, Choong Hwan; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Park, Jeong Rang

    2016-09-01

    This study is a head-to-head comparison of predictive values for long-term cardiovascular outcomes between exercise electrocardiography (ex-ECG) and computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with chest pain. Four hundred and forty-two patients (mean age, 56.1 years; men, 61.3%) who underwent both ex-ECG and CTCA for evaluation of chest pain were included. For ex-ECG parameters, the patients were classified according to negative or positive results, and Duke treadmill score (DTS). Coronary artery calcium score (CACS), presence of plaque, and coronary artery stenosis were evaluated as CTCA parameters. Cardiovascular events for prognostic evaluation were defined as unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, revascularization, heart failure, and cardiac death. The mean follow-up duration was 2.8 ± 1.1 years. Fifteen patients experienced cardiovascular events. Based on pretest probability, the low- and intermediate-risks of coronary artery disease were 94.6%. Odds ratio of CACS > 40, presence of plaque, coronary stenosis ≥ 50% and DTS ≤ 4 were significant (3.79, p = 0.012; 9.54, p = 0.030; 6.99, p < 0.001; and 4.58, p = 0.008, respectively). In the Cox regression model, coronary stenosis ≥ 50% (hazard ratio, 7.426; 95% confidence interval, 2.685 to 20.525) was only significant. After adding DTS ≤ 4 to coronary stenosis ≥ 50%, the integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement analyses did not show significant. CTCA was better than ex-ECG in terms of predicting long-term outcomes in low- to intermediate-risk populations. The predictive value of the combination of CTCA and ex-ECG was not superior to that of CTCA alone.

  12. Studies on diagnosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Krijnen (Pieta)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes studies on ~onosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. In Chapter 1, the clinical problem of renal artery stenosis is discussed. Renal artery stenosis, a narrowing of the renal artery, is a potential cause of

  13. Diagnostic performance of calcification-suppressed coronary CT angiography using rapid kilovolt-switching dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunaga, Hiroto; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Kitao, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago City, Tottori (Japan); Kaetsu, Yasuhiro [Kakogawa Higashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Kakogawa (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomi; Furuse, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Tottori University, Division of Cardiology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) plays an important role in the assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, MDCTA tends to overestimate stenosis in calcified coronary artery lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of calcification-suppressed material density (MD) images produced by using a single-detector single-source dual-energy computed tomography (ssDECT). We enrolled 67 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent ssDECT with rapid kilovolt-switching (80 and 140 kVp). Coronary artery stenosis was evaluated on the basis of MD images and virtual monochromatic (VM) images. The diagnostic performance of the two methods for detecting coronary artery disease was compared with that of invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. We evaluated 239 calcified segments. In all the segments, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy for detecting significant stenosis were respectively 88%, 88%, 75%, 95% and 88% for the MD images, 91%, 71%, 56%, 95% and 77% for the VM images. PPV was significantly higher on the MD images than on the VM images (P < 0.0001). Calcification-suppressed MD images improved PPV and diagnostic performance for calcified coronary artery lesions. (orig.)

  14. Haemodynamic assessment of human coronary arteries is affected by degree of freedom of artery movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Yong, Andy S C; Chang, Michael; Ng, Martin K C; Behnia, Masud; Kritharides, Leonard

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal haemodynamic parameters are associated with atheroma plaque progression and instability in coronary arteries. Flow recirculation, shear stress and pressure gradient are understood to be important pathogenic mediators in coronary disease. The effect of freedom of coronary artery movement on these parameters is still unknown. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations were carried out in 25 coronary artery models derived from authentic human coronaries in order to investigate the effect of degree of freedom of movement of the coronary arteries on flow recirculation, wall shear stress (WSS) and wall pressure gradient (WPG). Each FSI model had distinctive supports placed upon it. The quantitative and qualitative differences in flow recirculation, maximum wall shear stress (MWSS), areas of low wall shear stress (ALWSS) and maximum wall pressure gradient (MWPG) for each model were determined. The results showed that greater freedom of movement was associated with lower MWSS, smaller ALWSS, smaller flow recirculation zones and lower MWPG. With increasing percentage diameter stenosis (%DS), the effect of degree of freedom on flow recirculation and WSS diminished. Freedom of movement is an important variable to be considered for computational modelling of human coronary arteries, especially in the setting of mild to moderate stenosis. 3D: Three-dimensional; 3DR: Three-dimensional Reconstruction; 3D-QCA: Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography; ALWSS: Areas of low wall shear stress; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CFD: Computational fluid dynamics; %DS: Diameter stenosis percentage; EPCS: End point of counter-rotating streamlines; FSI: Fluid-structure interaction; IVUS: Intravascular ultrasound; LAD: Left anterior descending; MWSS: Maximum wall shear stress; SST: Shear stress transport; TAWSS: Time-averaged wall shear stress; WSS: wall shear stress; WPG: Wall pressure gradient; MWPG: Maximum wall pressure gradient; FFR: Fractional flow reserve; i

  15. Radiation-associated pulmonary infundibular stenosis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Shinsuke; Horimoto, Masashi; Inoue, Hitoki; Takenaka, Takashi [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    A 68-year-old female was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of cardiac murmur. At the age of 45, the patient was treated with an electron beam irradiation of a total of 51 Gy following radical mastectomy for the left mammary gland. Furthermore, the subsequent irradiation with a total of 57 Gy was delivered two months later. At the age of 59 years, pericardial diffusion due to radiation-associated pericarditis was noted but no cardiac murmur was heard. On the present admission, B-mode echocardiography showed pericardial effusion contiguous to the posterior wall of the left ventricle and no asynergy and no hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. No valvular dysfunction was detected. The right ventricular (RV) outflow tract was strikingly narrowed at systole because of the hypercontraction of the thickened RV free wall at the RV outflow tract. Doppler echocardiography revealed a turbulent flow with a pressure gradient of 12 mmHg at the RV outflow tract. A similar pressure gradient was noted by RV pressure study at the pulmonary artery. Right ventriculography revealed a systolic narrowing of the RV outflow tract and coronary angiograms were normal. These findings lead to the diagnosis of pulmonary infundibular stenosis due to radiation. (N.A.).

  16. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Also known as coronary angioplasty. Percutaneous coronary intervention ( ... heart for more information about this topic. Related reading Angina Arrhythmia Atherosclerosis Blood Tests Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac ...

  17. Mesenteric stenosis, collaterals, and compensatory blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Petersen, Andre S.; Kolkman, Jeroen J.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Huisman, Ad B.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Geelkerken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mesenteric circulation has an extensive collateral network. Therefore, stenosis in one or more mesenteric arteries does not necessarily lead to symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of collateral flow on celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery

  18. Tracheal resection for laryngotracheal stenosis: A retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-03

    Aug 3, 2014 ... OTOLARYNGOLOGY. Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is caused by form ation of scar tissue in the trachea and, rarely, in the larynx itself. Symptoms depend on the degree of airway obstruction and can therefore range from asymptomatic to upper airway obstruction severe enough to cause death.[15].

  19. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  20. Valvular pulmonic stenosis. Diagnosis and therapy reviewed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorntje, Jan Cornelis Anthony

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnosis and therapy of Valvular Pulmonic Stenosis (VPS) are reviewed. One reason for this is founded in the improvement in diagnostic techniques that has taken place in the past decades. Another reason is the change in potssible therapy due to the development of Percutaneous

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for laryngotracheal stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kathrine Kronberg; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H

    2017-01-01

    promising results in regenerative medicine. We aimed to systematically review the literature on MSC therapy for stenosis of the conductive airways. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched from January 1980-January 2017 with the purpose of identifying all...

  2. Surgical options for lumbar spinal stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Paulo H; Yoo, Rafael Ij; Harris, Ian A; Pinheiro, Marina B; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Maher, Christopher G.; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital charges for lumbar spinal stenosis have increased significantly worldwide in recent times, with great variation in the costs and rates of different surgical procedures. There have also been significant increases in the rate of complex fusion and the use of spinal spacer implants

  3. Dorsal column stimulation for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Gilbert S; Nixon, Bruce; Stewart, L Todd; Love, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Surgical decompression has been considered the gold standard for the symptomatic spinal stenotic patient. Thirty thousand decompressive procedures are performed annually and this number is expected to increase as the American population ages. Options are limited for the stenotic patient classified as a "poor surgical risk". Furthermore review of the literature indicates mixed results even in optimal populations. Nonsurgical approaches including epidural steroids and percutaneous adhesiolysis have not been completely evaluated. Spinal cord stimulation has a long safe efficacious history in the treatment of neuropathic extremity pain but has never been evaluated in the treatment of spinal stenosis. This retrospective cohort of 55 patients receiving spinal cord stimulation was selected from a total of 72 patients presenting with spinal stenosis over a 4 year period. Twenty-one underwent subsequent permanent implantation with success rate of 67% at 1.5 years. Twelve elected to not receive implant despite "successful trial". 22 had "failed trial". Verbal pain scores, narcotic intake, and function were monitored. Spinal cord stimulation is a promising nondestructive alternative in the treatment of symptomatic spinal stenosis. Mild-moderate stenosis, predominate leg pain, and "positive" exercise treadmill appear to be positive predictors. Prospective trials with rigorous statistical designs are needed.

  4. Mesenteric stenosis, collaterals, and compensatory blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Petersen, Andre S.; Kolkman, Jeroen J.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Huisman, Ad B.; van der Palen, Job; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Geelkerken, Robert H.

    Background: The mesenteric circulation has an extensive collateral network. Therefore, stenosis in one or more mesenteric arteries does not necessarily lead to symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of collateral flow on celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery

  5. Duplex ultrasound for identifying renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachrisson, Karin; Herlitz, Hans; Lönn, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background Renal artery duplex ultrasound (RADUS) is an established method for diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS), but there is no consensus regarding optimal RADUS criteria. Purpose To define optimal cutoff values for RADUS parameters when screening for RAS using intra-arterial trans...

  6. Global Strain in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbæk, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2012-01-01

    Score, history with ischemic heart disease and ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: -In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis undergoing AVR reduced GLS provides important prognostic information beyond standard risk factors. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier...

  7. Normalization of Diffuse ST-Depression with aVR Elevation After Rehydration in a Patient with Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sachin R; Patel, Vikas J; Clark, Brittany; Rust, George

    2017-05-22

    BACKGROUND Isolated ST elevation in lead aVR in combination with global ST depression with normalization after rehydration is a unique electrocardiographic pattern that is associated with a broad range of diagnoses. Its association with left main coronary artery disease and other acute coronary syndromes suggest the need for early and aggressive cardiac evaluation. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old man presented with altered mental status and loss of consciousness. He was unresponsive, hypotensive, tachycardiac, and diaphoretic. An initial ECG showed diffuse ST depression with isolated ST elevation in lead aVR, and initial troponin levels were negative. After rehydration, a repeat ECG showed sinus rhythm without ischemic changes. An emergent echocardiogram showed severe aortic stenosis and global hypokinesis. Repeat troponin results were elevated. The patient had 2 subsequent cardiac arrests. Emergent cardiac catheterization showed an occluded right coronary artery with collaterals and complete occlusion of the LAD. Urgent intra-aortic balloon pump was placed, followed by coronary artery bypass graft, aortic valve replacement, and a placement of a left ventricular assist device. Despite maximal hemodynamic support, the patient died after cardiac arrest due to massive myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS Normalization of diffuse ST depression with isolated aVR ST elevation on electrocardiography with improvement in clinical and hemodynamic status through fluid resuscitation can mask a stuttering myocardial infarction given its association with left main coronary artery disease and partial right coronary artery occlusion.

  8. [Benefits of coronary revascularization in septuagenarian patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Habib; Hamdi, Imen; Elkateb, Taoufik; Ben Hassan, Fadoua; Mokaddem, Aida; Ben Ameur, Youssef; Boujnah, Mohamed R

    2013-01-01

    Prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in elderly patients is bleak. Also older people tend to receive less invasive treatment than younger patients. To analyze the impact of coronary revascularization on the mid-term outcome of septuagenarian patients admitted with ACS. We retrospectively studied 250 patients 70 years or older hospitalised for ACS between january 2006 to september 2010. This population was more likely to be male with mean age 74 years and 93 % of ACS were inaugural events (60% NSTEMI, 40% STEMI). Coronary angiograms showed complex coronary lesions with a high incidence of multivessel disease, bifurcation lesions, and calcified stenosis. Seventy-six patients were treated medically and 174 underwent percutaneous or surgical revascularization. At six-month clinical follow-up, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly higher in medically treated than revascularized patients (62% Vs 31.7%, P <0.001). Patients with invasive strategy have significantly higher event free survival rate comparing to those assigned to medical management (64% Vs 49.7%, p: 0.01). Our study confirmed the superiority of invasive strategy compared to medical treatment in septuagenarian patients with acute coronary syndromes. Advanced age should not exclude patients from invasive strategy with complete revascularization.

  9. Giant coronary artery aneurysm after Takeuchi repair for anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Dearani, Joseph A; Warnes, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery who had undergone Takeuchi repair at age 7 years presented for evaluation. The Takeuchi procedure creates an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the left coronary artery to the aorta. A mediastinal mass was identified as a giant aneurysm of the left coronary artery resulting in compression of the pulmonary artery and left upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent open repair with patch closure at the aortic entrance of the left coronary Takeuchi repair and resection and evacuation of the aneurysm. A saphenous vein graft to the left anterior descending artery was performed. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function. This is the first reported case of giant aneurysm formation after Takeuchi repair. The reported complications have included the development of pulmonary artery stenosis at the intrapulmonary baffle, baffle leak, decreased left ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation. In conclusion, late complications of the Takeuchi procedure are common, underscoring the importance of lifelong follow-up at a center with experience in treating coronary anomalies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary CT: clinical indications and future directions; Tomografia de coronarias: indicacoes clinicas e perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Cesar H.; Serpa, Bruna S.; Kay, Fernando U.; Szarf, Gilberto; Passos, Rodrigo B.; Neto, Roberto S.; Chate, Rodigo C.; Funar, Marcelo B., E-mail: cesarnomura@gmail.com [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto C. [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has started its implementation in cardiology with calcium quantification of coronary plaques in the study without contrast, using the calcium score, demonstrating an important independent predictor of future cardiac events. The examination with intravenous contrast, coronary angiography, appeared later as a noninvasive method for evaluation of anatomy and obstructive coronary disease, characterizing the degree of stenosis and the presence of non calcified atherosclerotic plaques, assessing not only the lumen, but also the vessel wall. With the advent of new machines with more detectors and higher temporal resolution has been a reduction in radiation dose and the possibility of new applications. (author)

  11. The Sonographic Stenosis Index: A New Specific Quantitative Measure of Transplant Hepatic Arterial Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thomas X; Hippe, Daniel S; McNeeley, Michael F; Dighe, Manjiri K; Dubinsky, Theodore J; Chan, Sherwin S

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of stenosis index (SI), which accounts for the entire spectral Doppler waveform, to detect significant transplant hepatic arterial stenosis. In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA compliant study, we retrospectively analyzed 69 patients who had catheter angiography for suspected transplant hepatic arterial stenosis (THAS) between January 2006 and December 2010; all patients had Doppler ultrasound within 30 days before angiography. Patients with angiographic stenosis requiring intervention were considered positive for THAS. Stenosis index was calculated from each patient's spectral Doppler ultrasound images by obtaining the ratio of the area under the high-frequency signal to low-frequency signal in the spectral Doppler. Resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were also calculated. Receiver operator curve analysis was performed and the area under the curve (AUC) was compared among the three metrics. Forty-eight of 69 patients had THAS by angiography requiring intervention; 21patients had no angiographic evidence of THAS. SI was significantly different (P transplant hepatic artery stenosis. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of athlete's heart: myocardial mass, left ventricular function, and cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandrino, F.; Sardanelli, F. [Dept. of Experimental Medicine, Section of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, University of Genoa School of Medicine (Italy); Molinari, G.; Masperone, M.A. [Dept. of Cardiology, University of Genoa School of Medicine (Italy); Smeraldi, A.; Odaglia, G. [Dept. of Sports Medicine, University of Genoa School of Medicine (Italy)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate left ventricular myocardial mass and function as well as ostial coronary artery cross-sectional area in endurance athletes, an athlete group of 12 highly trained rowers and a control group of 12 sedentary healthy subjects underwent MR examination. An ECG-gated breath-hold cine gradient-echo sequence was used to calculate myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and cardiac output, all related to body surface area, as well as ejection fraction. A 3D fat-saturated ECG- and respiratory-triggered navigator echo sequence was used to evaluate coronary arteries: left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx), and right coronary artery (RCA). Cross-sectional area was calculated and divided for body surface area. Myocardial mass was found significantly larger in athlete group than in control group (p = 0.0078), the same being for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.0078), stroke volume (p = 0.0055), LM (p = 0.0066) and LAD (p = 0.0129). No significant difference was found for all the remaining parameters. Significant correlation with myocardial mass was found for LM (p < 0.001) and LAD (p = 0.0340), not for LCx and RCA. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the myocardial hypertrophy and function of athlete's heart. Magnetic resonance angiography is a valuable noninvasive method to visualize the correlated cross-sectional area increase of the left coronary artery system. (orig.)

  13. Coexistence of Single Coronary Artery Anomaly and Aortic Arch Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Omur Otlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of recent onset atypical chest pain. His medical history included hypertension, dislipidemia and smoking. Physical examination was unremarkable. The resting electrocardiogram was demonstrated biphasic T waves on lateral derivations. Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left and right ventricular dimensions and functions. Coronary angiography was planned for the patient. First, right transradial approach tried; but guidewire could not be advanced to ascendig aorta. Coronary angiography was performed through the right femoral artery. Multiple attempts to cannulate the left coronary ostium were unsuccessful. The right coronary artery cannulated from its normal ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva. After a very short common main stem, the artery divided into a right coronary artery, and separate left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery (Figure A. The coronary arteries were normal without any significant stenosis and any extrinsic compression. An aortic root injection confirmed the absence of left coronary ostium. Also, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery originating from the left aortic arch (arteria lusoria was detected as the last branch of aortic arch on contrast enhanced computerized tomography (Figure B-C. The patient discharged with medical teraphy.

  14. Failure of internal thoracic artery grafts: conclusions from coronary angiography mid-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezon, Eric; Choplain, Jean N; Maguid, Yasser A; Aziz, Ahmed A; Barra, Jean A

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify causes of the failures of internal thoracic artery bypass grafts according to operative technique, the internal thoracic artery used, and the coronary artery grafted. This retrospective study concerns 302 follow-up angiographies performed in patients treated with 512 internal thoracic artery bypass grafts: 115 single grafts, 78 sequential grafts, and 109 grafts with two internal thoracic arteries (61 Y grafts). Postoperative angiography was performed after a mean period of 17.3 +/- 4.1 months. Failures consisted of 11 (2%) occluded grafts and 19 (4%) nonfunctioning grafts (threadlike internal thoracic artery). There was no difference in patency among the various types of left anterior descending artery bypass grafts anastomosed with the left internal thoracic artery. The failure rate was higher with the right internal thoracic artery (13%) than with the left internal thoracic artery (4%; p < 0.05). The failure rate of the left anterior descending artery bypass grafts (3%) was lower than that for the branches of circumflex artery bypass grafts (13%; p < 0.05). The 19 cases of nonfunctioning grafts did not include significant anastomotic stenosis: 14 were related to competitive blood flow, 4 to a poor recipient coronary arterial bed, and 1 to significant distal coronary stenosis. At least two thirds of failures of bypass grafts could have been avoided by more objective analysis of the coronary stenosis on preoperative coronary angiography and better mastery of the surgical technique.

  15. Coronary angiographic findings in African-American and white patients from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y; Ghali, J K; Berzins, L; Cooper, R S

    2001-12-01

    No data exist comparing clinical and angiographic findings in large numbers of contemporary African-American and white patients from the same hospital. Limited angiographic data on African Americans were obtained from hospitals serving predominantly minority patients, making the valid African-American:white comparisons difficult. The study included 2,624 consecutive white and 1,793 African-American patients who had angiography for diagnostic evaluation of presumed coronary artery disease at the Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport between 1990 and 1997. Compared to whites of the same sex, a greater proportion of African-American patients had a history of hypertension, stroke, and heart failure. African Americans also had significantly higher systemic and left ventricular pressure, lower ejection fraction, greater echocardiographic left ventricular mass index, and more concentric hypertrophy. The overall proportion of patients with normal or minimal stenosis of coronary artery (whites for both men and women. This difference was predominately found in men aged > or = 55 years or older. Except among older men, African-American patients with coronary heart disease had a similar distribution of 1-, 2-, 3-vessel disease and mean stenosis score compared to whites. In conclusion, a higher frequency of normal coronaries and less frequent coronary stenosis were found in older African-American men. The African-American:white differences in angiographic findings were minimal in younger men and in women. However, African Americans had worse clinical profiles than whites.

  16. Combined transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass with right gastroepiploic artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Onur; Haberal, Ismail; Ozsoy, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Male, 74 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass Medication: - Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair Specialty: Surgery. Rare disease. Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery. A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery. We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost.

  17. Coronary occlusion after the Manouguian procedure in a patient with a single coronary artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yochun Jung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between the anatomy of a single coronary artery (SCA and the surgical risk of aortic valve replacement (AVR remains unclear due to a lack of studies on this topic. Case presentation A 73-year-old woman underwent AVR for aortic stenosis. Preoperative coronary angiography results showed a SCA arising from the left coronary sinus. The Manouguian procedure was performed for a small aortic annulus. Intraoperatively, an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO was needed for bypass weaning failure due to newly developed right ventricular dysfunction. Coronary angiography was performed on postoperative day 4, and the findings showed a right coronary artery occlusion just after its origin. After emergent coronary artery bypass surgery, she could be weaned from the ECMO. She was discharged on postoperative day 70 and followed up without complications for 12 months. Conclusions AVR with the annular enlargement procedure in those with a SCA can result in an unexpected coronary artery occlusion, which should be, therefore, suspected when unexplained myocardial dysfunction occur. For reducing this risk, the use of a small prosthesis should be considered over the annular enlargement procedure when performing AVR in those with a small aortic annulus and a SCA.

  18. Flow characteristics around a deformable stenosis under pulsatile flow condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woorak; Park, Jun Hong; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2018-01-01

    A specific portion of a vulnerable stenosis is deformed periodically under a pulsatile blood flow condition. Detailed analysis of such deformable stenosis is important because stenotic deformation can increase the likelihood of rupture, which may lead to sudden cardiac death or stroke. Various diagnostic indices have been developed for a nondeformable stenosis by using flow characteristics and resultant pressure drop across the stenosis. However, the effects of the stenotic deformation on the flow characteristics remain poorly understood. In this study, the flows around a deformable stenosis model and two different rigid stenosis models were investigated under a pulsatile flow condition. Particle image velocimetry was employed to measure flow structures around the three stenosis models. The deformable stenosis model was deformed to achieve high geometrical slope and height when the flow rate was increased. The deformation of the stenotic shape enhanced jet deflection toward the opposite vessel wall of the stenosis. The jet deflection in the deformable model increased the rate of jet velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production as compared with those in the rigid models. The effect of stenotic deformation on the pulsating waveform related with the pressure drop was analyzed using the TKE production rate. The deformable stenosis model exhibited a phase delay of the peak point in the waveform. These results revealed the potential use of pressure drop waveform as a diagnostic index for deformable stenosis.

  19. Small dense LDL particles - a predictor of coronary artery disease evaluated by invasive and CT-based techniques: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Annette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary angiography is the current standard method to evaluate coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected angina pectoris, but non-invasive CT scanning of the coronaries are increasingly used for the same purpose. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and other lipid and lipoprotein variables are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. Small dense LDL particles may be of particular importance, but clinical studies evaluating their predictive value for coronary atherosclerosis are few. Methods We performed a study of 194 consecutive patients with chest pain, a priori considered of low to intermediate risk for significant coronary stenosis (>50% lumen obstruction who were referred for elective coronary angiography. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were measured including the subtype pattern of LDL particles, and all patients were examined by coronary CT scanning before coronary angiography. Results The proportion of small dense LDL was a strong univariate predictor of significant coronary artery stenosis evaluated by both methods. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, and waist circumference only results obtained by traditional coronary angiography remained statistically significant. Conclusion Small dense LDL particles may add to risk stratification of patients with suspected angina pectoris.

  20. Non-Acute Coronary Syndrome Anginal Chest Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Megha; Mehta, Puja K.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2010-01-01

    Anginal chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the outpatient setting. While much of the focus has been on identifying obstructive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) as the cause of anginal chest pain, it is clear that microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) can also cause anginal chest pain as a manifestation of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and carries an increased cardiovascular risk. Epicardial coronary vasospasm, aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital coronary anomalies, mitral valve prolapse and abnormal cardiac nociception can also present as angina of cardiac origin. For non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) stable chest pain, exercise treadmill testing (ETT) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of ischemia and cardiac risk stratification; however, in certain subsets of patients, such as women, ETT has a lower sensitivity and specificity for identifying obstructive CAD. When combined with an imaging modality, such as nuclear perfusion or echocardiography testing, the sensitivity and specificity of stress testing for detection of obstructive CAD improves significantly. Advancements in stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables detection of perfusion abnormalities in a specific coronary artery territory, as well as subendocardial ischemia associated with MCD. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) enables visual assessment of obstructive CAD, albeit with a higher radiation dose. Invasive coronary angiography (CA) remains the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive lesions that cause medically refractory stable angina. Furthermore, in patients with normal coronary angiograms, the addition of coronary reactivity testing (CRT) can help diagnose endothelial dependent and independent microvascular dysfunction. Life-style modification and pharmacologic intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with stable angina. This review focuses on

  1. CMR diagnosis of coronary graft fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Johansson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 54-year old man with a previous history of cerebral aqueduct stenosis and hydrocephalus resulting in malignant hypertension who had surgery for permanent ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At age 41, he had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery with the right internal mammary artery anastomosed to the posterior descending artery and a saphenous vein graft to the first obtuse marginal branch. The patient was recently admitted with pneumonia that rapidly deteriorated and he went in respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. A thoracic CT investigation showed massive bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary artery embolism and a large vein graft aneurysm with a maximal diameter of 40 mm (Figure 1 A-B. The management course was complicated with prolonged respiratory failure, persistent infection, despite negative cultures and extended hospital stay. After 50 days of slow recovery the patient was discharged with a need for home oxygen therapy. Ten days later, he was re-admitted with chest pain requiring admission to the coronary care unit where severe pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with Doppler echocardiography. Troponin-T was mildly elevated, 1,3 ug/L (ref <0,01, CRP was 50 mg/L and chest X-ray showed bilateral lung infiltrates and wide pulmonary vessels. At this point a systo-diastolic murmur was heard at the left lower sternal edge. With a view of potential coronary reintervention and to evaluate the pulmonary hypertension, a coronary angiogram and a pulmonary artery cathetherisation were performed. This showed a new stenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery and the pulmonary catheterisation showed a “step-up” in oxygen saturation in the pulmonary artery, suggesting a left-to-right shunt. The vein graft aneurysm did not contribute to the coronary circulation. A cardiovascular magnetic resonance scan revealed a communication between the vein graft aneurysm and the left branch pulmonary artery

  2. Impact of 64-slice coronary CT on the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain: results of a prospective two-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiaens, Luc [Departement d' imagerie Cardiovasculaire, Assistance Publique- Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); CHU de Poitiers, Departement de Cardiologie, Poitiers (France); Duchat, Florent; Boudiaf, Mourad; Fargeaudou, Yann; Ledref, Olivier; Soyer, Philippe [Departement d' imagerie Cardiovasculaire, Assistance Publique- Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Tasu, Jean-Pierre [CHU de Poitiers, Departement de Radiologie, Poitiers (France); Sirol, Marc [Departement d' imagerie Cardiovasculaire, Assistance Publique- Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); INSERM UFR U942, Insuffisance Cardiaque et Biomarqueurs, Universite Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Universite Paris VII - Denis Diderot, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Radiologie Vasculaire, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    Our two-centre prospective study evaluates the usefulness of 64-slice coronary computed tomography (CCT) to rule out significant coronary artery stenosis in patients admitted in emergency departments (ED) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with low-to-intermediate risk score. Patients (175) admitted for acute chest pain (ACP), unmodified electrocardiogram and first troponin measurement within normal ranges were included. A second troponin measurement and a 64-slice CCT within 24 h were performed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded during follow-up (6 months {+-} 2). 64-slice CCT was either normal or showed non-significant coronary stenosis in the majority of patients (78%). 64-slice CCT depicted significant stenosis (>50% diameter) in 22% of patient whereas initial clinical and biological evaluation was reassuring. For negative CCTs, elevated troponin at second measurement did not modify the strategy or treatment of patients. No MACEs were noted during follow up. In 12% of patients CCT identified unsuspected non-coronary abnormalities. Our study confirms 64-slice CCT utility to rule out significant coronary artery stenosis in 8/10 patients admitted in ED with ACP or ACS with low-to-intermediate risk score. Early discharge with a negative 64-slice CCT is associated with very low risk of cardiac events at 6 months. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI): Experimental Quantification of Vascular Stenosis Using Stationary Stenosis Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaalma, Sarah; Rahmer, Jürgen; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Borgert, Jörn; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is able to provide high temporal and good spatial resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity. Furthermore, it is a truly quantitative method as its signal strength is proportional to the concentration of its tracer, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). Because of that, MPI is proposed to be a promising future method for cardiovascular imaging. Here, an interesting application may be the quantification of vascular pathologies like stenosis by utilizing the proportionality of the SPIO concentration and the MPI signal strength. In this study, the feasibility of MPI based stenosis quantification is evaluated based on this application scenario. Nine different stenosis phantoms with a normal diameter of 10 mm each and different stenoses of 1-9 mm and ten reference phantoms with a straight diameter of 1-10 mm were filled with a 1% Resovist dilution and measured in a preclinical MPI-demonstrator. The MPI signal intensities of the reference phantoms were compared to each other and the change of signal intensity within each stenosis phantom was used to calculate the degree of stenosis. These values were then compared to the known diameters of each phantom. As a second measurement, the 5 mm stenosis phantom was used for a serial dilution measurement down to a Resovist dilution of 1:3200 (0.031%), which is lower than a first pass blood concentration of a Resovist bolus in the peripheral arteries of an average adult human of at least about 1:1000. The correlation of the stenosis values based on MPI signal intensity measurements and based on the known diameters showed a very good agreement, proving the high precision of quantitative MPI in this regard.

  4. Characterizing momentum change and viscous loss of a hemodynamic endpoint in assessment of coronary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Back, Lloyd H; Back, Martin R; Khoury, Saeb F; Millard, Ronald W

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR(myo)) and coronary flow reserve (CFR), measured with guidewire, and quantitative angiography (QA) are widely used in combination to distinguish ischemic from non-ischemic coronary stenoses. Recent studies have shown that simultaneous measurements of FFR(myo) and CFR are recommended to dissociate conduit epicardial coronary stenoses from distal resistance microvascular disease. In this study, a more comprehensive diagnostic parameter, named as lesion flow coefficient, c, is proposed. The coefficient, c, which accounts for mean pressure drop, Delta p, mean coronary flow, Q, and percentage area stenosis, can be used to assess the hemodynamic severity of a coronary artery stenoses. Importantly, the contribution of viscous loss and loss due to momentum change for several lesion sizes can be distinguished using c. FFR(myo), CFR and c were calculated for pre-angioplasty, intermediate and post-angioplasty epicardial lesions, without microvascular disease. While hyperemic c decreased from 0.65 for pre-angioplasty to 0.48 for post-angioplasty lesion with guidewire of size 0.35 mm, FFR(myo) increased from 0.52 to 0.87, and CFR increased from 1.72 to 3.45, respectively. Thus, reduced loss produced by momentum change due to lower percentage area stenosis decreased c. For post-angioplasty lesion, c decreased from 0.55 to 0.48 with the insertion of guidewire. Hence, increased viscous loss due to the presence of guidewire decreased c compared with a lesion without guidewire. Further, c showed a linear relationship with FFR(myo), CFR and percentage area stenosis for pre-angioplasty, intermediate and post-angioplasty lesion. These baseline values of c were developed from fluid dynamics fundamentals for focal lesions, and provided a single hemodynamic endpoint to evaluate coronary stenosis severity.

  5. Atherosclerotic burden in coronary and peripheral arteries in patients with first clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Igor

    2011-04-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the atherosclerotic burden in patients with the first symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 100 consecutive patients (new-onset severe angina or myocardial infarction) and 70 age and sex matched asymptomatic volunteers. Functional and morphologic atherosclerotic markers were sought in carotid, brachial and femoral arteries of all individuals by means of high-resolution ultrasonography, whereas coronary arteriography was performed in the CAD patients only. A total of 347 coronary lesions [230 (66%) obstructive] were discovered in the CAD patients as well as 105 peripheral plaques [26 (25%) obstructive]. The mean percentage diameter stenosis of the culprit coronary lesion was 83.8 ± 15.8%, the mean vessel score 1.7 (range 0-3), the mean stenosis score 19.8 (range 1.5-89.0), and the mean extent score 49.1% (range 10-65%). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as assessed by the brachial flow-mediated response (FMR), was reduced by 50% in the CAD patients (P peripheral arteries of the CAD patients (P arteries of the CAD patients by 43%, in brachial arteries by 20% and in femoral arteries by 57% (P peripheral arteries of our patients with the first clinical presentation of CAD.

  6. [Comparison of angiography-guided and fractional flow reserve-guided management strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention for intermediate coronary lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y J; Hu, H; Jiang, J; Hong, T; Li, J P; Chen, M; Liu, Z P; Huo, Y

    2014-12-18

    To compare the consistency of angiography-guided and fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided management strategy for intermediate coronary lesions. The patients whose coronary intermediate lesions were assessed by measuring FFR from November 2012 to August 2014. The stenosis percentage and value of FFR during the procedure were collected. All the image data were collected and four experienced interventional cardiologists were invited to assess the target lesions and make a management strategy independently. The consistency of angiography-guided and fractional flow reserve-guided management strategy were analyzed. In the study, 151 patients were included, of whom, 70.2% were male, the average age was (62.7±9.6) years, 169 vessels were assessed by measuring FFR, 1 being left main, 116 left anterior descending, 27 left circumflex branch, and 25 right coronary artery. There were some correlationship between the stenosis percentage judged by four interventional cardiologists and the stenosis percentage judged during the procedure (r=0.29-0.38, Pstrategy decision made by the four cardiologists with fractional flow reserve-guided management strategy were 72.78%, 71.60%, 75.15%, and 72.78%, respectively. Angiography-guided management strategy decision is unreliable, FFR is recommended for management strategy decision for intermediate coronary lesions.

  7. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  8. Impact of 64-slice coronary CT on the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain: results of a prospective two-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Luc; Duchat, Florent; Boudiaf, Mourad; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Fargeaudou, Yann; Ledref, Olivier; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Our two-centre prospective study evaluates the usefulness of 64-slice coronary computed tomography (CCT) to rule out significant coronary artery stenosis in patients admitted in emergency departments (ED) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with low-to-intermediate risk score. Patients (175) admitted for acute chest pain (ACP), unmodified electrocardiogram and first troponin measurement within normal ranges were included. A second troponin measurement and a 64-slice CCT within 24 h were performed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded during follow-up (6 months ± 2). 64-slice CCT was either normal or showed non-significant coronary stenosis in the majority of patients (78%). 64-slice CCT depicted significant stenosis (>50% diameter) in 22% of patient whereas initial clinical and biological evaluation was reassuring. For negative CCTs, elevated troponin at second measurement did not modify the strategy or treatment of patients. No MACEs were noted during follow up. In 12% of patients CCT identified unsuspected non-coronary abnormalities. Our study confirms 64-slice CCT utility to rule out significant coronary artery stenosis in 8/10 patients admitted in ED with ACP or ACS with low-to-intermediate risk score. Early discharge with a negative 64-slice CCT is associated with very low risk of cardiac events at 6 months. • 64-slice coronary computed tomography (CCT) offers a critical role in acute chest pain. • 64-slice CCT allows differentiation between significant and non-significant coronary artery stenosis. • Normal 64-slice CCT allows rapid discharge of patients with ACP. • 64-slice CCT helps make appropriate therapeutic decision in patients with ACP.

  9. Long-Term Prognosis for Patients with Kawasaki Disease Complicated by Large Coronary Aneurysm (diameter ≥6 mm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ji Seok; Kwon, Bo Sang; Song, Mi Kyung; An, Hyo Soon; Song, Young Whan; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Some patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) develop large coronary aneurysms and subsequent coronary stenosis or obstruction, leading to ischemic heart disease. This study examined the long-term outcomes of patients with KD complicated by large coronary aneurysms. Subjects and Methods The medical records of 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) diagnosed with large coronary aneurysms (diameter ≥6 mm) between December 1986 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed from our institutional database. Results The mean age at onset was 4.6±3.3 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 12.5±6.9 years. Maximum coronary artery internal diameter ranged from 6.1 to 25 mm. Giant coronary aneurysms occurred in 48 patients and coronary aneurysms 6-8 mm in diameter developed in 23 patients. Coronary stenosis and/or complete occlusion occurred in 30 patients (42.3%). Catheter and/or surgical interventions (mean: 1.5 interventions, range: 1-5 interventions) were performed in 20 patients (28.2%), 9 months to 18 years after KD onset, resulting in 33.7% cumulative coronary intervention rates at 20 years after onset. There were no differences in cumulative coronary intervention rates between two coronary aneurysm groups (6-8 mm vs. ≥8 mm). Myocardial infarction occurred in 7 patients with a giant aneurysm and there was one death. Conclusions Long-term survival of patients with KD complicated by large coronary aneurysm was good even though 28.2% of patients underwent multiple catheter or surgical interventions. Careful follow-up is also necessary in KD patients with coronary aneurysms 6-8 mm in diameter, such as those with giant aneurysms. PMID:28765744

  10. Diagnostic performance evaluation of a computer-aided simple triage system for coronary CT angiography in patients with intermediate risk for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Schoepf, U Joseph; Fink, Christian; Goldenberg, Roman; Apfaltrer, Paul; Gruettner, Joachim; Vajcs, Diana; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Given the significance of coronary artery disease as the most important socioeconomic health care problem in the Western World, the application of computer-aided simple triage (CAST) systems to this disease would be desirable. In total, 93 patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate risk score for acute coronary syndrome underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA). Among those, 74 were of adequate image quality for automated analysis by a commercially available CAST system (COR Analyzer, RCADIA, Haifa, Israel). CAST findings were compared to human expert interpretation for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50%) in the left main, left anterior descending, circumflex, right coronary artery, or arterial branches. Further, one inexperienced observer evaluated all studies for significant stenoses alone and after 1 month guided by a CAST system as an initial read. Human expert interpretation identified 37/74 patients with stenosis ≥50%, whereas the CAST detected 45 patients. The CAST system demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%/79% and a specificity of 78%/89% on a per-patient/per-vessel level, respectively. With CAST, the inexperienced readers' per-vessel sensitivity and positive predictive values significantly improved (P = .011, P = .009) from 69% and 41% to 91% and 74%, respectively. The investigated CAST system for automatic stenosis detection can accurately identify patients with coronary artery stenosis ≥50% and may be of use as initial interpretation and triage of cCTA studies as well as a second reader for inexperienced readers, in absence of expert readers. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coronary Microvascular Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women With Angina Pectoris and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: The iPOWER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Naja Dam; Michelsen, Marie Mide; Pena, Adam; Frestad, Daria; Dose, Nynne; Aziz, Ahmed; Faber, Rebekka; Høst, Nis; Gustafsson, Ida; Hansen, Peter Riis; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Kastrup, Jens; Prescott, Eva

    2016-03-15

    The majority of women with angina-like chest pain have no obstructive coronary artery disease when evaluated with coronary angiography. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is a possible explanation and associated with a poor prognosis. This study evaluated the prevalence of coronary microvascular dysfunction and the association with symptoms, cardiovascular risk factors, psychosocial factors, and results from diagnostic stress testing. After screening 3568 women, 963 women with angina-like chest pain and a diagnostic coronary angiogram without significant coronary artery stenosis (coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by Doppler examination of the left anterior descending coronary artery. CFVR was successfully measured in 919 (95%) women. Median (IQR) CFVR was 2.33 (1.98-2.76), and 241 (26%) had markedly impaired CFVR (coronary microvascular dysfunction plays a role in the development of angina pectoris. CFVR was associated with few cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting that CFVR is an independent parameter in the risk evaluation of these women. Symptom characteristics and results from stress testing did not identify individuals with impaired CFVR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Stenting of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimae, N.; Morimoto, T.; Nagata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to evaluate our cases of cervical internal carotid artery stenosis for safty stenting. We investigate the preoperative internal carotid artery stenosis using by integrated backscatter (IBS) method of ultra sonography, comparing with the thirty five surgical specimens as to their nature, histological structure, thickness of fibrous cap. We choose the protection method according to plaque structure, and placed Easy-Wall stent or Smart stent after prePTA. We added post PTA according to the extent of expansion and IVUS findings. Calibrated IBS = IBS value (ROI) /intinal IBS value of ‘bleeding’, ‘lipiď, ‘thrombus’, fiber, ‘hyalinization’ were -27.5, -22.5, -15.2, -11.1, +2.1. That of the thin fibrous cap were -10.9*, that of thic fibrous cap were -2.4 (*p safty stenting. PMID:20591243

  13. Familial recurrence of urethral stenosis/atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Joseph R; Walker, Martin P R

    2009-08-01

    We report the familial recurrence of urethral stenosis/atresia in two sibling fetuses with bladder outlet obstruction, severe oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Urethral obstruction in the fetus, when severe, results in a dilated urinary bladder (megacystis) and associated urinary anomalies (hydroureter, hydronephrosis, renal dysplasia). Distention of the fetal abdomen, the result of megacystis or urinary ascites, leads to stretching and eventually hypoplasia or even absence of abdominal muscles. This constellation of findings, known by a variety of terms including "prune belly" syndrome, is associated with a variety of urethral changes, including posterior urethral valves and urethral stenosis/atresia. One fetus manifested unilateral postaxial polydactyly of the left hand. A microdeletion of 6p25.3, identified in mother and one fetus, is not associated with a gene known to be involved in urethral development and therefore of unknown significance. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Supraglottic stenosis in localized Wegener granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloso, Antonio; Estrach, Cristina; Keith, Andrew O

    2008-07-01

    We present what we believe is the first reported case of a patient with supraglottic stenosis secondary to Wegener granulomatosis. The diagnosis was unclear initially because the biopsy results were nonspecific, but a finding of an elevated cytoplasmic-pattern antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) level established the diagnosis of localized supraglottic Wegener granulomatosis. Wegener granulomatosis is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis that is localized predominantly to the kidneys and the upper and lower airways. In the airways, subglottic involvement is well documented, but to the best of our knowledge, supraglottic stenosis has not previously been described. Localized forms of Wegener granulomatosis are characterized by limited disease that involves only the upper airway. The diagnosis in localized forms is complex because histology is diagnostic in only 50% of cases, and only 60% of patients have a positive c-ANCA level. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and management strategies for these localized forms.

  15. Integration of a capacitive pressure sensing system into the outer catheter wall for coronary artery FFR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Frank; Kuisma, Heikki; Gao, Feng; Saarilahti, Jaakko; Gomes Martins, David; Kärkkäinen, Anu; Marrinan, Brendan; Pintal, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD), which is related to a narrowing (stenosis) of blood vessels due to fatty deposits, plaque, on the arterial walls. The level of stenosis in the coronary arteries can be assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) measurements. This involves determining the ratio between the maximum achievable blood flow in a diseased coronary artery and the theoretical maximum flow in a normal coronary artery. The blood flow is represented by a pressure drop, thus a pressure wire or pressure sensor integrated in a catheter can be used to calculate the ratio between the coronary pressure distal to the stenosis and the normal coronary pressure. A 2 Fr (0.67mm) outer diameter catheter was used, which required a high level of microelectronics miniaturisation to fit a pressure sensing system into the outer wall. The catheter has an eccentric guidewire lumen with a diameter of 0.43mm, which implies that the thickest catheter wall section provides less than 210 microns height for flex assembly integration consisting of two dies, a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor and an ASIC. In order to achieve this a very thin circuit flex was used, and the two chips were thinned down to 75 microns and flip chip mounted face down on the flex. Many challenges were involved in obtaining a flex layout that could wrap into a small tube without getting the dies damaged, while still maintaining enough flexibility for the catheter to navigate the arterial system.

  16. Velopharyngeal and choanal stenosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jalal; Tan, Teck Soon; Chong, Aun Wee; Narayanan, Prepageran; Omar, Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Choanal stenosis is a well recognized late complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However velopharyngeal stenosis post radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. We present here a case of bilateral choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis in a patient treated with radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 58-year-old woman presented to our otolaryngology clinic with a one year history of nasal obstruction. She was diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal carcinoma 12 years ago for which she received radiotherapy. Clinical examination revealed bilateral choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis. Treatment of choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging due to high incidence of recurrence and patients frequently require multiple procedures. The patient underwent a transnasal endoscopic excision of velopharyngeal scar tissue and widening of posterior choana using Surgitron®, mitomycin-C applied topically to the surgical wound and bilateral stenting under general anesthesia. The stents were kept for two weeks, and 3 years post operation velopharyngeal aperture and posterior choana remained patent. As illustrated in this case velopharyngeal stenosis can occur after radiotheraphy and should not be overlooked. Combine modality of transnasal endoscopic excision of velopharyngeal scar tissue, widening of choanal stenosis with Surgitron® followed by the application of mitomycin-C and stenting has been shown to be an effective option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [A case of stable microvascular angina with normal coronary arteries: certainties and doubts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, A

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is caused in most cases by the obstruction of epicardial coronary vessels. Several studies, however, have shown that abnormalities in the coronary microcirculation can also contribute to myocardial ischemia. Microvascular dysfuntion is defined as primary microvascular angina (MVA) to distinguish it from other forms of secondary microvascular angina due to such diseases as arterial hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial disease, metabolic syndrome and collagen diseases. We present the case report of a 48-year-old male patient who coronarographically showed coronary slow flow with delayed distal vessel opacification in the absence of coronary stenosis. Whilst this phenomenon is still not completely understood, strong evidence suggests that the primary alteration is caused by a dysfunction of small coronary vessels.

  18. Salient features of the coronary collateral circulation and its clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The coronary collateral circulation provides an alternative source of blood supply to myocardium jeopardised by ischaemia. Collaterals enlarge with obstructive coronary artery disease to allow bulk flow, but blood flow deliverable by the native, pre-formed collateral extent can already be sizeable. Genetic determinants contribute significantly to the wide variability observed in both native collateral extent and its capacity to enlarge, and the severity of the coronary stenosis is the most significant environmental determinant for collateral enlargement. The protective effect of a well-developed coronary collateral circulation translates into relevant improvements in all-cause and cardiac mortality in the acute and chronic phases of coronary artery disease, as well as into a reduction of future adverse cardiovascular events.

  19. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  20. Roles of myocardial blood volume and flow in coronary artery disease: an experimental MRI study at rest and during hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Pilgram, Thomas [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abendschein, Dana R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Misselwitz, Bernd [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Gropler, Robert J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zheng, Jie [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To validate fast perfusion mapping techniques in a setting of coronary artery stenosis, and to further assess the relationship of absolute myocardial blood volume (MBV) and blood flow (MBF) to global myocardial oxygen demand. A group of 27 mongrel dogs were divided into 10 controls and 17 with acute coronary stenosis. On 1.5-T MRI, first-pass perfusion imaging with a bolus injection of a blood-pool contrast agent was performed to determine myocardial perfusion both at rest and during either dipyridamole-induced vasodilation or dobutamine-induced stress. Regional values of MBF and MBV were quantified by using a fast mapping technique. Color microspheres and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells were injected to obtain respective gold standards. Microsphere-measured MBF and {sup 99m}Tc-measured MBV reference values correlated well with the MR results. Given the same changes in MBF, changes in MBV are twofold greater with dobutamine than with dipyridamole. Under dobutamine stress, MBV shows better association with total myocardial oxygen demand than MBF. Coronary stenosis progressively reduced this association in the presence of increased stenosis severity. MR first-pass perfusion can rapidly estimate regional MBF and MBV. Absolute quantification of MBV may add additional information on stenosis severity and myocardial viability compared with standard qualitative clinical evaluations of myocardial perfusion. (orig.)

  1. Gender differences in patients with carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoberock, Konstanze; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Atlihan, Gülsen; Daum, Günter; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Eifert, Sandra; Wipper, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This overview analyses gender differences in prevalence, epidemiology, risk factors and therapy in patients with carotid stenosis in a systematic review. Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death in Western society, where about 20% of cases are triggered by a carotid stenosis or occlusion, which occurs more frequently in men than in women. The stroke-protective effect of carotid endarterectomy is greater in men. Men have lower peri-procedural stroke and death rates. Particularly men with carotid stenosis and a life expectancy of at least 5 years benefit from surgical treatment. Also, the recurrence rate of ipsilateral stroke 5 years after initial surgery is lower in men than in women. It is not yet fully clarified whether there are significant gender differences regarding the outcome after endovascular versus surgical treatment. Gender differences in the outcome of carotid artery repair may be caused by biological, anatomical (smaller vessel diameter in women) or hormonal differences as well as a protracted development of atherosclerotic changes in women and different plaque morphology. Moreover, women are on average older at the time of surgery and their surgical treatment is often delayed. To reduce the risk of stroke and to improve treatment outcome especially for women, further research on gender differences and their causes is mandatory and promising.

  2. [Coronary angioplasty: efficacy of the new low profile balloon catheters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, F; Tanajura, L F; Pinto, I M; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G; Mattos, L A; de Araújo, E C; Sousa, A G; Sousa, J E

    1989-12-01

    New low profile balloon catheter have allowed the indication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for more complex lesions. We report our initial experience with these systems in 50 out of 101 patients (50%) who underwent a PTCA from March 15 to May 15, 1989 in "Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia". Mean age was 58.6 +/- 10.4 years and most of the patients were male (78%). We dilated 54 lesions. Single vessel disease was the case for 84% of the patients. As for the localization of the lesions in the coronary arteries, 56% of the lesions were in the proximal or mid segments of the coronary arteries and the mean diameter stenosis pre-PTCA was 84 +/- 10.2%. Left ventricular function was normal in 60% of the patients. Primary success rate (per patient) was 95% and the coronary stenosis was crossed in all the cases. The mean inflation number was 2.7 +/- 0.6 per patient, the mean highest pressure was 8 +/- 1.15 atm and the mean maximum time of inflation was 86.1 +/- 29.6 sec. The mean residual stenosis was 15.2 +/- 10.6%. There was only one major complication, namely an acute myocardial infarction of the lateral wall. There were no emergency CABG surgery or deaths. We conclude that the new low profile balloon catheters have broadened the indication for PTCA in more complicated lesions, showing a high rate of primary success (95%), but did not increase the number of procedural complications (2.5%).

  3. Pulmonary artery dilatation: an overlooked mechanism for angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A; Enache, Roxana; Ungureanu, Catalina; Deleanu, Dan; Platon, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.

  4. Successful treatment of cardiogenic shock by stenting of the left main coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Božidarka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS are sometimes severely hemodynamicly compromised. Urgent coronary angiography should be performed in these patients in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI centers according to the ESC NSTE-ACS guidelines to determine suitabilty for percutaneous or surgical revascularization. Case report. We reported a 62-year-old male with chest pain admitted to the Coronary Care Unit. ST segment depression of 2 mm in leads I, L and V4-6 was revealed at electrocardiogram. After following 6 hours the patient had chest pain and signs of cardiogenic shock despite of the therapy. Chest x-ray showed pulmonary edema. Echocardiographic examination showed dyskinetic medium and apical segments of septum. The patient underwent coronary angiography immediately which revealed 75% stenosis of the left main coronary artery with thrombus. The use of a GPIIb/III inhibitor-tirofiban and stent implantation resulted in TIMI III flow. After that the patient had no chest pain and acute heart failure subsided in the following days Echocardiography done at the fourth day from PCI showed only hypokinesis medium and apical segment of septum. The patient was discharged at day 11 from admission in a stable condition. Conclusion. Stenting of left main coronary artery stenosis in patients with cardiogenic shock and non- ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes may be a life saving procedure.

  5. Absence of beneficial effect of intravenous metoprolol given during angioplasty in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); J.J.R.M. Bonnier (Hans); T. Huizer (Tom); R. Ciampricotti (Renzo); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the possible antiischemic effect of metoprolol during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was tested. Electrocardiograms, hemodynamics, and metabolism were studied in 27 patients with a stenosis in the left anterior

  6. Novel insights into the complexity of ischaemic heart disease derived from combined coronary pressure and flow velocity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Hoef, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concerns the complexity of ischaemic heart disease, and the crucial role of the coronary microcirculation in its diagnosis and prognosis. After five decades of a stenosis-centered approach towards both its diagnosis and treatment, it is increasingly acknowledged that ischaemic heart

  7. Transthoracic coronary flow reserve and dobutamine derived myocardial function: a 6-month evaluation after successful coronary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Moira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA, stress-echocardiography and gated single photon emission computerized tomography (g-SPECT are usually performed but both tools have technical limitations. The present study evaluated results of PTCA of left anterior descending artery (LAD six months after PTCA, by combining transthoracic Doppler coronary flow reserve (CFR and color Tissue Doppler (C-TD dobutamine stress. Six months after PTCA of LAD, 24 men, free of angiographic evidence of restenosis, underwent standard Doppler-echocardiography, transthoracic CFR of distal LAD (hyperemic to basal diastolic coronary flow ratio and C-TD at rest and during dobutamine stress to quantify myocardial systolic (Sm and diastolic (Em and Am, Em/Am ratio peak velocities in middle posterior septum. Patients with myocardial infarction, coronary stenosis of non-LAD territory and heart failure were excluded. According to dipyridamole g-SPECT, 13 patients had normal perfusion and 11 with perfusion defects. The 2 groups were comparable for age, wall motion score index (WMSI and C-TD at rest. However, patients with perfusion defects had lower CFR (2.11 ± 0.4 versus 2.87 ± 0.6, p m at high-dose dobutamine (p m of middle septum (r = 0.55, p In conclusion, even in absence of epicardial coronary restenosis, stress perfusion imaging reflects a physiologic impairment in coronary microcirculation function whose magnitude is associated with the degree of regional functional impairment detectable by C-TD.

  8. Correlation between disability and MRI findings in lumbar spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmundsson, Freyr G; Kang, Xiao P; J?nsson, Bo; Str?mqvist, Bj?rn

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose MRI is the modality of choice when diagnosing spinal stenosis but it also shows that stenosis is prevalent in asymptomatic subjects over 60. The relationship between preoperative health-related quality of life, functional status, leg and back pain, and the objectively measured dural sac area in single and multilevel stenosis is unknown. We assessed this relationship in a prospective study. Patients and methods The cohort included 109 consecutive patients with central sp...

  9. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of blood lipoproteins differentiates the progression of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostara, Christina E; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Cung, Manh Thong; Elisaf, Moses S; Goudevenos, John; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2014-05-02

    Abnormal lipid composition and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). A (1)H NMR-based lipidomic approach was used to investigate the correlation of coronary artery stenosis with the atherogenic (non-HDL) and atheroprotective (HDL) lipid profiles in 99 patients with CHD of various stages of disease and compared with 60 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA), all documented in coronary angiography. The pattern recognition models created from lipid profiles predicted the presence of CHD with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 88% in the HDL model and with 90% and 89% in the non-HDL model, respectively. Patients with mild, moderate, and severe coronary artery stenosis were progressively differentiated from those with NCA in the non-HDL model with a statistically significant separation of severe stage from both mild and moderate. In the HDL model, the progressive differentiation of the disease stages was statistically significant only between patients with mild and severe coronary artery stenosis. The lipid constituents of lipoproteins that mainly characterized the initial stages and then the progression of the disease were the high levels of saturated fatty acids in lipids in both HDL and non-HDL particles, the low levels of HDL-phosphatidylcholine, HDL-sphingomyelin, and omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid in lipids in non-HDL particles. The conventional lipid marker, total cholesterol, found in low levels in HDL and in high levels in non-HDL, also contributed to the onset of the disease but with a much lower coefficient of significance. (1)H NMR-based lipidomic analysis of atherogenic and atheroprotective lipoproteins could contribute to the early evaluation of the onset of coronary artery disease and possibly to the establishment of an appropriate therapeutic option.

  10. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) evaluation of intermediate coronary lesions in patients with NSTEMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogale, Nigussie, E-mail: nigussie.bogale@lyse.net [Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger (Norway); Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lempereur, Mathieu; Sheikh, Imran; Wood, David; Saw, Jacqueline; Fung, Anthony [Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Introduction: Coronary angiography is commonly performed following non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) to assess the need for revascularization. Some of these patients have myocardial infarction (MI) with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis (MINOCA). Patients without severe obstructive lesions are usually treated conservatively. However, coronary angiography has known limitations in the assessment of lesion severity. We report our experience of using coronary Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in a series of patients without severe obstructive coronary lesions. Methods: 165 patients underwent coronary OCT at Vancouver General Hospital. NSTEMI was the clinical presentation in 70 patients and 26 had angiographically intermediate lesions with 40%–69% diameter stenosis. Prior to OCT image acquisition, intracoronary nitroglycerin 100–200 μg was administered. Blood in the vessel was displaced using contrast media by manual injections. Results: OCT of the angiographically intermediate lesions showed larger minimal luminal area (MLA) than the angiographically severe lesions (MLA 3.3 mm{sup 2} ± 1.8 mm{sup 2} vs. 1.6 mm{sup 2} ± 0.6 mm{sup 2}, p < 0.001) and less severe % lumen area stenosis (54.2% ± 11.4% vs. 70.9% ± 6.8%, p = 0.001). Plaque rupture or intracoronary thrombus was detected in 8/26 (31%) patients. PCI with stent deployment was performed in 16 patients (62%). Conclusion: In stabilized patients with NSTEMI and angiographically intermediate disease, OCT examination confirmed the lack of severe anatomical stenosis in most patients. However, OCT also identified coronary lesions with unstable features. Further research is needed to help guide management of this subgroup of patients.

  11. Physiological assessment of sensitivity of noninvasive testing for coronary artery disease

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    Simonetti, I.; Rezai, K.; Rossen, J.D.; Winniford, M.D.; Talman, C.L.; Hollenberg, M.; Kirchner, P.T.; Marcus, M.L. (Univ. of Pisa, (Italy))

    1991-05-01

    The sensitivity of three noninvasive tests for coronary artery disease was assessed by means of quantitative indexes of disease severity in three different groups of patients. The overall population consisted of 110 subjects with limited coronary artery disease and no myocardial infarction. Planar dipyridamole-{sup 201}Tl scintigraphy was evaluated in 31 patients, computer-assisted exercise treadmill in 28, and high-dose dipyridamole echocardiography testing in 51. Sensitivity was assessed by rigorous gold standards to define disease severity, such as measurement of minimum cross-sectional area and percent area of stenosis, by quantitative computerized coronary angiography (Brown/Dodge method). On the basis of the results of previous studies, the presence of physiologically significant coronary artery disease was indicated by a stenotic minimum cross-sectional area (MCSA) of less than 2.0 mm{sup 2} or a greater than 75% area of stenosis. With MCSA as the gold standard, dipyridamole-{sup 201}Tl scintigraphy, computerized exercise treadmill, and dipyridamole echocardiography testing showed sensitivities of 52%, 54%, and 61%, respectively, in the three different patient cohorts enrolled. With percent area of stenosis as the gold standard, the sensitivity figures obtained for dipyridamole-{sup 201}Tl, computerized exercise treadmill, and dipyridamole echocardiography testing were 64%, 54%, and 69%, respectively. For each of the three tests, sensitivity increased with increasing lesion severity. Sensitivity was also better in patients with left anterior descending coronary (LAD) disease when compared with patients with left circumflex or right coronary artery disease. Results of these studies demonstrate that in patients with limited coronary artery disease none of the tests evaluated is definitely superior in sensitivity.

  12. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: A retrospective analysis of 19,676 coronary angiograms

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    Dinesha Basavanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare cause of angina, myocardial infarction (MI, and sudden cardiac death (SCD and may frequently manifest as acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The diagnosis of SCAD relies on angiographic visualization of a radiolucent intimal flap. Therapeutic options include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and bypass surgery. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical profile, inhospital outcomes, management, and follow-up of patients with angiographic SCAD. Methods: About 19,676 diagnostic coronary angiograms (CAGs were reviewed retrospectively during a 2-year period; 64 patients had SCAD and were included in the study. Complete medical histories before and during the event as well as treatment regimens were obtained from patients' hospital files. Results: A total of 64 cases of SCAD were considered for the study within an age range of 25–70 years. Fifty-eight patients presented with ACS, two patients presented with unstable angina, one patient presented with rheumatic mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation, one patient presented with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, one patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction, and one patient with effort. Out of 64 patients, four patients died and the average hospital stay is 3–5 days. Conclusion: SCAD occurs in 0.32% of patients undergoing CAG for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Majority of SCAD occurs in men. The left coronary artery is most commonly affected. The inhospital outcomes are good. Most of the patients with SCAD have good prognosis following optimal medical therapy.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

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    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  14. What Is Coronary Heart Disease?

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    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Also known as Coronary Artery Disease Leer en ... type of fat. Other Risks Related to Coronary Heart Disease Other conditions and factors also may contribute to ...

  15. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

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    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Also known as Coronary Artery Disease Leer en ... type of fat. Other Risks Related to Coronary Heart Disease Other conditions and factors also may contribute to ...

  16. Incidence and implications of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery: The Indian scenario

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    Deepak K Tempe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: We evaluated the incidence and implications of coronary artery disease (CAD in patients above 40 years presenting for valve surgery. Materials and Methods: Between January 2009 and December 2010, coronary angiography (CAG was performed in all such patients ( n = 140. Results: Coronaries were normal in 119 (Group I, and diseased in 21 (Group II. In Group II, 11 patients were 61 years. In 8 of these, only valve replacement was performed. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and aortic valve replacement was performed in 10, CABG and mitral valve replacement in 2 and CABG with mitral and aortic valve replacement in one. The number of vessels grafted in these 13 patients was 1.54 ± 0.66. Hypertension and diabetes were significant ( P < 0.05 in this group. The mortality was significant in Group II (11 vs. 6, P < 0.05. Six patients died in Group II, 5 had severe aortic stenosis and severe left ventricular hypertrophy; the sixth patient had severe mitral stenosis and was in CHF. The predominant cause of death was congestive heart failure (CHF. Conclusions: Fifteen percentage of these patients had CAD. CAG should be performed routinely in these patients while presenting for valve surgery. Combined CABG and valve replacement carries high mortality (28.5%, especially in patients with aortic stenosis. The study suggests that the cardio-protective measures should be applied more rigorously in this subset of patients.

  17. Effect of Sex Differences on Invasive Measures of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Patients With Angina in the Absence of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease.

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    Kobayashi, Yuhei; Fearon, William F; Honda, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Pargaonkar, Vedant; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Lee, David P; Stefanick, Marcia; Yeung, Alan C; Tremmel, Jennifer A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated sex differences in coronary flow reserve (CFR) and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients with angina in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is associated with worse long-term outcomes, especially in women. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) are 2 methods of assessing the coronary microcirculation. We prospectively enrolled 117 women and 40 men with angina in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. We performed CFR, IMR, fractional flow reserve, and quantitative coronary angiography in the left anterior descending artery. Coronary flow was assessed with a thermodilution method by obtaining mean transit time (Tmn) (an inverse correlate to absolute flow) at rest and hyperemia. All patients had minimal atherosclerosis by quantitative coronary angiography (% diameter stenosis: 23.2 ± 12.3%), and epicardial disease was milder in women (fractional flow reserve: 0.88 ± 0.04 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04; p = 0.04). IMR was similar between the sexes (20.7 ± 9.8 vs. 19.1 ± 8.0; p = 0.45), but CFR was lower in women (3.8 ± 1.6 vs. 4.8 ± 1.9; p = 0.004). This was primarily due to a shorter resting Tmn in women (p = 0.005), suggesting increased resting coronary flow, whereas hyperemic Tmn was identical (p = 0.79). In multivariable analysis, female sex was an independent predictor of lower CFR and shorter resting Tmn. Despite similar microvascular function in women and men by IMR, CFR is lower in women. This discrepancy appears to be due to differences in resting coronary flow between the sexes. The effect of sex differences should be considered in interpretation of physiological indexes using resting coronary flow. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Carotid Artery Disease among Ambulatory Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

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    Kazum, Shirit; Eisen, Alon; Lev, Eli I; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Solodky, Alejandro; Hasdai, David; Kornowski, Ran; Mager, Aviv

    2016-02-01

    Concomitant carotid artery disease (CaAD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with worse cardiac and neurologic outcomes. The reported prevalence and risk factors for concomitant CaAD in CAD patients varied among previous studies. To examine these factors in ambulatory patients with CAD and well-documented cholesterol levels treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from 325 unselected patients with CAD (89 women, mean age 68.8 ± 9.9 years) undergoing routine evaluation at the coronary clinic of our hospital. The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was < 100 mg/dl in 292 patients (90%). Age at onset of CAD symptoms was 59.4 ± 10.8 years. Carotid stenosis ≥ 50% was seen in 83 patients (25.5%) and between 30% and 49% in 55 patients (17%) (duplex method). Carotid stenosis was significantly associated with hypertension (P = 0.032), peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.002) and number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (P = 0.002), and showed a borderline association with age at CAD onset (P = 0.062) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.053). On linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CaAD were peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.186, 95% CI 1.403-7.236, P = 0.006), number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (OR 1.543, 95% CI 1.136-2.095, P = 0.005), and age at CAD onset (OR 1.028, 95% CI 1.002-1.054, P = 0.003). None of the variables studied predicted freedom from CaAD. Carotid atherosclerosis is very common in stable ambulatory patients with CAD regularly taking statins. The risk is higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease, a greater number of involved coronary arteries, and older age at onset of CAD.

  19. A computational fluid dynamics simulation study of coronary blood flow affected by graft placement†.

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    Lassaline, Jason V; Moon, Byung C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of graft placement and orientation on flow rates through a partially obstructed coronary artery. A numerical, parametric study of blood flow in the human coronary artery was conducted using computational fluid dynamics simulation. A cylindrical approximation of the coronary artery with varying degrees of stenosis, with and without a bypass graft, was modelled to determine trends in volumetric flow rates. Steady and transient simulations were conducted for geometric variations of percentage of blockage, length and shape of stenosis, graft position relative to the coronary blockage and graft orientation. Accurate simulations were performed using a non-Newtonian fluid model and pressure-driven viscous flow. Simulations demonstrate, as expected, that total outlet flow rates of grafted arteries are consistently improved for upstream stenosis varying between 0 and 90% blockage. Grafts angled towards the artery provided increased total outflow. However, flow rates in the coronary artery upstream of the graft are substantially reduced in comparison with the non-grafted configuration due to competing flows. For some configurations (reduced blockage, graft placed close to long grafts), flow rates in the graft are below that of the flow rate through the stenosis. In general, a graft angled more towards the artery increased flow rates upstream of the graft. Placement and orientation of a graft may adversely affect upstream flow, with the degree of effect dependent on geometric factors of downstream position and graft angle. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Study between Perfusion Changes and Positive Findings on Coronary Flow Reserve

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    Costantino Roberto Frack Costantini

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Functional assessment of coronary artery obstruction is used in cardiology practice to correlate anatomic obstructions with flow decrease. Among such assessments, the study of the coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR has become the most widely used. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between FFR and findings of ischemia obtained by noninvasive methods including stress echocardiography and nuclear medicine and the presence of critical coronary artery obstruction. Methods: Retrospective study of cases treated with systematized and standardized procedures for coronary disease between March 2011 and August 2014. We included 96 patients with 107 critical coronary obstructions (> 50% in the coronary trunk and/or ≥ 70% in other segments estimated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS. All cases presented ischemia in one of the noninvasive studies. Results: All 96 patients presented ischemia (100% in one of the functional tests. On FFR study with adenosine 140 g/kg/min, 52% of the cases had values ≤ 0.80. On correlation analysis for FFR ≤ 0.80, the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and ROC curve in relation to the stenosis degree and length, and presence of ischemia, no significant values or strong correlation were observed. Conclusion: Coronary FFR using a cut-off value of 0.80 showed no correlation with noninvasive ischemia tests in patients with severe coronary artery obstructions on QCA and ICUS.

  1. Three Vessel Coronary Cameral Fistulae Associated with New Onset Atrial Fibrillation and Angina Pectoris

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    Murat Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary cameral fistulas are abnormal communications between a coronary artery and a heart chamber or a great vessel which are reported in less than 0.1% of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. All three major coronary arteries are even less frequently involved in fistula formation as it is the case in our patient. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to cardiology clinic with complaints of exertional dyspnea and angina for two years and a new onset palpitation. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram revealed atrial fibrillation (AF with a ventricular rate of 114 beat/minute and accompanying T wave abnormalities and minimal ST-depression on lateral derivations. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination was normal except for diastolic dysfunction, minimally mitral regurgitation, and mild to moderate enlargement of the left atrium. Sinus rhythm was achieved by medical cardioversion with amiodarone infusion. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse and multiple coronary-left ventricle fistulas originating from the distal segments of both left and right coronary arterial systems without any stenosis in epicardial coronary arteries. The patient’s symptoms resolved almost completely with medical therapy. High volume shunts via coronary artery to left ventricular microfistulas may lead to increased volume overload and subsequent increase in end-diastolic pressure of the left ventricle and may cause left atrial enlargement.

  2. Frequency and clinical predictors of coronary artery disease in chronic renal failure renal transplant candidates.

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    de Albuquerque Seixas, Emerson; Carmello, Beatriz Leone; Kojima, Christiane Akemi; Contti, Mariana Moraes; Modeli de Andrade, Luiz Gustavo; Maiello, José Roberto; Almeida, Fernando Antonio; Martin, Luis Cuadrado

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality in chronic renal failure patients before and after renal transplantation. Among them, coronary disease presents a particular risk; however, risk predictors have been used to diagnose coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the frequency and importance of clinical predictors of coronary artery disease in chronic renal failure patients undergoing dialysis who were renal transplant candidates, and assessed a previously developed scoring system. Coronary angiographies conducted between March 2008 and April 2013 from 99 candidates for renal transplantation from two transplant centers in São Paulo state were analyzed for associations between significant coronary artery diseases (≥70% stenosis in one or more epicardial coronary arteries or ≥50% in the left main coronary artery) and clinical parameters. Univariate logistic regression analysis identified diabetes, angina, and/or previous infarction, clinical peripheral arterial disease and dyslipidemia as predictors of coronary artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified only diabetes and angina and/or previous infarction as independent predictors. The results corroborate previous studies demonstrating the importance of these factors when selecting patients for coronary angiography in clinical pretransplant evaluation.

  3. Chronic total occlusions in Sweden--a report from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR.

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    Truls Råmunddal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the current guidelines for the treatment of patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO in coronary arteries is limited. In this study we identified all CTO patients registered in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR and studied the prevalence, patient characteristics and treatment decisions for CTO in Sweden. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between January 2005 and January 2012, 276,931 procedures (coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention were performed in 215,836 patients registered in SCAAR. We identified all patients who had 100% luminal diameter stenosis known or assumed to be ≥ 3 months old. After exclusion of patients with previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery or coronary occlusions due to acute coronary syndrome, we identified 16,818 CTO patients. A CTO was present in 10.9% of all coronary angiographies and in 16.0% of patients with coronary artery disease. The majority of CTO patients were treated conservatively and PCI of CTO accounted for only 5.8% of all PCI procedures. CTO patients with diabetes and multivessel disease were more likely to be referred to CABG. CONCLUSION: CTO is a common finding in Swedish patients undergoing coronary angiography but the number of CTO procedures in Sweden is low. Patients with CTO are a high-risk subgroup of patients with coronary artery disease. SCAAR has the largest register of CTO patients and therefore may be valuable for studies of clinical importance of CTO and optimal treatment for CTO patients.

  4. Effects of long term cholesterol lowering on coronary atherosclerosis in patient risk factor subgroups: the Simvastatin/enalapril Coronary Atherosclerosis Trial (SCAT).

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    Burton, Jeffrey R; Teo, Koon K; Buller, Christopher E; Plante, Sylvain; Catellier, Diane; Tymchak, Wayne; Taylor, Dylan; Dzavik, Vladimir; Montague, Terrence J

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the effects of long term cholesterol lowering therapy with simvastatin on progression and regression of coronary atherosclerosis, as determined by quantitative angiographic end points, in subgroups of patients with known coronary risk factors. In this randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial, the effect of simvastatin on coronary atherosclerosis was compared with that of placebo in 394 patients who had paired coronary angiograms taken an average of four years apart. The effects of treatment on the following prespecified subgroups were examined: sex, age (less than 65 years versus at least 65 years), smoking status (current or previous/never), history of diabetes mellitus or hypertension, and severity of coronary artery lesions (diameter at least 50% versus less than 50%). There were significantly smaller decreases in the average minimum diameters, between closeout and baseline angiograms, in all simvastatin-treated subgroups, compared with placebo. Trends toward or significantly smaller decreases in the average of the mean diameters, and similar smaller increases in percentage diameter stenosis were also seen in all subgroups. The slowing of angiographically demonstrable coronary atherosclerotic narrowing supports the contention that this treatment effect is causally related to the reduction of coronary events repeatedly seen in large outcome clinical trials of lipid lowering therapy. Also, this treatment effect occurs in the presence or absence of the traditional coronary risk factors.

  5. Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis.

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    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Ng, Karen Ka Man; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-01-01

    Patients with developmental spinal stenosis (DSS) are susceptible to developing symptomatic stenosis due to pre-existing narrowed spinal canals. DSS has been previously defined by MRI via the axial anteroposterior (AP) bony spinal canal diameter. However, MRI is hardly a cost-efficient tool for screening patients. X-rays are superior due to its availability and cost, but currently, there is no definition of DSS based on plain radiographs. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop radiographic indices for diagnosing DSS. This was a prospective cohort of 148 subjects consisting of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (patient group) and asymptomatic subjects recruited openly from the general population (control group). Ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board. All subjects underwent MRI for diagnosing DSS and radiographs for measuring parameters used for creating the indices. All measurements were performed by two independent investigators, blinded to patient details. Intra- and interobserver reliability analyses were conducted, and only parameters with near perfect intraclass correlation underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine the cutoff values for diagnosing DSS using radiographs. Imaging parameters from a total of 66 subjects from the patient group and 82 asymptomatic subjects in the control group were used for analysis. ROC analysis suggested sagittal vertebral body width to pedicle width ratio (SBW:PW) as having the strongest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DSS. Cutoff indices for SBW:PW were level-specific: L1 (2.0), L2 (2.0), L3 (2.2), L4 (2.2), L5 (2.5), and S1 (2.8). This is the first study to define DSS on plain radiographs based on comparisons between a clinically relevant patient group and a control group. Individuals with DSS can be identified by a simple radiograph using a screening tool allowing for better cost-saving means for clinical diagnosis or research

  6. Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis

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    Jason Pui Yin Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with developmental spinal stenosis (DSS are susceptible to developing symptomatic stenosis due to pre-existing narrowed spinal canals. DSS has been previously defined by MRI via the axial anteroposterior (AP bony spinal canal diameter. However, MRI is hardly a cost-efficient tool for screening patients. X-rays are superior due to its availability and cost, but currently, there is no definition of DSS based on plain radiographs. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop radiographic indices for diagnosing DSS. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 148 subjects consisting of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (patient group and asymptomatic subjects recruited openly from the general population (control group. Ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board. All subjects underwent MRI for diagnosing DSS and radiographs for measuring parameters used for creating the indices. All measurements were performed by two independent investigators, blinded to patient details. Intra- and interobserver reliability analyses were conducted, and only parameters with near perfect intraclass correlation underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis to determine the cutoff values for diagnosing DSS using radiographs. Results Imaging parameters from a total of 66 subjects from the patient group and 82 asymptomatic subjects in the control group were used for analysis. ROC analysis suggested sagittal vertebral body width to pedicle width ratio (SBW:PW as having the strongest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DSS. Cutoff indices for SBW:PW were level-specific: L1 (2.0, L2 (2.0, L3 (2.2, L4 (2.2, L5 (2.5, and S1 (2.8. Conclusions This is the first study to define DSS on plain radiographs based on comparisons between a clinically relevant patient group and a control group. Individuals with DSS can be identified by a simple radiograph using a screening tool allowing for better

  7. Association Between Family History, a Genetic Risk Score, and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Premature Acute Coronary Syndromes.

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    Hindieh, Waseem; Pilote, Louise; Cheema, Asim; Al-Lawati, Hatim; Labos, Christopher; Dufresne, Line; Engert, James C; Thanassoulis, George

    2016-06-01

    A genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary artery disease has recently been shown to be independent of family history (FHx) in predicting future cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether the presence of these risk factors, either individually or together, was associated with a higher burden of angiographic coronary artery disease. We included 763 patients with premature acute coronary syndrome (median age, 50 [46-53] years; 30.8% women) with at least 1 major epicardial vessel stenosis enrolled in the Gender and Sex Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease From Bench to Beyond in Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome (GENESIS-PRAXY) study, a multicentre prospective cohort study of premature patients with acute coronary syndrome (aged ≤55 years). The prevalence of multivessel disease (ie, ≥2 vessels with >50% stenosis) in individuals with FHx was 49.7% as compared with 37.9% in those without FHx (Pprevalence of 3-vessel disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-2.21; P=0.12 for 2-vessel disease and OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.95; P=0.005 for 3-vessel disease). Individuals with a high GRS were also more likely to have multivessel disease (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.99; P=0.047) after adjustment for traditional risk factors, including FHx. Individuals with both a FHx and a high GRS as compared with those with neither had the highest ORs for multivessel disease (adjusted OR, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.69; P=0.0064). In patients with premature acute coronary syndrome, the presence of either a high GRS or FHx is associated with greater severity of coronary artery disease at angiography. Whether preventive strategies targeted to genetically predisposed individuals will reduce the burden of early acute coronary syndrome warrants further study. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Coronary artery disease (image)

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    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  9. Counseling the Coronary Patient

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    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  10. Assessment of Left Ventricular Torsion in Short Axis View between Healthy Subjects and Significant Coronary Artery Disease Patients

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    Zahra Arab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease causes changes in biomechanical parameters and function of myocardial. Recently, torsion angle is one of the most important mechanical parameters. Therefore in this study, torsion angle in healthy subjects and LAD significant coronary artery disease patients, using echo tracking method in short axis view, was evaluated.Materials and Methods: In cross sectional study, 14 healthy subjects and 10 patients with significant stenosis of LAD were evaluated. Two dimensional echocardiography images were scanned in apical and basal parasternal short axis view were recorded. Successive ultrasonic images were processed by echo tracking under block matching algorithm and peak torsion angle were estimated. Difference between healthy group and patient group were extracted by using peak torsion angle by the confidence level of 95%.Results: In this study, basal rotation angle, apical rotation angle and torsion angle in short axis view in significant coronary artery disease patients significantly decreased 33%, 44% and 38% relative to healthy subjects, respectively. Also time to reach peak torsion angle in LAD coronary artery stenosis patients increased 19% relative to healthy group.Conclusion: It seems, torsion angle in short axis view, can diagnose LAD coronary artery stenosis patients reative to healthy subject.

  11. Factors affecting left ventricular remodeling after valve replacement for aortic stenosis. An overview

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    Mhagna Zen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a small percentage of patients with critical aortic stenosis do not develop left ventricle hypertrophy, increased ventricular mass is widely observed in conditions of increased afterload. There is growing epidemiological evidence that hypertrophy is associated with excess cardiac mortality and morbidity not only in patients with arterial hypertension, but also in those undergoing aortic valve replacement. Valve replacement surgery relieves the aortic obstruction and prolongs the life of many patients, but favorable or adverse left ventricular remodeling is affected by a large number of factors whose specific roles are still a subject of debate. Age, gender, hemodynamic factors, prosthetic valve types, myocyte alterations, interstitial structures, blood pressure control and ethnicity can all influence the process of left ventricle mass regression, and myocardial metabolism and coronary artery circulation are also involved in the changes occurring after aortic valve replacement. The aim of this overview is to analyze these factors in the light of our experience, elucidate the important question of prosthesis-patient mismatch by considering the method of effective orifice area, and discuss surgical timings and techniques that can improve the management of patients with aortic valve stenosis and maximize the probability of mass regression.

  12. An investigation on platelet transport during thrombus formation at micro-scale stenosis.

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    Francisco Javier Tovar-Lopez

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mass transport of blood cells at micro-scale stenosis where local strain-rate micro-gradients trigger platelet aggregation. Using a microfluidic flow focusing platform we investigate the blood flow streams that principally contribute to platelet aggregation under shear micro-gradient conditions. We demonstrate that relatively thin surface streams located at the channel wall are the primary contributor of platelets to the developing aggregate under shear gradient conditions. Furthermore we delineate a role for red blood cell hydrodynamic lift forces in driving enhanced advection of platelets to the stenosis wall and surface of developing aggregates. We show that this novel microfluidic platform can be effectively used to study the role of mass transport phenomena driving platelet recruitment and aggregate formation and believe that this approach will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying shear-gradient dependent discoid platelet aggregation in the context of cardiovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke.

  13. Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Young Adults: Its Prevalence According to Coronary Artery Disease Risk Stratification and the CT Characteristics

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    Ha, Eun Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cheung, Joo Yeon; Shim, Sung Shine [Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We aimed at evaluating the prevalence and CT characteristics of occult coronary artery disease (CAD) in young Korean adults under 40 years of age by performing coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively enrolled 112 consecutive asymptomatic subjects (90 men, mean age: 35.6 {+-} 3.7 years) who underwent CCTA as part of a general health evaluation. We classified the subjects into three National Cholesterol Education Program risk categories and we assessed the plaque characteristics on CCTA according to the number of involved vessels, the location and type of plaques and vascular remodeling. Twelve individuals had CAD (11%, 11 men). The prevalence of CAD was significantly higher in the subgroups with moderate (22%) or high (25%) risk than that in the low risk subgroup (5%) (p < 0.05). Nine patients had single-vessel disease and three patients had two-vessel disease. The most common location for plaque was the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (60%). All the patients had non-significant stenosis and plaque, including the non-calcified (27%), mixed (47%) and calcified (27%) types. Positive vascular remodeling was identified in all the patients with non-calcified or mixed plaques. The prevalence of occult CAD was not negligible in the asymptomatic young adults with moderate to high risk, and this suggests the importance of management and risk factor modification in this population. All the patients had non-significant stenosis, and one fourth of the plaques did not show calcification

  14. Data on the lipoprotein (a, coronary atherosclerotic burden and vulnerable plaque phenotype in angiographic obstructive coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Niccoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein Lp(a represents an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. However, its association with CAD burden and lipid rich plaques prone to rupture in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS still remains unknown. These data aim to investigate the association among serum Lipoprotein(a (Lpa levels, coronary atherosclerotic burden and features of culprit plaque in patients with ACS and obstructive CAD. For his reason, a total of 500 ACS patients were enrolled for the angiographic cohort and 51 ACS patients were enrolled for the optical coherence tomography (OCT cohort. Angiographic CAD severity was assessed by Sullivan score and by Bogaty score including stenosis score and extent index, whereas OCT plaque features were evaluated at the site of the minimal lumen area and along the culprit segment. In the angiographic cohort, Lp(a was a weak independent predictor of Sullivan score (p30 md/dl compared to patients with lower Lp(a levels (<30 md/dl exhibited a higher prevalence of lipidic plaque at the site of the culprit stenosis (P=0.02, a wider lipid arc (p=0.003 and a higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (p=0.004

  15. Congenital Tracheal Stenosis in a Patient with Cleft Lip

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate are the commonest craniofacial birth defects, and indeed, amongst the ... are no reports of Cleft lip/palate with tracheal stenosis in the literature. We present a case of a five month old .... and MRI of the chest are used to delineate anatomy, particularly detection of extrinsic causes of stenosis.

  16. Endoscopic case: Crohn’s disease with pyloric stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, F

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present a case of pyloric stenosis that occurred in a patient with ileocolic Crohn’s disease without significant gastric inflammation, and treated with azathioprine and messalamine. Balloon dilatation, steroid therapy, omeprazol and polymeric enteral nutrition were successful to resolve the stenosis. Later the patient was put on infliximab with good clinical response.

  17. Intensive lipid lowering with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossebo, A.B.; Pedersen, T.R.; Boman, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia has been suggested as a risk factor for stenosis of the aortic valve, but lipid-lowering studies have had conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial involving 1873 patients with mild-to-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis. The patient...

  18. Obstetric complications of cervical stenosis: Case report | Ondieki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of cervical stenosis is presented. We present a case of a patient who despite experiencing irregular scanty menses, was able to get pregnant.The enigma is that she did not experience any lochia loss post partum.Cervical stenosis is a known predisposing factor to infertility, but it can also have other presentations as ...

  19. Congenital Tracheal Stenosis in a Patient with Cleft Lip

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) is a rare condition characterised by different patterns of tracheal narrowing. The pathological hallmark is the presence of complete tracheal rings, with or without associated anomalies. We present a case of asymptomatic CTS in a patient with unilateral cleft lip. Tracheal stenosis was.

  20. Evaluation of the short- and long-term safety and therapy outcomes of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold system in patients with coronary artery stenosis: Rationale and design of the German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nef, Holger, E-mail: holger.nef@innere.med.uni-giessen.de [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Wiebe, Jens [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Achenbach, Stefan [University of Erlangen, Medizinische Klinik II, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Münzel, Thomas [Department of Medicine II, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Naber, Christoph [Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie, Elisabeth-Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany); Richardt, Gert [Herzzentrum, Segeberger Kliniken GmbH, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mehilli, Julinda [Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Großhadern, Ludwig- Maximilian Universität, Munich (Germany); Wöhrle, Jochen [Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Neumann, Till; Biermann, Janine [University of Essen, Department of Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Zahn, Ralf [Abteilung für Kardiologie, Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kastner, Johannes [Department of Cardiology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna (Austria); Schmermund, Axel [CCB, Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt (Germany); Pfannebecker, Thomas [Abbott Vascular Deutschland GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Schneider, Steffen; Limbourg, Tobias [Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Hamm, Christian W. [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Background: Third-generation drug-eluting metal stents are the gold standard for treatment of coronary artery disease. The permanent metallic caging of the vessel, however, can result in limited vasomotion, chronic inflammation, and late expansive remodeling, conditions that can lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. The development of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) promises advantages over metal stents due to complete biodegradation within 2–4 years. Theoretically, since vessel scaffolding is temporary and no permanent implant remains in the vessel, BRSs, as opposed to metal stents, once degraded would no longer be potential triggers for stent-related adverse events or side effects. Methods/design: The short- and long-term outcome after implantation of an everolimus-eluting, poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffold system (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in the world-wide greatest all-comers cohort will be evaluated in the prospective, non-interventional, multicenter German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R). GABI-R will include over 5000 patients from about 100 study sites in Austria and Germany. Safety endpoints such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically driven percutaneous or surgical target lesion and vessel revascularization will be evaluated during hospitalization and in the follow-up period (minimum of 5 years). Conclusion: Although two randomized controlled trials and several registries have documented safety and efficacy as well as non-inferiority of this everolimus-eluting ABSORB device compared with drug-eluting metal stents, the current knowledge regarding clinical application, treatment success, and long-term safety of using this BRS in daily routine is limited. Thus, the goal of GABI-R is to address this lack of information. - Highlights: • The GABI-R addresses a lack of data about bioresorbable scaffolds in daily practice. • 5000 patients with minimal in- and exclusion criteria at 100 sites will

  1. Adjusting parameters of aortic valve stenosis severity by body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minners, Jan; Gohlke-Baerwolf, Christa; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2014-01-01

    stenosis (jet velocity ≥2.5 m/s) and related to outcomes in a second cohort of 1525 patients from the Simvastatin/Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. RESULTS: Whereas jet velocity and MPG were independent of body size, AVA was significantly correlated with height, weight, BSA and BMI (Pearson......BACKGROUND: Adjustment of cardiac dimensions by measures of body size appears intuitively convincing and in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is commonly adjusted by body surface area (BSA). However, there is little evidence to support such an approach. OBJECTIVE: To identify...... the adequate measure of body size for the adjustment of aortic stenosis severity. METHODS: Parameters of aortic stenosis severity (jet velocity, mean pressure gradient (MPG) and AVA) and measures of body size (height, weight, BSA and body mass index (BMI)) were analysed in 2843 consecutive patients with aortic...

  2. Stroke prevention-surgical and interventional approaches to carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.

  3. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on flow parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ or structure. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risks for people. In this work, experimental investigations of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape were performed. Five models of different geometry were studied; all models were stenosis of 75 % area reduction. The flow conditions approximate physiological flow. The measuring range of Reynolds number was from 130 to 2730, measured values of pressure loss coefficient were from 12 to 20. The steady experimental results indicated that static pressure loss coefficient is affected by the shape of stenosis, but it was affected more significantly by the eccentricity. Visualization experiments have been performed in Polycarbonate models.

  4. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography, stress dual-energy CT perfusion, and stress perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography for coronary artery disease: Comparison with combined invasive coronary angiography and stress perfusion cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Woo; Ko, Sung Min; Hwang, Hweung Kon; So, Young; Yi, Jeong Geun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Research Institute of Biomedical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress dual-energy computed tomography perfusion (DE-CTP), stress perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the combinations of CCTA with myocardial perfusion imaging (CCTA + DE-CTP and CCTA + SPECT) for identifying coronary artery stenosis that causes myocardial hypoperfusion. Combined invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (SP-CMR) imaging are used as the reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 25 patients with suspected coronary artery disease, who underwent CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, SP-CMR, and ICA. The reference standard was defined as ≥ 50% stenosis by ICA, with a corresponding myocardial hypoperfusion on SP-CMR. For per-vascular territory analysis, the sensitivities of CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, CCTA + DE-CTP, and CCTA + SPECT were 96, 96, 68, 93, and 68%, respectively, and specificities were 72, 75, 89, 85, and 94%, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were 0.84 ± 0.05, 0.85 ± 0.05, 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.89 ± 0.04, and 0.81 ± 0.06, respectively. For per-patient analysis, the sensitivities of CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, CCTA + DE-CTP, and CCTA + SPECT were 100, 100, 89, 100, and 83%, respectively; the specificities were 14, 43, 57, 43, and 57%, respectively; and the AUCs were 0.57 ± 0.13, 0.71 ± 0.11, 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.71 ± 0.11, and 0.70 ± 0.11, respectively. The combination of CCTA and DE-CTP enhances specificity without a loss of sensitivity for detecting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, as defined by combined ICA and SP-CMR.

  5. Transthoracic ultrasonic tissue indices identify patients with severe left anterior descending artery stenosis. Correlation with fractional flow reserve. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kowalski, Mirosław; Rybicka, Justyna; Lech, Agnieszka; Tyczyński, Paweł; Witkowski, Adam; Hoffman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical application of ultrasonic tissue indices, with a focus on systolic strain (SS) and systolic strain rate (SSR) parameters derived from transthoracic echocardiography, in the assessment of left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis. The data of 30 patients with significant LAD stenosis were analysed. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography to obtain systolic myocardial velocity (Sm), longitudinal SS, and SSR from basal, mid, and apical segments of anterior and inferior walls in two-chamber apical view. Severity of LAD obstruction was measured by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) during coronary catheterisation. Systolic velocities, strain, and strain rate measured in basal, middle, and apical segments of the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall were lower when compared to those obtained from the corresponding, i.e. unaffected, inferior LV wall. There was a significant correlation between FFR and the value of SS, SSR characterising the apical LV segment of the anterior wall (r = -0.583, p = 0.01; r = -0.598, p = 0.01, respectively). Moreover, we found significant correlation between FFR and Sm in the mid-segment of the LV anterior wall (r = 0.611, p = 0.009). We conclude that SS and SSR obtained from the apical segment of the anterior LV wall may be related to the severity of LAD stenosis.

  6. Surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis with use of Brom's technique: short-term results in 9 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castañeda, Brenda Fabiola; Carrillo-Llamas, Fernando; Ramos-Higuera, Saúl; López-Taylor, Jaime Gilberto; Buen, Eliseo Portilla-de

    2009-01-01

    There are few published reports of the results of supravalvular aortic stenosis correction with the use of Brom's 3-patch technique. Herein, we report our use of this procedure and the short-term results therefrom.From 2002 through 2007, 9 children underwent surgical correction of localized supravalvular aortic stenosis at our hospital. The patients ranged in age from 5 to 14 years, and 8 had Williams syndrome. All operations were performed by the same surgical team.No clinically significant associated cardiac anomalies were encountered. Each aortic repair involved the use of pericardium, Dacron, or both. One patient had an uncorrected right coronary artery obstruction and died postoperatively of refractory supraventricular tachycardia. In all 8 patients who survived, postoperative transaortic blood pressure gradients were improved (range, 0-16 mmHg), and no repeat operations were needed after 6 to 55 months' follow-up.We consider Brom's technique to be safe in the repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis. In our limited series, it produced effective anatomic restoration, with good short-term and potentially good long-term results.

  7. Computed Tomography Biomarkers of Vulnerable Coronary Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyulas Tiberiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An unstable plaque has a high risk of thrombosis and at the same time for a fast progression of the stenosis degree. Also, “high-risk plaque” and “thrombosis-prone plaque” are used as synonym terms for characterization of a vulnerable plaque. The imaging biomarkers for vulnerable coronary plaques are considered to be spotty calcifications, active remodeling, low-density atheroma and the presence of a ring-like attenuation pattern, also known as the napkin-ring sign. Computed cardiac tomography can determine the plaque composition by assessing the plaque density, which is measured in Hounsfield units (HU. The aim of this manuscript was to provide an update about the most frequently used biomarkers of vulnerability in a vulnerable plaque with the help of computed cardiac tomography.

  8. Does the effectiveness of core stability exercises correlate with the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaxiang; Lin, Zhichao; Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Zemin; Tang, Shujie

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the effectiveness of core stability exercises correlates with the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Forty-two patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis treated in the department of orthopedics of our hospital between May 2013 and January 2016 were included in the study. All the patients performed core stability exercises once daily for six weeks, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and self-reported walking capacity. The anteroposterior osseous spinal canal diameter was measured to evaluate the severity of spinal stenosis. The correlation between the stenosis degree and the differences of Japanese Orthopaedic Association score or self-reported walking capacity at baseline and after treatment were analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the spinal stenosis degree. In the three groups, there was no significant difference in JOA or self-reported walking distance at baseline (p>0.05) and after treatment (p>0.05). The JOA scores and self-reported walking distance were significantly increased after treatment (p0.05) or self-reported walking distance (p>0.05). There was no significantcorrelation between the effectiveness of core stability exercises and the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

  9. Impact of Coronary Calcification on Clinical Management in Patients With Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Daniel O; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Bamberg, Fabian; Hallett, Travis R; Janjua, Sumbal; Addison, Daniel; Nagurney, John T; Udelson, James E; Lu, Michael T; Truong, Quynh A; Woodard, Pamela K; Hollander, Judd E; Miller, Chadwick; Chang, Anna Marie; Singh, Harjit; Litt, Harold; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) may impair diagnostic assessment of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). We determined whether CAC affects efficiency of coronary CTA in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is a pooled analysis of ACRIN-PA (American College of Radiology Imaging Network-Pennsylvania) 4005 and the ROMICAT-II trial (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography) comparing an initial coronary CTA strategy to standard of care in acute chest pain patients. In the CTA arms, we investigated appropriateness of downstream testing, cost, and diagnostic yield to identify patients with obstructive coronary artery disease on subsequent invasive coronary angiography across CAC score strata (Agatston score: 0, >0-10, >10-100, >100-400, >400). Out of 1234 patients (mean age 51±8.8 years), 80 (6.5%) had obstructive coronary artery disease (≥70% stenosis) and 68 (5.5%) had ACS. Prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease (1%-64%), ACS (1%-44%), downstream testing (4%-72%), and total (2337-8484 US$) and diagnostic cost (2310-6678 US$) increased across CAC strata (P400, cost to diagnose one ACS was lowest in this group (19 283 US$ versus 464 399 US$) as compared with patients without CAC. The diagnostic yield of invasive coronary angiography was highest in patients with CAC>400 (87% versus 38%). Downstream testing, total, and diagnostic cost increased with increasing CAC, but were found to be appropriate because obstructive coronary artery disease and ACS were more prevalent in patients with high CAC. In patients with acute chest pain undergoing coronary CTA, cost-efficient testing and excellent diagnostic yield can be achieved even with high CAC burden. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01084239 and NCT00933400. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in an Asian population: findings from coronary computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung-Min; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Cho, Young-Rak; Gil, Eun Ha; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Lee, Moo Song; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2015-03-01

    We sought to estimate the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA