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Sample records for coronary calcium content

  1. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

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    Curillova, Zelmira [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); VA Boston Healthcare System, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, West Roxbury, MA (United States); Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress {sup 82}Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p{<=}0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p{<=}0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8{+-}0.5 vs 1.7{+-}0.5 vs 1.5{+-}0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  2. Coronary artery calcium score: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  3. Impact of iterative reconstruction on CT coronary calcium quantification

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    Kurata, Akira; Dharampal, Anoeshka; Dedic, Admir;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score by computed tomography (CT).......We evaluated the influence of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score by computed tomography (CT)....

  4. Prognostic implications of coronary artery calcium in the absence of coronary artery luminal narrowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Cho (Iksung); Ó Hartaigh, B. (Bríain); H. Gransar (Heidi); V. Valenti (Valentina); F.Y. Lin (Fay); S. Achenbach (Stephan); D.S. Berman (Daniel); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin); A.M. Dunning (Alison); A. Delago (Augustin); T.C. Villines (Todd); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); Y.-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); G. Pontone (Gianluca); D. Andreini (Daniele); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); J.K. Min (James)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aims: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is a predictor of future adverse clinical events, and a surrogate measure of overall coronary artery plaque burden. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a contrast-enhanced method that allows for visualization of p

  5. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groen, J M; Kofoed, K F; Zacho, M;

    2013-01-01

    Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which ena...

  6. Serum calcium levels are not associated with coronary heart disease

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    Jin Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuelong Jin,* Lianping He,* Quanhai Wang, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Ren, Hui Tang, Xiuli Song, Lingling Ding, Qin Qi, Zhiwei Huang, Jiegen Yu, Yingshui Yao Department of Preventive Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Numerous studies have reported that low calcium intake is related to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between serum calcium and coronary heart disease is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare serum calcium levels in patients with coronary heart disease and those in healthy individuals. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study conducted in the People's Republic of China comprised 380 cases and 379 controls. Serum calcium levels, blood lipids, and anthropometric measurements were measured in both groups. The Student's unpaired t-test or Chi-square test was used to compare differences between cases and controls. Pearson's partial correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between serum calcium, blood lipids, and blood pressure in both groups. Results: Our results indicate that the average level of serum calcium in cases was higher than in controls. Serum calcium levels showed no correlation with any parameter except for triglycerides in either group. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that serum calcium has no influence on coronary heart disease or triglyceride levels in the general population. Keywords: serum calcium, hypertension, blood lipids

  7. Diagnostic Efficacy of Vessel Specific Coronary Calcium Score in Detection of Coronary Artery Stenosis

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    Motevalli, Marzieh; Ghanaati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Kargar, Jalal; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes; Shahriari, Mona; Jalali, Amir Hosein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification which is determined quantitatively by coronary calcium scoring has been known as a sign of coronary stenosis and thus future cardiac events; hence it has been noticed on spotlight of researchers in recent years. Developing different method for early and optimal detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is really essential as CAD are the first cause of death in population. Objectives: To evaluate predictive value of vessel specific coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients and Methods: In this diagnostic test study we evaluated patients with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CAC score which had been referred to two referral radiology center in Tehran, Iran and finally we selected 2525 patients in a single and sequential pattern to create a diagnostic study. The whole-heart CAC scores and vessel specific CAC scores were calculated individually for the 4 major epicardial coronary arteries in 2 distinct group; group A ( patients with previous history of CABG) and group B (patients without history of CABG). For evaluation of obstruction tree cut off points were described: 0 > ; at least 1 segment with any kind of stenosis, ≥ 50; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 50, ≥ 70; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 70. Results: Mean of coronary calcium scores in terms of each coronary artery vessel increase by increasing coronary stenosis grade in group B; LAD, RCA, LCX respectively have mean CAC score 6.06, 6.21 and 5.04 in normal patients and 221.6, 226.7 and 106.6 in patients with complete stenosis. As expected these findings don't work for group A. Also By increasing calcium score cutoff in all four vessels sensitivity decreased and specificity increased but steal LAD had higher sensitivity than other vessels and LM had higher specificity. Thus using calcium score method is useful for ruling out stenosis in LAD while calcium score of LM can predict

  8. Associations between calcium-phosphate metabolism and coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Mette H; Gerke, Oke; Mickley, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    calcium-phosphate metabolism is associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in asymptomatic and apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: Serum samples from 1088 randomly recruited middle-aged men and women without known CVD and diabetes (DM), from the general population......, were analysed for total calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). CAC was measured by a non-contrast cardiac CT scan and categorised into four groups: 0, 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 Agatston units. The association of calcium-phosphate metabolism with CAC was evaluated......)D values were placed within the normal range. In men, the odds of being in a higher CAC category, i.e. having more severe CAC, increased by 30% when serum calcium concentration increased by 0.1 mmol/l (95% CI: 1.04-1.61, p = 0.019), independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In women...

  9. Reduced calcium responsiveness characterizes contractile dysfunction following coronary microembolization.

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    Skyschally, Andreas; Gres, Petra; van Caster, Patrick; van de Sand, Anita; Boengler, Kerstin; Schulz, Rainer; Heusch, Gerd

    2008-11-01

    We addressed calcium responsiveness in microembolized myocardium at 6 h after coronary microembolization (ME). In anesthetized pigs calcium responsiveness was determined as the increase of a myocardial work index (WI; LV pressure development vs. wall thickening) in response to a graded intracoronary infusion of CaCl(2) at baseline and at 6 h after ME or placebo, respectively. At baseline, CaCl(2 )infusion increased WI in both groups (ME: 296 +/- 22 to 468 +/- 47 mmHg*mm; placebo: 324 +/- 24 to 485 +/- 38 mmHg*mm; mean +/- SEM). At 6 h after ME, WI was decreased by 159 +/- 16 mmHg*mm (P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and remained reduced at any calcium concentration, whereas it was unchanged with placebo. The calcium concentration in coronary blood necessary to achieve the half maximal increase in WI remained unchanged from baseline to 6 h and did not differ between placebo and ME. The ME-induced myocardial dysfunction is not related to an altered calcium sensitivity, but is characterized by a reduced maximal contractile force.

  10. Technical feasibility and validation of a coronary artery calcium scoring system using CT coronary angiography images

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    Pavitt, Christopher W. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Harron, Katie [Institute of Child Health, UCL, Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, London (United Kingdom); Lindsay, Alistair C.; Ray, Robin [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Zielke, Sayeh; Rubens, Michael B. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Gordon, Daniel [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Padley, Simon P. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Nicol, Edward D. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We validate a novel CT coronary angiography (CCTA) coronary calcium scoring system. Calcium was quantified on CCTA images using a new patient-specific attenuation threshold: mean + 2SD of intra-coronary contrast density (HU). Using 335 patient data sets a conversion factor (CF) for predicting CACS from CCTA scores (CCTAS) was derived and validated in a separate cohort (n = 168). Bland-Altman analysis and weighted kappa for MESA centiles and Agatston risk groupings were calculated. Multivariable linear regression yielded a CF: CACS = (1.185 x CCTAS) + (0.002 x CCTAS x attenuation threshold). When applied to CCTA data sets there was excellent correlation (r = 0.95; p < 0.0001) and agreement (mean difference -10.4 [95 % limits of agreement -258.9 to 238.1]) with traditional calcium scores. Agreement was better for calcium scores below 500; however, MESA percentile agreement was better for high risk patients. Risk stratification was excellent (Agatston groups k = 0.88 and MESA centiles k = 0.91). Eliminating the dedicated CACS scan decreased patient radiation exposure by approximately one-third. CCTA calcium scores can accurately predict CACS using a simple, individualized, semiautomated approach reducing acquisition time and radiation exposure when evaluating patients for CAD. This method is not affected by the ROI location, imaging protocol, or tube voltage strengthening its clinical applicability. (orig.)

  11. Stationary digital chest tomosynthesis for coronary artery calcium scoring

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    Wu, Gongting; Wang, Jiong; Potuzko, Marci; Harman, Allison; Pearce, Caleb; Shan, Jing; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) measures the buildup of calcium on the coronary artery wall and has been shown to be an important predictor of the risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Currently CACS is measured using CT, though the relatively high cost and high radiation dose has limited its adoption as a routine screening procedure. Digital Chest Tomosynthesis (DCT), a low dose and low cost alternative to CT, and has been shown to achieve 90% of sensitivity of CT in lung disease screening. However commercial DCT requires long scanning time and cannot be adapted for high resolution gated cardiac imaging, necessary for CACS. The stationary DCT system (s- DCT), developed in our lab, has the potential to significantly shorten the scanning time and enables high resolution cardiac gated imaging. Here we report the preliminary results of using s-DCT to estimate the CACS. A phantom heart model was developed and scanned by the s-DCT system and a clinical CT in a phantom model with realistic coronary calcifications. The adapted fan-beam volume reconstruction (AFVR) method, developed specifically for stationary tomosynthesis systems, is used to obtain high resolution tomosynthesis images. A trained cardiologist segmented out the calcifications and the CACS was obtained. We observed a strong correlation between the tomosynthesis derived CACS and CT CACS (r2 = 0.88). Our results shows s-DCT imaging has the potential to estimate CACS, thus providing a possible low cost and low dose imaging protocol for screening and monitoring CAD.

  12. Value of coronary artery calcium score to predict severity or complexity of coronary artery disease

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    Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kalaycıoğlu, Ezgi; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Boyacı, Faruk; Turan, Turhan; Gül, İlker; Çavuşoğlu, Gökhan; Dursun, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of severity or complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) is valuable owing to increased risk for cardiovascular events. Although the association between total coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and severity of CAD, Gensini score was not used, it has been previously demonstrated. There is no information about the association between total CAC score and complexity of CAD. Objectives To investigate the association between severity or complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) assessed by Gensini score and SYNTAX score (SS), respectively, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, which is a noninvasive method for CAD evaluation in symptomatic patients with accompanying significant CAD. Methods Two-hundred-fourteen patients were enrolled. Total CAC score was obtained before angiography. Severity and complexity of CAD was assessed by Gensini score and SS, respectively. Associations between clinical and angiographic parameters and total CAC score were analyzed. Results Median total CAC score was 192 (23.0-729.8), and this was positively correlated with both Gensini score (r: 0.299, p 809 for SS >32 (high SS tertile). Conclusion In symptomatic patients with accompanying significant CAD, total CAC score was independently associated with SS and patients with SS >32 may be detected through high Agatston score. PMID:24676367

  13. Can nontriggered thoracic CT be used for coronary artery calcium scoring? A phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Groen, Jaap M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Jong, Pim A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Coronary artery calcium score, traditionally based on electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered computed tomography (CT), predicts cardiovascular risk. However, nontriggered CT is extensively utilized. The study-purpose is to evaluate the in vitro agreement in coronary calcium score between nontr

  14. A method for coronary artery calcium scoring using contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otton, James M; Lønborg, Jacob T; Boshell, David;

    2012-01-01

    Limitations to the coronary calcium score include its requirement for noncontrast imaging and radiation exposure that approaches current methods for contrast-enhanced CT angiography.......Limitations to the coronary calcium score include its requirement for noncontrast imaging and radiation exposure that approaches current methods for contrast-enhanced CT angiography....

  15. Coronary Artery Calcium Distribution and Interscan Measurement Variability in End-Stage Renal and Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Z.; Laskowska, K.; Marzec, M.; Lasek, W. (Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland)); Sinjab, T.A.; Wlodarczyk, Z. (Dept. of Transplantology, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Coronary heart disease patients and end-stage renal disease patients have been documented to have an increased amount of coronary artery calcifications (CAC). Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of CAC and its influence on interscan variability of measurement in end-stage renal disease and coronary heart disease patients, proven to have calcifications. Material and Methods: 69 patients having CAC, including 34 with coronary heart disease and 35 with end-stage renal disease, were scanned twice with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Amount of CAC was determined as the number of calcified lesions (CN), total calcium score (CS), calcium volume (CV), and calcium mass (CM). Distribution of CAC was evaluated on a per-patient basis as the median CS and CM of a single lesion. Density of the calcifications was calculated as the patient's CM divided by CV. Results: The overall median CS was 457.2, and the median CM was 75.6 mg. There were no significant differences in the number of calcified lesions, CS, or CM between the two groups. Both CS and CM of a single lesion, as well as the mean calcium density were lower in renal disease patients (P<0.05) than in coronary heart disease subjects. The relative interscan variability of coronary calcium measurement was higher in the renal disease group (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between the calcium concentration and the relative interscan variability. Conclusion: The results indicate that the coronary calcium distribution influences the measurement interscan reproducibility, and the distribution may differ between end-stage renal disease patients and coronary heart disease patients, reflecting the dissimilar nature of coronary calcifications in those groups.

  16. Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Intravascular Ultrasound and the Coronary Calcium Score to Predict Adverse Coronary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0831 TITLE: Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Intravascular Ultrasound and the Coronary Calcium Score to...3. DATES COVERED 26-SEP-2014 to 25-SEP-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Intravascular Ultrasound and the...planned. 15. SUBJECT TERMS coronary artery disease, near infrared spectroscopy, calcium scoring, intravascular ultrasound 16. SECURIY CLASSIFICATION OF

  17. Relation of thoracic aortic and aortic valve calcium to coronary artery calcium and risk assessment.

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    Wong, Nathan D; Sciammarella, Maria; Arad, Yadon; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Polk, Donna; Hachamovich, Rory; Friedman, John; Hayes, Sean; Daniell, Anthony; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-10-15

    Aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have been associated with cardiovascular event risk. We examined the prevalence of thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and AVC in relation to the presence and extent of CAC, cardiovascular risk factors, and estimated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In 2,740 persons without known CHD aged 20 to 79 years, CAC was assessed by electron beam- or multidetector-computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of TAC and AVC in relation to CAC, CHD risk factors, and predicted 10-year risk of CHD. A close correspondence of TAC and AVC was observed with CAC. TAC and AVC increased with age; by the eighth decade of life, the prevalence of TAC was similar to that of CAC (>80%), and 36% of men and 24% of women had AVC. Age, male gender, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were directly related to the likelihood of CAC, TAC, and AVC; higher diastolic blood pressure and cigarette smoking additionally predicted CAC. Body mass index and higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressures were also related to TAC, and higher body mass index and lower diastolic blood pressure were related to AVC. Calculated risk of CHD increased with the presence of AVC and TAC across levels of CAC. TAC and AVC provided incremental value over CAC in association with the 10-year calculated risk of CHD. If longitudinal studies show an incremental value of aortic and aortic valve calcium over that of CAC for prediction of cardiovascular events, future guidelines for risk assessment incorporating CAC assessment may additionally incorporate the measurement of aortic and/or aortic valve calcium.

  18. CT measurement of coronary calcium mass: impact on global cardiac risk assessment

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    Becker, Christoph R.; Majeed, Amal; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Crispin, Alexander [University Hospital Munich, Department of Medical Data Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Knez, Andreas; Boekstegers, Peter; Steinbeck, Gerhard [University Hospital Munich, Department of Cardiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Coronary calcium mass percentiles can be derived from electron beam CT as well as from multidetector-row CT of all manufacturers. Coronary calcium mass may serve as a more individualized substitute for age for cardiac risk stratification. The aim was to investigate the potential impact of CT coronary calcium mass quantification on cardiac risk stratification using an adjusted Framingham score. Standardized coronary calcium mass was determined by multidetector-row CT in a total of 1,473 patients (1,038 male, 435 female). The impact on risk stratification of replacing the traditional Framingham age point score by a point score based on calcium mass relative to age was tested. Any coronary calcium found in males in the age group of 20-34 years and females in the age group of 20-59 years results in an increase of the Framingham score by 9 and 4-7 points, respectively. Only in males 65 years of age and older, none or minimal amounts of coronary calcium decrease the Framingham score by three points. The coronary calcium mass and age-related scoring system may have impact on the reassignment of patients with an intermediate Framingham risk to a lower or higher risk group. (orig.)

  19. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

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    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  20. Significance of noncalcified coronary plaque in asymptomatic subjects with low coronary artery calcium score: assessment with coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Jeong A; Jin, Kwang Nam; Yeon, Tae-Jin; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of noncalcified coronary plaques (NCP) using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and analyze predictors of significant coronary stenosis by NCP in asymptomatic subjects with low coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and all patients gave written, informed consent. The presence of plaque, severity of stenosis, plaque characteristics, and CACS were assessed in 7,515 asymptomatic subjects. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of NCP in subjects having low CACS (707 subjects; men with CACS from 1 to 50 and women from 1 to 10) in comparison to those having 0 CACS (6,040 subjects) as the reference standard. Conventional risk factors were assessed for predictors of NCP and significant stenosis by NCP. We also investigated the cardiac events of the patients through medical records. Compared to subjects with 0 CACS, those with low CACS showed higher prevalence of NCP (6.9% vs. 31.5%, P NCP (0.8% vs. 7.5%, P NCP included diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (all P NCP were classified into the low to intermediate risk according to Framingham Risk Score. At the median follow up of 42 months (range: 3-60 months), cardiac events were significantly higher in the low CACS group compared to the 0 CACS group (2.6% vs. 0.27%, P NCP were higher as compared to subjects having zero CACS and predictors of significant stenosis by NCP were DM, hypertension and LDL-Cholesterol. Therefore, CCTA may be useful for risk stratification of coronary artery disease as added value over CACS in selected populations with low CACS who have predictors of significant NCP.

  1. Incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score for the prediction of coronary artery disease

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    Genders, Tessa S.S. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pugliese, Francesca; Mollet, Nico R.; Meijboom, W. Bob; Weustink, Annick C.; Mieghem, Carlos A.G. van; Feyter, Pim J. de [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harvard University, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States)

    2010-10-15

    To validate published prediction models for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with new onset stable typical or atypical angina pectoris and to assess the incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score (CTCS). We searched the literature for clinical prediction rules for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD, defined as {>=}50% stenosis in at least one vessel on conventional coronary angiography. Significant variables were re-analysed in our dataset of 254 patients with logistic regression. CTCS was subsequently included in the models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess diagnostic performance. Re-analysing the variables used by Diamond and Forrester yielded an AUC of 0.798, which increased to 0.890 by adding CTCS. For Pryor, Morise 1994, Morise 1997 and Shaw the AUC increased from 0.838 to 0.901, 0.831 to 0.899, 0.840 to 0.898 and 0.833 to 0.899. CTCS significantly improved model performance in each model. Validation demonstrated good diagnostic performance across all models. CTCS improves the prediction of the presence of obstructive CAD, independent of clinical predictors, and should be considered in its diagnostic work-up. (orig.)

  2. Effects of particle size, slice thickness, and reconstruction algorithm on coronary calcium quantitation using ultrafast computed tomography

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    Tang, Weiyi; Detrano, Robert; Kang, Xingping; Garner, D.; Nickerson, Sharon; Desimone, P.; Mahaisavariya, Paiboon; Brundage, B.

    1994-05-01

    The recent emphasis on early diagnosis of coronary artery disease has stimulated research for a reliable and non-invasive screening method. Radiographically detectable coronary calcium has been shown to predict both pathologic and angiographic findings. Ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT), in quantifying coronary calcium, may become an accurate non-invasive method to evaluate the severity of coronary disease. The currently applied index of UFCT coronary calcium amount is the coronary calcium score of Agatston et al. This score has not been thoroughly evaluated as to its accuracy and dependence on scanning parameters. A potential drawback of the score is its dependence on predetermined CT number thresholds. In this investigation we used a chest phantom to determine the effects of particle size, slice thickness, and reconstruction algorithm on the coronary calcium score, and on the calcium mass estimated with a new method which is not dependent on thresholds.

  3. An Update on the Utility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Umapathi, Priya; Graham, Garth; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is necessary for determining the potential net benefit of primary prevention pharmacotherapy. Risk estimation relying exclusively on traditional CVD risk factors may misclassify risk, resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring personalizes risk prediction through direct visualization of calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques and provides improved accuracy for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CVD risk estimation. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies on CAC, which unlike historical studies, focus sharply on clinical application. We describe the MESA CHD risk calculator, a recently developed CAC-based 10-year CHD risk estimator, which can help guide preventive therapy allocation by better identifying both high- and low-risk individuals. In closing, we discuss calcium density, regional distribution of CAC, and extra-coronary calcification, which represent the future of CAC and CVD risk assessment research and may lead to further improvements in risk prediction.

  4. Is calcium scoring of the coronary arteries necessary for proper management of asymptomatic subjects with classic risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Conti, C

    2010-11-01

    In 2000, I wrote an editorial entitled, "Detecting Coronary Calcium."1 For the past several years there have been numerous publications on this subject. Recently, an article by Min et al, provided some important information about patients with a normal coronary calcium scan and the conversion from a zero calcium score to greater than zero. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Can nontriggered thoracic CT be used for coronary artery calcium scoring? A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueqian [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands and Center for Medical Imaging – North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Greuter, Marcel J. W. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Groen, Jaap M. [Department of Radiology, Zaans Medical Center, 1500EE Zaandam (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [Center for Medical Imaging – North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands and Center for Medical Imaging – North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Coronary artery calcium score, traditionally based on electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered computed tomography (CT), predicts cardiovascular risk. However, nontriggered CT is extensively utilized. The study-purpose is to evaluate the in vitro agreement in coronary calcium score between nontriggered thoracic CT and ECG-triggered cardiac CT.Methods: Three artificial coronary arteries containing calcifications of different densities (high, medium, and low), and sizes (large, medium, and small), were studied in a moving cardiac phantom. Two 64-detector CT systems were used. The phantom moved at 0–90 mm/s in nontriggered low-dose CT as index test, and at 0–30 mm/s in ECG-triggered CT as reference. Differences in calcium scores between nontriggered and ECG-triggered CT were analyzed by t-test and 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity to detect calcification was calculated as the percentage of positive calcium scores.Results: Overall, calcium scores in nontriggered CT were not significantly different to those in ECG-triggered CT (p > 0.05). Calcium scores in nontriggered CT were within the 95% confidence interval of calcium scores in ECG-triggered CT, except predominantly at higher velocities (≥50 mm/s) for the high-density and large-size calcifications. The sensitivity for a nonzero calcium score was 100% for large calcifications, but 46%± 11% for small calcifications in nontriggered CT.Conclusions: When performing multiple measurements, good agreement in positive calcium scores is found between nontriggered thoracic and ECG-triggered cardiac CT. Agreement decreases with increasing coronary velocity. From this phantom study, it can be concluded that a high calcium score can be detected by nontriggered CT, and thus, that nontriggered CT likely can identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, a zero calcium score in nontriggered CT does not reliably exclude coronary calcification.

  6. Automatic coronary calcium scoring in low-dose chest computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isgum, I.; Prokop, M.; Niemeijer, M.; Viergever, M.; Ginneken, B. van

    2012-01-01

    The calcium burden as estimated from non-ECGsynchronized CT exams acquired in screening of heavy smokers has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. We present a method for automatic coronary calcium scoring with low-dose, non-contrast-enhanced, non-ECG-synchronized chest CT. F

  7. Virtual non-contrast CT using dual energy spectral CT: Feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Measured coronary calcium volumes from VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Among the three VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p < 0.001 for all pairs). The use of VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC.

  8. Effect of High-Calcium Diet on Coronary Artery Disease in Ossabaw Miniature Swine With Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C; Radcliffe, John S.; Wastney, Meryl E; Van Alstine, William G; Jackson, George; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Martin, Berdine R.; Sturek, Michael; Weaver, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that has been a mainstay of osteoporosis management. Recent and limited findings have prompted concern about the contribution of calcium supplementation to cardiovascular risk. A proposed mechanism is through the acceleration of coronary artery calcification. Determining causality between calcium intake and coronary artery calcification has been hindered by a lack of sensitive methodology to monitor early vascular calcium accumulation. The ...

  9. Correlation between calcium carbonate content and emission characteristics of incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ru; Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2006-12-01

    In Taiwan and China, calcium carbonate is commonly added as a filler during incense production to lower the cost. This study has found an unexpected benefit for this practice: it reduces particulate emission. Nine types of the popular incense on the local market were chosen for this study. The calcium content in raw material incense was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The correlation between the calcium content and emission characteristics of incense was investigated. The calcium content varied from 1.8 to 60 mg/g (incense burned) among those nine different types of incense. Very little calcium (incense. Instead, most calcium was artificially added in the form of CaCO3 during manufacturing. The combustion characteristics, including burning rate, emission factors of particulate, ash, and solid-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (S-PAHs), varied significantly among the nine types of incense. Incense containing 2% calcium would emit 30% less S-PAHs, compared with those with little (incense by approximately 50%.

  10. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Zhang; Shuang Yang; Lu-Yue Gai; Zhi-Qi Han; Qian Xin; Xiao-Bo Yang; Jun-Jie Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies.However,few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions.We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions,using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age,59.6 ± 10.2 years;76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA,invasive coronary angiography,and invasive FFR measurement.An FFR <0.80 indicated hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis.Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80.We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR.The statistical methods included unpaired t-test,Mann-Whitney U-test,and Spearman's correlation coefficients.Results:Coronary lesions with FFR <0.80 had higher Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80.Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r =-0.48,P < 0.01) and had a greater area under the curve =0.72 (95% confidence interval:0.61-0.82;P < 0.01) than the CACS of whole arteries and a single artery.Conclusions:Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR.However,Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80.Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  11. Relationship between Calcium Score and Myocardial Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis of Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Fabio Paiva Rossini; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; dos Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M. Damas; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2016-01-01

    Half the patients with coronary artery disease present with sudden death - or acute infarction as first symptom, making early diagnosis pivotal. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is frequently used in the assessment of these patients, but it does not detect the disease without flow restriction, exposes the patient to high levels of radiation and is costly. On the other hand, with less radiological exposure, calcium score is directly correlated to the presence and extension of coronary atherosclerosis, and also to the risk of cardiovascular events. Even though calcium score is a tried-and-true method for stratification of asymptomatic patients, its use is still reduced in this context, since current guidelines are contradictory to its use on symptomatic diseases. The aim of this review is to identify, on patients under investigation for coronary artery disease, the main evidence of the use of calcium score associated with functional evaluation and scintigraphy. PMID:27437867

  12. Feasibility of coronary calcium and stent image subtraction using 320-detector row CT angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, J Tobias; Chen, Marcus Y;

    2015-01-01

    . We defined target segments on CCTAconv as motion-free coronary segments with calcification or stent and low reader confidence. The effect of CCTAsub was assessed. No approval from the ethics committee was required according to Danish law. RESULTS: A total of 76 target segments were identified....... The use of coronary calcium image subtraction improved the reader confidence in 66% of these segments. In target segments, specificity (86% vs 65%; P

  13. Effect of High-Calcium Diet on Coronary Artery Disease in Ossabaw Miniature Swine With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C; Radcliffe, John S; Wastney, Meryl E; Van Alstine, William G; Jackson, George; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Martin, Berdine R; Sturek, Michael; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-08-13

    Calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that has been a mainstay of osteoporosis management. Recent and limited findings have prompted concern about the contribution of calcium supplementation to cardiovascular risk. A proposed mechanism is through the acceleration of coronary artery calcification. Determining causality between calcium intake and coronary artery calcification has been hindered by a lack of sensitive methodology to monitor early vascular calcium accumulation. The primary study aim was to assess the impact of high calcium intake on coronary artery calcification using innovative calcium tracer kinetic modeling in Ossabaw swine with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Secondary end points (in vitro wire myography, histopathology, intravascular ultrasound) assessed coronary disease. Pigs (n=24; aged ≈15 months) were fed an atherogenic diet with adequate calcium (0.33% by weight) or high calcium (1.90% from calcium carbonate or dairy) for 6 months. Following 5 months of feeding, all pigs were dosed intravenously with (41)Ca, a rare isotope that can be measured in serum and tissues at a sensitivity of 10(-18) mol/L by accelerator mass spectrometry. Kinetic modeling evaluated early coronary artery calcification using (41)Ca values measured in serial blood samples (collected over 27 days) and coronary artery samples obtained at sacrifice. Serum disappearance of (41)Ca and total coronary artery (41)Ca accumulation did not differ among groups. Secondary end points demonstrated no treatment differences in coronary artery disease or function. There was no detectable effect of high calcium diets (from dairy or calcium carbonate) on coronary artery calcium deposition in metabolic syndrome swine. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Does coronary calcium scoring with a SCORE better predict significant coronary artery stenosis than without? Correlation with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhan, Gamze; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale; Karaagaoglu, Ergun [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-03

    To determine effectiveness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) alone and combined with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in adult patients for significant coronary artery stenosis by using computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as reference standard. Two thousand twenty-one patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS test and CTCA. Patients were examined with dual-source CT and were grouped according to their age, gender, CACS, and estimated SCORE risk. Coronary plaque existence and degree of stenosis were assessed with CTCA. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were analyzed. CACS was the single independent variable in estimating relative risk of critical stenosis and had superior outcome when compared with SCORE risk in logistic regression and ROC curve. Area under the ROC curve was greatest in the interval between 50-59 years. When SCORE was combined with CACS in patients with zero CACS, percentage of significant stenosis increased from 1.4% to 7.0% in patients with high or very high SCORE risk, and decreased to 0.9 % in patients with low or moderate SCORE risk. CACS combination with SCORE risk predicts coronary artery stenosis. When CACS is zero, CTCA can be performed in patients with high or very high SCORE risk. (orig.)

  15. Vitamin K Supplementation and the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. A preventive role for vitamin K in CAC progression has been proposed based on the properties of matrix Gla protein (MGP) as a vitamin K-dependent calcification inhibitor. The objective of this study was to determine...

  16. Coronary calcium scores are systematically underestimated at a large chest size : A multivendor phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Abramiuc, Bronislaw; den Harder, Annemarie M.; van der Werf, Niels R.; de Jong, Pim A.; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Willems, Tineke P.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of chest size on coronary calcium score (CCS) as assessed with new-generation CT systems from 4 major vendors. Methods: An anthropomorphic, small-sized (300 x 200 mm) chest phantom containing 100 small calcifications (diameters, 0.5-2.0 mm) was evaluated with and wi

  17. Evaluation of coronary artery calcium screening strategies focused on risk categories: the Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; de Lemos, James A; McGuire, Darren K; See, Raphael; Lindsey, Jason B; Murphy, Sabina A; Grundy, Scott M; Khera, Amit

    2009-06-01

    A strategy using coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening to refine coronary heart disease risk assessment in moderately high risk (MHR) subjects (10-year risk 10%-20%) has been suggested. The potential impact of this strategy is unknown. Coronary artery calcium screening strategies focused on MHR subjects were modeled in 2,610 subjects aged 30 to 65 years undergoing Framingham risk scoring and CAC assessment in the Dallas Heart Study. The proportions of subjects eligible for imaging and reclassified from MHR to high risk (HR) (10-year risk >20%) based upon CAC scores were determined. Only 1.0% of women and 15.4% of men were at MHR by Framingham risk scoring and thus eligible for imaging, and MHR to HR using a CAC threshold > or = 400. Coronary artery calcium imaging targeting MHR subjects was also relatively inefficient (>100 women, 14.3 men scanned per subject reclassified). Restricting to an older age range (45-65 years) or expanding the MHR group to 6% to 20% risk had virtually no impact on risk assessment in women. In a secondary analysis, a proposed imaging strategy targeting promotion of subjects from lower risk to MHR was more efficient and had greater yield than current recommendations targeting promotion from MHR to HR. Coronary artery calcium screening strategies focused on MHR subjects will have a negligible impact on risk assessment in women and a modest impact in men. Further studies are needed to optimize the use of CAC screening as an adjunct to coronary heart disease risk assessment, especially for women and those at seemingly lower risk.

  18. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...

  19. Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Christiane A.; Dikkers, Riksta; Perik, Patrick J.; Tio, Rene A.; Gotte, Marco J. W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix

    2008-01-01

    We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS b

  20. The coronary calcium score is a more accurate predictor of significant coronary stenosis than conventional risk factors in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y;

    2016-01-01

    risk factor assessment, computed tomographic coronary angiogram (CTCA) or conventional angiography and a CT scan for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. 1539 (27.9%) patients had significant stenosis, 5.5% of whom had zero CAC. In 5074 patients, multiple binary regression showed the most important...... predictor of significant stenosis to be male gender (B=1.07) followed by diabetes mellitus (B=0.70) smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, family history of CAD and age but not obesity. When the log transformed CAC score was included, it became the most powerful predictor (B=1.25), followed by male...... gender (B=0.48), diabetes, smoking, family history and age but hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension lost significance. The CAC score is a more accurate predictor of >50% stenosis than risk factors regardless of the means of assessment of stenosis. The sensitivity of risk factors, CAC score...

  1. Observer variability in the assessment of CT coronary angiography and coronary artery calcium score: substudy of the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle C; Golay, Saroj K; Hunter, Amanda; Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Mlynska, Lucja; Dweck, Marc R; Uren, Neal G; Reid, John H; Lewis, Steff C; Berry, Colin; van Beek, Edwin J R; Roditi, Giles; Newby, David E; Mirsadraee, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Observer variability can influence the assessment of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and the subsequent diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease. We assessed 210 CTCAs from the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial for intraobserver and interobserver variability. Calcium score, coronary angiography and image quality were evaluated. Coronary artery disease was defined as none (70%) luminal stenosis and classified as no (70%) coronary artery disease. Post-CTCA diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease was classified as yes, probable, unlikely or no. Patients had a mean body mass index of 29 (28, 30) kg/m(2), heart rate of 58 (57, 60)/min and 62% were men. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for the presence or absence of coronary artery disease were excellent (95% agreement, κ 0.884 (0.817 to 0.951) and good (91%, 0.791 (0.703 to 0.879)). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for the presence or absence of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease were excellent (93%, 0.842 (0.918 to 0.755) and good (86%, 0.701 (0.799 to 0.603)), respectively. Observer variability of calcium score was excellent for calcium scores below 1000. More segments were categorised as uninterpretable with 64-multidetector compared to 320-multidetector CTCA (10.1% vs 2.6%, pcoronary heart disease. NCT01149590.

  2. Detection of coronary calcium with electron beam tomography in coronary artery disease; Stellenwert der Kalkbestimmung mit Elektronenstrahltomographie bei koronarer Herzkrankheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberl, R.; Knez, A.; Becker, A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 1; Becker, C.; Bruening, R.; Reiser, M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Maass, A.; Steinbeck, G.

    1998-12-01

    Purpose: Coronary calcium is a powerful indicator of arteriosclerosis and can be detected very precisely with electron beam tomography. The method can be applied in patients with known coronary artery disease or in asymptomatic patients at risk of arteriosclerotic disease. Results: At the University of Munich we performed an EBT scan of the heart in 1100 patients within the last year. In 567 patients coronary angiography was performed also ({+-}3 days). Confirming previous reports in the literature, we found a correlation of the calcium score with the age and gender of the patients. Severe coronary artery disease (stenoses {>=} 75%) was associated with significantly more calcium than less severe CAD. The calcium score did not discriminate between one-, two- and three-vessel disease. The site of calcification does not correlate with the localization of stenoses. Thirty-three percent of the patients with significant coronary artery disease showed a normal age-adjusted calcium score; a total of 8.1% of patients with severe stenoses did not reveal any coronary calcification (score =0). With asymptomatic patients there are only a few studies available. Soft plaques cannot be detected with EBT, but in most patients soft plaques occur together with hard plaques. Our results show that spiral CT of the newest generation may also be used for calcium screening. There was an excellent correlation of the calcium scores of EBT and spiral CT at all levels of calcification. Discussion: Coronary calcium is a sensitive marker of coronary artery disease. In the clinical setting EBT is indicated in patients with known coronary artery disease (to evaluate prognosis), in patients who are unable to perform a stress test, and in patients with atypical chest pain. However, lack of calcification may be associated with severe stenoses in a minority of patients. The clinical value in asymptomatic patients needs to be defined: Randomized studies are necessary. We see a possible indication in

  3. Correlation between calcium and phosphate levels to calculus accumulation on coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahaya, Cindy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a disease that happened because of blood flow being blocked by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a process of hardening of the arteries which characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the intimal layer of vascular wall, by lipid deposit. Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease caused by microorganism and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus leading to tooth loss. Many studies use saliva as a valuable source for clinically information, as an asset for early diagnosis, prognostic and reviewer for pascatherapy status. Dental calculus had happened as a consequence of saliva supersaturation by calcium and phosphate. Salivary flow rate and its composition influence the formation of calculus. Increasing salivary calcium levels is characteristic of periodontitis patients. An important hipotesis in Cardiology is chronic infections contribute in atherosclerosis. Objective: To analyse the correlation between calcium and phosphate levels in saliva to calculus accumulation on CHD patients. Result: Correlation analysis between salivary calcium levels with calculus accumulation in patients with CHD and non-CHD showed no significant p value, p=0.59 and p=0.518. Correlation analysis between salivary phosphate levels and calculus accumulation showed no significant p value, p=0.836 for CHD patients and p=0.484 for non-CHD patients. Conclusion: There are no correlation between calcium levels and phosphate levels with calculus accumulation in CHD patients. Further research need to be done.

  4. Prognostic value of coronary artery calcium score in patients with stable an-gina pectoris after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Fang WANG; Jiang-Li HAN; Rong HE; Xiang-Zhu ZENG; Fu-Chun ZHANG; Li-Jun GUO; Wei GAO

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prognostic value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 334 consecutive patients with SAP who underwent first PCI following multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) were enrolled from our institution between January 2007 and June 2012. The CAC score was calculated according to the standard Agatston calcium scoring algorithm. Complex PCI was defined as use of high pressure bal-loon, kissing balloon and/or rotablator. Procedure-related complications included dissection, occlusion, perforation, no/slow flow and emer-gency coronary artery bypass grafting. Main adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as a combined end point of death, non-fatal myo-cardial infarction, target lesion revascularization and rehospitalization for cardiac ischemic events. Results Patients with a CAC score>300 (n=145) had significantly higher PCI complexity (13.1%vs. 5.8%, P=0.017) and rate of procedure-related complications (17.2%vs. 7.4%, P=0.005) than patients with a CAC score≤300 (n=189). After a median follow-up of 22.5 months (4-72 months), patients with a CAC score≤300 differ greatly than those patients with CAC score>300 in cumulative non-events survival rates (88.9 vs. 79.0%, Log rank 4.577, P=0.032). After adjusted for other factors, the risk of MACE was significantly higher [hazard ratio (HR):4.3, 95%confidence inter-val (95%CI):2.4-8.2, P=0.038] in patients with a CAC score>300 compared to patients with a lower CAC score. Conclusions The CAC score is an independent predictor for MACE in SAP patients who underwent PCI and indicates complexity of PCI and proce-dure-related complications.

  5. Incremental prognostic utility of coronary CT angiography for asymptomatic patients based upon extent and severity of coronary artery calcium: Results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Cho (Iksung); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); B.T. Hartaigh (Bríain ó); S. Shin (Sanghoon); J.M. Sung (Ji Min); F.Y. Lin (Fay); S. Achenbach (Stephan); R. Heo (Ran); D.S. Berman (Daniel); M.J. Budoff (Matthew J.); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin); A.M. Dunning (Allison M.); A. Delago (Augustin); T.C. Villines (Todd); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp A.); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); Y.-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); G. Pontone (Gianluca); D. Andreini (Daniele); J.K. Min (James K.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim Prior evidence observed no predictive utility of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) over the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and the Framingham risk score (FRS), among asymptomatic individuals. Whether the prognostic value of CCTA differs for asymptomatic patients, when stratified b

  6. Incremental prognostic utility of coronary CT angiography for asymptomatic patients based upon extent and severity of coronary artery calcium: Results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Cho (Iksung); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); B.T. Hartaigh (Bríain ó); S. Shin (Sanghoon); J.M. Sung (Ji Min); F.Y. Lin (Fay); S. Achenbach (Stephan); R. Heo (Ran); D.S. Berman (Daniel); M.J. Budoff (Matthew J.); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin); A.M. Dunning (Allison M.); A. Delago (Augustin); T.C. Villines (Todd); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp A.); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); Y.-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); G. Pontone (Gianluca); D. Andreini (Daniele); J.K. Min (James K.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim Prior evidence observed no predictive utility of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) over the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and the Framingham risk score (FRS), among asymptomatic individuals. Whether the prognostic value of CCTA differs for asymptomatic patients, when stratified b

  7. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...... and elevated P-NT-proBNP and/or CCS....

  8. The influence of Sr content in calcium phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Carl [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); BIOMATCELL, VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Hoess, Andreas; Ott, Marjam [Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [BIOMATCELL, VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Xia, Wei, E-mail: wei.xia@angstrom.uu.se [BIOMATCELL, VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    In this study calcium phosphate coatings with different amounts of strontium (Sr) were prepared using a biomineralization method. The incorporation of Sr changed the composition and morphology of coatings from plate-like to sphere-like morphology. Dissolution testing indicated that the solubility of the coatings increased with increased Sr concentration. Evaluation of extracts (with Sr concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.37 μg/mL) from the HA, 0.06Sr, 0.6Sr, and 1.2Sr coatings during in vitro cell cultures showed that Sr incorporation into coatings significantly enhanced the ALP activity in comparison to cells treated with control and HA eluted media. These findings show that calcium phosphate coatings could promote osteogenic differentiation even in a low amount of strontium. - Highlights: • Calcium phosphate coating doping with low Sr contents was prepared via a biomineralization process. • The solubility of the coatings increased with increased Sr concentration. • Present findings show the potential that Sr has on promoting osteogenic differentiation even in a low amount.

  9. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging as an adjunct to coronary calcium score for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Ziegler Franz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery calcifications (CAC are markers of coronary atherosclerosis, but do not correlate well with stenosis severity. This study intended to evaluate clinical situations where a combined approach of coronary calcium scoring (CS and nuclear stress test (SPECT-MPI is useful for the detection of relevant CAD. Methods Patients with clinical indication for invasive coronary angiography (ICA were included into our study during 08/2005-09/2008. At first all patients underwent CS procedure as part of the study protocol performed by either using a multidetector computed tomography (CT scanner or a dual-source CT imager. CAC were automatically defined by dedicated software and the Agatston score was semi-automatically calculated. A stress-rest SPECT-MPI study was performed afterwards and scintigraphic images were evaluated quantitatively. Then all patients underwent ICA. Thereby significant CAD was defined as luminal stenosis ≥75% in quantitative coronary analysis (QCA in ≥1 epicardial vessel. To compare data lacking Gaussian distribution an unpaired Wilcoxon-Test (Mann–Whitney was used. Otherwise a Students t-test for unpaired samples was applied. Calculations were considered to be significant at a p-value of Results We consecutively included 351 symptomatic patients (mean age: 61.2±12.3 years; range: 18–94 years; male: n=240 with a mean Agatston score of 258.5±512.2 (range: 0–4214. ICA verified exclusion of significant CAD in 66/67 (98.5% patients without CAC. CAC was detected in remaining 284 patients. In 132/284 patients (46.5% with CS>0 significant CAD was confirmed by ICA, and excluded in 152/284 (53.5% patients. Sensitivity for CAD detection by CS alone was calculated as 99.2%, specificity was 30.3%, and negative predictive value was 98.5%. An additional SPECT in patients with CS>0 increased specificity to 80.9% while reducing sensitivity to 87.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was 84.2%. Conclusions In patients

  10. Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium and Incident Heart Failure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Hooman; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Yang, Xiaoying; Ostovaneh, Mohammad R; Wu, Colin O; Budoff, Matthew; Bahrami, Hossein; Wong, Nathan D; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2017-04-20

    Although the association between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and future heart failure (HF) has been shown previously, the value of CAC progression in the prediction of HF has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the association of CAC progression with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and incident HF in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a population-based study consisting of 6814 men and women aged 45 to 84, free of overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, who were recruited from 4 ethnicities. We included 5644 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who had baseline and follow-up cardiac computed tomography and were free of HF and coronary heart disease before the second cardiac computed tomography. Mean (±SD) age was 61.7±10.2 years and 47.2% were male. The Cox proportional hazard models and multivariable linear regression models were deployed to determine the association of CAC progression with incident HF and subclinical LV dysfunction, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 9.6 (interquartile range: 8.8-10.6) years, 182 participants developed incident HF. CAC progression of 10 units per year was associated with 3% of increased risk of HF independent of overt coronary heart disease (P=0.008). In 2818 participants with available cardiac magnetic resonance images, CAC progression was associated with increased LV end diastolic volume (β=0.16; P=0.03) and LV end systolic volume (β=0.12; P=0.006) after excluding participants with any coronary heart disease. CAC progression was associated with incident HF and modestly increased LV end diastolic volume and LV end systolic volume at follow-up exam independent of overt coronary heart disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Comparing coronary artery calcium and thoracic aorta calcium for prediction of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events on low-dose non-gated computed tomography in a high-risk population of heavy smokers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.C.; Prokop, M.; Graaf, Y. van der; Gondrie, M.J.; Janssen, K.J.; Koning, H.J. de; Isgum, I.; Klaveren, R.J.J. van; Oudkerk, M.; Ginneken, B. van; Mali, W.P.Th.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) can be detected simultaneously on low-dose, non-gated computed tomography (CT) scans. CAC has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary (CHD) events. A comparable association between TAC and CVD events has yet t

  12. Comparing coronary artery calcium and thoracic aorta calcium for prediction of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events on low-dose non-gated computed tomography in a high-risk population of heavy smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Peter C.; Prokop, Mathias; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Gondrie, Martijn J.; Janssen, Kristel J.; de Koning, Harry J.; Isgum, Ivana; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ginneken, Bram; Mali, Willem P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) can be detected simultaneously on low-dose, non-gated computed tomography (CT) scans. CAC has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary (CHD) events. A comparable association between TAC and CVD events has yet t

  13. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography: Results from a static phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groen, J.M., E-mail: jaap.groen@slaz.nl [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Kofoed, K.F., E-mail: kkofoed@dadlnet.dk [Department of Cardiology and Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Zacho, M., E-mail: dls332089@vip.cybercity.dk [Department of Cardiology and Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Vliegenthart, R., E-mail: r.vliegenthart@umcg.nl [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Willems, T.P., E-mail: t.p.willems@umcg.nl [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Greuter, M.J.W., E-mail: m.j.w.greuter@umcg.nl [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Introduction: Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which enables establishment of a calcium scoring protocol for MDCT that yields a calcium score comparable to the EBT values and to the physical mass. Materials and methods: A phantom containing 100 small calcifications ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mm was scanned on EBT using a standard coronary calcium protocol. In addition, the phantom was scanned on a 320-row MDCT scanner using different scanning, reconstruction and scoring parameters (tube voltage 80–135 kV, slice thickness 0.5–3.0 mm, reconstruction kernel FC11–FC15 and threshold 110–150 HU). The Agatston and mass score of both modalities was compared and the influence of the parameters was assessed. Results: On EBT the Agatston and mass scores were between 0 and 20, and 0 and 3 mg, respectively. On MDCT the Agatston and mass scores were between 0 and 20, and 0 and 4 mg, respectively. All parameters showed an influence on the calcium score. The Agatston score on MDCT differed 52% between the 80 and 135 kV, 65% between 0.5 and 3.0 mm and 48% between FC11 and FC15. More calcifications were detected with a lower tube voltage, a smaller slice thickness, a sharper kernel and a lower threshold. Based on these observations an acquisition protocol with a tube voltage of 100 kV and two reconstructions protocols were defined with a FC12 reconstruction kernel; one with a slice thickness of 3.0 mm and a one with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. This protocol yielded an Agatston score as close to the EBT as possible, but also a mass score as close to the physical phantom value as possible, respectively. Conclusion: With the new phantom one acquisition protocol and two reconstruction protocols can be defined which produces

  14. Role of Coronary Calcium Scoring in the Assessment of Physiological Ischemia in Patients with Intermediate Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Kazunori; Kikuchi, Yuichi; Takizawa, Kaname; Inoue, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Although coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an established marker of coronary atherosclerosis, whether it also reflects the physiological significance is unknown. This study aims to evaluate if CAC could indicate physiological ischemia in intermediate stenosis defined by an invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). CAC score (CACS) derived from either whole coronary arteries or individual arteries was measured by computed tomography among patients with intermediate de novo lesions (percent diameter stenosis from 30% to less than 70%). All stenoses were evaluated by invasive FFR; lesions with an FFR ≤ 0.80 were considered significant. We enrolled 119 patients with 143 lesions. Of these, 42 lesions (29.4%) demonstrated significant ischemia by FFR measurement. FFR values had modest but significant correlations with CACS in individual arteries with intermediate stenosis (r = − 0.290; p stenosis had 71.4% sensitivity and 67.3% specificity as a predictor of significant ischemia at a cut off value of 145.9. Multivariable analysis showed that percent diameter stenosis and CACS in individual arteries with intermediate stenosis were independent predictors for significant ischemia. By net reclassification improvement analysis, CACS in individual arteries with intermediate stenosis provided incremental prediction for significant ischemia over minimum lumen diameter, percent diameter stenosis, and lesion length. CACS measured in each artery, but not the total CACS, provides additional information as to whether an angiographically intermediate stenosis within the artery is significant enough to cause myocardial ischemia. PMID:26648671

  15. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk.

  16. Risk stratification of non-contrast CT beyond the coronary calcium scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaj, Paul; Budoff, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a well-known marker for coronary artery disease and has important prognostic implications. CAC is able to provide clinicians with a reliable source of information related to cardiovascular atherosclerosis, which carries incremental information beyond Framingham risk. However, non-contrast scans of the heart provide additional information beyond the Agatston score. These studies are also able to measure various sources of fat, including intrathoracic (eg, pericardial or epicardial) and hepatic, both of which are thought to be metabolically active and linked to increased incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis as well as increased prevalence of type 2  diabetes. Testing for CAC is also useful in identifying extracoronary sources of calcification. Specifically, aortic valve calcification, mitral annular calcification, and thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) provide additional risk stratification information for cardiovascular events. Finally, scanning for CAC is able to evaluate myocardial scaring due to myocardial infarcts, which may also add incremental prognostic information. To ensure the benefits outweigh the risks of a scanning for CAC for an appropriately selected asymptomatic patient, the full utility of the scan should be realized. This review describes the current state of the art interpretation of non-contrast cardiac CT, which clinically should go well beyond coronary artery Agatston scoring alone.

  17. What does my patient's coronary artery calcium score mean? Combining information from the coronary artery calcium score with information from conventional risk factors to estimate coronary heart disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletcher Mark J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to produce post-test risk estimates, and to determine whether the score may add clinically useful information. Methods We measured the independent cross-sectional associations between conventional cardiac risk factors and the CAC score among asymptomatic persons referred for non-contrast electron beam computed tomography. Using the resulting multivariable models and published CAC score-specific relative risk estimates, we estimated post-test coronary heart disease risk in a number of different scenarios. Results Among 9341 asymptomatic study participants (age 35–88 years, 40% female, we found that conventional coronary heart disease risk factors including age, male sex, self-reported hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were independent predictors of the CAC score, and we used the resulting multivariable models for predicting post-test risk in a variety of scenarios. Our models predicted, for example, that a 60-year-old non-smoking non-diabetic women with hypertension and high cholesterol would have a 47% chance of having a CAC score of zero, reducing her 10-year risk estimate from 15% (per Framingham to 6–9%; if her score were over 100, however (a 17% chance, her risk estimate would be markedly higher (25–51% in 10 years. In low risk scenarios, the CAC score is very likely to be zero or low, and unlikely to change management. Conclusion Combining information from the CAC score with information from conventional risk factors can change assessment of coronary heart disease risk to an extent that may be clinically important, especially when the pre-test 10-year risk estimate is intermediate. The attached spreadsheet makes these calculations easy.

  18. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  19. Effect of healthy lifestyle behaviors on the association between leukocyte telomere length and coronary artery calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Vanessa A; Mainous, Arch G; Everett, Charles J; Schoepf, U Joseph; Codd, Veryan; Samani, Nilesh J; Samanii, Nilesh J

    2010-09-01

    The telomere length is an indicator of biologic aging, and shorter telomeres have been associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a validated indicator of coronary atherosclerosis. It is unclear, however, whether healthy lifestyle behaviors affect the relation between telomere length and CAC. In a sample of subjects aged 40 to 64 years with no previous diagnosis of coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, or cancer (n = 318), healthy lifestyle behaviors of greater fruit and vegetable consumption, lower meat consumption, exercise, being at a healthy weight, and the presence of social support were examined to determine whether they attenuated the association between a shorter telomere length and the presence of CAC. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and Framingham risk score revealed that the relation between having shorter telomeres and the presence of CAC was attenuated in the presence of high social support, low meat consumption, and high fruit and vegetable consumption. Those with shorter telomeres and these characteristics were not significantly different from those with longer telomeres. Conversely, the subjects with shorter telomeres and less healthy lifestyles had a significantly increased risk of the presence of CAC: low fruit and vegetable consumption (odds ratio 3.30, 95% confidence interval 1.61 to 6.75), high meat consumption (odds ratio 3.33, 95% confidence interval 1.54 to 7.20), and low social support (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 5.37). Stratification by gender yielded similar results for men; however, among women, only fruit and vegetable consumption attenuated the shorter telomere length and CAC relation. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that being involved in healthy lifestyle behaviors might attenuate the association between shorter telomere length and coronary atherosclerosis, as identified using CAC.

  20. A head-to-head comparison of the coronary calcium score by computed tomography with myocardial perfusion imaging in predicting coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Almoudi; Zhong-Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score has been shown to predict future cardiac events. However the extent to which the added value of a CAC score to the diagnostic performance of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between CAC score and SPECT in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Methods A retrospective review of the CAC scores by use of the Agatston calcium scoring method and cardiac SPECT diagnostic reports was conducted in 48 patients, who underwent both coronary computed tomography (CT) and SPECT examinations due to suspected coronary artery disease. A Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relation between CAC scores and MPI-SPECT assessments with regard to the evaluation of the extent of disease. Results Forty-seven percent of the patients had CAC scores more than 100, while 42% of these patients demonstrated abnormal, or probably abnormal, MPI-SPECT. Of the 23% of patients with a zero CAC score, only 7% had normal MPI-SPECT findings. No significant correlation was found between the CAC scores and MPISPECT assessments (r value ranged from 0.012 to 0.080), regardless of the degree of coronary calcification. Conclusions There is a lack of correlation between the CAC scores and the MPI-SPECT findings in the assessment of the extent of coronary artery disease. CAC scores and MPI-SPECT should be considered complementary approaches in the evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

  1. Relationship of thoracic aortic calcium to coronary calcium and its progression (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J; Nasir, Khurram; Katz, Ronit; Takasu, Junichiro; Allison, Matthew; Wong, Nathan D; Barr, R Graham; Carr, Jeffrey J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J

    2009-06-01

    Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) has been associated with a higher prevalence of coronary arterial calcium (CAC). The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between TAC and incident CAC and CAC progression in a cohort from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease at entry who underwent noncontrast cardiac computed tomographic scanning at baseline examination and at a 2-year follow-up assessment. The independent associations between TAC and incident CAC in those without CAC at baseline and between TAC and CAC progression in those with CAC at baseline were investigated. The final study population consisted of 5,755 subjects (84%; mean age 62 +/- 10 years, 48% men) who had follow-up CAC scores an average of 2.4 years later. Incident CAC was significantly higher in those with TAC compared with those without TAC at baseline (11 per 100 patient-years vs 6 per 100 patient-years). Similarly, TAC was associated with a higher CAC change (p CAC at baseline. In analysis adjusted for demographics and follow-up duration, TAC was associated with incident CAC (relative risk 1.72, p CAC change (first quartile: relative risk 2.89, 95% confidence interval -3.16 to 8.95; fourth quartile: relative risk 24.21, 95% confidence interval 18.25 to 30.18). In conclusion, TAC is associated with the incidence and progression of CAC. The detection of TAC may improve risk stratification efforts. Future clinical outcomes studies are needed to support such an approach.

  2. Validation and Prognosis of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring in Nontriggered Thoracic Computed Tomography Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, X.Q.; Zhao, Yingru; de Bock, G.H.; de Jong, P.A.; Mali, W.P.; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary calcium score (CS), traditionally based on electrocardiography-triggered computed tomography (CT), predicts cardiovascular risk. Currently, nontriggered thoracic CT is extensively used, such as in lung cancer screening. The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation in

  3. The impact of CT radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction algorithms from four different vendors on coronary calcium scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, M.J.; Takx, R.A.P.; Jong, P.A. de; Budde, R.P.; Bleys, R.L.; Das, M.; Wildberger, J.E.; Prokop, M.; Buls, N.; Mey, J. de; Schilham, A.M.; Leiner, T.

    2014-01-01

    o analyse the effects of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary calcium scoring (CCS).Fifteen ex vivo human hearts were examined in an anthropomorphic chest phantom using computed tomography (CT) systems from four vendors and examined at four dose levels us

  4. Carotid artery stiffness, digital endothelial function, and coronary calcium in patients with essential thrombocytosis, free of overt atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrtovec Matjaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET, a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects.

  5. High coronary artery calcium score affects clinical outcome despite normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging and normal left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Juul; Andersen, Kim F; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Normal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) indicates a low risk for cardiac death and new ischaemic events. However, the impact of normal MPI combined with a high coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is not clear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk of severely elevated CACS...

  6. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction Using Low-Voltage Computed Tomography Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring With Tin Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesche, Christian; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Albrecht, Moritz Moritz H.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Duguay, Taylor M.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Bayer, Richard R.; Canstein, Christian; Schmidt, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Morris, Pamela B.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Hoffmann, Ellen; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This study prospectively investigated the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of CT coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) using a 100 kVp acquisition protocol with tin filtration (Sn100 kVp) compared with the standard 120 kVp acquisition protocol; 70 patients (59% men, 62.1 10.7 years) who

  7. Effect of glucose stimulation on /sup 45/calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-02-01

    Glucose-stimulated /sup 45/calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/..mu..g DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/..mu..g DNA. On incubation with /sup 45/calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool.

  8. Evaluation of coronary calcium score in patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita PN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrícia Nunes Mesquita,1 Ana Paula Dornelas Leão Leite,2 Stella das Chagas Crisóstomo,1 Enio Veras Filho,1 Lucas da Cunha Xavier,1 Francisco Bandeira1 1Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Diseases, Hospital Agamenon Magalhães, 2Department of Radiology, University of Pernambuco, Cardiac Emergency Hospital of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Rationale: Given that the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is given at an increasingly less-symptomatic phase, and the literature data on the cardiovascular risk of patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT are controversial, the coronary calcium score (CCS, which is correlated with coronary artery disease, may be useful for clarifying the association between cardiovascular risk and NPHPT.Objective: This research aims to describe the CCS and the clinical and laboratory variables of patients with NPHPT compared with a control group and to verify the presence of an association between NPHPT and CCS.Study population and methods: A questionnaire on anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure was used, laboratory examinations (estimations of glucose, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], total cholesterol [TC] and its fractions, triglycerides, creatinine, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 25-OH vitamin D were conducted, and computerized tomography was carried out to measure the CCS in 13 patients diagnosed with NPHPT and 16 controls.Results: There was no association between NPHPT and altered CCS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05–1.26; p=0.095. Differences between the case and control groups were found in terms of body mass index (BMI (26.97 kg/m2 vs 31.53 kg/m2, respectively; p=0.044, HbA1c (5.59% vs 6.62%; p=0.000, and TC (188.07 mg/dL vs 220.64 mg/dL; p=0.088. After adjustment for potential confounders, no statistical significance was observed for the association between changes in CCS and presence of NPHPT

  9. Relation of Aortic Valve and Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease to the Stage and Etiology of the Renal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Touw, Hugo R. W.; Gansevoort, Ron; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix; Tio, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure have increased cardiac calcium loads. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and quantitative extent of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the impact of

  10. Assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac image: complementary amount of the calcium score to myocardial perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitola, Joao Vicente; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Zapparoli, Marcello, E-mail: joaovitola@quantamn.com.br [Quanta Diagnostico Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    Over the last decades we have witnessed significant advances on diagnostic tools and management of patients with or suspected cardiovascular disease, and consequently a significant reduction in mortality. Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leader cause of death in many countries, including Brazil. Identifying the high risk patient is important, so we can intensify prevention strategies. Non invasive diagnostic tools have been developed to identify the high risk patient in need of a myocardial revascularization, notably using myocardial scintigraphy. However, many clinicians still question, what is the best management for a patient with traditional risk factors, who has a positive treadmill test result and a completely normal myocardial scintigraphy? What is the literature showing in relation to the role of coronary calcium score for these patients? In this article we will reflect over these issues which are so frequently encountered in daily cardiology practice. (author)

  11. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association.

  12. Severity evaluation value of serum myeloperoxidase content detection in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Di Xie; Qiang Wu; Jian Huang; Jing Lu

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the value of serum myeloperoxidase content detection for severity evaluation in patients with acute coronary syndrome.Methods: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) group included 32 cases, stable angina pectoris (SAP) group included 46 cases, levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammatory factors and lipid metabolism indexes in serum were compared, coronary echocardiography blood flow parameters were detected, and the correlation between MPO and ACS severity-associated indexes was further analyzed.Results:MPO content in serum of ACS group was significantly higher than those of SAP group and control group; inflammatory factors hs-CRP, IL-6, MCP-1 and LP-PLA2 content in serum were higher than those of SAP group and control group while IL-13 and TGFβ content were lower than those of SAP group and control group; lipid metabolism indexes TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoAI and ApoB content in serum were higher than those of SAP group and control group while HDL-C content was lower than that of SAP group and control group; ultrasonic coronary blood flow parameters SPV, DPV, A, CFVR and CTVⅠ levels were lower than those of SAP group and control group. The serum MPO content in patients with ACS was directly correlated with the content of inflammatory factors and lipid metabolism indexes as well as thelevels of coronary blood flow parameters.Conclusions:Serum MPO content in patients with ACS is directly correlated with the disease severity, and can be used as a reliable index for long-term guide of treatment and prediction of treatment outcome.

  13. Impact of High Calcium Intake from Calcium Carbonate or Dairy on Cardiovascular Function, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Artery Disease Burden in Ossabaw Miniature Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Alyssa K.

    2013-01-01

    Recent secondary analyses have associated supplemental calcium use with increased risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular-related death in healthy, older adults. Subsequent concern over the safety of calcium supplements has spurred a calcium controversy, because calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that is critical for bone health and a mainstay of osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The proposed mechanism by which calcium intake may detriment cardiovascular health is throug...

  14. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, P L da; Coimbra, S; Favarato, D; Albuquerque, C; Mochiduky, R I; Rochitte, C E; Hojaij, E; Gonsalves, C R L; Laurindo, F R

    2014-08-01

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9 ± 7.3 years (means ± SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥ 50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4 ± 362.2 vs 122.0 ± 370.3; Phistory of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9 ± 387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0 ± 305.0 (Pwine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  15. Deep convolutional neural networks for automatic coronary calcium scoring in a screening study with low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Nikolas; Išgum, Ivana; Setio, Arnaud A. A.; de Vos, Bob D.; Ciompi, Francesco; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthjis; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-03-01

    The amount of calcifications in the coronary arteries is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is used to identify subjects at high risk who might benefit from preventive treatment. Routine quantification of coronary calcium scores can complement screening programs using low-dose chest CT, such as lung cancer screening. We present a system for automatic coronary calcium scoring based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The system uses three independently trained CNNs to estimate a bounding box around the heart. In this region of interest, connected components above 130 HU are considered candidates for coronary artery calcifications. To separate them from other high intensity lesions, classification of all extracted voxels is performed by feeding two-dimensional 50 mm × 50 mm patches from three orthogonal planes into three concurrent CNNs. The networks consist of three convolutional layers and one fully-connected layer with 256 neurons. In the experiments, 1028 non-contrast-enhanced and non-ECG-triggered low-dose chest CT scans were used. The network was trained on 797 scans. In the remaining 231 test scans, the method detected on average 194.3 mm3 of 199.8 mm3 coronary calcifications per scan (sensitivity 97.2 %) with an average false-positive volume of 10.3 mm3 . Subjects were assigned to one of five standard cardiovascular risk categories based on the Agatston score. Accuracy of risk category assignment was 84.4 % with a linearly weighted κ of 0.89. The proposed system can perform automatic coronary artery calcium scoring to identify subjects undergoing low-dose chest CT screening who are at risk of cardiovascular events with high accuracy.

  16. Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Intravascular Ultrasound and the Coronary Calcium Score to Predict Adverse Coronary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    myocardial infarctions may occur in patients with minimal or no coronary artery disease on angiography. These observations, as well as post mortem ...diagnosis and treatment guidance for fixed obstructive coronary artery lesions . Contemporary research has shown that a significant proportion of...reveals areas in the coronary artery wall and in atherosclerotic lesions that contain pools of cholesterol and related compounds. These areas are felt to

  17. Dual energy x-ray imaging and scoring of coronary calcium: physics-based digital phantom and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) as assessed with CT calcium score is the best biomarker of coronary artery disease. Dual energy x-ray provides an inexpensive, low radiation-dose alternative. A two shot system (GE Revolution-XRd) is used, raw images are processed with a custom algorithm, and a coronary calcium image (DECCI) is created, similar to the bone image, but optimized for CAC visualization, not lung visualization. In this report, we developed a physicsbased, digital-phantom containing heart, lung, CAC, spine, ribs, pulmonary artery, and adipose elements, examined effects on DECCI, suggested physics-inspired algorithms to improve CAC contrast, and evaluated the correlation between CT calcium scores and a proposed DE calcium score. In simulation experiment, Beam hardening from increasing adipose thickness (2cm to 8cm) reduced Cg by 19% and 27% in 120kVp and 60kVp images, but only reduced Cg by <7% in DECCI. If a pulmonary artery moves or pulsates with blood filling between exposures, it can give rise to a significantly confounding PA signal in DECCI similar in amplitude to CAC. Observations suggest modifications to DECCI processing, which can further improve CAC contrast by a factor of 2 in clinical exams. The DE score had the best correlation with "CT mass score" among three commonly used CT scores. Results suggest that DE x-ray is a promising tool for imaging and scoring CAC, and there still remains opportunity for further DECCI processing improvements.

  18. Low sulfur content hot reducing gas production using calcium oxide desulfurization with water recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; Mcgreal, J.E.

    1982-03-23

    A process and apparatus are claimed for producing a low sulfur content, hot reducing gas by desulfurizing hot reducing gas. This is done in the following manner; by contacting the sulfur-bearing hot reducing gas with a bed of a particulate calcium oxide desulfurizing agent to thereby produce a product gas stream and a byproduct calcium sulfide compositions recovering sulfur from the calcium sulfide composition by contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water at a temperature and corresponding pressure sufficient to maintain steam in the system and to thereby convert the sulfide to calcium hydroxide and hydrogen sulfide and to produce a liquid water stream containing sulfur; combining the sulfur containing water stream with a fresh water stream and recycling this water stream for contacting the calcium sulfide composition. Preferably water vapor produced in the contacting step is condensed and returned to the system in the final stage of contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water.

  19. Coronary artery calcium screening : current status and recommendations from the European Society of Cardiac Radiology and North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Stillman, Arthur E.; Halliburton, Sandra S.; Kalender, Willi A.; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Shaw, Leslee J.; Stanford, William; Taylor, Allen J.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Wexler, Lewis; Raggi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Current guidelines and literature on screening for coronary artery calcium for cardiac risk assessment are reviewed for both general and special populations. It is shown that for both general and special populations a zero score excludes most clinically relevant coronary artery disease. The importan

  20. Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on the resting ECG: An evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Geluk (Christiane); R. Dikkers (Riksta); J.A. Kors (Jan); R.A. Tio (René); R.H.J.A. Slart (Riemer); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); H.L. Hillege (Hans); T.P. Willems (Tineke); P. de Jong (Paul); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); F. Zijlstra (Felix)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as in

  1. Coronary calcium visualization using dual energy chest radiography with sliding organ registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Zhou, Bo; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is the lead biomarker for atherosclerotic heart disease. We are developing a new technique to image CAC using ubiquitously ordered, low cost, low radiation dual energy (DE) chest radiography (using the two-shot GE Revolution XRd system). In this paper, we proposed a novel image processing method (CorCalDx) based on sliding organ registration to create a bone-image-like, coronary calcium image (CCI) that significantly reduces motion artifacts and improves CAC conspicuity. Experiments on images of a physical dynamic cardiac phantom showed that CorCalDx reduced 73% of the motion artifact area as compared to standard DE over a range of heart rates up to 90 bpm and varying x-ray radiation exposures. Residual motion artifact in the phantom CCI is greatly suppressed in gray level and area (0.88% of the heart area). In a Functional Measurement Test (FMT) with 20 clinical exams, image quality improvement of CorCalDx against standard DE (measured from -10 to +10) was significantly suggested (p<0.0001) by three radiologists for cardiac motion artifacts (7.2+/-2.1) and cardiac anatomy visibility (6.1+/-3.5). CorCalDx was always chosen best in every image tested. In preliminary assessments of 12 patients with 18 calcifications, 90% of motion artifact regions in standard DE results were removed in CorCalDx results, with 100% sensitivity of calcification detection, showing great potential of CorCalDx to improve CAC detection and grading in DE chest radiography.

  2. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  3. Usefulness of Regional Distribution of Coronary Artery Calcium to Improve the Prediction of All-Cause Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Tota-Maharaj, R; Joshi, PH; Budoff, MJ.; Whelton, SP; Zeb, I.; Rumberger, JA; Al-Mallah, MH; Blumenthal, RS; Nasir, K; Blaha, MJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Although the traditional Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is a powerful predictor of mortality, it is unknown if the regional distribution of CAC further improves cardiovascular risk prediction. We retrospectively studied 23,058 patients referred for Agatston CAC scoring, of whom 61% had CAC (n= 14,084). CAC distribution was defined as the number of vessels with CAC (0 to 4, including left main). For multivessel CAC, "diffuse" CAC was defined by decreasing per...

  4. Analysis of Calcium Content,Hormones,and Degrading Enzymes in Tomato Pedicel Explants During Calcium-Inhibited Abscission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; LI Tian-lai; QI Ming-fang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the changes of phytohormone concentrations,calcium fraction,and the activities of degrading enzymes during calcium-inhibited and ethyleneglycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)induced abscission of tomato pedicel explants.Added calcium caused an increase in the total calcium content within the abscission zone and produced a corresponding reduction (20%) in pedicel explant abscission.As expected,EGTA treatment produced the opposite effect and resulted in a decrease in the total calcium content,while accelerating abscission of pedicel explants.Hormone analysis revealed that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations in the abscission zone first decreased and then increased before the occurrence of abscission in all treatments,with the greatest effect produced by addition of EGTA.Similarly,abscisic acid (ABA),and gibberellin (GA1+3) concentrations,and ethylene production were elevated in the abscission zone during the first 16 h before abscission when explants imbibed EGTA.With calcium treatment,the concentrations of ABA,ethylene,and GA1+3 also increased in pedicels throughout the first 16 h following exposure,but the increase was slower and less dramatic than with EGTA.Both cellulase and polygalacturonase were induced in the explants during abscission and the activities were also strengthened by treatment with EGTA.Calciumtreated explants produced lower hydrolysing enzyme activities than controls throughout abscission.Calcium played a role of mediating hormone balance and degrading enzymes activities and affected on abscission.

  5. Mild and moderate pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease is associated with increased coronary artery calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budoff M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sion K Roy, Albert Cespedes, Dong Li, Tae-Young Choi, Matthew J BudoffDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Center at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USABackground: It is increasingly evident that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are more likely to die from heart disease than kidney failure. This study evaluated whether pre-dialysis CKD is an independent risk factor for coronary artery calcium (CAC.Methods: A total of 544 consecutive patients who underwent CAC scoring were analyzed. Eleven patients requiring hemodialysis were excluded. Patients were divided into three groups: normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, mild CKD (90 ≥ GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and moderate CKD (60 ≥ GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Continuous and categorical variables were compared using analysis of variance and the χ2 statistic. A multiple logistic regression model was used for detecting the association between total CAC score and GFR. An unadjusted model was used, followed by a second model adjusted for covariates known to be related to CAC. Another multivariable binary logistic model predicting the presence of CAC (>10 was performed and odds of incidence of CAC (>10 were calculated among the three GFR subgroups.Results: After adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD had mean CAC scores 175 points higher than those with the referent normal GFR (P = 0.048, while those with moderate CKD had mean CAC scores 693 points higher than the referent (P < 0.001. After adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD were found to be 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.3–3.7, P = 0.004 and patients with moderate CKD were 6.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval 2.9–14.3, P < 0.001 to have incident CAC compared with the group with normal GFR.Conclusion: Mild and moderate pre-dialysis CKD are independent risk factors for increased mean and incident CAC

  6. Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geluk, Christiane A.; Perik, Patrick J.; Tio, Rene A.; Goette, Marco J.W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Zijlstra, Felix [University Medical Center Groningen, Thoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Dikkers, Riksta; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS by electron beam computed tomography (Agatston score), and exercise testing. Decision-making was based on CCS. When CCS{>=}400, coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. When CCS<10, patients were discharged. Exercise tests were graded as positive, negative or nondiagnostic. The combined endpoint was defined as coronary event or obstructive CAD at CAG. During 12{+-}4 months, CCS{>=}400, 10-399 and <10 were found in 42, 103 and 159 patients and the combined endpoint occurred in 24 (57%), 14 (14%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively. In 22 patients (7%), myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed instead of exercise testing due to the inability to perform an exercise test. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test result was found in 37, 76 and 191 patients, and the combined endpoint occurred in 11 (30%), 15 (20%) and 12 patients (6%), respectively. Receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93) for CCS was superior to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.78) for exercise testing (P<0.0001). In conclusion, measurement of CCS is an appropriate initial screening test in a well-defined low-risk population with suspected CAD. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography for stenosis detection according to calcium score: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, Martijn A.M. den; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Smet, Kristof de [University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess sensitivity and specificity of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for significant stenosis at different degrees of coronary calcification. A literature search was performed including studies describing test characteristics of CCTA for significant stenosis, performed with at least 16-MDCT and according to calcium score (CS). Invasive coronary angiography was the reference standard. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of CCTA by CS categories and CT equipment were calculated. Of 14,121 articles, 51 studies reported on the impact of calcium scoring on diagnostic performance of CCTA and could be included in the systematic review. Twenty-seven of these studies (5,203 participants) were suitable for meta-analysis. On a patient-basis, sensitivity of CCTA for significant stenosis was 95.8, 95.6, 97.6 and 99.0% for CS 0-100, 101-400, 401-1,000 and >1,000 respectively. Specificity was 91.2, 88.2, 50.6 and 84.0% respectively. Specificity of CCTA was significantly lower for CS 401-1,000 due to lack of patients without significant stenosis. Sensitivity and specificity of 16-MDCT were significantly lower compared to more modern CT systems. Even in cases of severe coronary calcification, sensitivity and specificity of CCTA for significant stenosis are high. With 64-MDCT and newer CT systems, a CS cut-off for performing CCTA no longer seems indicated. (orig.)

  8. The Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium in the PROMISE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Ferencik, Maros; Bittner, Daniel O; Lee, Kerry L; Lu, Michael T; Coles, Adrian; Jang, James J; Krishnam, Mayil S; Douglas, Pamela S; Hoffmann, Udo

    2017-08-28

    Background -Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an established predictor of future major adverse atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in asymptomatic individuals. However limited data exist as to how CAC compares to functional testing (FT) in estimating prognosis in symptomatic patients. Methods -In the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial, patients with stable chest pain (or dyspnea) and intermediate pre-test probability for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) were randomized to FT (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress, or stress echocardiography) or anatomic testing. We evaluated those who underwent CAC testing as part of the anatomic evaluation (n=4,209) and compared to results of FT (n=4,602). We stratified CAC and FT results as normal or mildly, moderately or severely abnormal (for CAC: 0, 1-99 Agatston Score [AS], 100-400 AS and >400 AS, respectively; for FT: normal, mild=late positive treadmill, moderate=early positive treadmill or single-vessel ischemia and severe=large ischemic region abnormality). The primary endpoint was all-cause death, myocardial infarction or unstable angina hospitalization over a median follow-up of 26.1 months. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and C-statistic to determine predictive and discriminatory value. Results - Overall, the distribution of normal or mildly, moderately or severely abnormal test results was significantly different between FT and CAC (FT = normal 3588 [78.0%], mild 432 [9.4%], moderate 217 [4.7%], severe 365 [7.9%]; CAC = normal 1,457 [34.6%], mild 1340 [31.8%], moderate 772 [18.3%], severe 640 [15.2%], p 0) whereas less than half of events occurred in patients with mild, moderate or severely abnormal FT (n=57/132; 43%) (pfair for both CAC and FT (c-statistic, 0.67 vs. 0.64). Coronary computed tomographic angiography provided significantly better prognostic information compared to FT and CAC testing (C-index: 0.72). Conclusion

  9. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  10. An automated multi-modal object analysis approach to coronary calcium scoring of adaptive heart isolated MSCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. This can be challenging for a human observer as it is difficult to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. The inclusion or exclusion of false positive or true positive calcified plaques respectively will alter the patient calcium score incorrectly, thus leading to the possibility of incorrect treatment prescription. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the Volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the requirement and

  11. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  12. Fatty Liver, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Relationships With Increase in Coronary Artery Calcium Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, Eun Sun; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance (IR), and obesity frequently coexist with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is uncertain whether these risk factors for vascular disease contribute to a change in atherosclerosis over time, independently of DM status. We hypothesized that the combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity would be associated with an increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) score over time, independently of DM status, other cardiovascular risk factors, and medications. Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort of 2175 people. The outcome was increase in cardiac computed tomography CAC score between baseline and follow-up. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥75th percentile and fatty liver by ultrasound. In 592 (27.2%) participants, CAC score increased from baseline (mean ± SD; mean age at baseline, 44.8 ± 5.5 years); and in 1583 subjects, CAC did not change or improved during follow-up (mean age, 41.6 ± 5.6 years). Diabetes mellitus, HOMA-IR, fatty liver, and obesity prevalence were all higher (all P obesity, and fatty liver was independently associated with increase in CAC score over time (hazard ratio: 2.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.50-4.03). The combination of fatty liver, IR, and obesity is associated with progression of atherosclerosis over time independently of DM, cardiovascular risk factors, and all medications for cardiovascular disease and DM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improving accuracy in coronary lumen segmentation via explicit calcium exclusion, learning-based ray detection and surface optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauer, Felix; Zhang, Jingdan; Zheng, Yefeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Kelm, B. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Invasive cardiac angiography (catheterization) is still the standard in clinical practice for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) but it involves a high amount of risk and cost. New generations of CT scanners can acquire high-quality images of coronary arteries which allow for an accurate identification and delineation of stenoses. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to coronary blood flow using geometric lumen models extracted from CT angiography (CTA). The computed pressure drop at stenoses proved to be indicative for ischemia-causing lesions, leading to non-invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CTA. Since the diagnostic value of non-invasive procedures for diagnosing CAD relies on an accurate extraction of the lumen, a precise segmentation of the coronary arteries is crucial. As manual segmentation is tedious, time-consuming and subjective, automatic procedures are desirable. We present a novel fully-automatic method to accurately segment the lumen of coronary arteries in the presence of calcified and non-calcified plaque. Our segmentation framework is based on three main steps: boundary detection, calcium exclusion and surface optimization. A learning-based boundary detector enables a robust lumen contour detection via dense ray-casting. The exclusion of calcified plaque is assured through a novel calcium exclusion technique which allows us to accurately capture stenoses of diseased arteries. The boundary detection results are incorporated into a closed set formulation whose minimization yields an optimized lumen surface. On standardized tests with clinical data, a segmentation accuracy is achieved which is comparable to clinical experts and superior to current automatic methods.

  14. A fully automated multi-modal computer aided diagnosis approach to coronary calcium scoring of MSCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-03-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. However, it can be difficult for a human observer to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the feasibility and requirement for an automated scoring method to reduce the subjectivity and reproducibility error inherent with manual clinical calcium scoring.

  15. Zero Calcium Score as a Filter for Further Testing in Patients Admitted to the Coronary Care Unit with Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Esteves, Fábio P; Carvalhal, Manuela; Souza, Thiago Menezes Barbosa de; Sá, Nicole de; Correia, Vitor Calixto de Almeida; Alexandre, Felipe Kalil Beirão; Lopes, Fernanda; Ferreira, Felipe; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2017-06-12

    The accuracy of zero coronary calcium score as a filter in patients with chest pain has been demonstrated at the emergency room and outpatient clinics, populations with low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). To test the gatekeeping role of zero calcium score in patients with chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU), where the pretest probability of CAD is higher than that of other populations. Patients underwent computed tomography for calcium scoring, and obstructive CAD was defined by a minimum 70% stenosis on invasive angiography. In 146 patients studied, the prevalence of CAD was 41%. A zero calcium score was present in 35% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of zero calcium score yielded a negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. After logistic regression adjustment for pretest probability, zero calcium score was independently associated with lower odds of CAD (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.04-0.36), increasing the area under the ROC curve of the clinical model from 0.76 to 0.82 (p = 0.006). Zero calcium score provided a net reclassification improvement of 0.20 (p = 0.0018) over the clinical model when using a pretest probability threshold of 10% for discharging without further testing. In patients with pretest probability valores preditivos negativos do escore zero. Em 146 pacientes estudados, a prevalência de DAC foi 41% e o escore de cálcio zero foi demonstrado em 35% deles. A sensibilidade e a especificidade para escore de cálcio zero resultaram numa razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,16. Após ajuste com um escore clínico com a regressão logística para a probabilidade pré-teste, o escore de cálcio zero foi preditor independente associado a baixa probabilidade de DAC (OR = 0,12, IC95% = 0,04-0,36), aumentando a área abaixo da curva ROC do modelo clínico de 0,76 para 0,82 (p = 0,006). Considerando a probabilidade de DAC valor preditivo negativo de 90%. Em pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste valor preditivo negativo foi

  16. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. da Luz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0, 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01. However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001, while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02. Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  17. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, P.L. da; Coimbra, S.; Favarato, D.; Albuquerque, C. [Divisão de Cardiologia Clínica, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mochiduky, R.I.; Rochitte, C.E. [Divisão de Radiologia, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hojaij, E. [Serviço de Psicologia, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonsalves, C.R.L. [Serviço Nutricional, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laurindo, F.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Vascular, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-04

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  18. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  19. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  20. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  1. Serum inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule content in patients with coronary heart disease and their value for disease severity diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hu; Li-juan Fu; Jiang-Qiao Hu; Peng Liang; Lin Pi; Gui-Hua Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule content in patients with coronary heart disease and analyze their value for disease severity diagnosis.Methods:A total of 113 patients with coronary heart disease and 107 healthy subjects were included in the study and further divided into mild group (n=40), moderate group (n=52) and severe group (n=21) according to the severity of coronary heart disease. Serum inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule content of all subjects were detected, and the value of inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule content for judging the severity of coronary heart disease was further analyzed.Results:Serum CRP, TNF-α and YKL-40 levels of coronary heart disease group were higher than those of healthy control group while IL-35 level was lower than that of healthy control group (P<0.05); serum E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels of coronary heart disease group were higher than those of healthy control group (P<0.05); serum CRP, TNF-α, YKL-40, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels of mild group were lower than those of moderate group and severe group, IL-35 level was higher than those of moderate group and severe group (P<0.05), and with the aggravation of coronary heart disease, CRP, TNF-α, YKL-40, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels increased while IL-35 level decreased (P<0.05).Conclusions: Serum inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule content change significantly in patients with coronary heart disease, are directly correlated with the severity of coronary heart disease and can be used as the reliable means to assess the condition and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease.

  2. Calcium and phosphorus contents of body parts of some domestic animals used as meat source in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith U Ebeledike; Godwin IC Nwokedi; Okechukwu O Ndu; Festus BC Okoye; Izuchukwu S Ochiogu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the calcium and phosphorus contents of four domestic animals used as sources of meat in Nigeria. Methods:The calcium contents of the body parts of the animals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. Their phosphorus contents were determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue method. Results:The calcium and phosphorus contents were significantly higher in the bone samples than in the other animal parts investigated (P<0.05). The calcium contents of all the edible parts were higher in chicken than in the other animals. High calcium and phosphorus contents were detected in the faeces of chicken and goat, and that of cattle and goat, respectively. Low calcium and phosphorus contents were detected in the urine samples. Calcium÷phosphorus ratios calculated for the bones of chicken, cattle and goat were satisfactory. Conclusions:In conclusion, calcium and phosphorus contents of the animal parts vary significantly and their relative contents may be related to the animal's diet. Chicken parts may be the preferred dietary source of these minerals. This study highlights the need for routine investigation of the mineral contents of food, which is necessary for proper nutritional guidelines.

  3. Automatic coronary artery calcium scoring in cardiac CT angiography using paired convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M; Leiner, Tim; de Vos, Bob D; van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Viergever, Max A; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-12-01

    The amount of coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events. CAC is clinically quantified in cardiac calcium scoring CT (CSCT), but it has been shown that cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) may also be used for this purpose. We present a method for automatic CAC quantification in CCTA. This method uses supervised learning to directly identify and quantify CAC without a need for coronary artery extraction commonly used in existing methods. The study included cardiac CT exams of 250 patients for whom both a CCTA and a CSCT scan were available. To restrict the volume-of-interest for analysis, a bounding box around the heart is automatically determined. The bounding box detection algorithm employs a combination of three ConvNets, where each detects the heart in a different orthogonal plane (axial, sagittal, coronal). These ConvNets were trained using 50 cardiac CT exams. In the remaining 200 exams, a reference standard for CAC was defined in CSCT and CCTA. Out of these, 100 CCTA scans were used for training, and the remaining 100 for evaluation of a voxel classification method for CAC identification. The method uses ConvPairs, pairs of convolutional neural networks (ConvNets). The first ConvNet in a pair identifies voxels likely to be CAC, thereby discarding the majority of non-CAC-like voxels such as lung and fatty tissue. The identified CAC-like voxels are further classified by the second ConvNet in the pair, which distinguishes between CAC and CAC-like negatives. Given the different task of each ConvNet, they share their architecture, but not their weights. Input patches are either 2.5D or 3D. The ConvNets are purely convolutional, i.e. no pooling layers are present and fully connected layers are implemented as convolutions, thereby allowing efficient voxel classification. The performance of individual 2.5D and 3D ConvPairs with input sizes of 15 and 25 voxels, as well as the performance of ensembles of these Conv

  4. Very high coronary artery calcium score with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is associated with a moderate incidence of severe coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuoness, Salem A.; Goha, Ahmed M.; Romsa, Jonathan G.; Akincioglu, Cigdem; Warrington, James C.; Datta, Sudip; Gambhir, Sanjay; Urbain, Jean-Luc C.; Vezina, William C. [London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London, ON (Canada); Massel, David R. [London Health Sciences Centre, Division of Cardiology, London, ON (Canada); Martell, Rafael [Private Practice, London, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has limitations in the presence of balanced multivessel disease (MVD) and left main (LM) coronary artery disease, occasionally resulting in false-normal results despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in the presence of a very high Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (>1,000) in stable symptomatic patients without known CAD but with normal MPI results. A total of 2,659 prospectively acquired consecutive patients were referred for MPI and evaluation of CAC score by CT. Of this patient population, 8 % (222/2,659) had ischemia without myocardial infarction (MI) on MPI and 11 % (298/2,659) had abnormal MPI (MI and/or ischemia). On presentation 1 % of the patients (26/2,659) were symptomatic, had a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI results. The definition of normal MPI was strict and included a normal hemodynamic response without ischemic ECG changes and normal imaging, particularly absence of transient ischemic dilation. All of these 26 patients with a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI findings underwent cardiac catheterization. Of these 26 patients, 58 % (15/26) had severe disease (≥70 % stenosis) leading to revascularization. Of this group, 47 % (7/15) underwent percutaneous intervention, and 53 % (8/15) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. All of these 15 patients had either MVD (14/15) or LM coronary artery disease (1/15), and represented 0.6 % (15/2,659) of all referred patients (95 % CI 0.3 - 0.9 %). The majority, 90 % (8/9), had severe CAD with typical chest pain. A very high CAC score (>1,000) with normal MPI in a small subset of symptomatically stable patients was associated with a moderate incidence of severe CAD (95 % CI 37 - 77 %). Larger studies and/or a meta-analysis of small studies are needed to more precisely estimate the incidence of CAD in this population. This study also supports

  5. Prediction of coronary artery calcium progression by FDG uptake of large arteries in asymptomatic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Park, Ki Seong; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gwang-ju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Jabin, Zeenat; Kim, Young Jae; Jeong, Geum-Cheol; Song, Minchul; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyun Ju [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of the large arteries can predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in asymptomatic individuals. Ninety-six asymptomatic individuals who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and CAC scoring on the same day for health screening and follow-up CAC scoring ≥1 year after baseline studies (mean 4.3 years) were included. Vascular FDG uptake was measured and corrected for blood pool activity to obtain peak and average target-to-blood pool ratios (TBRpeak and TBRavg, respectively) for the carotid arteries, and ascending and abdominal aorta. CAC scores at baseline and follow-up of each individual were measured and absolute CAC change (ΔCAC), annual CAC change (ΔCAC/year), and annual CAC change rate (ΔCAC%/year) were calculated. CAC progression was defined as ΔCAC >0 for individuals with negative baseline CAC; ΔCAC/year ≥10 for those with baseline CAC of 0

  6. Phytate, calcium, iron, and zinc contents and their molar ratios in foods commonly consumed in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Guansheng; Jin, Ying; Piao, Jianhua; Kok, F.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Jacobsen, E.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 60 food samples commonly consumed in China were analyzed for phytate using the anion-exchange method and for calcium, iron, and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The foods analyzed included those based on cereal grains and soybean. Phytate contents expressed on a wet weight

  7. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in

  8. Phytate, calcium, iron, and zinc contents and their molar ratios in foods commonly consumed in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Guansheng; Jin, Ying; Piao, Jianhua; Kok, F.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Jacobsen, E.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 60 food samples commonly consumed in China were analyzed for phytate using the anion-exchange method and for calcium, iron, and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The foods analyzed included those based on cereal grains and soybean. Phytate contents expressed on a wet weight

  9. CT coronary angiography is feasible for the assessment of coronary artery disease in chronic dialysis patients, despite high average calcium scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály K de Bie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD is common in asymptomatic dialysis patients. Identifying these high risk patients is warranted and may improve the prognosis of this vulnerable patient group. Routine catheterization of incident dialysis patients has been proposed, but is considered too invasive. CT-angiography may therefore be more appropriate. However, extensive coronary calcification, often present in this patient group, might hamper adequate lumen evaluation. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of CT-angiography in this patient group. METHODS: For this analysis all patients currently participating in the ICD2 trial (ISRCTN20479861, with no history of PCI or CABG were included. The major epicardial vessels were evaluated on a segment basis (segment 1-3, 5-8, 11 and 13 by a team consisting of an interventional and an imaging specialist. Segments were scored as not significant, significant and not interpretable. RESULTS: A total of 70 dialysis patients, with a mean age of 66±8 yrs and predominantly male (70% were included. The median calcium score was 623 [79, 1619]. Over 90% of the analyzed segments were considered interpretable. The incidence of significant CAD on CT was 43% and was associated with cardiovascular events during follow-up. The incidence of cardiovascular events after 2-years follow-up: 36% vs. 0% in patients with no significant CAD (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Despite the high calcium scores CT-angiography is feasible for the evaluation of the extent of CAD in dialysis patients. Moreover the presence of significant CAD on CT was associated with events during follow-up.

  10. Relation of Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Risk of Cancer (from a Danish Population-Based Follow-up Study in Patients Who Underwent Cardiac Computed Tomography)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Nicklas; Christesen, Amanda M.S.; Mortensen, Leif S.

    2017-01-01

    of 28,549 cancer-free patients identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for measurement of CACS for suspected coronary artery disease. The outcome was an incident cancer diagnosis: total, tobacco-related, lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal......Evidence of a causal link between atherosclerosis and cancer is sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we examined the association between extent of coronary atherosclerosis determined by coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and risk of cancer. We conducted a historical population-based cohort study...

  11. [ANALYSIS OF ARACHIDONIC ACID RELATIVE CONTENT CHANGES IN ERYTHROCYTES AND PLATELETS PHOSPHOLIPIDS MEMBRANES FEATURES IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizogub, V G; Zavalska, T V; Merkulova, I O; Bryuzgina, T S

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes and platelets phospholipid membranes fatty acid spectrum was detected in coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation patients and in patients with coronary heart disease without atrial fibrillation. 87 patients were investigated. Significant decrease in the arachidonic acid relative content in coronary heart disease patients compared with healthy individuals was related. As well as a significant decrease in the arachidonic acid relative content in coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation patients compared with coronary heart disease patients without atrial fibrillation was related too. These dates may indicate that decreasing relative content arachidonic acid can be possible pathogenetic link in the development of arrhythmias.

  12. Economic analysis of the use of coronary calcium scoring as an alternative to stress ECG in the non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Vivek [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Brighton (United Kingdom); Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Eric T.M. [Conquest Hospital, Hastings (United Kingdom); Holmberg, Stephen R.M.; Miles, Ken [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    To conduct an economic analysis (EA) of coronary calcium scoring (CCS) using a 0 score, as alternative to stress electrocardiography (sECG) in diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD). A decision tree was constructed to compare four strategies for investigation of suspected CAD previously assessed in the formulation of clinical guidelines for the United Kingdom (UK) to two new strategies incorporating CCS. Sensitivity (96%; 95% CI 95.4-96.4%) and specificity (40%; 95% CI 38.7-41.4%) values for CCS were derived from a meta-analysis of 10,760 patients. Other input variables were obtained from a previous EA and average prices for hospital procedures in the UK. A threshold of pound 30,000/Quality-adjusted Life Year (QALY) was considered cost-effective. Using net monetary benefit calculations, CCS-based strategies were found to be cost-effective compared to sECG equivalents at all assessed prevalence of CAD. Using CCS prior to myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and catheter angiography (CA) was found to be cost-effective at pre-test probabilities (PTP) below 30%. Adoption of CCS as an alternative to sECG in investigating suspected stable angina in low PTP population (<30%) would be cost-effective. In patients with PTP of CAD >30%, proceeding to MPS or CA would be more cost-effective than performing either CCS or sECG. (orig.)

  13. High-calcium diet modulates effects of long-term prolactin exposure on the cortical bone calcium content in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Tudpor, Kukiat; Thongchote, Kanogwun; Saengamnart, Wasana; Puntheeranurak, Supaporn; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2007-02-01

    High physiological prolactin induced positive calcium balance by stimulating intestinal calcium absorption, reducing renal calcium excretion, and increasing bone calcium deposition in female rats. Although prolactin-induced increase in trabecular bone calcium deposition was absent after ovariectomy, its effects on cortical bones were still controversial. The present investigation, therefore, aimed to study the effect of in vivo long-term high physiological prolactin induced by either anterior pituitary (AP) transplantation or 2.5 mg/kg prolactin injection on cortical bones in ovariectomized rats. Since the presence of prolactin receptors (PRLR) in different bones of normal adult rats has not been reported, we first determined mRNA expression of both short- and long-form PRLRs at the cortical sites (tibia and femur) and trabecular sites (calvaria and vertebrae) by using the RT-PCR. Our results showed the mRNA expression of both PRLR isoforms with predominant long form at all sites. However, high prolactin levels induced by AP transplantation in normal rats did not have any effect on the femoral bone mineral density or bone mineral content. By using (45)Ca kinetic study, 2.5 mg/kg prolactin did not alter bone formation, bone resorption, calcium deposition, and total calcium content in tibia and femur of adult ovariectomized rats. AP transplantation also had no effect on the cortical total calcium content in adult ovariectomized rats. Because previous work showed that the effects of prolactin were age dependent and could be modulated by high-calcium diet, interactions between prolactin and these two parameters were investigated. The results demonstrated that 2.0% wt/wt high-calcium diet significantly increased the tibial total calcium content in 9-wk-old young AP-grafted ovariectomized rats but decreased the tibial total calcium content in 22-wk-old adult rats. As for the vertebrae, the total calcium contents in both young and adult rats were not changed by high-calcium

  14. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  15. Chronic myocardial infarction detection and characterization during coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

    2012-01-05

    Hypoenhanced regions on multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography correlate with myocardial hyperperfusion. In addition to a limited capillary density, chronic myocardial infarction (MI) commonly contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue.

  16. Coronary calcium screening with dual-source CT: reliability of ungated, high-pitch chest CT in comparison with dedicated calcium-scoring CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, Antoine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valerie [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics (EA 2694), Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Centre Hospitalier General de Tourcoing, Department of Radiology, Tourcoing (France)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate the reliability of ungated, high-pitch dual-source CT for coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening. One hundred and eighty-five smokers underwent a dual-source CT examination with acquisition of two sets of images during the same session: (a) ungated, high-pitch and high-temporal resolution acquisition over the entire thorax (i.e., chest CT); (b) prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition over the cardiac cavities (i.e., cardiac CT). Sensitivity and specificity of chest CT for detecting positive CAC scores were 96.4 % and 100 %, respectively. There was excellent inter-technique agreement for determining the quantitative CAC score (ICC = 0.986). The mean difference between the two techniques was 11.27, representing 1.81 % of the average of the two techniques. The inter-technique agreement for categorizing patients into the four ranks of severity was excellent (weighted kappa = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.93-0.98). The inter-technique differences for quantitative CAC scores did not correlate with BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.575) or heart rate (r = -0.06, p = 0.95); 87.2 % of them were explained by differences at the level of the right coronary artery (RCA: 0.8718; LAD: 0.1008; LCx: 0.0139; LM: 0.0136). Ungated, high-pitch dual-source CT is a reliable imaging mode for CAC screening in the conditions of routine chest CT examinations. (orig.)

  17. Risk stratification of non-contrast CT beyond the coronary calcium scan

    OpenAIRE

    Madaj, Paul; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a well-known marker for coronary artery disease and has important prognostic implications. CAC is able to provide clinicians with a reliable source of information related to cardiovascular atherosclerosis, which carries incremental information beyond Framingham risk. However, non-contrast scans of the heart provide additional information beyond the Agatston score. These studies are also able to measure various sources of fat, including intrathoracic (eg,...

  18. Physiological mechanisms drive differing foliar calcium content in ferns and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Amatangelo, Kathryn L

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence points to ferns containing significantly lower contents of foliar calcium and other cations than angiosperms. This is especially true of more ancient 'non-polypod' fern lineages, which predate the diversification of angiosperms. Calcium is an important plant nutrient, the lack of which can potentially slow plant growth and litter decomposition, and alter soil invertebrate communities. The physiological mechanisms limiting foliar calcium (Ca) content in ferns are unknown. While there is a lot we do not know about Ca uptake and transport in plants, three physiological processes are likely to be important. We measured transpiration rate, cation exchange capacity, and leaching loss to determine which process most strongly regulates foliar Ca content in a range of fern and co-occurring understory angiosperm species from a montane Hawaiian rainforest. We found higher instantaneous and lifetime (corrected for leaf lifespan) transpiration rates in angiosperms relative to ferns. Ferns preferentially incorporated Ca into leaves relative to strontium, which suggests that root or stem cation exchange capacity differs between ferns and angiosperms, potentially affecting calcium transport in plants. There were no differences in foliar Ca leaching loss between groups. Among the physiological mechanisms measured, foliar Ca was most strongly correlated with leaf-level transpiration rate and leaf lifespan. This suggests that inter-specific differences in a leaf's lifetime transpiration may play a significant role in determining plant nutrition.

  19. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seok Jong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  20. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  1. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While animal studies found vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, human data are limited. Using a case-cohort design, we determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Serum phylloquinone (v...

  2. The prospective association of Chlamydia pneumoniae and four otherpathogens with development of coronary artery calcium: TheMulti-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Laek (Babray); M. Szklo (Moyses); R.L. McClelland (Robyn); J. Ding (Jinhui); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D.A. Bluemke (David); R.P. Tracy (Russell); K. Matsushita (Kunihiro)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous basic and cross-sectional studies obtained conflicting results regarding the association of pathogens with coronary artery calcium (CAC). The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate this association in a population-based cohort. Methods: We examined 5744

  3. The prospective association of Chlamydia pneumoniae and four otherpathogens with development of coronary artery calcium: TheMulti-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Laek (Babray); M. Szklo (Moyses); R.L. McClelland (Robyn); J. Ding (Jinhui); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D.A. Bluemke (David); R.P. Tracy (Russell); K. Matsushita (Kunihiro)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous basic and cross-sectional studies obtained conflicting results regarding the association of pathogens with coronary artery calcium (CAC). The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate this association in a population-based cohort. Methods: We examined 5744 indivi

  4. Incremental prognostic utility of coronary CT angiography for asymptomatic patients based upon extent and severity of coronary artery calcium: results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Iksung; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Shin, Sanghoon; Sung, Ji Min; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Heo, Ran; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Callister, Tracy Q.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Dunning, Allison M.; DeLago, Augustin; Villines, Todd C.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Leipsic, Jonathon; Shaw, Leslee J.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Prior evidence observed no predictive utility of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) over the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and the Framingham risk score (FRS), among asymptomatic individuals. Whether the prognostic value of CCTA differs for asymptomatic patients, when stratified by CACS severity, remains unknown. Methods and results From a 12-centre, 6-country observational registry, 3217 asymptomatic individuals without known coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS and CCTA. Individuals were categorized by CACS as: 0–10, 11–100, 101–400, 401–1000, >1000. For CCTA analysis, the number of obstructive vessels—as defined by the per-patient presence of a ≥50% luminal stenosis—was used to grade the extent and severity of CAD. The incremental prognostic value of CCTA over and above FRS was measured by the likelihood ratio (LR) χ2, C-statistic, and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) for prediction, discrimination, and reclassification of all-cause mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. During a median follow-up of 24 months (25th–75th percentile, 17–30 months), there were 58 composite end-points. The incremental value of CCTA over FRS was demonstrated in individuals with CACS >100 (LRχ2, 25.34; increment in C-statistic, 0.24; NRI, 0.62, all P 0.05). For subgroups with CACS >100, the utility of CCTA for predicting the study end-point was evident among individuals whose CACS ranged from 101 to 400; the observed predictive benefit attenuated with increasing CACS. Conclusion Coronary CT angiography provides incremental prognostic utility for prediction of mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction for asymptomatic individuals with moderately high CACS, but not for lower or higher CACS. PMID:25205531

  5. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery calcium testing for coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk prediction to guide statin allocation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Horne, Aaron; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Sibley, Christopher; Polak, Joseph F; Frick, Kevin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) showed that the addition of coronary artery calcium (CAC) to traditional risk factors improves risk classification, particularly in intermediate risk asymptomatic patients with LDL cholesterol levels statin. Treatment based on CAC was compared to (1) treatment of all intermediate-risk patients, and (2) treatment on the basis of United States guidelines. We developed a Markov model of first coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. We modeled statin treatment in intermediate risk patients with CAC≥1 and CAC≥100, with different intensities of statins based on the CAC score. We compared these CAC-based treatment strategies to a "treat all" strategy and to treatment according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. Clinical and economic outcomes were modeled over both five- and ten-year time horizons. Outcomes consisted of CHD and CVD events and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Sensitivity analyses considered the effect of higher event rates, different CAC and statin costs, indirect costs, and re-scanning patients with incidentalomas. We project that it is both cost-saving and more effective to scan intermediate-risk patients for CAC and to treat those with CAC≥1, compared to treatment based on established risk-assessment guidelines. Treating patients with CAC≥100 is also preferred to existing guidelines when we account for statin side effects and the disutility of statin use. Compared to the alternatives we assessed, CAC testing is both effective and cost saving as a risk-stratification tool, particularly if there are adverse effects of long-term statin use. CAC may enable providers to better tailor preventive therapy to patients' risks of CVD.

  6. Variability in DPA and calcium content in the spores of Clostridium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jamroskovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spores of a number of clostridial species, and their resistance to thermal treatment is a major concern for the food industry. Spore resistance to wet heat is related to the level of spore hydration, which is inversely correlated with the content of calcium and dipicolinic acid (DPA in the spore core. It is widely believed that the accumulation of DPA and calcium in the spore core is a fundamental component of the sporulation process for all endospore forming species. We have noticed heterogeneity in the heat resistance capacity and overall DPA/calcium content among the spores of several species belonging to Clostridium sensu stricto group: two C. acetobutylicum strains (DSM 792 and 1731, two C. beijerinckii strains (DSM 791 and NCIMB 8052, and a C. collagenovorans strain (DSM 3089. A C. beijerinckii strain (DSM 791 and a C. acetobutylicum strain (DSM 792 display low Ca and DPA levels. In addition, these two species, with the lowest average Ca/DPA content amongst the strains considered, also exhibit minimal heat resistance. There appears to be no correlation between the Ca/DPA content and the phylogenetic distribution of the C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii species based either on the 16S rRNA or the spoVA gene. This finding suggests that a subset of Clostridium sensu stricto species produce spores with low resistance to wet heat. Additionally, analysis of individual spores using STEM-EDS and STXM revealed that DPA and calcium levels can also vary amongst individual spores in a single spore population.

  7. Registered nurses views of caring in coronary care--a deductive and inductive content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ewa K; Sjöström-Strand, Annica; Willman, Ania; Borglin, Gunilla

    2015-12-01

    To extend nurses' descriptions of how they understood caring, as reflected in the findings of an earlier study (i.e. the hierarchical outcome space) and to gain additional understandings and perspectives of nurses' views of caring in relation to a coronary care patient case. Scientific literature from the 1970s-1990s contains descriptions of caring in nursing. In contrast, the contemporary literature on this topic--particularly in the context of coronary care--is very sparse, and the few studies that do contain descriptions rarely do so from the perspective of nurses. Qualitative descriptive study. Twenty-one nurses were interviewed using the stimulated recall interview technique. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive qualitative content analysis. The results of the iterative and integrated content analysis showed that the data mainly reproduced the content of the hierarchical outcome space describing how nurses could understand caring; however, in the outcome space, the relationship broke up (i.e. flipped). The nurses' views of caring could now also be understood as: person-centredness 'lurking' in the shadows; limited 'potential' for safeguarding patients' best interests; counselling as virtually the 'only' nursing intervention; and caring preceded by the 'almighty' context. Their views offered alternative and, at times, contrasting perspectives of caring, thereby adding to our understanding of it. Caring was described as operating somewhere between the nurses caring values and the contextual conditions in which caring occurred. This challenged their ability to sustain caring in accordance with their values and the patients' preferences. To ensure that the essentials of caring are met at all times, nurses need to plan and deliver caring in a systematic way. The use of systematic structures in caring, as the nursing process, can help nurses to work in a person-centred way, while sustaining their professional values. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography over coronary artery calcium score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic diabetic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James K.; Labounty, Troy M.; Gomez, Millie J.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M.; Chow, Benjamin; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jorg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Berman, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is useful for identification of symptomatic diabetic individuals at heightened risk for death. Whether CCTA-detected CAD enables improved risk assessment of asymptomatic diabetic individuals beyond clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) remains unexplored. Methods From a prospective 12-center international registry of 27,125 individuals undergoing CCTA, we identified 400 asymptomatic diabetic individuals without known CAD. Coronary stenosis by CCTA was graded as 0%, 1–49%, 50–69%, and ≥70%. CAD was judged on a per-patient, per-vessel and per-segment basis as maximal stenosis severity, number of vessels with ≥50% stenosis, and coronary segments weighted for stenosis severity (segment stenosis score), respectively. We assessed major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) – inclusive of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and late target vessel revascularization ≥90 days (REV) – and evaluated the incremental utility of CCTA for risk prediction, discrimination and reclassification. Results Mean age was 60.4 ± 9.9 years; 65.0% were male. At a mean follow-up 2.4 ± 1.1 years, 33 MACE occurred (13 deaths, 8 MI, 12 REV) [8.25%; annualized rate 3.4%]. By univariate analysis, per-patient maximal stenosis [hazards ratio (HR) 2.24 per stenosis grade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–3.10, p < 0.001], increasing numbers of obstructive vessels (HR 2.30 per vessel, 95% CI 1.75–3.03, p < 0.001) and segment stenosis score (HR 1.14 per segment, 95% CI 1.09–1.19, p < 0.001) were associated with increased MACE. After adjustment for CAD risk factors and CACS, maximal stenosis (HR 1.80 per grade, 95% CI 1.18–2.75, p = 0.006), number of obstructive vessels (HR 1.85 per vessel, 95% CI 1.29–2.65, p < 0.001) and segment stenosis score (HR 1.11 per segment, 95% CI 1.05–1.18, p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of

  9. Achieving consistent image quality with dose optimization in 64-row multidetector computed tomography prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zilai; Pang, Lifang; Li, Jianying; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Wenjie; Ding, Bei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin; Yao, Weiwu

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of a body mass index (BMI) based tube current (mA) selection method for obtaining consistent image quality with dose optimization in MDCT prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring. A formula for selecting mA to achieve desired image quality based on patient BMI was established using a control group (A) of 200 MDCT cardiac patients with a standard scan protocol. One hundred patients in Group B were scanned with this BMI-dependent mA for achieving a desired noise level of 18 HU at 2.5 mm slice thickness. The CTDIvol and image noise on the ascending aorta for the two groups were recorded. Two experienced radiologists quantitatively evaluated the image quality using scores of 1-4 with 4 being the highest. The image quality scores had no statistical difference (P = 0.71) at 3.89 ± 0.32, 3.87 ± 0.34, respectively, for groups A and B of similar BMI. The image noise in Group A had linear relationship with BMI. The image noise in Group B using BMI-dependent mA was independent of BMI with average value of 17.9 HU and smaller deviations for the noise values than in Group A (2.0 vs. 2.9 HU). There was a 35% dose reduction with BMI-dependent mA selection method on average with the lowest effective dose being only 0.35 mSv for patient with BMI of 18.3. A quantitative BMI-based mA selection method in MDCT prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring has been proposed to obtain a desired and consistent image quality and provide dose optimization across patient population.

  10. Automatic coronary calcium scoring in cardiac CT angiography using convolutional neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A.; Isgum, I

    2015-01-01

    The amount of coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Non-contrast enhanced cardiac CT is considered a reference for quantification of CAC. Recently, it has been shown that CAC may be quantified in cardiac CT angiography (CCTA). We present

  11. Discrepancy between coronary artery calcium score and HeartScore in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Sand, Niels Peter; Nørgaard, Bjarne;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent and incremental risk marker. This marker has previously not been compared to the HeartScore risk model. Design: A random sample of 1825 citizens (men and women, 50 or 60 years of age) was invited for screening. Methods: Using...

  12. Effect of Drug Loading Method on Drug Content and Drug Release from Calcium Pectinate Gel Beads

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Drug-loaded calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads were prepared by either mixing, absorption, or swelling method. The effects of drug loading method as well as the drug loading factors (i.e., drug concentration, soaking time in drug solution, type of solvent) on drug content and drug release were investigated. The amount of drug uptake (i.e., drug content) into CaPG beads increased as the initial drug concentration increased and varied depending on the loading method. The in vitro release studie...

  13. [Calcium absorption by the rat from various milks in relation to their total phosphorus and lactose contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Fournier, A

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of calcium corresponds to a strictly determined mechanism inhibited by phosphates and activited by carbohydrates. We investigate in what extent the absorption of milk calcium from various species has the same proceeding. 4 months old rats are given orally solutions of CaCl2 alone or in combination with sodium dihydrogen phosphate or lactose or these both compounds. We compare calcium absorption of these solutions to that of milk from woman, cow or sow, or to dilutions of these two latter milks. All these fluids are dosed so that they correspond each other by their respective content in total calcium, total phosphorus and lactose. Each solution contains 45Ca. Blood samples 1,30, 4, 6 and 24 hours after ingestion allow establishing the variations of plasma radioactivity. Rats are sacrified after 24 hours. In certain cases, samples from digestive tube contents and feces provide a coefficient of calcium absorption. The osseous retention is obtained from femur radioactivity. In breif, we may consider that milks from cow and sow provide calcium the absorption of which is settled after their respective content of total phosphorus and lactose. Opposed effects of these inhibitors and activators of calcium absorption compensate so that calcium from these milks is just a little better utilized by adult rat than calcium from an isocalcic solution of CaCl2. Calcium from woman milk, rich in carbohydrates, poor in total phosphorus is better absorbed than that from the two latters, however less than we might expect from its high lactose content. We may wonder that calcium utilization from cow milk is as moderate as that of a solution of CaCl2. But skeleton mineralization which may be fulfilled by milk is made better because of that: it is not chloride but calcium phosphate which ensures this mineralization, a phosphate which alone would impair this mineralization without the compensative role of lactose.

  14. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. EDTA配合滴定法测定食盐中的钙含量%Determination of Calcium Content in Calcium Salt by EDTA Complex Formation Titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉红; 刘宾

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is one of essential nutrient for human body. In China, many people still have calcium defi-ciency symptoms affected by geographical and environmental conditions. Currently calcium salt and some other nutri-tive salt supplied on the market can provide people with the necessary calcium, so it is very important to analyze con-tent of calcium in nutritive salt. To establish a rapid and simple method of calcium content, EDTA complex formation titration was used to determine the calcium content in salt. The result showed that the content of calcium meets nation-al standards. The method is sample, accurate and worthy of promotion.%钙是人体所不可或缺的营养素之一,但受地域和环境条件的影响,我国人口中缺钙的情况依然存在. 目前市场上供应的加钙盐和其他一些营养盐可以满足人们补充体内钙元素的需要,因此研究营养盐中钙的含量具有非常重要的意义. 为建立快速简便的钙含量测定方法,采用EDTA配合滴定法测定加钙盐中钙的含量,测定结果加钙食盐中钙含量均符合国家标准. 实验操作简单,结果准确,易于推广.

  16. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde-containing micelles induce relaxation of isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of nitric oxide and calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffai G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gábor Raffai,1 Byungkuk Kim,1 Sanga Park,1 Gilson Khang,1 Dongwon Lee,1 Paul M Vanhoutte1,21World Class University, Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, South Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy and State Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, ChinaBackground and purpose: Cinnamaldehyde, a major component of cinnamon, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species and exerts vasodilator and anticancer effects, but its short half-life limits its clinical use. The present experiments were designed to compare the acute relaxing properties of cinnamaldehyde with those of self-assembling polymer micelles either loaded with cinnamaldehyde or consisting of a polymeric prodrug [poly(cinnamaldehyde] that incorporates the compound in its backbone.Methods: Rings of porcine coronary arteries were contracted with the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 or 40 mM KCl, and changes in isometric tension were recorded.Results: Cinnamaldehyde induced concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-independent, cyclooxygenase-independent, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC-independent, calcium-activated potassium-independent, and TRPA1 channel-independent relaxations. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the contractions induced by 40 mM KCl Ca2+ reintroduction in 40 mM KCl Ca2+-free solution or by the Ca2+ channel opener Bay K8644. Cinnamaldehyde-loaded control micelles induced complete, partly endothelium-dependent relaxations sensitive to catalase and inhibitors of NOS or sGC, but not cyclooxygenase or TRPA1, channels. Cinnamaldehyde-loaded micelles also inhibited contractions induced by 40 mM KCl Ca2+ reintroduction or Bay K8644. Poly(cinnamaldehyde micelles induced only partial, endothelium-dependent relaxations that were reduced by inhibitors of NOS or sGC and by

  17. Analysis and optimisation of calcium content in menus and dairy offer in Croatian kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rumora

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of healthy diet from the earliest age as well as its influence on human health is indisputable. Unbalanced diet in childhood can, along with unhealthy lifestyle (stress, smoking, physical inactivity, cause a number of diseases at a later age. Two week menus in 26 kindergartens from continental and coastal Croatia have been analysed, taking into consideration the type of kindergarten (public, private, or religious. The aim of this research is to determine the quality of the offer regarding the intake of milk and dairy products, which, regarding their bioavailability, represent a major source of calcium, an essential nutrient in the intensive growth phase of children and young people. Using basic statistics, significant differences were not determined neither in the regional offer of milk and dairy products in the different types of kindergartens nor in the content of calcium and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products were adequately represented in the weekly offer in both regions under observation, and the average offer contained 9.7±1.5 servings. Average content of calcium in daily menues is 714.5±235.9 mg, which is in agreement with dietary reference intake recommendations (300-800 mg and Croatian recommendations (400-700 mg. Use of fuzzy logic in creating new daily menus, by combining the existing offers enabled significant enlargement of the set of nutritionally acceptable menus as well as a greater diversity of meals.

  18. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography over coronary artery calcium score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic diabetic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Min (James); T.M. LaBounty (Troy); M. Gomez (Millie); S. Achenbach (Stephan); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); V.Y. Cheng (Victor); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); A. Delago (Augustin); A.M. Dunning (Allison); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp); Y-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); F.Y. Lin (Fay); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); T.C. Villines (Todd); D.S. Berman (Daniel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is useful for identification of symptomatic diabetic individuals at heightened risk for death. Whether CCTA-detected CAD enables improved risk assessment of asymptomatic diabetic indiv

  19. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography over coronary artery calcium score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic diabetic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Min (James); T.M. LaBounty (Troy); M. Gomez (Millie); S. Achenbach (Stephan); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); V.Y. Cheng (Victor); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); A. Delago (Augustin); A.M. Dunning (Allison); G.M. Feuchtner (Gudrun); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp); Y-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); F.Y. Lin (Fay); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); L.J. Shaw (Leslee); T.C. Villines (Todd); D.S. Berman (Daniel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is useful for identification of symptomatic diabetic individuals at heightened risk for death. Whether CCTA-detected CAD enables improved risk assessment of asymptomatic diabetic indiv

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography: The effect of average heart rate, heart rate variability, and calcium score in a clinical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Jiang Zhang; Zhuo-Li Zhang; Chang-Sheng Zhou; Guang-Ming Lu (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China)), e-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com; Sheng-Yong Wu (Medical Imaging Inst. of Tianjin, Tianjin (China)); Jing Wang; Shi-Sen Jiang (Dept. of Cardiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China)); Ying Lu (Dept. of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    2010-09-15

    Background: Dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) has been used to detect coronary artery disease; however, the factors with potential to affect its diagnostic accuracy remain to be defined. Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of dual-source CTCA in diagnosing coronary artery stenosis according to conventional coronary angiography (CAG), and the effect of average heart rate, heart rate variability, and calcium score on the accuracy of CTCA. Material and Methods: A total of 113 patients underwent both dual-source CTCA and CAG. The results were used to evaluate the findings in dual-source CTCA to assess the accuracy in the diagnosis of =50% (significant stenosis) and >75% (severe stenosis) of coronary artery according to those by CAG. Patients were divided into subgroups according to their heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and calcium score, and the accuracy of CTCA was further evaluated. The chi-square test was used to analyze the difference in sensitivity and specificity for the detection of =50% and >75% coronary stenosis among subgroups. The generalized estimation equation method was used in per-vessel analysis to adjust for within-patient correlation. Results: In all, 113 patients had 338 vessels and 1661 segments evaluated by CAG. Dual-source CTCA displayed 1527 segments (91.9%). Among them, 1468 segments (calcium score by CAG score 1, n=1018; score 2, n=270; score 3, n=180) were assessable in CTCA. On a per-patient analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of CTCA were 93.9% and 93.5% for significant stenosis and 86.9% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. On a per-vessel basis, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 97.1% for significant and 83.3% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. On a per-segment analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 97.1% for significant and 83.3% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. Average HR had no effect on the sensitivity and specificity of CTCA (P>0.05); whereas HRV and calcium score had some effect on

  1. Calcium Antagonists and Hypertension: Role of co-existent coronary disease, impaired renal function and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wagener (Gilbert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIt is generally accepted that blood pressure lowering drugs improve the prognosis of patients with elevated blood pressure. The dihydropyridine calcium antagonist nifedipine is a widely used blood pressure lowering drug. In the mid-1990ties questions were raised on the safety of the

  2. Usefulness of an Echocardiographic Composite Cardiac Calcium Score to Predict Death in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep A; Beatty, Alexis L; Mishra, Rakesh K; Whooley, Mary A; Schiller, Nelson B

    2015-07-01

    Mitral annular calcium and aortic valve sclerosis on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the prognostic value of calcific deposits at multiple sites is unknown. We performed TTEs in a prospective cohort of 595 outpatients with stable CAD and graded the severity of calcific deposition at 6 sites: mitral annulus, aortic valve, aortic ring, sinotubular junction, papillary muscle tip, and left main coronary artery. For each site with moderate calcific deposition or greater, 1 point was given to generate a composite cardiac calcium score (maximum of 6). The primary end point was the occurrence of CV events-a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and heart failure. The association of the composite calcium score with CV events was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Over a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 205 CV events occurred. Participants with a composite calcium score ≥2 had a higher risk of CV events (11.1 events/100 person-years) than those with a score of 0 (5.5 events/100 person-years, unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, p coronary revascularization, diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum phosphorus level, the risk of death remained higher in participants with a composite calcium score of ≥2 compared with those with a score of 0 (adjusted HR 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.81, p = 0.02). In conclusion, a simple TTE-derived composite cardiac calcium score was independently predictive of death in patients with pre-existing CAD.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery calcium testing for coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk prediction to guide statin allocation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T Roberts

    Full Text Available The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA showed that the addition of coronary artery calcium (CAC to traditional risk factors improves risk classification, particularly in intermediate risk asymptomatic patients with LDL cholesterol levels <160 mg/dL. However, the cost-effectiveness of incorporating CAC into treatment decision rules has yet to be clearly delineated.To model the cost-effectiveness of CAC for cardiovascular risk stratification in asymptomatic, intermediate risk patients not taking a statin. Treatment based on CAC was compared to (1 treatment of all intermediate-risk patients, and (2 treatment on the basis of United States guidelines.We developed a Markov model of first coronary heart disease (CHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD events. We modeled statin treatment in intermediate risk patients with CAC≥1 and CAC≥100, with different intensities of statins based on the CAC score. We compared these CAC-based treatment strategies to a "treat all" strategy and to treatment according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III guidelines. Clinical and economic outcomes were modeled over both five- and ten-year time horizons. Outcomes consisted of CHD and CVD events and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Sensitivity analyses considered the effect of higher event rates, different CAC and statin costs, indirect costs, and re-scanning patients with incidentalomas.We project that it is both cost-saving and more effective to scan intermediate-risk patients for CAC and to treat those with CAC≥1, compared to treatment based on established risk-assessment guidelines. Treating patients with CAC≥100 is also preferred to existing guidelines when we account for statin side effects and the disutility of statin use.Compared to the alternatives we assessed, CAC testing is both effective and cost saving as a risk-stratification tool, particularly if there are adverse effects of long-term statin use. CAC may enable providers to better tailor

  4. Analysis of different thermal processing methods of foodstuffs to optimize protein, calcium, and phosphorus content for dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Ivica; Panjkota Krbavčić, Ines; Bituh, Martina; Vrdoljak, Tea; Dujmić, Zoran

    2015-05-01

    To analyze how different thermal processing methods affect the protein, calcium, and phosphorus content of hospital food served to dialysis patients and to generate recommendations for preparing menus that optimize nutritional content while minimizing the risk of hyperphosphatemia. Standard Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC) methods were used to determine dry matter, protein, calcium, and phosphorus content in potatoes, fresh and frozen carrots, frozen green beans, chicken, beef and pork, frozen hake, pasta, and rice. These levels were determined both before and after boiling in water, steaming, stewing in oil or water, or roasting. Most of the thermal processing methods did not significantly reduce protein content. Boiling increased calcium content in all foodstuffs because of calcium absorption from the hard water. In contrast, stewing in oil containing a small amount of water decreased the calcium content of vegetables by 8% to 35% and of chicken meat by 12% to 40% on a dry weight basis. Some types of thermal processing significantly reduced the phosphorus content of the various foodstuffs, with levels decreasing by 27% to 43% for fresh and frozen vegetables, 10% to 49% for meat, 7% for pasta, and 22.8% for rice on a dry weight basis. On the basis of these results, we modified the thermal processing methods used to prepare a standard hospital menu for dialysis patients. Foodstuffs prepared according to the optimized menu were similar in protein content, higher in calcium, and significantly lower in phosphorus than foodstuffs prepared according to the standard menu. Boiling in water and stewing in oil containing some water significantly reduced phosphorus content without affecting protein content. Soaking meat in cold water for 1 h before thermal processing reduced phosphorus content even more. These results may help optimize the design of menus for dialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Optimization of the scan protocol in the measurements of coronary artery calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.C.G.; Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Gottlieb, I.; Carvalho, F.M. de [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kodlulovich, S., E-mail: simone@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mecca, F.A. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the tube current applied for studies of calcium score. The research was carried out in a private clinic of Rio de Janeiro, using a 64-slice MDCT scanner and an anthropomorphic cardiac CT phantom. In all images, the Agatston score, the volume and mass of the calcifications, and the noise for each current tube was determined. The average CT attenuation number obtained for all tube currents was 261.6 {+-} 3.2 HU for the CaHA density insert and -0.2 HU {+-} 2.0 for the water insert. The images obtained at lower tube currents were noisier and grainier than those obtained at higher tube currents. However no significant differences were found in the calcium measurements, which suggest a high potential of patient dose reduction, around 50%, without compromising diagnostic information. (author)

  6. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of CT radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction algorithms from four different vendors on coronary calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Jong, Pim A. de; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleys, Ronald L.A.W. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy, Utrecht (Netherlands); Das, Marco; Wildberger, Joachim E. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Buls, Nico; Mey, Johan de [UZ Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    To analyse the effects of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Fifteen ex vivo human hearts were examined in an anthropomorphic chest phantom using computed tomography (CT) systems from four vendors and examined at four dose levels using unenhanced prospectively ECG-triggered protocols. Tube voltage was 120 kV and tube current differed between protocols. CT data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and reduced dose CT data with IR. CCS was quantified with Agatston scores, calcification mass and calcification volume. Differences were analysed with the Friedman test. Fourteen hearts showed coronary calcifications. Dose reduction with FBP did not significantly change Agatston scores, calcification volumes and calcification masses (P > 0.05). Maximum differences in Agatston scores were 76, 26, 51 and 161 units, in calcification volume 97, 27, 42 and 162 mm{sup 3}, and in calcification mass 23, 23, 20 and 48 mg, respectively. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes with significant differences for one vendor (P < 0.05). Median relative differences between reference FBP and reduced dose IR for Agatston scores remained within 2.0-4.6 %, 1.0-5.3 %, 1.2-7.7 % and 2.6-4.5 %, for calcification volumes within 2.4-3.9 %, 1.0-5.6 %, 1.1-6.4 % and 3.7-4.7 %, for calcification masses within 1.9-4.1 %, 0.9-7.8 %, 2.9-4.7 % and 2.5-3.9 %, respectively. IR resulted in increased, decreased or similar calcification masses. CCS derived from standard FBP acquisitions was not affected by radiation dose reductions up to 80 %. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes. (orig.)

  8. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; KIM, HYUN SOO; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardi...

  9. Right coronary wall cmr in the older asymptomatic advance cohort: positive remodeling and associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Brian K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary wall cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a promising noninvasive approach to assess subclinical atherosclerosis, but data are limited in subjects over 60 years old, who are at increased risk. The purpose of the study was to evaluate coronary wall CMR in an asymptomatic older cohort. Results Cross-sectional images of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA were acquired using spiral black-blood coronary CMR (0.7 mm resolution in 223 older, community-based patients without a history of cardiovascular disease (age 60-72 years old, 38% female. Coronary measurements (total vessel area, lumen area, wall area, and wall thickness had small intra- and inter-observer variabilities (r = 0.93~0.99, all p Conclusions Right coronary wall CMR in asymptomatic older subjects showed increased coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes as well as coronary calcification. Coronary wall CMR may contribute to the noninvasive assessment of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in older, at-risk patient groups.

  10. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT IN CANCEROUS AND HEALTHY TISSUES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Głogowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning concentration of biogenic metals in tissues of digestive system are sparse and diversified. The objectives of this study were to determine the mean concentration of biogenic metals: Mg and Ca, in cancerous and normal tissues of digestive system. Research was conducted on samples taken from different segments of human digestive tract. Tissues were taken during biopsy, surgery, and post-mortem from Military Hospital and PROSMED Health Center Patients’ located in Cracow. Samples were mineralized by wet digestion. First, they were dried and after dry mass were obtained the samples were put into digestion flasks and 1cm3 of nitric acid 65% was added to each of them. The samples were heated for about 2 hours, at 105°C. Mineralized material was moved to tubes with a capacity of 10 cm3 and filled with distilled water up to this volume. The resulting solutions were used to analyze the content of selected elements by FAAS method. The results are expressed in micrograms per gram of dry weight of tissue (µg•g-1d.m.. Average calcium content is higher in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy women (15890,28 µg•g-1d.m. and men (13040,24 µg•g-1d.m. in comparison with tumor tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of women (5365,19 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (2459,42 µg•g-1d.m.. Average magnesium content is higher in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy women (2887,19 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (1112,69 µg•g-1 d.m., in comparison with gastrointestinal cancerous tissues of women (1146,77 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (621,42 µg•g-1 d.m.. It was shown that differences between calcium and magnesium contents in the digestive tract tissues depend on the state of health - significantly higher contents of Ca and Mg were present in the tissues of healthy men and women in comparison to the tissues of men and women with digestive tract cancer. Magnesium and calcium have protective properties (they prevent the

  11. Prognostic Value of Risk Factors, Calcium Score, Coronary CTA, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, and Invasive Coronary Angiography in Kidney Transplantation Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Svensson, My; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    , but only CACS predicted MACE. Combining risk factors with CACS identified a very-low-risk cohort with a MACE event rate of 2.1%, and a 1.0% mortality rate per year. Of the diagnostic modalities, coronary CTA and ICA significantly predicted MACE, but only coronary CTA predicted death. In contrast, SPECT...

  12. Restriction of the referral of patients with stable angina for CT coronary angiography by clinical evaluation and calcium score: impact on clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharampal, Anoeshka S; Rossi, Alexia; Dedic, Admir; Cademartiri, Filippo; Papadopoulou, Stella L; Weustink, Annick C; Ferket, Bart S; Boersma, Eric; Meijboom, Willem B; Galema, Tjebbe W; Nieman, Koen; de Feyter, Pim J; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the value of the calcium score (CaSc) plus clinical evaluation to restrict referral for CT coronary angiography (CTCA) by reducing the number of patients with an intermediate probability of coronary artery disease (CAD). We retrospectively included 1,975 symptomatic stable patients who underwent clinical evaluation and CaSc calculation and CTCA or invasive coronary coronary angiography (ICA). The outcome was obstructive CAD (≥50 % diameter narrowing) assessed by ICA or CTCA in the absence of ICA. We investigated two models: (1) clinical evaluation consisting of chest pain typicality, gender, age, risk factors and ECG and (2) clinical evaluation with CaSc. Discrimination of the two models was compared. The stepwise reclassification of patients with an intermediate probability of CAD (10-90 %) after clinical evaluation followed by clinical evaluation with CaSc was assessed by clinical net reclassification improvement (NRI). Discrimination of CAD was significantly improved by adding CaSc to the clinical evaluation (AUC: 0.80 vs. 0.89, P < 0.001). CaSc and CTCA could be avoided in 9 % using model 1 and an additional 29 % of CTCAs could be avoided using model 2. Clinical NRI was 57 %. CaSc plus clinical evaluation may be useful in restricting further referral for CTCA by 38 % in symptomatic stable patients with suspected CAD. • CT calcium scores (CaSc) could proiritise referrals for CT coronary angiography (CTCA) • CaSc provides an incremental discriminatory value of CAD compared with clinical evaluation • Risk stratification is better when clinical evaluation is combined with CaSc • Appropriate use of clinical evaluation and CaSc helps avoid unnecessary CTCA referrals.

  13. Long-term Prognosis for Individuals with Hypertension Undergoing Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Cho, Iksung; Kalra, Dan K.; Truong, Quynh A.; Giambrone, Ashley E; Gransar, Heidi; Callister, Tracy Q.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Lin, Fay Y.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Min, James K

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine the performance of coronary artery calcification (CAC) for stratifying long-term risk of death in asymptomatic hypertensive patients. Methods and Results 8905 consecutive asymptomatic individuals without cardiovascular disease or diabetes who underwent CAC testing (mean age 53.3±10.5, 59.3% male) were followed for a mean of 14 years and categorized on the background of hypertension (in accordance with the 2014 Guidelines from the Joint National Committee 8) as well as age above or below 60 years. The prevalence and severity of CAC was higher for those with versus without hypertension (P<0.001), and the extent increased proportionally with advancing age (P<0.001). Following adjustment, the presence of CAC in patients above and below the age of 60 years was associated with worse prognosis for hypertensive (HR 7.74 [95% CI: 5.15-11.63] and HR 3.18 [95% CI: 2.42-4.19]) and normotensive (HR 4.83 [95% CI: 3.18-7.33] and HR 2.14 [95% CI: 1.61-2.85]), respectively. A zero CAC score was associated with a lower but persisting risk of mortality for hypertensives over the age of 60 years (HR 2.48 [95% CI: 1.50-4.08]); albeit, attenuating for those below the age of 60 years (P=0.09). In a “low risk” hypertensive population, a combined presence of hypertension and any CAC was associated with an almost five-fold (HR 4.68 [95% CI: 2.22-9.87]) risk of death. Conclusion Among asymptomatic hypertensive individuals, the presence and extent of CAC effectively identified individuals at heightened risk of mortality beyond conventional cardiovascular risk. PMID:25863296

  14. Coronary calcium score scans for attenuation correction of quantitative PET/CT {sup 13}N-ammonia myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, Nina; Herzog, Bernhard A.; Husmann, Lars; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Burger, Irene A.; Buechel, Ronny R.; Valenta, Ines; Wyss, Christophe A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ECG-triggered coronary calcium scoring (CCS) scans can be used for attenuation correction (AC) to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by PET/CT with {sup 13}N-ammonia. Thirty-five consecutive patients underwent a {sup 13}N-ammonia PET/CT scan at rest and during standard adenosine stress. MBF values were calculated using AC maps obtained from the ECG-triggered CCS scan during inspiration and validated against MBF values calculated using standard non-gated transmission scans for AC. CFR was calculated as the ratio of hyperaemic over resting MBF. In all 35 consecutive patients intraobserver variability was assessed by blinded repeat analysis for both AC methods. There was an excellent correlation between CT AC and CCS for global MBF values at rest (n = 35, r = 0.94, p < 0.001) and during stress (n = 35, r = 0.97, p < 0.001) with narrow Bland-Altman (BA) limits of agreement (-0.21 to 0.10 ml/min per g and -0.41 to 0.30 ml/min per g) as well as for global CFR (n = 35, r = 0.96, p < 0.001, BA -0.27 to 0.34). The excellent correlation was preserved on the segmental MBF analysis for both rest and stress (n = 1190, r = 0.93, p < 0.001, BA -0.60 to 0.50) and for CFR (n = 595, r = 0.87, p < 0.001, BA -0.71 to 0.74). In addition, reproducibility proved excellent for global CFR by CT AC (n = 35, r = 0.91, p < 0.001, BA -0.42-0.58) and CCS scans (n = 35, r = 0.94, p < 0.001, BA -0.34-0.45). Use of attenuation maps from CCS scans allows accurate quantitative MBF and CFR assessment with {sup 13}N-ammonia PET/CT. (orig.)

  15. Effect of lead toxicity on bone calcium content and morphometric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Results: Our study revealed that Lead significantly reduced calcium concentration in both femur (p<0.001 and tibia (p<0.001 in lead intoxicated rats. Furthermore, morphometric parameters showed significant reduction in the femoral head width upon lead intoxication. Significant decrease in the ash content of both the bones was observed upon lead intoxication for both the age groups, no significant change observed in the length of the femur as well as tibia of all the treated groups. Conclusions: From this study we can conclude that the lead has induced bone toxicity and has deteriorated the development of bone tissue in the case of growing animals, is the consequence of oxidative stress. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 177-180

  16. Alpha-chlorofatty Acid and coronary artery or aorta calcium scores in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Mary A; Guild, Camelia P; Albert, Carolyn J; Kondos, George T; Carr, James J; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Ford, David A; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2014-09-01

    Alpha-chlorofatty acid (α-ClFA) is one product of myeloperoxidase activity in vivo during atherogenesis and may be a biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated if serum α-ClFA is associated with subclinical CVD as measured by coronary artery and aorta calcium scores (CAC and AC, respectively) in women with and without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This pilot project analyzed baseline data from 173 women with SLE and 186 women without SLE participating in a 5-year longitudinal investigation of the Study of Lupus Vascular and Bone Long-term Endpoints (SOLVABLE). Data collection included demographic information, CVD and SLE risk factors, and laboratory assessments. Alpha-ClFA was measured in stored serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. CAC and AC were measured by computed tomography. Outcome measures were CAC and AC present (CAC > 0 or AC > 0) versus absent (CAC = 0 or AC = 0). Associations between risk factors and CAC or AC were tested with descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses. Women with SLE had higher α-ClFA levels than women without SLE (42.0 fmol/25 µl ± 37.3 vs 34.5 fmol/25 µl ± 21.9; p = 0.020). In analyses including individual CVD risk factors, having SLE was independently associated with the presence of CAC (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.72 to 6.78) but not AC. Alpha-ClFA was not associated with the presence of CAC or AC in patients with SLE. SLE, but not serum α-ClFA, was associated with the presence of CAC in this pilot project.

  17. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  18. High-Yield Method for Isolation and Culture of Endothelial Cells from Rat Coronary Blood Vessels Suitable for Analysis of Intracellular Calcium and Nitric Oxide Biosynthetic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistri Silvia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a method for isolating endothelial cells from rat heart blood vessels by means of coronary microperfusion with collagenase. This methods makes it possible to obtain high amounts of endothelial cells in culture which retain the functional properties of their in vivo counterparts, including the ability to uptake fluorescently-labeled acetylated low-density lipoproteins and to respond to vasoactive agents by modulating intracellular calcium and by upregulating intrinsic nitric oxide generation. The main advantages of our technique are: (i good reproducibility, (ii accurate sterility that can be maintained throughout the isolation procedure and (iii high yield of pure endothelial cells, mainly due to microperfusion and temperature-controlled incubation with collagenase which allow an optimal distribution of this enzyme within the coronary vascular bed.

  19. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography for stenosis detection according to calcium score : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dekker, Martijn; de Smet, K.; de Bock, G.H.; Tio, R.A.; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess sensitivity and specificity of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for significant stenosis at different degrees of coronary calcification. Methods A literature search was performed including studies describing test characteristics of CCTA for

  20. 冠状动脉钙化积分与血钙、血磷的关系探讨%Association of Coronary Artery Calcification Scores with Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春旺; 郭维军; 严士荣; 王连生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨64排螺旋CT冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)与血清钙、磷的关系.方法 入选可疑冠状动脉粥样硬化患者84例,所有患者均行64排螺旋CT测量CACS以及行相关血液生化检查.结果 CACS与血清钙、磷有明显的相关性,血清钙、磷水平越高,CACS值越大.结论 血清钙、磷水平的变化能较好的预测冠状动脉粥样钙化的发生、发展.%Objective To explore the relationship between the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels and coronary artery calcification scores(CACS) in coronary atherosclerosis patients,and to investigate its clinical value in the diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods Eighty- four patients with doubtful coronary atherosclerosis were enrolled in this study. All of them performed 64 slice spiral CT angiography and blood biochemical test. CACS were calculated using the computer. Results There was a significant correlation between CACS and the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels. As the scrum calcium and phosphorus levels increased , CACS tended to increase. Conclusion The scrum calcium and phosphorus levels could predict the occurrence and development of coronary artery calcification.

  1. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  2. Use of coronary calcium score scans from stand-alone multislice computed tomography for attenuation correction of myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepis, Tiziano; Gaemperli, Oliver; Koepfli, Pascal [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Rueegg, Christine; Burger, Cyrill [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Leschka, Sebastian; Desbiolles, Lotus; Husmann, Lars; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Centre for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    To evaluate the use of CT attenuation maps, generated from coronary calcium scoring (CCS) scans at in- and expiration with a 64-slice CT scanner, for attenuation correction (AC) of myocardial perfusion SPECT images. Thirty-two consecutive patients underwent{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin gated adenosine stress/rest SPECT scan on an Infinia Hawkeye SPECT-CT device (GE Medical Systems) followed by CCS and CT angiography on a 64-slice CT. AC of the iteratively reconstructed images was performed with AC maps obtained: (a) from the ''Hawkeye'' low-resolution X-ray CT facility attached to the Infinia camera (IRAC); (b) from the CCS scan acquired on a 64-slice CT scanner during maximal inspiration (AC{sub INSP}) and (c) during normal expiration (AC{sub EXP}). Automatically determined uptake values of stress scans (QPS, Cedars Medical Sinai) from AC{sub INSP} and AC{sub EXP} were compared with IRAC. Agatston score (AS) values using AC{sub INSP}versus AC{sub EXP} were also compared. AC{sub INSP} and AC{sub EXP} resulted in identical findings versus IRAC by visual analysis. A good correlation for uptake values between IRAC and AC{sub INSP} was found (apex, r=0.92; anterior, r=0.85; septal, r=0.91; lateral, r=0.86; inferior, r=0.90; all p<0.0001). The correlation was even closer between IRAC and AC{sub EXP} (apex, r=0.97; anterior, r=0.91; septal, r=0.94; lateral, r=0.92; inferior, r=0.97; all p<0.0001). The mean AS during inspiration (319{+-}737) and expiration(317{+-}778) was comparable (p=NS). Attenuation maps from CCS allow accurate AC of SPECT MPI images. AC{sub EXP} proved superior to AC{sub INSP}, suggesting that in hybrid scans CCS may be performed during normal expiration to allow its additional use for AC of SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  3. Influence of water content on hardening and handling of a premixed calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Johanna; Aberg, Jonas; Engqvist, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Handling of calcium phosphate cements is difficult, where problems often arise during mixing, transferring to syringes, and subsequent injection. Via the use of premixed cements the risk of handling complications is reduced. However, for premixed cements to work in a clinical situation the setting time needs to be improved. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the addition of water on the properties of premixed cement. Monetite-forming premixed cements with small amounts of added water (less than 6.8 wt.%) were prepared and the influence on injectability, working time, setting time and mechanical strength was evaluated. The results showed that the addition of small amounts of water had significant influence on the properties of the premixed cement. With the addition of just 1.7 wt.% water, the force needed to extrude the cement from a syringe was reduced from 107 (±15) N to 39 (±9) N, the compression strength was almost doubled, and the setting time decreased from 29 (±4) min to 19 (±2) min, while the working time remained 5 to 6h. This study demonstrates the importance of controlling the water content in premixed cement pastes and how water can be used to improve the properties of premixed cements.

  4. Preliminary Study on Chemical Components and Uranium Content of Calcium Fluoride Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling; SONG; Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    In the uranium conversion process,UF4 reduction is needed using calcium as reduction regent,so a great deal of calcium fluoride are generated,in which a no negligible amount of uranium(about 5%alleged)can be left in the calcium fluoride wastes by the entrainment effect.It is meaningful to extract and purify the uranium from these wastes,but chemical components of these waste is needed primarily.

  5. The content determination of calcium, magnesium and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn fruits at vulcan coal dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BRASOVAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on content determination of calcium, magnesium and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn fruits collected from Vulcan coal dump. The dump was never covered with soil or fertilizers containing azoth, potassium and phosphorus. The sea buckthorn was planted directly on the sterile and it has an important function in stabilizing the acclivity and fixing the atmospheric azoth with the nodosities on the roots. So, the sea buckthorn becomes widespread plant in coal dumps because it helps to the soil formation. The results obtained after the determination of calcium, magnesium and ascorbic acid from the fruits of this plant were compared with the values already reported in various references, concluding that these differences are insignificant (3.7% for magnesium and 9.4% for calcium. Therefore, the sea buckthorn from the dump can be used in food industry, as well as in pharmaceutics and medicine.

  6. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries : Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M E; Heijenbrok, M W; van Kempen-Harteveld, M L; Petoukhova, A L; Scholten, A N; Wolterbeek, R; Schreur, J H M; Struikmans, H

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short.

  7. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  8. Comparison of Frequency and Duration of Periodontal Disease With Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With and Without Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Daniel W; Krantz, Mori J; Hokanson, John E; Johnson, Lonnie R; Eckel, Robert H; Kinney, Gregory L; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Alman, Amy C

    2015-09-15

    People with type 1 diabetes mellitus manifest a greater burden of both periodontal disease and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, little is known about their interrelation. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) measures subclinical atherosclerosis and predicts major adverse coronary events. The relation between periodontal disease and CAC progression in individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been previously described. We determined the prevalence and progression of CAC in relation to self-reported periodontal disease. Multivariate logistic and tobit regression models were used to examine the relation between periodontal disease duration and CAC progression and whether this relation differs by diabetes status after controlling for age, gender, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and baseline CAC. A total of 473 patients with type 1 diabetes and 548 without diabetes were followed for a mean of 6.1 years. At baseline, the prevalence and duration of periodontal disease did not differ between subjects with and without diabetes (14.5% vs 13.4%, p = 0.60; 6 vs 9 years, p = 0.18). Duration of periodontal disease was not significantly associated with baseline CAC prevalence. In patients with type 1 diabetes, periodontal disease duration was significantly related to CAC progression (p = 0.004) but not in subjects without diabetes (p = 0.63). In conclusion, this study suggests that periodontal disease is an independent predictor of long-term progression of CAC in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  9. Comparison of Frequency and Duration of Periodontal Disease with Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus versus Non-Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Daniel W.; Krantz, Mori J.; Hokanson, John E.; Johnson, Lonnie R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Alman, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    People with type 1 diabetes mellitus manifest a higher burden of both periodontal disease and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, little is known about their interrelation. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) measures subclinical atherosclerosis and predicts major adverse coronary events. The relation between periodontal disease and CAC progression in individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been previously described. We determined the prevalence and progression of CAC in relation to self-reported periodontal disease. Multivariate logistic and tobit regression models were used to examine the relation between periodontal disease duration and CAC progression and whether this relation differs by diabetes status after controlling for age, sex, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and baseline CAC. A total of 473 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 548 non-diabetic individuals were followed for a mean of 6.1 years. At baseline, the prevalence and duration of periodontal disease did not differ between individuals with and without diabetes (14.5% vs. 13.4%, p=0.60; 6 vs. 9 years, p=0.18). Duration of periodontal disease was not significantly associated with baseline CAC prevalence. In type 1 diabetic individuals, periodontal disease duration was significantly related to CAC progression (p=0.004) but not among non-diabetic individuals (p=0.63). In conclusion, this study suggests that periodontal disease is an independent predictor of long-term progression of CAC in type 1 diabetic individuals. PMID:26189036

  10. Relation of obstructive sleep apnea to coronary artery calcium in non-obese versus obese men and women aged 45-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S; Kip, Kevin E; Aiyer, Aryan N; Reis, Steven E; Strollo, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Sleep apnea and obesity are strongly associated, and both increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Several cross-sectional studies have reported discrepant results regarding the role obesity plays in the relation between sleep apnea and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep apnea and the presence of CAC in a community cohort of middle-aged men and women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, stratified by body mass index (0. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea-hypopnea index. The sample was composed of primarily men (61%) and Caucasians (56%), with a mean age of 61 years. The prevalence of CAC was 76%. In participants with body mass indexes <30 kg/m(2) (n = 139), apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 (vs <5) was associated with 2.7-fold odds of having CAC, but the effect only approached significance. Conversely, in participants with body mass indexes ≥30 kg/m(2), sleep apnea was not independently associated with CAC. In conclusion, sleep apnea is independently associated with early atherosclerotic plaque burden in nonobese patients.

  11. Effects of first and second generation calcium channel blockers on diastolic function of the failing hamster heart: relationship with coronary flow changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Pierre; Massicotte, Julie; Boileau, Jean-François; Dumont, Louis

    2003-07-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have variable efficacy in the treatment of heart failure. We hypothesized that modulation of left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP) may play a role in the variable efficacy of CCBs in this condition. Isolated perfused hearts from 200- to 250-day-old UM-X7.1 cardiomyopathic hamsters (failing hearts) and age-matched Syrian hamsters (normal hearts) were studied. After recording of heart rate, coronary flow (CF), LVDP and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), hearts were exposed either to verapamil or diltiazem (1 nM-10 microM), mibefradil (1 nM-1 microM) or clentiazem (1 nM-10 microM). Mechanical increase in CF (+2 to +10 ml/min) was carried out using a roller pump. Mechanically-augmented flow led to an increase in coronary perfusion pressure (+40 to +90 mm Hg), LVSP (+5 to +40 mm Hg) and LVDP (+5 to +25 mm Hg). CCBs-induced increment of coronary flow led to a difference in their cardiac response. In normal hearts, the negative inotropic response was more important with diltiazem and verapamil. Failing hearts did not demonstrate increased inotropic sensitivity to first-generation CCBs. On the contrary, at clinically relevant concentrations, verapamil resulted in the most pronounced impairment of LVDP followed by diltiazem while mibefradil and clentiazem, at clinically relevant concentrations, preserved LVDP. Such findings provide an additional explanation for the variable efficacy of CCBs in heart failure.

  12. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  13. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle.

  14. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: calcium and magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium and magnesium are two minerals with prominent roles in animal and plant metabolism. Advanced potato breeding lines were found to contain between 266 and 944 µg per gram fresh weight of calcium and between 705 1089 µg per gram fresh weight of magnesium. All trials had significant genotype b...

  15. A model for quantitative correction of coronary calcium scores on multidetector, dual source, and electron beam computed tomography for influences of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution : A cardiac phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, M. J. W.; Groen, J. M.; Nicolai, L. J.; Dijkstra, H.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative me

  16. The influence of osmotic stress on the content of calcium ions in the red beet vacuoles and on the transport activity of tonoplast proton pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozolina N.V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The contents of calcium ions in the isolated vacuoles and in intact red beets under the conditions of dormancy and osmotic stress was determined. It is demonstrated that the content of calcium ions in the red beet vacuoles not exposed to osmotic stress makes 13.3% of the total content these ions in intact red beets. Under the conditions of osmotic stress, this indicator increases substantially. Furthermore, under the conditions of hyperosmotic stress, the content of calcium ions in the vacuoles was 30%, while under hypoosmotic stress it was 49% of the total content of these ions in the intact red beet. The transition of calcium ions from the cytoplasm and other compartments into the vacuole under the conditions of osmotic stress is, probably, one of forms of participation of the vacuole in adaptation processes of the plant cell under this kind of abiotic stress. It has been demonstrated for the first time that tonoplast proton pumps, which actively participate in provision of calcium homeostasis in cytoplasm, substantially activate their transport activity under osmotic stress, what allows one to speak about their important role in the cell’s protective programs. Under normal (no stress conditions, artificial elevation of the content of calcium ions led to inhibition of activity of the tonoplast proton pumps, while under gipoosmotic stress the activity of tonoplast proton pumps increased, what might aid to restoring homeoctasis with respect to calcium ions in cytoplasm.

  17. Comprehensive coronary risk determination in primary prevention: an imaging and clinical based definition combining computed tomographic coronary artery calcium score and national cholesterol education program risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Khurram; Vasamreddy, Chandra; Blumenthal, Roger S; Rumberger, John A

    2006-06-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and a major cause of morbidity. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for nearly half of all CVD deaths. Currently estimation of risk in primary prevention is based on the Framingham risk equations, which inputs traditional risk factors and is helpful in predicting the development of CHD in asymptomatic individuals. However many individuals suffer events in the absence of established risk factors for atherosclerosis and broad based population risk estimations may have little precision when applied to a given individual. To meet the challenge of CHD risk assessment, several tools have been developed to identify atherosclerotic disease in its preclinical stages. This paper aims to incorporate information from coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring from a computed tomographic "heartscan" (using Electron Beam Tomography (EBT) as the validated prototype) along with current Framingham risk profiling in order to refine risk on an absolute scale by combining imaging and clinical data to affect a more comprehensive calculation of absolute risk in a given individual. For CAC scores above the 75th percentile but or =55 years, women> or =65 years) a CAC = 0 will result in an age point score corresponding to the age-group whose median CAC score is zero i.e., 40-44 years for men and 55-59 years for women. The utilization of CAC scores allows the inclusion of sub-clinical disease definition into the context of modifiable risk factors as well as identifies high-risk individuals requiring aggressive treatment.

  18. Effects of Zn Content on Crystal Structure, Cytocompatibility, Antibacterial Activity, and Chemical Stability in Zn-Modified Calcium Silicate Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Yu, Jiangming; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Ye, Xiaojian; Zheng, Xuebin

    2013-08-01

    In our previous study, Zn-modified calcium silicate coatings possess not only excellent chemical stability but also well antibacterial activity. Still, effects of zinc content on these properties and cytocompatibility remain unclear. In this paper, two kinds of Zn-modified calcium silicate coatings (ZC0.3, ZC0.5) were fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V substrates via plasma spraying technology. X-ray diffraction results and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the ZC0.5 coating was composed of pure hardystonite (Ca2ZnSi2O7) phase, while, besides Ca2ZnSi2O7 phase, the amorphous CaSiO3 phase was also detected in the ZC0.3 coating. Chemical stability in Tris-HCl buffer solution and antibacterial activity of the Zn-modified calcium silicate coatings increased with an increase in zinc content. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation demonstrated that the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen type I (COLI) secretion of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells on Zn-modified coatings were significantly enhanced compared to the Zn-free coating and Ti-6Al-4V control, and no cytotoxicity appeared on Zn-modified coatings. The better antibacterial activity and the enhanced capability to promote MC3T3-E1 cells differentiation of Zn-modified coatings should be attributed to the slow and constant Zn2+ releasing from the coatings.

  19. Calcium-phosphate and parathyroid intradialytic profiles: A potential aid for tailoring the dialysate calcium content of patients on different hemodialysis schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Martina; Pia, Anna; Guzzo, Gabriella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Mongilardi, Elena; Nazha, Marta; Aroasio, Emiliano; Gonella, Cinzia; Avagnina, Paolo; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Severe hyperparathyroidism is a challenge on hemodialysis. The definition of dialysate calcium (Ca) is a pending issue with renewed importance in cases of individualized dialysis schedules and of portable home dialysis machines with low-flow dialysate. Direct measurement of calcium mass transfer is complex and is imprecisely reflected by differences in start-to-end of dialysis Ca levels. The study was performed in a dialysis unit dedicated to home hemodialysis and to critical patients with wide use of daily and tailored schedules. The Ca-phosphate (P)-parathyroid hormone (PTH) profile includes creatinine, urea, total and ionized Ca, albumin, sodium, potassium, P, PTH levels at start, mid, and end of dialysis. "Severe" secondary hyperparathyroidism was defined as PTH > 300 pg/mL for ≥3 months. Four schedules were tested: conventional dialysis (polysulfone dialyzer 1.8-2.1 m(2) ), with dialysate Ca 1.5 or 1.75 mmol/L, NxStage (Ca 1.5 mmol/L), and NxStage plus intradialytic Ca infusion. Dosages of vitamin D, calcium, phosphate binders, and Ca mimetic agents were adjusted monthly. Eighty Ca-P-PTH profiles were collected in 12 patients. Serum phosphate was efficiently reduced by all techniques. No differences in start-to-end PTH and Ca levels on dialysis were observed in patients with PTH levels < 300 pg/mL. Conversely, Ca levels in "severe" secondary hyperparathyroid patients significantly increased and PTH decreased during dialysis on all schedules except on Nxstage (P < 0.05). Our data support the need for tailored dialysate Ca content, even on "low-flow" daily home dialysis, in "severe" secondary hyperparathyroid patients in order to increase the therapeutic potentials of the new dialysis techniques.

  20. Computed Tomography Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring Review of Evidence Base and Cost-effectiveness in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Morris, Pamela B.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factor-scoring algorithms may fall short in identifying asymptomatic individuals who will subsequently suffer a coronary event. It is generally thought that evaluation of the extent of the atherosclerotic plaque and total plaque burden can improve cardiovascular risk stratificati

  1. Coronary artery calcium score and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as potential gatekeepers for myocardial perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Andersen, Kim Francis; Madsen, Claus;

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) holds an important place as non-invasive risk assessment in patients with intermediate risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, as much as 60-70% of MPI scans are normal. This study evaluates the role of coronary artery calcium scoring (CAC score) and NT......-proBNP as potential gatekeepers for MPI. Patients with intermediate risk of CHD referred for standard MPI were included. CAC score and NT-proBNP were both assessed at the day of the stress study. Sensitivity, specificity and NPV for prediction of abnormal MPI scans were calculated for CAC, NT......-proBNP and the combination hereof. A total of 190 patients were included (mean age 61 ± 12 years, 55% female) of whom 24% had known CHD. In all 30% of the scans were abnormal. CAC score achieved the highest AUC regardless of whether patients with known CHD were included or not [AUC 0·75 95% CI (0·66-0·84) and AUC 0·79 (0...

  2. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  3. Orthokinetic flocculation of caseinate-stabilized emulsions : influence of calcium concentration, shear rate and protein content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Dalgleish, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium-induced flocculation of caseinate-stabilized soybean oil-in- water emulsions in conditions of Couette flow was studied. A concentrated emulsion (20% oil, 0.5-2.0% sodium caseinate in 20 mM imidazole, pH 7) was diluted 20 times in buffer containing concentrations of CaCl2 between 9 and 17 mM

  4. Estimation of cardiovascular risk on routine chest CT: Ordinal coronary artery calcium scoring as an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azour, Lea; Kadoch, Michael A; Ward, Thomas J; Eber, Corey D; Jacobi, Adam H

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is often identified on routine chest computed tomography (CT). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether ordinal scoring of CAC on non-gated, routine chest CT is an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges in a community-based population, and in particular to determine the accuracy of an ordinal score of zero on routine chest CT. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed consecutive same-day ECG-gated and routine non-gated chest CT scans of 222 individuals. CAC was quantified using the Agatston scoring on the ECG-gated scans, and using an ordinal method on routine scans, with a score from 0 to 12. The pattern and distribution of CAC was assessed. The correlation between routine exam ordinal scores and Agatston scores in ECG-gated exams, as well as the accuracy of assigning a zero calcium score on routine chest CT was determined. CAC was most prevalent in the left anterior descending coronary artery in both single and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. There was a strong correlation between the non-gated ordinal and ECG-gated Agatston scores (r = 0.811, p < 0.01). Excellent inter-reader agreement (k = 0.95) was shown for the presence (total ordinal score ≥1) or absence (total ordinal score = 0) of CAC on routine chest CT. The negative predictive value for a total ordinal score of zero on routine CT was 91.6% (95% CI, 85.1-95.9). Total ordinal scores of 0, 1-3, 4-5, and ≥6 corresponded to average Agatston scores of 0.52 (0.3-0.8), 98.7 (78.2-117.1), 350.6 (264.9-436.3) and 1925.4 (1526.9-2323.9). Visual assessment of CAC on non-gated routine chest CT accurately predicts Agatston score ranges, including the zero score, in ECG-gated CT. Inclusion of this information in radiology reports may be useful to convey important information on cardiovascular risk, particularly premature atherosclerosis in younger patients. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Effect of B2O3 content on structure and spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped calcium aluminate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shuai; Wang, Xue; Xu, Wenbin; Wang, Xin; He, Dongbing; Hu, Lili

    2017-04-01

    Nd2O3-doped calcium aluminate glasses was synthesized with the following compositions: (100-x)(33Al2O3-62CaO-2MgO-3BaO)-xB2O3-0.5Nd2O3 (x = 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10). The Raman, absorption, and emission spectra were measured to characterize the structure and spectroscopic properties of these glasses. The glass thermal stability was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests. Both the Raman spectra and DSC results indicated a decrease in the non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) in the [AlO4]- network with an increase in the B2O3 content. The J-O intensity parameter Ω2, covalency degree of the Nd-O bond, and emission bandwidth of the Nd3+ ions decreased with the B2O3 content. The stimulated emission cross-section and optical gain property increased with an increase in the B2O3 content. The tunable gain property and broadband emission feature of the Nd3+-doped CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-MgO-BaO calcium aluminate glass suggested a potential application to a high-energy ultra-short-pulse laser.

  6. Gender and age effects on risk factor-based prediction of coronary artery calcium in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The influence of gender and age on risk factor prediction of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic patients is unclear. METHODS: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (EURO-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62......% male, from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and USA. All of them underwent risk factor assessment and CT scanning for CAC scoring. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC among females was lower than among males in all age groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, age, dyslipidaemia, hypertension......, diabetes and smoking were independently predictive of CAC presence in both genders. In addition to a progressive increase in CAC with age, the most important predictors of CAC presence were dyslipidaemia and diabetes (β = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively) in males and diabetes (β = 1.08) followed by smoking (β...

  7. Evaluation of implant calcium-phosphate materials depending on their mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Talashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatibility of original implant calcium-phosphate materials was evaluated in the experiment on animals. The methods of radiological electron-probe microanalysis (REMA and light and scan electron microscopy (SEM were used. Studied materials had the properties of biodegradation, osteoinduction and osteoconduction at different extent. The materials with the composite maximally close to the the bone tissue had the greatest grade of biocompatibility.

  8. Decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, not myofilament function, contributes to muscle twitch force decline in isolated cardiac trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Brunello, Lucia; Gyorke, Sándor; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to determine the factors responsible for twitch force decline in isolated intact rat cardiac trabeculae. The contractile force of trabeculae declined over extended periods of isometric twitch contractions. The force-frequency relationship within the frequency range of 4–8 Hz, at 37 °C, became more positive and the frequency optimum shifted to higher rates with this decline in baseline twitch tensions. The post-rest potentiation (37 °C), a phenomenon highly dependent on calcium handling mechanisms, became more pronounced with decrease in twitch tensions. We show that the main abnormality during muscle run-down was not due to a deficit in the myofilaments; maximal tension achieved using a K+ contracture protocol was either unaffected or only slightly decreased. Conversely, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, as assessed by rapid cooling contractures (from 27 °C to 0 °C), decreased, and had a close association with the declining twitch tensions (R2 ~ 0.76). SR Ca2+-ATPase, relative to Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity, was not altered as there was no significant change in paired rapid cooling contracture ratios. Furthermore, confocal microscopy detected no abnormalities in the overall structure of the cardiomyocytes and t-tubules in the cardiac trabeculae (~23 °C). Overall, the data indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for force run-down in multi-cellular cardiac preparations is a decline in the SR calcium content and not the maximal tension generation capability of the myofilaments. PMID:25056841

  9. Effect of processing conditions on phytic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc contents of lime-cooked maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, Ricardo; Turcios, Juan Carlos; Colmenares de Ruiz, Ana Silvia; de Palomo, Patricia Palocios

    2004-03-10

    Tortillas are made by cooking maize in a lime solution during variable times and temperatures, steeping the grain for up to 12 h, washing and grinding it to a fine dough, and cooking portions as flat cakes for up to 6 min. The effects of the main processing steps on the chemical composition, nutritive value, and functional and physicochemical characteristics have been areas of research. The present work evaluates the effect of lime concentration (0, 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6%) and cooking times (45, 60, and 75 min) on phytic acid retention of whole maize, its endosperm, and germ, as well as on the content of calcium, iron, and zinc on the same samples. The effects of steeping time and temperature and steeping medium on the phytic acid of lime-cooked maize were also studied. Finally, phytic acid changes from raw maize to tortilla were also measured. The results indicated that lime concentration and cooking time reduce phytic acid content in whole grain (17.4%), in endosperm (45.8%), and in germ (17.0%). Statistical analyses suggested higher phytic acid loss with 1.2% lime and 75 min of cooking. Cooking with the lime solution is more effective in reducing phytic acid than cooking with water. Steeping maize in lime solution at 50 degrees C during 8 h reduced phytic acid an additional 8%. The total loss of phytic acid from maize to tortilla was 22%. Calcium content increased in whole maize, endosperm, and germ with lime concentration and cooking and steeping times. The increase was higher in the germ than in the endosperm. The level, however, can be controlled if steeping of the cooked grain is conducted in water. Iron and zinc contents were not affected by nixtamalization processing variables but were affected in steeping.

  10. Expression and function of calcium-activated potassium channels following in-stent restenosis in a porcine coronary artery model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mais F. Absi

    2012-04-01

    Functional analysis using 1-EBIO and Bradykinin produced hyperpolarization of neointimal but not medial myocytes, which indicated the expression of functional endothelial SK3 and IKCa in the former and not in the latter. The expression of IKCa and SK3 within the neointimal layer suggested that some degree of recovery of both endothelial as well as smooth muscle regeneration had occurred. Future development of selective modulators of IKCa and SK3 channels may decrease the progression of ISR and improve coronary vascular function after stent placement, and is an area for future investigation.

  11. Age, Gender, and Race-Based Coronary Artery Calcium Score Percentiles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Gomez, Luz M; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Foppa, Murilo; Blaha, Michael J; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been demonstrated to independently predict the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, especially among White populations. Although the population distribution of CAC has been determined for several White populations, the distribution in ethnically admixed groups has not been well established. The CAC distribution, stratified for age, gender and race, is similar to the previously described distribution in the MESA study. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate subclinical cardiovascular disease in 6 different centers of Brazil. Similar to previous studies, individuals with self-reported coronary or cerebrovascular disease and those treated for diabetes mellitus were excluded from analysis. Percentiles of CAC distribution were estimated with nonparametric techniques. The analysis included 3616 individuals (54% female; mean age, 50 years). As expected, CAC prevalence and burden were steadily higher with increasing age, as well as increased in men and in White individuals. Our results revealed that for a given CAC score, the ELSA-derived CAC percentile would be lower in men compared with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and would be higher in women compared with MESA. In our sample of the Brazilian population, we observed significant differences in CAC by sex, age, and race. Adjusted for age and sex, low-risk individuals from the Brazilian population present with significantly lower CAC prevalence and burden compared with other low-risk individuals from other worldwide populations. Using US-derived percentiles in Brazilian individuals may lead to overestimating relative CAC burden in men and underestimating relative CAC burden in women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Coronary calcium score in 12-year breast cancer survivors after adjuvant radiotherapy with low to moderate heart exposure - Relationship to cardiac radiation dose and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjessem, Kristin Holm; Bosse, Gerhard; Fosså, Kristian; Reinertsen, Kristin V; Fosså, Sophie D; Johansen, Safora; Fosså, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We explored the relation between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiac radiation doses in breast cancer survivors (BCS) treated with radiotherapy (RT). Additionally, we examined the impact of other risk factors and biomarkers of coronary artery disease (CAD). 236 BCS (median age 51years [range 30-70], median observation time 12years [9.2-15.7]), treated with 4-field RT of 50GY, were included and examined in 2004 (T1), 2007 (T2) and 2011 (T3) with clinical examination, blood tests and questionnaires. At T3, cardiac computed tomography was performed with quantification of CAC using Agatston score (AS). For 106 patients cardiac dose volume histograms were available. The cohort-based median of the mean cardiac dose was 2.5 (range 0.5-7.0) Gy. There was no correlation between measures of cardiac dose and AS. AS was correlated with high cholesterol at T1/T2 (p=0.022), high proBNP at T1/T2 (p<0.022) and T3 (p<0.022) and high HbA1c at T3 (p=0.022). In addition, a high AS was significantly associated with hypertension (p=0.022). Age (p<0.001) and cholesterol at T1/T2 (p=0.001) retained significant associations in multivariate analysis. Traditional, modifiable risk factors of CAD correlate with CAC and may be important for the long term risk of CAD after RT. With low to moderate cardiac radiation exposure, a contribution of radiation dose to CAC could not be demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Gender on the Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium in Symptomatic Patients With Normal Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M; Timmer, Jorik R; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Mouden, Mohamed; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L

    2016-12-01

    The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score provides independent prognostic value on top of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We sought to determine whether the prognostic value of the CAC score in patients with normal SPECT MPI is gender specific. We studied 3,705 consecutive symptomatic patients without a history of coronary artery disease with normal SPECT MPI. All patients underwent concomitant CAC scoring, which was categorized as CAC score 0, 1 to 99, 100 to 399, 400 to 999, or ≥1,000. Major adverse cardiac events were defined as revascularization, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or all-cause mortality. The median CAC score was 9 in women (interquartile range 0 to 113) and 47 in men (interquartile range 1 to 307, p CAC score, annual event rates were similar (for women and men, respectively: CAC score 0, 0.6% and 0.5%, p = 0.95; CAC score 1 to 99, 0.9% and 1.2%, p = 0.45; CAC score 100 to 399, 2.7% and 3.8%, p = 0.23; CAC score 400 to 999, 3.8% and 5.3%, p = 0.34; CAC score ≥1,000, 8.4% and 8.7%, p = 0.99). The CAC score was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events in both genders (CAC score ≥1,000: hazard ratio for women 8.5, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 18.1; hazard ratio for men 14.8, 95% confidence interval 5.3 to 41.1). In conclusion, risk for events is similar for both genders when stratified by CAC score, wherein a high CAC score carries a high risk for events despite normal SPECT MPI. Our findings do not reveal a gender-specific prognostic value of the CAC score.

  14. Effect of Cu2+ and pH on intracellular calcium content and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of copper ions and pH of external solution on intracellular calcium homeostasis and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots. Experiment was carried out with winter wheat. Sterile seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on the filter paper soaked with acetic buffer (pH 4.7 and 6.2 at 20 °Cin the dark for 48 hours. Copper was added as CuSO4. It’s concentrations varied from 0 to 50 µM. The Ca2+-fluorescent dye Fluo-3/AM ester was loaded on 60 hour. Root fluorescence with Fluo-3 loading was detected using X-Cite Series 120 Q unit attached to microscope Olympus BX53 with camera Olympus DP72. Imaging of root cells was achieved after exciting with 488 nm laser and collection of emission signals above 512 nm. Preliminary analysis of the images was performed using software LabSens; brightness (fluorescence intensity analysis was carried out by means of ImageJ. Peroxidation of lipids was determined according to Kumar and Knowles method. It was found that pH of solution had effect on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Low pH provokes an increase of [Ca2+]cyt which may be reaction of roots to acidic medium. Copper induces increase in non-selective permeability of plasma membrane and leads to its faster depolarization. This probably initiates Ca-dependent depolarization channels which are responsible for the influx of calcium from apoplast into the cell. Changing of the membrane permeability may occur due to interaction between Cu2+ ions and Ca-binding sites on plasma membrane or may be due to binding of copper with sulfhydryl groups and increasing of POL. Copper may also damage lipid bilayer and change the activity of some non-selective channels and transporters. Reactive oxygen species which are formed under some types of stress factors, especially the effect of heavy metals, can be activators of Ca-channels. Cu2+ ions rise MDA content and promote the oxidative stress. Low medium pH also induces its

  15. [Evaluation of calcium content in the human spine by in vivo neutron activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭchik, V E; Dubrovin, A P; Korelo, A M; Morukov, B V

    1993-01-01

    A technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) of calcium levels in lumbar, thoracic and cervical segments of the spinal column separately and as a whole has been developed. Special device provides selective irradiation by neutrons of a vertebral segment under study while a highly-sensitive spectrometric unit registers radionuclides induced in bone tissue during radiation exposure. For radiation exposure 5 or 10 238Pu-Be neutron sources with 5.10(7) neutrons s-1 output of each source are used. The spectrometric unit consists of 4 scintillation detectors with NaI (Tl) crystals of 150 mm in diameter and 100 mm- thickness arranged in a line tightly one after another. The time of exposure depends on the number and mutual arrangement of the neutron sources and is selected given the dose equivalent at depth of positioning of the spinal cord does not exceed 1 cZv (REM), the quality factor for fast neutrons equals 10. The recording duration is 20 min, the intervals between radiation exposure and recording do not exceed 3 min. The magnitude of the total error of an individual measurement estimated by reproducibility of the data obtained in 2 series of in vivo NAA of the spinal calcium levels in 6 volunteers with the use of 5 neutron sources amounts to an average of 4.8%. When used 10 sources, this error can be reduced to 2.0-3.2%.

  16. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Rampal, Sanjay; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Choi, Yuni; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lim, So Yeon; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend  100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend  100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECT OF LIMING AND USE OF WASTE ORGANIC MATERIALS ON THE CONTENTS OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN COCK’S-FOOT CULTIVATED ON NICKEL-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kuziemska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of liming and the addition to soil of waste organic materials on the contents of calcium and magnesium in cock’s-foot (Dactylis glomerata L. cultivated on soil contaminated to various degrees with nickel was studied in a pot culture experiment. Plants from four cuts of grass were analysed in the third year of the study. The following factors were taken into account: 1 – contamination of soils with nickel (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg N·kg-1 of soil; 2 – liming (0 Ca and Ca according to Hh of soil; 3 – waste organic materials (no waste organic materials added, brown coal and rye straw. With increasing nickel content in soil, the magnesium content in biomass of the test plant decreased. The applied liming resulted in an increase in the average calcium content and a decrease in the magnesium content in cock’s-foot. No significant effect of introducing straw to soil on the contents of calcium and magnesium in biomass of the grass was found, while the effect of brown coal was visible both for calcium and for magnesium (in the plants harvested from the objects to which brown coal was applied, the contents of both macroelements were, on average, lower than in the plants harvested from the control objects.

  18. [Platelet aggregation upon acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel treatment and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa content in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaspekova, S G; Ziuriaev, I T; Iakushkin, V V; Golubeva, N V; Ruda, M Ia; Mazurov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between aggregating activity of platelets and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) content on their surface was investigated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Eighty nine ACS patients were included into the study - 69 with and 20 without elevation of ST segment. Blood was collected within the first hour of admission to the clinic (1 day), and then at 3-5 and 8-12 days. All patients received standard antiaggregant therapy - acetylsalicylic acid - ASA (thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor) and clopidogrel (ADP receptor antagonist). Platelet aggregation was analyzed at the first time point when patients had already taken ASA but not clopidogrel, and then (3-5 and 8- 12 days) upon combined therapy with both preparations. Aggregation was induced by 5 and 20 uM ADP and measured by turbidimetric method. In comparison with the initial level (1 day, ASA) at days 3-5, i.e. after development of clopidogrel effect, platelet aggregation was decreased by 54 and 40% upon its stimulation with 5 and 20 uM ADP, and was not further changed at days 8-12. GP IIb/IIIa content on platelet surface was determined by binding of 125I-labelled monoclonal antibody CRC64. GP IIb/IIIa number varied from 31100 to 73000 per platelet with the mean level of 48500 +/- 8400 (mean +/- standard deviation). No differences were detected between mean GP IIb/IIIa number at 1, 3-5 and 8-12 days after ACS onset. Upon repeat GP IIb/IIIa measurement coefficient of variation was 6.1% demonstrating the stability of this parameter in each patient. Positive correlation between platelet aggregation and GP IIb/IIIa content was detected at the first day - correlation coefficients (r) 0.425 and 0.470 for 5 and 20 uM ADP (n=57, p0.05). These results indicates that variations of GP IIb/IIIa content affect platelet aggregating activity within first hours of ACS upon ASA treatment. However after saturation with clopidogrel this factor has no significant influence on platelet aggregation

  19. Role of calcium mobilization in the regulation of spontaneous transient outward currents in porcine coronary artery myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to further study the characteristics and regulation of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in freshly isolated porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). STOCs were recorded using the perforated whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. STOCs were voltage-dependent and superimposed stochastically onto whole-cell Ca2+-activated-K+ (BKCa) currents. Charybdotoxin (ChTX, 200 nmol/L), a selective blocker of BKCa channels, completely inhibited STOCs within 10 min. STOCs activity was greatly suppressed when extracellular Ca2+ concentration decreased from 1.8 mmol/L to 200 nmol/L, further removal of Ca2+ abolished STOCs activity. Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/L) increased STOCs activity significantly. Verapamil (20 μmol/L) and CdCl2 (200 μmol/L), two kinds of organic L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) antagonists, had little effect on STOCs. In addition, the ryanodine receptors (RyRs) agonist caffeine (5 mmol/L) significantly activated STOCs. Application of ryanodine (50 μmol/L) to block RyRs abolished STOCs, subsequent washout of ryanodine or application of caffeine failed to reproduce STOCs activity. Inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) by 2APB (40 μmol/L) greatly suppressed the activity of STOCs, application of caffeine (5 mmol/L) in the presence of 2APB caused a burst of outward currents followed by inhibition of STOCs. These results suggest that STOCs in porcine coronary ASMCs are mediated by BKCa channels. Extracellular Ca2+ is essential for STOCs activity, while Ca2+ entry through L-VDCCs has little effect on STOCs. Intracellular Ca2+ release induced by RyRs is responsible for the regulation of STOCs, whereas IP3Rs might also be involved.

  20. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute / State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratory of Radiological Sciences / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  1. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Barroso, Regina Cély; de Almeida, André Pereira; Braz, Delson; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; da Silva, Claudia Marcello

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-μXRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian® (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  2. Calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, silicon and zinc content of hair in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Alimonti, Alessandro; Violante, Nicola; Di Gregorio, Marco; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Bocca, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unknown, but some hypotheses have focused on the imbalances in body levels of metals as co-factors of risk. To assess whether hair could be a reliable marker of possible changes, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn) were determined in hair from 81 patients affected by PD and 17 age-matched controls. Care was taken to eliminate external contamination of the hair by thorough washing. Digestion of the matrix was achieved by an acid-assisted microwave procedure. Quantification of the elements was performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Results indicated significantly lower levels of Fe in the hair of patients (p=0.018) compared with controls. Ca and Mg levels were slightly lower while Zn levels were higher in patients, although these differences were not significant; neither were variations in Cu and Si. Ca and Mg were at least 1.5 times higher in females than in males in both controls and patients. In addition, Ca correlated positively with Mg in both groups and in both sexes (p-value always less than 0.03), and negatively with age in patients (p<0.01). Finally, element levels did not correlate with either the duration or the severity of the disease or with anti-Parkinson treatment.

  3. Effects of frozen and liquid hypothermic storage and extender type on calcium homeostasis in relation to viability and ATP content in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R; Woods, L C

    2014-05-01

    The effect of hypothermic storage on striped bass sperm calcium homeostasis was determined by Fluo-3 flow cytometry. Calcium homeostasis was defined as the ability of cells to maintain a low concentration of intracellular free calcium as measured by Fluo-3 fluorescence. Sperm were stored frozen in striped bass extender (SBE) and Tris-NaCl medium (T350) modified with 50 mM glycine and 7.5% dimethylsulfoxide and in nonfrozen form diluted 1:3 (vol/vol) in SBE and T350 for 1, 24, and 48 hours at 4 °C in an oxygen atmosphere. Fluo-3 fluorescence was detected in less than 5% of fresh viable sperm cells indicating maintenance of calcium homeostasis. In contrast to sperm in fresh semen, frozen-thawed and nonfrozen sperm cells lost to a considerable extent the ability to maintain low intracellular free calcium even in the absence of exogenous calcium; positive Fluo-3 fluorescence was found in 26% and 39% of thawed sperm frozen in SBE- and T350-based freezing diluents, respectively, and increased (P 0.05) in SBE after 48 hours of nonfrozen storage but decreased (P < 0.05) to 55.7% after 48 hours in T350. Energy status in terms of ATP content, determined by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay, was higher (P < 0.05) in sperm frozen in SBE than in T350 during the first 5 minutes post-thaw and decreased to essentially zero by 15 minutes post-thaw and did not differ among nonfrozen storage treatments. In conclusion, sperm cells impervious to propidium iodide after frozen or nonfrozen storage were unable to maintain low intracellular calcium content. SBE is a better medium than T350 for frozen or nonfrozen storage of striped bass sperm. The inability to regulate intracellular calcium in striped bass sperm may be associated with poor activation of motility after 4 °C storage and cryopreservation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Calcium and magnesium content in brier (Rosa canina L. fruits at the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BRASOVAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the close relation between Ca and Mg content in the brier fruits with the soil of the Campul lui Neag sterile coal dump, which is in early formation processes from industrial entiantrosoil to a fertile soil. The minerals found in soil sample are: quartz, calcite, biotite, and potassium feldspar. Some of the soil particles are chemical inert (quartz but calcite provide Ca2+ ions and biotite provides Mg2+ ions. The brier roots assimilate those ions despite of lack of humus of entiantrosoil. This interaction between brier roots and entiantrosoil facilitate on the long term the formation of a fertile soil. Chemical analysis of brier fruits feature Ca and Mg content in the reference range (Ca = 0.297 g Ca/100 g solid sample ± 5 %, and Mg = 0.212 g Mg/100 g solid sample ± 5 %. The calculated Ca extraction coefficient is 20% and Mg extraction coefficient is 16 % for the brier fruits growth on the dump soil. The available Ca amount is directly proportional to the calcite content, which is significantly increased comparative with biotite. The less amount of biotite conducts to a less extraction coefficient for Mg. This proves that dump soil is able to assure an optimal amount of Ca and Mg for the brier fruits growing. The lack of heavy metals in the dump site is a favorable assumption for human use of brier fruits. The brier wild crop growth on the sterile dump soil is suitable for home application (brier marmalade, depurative tea, etc…. The sterile dump soil rehabilitation prove to be a slowly process counting only on the brier interaction with mineral components. The actual state feature a good progress of dump rehabilitation. The process could be fastened by improving some natural fertilizing procedures. Finally a professional crop for industrial applications could be growth on the sterile dump site only with a proper soil fertilization.

  5. The effect of long-term hypoxia on tension and intracellular calcium responses following stimulation of the thromboxane A(2) receptor in the left anterior descending coronary artery of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruko, Keiko; Stiffel, Virginia M; Gilbert, Raymond D

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of tension and intracellular calcium regulation following stimulation with the thromboxane A(2) receptor agonist U46619 in the left anterior descending coronary artery of fetal sheep exposed to long-term hypoxia. We hypothesized that there would be a reduction in intracellular calcium responses in long-term hypoxic left anterior descending coronary artery accompanied by an increase in calcium sensitivity of the contractile mechanism. Pregnant sheep were kept at altitude (3820 m) from day 30 of gestation until day 140. Fetal hearts from long-term hypoxic and from a control, normoxic group were obtained and the left anterior descending coronary artery of the fetus was dissected, cleaned, and mounted in a bath (Jasco) in which tension and intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i), using Fura-2, could be measured simultaneously following stimulation of the thromboxane A(2) receptor with U46619. The role of intracellular calcium and the Rho kinase and protein kinase C pathways in the tension responses were investigated by maintaining intracellular calcium constant or by using the Rho kinase blocker, Y27632, or the protein kinase C blocker, GF109203-X. There was no difference in the tension dose-response to U46619 between the normoxic fetal and hypoxic fetal left anterior descending, although [Ca(2+)](i) was lower in the hypoxic fetal than normoxic fetal at the highest doses. When [Ca(2+)]( i) was maintained constant at baseline levels, U46619 produced the same tension dose-response in both normoxic fetal and hypoxic fetal left anterior descending as when [Ca(2+)](i) was allowed to rise. The tension response was abolished in both groups when the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, was given either during or before stimulation with U46619. The protein kinase C blocker, GF109203-X, had no effect on the tension response in either group. Long-term hypoxia did not alter the tension response to thromboxane A(2) receptor stimulation

  6. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR is a powerful tool in measuring drug content because of its high speed, sensitivity, and precision. Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods. In the present study, both 19F and 1H qNMR were performed to characterize the content of atorvastatin calcium with the same internal standard. Linearity, precision, and results from two methods were compared. Results showed that 19F qNMR has similar precision and sensitivity to 1H qNMR. Both methods generate similar results compared to mass balance method. Major advantage from 19F qNMR is that the analyte signal is with less or no interference from impurities. 19F qNMR is an excellent approach to quantify fluorine-containing analytes.

  7. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  9. Effect of Heart Rate and Body Mass Index on the Interscan and Interobserver Variability of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring at Prospective ECG-Triggered 64-Slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Jun; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako [Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsuura, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kitagawa, Toshiro; Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    To test the effects of heart rate, body mass index (BMI) and noise level on interscan and interobserver variability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on a prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered 64-slice CT. One hundred and ten patients (76 patients with CAC) were scanned twice on prospective ECG-triggered scans. The scan parameters included 120 kV, 82 mAs, a 2.5 mm thickness, and an acquisition center at 45% of the RR interval. The interscan and interobserver variability on the CAC scores (Agatston, volume, and mass) was calculated. The factors affecting the variability were determined by plotting it against heart rate, BMI, and noise level (defined as the standard deviation: SD). The estimated effective dose was 1.5 {+-} 0.2 mSv. The mean heart rate was 63 {+-} 12 bpm (range, 44-101 bpm). The patient BMIs were 24.5 {+-} 4.5 kg/m{sup 2} (range, 15.5-42.3 kg/m2). The mean and median interscan variabilities were 11% and 6%, respectively by volume, and 11% and 6%, respectively, by mass. Moreover, the mean and median of the algorithms were lower than the Agatston algorithm (16% and 9%, respectively). The mean and median interobserver variability was 10% and 4%, respectively (average of algorithms). The mean noise levels were 15 {+-} 4 Hounsfield unit (HU) (range, 8-25 HU). The interscan and interobserver variability was not correlated with heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The interscan and interobserver variability of CAC on a prospective ECG-triggered 64-slice CT with high image quality and 45% of RR acquisition is not significantly affected by heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The volume or mass algorithms show reduced interscan variability compared to the Agatston scoring (p < 0.05)

  10. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 signaling enhances TRPM1 calcium channel function and increases melanin content in human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sulochana; Markandeya, Yogananda; Maddodi, Nityanand; Dhingra, Anuradha; Vardi, Noga; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2013-05-01

    Mutations in TRPM1, a calcium channel expressed in retinal bipolar cells and epidermal melanocytes, cause complete congenital stationary night blindness with no discernible skin phenotype. In the retina, TRPM1 activity is negatively coupled to metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signaling through Gαo and TRPM1 mutations result in the loss of responsiveness of TRPM1 to mGluR6 signaling. Here, we show that human melanocytes express mGluR6, and treatment of melanocytes with L-AP4, a type III mGluR-selective agonist, enhances Ca(2+) uptake. Knockdown of TRPM1 or mGluR6 by shRNA abolished L-AP4-induced Ca(2+) influx and TRPM1 currents, showing that TRPM1 activity in melanocytes is positively coupled to mGluR6 signaling. Gαo protein is absent in melanocytes. However, forced expression of Gαo restored negative coupling of TRPM1 to mGluR6 signaling, but treatment with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi /Go proteins, did not affect basal or mGluR6-induced Ca(2+) uptake. Additionally, chronic stimulation of mGluR6 altered melanocyte morphology and increased melanin content. These data suggest differences in coupling of TRPM1 function to mGluR6 signaling explain different cellular responses to glutamate in the retina and the skin.

  11. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in br

  12. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health. PMID:27783700

  13. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health.

  14. INVESTIGATION FOR THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MAGNESIUM SULFATE DOSES ON THE CONTENT OF CALCIUM AND CHLORIDE IN BLOOD SERUM OF RATS OF BOTH GENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an investigation for the influence of different magnesium sulfate doses on the content of calcium and chloride in blood serum of rats of both genders. As the result of the study, we have established that peroral administration of magnesium sulfate at dose 1.7 g/kg leads to the significant decrease of chlorides content in blood serum of male rats, concerning the control group of animals, and at dose 5 g/kg to the decrease of concentration, chloride as well as calcium in rats of both genders.

  15. Influence of differences in the hardness and calcium content of diets on the growth of craniofacial bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shota; Fujita, Yuko; Hotta, Maika; Sugiyama, Ayako; Maki, Kenshi

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of a soft diet and a low-calcium diet on the craniofacial growth and bone architectures of the maxilla and mandible. Male rats (n  =  20, 3 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Ten rats were given a normal-calcium diet, and the other rats were given a low-calcium diet. Each group was then divided into two subgroups, which were fed a hard or a soft diet. After 4 weeks, craniofacial growth and architecture in maxillary and mandibular bone were analyzed using cephalometry, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. The low-calcium diet had no effect on serum calcium levels. The low-calcium diet had the greatest effect on craniofacial bone growth, while the soft diet affected the growth of several bone sites that are attached to the masseter muscle. A low-calcium diet resulted in the deterioration of the connectivity of the trabeculae in the furcation region of the maxillary and mandibular first molar, while a soft diet resulted in the diffuse disappearance of trabeculae in the central part of the furcation regions. In the midpalatal suture, a low-calcium diet resulted in inhibition of cartilaginous ossification, although the midpalatal suture had a normal cartilaginous structure. A soft diet resulted in narrower cartilage cell layers in the midpalatal suture. We demonstrated that a low-calcium diet and a soft diet resulted in a deterioration of bone structures in both the maxilla and in the mandible; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects differed between diets.

  16. Coronary Calcium Scoring and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Cuantificación del calcio coronario y riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodia M. Rivas Alpízar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Coronary calcium scoring has proved to be a useful tool for stratifying cardiovascular risk. Objective: To quantify coronary calcium in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in order to estimate cardiovascular risk. Methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted. The sample included 33 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted in the Center for Diabetes Care and Education of Cienfuegos from April to July 2009. Variables studied: age, sex, nutritional assessment, illness duration, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Coronary calcium was determined with multislice helical CT scanner. Results: females were predominant. Most patients were between 41 and 70 years old. More than half were from 2 to 11 years of evolution and had fasting glucose levels higher than 7.0 mmol / L. In 40.0% of diabetic patients three or more risk factors and average and high coronary calcium values were present. Out of the total, 21.7% (5 patients has less than three risk factors and average and high values. Conclusions: Performing coronary calcium quantification can reclassify cardiovascular risk in a high percentage of estimated cases.Fundamento: la diabetes mellitus es considerada como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular independiente. La cuantificación de calcio coronario ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para estratificar el riesgo cardiovascular. Objetivo: cuantificar el calcio coronario en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 para estimar el riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: estudio descriptivo observacional que incluyó 33 pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que ingresaron en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Cienfuegos de abril a julio del 2009. Variables estudiadas: edad, sexo, evaluaci

  17. Impact of hybrid iterative reconstruction on Agatston coronary artery calcium scores in comparison to filtered back projection in native cardiac CT; Einfluss der hybriden iterativen Rekonstruktion bei der nativen CT des Herzens auf die Agatston-Kalziumscores der Koronararterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obmann, V.C.; Heverhagen, J.T. [Inselspital - University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). University Inst. for Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology; Klink, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Stork, A.; Begemann, P.G.C. [Roentgeninstitut Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-05-15

    To investigate whether the effects of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) on coronary artery calcium (CAC) measurements using the Agatston score lead to changes in assignment of patients to cardiovascular risk groups compared to filtered back projection (FBP). 68 patients (mean age 61.5 years; 48 male; 20 female) underwent prospectively ECG-gated, non-enhanced, cardiac 256-MSCT for coronary calcium scoring. Scanning parameters were as follows: Tube voltage, 120 kV; Mean tube current time-product 63.67 mAs (50 - 150 mAs); collimation, 2 x 128 x 0.625 mm. Images were reconstructed with FBP and with HIR at all levels (L1 to L7). Two independent readers measured Agatston scores of all reconstructions and assigned patients to cardiovascular risk groups. Scores of HIR and FBP reconstructions were correlated (Spearman). Interobserver agreement and variability was assessed with k-statistics and Bland-Altmann-Plots. Agatston scores of HIR reconstructions were closely correlated with FBP reconstructions (L1, R = 0.9996; L2, R = 0.9995; L3, R = 0.9991; L4, R = 0.986; L5, R = 0.9986; L6, R = 0.9987; and L7, R = 0.9986). In comparison to FBP, HIR led to reduced Agatston scores between 97% (L1) and 87.4% (L7) of the FBP values. Using HIR iterations L1-L3, all patients were assigned to identical risk groups as after FPB reconstruction. In 5.4% of patients the risk group after HIR with the maximum iteration level was different from the group after FBP reconstruction. There was an excellent correlation of Agatston scores after HIR and FBP with identical risk group assignment at levels 1 - 3 for all patients. Hence it appears that the application of HIR in routine calcium scoring does not entail any disadvantages. Thus, future studies are needed to demonstrate whether HIR is a reliable method for reducing radiation dose in coronary calcium scoring.

  18. Reliability analysis of visual ranking of coronary artery calcification on low-dose CT of the thorax for lung cancer screening: comparison with ECG-gated calcium scoring CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Sung, Yon Mi; Cho, So Hyun; Park, Young Nam; Choi, Hye-Young

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is frequently detected on low-dose CT (LDCT) of the thorax. Concurrent assessment of CAC and lung cancer screening using LDCT is beneficial in terms of cost and radiation dose reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of visual ranking of positive CAC on LDCT compared to Agatston score (AS) on electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated calcium scoring CT. We studied 576 patients who were consecutively registered for health screening and undergoing both LDCT and ECG-gated calcium scoring CT. We excluded subjects with an AS of zero. The final study cohort included 117 patients with CAC (97 men; mean age, 53.4 ± 8.5). AS was used as the gold standard (mean score 166.0; range 0.4-3,719.3). Two board-certified radiologists and two radiology residents participated in an observer performance study. Visual ranking of CAC was performed according to four categories (1-10, 11-100, 101-400, and 401 or higher) for coronary artery disease risk stratification. Weighted kappa statistics were used to measure the degree of reliability on visual ranking of CAC on LDCT. The degree of reliability on visual ranking of CAC on LDCT compared to ECG-gated calcium scoring CT was excellent for board-certified radiologists and good for radiology residents. A high degree of association was observed with 71.6% of visual rankings in the same category as the Agatston category and 98.9% varying by no more than one category. Visual ranking of positive CAC on LDCT is reliable for predicting AS rank categorization.

  19. Impact of citric acid and calcium ions on acid solubilization of mechanically separated turkey meat: effect on lipid and pigment content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynets, Y; Omana, D A; Xu, Y; Betti, M

    2011-02-01

    Increased demand for poultry products has resulted in an increased availability of by-products, such as the neck, back, and frame, that can be processed into mechanically separated poultry meat. The major problems with mechanically separated poultry meat are its high lipid content, color instability, and high susceptibility to lipid oxidation. The present work was undertaken to determine the effect of different concentrations of citric acid and calcium ions on protein yield, color characteristics, and lipid removal from protein isolates prepared using an acid-aided extraction process. Six levels of citric acid (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L) and 2 levels of calcium chloride (0 and 8 mmol/L) were examined. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times, resulting in 36 extractions (3 × 6 × 2). The highest (P citric acid. In general, all the combinations removed an average of 90.8% of the total lipids from mechanically separated turkey meat, ranging from 86.2 to 94.7%. The lowest amount (1.14%) of total lipids obtained was for samples treated with 4 mmol/L of citric acid. Maximum removal of neutral lipids (96.5%) and polar lipids (96.4%) was attained with the addition of 6 and 2 mmol/L of citric acid, respectively. Polar lipid content was found to be significantly (P = 0.0045) affected by the presence of calcium chloride. The isolated proteins were less (P citric acid. Addition of calcium chloride had a negative effect on total pigment content. The study revealed that acid extractions with the addition of citric acid resulted in substantial removal of lipids and pigments from mechanically separated turkey meat, improved stability of the recovered proteins against lipid oxidation, and appreciable protein recovery yields.

  20. Effect of calcium content on the microstructure, hardness and in-vitro corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Eslami Harandi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of calcium addition on microstructure, hardness value and corrosion behavior of five different Mg-xCa binary alloys (x = 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt. (% was investigated. Notable refinement in microstructure of the alloy occurred with increasing calcium content. In addition, more uniform distribution of Mg2Ca phase was observed in a-Mg matrix resulted in an increase in hardness value. The in-vitro corrosion examination using Kokubo simulated body fluid showed that the addition of calcium shifted the fluid pH value to a higher level similar to those found in pure commercial Mg. The high pH value amplified the formation and growth of bone-like apatite. Higher percentage of Ca resulted in needle-shaped growth of the apatite. Electrochemical measurements in the same solution revealed that increasing Ca content led to higher corrosion rates due to the formation of more cathodic Mg2Ca precipitate in the microstructure. The results therefore suggested that Mg-0.7Ca with the minimum amount of Mg2Ca is a good candidate for bio-implant applications.

  1. Effect of calcium content on the microstructure, hardness and in-vitro corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Eslami Harandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of calcium addition on microstructure, hardness value and corrosion behavior of five different Mg-xCa binary alloys (x = 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt. (% was investigated. Notable refinement in microstructure of the alloy occurred with increasing calcium content. In addition, more uniform distribution of Mg2Ca phase was observed in a-Mg matrix resulted in an increase in hardness value. The in-vitro corrosion examination using Kokubo simulated body fluid showed that the addition of calcium shifted the fluid pH value to a higher level similar to those found in pure commercial Mg. The high pH value amplified the formation and growth of bone-like apatite. Higher percentage of Ca resulted in needle-shaped growth of the apatite. Electrochemical measurements in the same solution revealed that increasing Ca content led to higher corrosion rates due to the formation of more cathodic Mg2Ca precipitate in the microstructure. The results therefore suggested that Mg-0.7Ca with the minimum amount of Mg2Ca is a good candidate for bio-implant applications.

  2. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  3. Upregulation of SK3 and IK1 channels contributes to the enhanced endothelial calcium signaling and the preserved coronary relaxation in obese Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Climent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial small- and intermediate-conductance KCa channels, SK3 and IK1, are key mediators in the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and also in the modulation of endothelial Ca2+ signaling and nitric oxide (NO release. Obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired relaxation, although how obesity influences endothelial SK3/IK1 function is unclear. Therefore we assessed whether the role of these channels in the coronary circulation is altered in obese animals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In coronary arteries mounted in microvascular myographs, selective blockade of SK3/IK1 channels unmasked an increased contribution of these channels to the ACh- and to the exogenous NO- induced relaxations in arteries of Obese Zucker Rats (OZR compared to Lean Zucker Rats (LZR. Relaxant responses induced by the SK3/IK1 channel activator NS309 were enhanced in OZR and NO- endothelium-dependent in LZR, whereas an additional endothelium-independent relaxant component was found in OZR. Fura2-AM fluorescence revealed a larger ACh-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in the endothelium of coronary arteries from OZR, which was inhibited by blockade of SK3/IK1 channels in both LZR and OZR. Western blot analysis showed an increased expression of SK3/IK1 channels in coronary arteries of OZR and immunohistochemistry suggested that it takes place predominantly in the endothelial layer. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity may induce activation of adaptive vascular mechanisms to preserve the dilator function in coronary arteries. Increased function and expression of SK3/IK1 channels by influencing endothelial Ca2+ dynamics might contribute to the unaltered endothelium-dependent coronary relaxation in the early stages of obesity.

  4. 高硫酸钙光卤石矿的优化实验研究%Optimization study on carnallite with high content of calcium sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全军; 谭忠德; 张生富; 季大庆

    2011-01-01

    Screening analysis experiment, saturated brine dissolving and washing experiment, and flotation comparison experiment were carried out for studying carnallite with high content of calcium sulfate. It was found that calcium suffate will enrich in the production of potassium chloride,which will cause a big impact on the quality of potassium chloride products.In carnallite with high content of calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate mainly concentrated in the small particles with size under 0. 038 mm,which accounted for 4.84% of the total amount. If through mesh sieve,removal rate calcium sulfute could reach more than 61.82% and potassium loss rate was only 1.05%. Then the mass fraction of calcium sulfate in carnallite could be reduced to 1.4% below from 1.99% by using saturated brine to dissolve and wash it and the calcium sulfate in the brine could also be separated out due to common-ion effect and salting-out effect, so that the quality of brine could be also improved. Dissolving and washing of high calium ore in saturated brine can increase the mass fraction of KCl in final product to 90% or more and the process route of continuous industrial production of carnallite with high content of calcium sulfate was further obtained.%通过对高硫酸钙光卤石矿的筛分分析实验和饱和卤水溶洗实验,并经浮选对比实验发现,硫酸钙在氯化钾生产过程中的富集会对产品氯化钾质量产生很大的影响.高硫酸钙光卤石矿中,硫酸钙粒径主要集中在0.038 mm以下,占总量的4.84%,若通过筛分可使除钙率达61.82%以上,钾损率只为1.05%.由此可知,用饱和卤水溶洗高硫酸钙光卤石矿,能使光卤石矿中硫酸钙质量分数由1.99%降低到1.4%以下,也能使饱和卤水中硫酸钙发生同离子效应和盐析效应而析出,从而提高卤水的质量.高钙原矿在饱和卤水中的溶洗,可使最终产品中w(KCI)>90%,并进一步确定了高硫酸钙光卤石矿的工业化连续生产的工艺路线.

  5. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  6. The Effect of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP on the Cytosolic Calcium Concentration and Force in Rat Intramural Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheykhzade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of CGRP-induced relaxation in intramural rat coronary arteries. By using FURA-2 technique, cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i was measured during contraction of the vascular smooth muscle with receptor-dependent agonist (tromboxane A2 analogue U46619 and with high concentration of extracellular potassium. At a steady state of contraction, the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by 300 nM U46619 (100״x 14 nM, n = 7 was similar to that induced by 36 mM K+ (98 ״x 9 nM, n = 7. However, the active tension induced by 300 nM U46619 was significantly (p < 0.01 higher than that induced by 36 mM K+. CGRP concentration-dependently (10 pM - 10 nM reduced both the [Ca2+]i and tension of coronary arteries precontracted with either U46619 or BAY K 8644, and also of resting coronary arteries in PSS. In 36 mM K+-depolarized arteries, CGRP reduced only the tension without affecting the [Ca2+]i. In 300 nM U46619 precontracted arteries, pretreatment with 10 μM thapsigargin significantly (p < 0.05 attenuated the CGRP-induced reduction in the tension (but not [Ca2+]i. In 300 nM U46619 precontracted arteries, pretreatment with either 100 nM charybdotoxin or 100 nM iberiotoxin or 10 nM felodipine significantly (p < 0.05 attenuated the CGRP-induced reduction in both [Ca2+]i and the tension. In contrast, 1 μM glibenclamide did not affect the CGRP-induced responses in these coronary arteries. In resting coronary arteries, only pretreatment with the combination of 1 μM glibenclamide and 100 nM charybdotoxin attenuated the CGRP-induced decrease in the [Ca2+]i and tension, suggesting a different mechanism of action for CGRP in resting coronary arteries. We conclude that CGRP relaxes precontracted rat coronary arteries via three mechanisms: (1 a decrease in [Ca2+]i by inhibiting the Ca2+ influx through membrane hyperpolarization mediated partly by activation of BKCa channels, (2 a decrease in [Ca2+]i presumably by

  7. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  8. Suppressed increase in blood endothelial progenitor cell content as result of single exhaustive exercise bout in male revascularised coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummens, J L; Daniëls, A; Dendale, P; Hensen, K; Hendrikx, M; Berger, J; Koninckx, R; Hansen, D

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) significantly affect endothelial repair capacity and, hence, cardiovascular disease incidence. In healthy subjects, blood EPC content increases significantly as result of a single maximal exercise test, hereby stimulating endothelial repair capacity. It remains to be shown whether a single exercise positively affects blood EPCs in revascularised coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. From male revascularised CAD patients (n = 60) and healthy volunteers (n = 25) blood samples were collected before and immediately after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Blood samples were analyzed by optimised flow cytometry methodology for EPC content (CD34+, CD34+ CD133+, CD34+VEGFR2+, CD34+CD133+VEGFR2+, and CD34+CD133-VEGFR2+ cells) and compared between groups. CFU-Hill colonies were additionally assessed. As a result of a maximal exercise test, blood CD34+, CD34+VEGFR2+ (all EPCs), CD34+CD133+, and CD34+ CD133-VEGFR2+ (mature EPCs) cells increased significantly in CAD patients (p result of exercise (p > 0.05). No changes in CFU-Hill colonies as result of exercise were observed. This study shows that blood mature EPCs (CD34+CD133-VEGFR2+) increase significantly as result of a single exercise bout in revascularised CAD patients, but with smaller magnitude compared to healthy subjects. Blood immature EPCs (CD34+CD133+VEGFR2+) did not change significantly as result of exercise.

  9. Development of macaronic Hindi-English ‘Hinglish’ text message content for a coronary heart disease secondary prevention programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jay; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Purohit, Gaurav; Thakkar, Swetha; Sharma, Jitender; Verma, Sunilkumar; Parakh, Neeraj; Seth, Sandeep; Mishra, Sundeep; Yadav, Rakesh; Singh, Sandeep; Joshi, Rohina; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. Objectives To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India. Methods We used an iterative process with mixed methods involving three phases: (1) Initial translation, (2) Review and incorporation of feedback including review by cardiologists in India to assess alignment with local guidelines and by consumers on perceived utility and clarity and (3) Pilot testing of message management software. Results Messages were translated in three ways: symmetrical translation, asymmetrical translation and substitution. Feedback from cardiologists and 25 patients was incorporated to develop the final bank. Patients reported Hinglish messages were easy to understand (93%) and useful (78%). The software located in Australia successfully delivered messages to participants based in Delhi-surrounds (India). Conclusions Our process for customisation of a text message program considered cultural, linguistic and the medical context of potential participants. This is important in optimising intervention fidelity across populations enabling examination of the generalisability of text message programs across populations. We also demonstrated the customised program was acceptable to patients in India and that a centralised cross-country delivery model was feasible. This process could be used as a guide for other groups seeking to customise their programs. Trial registration number TEXTMEDS Australia (Parent study)—ACTRN 12613000793718. PMID:27752288

  10. Emergency coronary angioplasty in refractory unstable angina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); K. Balakumaran (Kulasekaram); A.L. Soward; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); B. Mochtar (Bas)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty as an emergency procedure in 60 patients with unstable angina pectoris that was refractory to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and intravenous nitroglycerin. The initial success

  11. Phenotypic shift of adipocytes by cholecalciferol and 1α,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in relation to inflammatory status and calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoico, Elena; Franceschetti, Guido; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Rossi, Andrea P; Mazzali, Gloria; Rizzatti, Vanni; Budui, Simona; Zamboni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Recent experimental data seem to suggest a relevant role for 1,25[OH]2cholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3) in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology, with some studies showing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory properties, and others lipolytic and anti-inflammatory functions. Moreover, to our knowledge, the role of cholecalciferol (D3) in adipocytes function is still not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of 1,25[OH]2D3, as well as of D3, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in basal and inflammatory conditions, testing the effects of different calcium concentrations in adipocytes culture medium. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 mRNA were detected in basal conditions and induced after D3 treatment. Pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes not only with 1,25[OH]2D3, but also with D3 before inflammatory stimulation, significantly prevented the increase in gene expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, and significantly increased IL-10 mRNA and protein production compared with adipocytes treated only with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Biological effects of D3 were still present after inhibition of P450 activity with ketokonazole. LPS determined a decrease in cell area compared with controls, paralleled by a significant increase in optical density (OD) of lipid droplets, whereas 1,25[OH]2D3 and D3 alone significantly increased adipocytes area and decreased OD. Pretreatment with both forms of vitamin D preserved cells from the reduction in their area observed after LPS treatment. LPS decreased more the area of cells grown in a high calcium medium than of adipocytes grown in a low calcium medium. In the presence of a high calcium medium, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment preserved cell area, maintaining its anti-inflammatory and adipogenic properties. In conclusion our results show that D3, besides 1,25[OH]2D3, presents anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1, as well as that adipocytes have the enzymatic pathways necessary to locally regulate the

  12. Evaluation of pH and calcium ion diffusion from calcium hydroxide pastes and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, María Del M; López, Gabriela L; Atlas, Diana; de la Casa, María L

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate changes in pH and calcium ion diffusion through root dentin from calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pastes at 7, 30 and 60 days; and the relationship between pH and ion diffusion. Thirty-two human premolars were used. Crowns were sectioned and root canals instrumented and filled in with the following preparations: 1) Ca(OH) 2 + distilled water (n=7); 2) Ca(OH) 2 + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (n=7); 3) MTA + distilled water (n=7); 4) MTA + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) (n=7); 5) distilled water (n=2) (control); 6) 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (n=2) (control). The apex and coronary opening were sealed with IRM. Roots were placed in Eppendorf tubes with 1 ml distilled water at 37°C and 100% humidity. At baseline, 7, 30 and 60 days, pH was measured with pH meter, and calcium ion content in the solution was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, simple linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation test. The highest pH values were achieved with calcium hydroxide pastes at 60 days (p ≤ 0.05). Calcium ions were released in all groups. The calcium hydroxide paste with distilled water at 60 days had the highest calcium ion value (p ≤ 0.01). There was a positive correlation between calcium and pH values. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  13. Comparative evaluation of genetic diversity using RAPD, SSR and cytochrome P450 gene based markers with respect to calcium content in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preety Panwar; Manoj Nath; Vijay Kumar Yadav; Anil Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Genetic relationships among 52 Eleusine coracana (finger millet) genotypes collected from different districts of Uttarakhand were investigated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cytochrome P450 gene based markers. A total of 18 RAPD primers, 10 SSR primers, and 10 pairs of cytochrome P450 gene based markers, respectively, revealed 49.4%, 50.2% and 58.7% polymorphism in 52 genotypes of E. coracana. Mean polymorphic information content (PIC) for each of these marker systems (0.351 for RAPD, 0.505 for SSR and 0.406 for cyt P450 gene based markers) suggested that all the marker systems were effective in determining polymorphisms. Pair-wise similarity index values ranged from 0.011 to 0.999 (RAPD), 0.010 to 0.999 (SSR) and 0.001 to 0.998 (cyt P450 gene based markers) and mean similarity index value of 0.505, 0.504 and 0.499, respectively. The dendrogram developed by RAPD, SSR and cytochrome P450 gene based primers analyses revealed that the genotypes are grouped in different clusters according to high calcium (300–450 mg/100 g), medium calcium (200–300 mg/100 g) and low calcium (100–200 mg/100 g). Mantel test employed for detection of goodness of fit established cophenetic correlation values above 0.95 for all the three marker systems. The dendrograms and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) plots derived from the binary data matrices of the three marker systems are highly concordant. High bootstrap values were obtained at major nodes of phenograms through WINBOOT software. Comparison of RAPD, SSR and cytochrome P450 gene based markers, in terms of the quality of data output, indicated that SSRs and cyt P450 gene based markers are particularly promising for the analysis of plant genome diversity. The genotypes of finger millet collected from different districts of Uttarakhand constitute a wide genetic base and clustered according to calcium contents. The identified genotypes could be used in breeding programmes and

  14. Coronary microembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyschally, Andreas; Leineweber, Kkirsten; Gres, Petra; Haude, Michael; Erbel, Raimund; Heusch, Gerd

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the key event in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes and it also occurs during coronary interventions. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture does not always result in complete thrombotic occlusion of the epicardial coronary artery with subsequent impending myocardial infarction, but may in milder forms result in the embolization of atherosclerotic and thrombotic debris into the coronary microcirculation. This review summarizes the present experimental pathophysiology of coronary microembolization in animal models of acute coronary syndromes and highlights the main consequences of coronary microembolization--reduced coronary reserve, microinfarction, inflammation and oxidative modification of contractile proteins, contractile dysfunction and perfusion-contraction mismatch.Furthermore, the review presents the available clinical evidence for coronary microembolization in patients and compares the clinical observations with observations in the experimental model.

  15. Evaluation of the influence of acquisition and reconstruction parameters for 16-row multidetector CT on coronary calcium scoring using a stationary and dynamic cardiac phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begemann, Philipp G.C.; Koops, Andreas; Adam, Gerhard; Nolte-Ernsting, Claus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Stevendaal, Udo van; Grass, Michael [Philips Research Laboratories Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Koester, Ralph [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Cardiology/Angiology, Hamburg (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H. [University of Technology Aachen, University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A calcium-scoring phantom with hydroxyapatite-filled cylindrical holes (0.5 to 4 mm) was used. High-resolution scans were performed for an accuracy baseline. The phantom was mounted to a moving heart phantom. Non-moving data with the implementation of an ECG-signal were acquired for different pitches (0.2/0.3), heart rates (60/80/95 bpm) and collimations (16 x 0.75/16 x 1.5 mm). Images were reconstructed with a cone-beam multi-cycle algorithm at a standard thickness/increment of 3 mm/1.5 mm and the thinnest possible thickness (0.8/0.4 and 2/1). Subsequently, ECG-gated moving calcium-scoring phantom data were acquired. The calcium volume and Agatston score were measured. The temporal resolution and reconstruction cycles were calculated. High-resolution scans determine the calcium volume with a high accuracy (mean overestimation, 0.8%). In the non-moving measurements, the volume underestimation ranged from about 6% (16 x 0.75 mm; 0.8/0.4 mm) to nearly 25% (16 x 1.5 mm; 3/1.5 mm). Moving scans showed increased measurement errors depending on the reconstructed RR interval, collimation, pitch, heart rate and gantry rotation time. Also, a correlation with the temporal resolution could be found. The reliability of calcium-scoring results can be improved with the use of a narrower collimation, a lower pitch and the reconstruction of thinner images, resulting in higher patient doses. The choice of the correct cardiac phase within the RR interval is essential to minimize measurement errors. (orig.)

  16. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  17. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  18. Impact of intravascular enhancement, heart rate, and calcium score on diagnostic accuracy in multislice Computed Tomography coronary angiography; Influenza di attenuazione vascolare, frequenza cardiaca e calcium score sull'accuratezza diagnostica in angiografia coronarica non invasiva mediante Tomografia Computerizzata multistrato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Mollet, Nico R.; Kriestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dipartimento di radiologia; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Galia, Massimo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). DIBIMEL, Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Belgrano, Manuel; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Ospedale di Cattinara, Istituto di radiologia

    2005-07-15

    Purpose. To assess the effect of intravascular enhancement, heart rate, and calcium score on diagnostic accuracy in the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis using 16-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Materials and methods. One hundred patients (88 males; 59{+-}11 years) with suspected coronary artery disease who had undergone conventional coronary angiography (CA) and MSCT-CA were retrospectively enrolled for the study. Patients underwent a MSCT-CA, with the following protocol: collimation 16x0.75 mm, gantry rotation time 420 ms, feed/rotation 2.8 mm, kV 120, mAs 400-500. The protocol for contrast material administration was 100 ml of Iodixanol 320 mgI/nl at 4 ml/s and the scan delay was defined with a bolus tracking technique. In all patients vascular enhancement was measured in the aortic root, and the left and the right coronary arteries. The average enhancement was used to divide the population in two groups of 50 patients each, one with lower enhancement (Low), and one with higher enhancement (High). In the two groups diagnostic accuracy (per coronary segment) for the detection of significant stenosis ({>=}50% lumen reduction) was evaluated in vessels {>=}2mm in diameter using quantitative CA as the reference standard. The differences in diagnostic accuracy were compared with a Chi-square test and a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the total 1116 segments ({>=}2 mm lumen diameter), 173 presented significant stenosis. The sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of significant stenosis were 89.4% and 93.3% vs 94.3% and 97.4% in the presence of increasing intravascular enhancement, 92.8% and 96.7% vs 91.1% and 93.9% in the presence of increasing heart rate, and 89.7% and 97.6% vs 93.3% and 92.8% in the presence of increasing calcium score. Conclusions. Increasing intravascular enhancement significantly improves diagnostic accuracy in MSCT-CA. A higher heart rate lowers the specificity in the detection of significant

  19. The Relations Between Soil Water Retention Characteristics, Particle Size Distributions, Bulk Densities and Calcium Carbonate Contents for Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Balstrøm, Thomas; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A database containing about 800 soil profiles located in a 7-km grid covering Denmark has been used to develop a set of regression equations of soil water content at pressure heads –1, -10, -100 and –1500 kPa versus particle size distribution, organic matter, CaCO3 and bulk density. One purpose...... was to elaborate equations based of soil parameters available in the Danish Soil Classification's texture database on particle size distribution and organic matter. It was also tested if inclusion of bulk density or CaCO3 content (in CaCO3-containing samples) as predictors or grouping in surface and subsurface...... horizons or textural classes improved the regression equations. Compared to existing Danish equations based on much fewer observations the accuracies of the new equations were better. The equations also predicted the soil water content at the measured pressure heads more accurate than the pedotransfer...

  20. Progression of coronary calcification in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Jeremy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery calcium score incrementally improves coronary risk prediction beyond that provided by conventional risk factors. Limited information is available regarding rates of progression of coronary calcification in women, particularly those with baseline scores above zero. Further, determinants of progression of coronary artery calcification in women are not well understood. This study prospectively evaluated rates and determinants of progression of coronary artery calcium score in a group of healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We determined coronary calcium score by computed tomography and recorded demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics of 914 postmenopausal women, a subset of those enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. The 305 women with calcium score ≥10 Agatston units at baseline were invited for repeat scan. This analysis includes the 94 women who underwent second scans. Results Mean age of study participants was 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD, body mass index was 26.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2, and baseline calcium score was 162 ± 220 Agatston units. Mean interval between scans was 3.3 ± 0.7 years. A wide range of changes in coronary calcium score was observed, from -53 to +452 Agatston units/year. Women with lower scores at baseline had smaller annual increases in absolute calcium score. Coronary calcium scores increased 11, 31 and 79 Agatston units/year among women with baseline calcium score in the lowest, middle and highest tertiles. In multivariate analysis, age was not an independent predictor of absolute change in coronary calcium score. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin use at baseline was a negative predictor (p = 0.015, whereas baseline calcium score was a strong, positive predictor (p Conclusion Among postmenopausal women with coronary calcium score ≥ 10 Agatston units, rates of change of coronary calcium score varied widely. In multivariate analysis

  1. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of whest extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein content in meals based on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Arvidsson, B; Cederblad, A; Björn-Rasmussen, E

    1980-04-01

    The absorption of zinc in man from composite meals based on bread was measured with a radionuclide technique using 65Zn and whole-body counting. Bread was made up from wheat flour of 100 and 72% extraction rate. A lower absolute amount of zinc was absorbed from the white bread compared to the absorption from the same amount of wholemeal bread. When the two types of bread were enriched with zinc chloride the absorption was higher from the white bread than from the wholemeal bread. Addition of calcium in the form of milk products improved the absorption of zinc from a meal with wholemeal bread. A significant positive correlation was found between zinc absorption and the protein content in meals containing milk, cheese, beef, and egg in various combinations with the wholemeal bread.

  2. [Detection of coronary calcifications by electron beam tomography and multislice spiral CT: clinical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, S; Schmermund, A; Erbel, R; Silber, S; Haberl, R; Moshage, W; Daniel, W G

    2003-11-01

    Coronary calcifications can be detected and quantified using electron beam tomography (EBT) or newer generation multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners. An abundance of data has been acquired by EBT. It could be shown that the amount of coronary calcium correlates to the coronary plaque burden. The detection of coronary calcium with CT imaging methods therefore provides a unique opportunity to detect and quantify coronary atherosclerosis in a subclinical stage. Consequently, the presence and amount of coronary calcium has been shown to be indicative for an increased coronary event risk in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Several clinical studies found a predictive value that was superior to conventional risk factors. Clinically, the use of coronary calcification assessment may therefore be beneficial in patients who, based on traditional risk factors, seem to be at "intermediate risk" for coronary events (10-year event risk 10-20%) in order to decide on the aggressiveness of risk factor modification. The role of coronary calcium quantification to monitor the progression of disease has not been clarified yet. Large, ongoing trials will provide further data as to the relative merit of coronary calcium assessment for risk stratification and will help to more clearly define its clinical role. The relationship between coronary calcium and coronary stenoses is more complex. While the absence of coronary calcifications makes significant coronary stenoses unlikely, even large amounts of coronary calcium do not necessarily indicate the presence of coronary artery stenoses. Pronounced coronary calcifications as an isolated finding should therefore not be the motivation for invasive diagnostic procedures in the absence of other evidence of ischemic heart disease.

  3. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  4. Acute coronary hemodynamic effects of equihypotensive doses of nisoldipine and diltiazem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Suryapranata (Harry); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.L. Soward; J. Planellas; G. Vanhaleweyk; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe hemodynamic effects of nisoldipine and diltiazem were investigated in two groups of patients undergoing investigation for suspected coronary artery disease. Emphasis was placed on the coronary hemodynamic changes. Approximately equihypotensive doses of these two calcium channel block

  5. Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushahary, Dolly; Sravanthi, Ragamouni; Li, Yuncang; Kumar, Mahesh J; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cuie; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr) alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants.

  6. Variation of calcium content of hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and gill in molting cycle of Portunus trituberculatus%三疣梭子蟹蜕壳周期肝胰腺、外壳和鳃中钙含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝辉; 母昌考; 胡丹丹; 宋微微; 李荣华; 王春琳

    2012-01-01

    研究测定了三疣梭子蟹蜕壳周期肝胰腺、鳃和外壳中的钙含量.结果显示,在不同时间,鳃中钙含量变化较小,各时间点差异不显著;蜕壳前期至蜕壳刚完成阶段三疣梭子蟹(软壳蟹)肝胰腺中钙含量最高,蜕壳后第4d肝胰腺中钙含量最低.三疣梭子蟹外壳中钙含量随着外壳的硬化(钙化)逐渐增加,完全硬化后外壳中钙含量达到最高.研究表明,蜕壳后三疣梭子蟹肝胰腺中钙含量的降低与外壳的钙化之间具有关联性,肝胰腺在三疣梭子蟹蜕壳后钙的储存中起着重要作用,而鳃在钙离子储存中所起的作用可能小于钙转移的作用.%In the present study, concentration of calcium in hepatopancreas, gill and exoskeleton of Portunus trituberculatus in a molting cycle were detected. Unsignificant difference was found among the concentration of calcium in gill of different stage of molting cycle. Calcium content in hepatopancreas of premoult crabs and newly molted crabs (exoskeleton was soft) was high. The calcium content of hepatopancreas decreased with the progress of exoskeleton calcification, and it reached the lowest when the calcification of the exoskeleton was completed. In addition, the calcium content of exoskeleton increased with the progress of molt cycle. The hardness of the exoskeleton was consistent with the concentration of calcium in it. The results indicated that the decrease of calcium content of hepatopancreas in new molted crabs was correlative to the calcification of exoskeleton and the hepatopancreas played important role in calcium storage for exoskeleton calcification. However, gill might play important role in calcium transfer than calcium storage.

  7. Microvascular Coronary Artery Spasm Presents Distinctive Clinical Features With Endothelial Dysfunction as Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (<50% diameter) in coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor–borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited–baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate–induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular

  8. Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushahary D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dolly Mushahary,1,2 Ragamouni Sravanthi,2 Yuncang Li,2 Mahesh J Kumar,1 Nemani Harishankar,4 Peter D Hodgson,1 Cuie Wen,3 Gopal Pande2 1Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; 2CSIR- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India; 3Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia; 4National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants. Keywords: osteoblasts, bone mineralization, corrosion, osseointegration, surface energy, peri-implant

  9. Copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium content of alcoholic beverages and by-products from Spain: nutritional supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, M; Velasco, C; Jodral, A; Terrés, C; Olalla, M; Lopez, H; Lopez, M C

    2007-07-01

    Levels of copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium were measured in alcoholic beverages (whiskies, gins, rums, liquors, brandies, wines and beers) and by-products (non-alcoholic liquors and vinegars) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Mineral concentrations were found to be significantly different between the nine alcoholic and non-alcoholic by-products studied (p < 0.001). In distilled alcoholic beverages, concentrations measured in rums and brandies were statistically lower than those determined in gins and alcoholic liquors (p = 0.001). For Cu, measured concentrations were statistically different for each of the five groups of distilled alcoholic beverages studied (p < 0.001). In fermented beverages, Zn, Ca and Mg levels were significantly higher than those concentrations determined in distilled drinks (p < 0.005). Contrarily, Cu concentrations were statistically lower (p < 0.001). Wines designated as sherry had significantly higher Ca and Mg levels (p < 0.005). White wines had significantly higher Ca and Zn levels (p < 0.05) compared with red wines and, contrarily, Cu concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.005). In wine samples and corresponding by-products (brandy and vinegar), statistical differences were established for all minerals analysed (p < 0.01). Remarkably, for Cu, the concentrations determined in brandies were statistically higher. On the basis of element levels and the official data on consumption of alcoholic beverages and by-products in Spain, their contribution to the daily dietary intake (DDI) was calculated to be 124.6 microg Cu day(-1) and 193.3 microg Zn day(-1), 40.3 mg Ca day(-1) and 19.9 mg Mg day(-1). From all studied elements, Cu was the one for which alcoholic beverages constitute a significant source (more than 10% of recommended daily intake). These findings are of potential use to food composition tables.

  10. 钙化积分扫描缩短冠脉CTA扫描范围及降低辐射量的作用%Effect of calcium scoring scan in reducing scan range and radiation dose in retrospectively ECG-gated CT coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付维东; 龚建平; 宦坚; 张伟; 张博; 乔方

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To find out a way of reducing scan range in retrospectively ECG-gated CT coronary angiography in order to reduce the radiation dose. Methods: Forty consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. The scan range of CT coronary angiography derived respectively from the scout view and from the axial images of calcium scoring were compared. The former was assumed to be determined from 1cm under the trachea carina to 2cm under the inferior margin of the heart. The latter was performed by identifying the left anterior descending coronary artery and posterior descending coronary artery and adding lcm cranially and caudally. Effective radiation doses were calculated for CT coronary angiography using both scout view-derived and calcium scoring-derived scan range. Results: The calcium scoring-derived range was (10. 40+.0. 60)cm; while the scout view-derived range was (12. 5 ± 0. 94)cm which was significantly larger than that of using the calcium scoring-derived scan (t = 17. 31,P<0. 01). The average difference between them was (2. 09±0. 76)cm, corresponding to a radiation dose reduction of (1. 67 ±0. 72)mSv. After offsetting the dose given for the calcium scoring scan,the savings in radiation exposure when using a calcium scoring-derived instead of a scout view-derived scan range for CT coronary angiography -including the radiation dose of the calcium scoring scan and the test bolus scan- was (1. 25 + 0. 72)mSv (t=10. 92.P<0. 01) ,which accounted for a dose reduction of 9. 20%. Conclusion:Using the images from calcium scoring instead of the scout view to determine the scan range of contrast-unenhanced CT coronary angiography can effectively decrease the scan range and reduce the radiation dose significantly.%目的:探讨使用钙化积分扫描缩短增强扫描范围以降低后门控冠状动脉CTA检查辐射量的临床应用价值.方法:40例患者行冠脉钙化积分及冠脉CTA检查,其增强扫描的实际扫描范围根据钙化积分扫描图

  11. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K;

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...

  12. A Novel Polymer-Synthesized Ceramic Composite Based System for Bone Repair: Osteoblast Growth on Scaffolds with Varied Calcium Phosphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    demongtrated the synthesis of degradable scaffolds from PLAGA /calcium phosphate composite microspheres in which an amorphous calcium phosphate is...EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Scaffold Preparation Scaffolds were prepared as described in detail previously [3]. Briefly, PLAGA /calcium phosphate composite...culture polystyrene (TCPS) 2- pure PLAGA microspheres 64 3- composite microsphere matrices with a low polymer/ceramic ratio 4- composite microsphere

  13. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  14. Effect of the strontium aluminate and hemihydrate contents on the properties of a calcium sulphoaluminate based cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velazco, G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4 on the hydration process of a calcium sulphoaluminate (C4A3Ŝ cement was investigated. Cement pastes were prepared by mixing C4A3Ŝ , hemihydrate (CaSO4· ½H2O, CŜH0.5 and 0, 10 or 20wt% of SrAl2O4 (SrA. The amount of CŜH0.5 was 15, 20 or 25wt% based on the C4A3Ŝ quantity. The cement pastes were hydrated using water to cement ratios (w/c of 0.4 and 0.5. Samples were cured from 1 to 28 d. The compressive strength and setting time were evaluated and the hydration products were characterized. It was found that the setting time was delayed up to 42 min for the samples containing SrAl2O4 compared to samples without addition. The samples with 25wt% hemihydrate containing 20wt% SrAl2O4 developed the highest compressive strength (60 MPa after 28 d of curing. The main product after hydration was ettringite (C6AŜ3H32. The morphology of this phase consisted of thin needle-shaped crystals.Se investigó el efecto de la adición de aluminato de estroncio (SrAl2O4 sobre las propiedades de un cemento de sulfoaluminato de calcio (C4A3Ŝ. Se prepararon muestras mezclando C4A3Ŝ, hemihidrato (CaSO4· ½H2O, CŜH0.5 y 0, 10 o 20% e.p de SrAl2O4 (SrA. La cantidad de CŜH0.5 fue de 15, 20 o 25% e.p. basado en la cantidad de C4A3Ŝ. Las relaciones agua/cemento utilizadas fueron 0.4 y 0.5. Las muestras fueron curadas hasta 28 d. Se evaluó el tiempo de fraguado y la resistencia a la compresión. Los productos de hidratación se caracterizaron mediante DRX y MEB. El tiempo de fraguado se retardó hasta 42 minutos con la adición del SrAl2O4 comparado con las muestras sin adiciones. Las muestras con 25% e.p. de yeso y 20% e.p. de SrAl2O4 desarrollaron la mayor resistencia a la compresión alcanzando 60 MPa a 28 d de curado. Los análisis por MEB y DRX muestran como principal producto de hidratación a la etringita (C6AŜ3H32, cuya morfología se observa como cristales aciculares.

  15. Calcium dobesilate may improve hemorheology in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting Dobesilato de cálcio pode melhorar hemorreologia em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Besirli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calcium dobesilate is an angioprotective agent that has positive effects on hemorheological parameters. It is an antioxidant that increases endothelial-derived vasodilator substance secretion, there are none that analyze its effects during the postoperative period of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of calcium dobesilate on hemorheological parameters, such as reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing myocardial revascularization in the postoperative period. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four patients operated for coronary heart disease were included in this study. Hemorheological, oxidant and antioxidant parameters were measured two days after surgery and after a period of treatment with calcium dobesilate. Then, 500 mg of calcium dobesilate was given twice a day to one group of 68 patients for three months. The control group was composed of 66 patients who did not receive this medication. RESULTS: The increase in the erythrocyte deformability index was found to be significant compared with both the pretreatment values and with the 1st and 2nd values of the control group after calcium dobesilate administration, whereas there were no significant changes in blood viscosity, glutathione (GSH or malondialdehyde (MDA values after the calcium dobesilate administration. The same improvement in the CCS class was observed in patients regardless of they received the calcium dobesilate treatment. CONCLUSION: In the present investigation, the same improvement in the CCS class was observed in patients regardless of they received the calcium dobesilate treatment. Improvements with calcium dobesilate were statistically significant only in the increase in erythrocyte flexibility.ANTECEDENTES: O dobesilato de cálcio é um agente angioprotetor que tem efeitos positivos sobre os parâmetros hemorreológicos. É um antioxidante que aumenta a

  16. Toward accelerated bone regeneration by altering poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid porogen content in calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, C I A; Preethanath, R S; van Oirschot, B A J A; Zwarts, P H W; Ulrich, D J O; Anil, S; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to compare in vitro degradation of dense PLGA microspheres and milled PLGA particles as porogens within CPC, considering that the manufacturing of milled PLGA is more cost-effective when compared with PLGA microspheres. Additionally, we aimed to examine the effect of porogen amount within CPC/PLGA on degradation and bone formation. Our in vitro results showed no differences between both forms of PLGA particles (as porogens in CPC; spherical for microspheres, irregular for milled) regarding morphology, porosity, and degradation. Using milled PLGA as porogens within CPC/PLGA, we evaluated the effect of porogen amount on degradation and bone forming capacity in vivo. Titanium landmarks surrounded by CPC/PLGA with 30 and 50 wt % PLGA, were implanted in forty femoral bone defects of twenty male Wistar rats. Histomorphometrical results showed a significant temporal decrease in the amount of CPC, for both formulas, and confirmed that 50 wt % PLGA degrades faster than 30 wt%, and allows for a 1.5-fold higher amount of newly formed bone. Taken together, this study demonstrated that (i) milled PLGA particles perform equal to PLGA microspheres, and (ii) tuning of the PLGA content in CPC/PLGA is a feasible approach to leverage material degradation and bone formation.

  17. 土壤施钙对芒果果实钾、钙、镁含量及品质的影响%Effects of different lime nitrate application rates on potassium, calcium and magnesium content and quality in mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华东; 白亭玉; 郑妍; 张贺; 林电

    2014-01-01

    以“台农1号”芒果为试材,田间试验研究了花前土施不同用量硝酸钙对芒果果实钾、钙、镁含量及产量、品质的影响。结果表明:(1)与不施钙相比,土施钙肥可明显提高果实糖酸比,其原因主要是降低了可滴定酸含量,提高了可溶性糖含量,同时可显著提高果实Vc含量,降低贮藏期果实发病率,在土施钙150 g/株时产量最高,增产率为14.25%。(2)在一定钙用量范围内,土施钙肥可显著提高果肉钙含量,使果皮、果肉与果核的钾、镁含量下降。(3)果皮、果肉及果核钙含量与钙肥用量呈正相关,钾、镁含量与钙肥用量呈负相关。(4)果实可溶性糖含量、 Vc含量及糖酸比与钙肥用量呈正相关,果实可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸含量、失重率、发病率与钙肥用量呈负相关。土壤增施钙肥有利于提高芒果果实品质,提高果实耐贮性。%A field trial was undertaken to evaluate the effects of applying Ca( NO3 ) 2 in soil before flower period on the contents of potassium, calcium, magnesium and quality of “tainung No. 1” mango. The results showed that: (1) Compare with the results of the control, applying calcium fertilizer could obviously increase the fruit sugar acid ratio because of the increase of content of soluble sugars and acidity reduced, and improve the vitamin C in the fruit, reduce the rotten fruit rate during stor-age. The highest yield occurred when 150 g/plant calcium was applicated, and the yield increased by 14. 25% compared to the control. (2) By applying calcium fertilizer, the calcium content of pulp in fruit was significantly increased, the magnesi-um and potassium contents of peel, pulp and seed in fruit reduced. (3) The calcium contents of peel, pulp and seed in fruit had positive correlation with the calcium application amounts, and the potassium and magnesium contents of peel, pulp and seed in fruit had negative correlation with

  18. Effects of high dietary contents of calcium and phosphorus on mineral metabolism and growth of vitamin D-deficient suckling and weaned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1987-07-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that normalization of the plasma calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by dietary means in vitamin D-deficient rat pups will prevent rickets. From day 6 of pregnancy rats were given a vitamin D-free diet containing 1.6% Ca and 1.4% P (-D 1.6) which normalized plasma Ca during lactation. Pups weaned from these mothers, and continuing on the -D 1.6 diet until 56 days of age, had a mean plasma Ca value of 8.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dl and were not significantly different from pups fed a vitamin D-replete diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P in the following parameters: body weight (mean +/- SE for -D 1.6 rats: 197 +/- 4 g), percent bone ash (53 +/- 0.5), and tibia epiphyseal cartilage width (385 +/- 26 micron). In contrast, pups consuming the vitamin D-free diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P had plasma Ca of 4.9 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, body weight of 156 +/- 4 g, reduced bone ash (45 +/- 0.5%) and abnormally wide epiphyseal cartilage (727 +/- 113 micron). Thus, elevating the plasma Ca level of vitamin D-deficient rat pups by dietary means can normalize body weight, epiphyseal cartilage width and bone mineral content.

  19. Comparison of the aortic valve calcium content in the bicuspid and tricuspid stenotic aortic valve using non-enhanced 64-detector-row-computed tomography with prospective ECG-triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)], E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Linhartova, Katerina [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Charles University Hospital Motol, V Uvalu 84, Prague (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2008-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to compare the calcium content measured by non-enhanced multidetector-row-computed tomography (MDCT) between patients with significant stenosis of bicuspid (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). Another aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of the non-enhanced MDCT to distinguish BAV and TAV based on the calcified plaque morphology, and to compare the results with the transesophageal echocardiography. Subjects and methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed. Consecutive patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) admitted to hospital for evaluation before valve surgery underwent clinical evaluation, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, and non-enhanced examination with the 64-detector-row CT using prospective ECG triggering with data acquisition in diastolic phase. The data acquisition started at 55% of the R-R interval. The patients were examined in the supine position in mild inspiration. Data were evaluated using dedicated software for calcium scoring, the volume of calcifications and calcium content were obtained. Results: Thirty-seven patients (20 males, age 48-83 years) were enrolled. BAV was present in 13 patients, TAV in 24 patients. The calcium score in patients with severe AS (mean gradient >50 mmHg) was higher than in those with moderate AS (1123 {+-} 616 mg versus 634 {+-} 475, P = 0.011). Significant correlation between the calcium scores and transaortic gradients was found (r = 0.53, P = 0.002). The patients with BAV did not differ significantly from those with TAV in the AS severity (58 {+-} 13 versus 53 {+-} 20 mmHg), nor in the valve calcium score (1168 {+-} 717 versus 795 {+-} 530 mg, P = 0.093). The overall sensitivity to detect BAV in patients with calcified severe AS was 0.923 (12/13) and specificity 0.958 (23/24). The overall accuracy was 0.945 (35/37). Conclusion: We observed higher calcium score in patients with severe AS than with moderate AS

  20. [Changes of content of regulatory lymphocytes and concentration of soluble interleukine-2 receptor in blood of patients with ischemic heart disease after coronary artery angioplasty with implantation of stents with rapamycin covering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekhina, A V; Sokolov, V O; Pylaeva, E A; Provatorov, S I; Masenko, V P; Bosykh, E G; Noeva, E A; Krasnikova, T L; Aref'eva, T I

    2011-01-01

    We studied dynamics of content of subpopulation of lymphocytes including regulatory and effector T-lymphocytes as well as concentration of soluble form of interleukine-2 receptor (sCD25) in peripheral blood of patients after coronary stenting (CS) with implantation of stents with rapamycin covering (SRC). We included into the study 62 patients with stable effort II-III functional class angina. Coronary angiography (CA) was carried out in all, CS with implantation of 1 - 2 SRC - in 42 patients. Blood samples were taken before CA/CS, in 24, 48 hours, 7 days, 1 and 3 months after intervention. Content of T-, helper and cytotoxic T-cells, -, NK-, NKT-cells, activated effector T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD251owCD127high) and regulatory T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD25highCD1271ow) were measured by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. CD4+ lymphocytes were isolated from mononuclear cell fraction of donor blood by magnetic separation. Content of regulatory T-lymphocytes in culture were determined by expression of a specific marker FOXP3+. Concentration of sCD25 was measured by chemiluminescent method. It was shown that content of main subpopulations of lymphocytes in blood changed after CS or CF. Blood content of regulatory T-lymphocytes and sCD25 significantly increased after 7 days and 1 month after CS but not after CA. Plasma sCD25 concentration correlated with content of regulatory T-lymphocytes in 1 month after SRC implantation. During cultivation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the presence of rapamycin we noted antiproliferative effect relative to FOXP3-cells and accumulation of regulatory +-lymphocytes. Thus implantation of SRC in coronary arteries leads to increase of number of circulating regulatory T-lymphocytes and blood concentration of sCD25. Changes of these parameters after CS can reflect peculiarities of local and systemic reaction arising in response to introduction of stent with drug covering and be significant for assessment of prognosis of the disease.

  1. Sedimentation rates of Sao Paulo coast by carbonate calcium content: an alternative for radiometric methods; Levantamento das taxas de sedimentacao do litoral de Sao Paulo a partir do teor de carbonato de calcio: uma alternativa aos metodos radiometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: figueira@ipen.br; figueiraru@yahoo.com.br; Tessler, Moyses G.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Fukumoto, Marina M.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Geologica]. E-mail: mgtessle@usp.br; mahiques@usp.br; marina@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work it is presented a methodology of sedimentation rate determination by carbonate calcium content. The technique developed is an alternative for radiometric methods where are used {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} and {sup 137}Cs radionuclides. This methodology consisted in a determination of chronologic event along sedimentary column. In this work two events were used: the tsunami in Sao Vicente city, in 1542, and the maximum of 1{sup 37}Cs radioactive fallout from nuclear atmospheric tests, in 1963-65. It was possible to calculate the accumulation rate of total sediments and precipitation rate of calcium carbonate, which values are necessary to determine the age of slice from sedimentary column and consequently the sedimentation rate. The results obtained for Sao Paulo Continental Shelf had a good agreement with radiometric methods, the values were: 0.32({+-}0.12) cm.y{sup -1}, 0.23({+-}0.08) cm.y{sup -1} and 0.25({+-}0.9) cm.y{sup -1} for carbonate method, {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} (CIC model) and {sup 137}Cs (radioactive fallout), respectively. The analytical procedure using carbonate calcium content showed to be fast, efficient and with low cost. However, it must be used carefully, because the results can be strongly influenced by environmental factors which could change the precipitation rate of calcium carbonate and it could cause errors on sedimentation rate values in a determined area (author)

  2. Observation on zinc,iron, calcium, content analysis in serum of children with cerebral palsy%脑性瘫痪患儿血清中锌、铁、钙测定观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟红印; 阴志强; 郭志宽; 夏冰

    2014-01-01

    To detect the Zinc , Iron, Calcium content in serum ,and analyse the relationship between the Zinc , Iron, Calci-um content and the movement disorders , Rehabilitation effect of Children With Cerebral Palsy .Methods:Measure the Zinc , Iron, Calcium content in serum of 230 children with cerebral palsy using ion spectroscopy .And measure again after a month of oral drugs .Results:The Zinc, Iron, Calcium content in serum of 230 children with cerebral palsy were below normal levels , although they were improved .And they were not returned to normal .Conclusion:The Zinc, Iron, Calcium content in serum of the children with cerebral palsy were below than the normal children,so the children with cerebral palsy need eat foods containing more Zinc , Iron and Calcium.%目的:通过测量脑瘫患儿血清锌、铁、钙的含量,观察脑瘫患儿运动功能障碍、康复疗效与血清锌、铁、钙含量的相关性。方法:采用比离子光谱法测量230例脑性瘫痪患儿血清中微量元素锌、铁、钙的含量。采用口服药物1个月后再次检测。结果:脑性瘫痪患儿血清微量元素锌、铁、钙含量低于正常水平,通过口服药物后锌、铁、钙虽然有提高,均未恢复到正常。结论:微量元素锌、铁、钙含量均低于正常儿童,锌、铁、钙通过治疗后均未恢复到正常,据此为脑瘫患儿加强饮食治疗,即饮食含锌、铁、钙元素较多食物提供一定依据。

  3. 电子探针分析乳牙釉质和牙本质钙含量的研究%The study on deciduous teeth enamel and dentin calcium content analyzed by Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芸; 石四箴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the calcium content and distribution of deciduous teeth enamel and dentine and to discuss its relationship with caries. Methods Using Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPMA) microanalyzer to measure the calcium content at different depths on the vertical section of 40 mandibular deciduous central incisors and then grouping according to caries status of individual sample, each group is analyzed statistically respectively. Results The average value of total calcium content for the 40 mandibular deciduous central incisors is 37.13 ± 1.10 (wt%), the calcium content of enamel is 38.31 ± 0.94 (wt%), the calcium content of dentine is 36.66 ± 1.38 (wt%); the calcium content of enamel subsurface 50|xm and 100u.ni is higher than enamel subsurface 250u,m; the calcium content of dentine under-enamelo-dentinal junction 50u,m and 100|xm is lower than respectively dentine under-enamelo-dentinal junction 450u,m, 500u,m, 550jxm and 600|xm. A statistics difference is not seen for the normal deciduous teeth's calcium content between caries-free group, low caries risk group and high caries risk group, and the normal deciduous teeth's calcium content has no correlation with decayed-filled tooth, decayed-filled surface and caries severity index. Conclusion The calcium distribution of normal deciduous teeth is non-homogeneous state. The calcium content of enamel showed a gradual decreasing trend from surface towards enamelo -dentinal junction; the calcium content of dentine showed a gradual increasing trend from enamelo-dentinal junction towards pulp cavity side. The calcium content of normal development deciduous teeth does not reflect the situation of individual caries as a single indicator.%目的 研究乳牙釉质和牙本质中钙含量及分布,探讨其与龋患状况之间的关系.方法 运用电子探针显微分析仪测定40颗离体下颌乳中切牙纵剖面上不同深度的钙含量,并以标本所在个体的龋患状况分组,分

  4. Strategies for Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Based on Risk Stratification by the ACC/AHA Lipid Guidelines, ATP III Guidelines, Coronary Calcium Scoring, and C-Reactive Protein, and a Global Treat-All Strategy: A Comparative--Effectiveness Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Z Galper

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been proposed for risk-stratification and primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD, but their comparative and cost-effectiveness is unknown.We constructed a state-transition microsimulation model to compare multiple approaches to the primary prevention of CHD in a simulated cohort of men aged 45-75 and women 55-75. Risk-stratification strategies included the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III guidelines, and approaches based on coronary artery calcium (CAC scoring and C-reactive protein (CRP. Additionally we assessed a treat-all strategy in which all individuals were prescribed either moderate-dose or high-dose statins and all males received low-dose aspirin. Outcome measures included CHD events, costs, medication-related side effects, radiation-attributable cancers, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs over a 30-year timeframe.Treat-all with high-dose statins dominated all other strategies for both men and women, gaining 15.7 million QALYs, preventing 7.3 million myocardial infarctions, and saving over $238 billion, compared to the status quo, far outweighing its associated adverse events including bleeding, hepatitis, myopathy, and new-onset diabetes. ACC/AHA guidelines were more cost-effective than ATP III guidelines for both men and women despite placing 8.7 million more people on statins. For women at low CHD risk, treat-all with high-dose statins was more likely to cause a statin-related adverse event than to prevent a CHD event.Despite leading to a greater proportion of the population placed on statin therapy, the ACC/AHA guidelines are more cost-effective than ATP III. Even so, at generic prices, treating all men and women with statins and all men with low-dose aspirin appears to be more cost-effective than all risk-stratification approaches for the primary prevention of CHD

  5. Strategies for Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Based on Risk Stratification by the ACC/AHA Lipid Guidelines, ATP III Guidelines, Coronary Calcium Scoring, and C-Reactive Protein, and a Global Treat-All Strategy: A Comparative--Effectiveness Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, Benjamin Z.; Wang, Y. Claire; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been proposed for risk-stratification and primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but their comparative and cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods We constructed a state-transition microsimulation model to compare multiple approaches to the primary prevention of CHD in a simulated cohort of men aged 45–75 and women 55–75. Risk-stratification strategies included the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines, and approaches based on coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and C-reactive protein (CRP). Additionally we assessed a treat-all strategy in which all individuals were prescribed either moderate-dose or high-dose statins and all males received low-dose aspirin. Outcome measures included CHD events, costs, medication-related side effects, radiation-attributable cancers, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) over a 30-year timeframe. Results Treat-all with high-dose statins dominated all other strategies for both men and women, gaining 15.7 million QALYs, preventing 7.3 million myocardial infarctions, and saving over $238 billion, compared to the status quo, far outweighing its associated adverse events including bleeding, hepatitis, myopathy, and new-onset diabetes. ACC/AHA guidelines were more cost-effective than ATP III guidelines for both men and women despite placing 8.7 million more people on statins. For women at low CHD risk, treat-all with high-dose statins was more likely to cause a statin-related adverse event than to prevent a CHD event. Conclusions Despite leading to a greater proportion of the population placed on statin therapy, the ACC/AHA guidelines are more cost-effective than ATP III. Even so, at generic prices, treating all men and women with statins and all men with low-dose aspirin appears to be more cost-effective than all risk-stratification approaches for the

  6. One-step Examination of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Combined with Coronary Artery Calcium Score in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease%心肌灌注显像联合冠状动脉钙化积分一站式检查对冠心病的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建锋; 袁建伟; 王跃涛; 周瑞珏; 杨玲; 邵晓梁; 陆培奇

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The one-step examination of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) combined with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) can obtain both coronary functional information and anatomical information simultaneously, this paper aims to evaluate the value of the one-step examination of MPI combined with CACS for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods 188 cases who underwent one-step examination of MPI combined with CACS and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) because of chest tightness, chest pain with suspected coronary artery disease were analyzed retrospectively, with the results of ICA used as"gold standard", the diagnostic efficacy of MPI, CACS and one-step examination with combination of the two techniques for CAD was investigated. Results ①Pre-test probability of CAD was intermediate in 79.8%(150/188), and high in 20.2%(38/188) cases. Seventy-three cases were confirmed as CAD and 115 of 188 patients were negative according to ICA.②The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of CAD by MPI were 65.8%, 75.7%, 71.8%, 63.1%and 77.7%, respectively. ③ The CACS of CAD group was significantly higher than the non-CAD group (494.96±99.60 vs. 38.15±16.03, P0.05) and accuracy (75.0% vs. 71.8%, P>0.05) showed no statistically significant difference; the sensitivity of MPI combined with CACS were significantly higher than CACS (80.8%vs. 60.3%, P0.05). Conclusion The one-step examination of MPI combined with CACS can reduce coronary heart disease misdiagnosis, improve the diagnostic sensitivity of CAD compared with the MPI or CACS, with high application value for the diagnosis of CAD, especially in moderate risk groups.%目的:心肌灌注显像(MPI)联合冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)一站式检查可同时获得冠状动脉功能信息和解剖信息,本研究探讨MPI联合CACS一站式检查对冠心病(CAD)的诊断价值。资料与方法回

  7. The Research of Zinc and Calcium Content in The Duck Egg before and after Salting%咸鸭蛋腌制前后锌、钙含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何珊丽; 罗红玉

    2013-01-01

      The fresh duck egg as raw material,preserved as salted duck egg by using salt solution. Using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrum (ICP-OES) method,measurements of the changes of the Zinc&Calcium elements are being taken in the duck egg before and after salting. The results demonstrate that the Zinc&Calcium content of the egg white in the salted duck egg are remarkably higher than in the fresh duck egg. Moreover,when the zinc content in the salt solution is increased,the zinc content of the egg white in the salted duck egg is increasing as well. The Zinc&Calcium content of the egg yolk in the salted duck egg are slightly higher than in the fresh duck egg. However ,although the zinc content in the salt solution is increased ,there is no change on the zinc content of the egg yolk in the salted and preserved duck egg.%  以鲜鸭蛋为原料,采用盐水腌制法腌制成咸鸭蛋。通过电感耦合等离子体发射光谱(ICP-OES)测量鸭蛋中锌、钙元素含量在腌制前、后的变化。结果表明:咸鸭蛋蛋清中的锌、钙含量显著高于鲜鸭蛋,而且随着盐水中锌含量的增加,咸鸭蛋蛋清中锌含量也随之增加。而咸鸭蛋蛋黄中的锌、钙含量略高于鲜鸭蛋,随着盐水中锌含量的增加,咸鸭蛋蛋黄中锌含量没有变化。

  8. Association between metabolic syndrome and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Cassidy, Andrea E; Peyser, Patricia A; Turner, Stephen T; Sheedy, Patrick F; Bielak, Lawrence F

    2004-12-15

    Metabolic syndrome was associated with the presence and quantity of coronary artery calcium, a marker of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, in 1,129 asymptomatic adults, ages 20 to 79 years, from a community-based study. The association was independent of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease based on the Framingham risk score.

  9. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  10. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health. PMID:28165410

  11. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content. [Comparison of findings in patients with primary osteoporosis and healthy marathon runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Colbert, C; Bachtell, R; Thompson, K; Aloia, J; Cohn, S

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners.

  12. Efficacy analysis of ezetimibe on lipid management in elderly patients with coronary heart disease after coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段明勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of ezetimibe combined with atorvastatin calcium on hyperlipidemia,and to evaluate the role of ezetimibe on lipid management in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after coronary intervention.Methods A total of 150 elderly CHD patients with hyperlipidemia

  13. Coronary artery fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries ...

  14. Coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920658 Assessment of plasma catechola-mine and β-endorphin contents in patientswith silent myocardial ischemia and anginapectoris. WU Lin(吴林), et al. 1st Hosp, BeijingMed Univ, Beijing, 100034. Cbin J Cardiol1992; 20(2): 90-91. Thirteen Patients with totally silent myocar-dial ischemia(group 1)and 15 patients with ef-fort angina(group 2)were studied. The coronary

  15. Upregulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor signaling in coronary arteries after organ culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is a powerful constrictor of coronary arteries and is considered to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of coronary-artery spasm. However, the mechanism of enhancement of coronary-artery constriction to 5-HT during the development of coronary artery disease remains to be elucidated. Organ culture of intact blood-vessel segments has been suggested as a model for the phenotypic changes of smooth muscle cells in cardiovascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We wished to characterize 5-HT receptor-induced vasoconstriction and quantify expression of 5-HT receptor signaling in cultured rat coronary arteries. Cumulative application of 5-HT produced a concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in fresh and 24 h-cultured rat coronary arteries without endothelia. 5-HT induced greater constriction in cultured coronary arteries than in fresh coronary arteries. U46619- and CaCl2-induced constriction in the two groups was comparable. 5-HT stimulates the 5-HT2A receptor and cascade of phospholipase C to induce coronary vasoconstriction. Calcium influx through L-type calcium channels and non-L-type calcium channels contributed to the coronary-artery constrictions induced by 5-HT. The contractions mediated by non-L-type calcium channels were significantly enhanced in cultured coronary arteries compared with fresh coronary arteries. The vasoconstriction induced by thapsigargin was also augmented in cultured coronary arteries. The decrease in Orai1 expression significantly inhibited 5-HT-evoked entry of Ca2+ in coronary artery cells. Expression of the 5-HT2A receptor, Orai1 and STIM1 were augmented in cultured coronary arteries compared with fresh coronary arteries. CONCLUSIONS: An increased contraction in response to 5-HT was mediated by the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors and downstream signaling in cultured coronary arteries.

  16. Analysis on serum selenium, zinc, copper, and calcium contents in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus%妊娠糖尿病患者血清中硒、锌、铜、钙含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关燕鸣

    2013-01-01

    目的:检测妊娠糖尿病(GDM)患者血清中微量元素硒、锌、铜、钙的含量,探讨其与GDM的关系.方法:采用原子分光光度计分别检测78例GDM孕妇和72例正常孕妇血清中硒、锌、铜和钙的含量.结果:GDM组孕妇血清中微量元素硒、锌及钙的含量明显低于正常对照组(P <0.000 1);而铜的含量,GDM组却显著高于正常对照组(P <0.000 1).结论:微量元素硒、锌、铜、钙在GDM的发生和发展过程中具有重要的作用.GDM组孕妇体内存在微量元素的代谢紊乱,应加强孕妇的饮食指导,适时补充硒、锌、钙等.%Objective:To detect the contents of serum selenium, zinc, copper, and calcium in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) , and explore their relationships with GDM. Methods: The contents of serum selenium, zinc, copper, and calcium in 78 patients with GDM and 72 normal pregnant women were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The serum contents of selenium , zinc, and calcium in GDM group were statistically significantly lower than those in normal control group ( P <0. 000 1 ) ; but the serum content of copper in GDM group was statistically significantly higher than that in normal control group ( P < 0. 000 1 ) . Conclusion: Selenium , zinc, copper, and calcium play important roles in occurrence and development of GDM. Metabolic disorder of trace elements exists in pregnant women with GDM, dietary guidance for pregnant women should be enhanced; selenium, zinc, and calcium should be complemented reasonably.

  17. Single-centre cohort study of gender influence in coronary CT angiography in patients with a low to intermediate pretest probability of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten Schou; Isaksen, Christin; Buhl, Jørgen Selmer;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 'real-world' patient populations undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), it is unclear whether a correlation exists between gender, coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and subsequent referral for invasive coronary angiography and coronary revascularisation. We therefore investig......BACKGROUND: In 'real-world' patient populations undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), it is unclear whether a correlation exists between gender, coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and subsequent referral for invasive coronary angiography and coronary revascularisation. We therefore...... investigated the relationship between gender, CAC and use of subsequent invasive coronary angiography and coronary revascularisation in a cohort of patients with chest discomfort and low to intermediate pretest probability of coronary artery disease who underwent a CCTA at our diagnostic centre. METHODS......-up was 28.5% in men versus 18.3% in women (pCAC-adjusted HR in women versus men was 0.98 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.13) for invasive coronary angiography and 0.73 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93) for coronary...

  18. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis identified by coronary computed tomographic angiography in asymptomatic morbidly obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. McCullough

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common public health problem and obese individuals in particular have a disproportionate incidence of acute coronary events. This study was undertaken to identify coronary artery lesions as well as associated clinical features, risk factors and demographics in patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2 without known coronary artery disease (CAD. Morbidly obese subjects were prospectively recruited to undergo coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA using a dual-source computed tomography (CT system. CAD was defined as the presence of any atherosclerotic lesion in any one coronary artery segment. The presence, location, and severity of atherosclerosis were related to patient characteristics. Forty-one patients (28 women, mean age, 50.4±10.0 years, mean BMI, 43.8±4.8 kg/m2 served as the study population. Of these, 25 patients (61% had at least one coronary stenosis. All but 2 patients within the CAD cohort had coronary artery calcium (CAC scores >0, and most plaques identified (75.4% were non-calcified. There was a predilection of calcified and non-calcified atherosclerosis involving the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery compared with other coronary segments. Univariate predictors of CAD included older age, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In this preliminary study of young morbidly obese patients, CCTA detected a high prevalence of calcified and non-calcified CAD, although the later predominated.

  19. Human milk beyond one year post-partum: lower content of protein, calcium, and saturated very long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Naim; Aslih, Nardin; Shihab, Shihab; Werman, Moshe J; Sheinman, Rivkah; Shamir, Raanan

    2006-01-01

    Maternal milk feeding for more than 1 year is encouraged by many health care authorities. We demonstrate that human milk beyond 1 year of lactation had a small but significantly lower concentration of protein, calcium, and long-chain saturated fatty acids compared with human milk at 3 months after delivery.

  20. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coronary anomaly: the single coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xu-guang; XIONG Wei-guo; LU Chun-peng; GONG Cheng-jie; SHANG Li-hua

    2010-01-01

    @@ Single coronary artery (SCA), defined as an artery that arises from the arterial trunk and nourishes the entire myocardium, is rare. We report two cases of SCA, one is the right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the middle of left descending artery (LAD), and the other is the left main coronary artery (LMCA) arising from the proximal right coronary artery.

  2. Coronary collaterals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerselman, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, in particular coronary artery disease, are the leading cause of death and disease in industrialized countries. Atherosclerotic changes of the arterial vessel wall constitute one of the major causes for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Important risk factors for

  3. Coronary collaterals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerselman, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, in particular coronary artery disease, are the leading cause of death and disease in industrialized countries. Atherosclerotic changes of the arterial vessel wall constitute one of the major causes for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Important risk factors for card

  4. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  5. 氧弹燃烧灰化法测定奶粉中的钙和磷%Determination the Content of Calcium and Phosphorus in Milk Powder by Oxygen Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党民团; 刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen bomb combustion method, which destroys the organic substances, is both simple and convenient as well as fast in operation, and pollution free in element analysis. With satisfactory result, this method has been applied to the determination of the content of calcium and phosphorus in milk powder by ashes of oxygen bomb which proves to be valid and reliable.%用氧弹燃烧灰化法分解有机物进行元素测定,操作简便、快速、无污染.该方法用于测定奶粉中的钙和磷,结果可靠.

  6. Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Human Pituitary GHomas and Non-Functioning Adenomas Based on Hormone Content and Calcium Responses to Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Núñez, Lucía; de Campos, José María; de Luis, Daniel A; Romero, Enrique; García-Sancho, Javier; Villalobos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Human pituitary tumors are generally benign adenomas causing considerable morbidity due to excess hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, and other tumor mass effects. Pituitary tumors are highly heterogeneous and difficult to type, often containing mixed cell phenotypes. We have used calcium imaging followed by multiple immunocytochemistry to type growth hormone secreting (GHomas) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual cells were typed for stored hormones and calcium responses to classic hypothalamic releasing hormones (HRHs). We found that GHomas contained growth hormone cells either lacking responses to HRHs or responding to all four HRHs. However, most GHoma cells were polyhormonal cells responsive to both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone. NFPAs were also highly heterogeneous. Some of them contained ACTH cells lacking responses to HRHs or polyhormonal gonadotropes responsive to LHRH and TRH. However, most NFPAs were made of cells storing no hormone and responded only to TRH. These results may provide new insights on the ontogeny of GHomas and NFPAs.

  7. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  8. Analysis of the Clinical Effect of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets in the Treatment of Hypertension and Coronary Heart Disease%分析氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of amlodipine atorvastatin calcium tablets in the treatment of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Methods June 2013 to December 2015 in our hospital 60 cases of patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease were selected as the object of study. The patients were divided into two groups, observation group with amlodipine atorvastatin calcium therapy, and the control group was treated with nifedipine sustained-release tablets. The effect of two groups was compared. Results Observation group, the total effective rate was 93.33% control group, the total effective rate was 66.67%, compared with the control group, clinical treatment in the observation group, the effective rate was higher (χ2=5.104, P<0.05). Conclusion Amlodipine atorvastatin calcium tablets in the treatment of hypertension and coronary heart disease effect is very remarkable.%目的:研究氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病的临床效果。方法选取2013年6月~2015年12月我院60例高血压合并冠心病患者为研究对象,将患者分为两组,观察组采用氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗,对照组采用硝苯地平缓释片治疗,对比疗效。结果观察组总有效率为93.33%,对照组总有效率为66.67%,相对于对照组,观察组的临床治疗有效率要高(χ2=5.104,P <0.05)。结论氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病的效果十分显著。

  9. The Clinical Curative Effect of Benazepril Symphysis Atorvastatin Calcium in Treatment Hypertension Combined Coronary Heart Disease(CHD)%贝那普利联合阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluation that benazepril combined use of atorvastatin calcium treatment hypertension combined clinical curative effect in patients with coronary heart disease.Methods From October 2013 to October 2015,168 cases of hypertension with coronary heart disease patients as the research object,is divided into control group and treatment group,84 cases in each group,the control application that benazepril treatment,treatment group on the basis of the combined use of atonrastatin statin calcium treatment.ResultsIncidence of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction,the incidence of treatment group were significantly lower than the control group,the differences were statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion That split joint atorvastatin calcium tablets in the treatment of hypertension with coronary heart disease patients can achieve significant curative effect,during the treatment of patients with angina pectoris incidence and the incidence of myocardial infarction were significantly reduced.%目的:评价贝那普利联合应用阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病患者的临床疗效。方法将我院2013年10月~2015年10月收治的168例高血压合并冠心病患者作为本次的研究对象,分为对照组和治疗组,每组84例,对照组应用贝那普利进行治疗,治疗组在此基础上联合应用阿伐他汀钙片进行治疗。结果治疗组心绞痛发生率与心肌梗死发生率分均低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论贝那普利联合阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病患者可以取得临床疗效,患者治疗期间心绞痛发生率和心肌梗死发生率均降低。

  10. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  11. Calcium Content Determination of Different Quality Milk by EDTA-complexometric Titration%EDTA络合滴定法测定不同品质牛奶中钙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉珍; 吕宝华; 荆志杰

    2011-01-01

    采用EDTA络合滴定法测定了不同品质牛奶中的钙含量。结果表明:伊利早餐奶钙含量最高(1.043 8mg/g),银桥酸牛奶钙含量最低(0.958 9 mg/g)。对于同一品牌牛奶,伊利早餐奶中含钙量最高,伊利酸牛奶中含钙量最低;不同品质纯牛奶:伊利纯牛奶中的钙含量最高,古城纯牛奶中的钙含量最低。%The calcium content in different quality of milk was determined by EDTA-complexometric titration.The results showed that the highest calcium content is Yili breakfast milk(1.043 8 mg/g),the lowest is Yinqiao Yoghurt(0.958 9 mg/g).For the same brand of mil

  12. Coronary risk stratification : from PREVEND to the prevention of coronary events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Christiane Anneliese

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to evaluate some of the unresolved issues on the pathway from risk association to risk stratification with regard to C-reactive protein, urinary albumin excretion and coronary calcium. This thesis shows that C-reactive protein is associated to angiographic evidence of

  13. Calcium dobesilate may improve hemorheology in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting Dobesilato de cálcio pode melhorar hemorreologia em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica

    OpenAIRE

    Kazim Besirli; Birsen Aydemir; Caner Arslan; Ali Riza Kiziler; Emir Canturk; Bekir Kayhan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium dobesilate is an angioprotective agent that has positive effects on hemorheological parameters. It is an antioxidant that increases endothelial-derived vasodilator substance secretion, there are none that analyze its effects during the postoperative period of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of calcium dobesilate on hemorheological parameters, such as reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde in patients with isch...

  14. 维生素D对婴幼儿微量元素钙影响的调查%Effect of vitamin D on the content of trace element calcium in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向琼; 彭鹤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨维生素D对半岁婴幼儿微量元素钙的影响,为婴幼儿正确补钙提供科学依据。方法选取辖区内正常出生的6月龄母乳喂养的婴幼儿186例进行调查,根据钙剂补充情况分为A组62例、B组54例与C组70例;A组仅补充维生素D,B组补充钙剂,C组联合补充维生素D和钙剂,后对186例婴幼儿全血中微量元素钙进行测定,对佝偻病发病情况进行统计。结果 A组婴幼儿缺钙3例(4.8%),C组婴幼儿缺钙2例(2.8%),明显低于B组的9例(16.7%),3组比较差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05);佝偻病发病率A组与C组均为0,B组发病率为3.7%。3组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论正常出生的足月婴幼儿在6个月内补充维生素D即可有效预防钙缺乏和佝偻病。%Objective To explore the effects of vitamin D on the content of trace element calcium in infants to pro-vide scientific basis for correct filling calcium in infants. Methods 186 cases of babies in 0-6 months with breastfeeding in our district were randomly divided into the experiment group(62 cases),control group(54 cases)and observation group(70 cases). The experiment group was given vitamin D only,the control group was given calcium,and the observation group was combined with vitamin D and calcium. The trace elements of calcium in blood of 186 cases of babies were measured. The inci-dence of rickets was performed the statistical analysis. Results 3 cases of the experiment group were calcium deficiency (4. 8%),2 cases of the observation group were calcium deficiency(2. 8%),which were significantly lower than 9 cases (16. 7%)of the control group,there was significant difference between three groups(P<0. 05). The incidence of rickets in experiment group and observation group was 0,which was 3. 7% in the control group,there was significant difference between three groups(P<0. 05). Conclusion The application of vitamin D have

  15. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia I. Chiarello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals.

  16. [Multidetector row CT in assessment of coronary artery calcification on hemodialisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, P; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Núñez, A

    2007-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcification is more frequent, more extensive and progresses more rapidly in CKD than in general population. They are also considered a marker of coronary heart disease, with high prevalence and functional significance. It suggests that detection and surveillance may be worthwhile in general clinical practice. New non-invasive image techniques, like Multi-detector row CT, a type of spiral scanner, assess density and volume of calcification at multiple sites and allow quantitative scoring of vascular calcification using calcium scores analogous to those from electron-beam CT. We have assessed and quantified coronary artery calcification with 16 multidetector row CT in 44 patients on hemodialysis and their relationship with several cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification prevalence was of 84 % with mean calcium score of 1580 +/- 2010 ( r 0-9844) with calcium score > 400 in 66% of patients. It was usually multiple, affecting more than two vessels in more than 50%. In all but one patient, left anterior descending artery was involved with higher calcium score level at right coronary artery. Advanced age, male, diabetes, smoking, more morbidity, cerebrovascular disease previous, and calcium-binders phosphate and analogous vitamin D treatment would seem to be associated with coronary artery calcification. Coronary artery calcification is very frequent and extensive, usually multiple and associated to modifiable risk factors in hemodialysis patients. Multi-detector-row CT seems an effective, suitable, readily applicable method to assess and quantify coronary artery calcification.

  17. Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Human Pituitary GHomas and Non-Functioning Adenomas Based on Hormone Content and Calcium Responses to Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Núñez, Lucía; de Campos, José María; de Luis, Daniel A.; Romero, Enrique; García-Sancho, Javier; Villalobos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Human pituitary tumors are generally benign adenomas causing considerable morbidity due to excess hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, and other tumor mass effects. Pituitary tumors are highly heterogeneous and difficult to type, often containing mixed cell phenotypes. We have used calcium imaging followed by multiple immunocytochemistry to type growth hormone secreting (GHomas) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual cells were typed for stored hormones and calcium responses to classic hypothalamic releasing hormones (HRHs). We found that GHomas contained growth hormone cells either lacking responses to HRHs or responding to all four HRHs. However, most GHoma cells were polyhormonal cells responsive to both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone. NFPAs were also highly heterogeneous. Some of them contained ACTH cells lacking responses to HRHs or polyhormonal gonadotropes responsive to LHRH and TRH. However, most NFPAs were made of cells storing no hormone and responded only to TRH. These results may provide new insights on the ontogeny of GHomas and NFPAs. PMID:26106585

  18. Multislice computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Hua Sun; Yan Cao; Hua-Feng Li

    2011-01-01

    Multislice Cr angiography represents one of the most exciting technological revolutions in cardiac imaging and it has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.Rapid improvements in multislice CT scanners over the last decade have allowed this technique to become a potentially effective alternative to invasive coronary angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.High diagnostic value has been achieved with multisfice CT angiography with use of 64-and more slice CT scanners.In addition,multislice CT angiography shows accurate detection and analysis of coronary calcium,characterization of coronary plaques,as well as prediction of the disease progression and major cardiac events.Thus,patients can benefit from multislice CT angiography that provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis while avoiding unnecessary invasive coronary angiography procedures.The aim of this article is present an overview of the clinical applications of multislice CT angiography in coronary artery disease with a focus on the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease;prognostic value of coronary artery disease with regard to the prediction of major cardiac events; detection and quantification of coronary calcium and characterization of coronary plaques.Limitations of multislice Cr angiography in coronary artery disease are also briefly discussed,and future directions are highlighted.

  19. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  20. Associations of Coffee, Tea, and Caffeine Intake with Coronary Artery Calcification and Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Zhao, Di; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Michos, Erin D; Averill, Michelle; Sandfort, Veit; Burke, Gregory L; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao A C; Post, Wendy S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Guallar, Eliseo; Martin, Seth S

    2017-02-01

    Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Intake for each was classified as never, occasional (coffee drinkers, regular coffee intake (≥1 cup per day) was not statistically associated with coronary artery calcium progression or cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.20). Caffeine intake was marginally inversely associated with coronary artery calcium progression. Moderate tea drinkers had slower progression of coronary artery calcium and reduced risk for cardiovascular events. Future research is needed to understand the potentially protective nature of moderate tea intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Analysis on rules of zinc and calcium content in children's hair as age changes%儿童发中锌、钙元素含量随年龄变化的规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海成; 巨振海; 岳玉军; 刘永平

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microelement. An important index of the microelement content in hunan body, manifests various kinds of information on health and nutrition status. Therefore, research on the rules and correlations of microelenent content in children's hair as age changes, and on how to regulate clfild nutrition reasonably has quite a significant meaning.OBJECTIVE: To discover the rules of zinc and calcium content in children's hair as age changes through masses of random surveys and statistics for the content of microelement in children's hair samples. To provide theoretical evidence for the research on how to formulate the standard of microelement content in children's hair and regulate child nutrition reasonably.It is of great significance.DESIGN: Random sampling study.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTIONS: Children below six years old in Wenan County of Langfang City, whose hair was selected as the sample. The sample was desiccated after washing, weighed accurately,then drying cineration was performed, after that, it was extracted by hydrochloric acid in one to one made up to, fixed volume with 1% SrCl2,measured by flame atom absorbing method with the instruments' most optimized situation. Estimation results of more than 1 000 hair samples were statistically analyzed, with the children aged from several days to six years old. The average value of different age stages were collected.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of corresponding zinc and calcium content at different ages.RESULTS: Content of zinc and calcium in the newborn infants' hair (four months old) is higher. Six months later, the content reduced gradually and remained low at the age of 1.5 to 2.5 years, it increased after 3 years old.For instance: the average content of zinc and calcium in two-month-old children's hair is 190 and 1 432 tμg/g; 18-month-old children is 115 and 412 μg/g; seventy-month-old (6 years old) children is 147 and 606 μg/g respectively.CONCLUSION: Zinc and calcium content in

  2. A novel amorphous calcium phosphate drug-eluting stent:its biocompatibility after implantation into mini-swine coronary artery%新型纳米材料无定形磷酸钙药物支架置入小型猪冠状动脉后的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭峥; 李莉; 马燚

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:As previously reported, poly-L-lactic acid stents have been mostly used as coronary artery stents, but this stent has a lack of early support force and produces some acidic products that wil induce local vascular inflammatory reactions. OBJECTIVE:To explore the biocompatibility of a novel amorphous calcium phosphate drug-eluting stent, after implantation into mini-swine coronary artery. METHODS:Twenty mini-swine were randomly equivalently divided into observation group and control group. The right femoral arteries of animals were separated layer by layer and the new type of biodegradable stent and poly-L-lactic acid stent were implanted, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The vessel lumes in the two groups were smooth and unobstructed showed by coronary artery angiography immediately after implantation. At 4 weeks after implantation, the coronary angiography showed the patency of vessel lumens with no stent thrombosis and stenosis in both two groups. The C-reactive protein levels in the two groups had no significant differences before and 4 weeks after stent implantation. At 4 weeks after implantation, the number of lymphocytes and inflammatory score in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, but the neointimal area and percentage of stenosis area had no significant difference between the two groups. These results indicate that the novel amorphous calcium phosphate drug-eluting stent after implantation into mini-swine coronary artery has good biocompatibility.%背景:以往冠状动脉植入支架大多为聚左旋乳酸,但存在早期支撑力不足的问题,且会产生一定的酸性产物,导致血管局部出现炎性反应。  目的:探讨新型纳米材料无定形磷酸钙药物支架置入小型猪冠状动脉后的生物相容性。  方法:20只小型猪随机等分为观察组和对照组,对动物右侧股动脉予以逐层分离,分别置入新型生物全降解支架和

  3. Using Compost, Zeolite and Calcium Oxide to Limit the Effect of Chromium (III and (VI on the Content of Trace Elements in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine the influence of Cr(III and Cr(VI in doses of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg Cr.kg−1 of soil as well as compost, zeolite and CaO additives on the content of heavy metals in the spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera and yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.. The contents of heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Ni, Cu in plants, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. All of the investigated element contents in the tested plants differed significantly in the case of applying amendments to the soil, as well as increasing concentrations of Cr(III and Cr(VI. In the series without additives in soils containing Cr(III and Cr(VI, rapeseed was characterized by a higher average content of Cr than yellow lupine. Compost most noticeably limited the negative effect of chromium. Cr(VI modified the contents of trace elements in the tested plants more significantly than Cr(III.

  4. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. Calcium and vitamin D: Important at every age. NIAMS.NIH.gov website. www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Bone_Health/Nutrition . Updated May 2015. Accessed March ...

  5. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  6. —Part I. Interaction of Calcium and Copper-Calcium Alloy with Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikov, Yurii P.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Ivanovskii, Leonid E.; Suzdaltsev, Andrey V.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the interaction between calcium and molten CaCl2 and the solubility of calcium in this melt, depending on the calcium content in the copper-calcium alloy that comes in contact with the molten CaCl2. The negative influence of the dissolved calcium on the current efficiency was verified. The negative effects of moisture and CaO impurities on the calcium current efficiency were demonstrated. The dependence of the current efficiency and the purity of the metal obtained by the electrolysis conditions were studied in a laboratory electrolyzer (20 to 80 A).

  7. Acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G G; Morrell, D F; Brain, V; Jaros, G G

    1987-07-01

    To elucidate a pathogenesis for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals, we studied the acute calcium homeostasis of MHS swine. This was achieved by the serial measurement, with a calcium selective electrode, of calcium transients in Landrace MHS (five) and control Landrace/large white cross MH negative (five) swine following IV bolus injection of calcium gluconate 0.1 mmol X kg-1--a dose which induced an acute 45 per cent increase in plasma ionised calcium. Experimental animals were anaesthetised with ketamine 10 mg X kg-1 IM, thiopentone (intermittent divided doses) 15-25 mg X kg-1 (total) IV and N2O/O2 (FIO2 0.3) by IPPV to maintain a normal blood gas, acid/base state. The plasma ionised calcium decay curve observed in MHS swine did not differ from that of control normal swine. Further it was noted that the induced acute rise in plasma ionised calcium failed to trigger the MH syndrome in any MHS swine. It is concluded that the mechanisms of acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine are normal. An explanation for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals must be sought, therefore, through study of the slow long-term component of the calcium regulatory process. In addition, the conventional strictures placed on the use, in MHS patients, of calcium gluconate are called in question.

  8. Coronary artery and thoracic aorta calcification is inversely related to coronary flow reserve as measured by 82Rb PET/CT in intermediate risk patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongho; Bravo, Paco E.; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Sohn, Seil; Rafique, Ash; Travis, Arlene; Machac, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Background The strength and nature of the relationship between myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), coronary flow reserve (CFR), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) remain to be clarified. Methods Dynamic rest-pharmacological stress 82Rb positron emission tomography/computed tomography MPI with CFR, CAC, and TAC was performed in 75 patients (59 ± 13 years; F/M = 38/37) with intermediate risk of coronary artery disease. Results A total of 29 (39%) patients had isc...

  9. Coronary heart disease risk assessment and characterization of coronary artery disease using coronary CT angiography: comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y., E-mail: yookkim@ewha.ac.k [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, I.-M. [Division of Cardiology in Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, J.; Park, H. [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and assess plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and ninety consecutive patients [asymptomatic group, n = 138; symptomatic group (atypical or non-anginal chest pain), n = 252] were retrospectively enrolled. They were subsequently classified into three CHD risk categories, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, and 10 year risks of coronary events were calculated using Framingham risk score. CT was evaluated for stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary calcium scores. Results: CAD was observed in 42% of the asymptomatic group and 62% of the symptomatic group. In the former, the prevalence of CAD in low-, moderate- and high-risk subgroups was 21.4, 47.4 and 65%, respectively, and was 33.3, 74.4, and 72.4% in the symptomatic group. Framingham 10-year risks of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than in normal participants, and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that discriminatory power was poor in the asymptomatic group and symptomatic men, and good in symptomatic women. Of the participants in the asymptomatic group, 12% exhibited only non-calcified plaques and of the symptomatic group, 7% exhibited only non-calcified plaques. The coronary calcium score was significantly higher for significant stenosis than for non-significant stenosis in both groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD was not negligible even in subgroups with low-to-moderate CHD risk. Additionally, the Framingham risk score was effective for predicting CAD only in symptomatic women. Coronary calcium scores correlated with significant stenosis; however, a sizeable percentage of both groups had only non-calcified plaques.

  10. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  11. Pathogenetic relationship between coronary heart disease and osteopenic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Mykhailovskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the comorbidity problem of coronary heart disease and osteoporosis is caused by the rising prevalence, lack of early detection, prevention, severe complications and significant impact on the quality of life of the patients. Aim. In order to compile and submit a current point of view on the pathogenetic relationship between the coronary heart disease and the osteopenic syndrome we reviewed specialized literature. Conclusion. We established that coronary heart disease and osteoporosis have common mechanisms of progression involving a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin, endothelial dysfunction, estrogen, calcium deficiency, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous system.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Coronary Artery Calcification in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chong-Do; Jacobs, David R; Hankinson, Arlene; Iribarren, Carlos; SIDNEY, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Whether cardiorespiratory fitness relates to early subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease remains unknown. We investigated the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 2373 African-American and White young adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in 1985-1986 (baseline) using a symptom-limited exercise test on a treadmill. Coronary calcium scores were measured in 2001-200...

  13. Assessment of coronary artery disease and calcified coronary plaque burden by computed tomography in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Seitun, Sara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Nieman, Koen; Weustink, Annick C.; Mollet, Nico R. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Guaricci, Andrea Igoren [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Foggia, Department of Cardiology, Foggia (Italy); Tedeschi, Carlo [Ospedale San Gennaro, Department of Cardiology, Naples (Italy); Berti, Elena; Grilli, Roberto [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Healthcare and Social Agency, Bologna (Italy); Messalli, Giancarlo [SDN Foundation, IRCCS, Naples (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    To compare the coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with and without type-2 diabetes using CT Coronary Angiography (CTCA). 147 diabetic (mean age: 65 {+-} 10 years; male: 89) and 979 nondiabetic patients (mean age: 61 {+-} 13 years; male: 567) without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CTCA. The per-patient number of diseased coronary segments was determined and each diseased segment was classified as showing obstructive lesion (luminal narrowing >50%) or not. Coronary calcium scoring (CCS) was assessed too. Diabetics showed a higher number of diseased segments (4.1 {+-} 4.2 vs. 2.1 {+-} 3.0; p < 0.0001); a higher rate of CCS > 400 (p < 0.001), obstructive CAD (37% vs. 18% of patients; p < 0.0001), and fewer normal coronary arteries (20% vs. 42%; p < 0.0001), as compared to nondiabetics. The percentage of patients with obstructive CAD paralleled increasing CCS in both groups. Diabetics with CCS {<=} 10 had a higher prevalence of coronary plaque (39.6% vs. 24.5%, p = 0.003) and obstructive CAD (12.5% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.01). Among patients with CCS {<=} 10 all diabetics with obstructive CAD had a zero CCS and one patient was asymptomatic. Diabetes was associated with higher coronary plaque burden. The present study demonstrates that the absence of coronary calcification does not exclude obstructive CAD especially in diabetics. (orig.)

  14. Decreased agonist-stimulated mitochondrial ATP production caused by a pathological reduction in endoplasmic reticulum calcium content in human complex I deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visch, Henk-Jan; Koopman, Werner J H; Leusink, Anouk; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; van den Heuvel, Lambertus W P J; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of mutations causing malfunction of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the OXPHOS system is now known, their cell biological consequences remain obscure. We previously showed that the bradykinin (Bk)-induced increase in mitochondrial [ATP] ([ATP](M)) is significantly reduced in primary skin fibroblasts from a patient with an isolated complex I deficiency. The present work addresses the mechanism(s) underlying this impaired response. Luminometry of fibroblasts from 6 healthy subjects and 14 genetically characterized patients expressing mitochondria targeted luciferase revealed that the Bk-induced increase in [ATP](M) was significantly, but to a variable degree, decreased in 10 patients. The same variation was observed for the increases in mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](M)), measured with mitochondria targeted aequorin, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](C)), measured with fura-2, and for the Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), calculated from the increase in [Ca(2+)](C) evoked by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the ER Ca(2+) ATPase. Regression analysis revealed that the increase in [ATP](M) was directly proportional to the increases in [Ca(2+)](C) and [Ca(2+)](M) and to the ER Ca(2+) content. Our findings provide evidence that a pathological reduction in ER Ca(2+) content is the direct cause of the impaired Bk-induced increase in [ATP](M) in human complex I deficiency.

  15. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); Phigh moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups.

  16. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    connect ion conformationally rearranged, thus passing the signal through the chain of intermediaries. The most important function of calcium is its participation in many cell signaling pathways. Channels, pumps, gene expression, synthesis of alkaloids, protective molecules, NO etc. respond to changes in [Ca2+]cyt, while transductors are represented by a number of proteins. The universality of calcium is evident in the study in connection with other signaling systems, such as NO, which is involved in the immune response and is able to control the feedback activity of protein activators channels, producing nitric oxide. Simulation of calcium responses can determine the impact of key level and their regulation, and also depends on the type of stimulus and the effector protein that specifically causes certain changes. Using spatiotemporal modeling, scientists showed that the key components for the formation of Ca2+ bursts are the internal and external surfaces of the nucleus membrane. The research was aimed at understanding of the mechanisms of influence of Ca2+-binding components on Ca2+ oscillations. The simulation suggests the existence of a calcium depot EPR with conjugated lumen of the nucleus which releases its contents to nucleoplasm. With these assumptions, the mathematical model was created and confirmed experimentally. It describes the oscillation of nuclear calcium in root hairs of Medicago truncatula at symbiotic relationship of plants and fungi (rhizobia. Calcium oscillations are present in symbiotic relationships of the cortical layer of plant root cells. Before penetration of bacteria into the cells, slow oscillations of Ca2+ are observed, but with their penetration into the cells the oscillation frequency increases. These processes take place by changing buffer characteristics of the cytoplasm caused by signals from microbes, such as Nod-factor available after penetration of bacteria through the cell wall. Thus, the basic known molecular mechanisms for

  17. 氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病的疗效观察%Effect Observation of Amlodipine Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets Treatment of Hypertension With Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查树德

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究分析氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病的临床疗效。方法选取2015年2月~2016年2月在我院住院治疗的136例高血压合并冠心病患者,通过计算机进行随机性分组,一组68例患者应用阿托伐他汀钙片进行治疗设为对照组;一组68例患者应用氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片进行治疗设为研究组,对比分析治疗前、后两组患者的血压、血脂水平变化情况。结果研究组患者血压水平小于对照组,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。研究组患者LDL-C、TC、TG水平低于对照组,而HDL-C水平高于对照组,差异有统计学意义, P<0.05。结论氨氯地平阿托伐他汀钙片治疗高血压合并冠心病患者,可有效控制其血压、血脂水平,疗效理想。%Objective To study the clinical curative effect of amlodipine and atorvastatin in treatment of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Methods Hospitalized patients in our hospital during the period of the February 2015~February 2016 136 cases of hypertension combined in patients with coronary heart disease were selected. Through the computer random grouping, a set of 68 cases patients treated with atorvastatin cutting atorvastatin calcium treatment were set as control group, a group of 68 cases patients treated with amlodipine and atorvastatin cutting atorvastatin calcium treatment were set as the study group, comparative analysis before treatment, after two groups of patients with blood pressure, changes in lipid levels.Results The blood pressure level of patients in study group were signiifcantly lower than that of control group, the difference was statistically signiifcantP<0.05. Patients in the study group LDL-C, TC and TG levels were signiifcantly lower than the control group, while the level of HDL-C was signiifcantly higher than the control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant P<0.05.Conclusion Amlodipine and atorvastatin

  18. [Effect of the B-group vitamin complex on the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodoevich, V P; Buko, V U

    1986-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, under the influence of the functionally-associated vitamin-B complex, in 45 patients with coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. The vitamins were given daily in the following doses: thiamine diphosphate 50 mg, riboflavine 40 mg, calcium pantothenate 200 mg, nicotinic acid 200 mg and lipoic acid 50 mg. Favourable shifts leading to positive clinical effects were recorded in the fatty acid metabolism after 10-day taking the vitamin-B complex: the content of unsaturated (linoleic and arachidonic) fatty acids increased while that of saturated (stearic and palmitic) fatty acids decreased.

  19. Quantitative micro-CT based coronary artery profiling using interactive local thresholding and cylindrical coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Daniele; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Viglione, Federica; Kusmic, Claudia; Terreni, Marianna; Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, Alberto Del; Athanasiou, Lambros; Exarchos, Themistoklis; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Filipovic, Nenad; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Salvadori, Piero A; Parodi, Oberdan

    2015-01-01

    Micro-CT is an established imaging technique for high-resolution non-destructive assessment of vascular samples, which is gaining growing interest for investigations of atherosclerotic arteries both in humans and in animal models. However, there is still a lack in the definition of micro-CT image metrics suitable for comprehensive evaluation and quantification of features of interest in the field of experimental atherosclerosis (ATS). A novel approach to micro-CT image processing for profiling of coronary ATS is described, providing comprehensive visualization and quantification of contrast agent-free 3D high-resolution reconstruction of full-length artery walls. Accelerated coronary ATS has been induced by high fat cholesterol-enriched diet in swine and left coronary artery (LCA) harvested en bloc for micro-CT scanning and histologic processing. A cylindrical coordinate system has been defined on the image space after curved multiplanar reformation of the coronary vessel for the comprehensive visualization of the main vessel features such as wall thickening and calcium content. A novel semi-automatic segmentation procedure based on 2D histograms has been implemented and the quantitative results validated by histology. The potentiality of attenuation-based micro-CT at low kV to reliably separate arterial wall layers from adjacent tissue as well as identify wall and plaque contours and major tissue components has been validated by histology. Morphometric indexes from histological data corresponding to several micro-CT slices have been derived (double observer evaluation at different coronary ATS stages) and highly significant correlations (R2 > 0.90) evidenced. Semi-automatic morphometry has been validated by double observer manual morphometry of micro-CT slices and highly significant correlations were found (R2 > 0.92). The micro-CT methodology described represents a handy and reliable tool for quantitative high resolution and contrast agent free full length

  20. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  1. Chronic use of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine effected on bone metabolism in elder with coronary heart disease%老年冠心病患者长期应用硝苯地平对骨代谢及功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌

    2013-01-01

    目的:硝苯地平(NIF)临床广泛用于调节心率,本文主要研究年冠心病患者长期应用NIF对骨代谢及功能的影响。探讨NIF应用1年后对碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性、骨钙蛋白(OCN)和钙离子水平的影响,为治疗骨代谢性疾病提供理论性的依据。方法:本研究筛选160名老年冠心病患者,均参加NIF治疗临床跟踪随访1年,观测并评价NIF的疗效及对骨代谢及功能。结果:本研究所有病例用药前与用药后,男性和女性体内的钙离子水平均显著升高(P0.05)。结论:对于长期使用NIF的老年患者,应当及时监测骨骼代谢水平以及骨骼发育状况评价指标,提前预防骨质疏松。%Calcium channel blockers have been reported to have such diverse effects as reduction in protein synthesis, diminished incorporation of proline into new col agen, and decreased hormone release in vitro. The study screened 160 elderly patients with coronary heart disease, are members of nifedipine treatment of clinical fol ow-up 1 year, observation and evaluation of nifedipine and its effect on bone metabolism and function. Results: In this study, al cases before treatment and after treatment, the average male and female body calcium ion water was significantly higher (P 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with long-term use of nifedipine should be timely monitoring of bone metabolism and bone development status evaluation, prevention of osteoporosis in advance. In summary, chronic nifedipine use in males is associated with adverse effect on bone metabolism in elder with coronary heart disease.

  2. Coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography is widely recognised as a reliable imaging modality for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography not only provides excellent visualisation of anatomical changes in the coronary artery with high diagnostic value in the detection of lumen stenosis or occlusion, but also offers quantitative characterisation of coronary plaque components. Furthermore, coronary CT angiography allows myocardial perfusion imaging with diagnostic value comparable to the reference standard method. Coronary CT angiography-derived haemodynamic analysis has the potential to evaluate functional significance of coronary lesions. This review article aims to provide an overview of clinical applications of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease.

  3. Coronary CT: clinical indications and future directions; Tomografia de coronarias: indicacoes clinicas e perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Cesar H.; Serpa, Bruna S.; Kay, Fernando U.; Szarf, Gilberto; Passos, Rodrigo B.; Neto, Roberto S.; Chate, Rodigo C.; Funar, Marcelo B., E-mail: cesarnomura@gmail.com [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto C. [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has started its implementation in cardiology with calcium quantification of coronary plaques in the study without contrast, using the calcium score, demonstrating an important independent predictor of future cardiac events. The examination with intravenous contrast, coronary angiography, appeared later as a noninvasive method for evaluation of anatomy and obstructive coronary disease, characterizing the degree of stenosis and the presence of non calcified atherosclerotic plaques, assessing not only the lumen, but also the vessel wall. With the advent of new machines with more detectors and higher temporal resolution has been a reduction in radiation dose and the possibility of new applications. (author)

  4. Escore de cálcio coronariano prediz estenose e eventos na insuficiência renal crônica pré-transplante Score de calcio coronario predice estenosis y eventos en la insuficiencia renal crónica pre trasplante Coronary calcium score as predictor of stenosis and events in pretransplant renal chronic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Abraão Rosário

    2010-02-01

    este grupo. La evaluación del score de calcio coronario (SCC por tomografía computarizada ha estado comprobando valor pronóstico en la población sin enfermedad renal. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la exactitud del SCC para detectar EAC obstructiva y prever eventos cardiovasculares en candidatos a trasplante renal comparada a la angiografía coronaria invasiva (ACI cuantitativa. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron a 97 pacientes con IRC y edad > 35 años. Se consideró como EAC obstructiva la presencia de estenosis > 50% o > 70% por la ACI. Datos descriptivos, concordancia, pruebas diagnósticas, Kaplan-Meier y análisis multivariado se utilizaron. RESULTADOS: El score de Agatston promedio fue de 580,6 ± 1.102,2; los valores mínimos y máximos fueron 0 y 7.994, y mediana de 176. Solamente 14 pacientes tenían score de calcio de cero. No hubo diferencias entre las etnias y la mayor presencia de calcio regional se asoció a la mayor probabilidad de estenosis coronaria en el mismo segmento. El score de calcio de Agatston presentó buena exactitud para el diagnóstico de estenosis, > 50% y > 70% con área bajo la curva ROC de 0,75 y 0,70, respectivamente. En el umbral de 400, el score de calcio identificó el subgrupo con mayor tasa de eventos cardiovasculares en tiempo promedio de seguimiento de 29,1 ± 11,0 meses. CONCLUSIÓN: El SCC en la evaluación de EAC presentó una buena performance diagnóstica y pronostica para eventos cardiovasculares en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC.BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death among chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Traditional, non-invasive exams to detect CAD and to predict events have shown insufficient results in this group. CT Scan evaluation of Coronary Calcium Score (CCS has proven to be of prognostic value for the population reporting no renal condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CCS accuracy in detecting obstructive CAD and in predicting cardiovascular events in candidates to renal transplant

  5. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... slow down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting ...

  6. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  7. Coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008417 Efficacy comparison with low and high dose natroparin for patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent percutancous coronary intervention. SUN Chaoyu(孙超宇), et al. Dept Cardiol, 4th Affili Hosp, Harbin Med Univ, Harbin 150001. Chin J Cardiol 2008;36(6):493-496. Objective To evaluate the safety and optimal piror percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) natroparin dose in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

  8. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  9. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  10. Coronary atherosclerosis evaluation among Iranian patients with zero coronary calcium score in computed tomography coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moradi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although, CAC scoring is a noninvasive and valuable method to evaluate CAD; but zero CAC score does not absolutely exclude the CAD, especially in the presence of risk factors such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking.

  11. Correlation of gene polymorphism and plasma contents of MBL and hs-CRP in patients with coronary heart disease%冠心病与MBL基因多态性及血浆MBL和hs-CRP水平的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡念光; 王玉凤; 王晓明; 程健君; 贾天军; 吕占军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between coronary heart disease(CHD) and the gene polymorphism of mannan binding lectin(MBL), the plasma contents of MBL and the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).Methods The anti-coagulated blood of CHD patients (group CHD, 100 cases) and healthy people(group C,60 cases) was collected.The point mutation of MBL ExonI 54 codon was detected by PCR-RFLP.The content of MBL and the level of hs-CRP were detected by ELISA kit and immunoturbidimetry, respectively.Results There was no significant difference in the genotypes of MBL ExonI 54 codon between group CHD and group C(P>0.05).The plasma content of MBL and the level of hs-CRP in group CHD were higher than those in group C (P<0.01).In group CHD, there was no obvious difference in the content of MBL between the patients with high level of hs-CRP(>3 mg/L) and those with normal level of hs-CRP(<3 mg/L) (P>0.05).Conclusion MBL and hs-CRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of CHD via different mechanisms.%目的 研究冠心病(CHD)与甘露聚糖结合凝集素(MBL)基因多态性及其血浆MBL和高敏G-反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平的关系.方法 收集100例CHD患者(CHD组)和60例健康人群(对照组)抗凝血,限制片段长度多态性法(PCR-RFLP)检测MBL ExonI 54位密码子基因点突变,ELISA法和免疫比浊法分别检测血浆MBL含量和高敏G-反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平.结果 CHD组与对照组MBL基因ExonI 54位密码子点突变频率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).CHD组血浆MBI和hs-CRP含量均高于对照组(P<0.01).而CHI组内血浆hs-CRP水平升高者(>3 mg/L)与hs-CRP水平正常者(<3 mg/L)MBL含量比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 MBL和hs-CRP可能以不同机制参与CHD发生、发展过程.

  12. Coronary CTA assessment of coronary anomalies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pursnani, A.; Jacobs, J.E.; Saremi, F.; Levisman, J.; Makaryus, A.N.; Capunay, C.; Rogers, I.S.; Wald, C.; Azmoon, S.; Stathopoulos, I.A.; Srichai, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary anomalies occur in <1% of the general population and can range from a benign incidental finding to the cause of sudden cardiac death. The coronary anomalies are classified here according to the traditional grouping into those of origin and course, intrinsic arterial anatomy, and

  13. Coronary CTA assessment of coronary anomalies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pursnani, A.; Jacobs, J.E.; Saremi, F.; Levisman, J.; Makaryus, A.N.; Capunay, C.; Rogers, I.S.; Wald, C.; Azmoon, S.; Stathopoulos, I.A.; Srichai, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary anomalies occur in <1% of the general population and can range from a benign incidental finding to the cause of sudden cardiac death. The coronary anomalies are classified here according to the traditional grouping into those of origin and course, intrinsic arterial anatomy, and terminat

  14. HPLC法同时测定三维葡磷钙咀嚼片中维生素B1、维生素B2的含量%Content Determination of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2 in Trivitamin and Calcium Gluconate,Calcium Hydro-gen Phosphate Chewable Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹凤

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To establish a method for the content determination of vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 in Trivitamin and calci-um gluconate,calcium hydrogen phosphate chewable tablets. METHODS:HPLC was conducted. The column was Inertsil C18 with the mobile phase of 1%triethylamine contained 0.02 mol/L of sodium heptane solution(pH was adjusted to 5.5 by phosphate)-methanol (74∶26,V/V)at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,the detection wavelength was 260 nm,temperature was 30℃and the volume was 20μl. RESULTS:There was a good linear relationship between the quality concentration of vitamin B1 and peak area in the range of 0.22-1.10μg/ml(r=0.999 8)and vitamin B2 was in the range of 0.22-1.09μg/ml(r=0.999 7). The RSDs of precision,reproducibility and stabil-ity tests were all less than 1%;the average recovery was respectively 99.66%(RSD=0.96%,n=9)and 100.31%(RSD=0.92%,n=9). CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple,accurate,sensitive and reliable and suitable for the content determination of vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 in Trivitamin and calcium gluconate,calcium hydrogen phosphate chewable tablets.%目的:建立同时测定三维葡磷钙咀嚼片中维生素B1、维生素B2含量的方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱法。色谱柱为Inertsil C18,流动相为含1%三乙胺的0.02 mol/L庚烷磺酸钠溶液(磷酸调pH至5.5)-甲醇(74∶26,V/V),检测波长为260 nm,流速为1.0 ml/min,柱温为30℃,进样量为20μl。结果:维生素B1、维生素B2质量浓度分别在0.22~1.10、0.22~1.09μg/ml范围内与各自峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9998、0.9997);精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD<1%;平均加样回收率分别为99.66%、100.31%,RSD分别为0.96%、0.92%(n=9)。结论:本方法简便、准确度高,可用于三维葡磷钙咀嚼片中维生素B1、维生素B2的含量测定。

  15. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  16. Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ≤ 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ≤ 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ≤ 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ≤ 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ≤ 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age.

  17. 钙对化学诱抗剂诱导番茄叶片酚类物质含量的影响%Effect of Calcium on Content of Phenolic Compounds Induced by Chemical Elicitors in Tomato Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余朝阁; 周娜; 李天来; 刘志恒

    2014-01-01

    为探索钙对化学诱抗剂水杨酸(SA)、茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)、β-氨基丁酸(BABA)和龙胆酸(GA)诱导番茄酚类物质积累的影响,在番茄6叶期用上述化学诱抗剂处理第3叶片,并分别喷施CaCl2、蒸馏水(H2O)、LaCl3和EGTA,然后测定各处理第3叶片(诱导叶)和第5叶片(非诱导叶)中酚类物质含量的变化。结果表明:(1)化学诱抗剂处理后,番茄诱导叶及其上位非诱导叶中酚类物质含量均升高;其中,SA、MeJA和GA处理后第2天,酚类物质含量迅速升高并达到高峰,而BABA处理后第1天酚类物质含量即达到高峰。(2)外源Ca2+显著促进诱抗剂对番茄叶片中酚类物质积累的诱导,4种诱抗剂与Ca2+共同处理,番茄叶片中酚类物质含量比相应诱抗剂单独处理高10%以上;而Ca2+螯合剂EGTA和质膜钙通道抑制剂LaCl3,则不同程度抑制这些诱抗剂诱导番茄叶片中酚类物质含量的提高。由此认为,钙对上述诱抗剂诱导番茄叶片中酚类物质的合成具有正调控作用。%In order to investigate the effect of calcium on synthesis of phenolic compounds induced by salicylic acid (SA), Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and gentisic acid (GA) in tomato, the 3rd leaf was treated with above chemicals in six-leaf stage. At the sametime, these plants were sprayed with CaCl2, distilled water, LaCl3 or EGTA respectively. And then, content of phenolic compounds in the 3rd (induced) and 5th (un-induced) leaves were assayed at different time after treatments. Results showed that:(1) Content of phenolic compounds both in induced and un-induced leaves increased after treatment with chemical elicitors. It reached the peak on the 2nd day after treated with SA, MeJA and GA or on the 1st day after treated with BABA. (2) Content of phenolic compounds induced by chemical elicitors was promoted by exterior Ca2+. Content of phenolic compounds in leaves treated with chemical elicitors

  18. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  19. 过磷酸钙肥料中磷含量的测定方法探讨%Discussion on the Determination of Phosphorus Content in Calcium Superphosphate Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景迅; 魏雨; 范娟娟; 张中政

    2014-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus content in calcium superphosphate fertilizer was carried out with three different methods of quinolone phosphomolybdate gravimetric method , quinoline phosphomolybdate volumetry method and ammonium molybdate weight method.The results showed that the determination of phosphorus content using quinolone phosphomolybdate gravimetric method and quinoline phosphomolybdate volumetry method was close to each other , however , the quinolone phosphomolybdate gravimetric method was simplified and showed good repeatability.On the other hand , ammonium molybdate weight method considered to be an alternative method for routine determination of phosphorus pentoxide without the use of toxic reagents.%分别采用磷钼酸喹啉重量法、磷钼酸喹啉容量法以及钼酸铵重量法三种方法对过磷酸钙肥料中五氧化二磷的含量进行了分析对比。结果表明,磷钼酸喹啉重量法与容量法测定的五氧化二磷含量较为接近,但磷钼酸喹啉重量法操作过程与容量法相比较为简化,且重现性较好。钼酸铵重量法在测定过程中避免了有毒试剂喹啉的使用,可以考虑作为常规测定五氧化二磷含量的替代方法使用。

  20. Calpains and Coronary Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potz, Brittany A; Sabe, Ashraf A; Abid, M Ruhul; Sellke, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Despite many advances in percutaneous and surgical interventions in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), up to one-third of patients are still either not candidates or receive suboptimal revascularization. Calpains are a class of calcium-activated non-lysosomal cysteine proteases that serve as a proteolytic unit for cellular homeostasis. Uncontrolled activation of calpain has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial stunning and cardiac ischemia. Inhibition of calpains has been shown to significantly attenuate myocardial stunning and reduced infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion. Calpain inhibition therefore serves as a potential medical therapy for patients suffering from a number of diseases, including CAD.

  1. Calcium channel blockers in cardiovascular pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfraind, Theophile

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the pharmacological properties of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), their established therapeutic uses for cardiovascular disorders and the current improvement of their clinical effects through drug combinations. Their identification resulted from study of small molecules including coronary dilators, which were named calcium antagonists. Further experiments showed that they reduced contraction of arteries by inhibiting calcium entry and by interacting with binding sites identified on voltage-dependent calcium channels. This led to the denomination calcium channel blockers. In short-term studies, by decreasing total peripheral resistance, CCBs lower arterial pressure. By unloading the heart and increasing coronary blood flow, CCBs improve myocardial oxygenation. In long-term treatment, the decrease in blood pressure is more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. A controversy on the safety of CCBs ended after a large antihypertensive trial (ALLHAT) sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. There are two main types of CCBs: dihydopyridine and non-dihydropyridine; the first type is vascular selective. Dihydropyrines are indicated for hypertension, chronic, stable and vasospastic angina. Non-dihydropyridines have the same indications plus antiarrythmic effects in atrial fibrillation or flutter and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. In addition, CCBs reduced newly formed coronary lesions in atherosclerosis. In order to reach recommended blood pressure goals, there is a recent therapeutic move by combination of CCBs with other antihypertensive agents particularly with inhibitors acting at the level of the renin-angiotensin system. They are also combined with statins. Prevention of dementia has been reported in hypertensive patients treated with nitrendipine, opening a way for further studies on CCBs' beneficial effect in cognitive deterioration associated with aging.

  2. The coronary heart team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Bobby; Puskas, John D; Bhatt, Deepak L; Verma, Subodh

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a Coronary Heart Team has generated increased interest, including support from major practice guidelines. Here, we review the rationale and the published experience of Coronary Heart Teams. A Coronary Heart Team should be led by both cardiology and cardiac surgery with a shared decision-making approach. The team should incorporate data from anatomic and clinical risk prediction models to offer individualized care. Most teams focus on management of complex patients and those with indications for both coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention. The potential benefits of a Coronary Heart Team include balanced decision-making, greater adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines, as well as promoting greater collegiality and exchange of knowledge between specialties. Single-center series have demonstrated consistency in decision-making by Coronary Heart Teams but prospective data demonstrating improved patient outcomes and/or cost effectiveness are necessary. The concept of a Coronary Heart Team is gaining traction for patients with complex coronary artery disease. There is a growing literature in support of Coronary Heart Teams but comparative and prospective data demonstrating improved patient outcomes are needed.

  3. CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY WITH DUAL SOURCE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: INITIAL EXPERIENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu-hua Zhang; Wen-min Zhao; Wen-bin Mou; Li-ren Zhang; Wen-ling Zhu; Qi Miao; Qi Fang; Zheng-yu Jin; Shu-yang Zhang; Song-bai Lin; Dong-jing Li; Ling-yan Kong; Yi-ning Wang; Lan Song; Yun Wang

    2007-01-01

    To explore the scan technique and image quality of coronary angiography with dual source computed tomography (CT) without oral metoprolol preparation.Methods Plain and enhanced dual source CT coronary angiography without oral metoprolol preparation was prospectively performed in 600 patients. Calcium scoring with plain scan images as well as multi-planar reconstruction( MPR ), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volume rendering technique (VRT) reconstruction with enhanced scan images were performed in all cases. The scan technique and post-reconstruction experience was summarized. The image quality was classified as 1 to 4 points, and coronary segments classified according to the American Heart Association standards were evaluated.Results The average calcium score of the 600 cases was 213.6 ± 298.7 (0-3 216. 5). The average heart rate of the enhanced scan was 82.1 ± 16.2 (47-139) bpm. The post-reconstruction methods with which coronary segments could be shown as best as possible consisted of single phase reconstruction method, two or more phases supplemented method, and electrocardiogram editing method. Altogether 8 457 coronary segments were evaluated, among which 97.2% were evaluated as point 1, 1.7% point 2, 0.5% point 3, and0.6% point 4. The coronary segments in 261 cases were completely normal, while 360 segments were diagnosed with < 50% stenosis and 625 segments with ≥50%stenosis.Conclusions Excellent coronary artery image can be obtained with dual source CT in patients with any heart rate without oral metoprolol preparation. Heart rate is not a major source of the artifact, coronary segments can be well shown with single or multiple-phase reconstruction method.

  4. 碳酸钙高填充聚乳酸复合材料的制备及性能%Preparation of Poly( lactic acid)Composite with High Calcium Carbonate Content and Its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华; 丁峰; 葛芳芳; 任杰

    2011-01-01

    Poly ( lactic acid ) ( PLA) composite was studied by filling with high calcium carbonate in present of chain extender Joncryl and plasticizer ATBC.The structure and properties of composite were carefully tested and characterized by electronic tensile testing machine,SEM,ARES Rheometer.Experimental results showed that the tensile strength and flexural strength were greatly improved with high content of CaCO3,but the impact strength got some loss.However,the impact strength of the composites was still higher than pure PLA when the content of CaCO3,was from 30 % to 60 %.The storage modulus and elasticity of the composites increased with the increase of CaCO,content.The shear-viscosity of the composites decreased with the increasing of shear rate.%在扩链剂Joncryl和增塑剂乙酰柠檬酸三丁酯存在下,采用微米级碳酸钙对聚乳酸(PLA)基体进行了高填充改性,制备碳酸钙高填充聚乳酸基复合材料,并用电子拉力机、扫描电镜、ARES流变仪等手段对材料的结构与性能等进行测试与表征.结果表明:碳酸钙高含量时可以明显提高材料的拉伸强度、弯曲强度,而材料的冲击强度会有所下降,但质量含量在30% ~60%时复合材料的冲击强度仍高于纯聚乳酸.随碳酸钙含量的增加,材料的储能模量逐渐增大.碳酸钙的加入可以提高材料的弹性,材料的剪切黏度随剪切速率的增大而逐渐降低.

  5. Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years...... Registry and risk factor control was evaluated. The study revealed that risk factors are common in early-onset CAD and that a large room for risk factor improvement remains. In study II, we used coronary computed tomography angiography to compare the coronary plaque burden and characteristics between 88...... first-degree relatives of patients with early-onset CAD and 88 controls with no familial predisposition. Relatives had a significantly increased coronary plaque burden, which displayed characteristics associated with myocardial ischemia and adverse coronary events. In study III, 134 patients with early...

  6. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

    1999-06-01

    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  7. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...

  8. Evaluation value of coronary CTA for coronary plaque features and its correlation with platelet function and serum biochemical indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Xia Yang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the evaluation value of coronary CT angiography for coronary plaque features and its correlation with platelet function and serum biochemical indexes.Methods:A total of 450 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into calcified plaque group (CT value≥130HU) (n=117), soft plaque group (CT value≤60HU) (n=150) and mixed plaque group (CT value 60-130HU) (n=183) by coronary CT angiography (CTA), and 100 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Differences in platelet function and serum biochemical indexes were compared among four groups of patients, and the judgment value of atheromatous plaque CT value from CTA for the severity of coronary heart disease was analyzed.Results: Platelet function parameters MPV, TEG-MA, P-selectin, PDGF-BB and vWF levels in peripheral blood of soft plaque group were higher than those of the other three groups; inflammatory factors CRP, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23 content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups; chemokines MCP-1, CXCL16, Fractalkine and RANTES content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups; adipocytokines Leptin and RBP4 content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups while SFRP5 content was lower than those of the other three groups. Atheromatous plaque CT value in patients with coronary heart disease was directly correlated with platelet function and the content of serum biochemical indexes. Conclusions: Coronary CTA can accurately assess coronary atheromatous plaque features, and can also be a reliable noninvasive method to judge coronary heart disease severity, treatment prognosis and so on.

  9. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  10. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  11. Selective Coronary Arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John O.; Challis, Thomas W.; West, Roxroy O.

    1966-01-01

    The technique of selective coronary arteriography, as described originally by Sones, was employed in 255 patients. Successful catheterization of both coronary arteries was carried out in 88% of these patients, and in the last 100 examinations both coronary arteries were entered in 95 patients. Selective coronary arteriography is a useful diagnostic tool but is a potentially hazardous form of examination as we encountered four episodes of ventricular fibrillation in the present series. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Figs. 3A-DFig. 3EFig. 3FFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:5902704

  12. Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.

    1966-01-01

    The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

  13. Differences in calcium accumulation between human plantar and palmar aponeuroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Cho; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Morimoto, Mamoru; Tohno, Setsuko; Minami, Takeshi; Takano, Yasuo; Utsumi, Masako; Moriwake, Yumi; Nishiwaki, Fumio; Yamada, Masa-oki

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of calcium accumulation of human plantar and palmar aponeuroses, the authors determined the calcium content of human plantar and palmar aponeuroses by atomic absorption flame emission spectrophotometry. The subjects consisted of 9 men and 14 women, ranging in age from 61 to 93 yr. In the plantar aponeurosis, the calcium content was significantly higher in the anterior and posterior parts than in the middle part. It is known that pressure distribution under the sole of a foot is higher in the anterior and posterior parts than in the middle part. The present study suggests that the accumulation of calcium in the plantar aponeurosis is related with the pressure distribution under the sole of a foot. The calcium content increased progressively with aging in the anterior part of the plantar aponeurosis, but not in the middle and posterior parts. Regarding the palmar aponeurosis, the calcium content was significantly higher in the anterior and posterior parts in comparison with the middle part. It was found that the calcium content increased progressively with aging in the posterior part of the palmar aponeurosis, whereas it did not increase significantly with aging in the anterior and middle parts. Regarding the relationship between the calcium content of the aponeuroses and the bone mineral density, a significant correlation was found between the calcium content in the anterior part of the palmar aponeurosis and the bone mineral density of the scaphoid bone.

  14. Myoscape controls cardiac calcium cycling and contractility via regulation of L-type calcium channel surface expression

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Matthias; Meder, Benjamin; V?lkers, Mirko; Poomvanicha, Montatip; Domes, Katrin; Branchereau, M.; Marck, P.; Will, Rainer; Bernt, Alexander; Rangrez, Ashraf; Busch, Matthias; ,; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signalling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Here we describe a cardiac protein named Myoscape/FAM40B/STRIP2, which directly interacts with the L-type calcium channel. Knockdown of Myoscape in cardiomyocytes decreases calcium transients associated with smaller Ca2+ amplitudes and a lower diastolic Ca2+ content. Likewise, L-type calcium channel currents are significantly diminished on Myoscape ablation, and downregulation of Myoscape significantly reduces cont...

  15. 终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展的关系研究%The correction of cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary artery calcium in end stage re-nal disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓春; 王泓; 戴云; 孙晖; 李娟; 杨斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary ar-tery calcium scores( CACS) in end stage renal disease patients.Methods We collected 127 end stage renal disease patients.Statisti-cal methods were used to analyze the relation between cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary calcium.Results In-cidence of the CACS progression in no valve calcification, aortic valve or mitral valve calcification and both valve calcification were 43.1%, 71.4%and 76.5%(P<0.05).Cardiac valve calcification was independent risk factor for CAC progression.Patients with aortic valve or mitral valve calcification and both valve calcification had a significantly greater likelihood of increase of CACS ( relative ratios were 1.30,1.35;P<0.01).Conclusion The cardiac valve calcification in end stage renal disease patients was strongly asso-ciated with the progression of CACS.CACS progressed rapidly in patients with cardiac valve calcification.%目的:探讨终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展之间的关系。方法选取127例终末期肾病患者,分析心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展的关系。结果终末期肾病患者冠脉钙化在无瓣膜钙化组、主动脉瓣或二尖瓣钙化组、主动脉瓣和二尖瓣同时钙化组中进展的发生率分别为43.1%、71.4%、76.5%(P<0.05)。心脏瓣膜钙化是冠脉钙化进展的独立危险因子。与无瓣膜钙化患者相比,主动脉瓣或二尖瓣钙化患者与主动脉瓣和二尖瓣钙化的终末期肾病患者冠脉钙化积分进展的危险比分别为1.30、1.35( P<0.01)。结论终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉的钙化进程密切相关,瓣膜钙化患者冠状动脉钙化的进展更快。

  16. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d......-saccharate becomes spontaneously supersaturated with both d-gluconate and d-saccharate calcium salts, from which only calcium d-saccharate slowly precipitates. Calcium d-saccharate is suggested to act as a stabilizer of supersaturated solutions of other calcium hydroxycarboxylates with endothermic complex formation...

  17. Diagnostic Performance of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Kidney Transplantation Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Svensson, My; Jørgensen, Hanne Mari Skou;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery calcium score (CACS), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and a combination of these in the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with chr......Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery calcium score (CACS), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and a combination of these in the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients...... stress tests, while the diagnostic performance of CCTA remains unknown. Methods We prospectively studied 138 patients referred for pre-transplant cardiac evaluation (mean age 54 [22-72] years, 68% males, 43% treated with dialysis). All patients underwent CACS, CCTA, SPECT, and invasive coronary...... angiography. The results of the noninvasive tests were merged into integrated Hybrid (CACS/SPECT) and Hybrid (CCTA/SPECT). Results The overall prevalence of obstructive CAD (≥50% reduction in luminal diameter) according to quantitative invasive coronary angiography was 22%. Two-thirds of the patients...

  18. Significance of microalbuminuria in relation to subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic nonhypertensive, nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Eun; Heo, Nam Ju; Kim, Minkyung; Choi, Su-Yeon

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the significance of microalbuminuria and its relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic patients, by using coronary artery computed tomography (CT). A total of 1,318 nonhypertensive and nondiabetic subjects who had taken coronary artery CT and measured spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were evaluated. The atherosclerotic changes of coronary arteries were greater in subjects with microalbuminuria, reflected by coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and significant coronary artery stenosis (CACS ≥ 100 in 15.3% vs 7.6% and stenosis ≥ 50% in 11.5% vs 4.9% of patients with vs without microalbuminuria, P = 0.008 and P = 0.011, respectively). Among various parameters that are known as a risk factor or possible biomarkers of coronary artery disease, presence of microalbuminuria, age and Framingham risk score were significantly related to coronary artery stenosis. Among them the presence of microalbuminuria showed stronger correlation than others to the coronary artery stenosis detected by CT, even after adjusting confounding factors (OR 3.397, 95% confidence interval 1.138 to 10.140, P = 0.028). The presence of microalbuminuria by UACR was significantly associated with presence of coronary artery stenosis ≥ 50% in asymptomatic, nonhypertensive and nondiabetic general population. Our study suggests that the presence of microalbuminuria may imply subclinical coronary artery disease, even in asymptomatic population.

  19. Fortification of all-purpose wheat-flour tortillas with calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate is acceptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; McKemie, Rebecca J

    2007-03-01

    Fortification helps provide adequate nutrients for individuals not meeting daily needs. Foods may be fortified with calcium to assist individuals with lactose intolerance and others preferring not to consume traditional forms of dairy. This study examined the quality of all-purpose wheat-flour tortillas fortified with calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate. These tortillas were compared to similarly prepared nonfortified flour tortillas (control) and commercial nonfortified flour tortillas. Calcium-fortified tortillas contained 114 mg elemental calcium per standard serving (48 g tortilla), an 8.6-fold increase compared to nonfortified tortillas. Moisture contents and rollabilities of all tortillas were similar. Consumers (N=87) evaluated each tortilla in duplicate using a hedonic scale and reported liking the appearance, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability of all tortillas. However, the appearance of control tortillas was preferred over commercial tortillas (P<0.01), whereas the aftertaste of commercial tortillas or those fortified with calcium carbonate was preferred over the control (P<0.05). Despite these differences, consumers were equally willing to purchase both fortified and nonfortified tortillas, suggesting that appearance and aftertaste may not influence willingness to purchase. Overall, this study shows that fortification of flour tortillas with various forms of calcium is a feasible alternative calcium source.

  20. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  1. Magnesium: Origin and role in calcium-treated inclusions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pistorius, CP

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available -magnesia-lime phase diagram. Inclusions with higher CaO contents generally had lower MgO contents, indicating that the calcium wire is not the origin of the magnesium in the inclusions; this was also confirmed by wet chemical analysis of the calcium wire. Instead...

  2. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. You may try ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new ...

  3. Exercised-Induced Coronary Spasm in Near Normal Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Franzen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to effort-induced symptoms in obstructive coronary disease, spasm in normal coronary arteries is characterized by angina at rest. We describe a 44-year-old patient with minor coronary plaques and pure exercised-induced coronary spasm. The case questions the differential pathogenic considerations of variant of the variant as opposed to Prinzmetal's variant angina.

  4. Assessment of calcium scoring performance in cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulzheimer, Stefan; Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Electron beam tomography (EBT) has been used for cardiac diagnosis and the quantitative assessment of coronary calcium since the late 1980s. The introduction of mechanical multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners with shorter rotation times opened new possibilities of cardiac imaging with conventional CT scanners. The purpose of this work was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance for EBT and MSCT for the task of coronary artery calcium imaging as a function of acquisition protocol, heart rate, spiral reconstruction algorithm (where applicable) and calcium scoring method. A cardiac CT semi-anthropomorphic phantom was designed and manufactured for the investigation of all relevant image quality parameters in cardiac CT. This phantom includes various test objects, some of which can be moved within the anthropomorphic phantom in a manner that mimics realistic heart motion. These tools were used to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the accuracy of coronary calcium imaging using typical protocols for an electron beam (Evolution C-150XP, Imatron, South San Francisco, Calif.) and a 0.5-s four-slice spiral CT scanner (Sensation 4, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). A special focus was put on the method of quantifying coronary calcium, and three scoring systems were evaluated (Agatston, volume, and mass scoring). Good reproducibility in coronary calcium scoring is always the result of a combination of high temporal and spatial resolution; consequently, thin-slice protocols in combination with retrospective gating on MSCT scanners yielded the best results. The Agatston score was found to be the least reproducible scoring method. The hydroxyapatite mass, being better reproducible and comparable on different scanners and being a physical quantitative measure, appears to be the method of choice for future clinical studies. The hydroxyapatite mass is highly correlated to the Agatston score. The introduced phantoms can be used to quantitatively assess the

  5. 钙离子选择性电极法测定饮料中游离钙含量的影响因素及其应用%Application and Influencing Factors on the Content of Free Calcium in Beverage of Ca2+Selective Electrode Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟都; 王雅琼; 朱慧; 李言郡; 田芬; 王银娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the application and influencing factors on the content of free calcium in beverage of calcium ion selective electrode method.Method:The calibration curves for the electrode were ob-tained by determining the potential values of different concentrations of calcium ion solution prepared.Apply-ing this method the contents of free calcium in several kinds of beverages,milk powder and whey protein were determined.In addition,the recovery of free calcium in beverage,the effect of centrifugation on the content of free calcium and the recovery as well as the effects of pH,phosphate or citrate and polysaccharides on the free calcium content in beverages were discussed.Result:The linear correlation between the potential value and the concentration was higher with more than 0.99 of the correlation coefficient and the recovery of 98.4%~100.5%when applied to determine in the Ca2+solution,which could be used to determine the content of free calcium in different concentrations from lower to higher.The centrifugation didn’t affect the determination of free calcium content and due to the presence of chelating agents and fatty acids the recovery was significantly lower in beverage.Moreover,pH,different salts and their concentration and different polysaccharides signifi-cantly affected the content of free calcium in beverage.Conclusion:Calcium ion selective electrode method could be used to determine the content of free calcium in beverages and powders like milk powder and study the varied influencing factors which effect on the free calcium in beverage.%目的:钙离子选择性电极法研究饮料中游离钙含量的影响因素及其应用。方法:配制不同浓度钙离子溶液并测定电位值,制作电极的校准曲线,应用该方法测定多种饮料、奶粉及乳清粉中游离钙的含量,并研究饮料中游离钙的回收率、离心对游离钙含量测定以及回收率测定的影响、研究pH值、磷酸盐或柠檬酸盐、多

  6. Normal and Malignant Cells Exhibit Differential Responses to Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine K; Krüger, Mie B; Mangalanathan, Uma M

    2017-01-01

    tissue after calcium electroporation but decreased in skin tissue 4 hours after treatment to levels comparable with untreated controls, whereas calcium content endured at high levels in tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments in vitro indicated that calcium influx was similar in fibroblasts and cancer...... necrosis, with a range of sensitivities observed (36%-88%) 2 days after treatment. Necrosis was induced using calcium concentrations of 100-500 mmol/L and injection volumes 20%-80% of tumor volume. Notably, only limited effects were seen in normal tissue. Calcium content increased >7-fold in tumor and skin......Calcium electroporation may offer a simple general tool for anticancer therapy. Transient permeabilization of cancer cell membranes created by applying short, high-voltage pulses in tumors enables high calcium influxes that trigger cell death. In this study, we compared the relative sensitivity...

  7. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  8. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  9. Effects of retrograde coronary sinus perfusion with vascular endothelial growth factor on L-type calcium ion current in rabbit myocardial infarction model%冠状静脉窦逆行灌注血管内皮生长因子对兔心肌梗死心室肌细胞L型钙电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安杰; 周永刚; 罗罕; 韦方

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究经冠状静脉窦逆行灌注血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)对兔心肌梗死模型心室肌细胞L型钙离子电流(L-type calcium ion current,Lca-L)的影响,探讨VEGF抗心律失常的细胞学离子机制。方法 45只新西兰大耳大白兔按电脑随机数字法分为3组(每组15只),胸骨正中切开,暴露心脏,Ⅰ组(假手术对照组)冠状静脉窦插管备取静脉血;Ⅱ组(0.9%氯化钠溶液对照组)结扎左心室支建立心肌梗死模型,冠状静脉窦插管逆灌0.9%氯化钠溶液;Ⅲ组(VEGF逆灌治疗组)冠状静脉窦插管逆行灌注VEGF蛋白。全程监测心电,记录恶性心律失常发生情况,酶解法分离缺血部位单个心室肌细胞,采用全细胞膜片钳技术记录Lca-L,于术前及术后120min取冠状静脉窦血检测VEGF、一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)、肌钙蛋白T(cardiotroponin T,TnT)浓度。结果 术前3组动物VEGF、NO、TnT浓度比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。Ⅱ组心律失常发生率及电流密度峰值(mV)明显高于Ⅰ组及Ⅲ组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后120min,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组TnT浓度均显著高于Ⅰ组[(4.93±0.57)μg/L vs.(0.72±0.21)μg/L,P<0.05;(2.26±0.49)μg/Lvs.(0.72±0.21)μg/L,P<0.05];但Ⅲ组低于Ⅱ组,差异有统计学意义[(2.26±0.49)μg/L vs(4.93±0.57)μg/L,P<0.05]。Ⅲ组NO[(108.14±14.57)μmol/L vs.(62.98±10.29)μmol/L,P<0.05;(108.14±14.57)μmol/L vs.(67.28±13.45)μmol/L,P<0.05]、VEGF[(834.65±49.23)ng/L vs.(112.34±30.18)ng/L,P<0.05;(834.65±49.23)ng/L vs.(123.45±27.98)ng/L,P<0.05]浓度明显高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ组,差异有统计学意义。结论 经冠状静脉窦逆行灌注vEGF能使缺血区心室肌细胞明显增加的Lca-L得到逆转,减少恶性心律失常发生率,其机制可能与增加NO水平有关。%Objectives To investigate effects of retrograde coronary sinus perfusion with vascular

  10. Ectopic Origin of Coronary Arteries Diagnozed by Coronary Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Gorani, Daut; Sejdiu, Basri; Citaku, Hajdin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anomalous origin of coronary arteries from opposite sinus of Valsalva is rare finding. The incidence of anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from right sinus is 0.15% and the right coronary artery from the left sinus is 0.92%. The ectopic origin of left coronary artery or right coronary artery from opposite sinus depending on pathways and considering atherosclerotic changes are manifested with different clinical significance. Case report: We report two cases, the first case the coronary angiography showed the left coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus, presenting with proximally and distally stenosed left anterior descending artery (LAD), associated with medial and distal stenosed right coronary artery (RCA). The second case the coronary angiography revealed the right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus, associated with tortuous medial and distal segments of left anterior descending artery (LAD), without atherosclerotic changes. The first case successfully underwent treatment procedures based on guidelines for revascularization. Conclusion: The coronary angiography of patients with coronary ischemia determines atherosclerotic disease with possibility of the presence of coronary artery anomalies that in cases with ectopic origin from opposite sinus continues to exist as a challenge during treatment in interventional cardiology. PMID:27482140

  11. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  12. Influence of coronary calcification on the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Pedersen, Kasper; Budoff, Matthew;

    2012-01-01

    To determine via meta-analysis the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) for assessment of significant obstructive coronary artery stenosis at different coronary artery calcium score (CACS) levels. Data of 12,053 versus 5,890 segments, 906 versus 758...... arteries and 1,120 versus 514 patients in low versus high CACS subgroups from 19 eligible studies were compared. The per-patient prevalence of coronary artery disease was 48% versus 68%, respectively. Subgroups were stratified by different CACS thresholds ranging from 100 to 400. Meta-analyses of per......-patient data comparing overall low versus high CACS subgroups resulted in a sensitivity of 97.5 (95.5-99)% versus 97 (94.5-98.5)%, specificity of 85 (82-88)% versus 66.5 (58-74.5)%, diagnostic odds ratio of 153 (81-290) versus 40 (20-83), positive predictive value of 85 (82-87)% versus 86 (84-88)%, negative...

  13. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result of coronary artery disease, or CAD, said Edward A. Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., M.P. ... Problems and Disease • High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Metabolic Syndrome • Pericarditis • Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Stroke • Vascular Health • ...

  14. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: martine.remy@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  16. Treatment of Angina Pectoris Associated with Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peter; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of angina pectoris associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction is challenging as the underlying mechanisms are often diverse and overlapping. Patients with type 1 coronary microvascular dysfunction (i.e. absence of epicardial coronary artery disease and myocardial disease) should receive strict control of their cardiovascular risk factors and thus receive statins and ACE-inhibitors in most cases. Antianginal medication consists of ß-blockers and/or calcium channel blockers. Second line drugs are ranolazine and nicorandil with limited evidence. Despite individually titrated combinations of these drugs up to 30 % of patients have refractory angina. Rho-kinase inhibitors and endothelin-receptor antagonists represent potential drugs that may prove useful in these patients in the future.

  17. Tibolone and its metabolites acutely relax rabbit coronary arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Susan Helene

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of estradiol, tibolone and its metabolites on coronary arteries in vitro and to investigate possible vascular mechanisms. METHODS: Coronary artery ring segments from female rabbits were mounted in myographs for isometric tension recordings. Concentration.......05, ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the acute relaxation induced by tibolone and its metabolites in coronary arteries in vitro are probably mediated by endothelium independent inhibition of calcium channels but may also involve an endothelium-dependent mechanism via nitric oxide. The effect...

  18. Immunosuppressive therapy induced coronary vasospasm and acute myocardial infarction in a patient undergoing new renal transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Celik, Omer; Oner, Ender

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressant agents such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) used after solid organ transplantation may cause endothelial dysfunction, and coronary and renal arterial vasospasm. We report a patient presenting acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at the second week of renal transplantation. In the case of STEMI in patients with solid organ transplants under immunosuppressive therapy with CNI, coronary vasospasm associated with these drugs should be kept in mind before starting any interventional procedure. High dose nitroglycerine may immediately resolve tacrolimus or cyclosporine A induced coronary vasospasm. Calcium channel blockers should immediately be added to treatment because of the short half-life of nitroglycerine. PMID:26161107

  19. The Association Between Serum Magnesium Concentrations and Coronary Artery Calcification Scores in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Jenna; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist, and is inversely associated with coronary heart disease, cardiovascular mortality rates, and vascular calcification. Coronary artery calcification score is a tool used to evaluate the prognosis of coronary artery disease in individuals. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower coronary artery calcification scores (CACS), and recent studies have found a significant inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS in Korean and Mexican-mestizo populations. The correlation between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS is not well researched, so our aim was to examine this relationship in astronauts. We found that a higher serum magnesium concentration is significantly related to a higher coronary artery calcification score (p=.0217), and that there is a significant difference in magnesium concentrations of subjects who have a CACS greater than 100 and a CACS less than 100.

  20. Calcium antagonistic effects of Bambusa Rigida investigated by 45Ca and its protection on myocardial ischemia of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Rushan; YE Ling; YANG Yuanyou; LIAO Jiali; MO Shangwu; LIU Ning

    2008-01-01

    An investigation was conducted using 45Ca as a radioactive tracer to evaluate calcium antagonistic effects of several extracts from Bambusa Rigida in living rats. The relationship between the flavonoid and saccharide contents of Bambusa Rigida and calcium antagonistic effects were also analyzed. The protective effects of the alkali extracts ofBambusa Rigida on myocardial ischemia were investigated in living rats. The results indicated that the alkali extracts of Bambusa Rigida had a prominent influence on Ca2+ influx and efflux in the isolated rat aorta and heart, as they could obviously block 45Ca entering into cells and stimulate efflux of intracellular Ca2+. Moreover, the alkali extracts of Bambusa Rigida had favorable protective effects on myocardial ischemia induced either by isoproterenol injection (ISO) or by the ligation of coronary artery. These results implied that the Bambusa Rigida had attractive potential for the treatment of heart, cerebrovascular and other diseases. However, the conclusion that whether the flavonoid or saccharide in Bambusa Rigida affected the calcium antagonistic effects and Ca2+ channels or not was hard to make within the results of the investigation.

  1. Coronary artery spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 71. Giugliano RP, Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  2. Auxetic coronary stent endoprosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal; Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Ansari, Umar;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular heart disease is one of the leading health issues in the present era and requires considerable health care resources to prevent it. The present study was focused on the development of a new coronary stent based on novel auxetic geometry which enables the stent to exhibit...... a negative Poisson's ratio. Commercially available coronary stents have isotropic properties, whereas the vascular system of the body shows anisotropic characteristics. This results in a mismatch between anisotropic-isotropic properties of the stent and arterial wall, and this in turn is not favorable...... for mechanical adhesion of the commercially available coronary stents with the arterial wall. It is believed that an auxetic coronary stent with inherent anisotropic mechanical properties and negative Poisson's ratio will have good mechanical adhesion with the arterial wall. METHODS: The auxetic design...

  3. Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due ...

  4. 北京市西城区某幼儿园儿童指血微量元素及钙的分析%Analysis on the Content of Trace Elements and Calcium in Finger Blood among Children in a Kindergarten in Xicheng District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 简友平; 高平

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市西城区某幼儿园儿童指血的微量元素含量,探讨其缺乏的可能原因及综合防治措施.方法 采用原子吸收分光光度法检测230例儿童微量元素铜、锌、铁、镁含量及元素钙含量.结果 儿童血锌缺乏位于5种元素之首,其次为钙、铁、铜、镁,缺乏率分别为18.7%、7.4%,6.5%、4.3%和3.2%.结论 该幼儿园儿童存在铜、锌、铁、钙、镁等元素缺乏,应注意均衡饮食,特别是加强锌、钙、铁的补充及促进其吸收.%[ Objective ] To understand the content of trace elements in finger blood among children in a kindergarten in Xicheng district of Beijing, explore the possible causes of trace elements deficiency and comprehensive control measures. [ Methods] The content of copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in 230 children were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. [ Results] The zinc deficiency of children occupies the first place among five elements, followed by calcium, iron, copper and magnesium,which the deficiency rate was 18.7%, 7.4%, 6.5%, 4. 3% and 3.2% respectively. [ Conclusion ] There is trace elements deficiency which included copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium among children in a kindergarten, the balanced diet should be improved in children, especially supplement and absorption of zinc, calcium and iron.

  5. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    to be formed. In addition the low amount of micellar calcium caused a more compact gel structure with many protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the importance of calcium for the formation of acid, calcium and rennet gels. The content and the interactions of calcium with proteins during...... salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...

  6. Coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008042 Analysis of coronary artery lesion characteristics and its clinical implications in patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. BAI Taizhu(柏太柱), et al. Cardiovasc Dept, Hengyang Centr Hosp & Hengyang Cardiovasc Intervention Center, Hengyang 421001. Chin J Arterioscler 2007;15(10):780-782. Objective To investigate the coronary artery lesion characteristics and its clinical implications in patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

  7. Coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008277 Relationship between pulse wave velocity and the NYHA classification of coronary insufficiency.SUN Weiping(孙卫平),et al.Dept Cardiol,Tongji Hosp Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200065.Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(5):382-384.Objective To investigate the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(baPWV)and different stage of cardiac dysfunction.Methods 253 consecutive patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease

  8. Large coronary intramural hematomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2015-01-01

    coronary vessel wall pathology, with poorly understood underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Affected individuals may present with a broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from acute coronary syndromes (ACS) to cardiogenic shock or even sudden cardiac death. The disease entity causes challenges in terms of both......, no randomized, controlled trials exist to guide treatment, and no consensus regarding management is available. Currently, treatment strategies are based on a case-by-case clinical assessment, and experiences described in previous, limited retrospective studies and case reports....

  9. Coronary Fistulas: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Fennich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon finding during angiographic exams. We report a case series of five patients with congenital coronary fistulas. The first patient was 56 years old and had a coronary fistula associated with a partial atrio ventricular defect, the second patient was 54 years old and had two fistulas originating from the right coronary artery with a severe atherosclerotic coronary disease, the third patient was 57 years old with a fistula originating from the circumflex artery associated with a rheumatic mitral stenosis, the fourth patient was 50 years old and had a fistulous communication between the right coronary artery and the right bronchial artery, and the last patient was 12 years old who had bilateral coronary fistulas draining into the right ventricle with an aneurismal dilatation of the coronary arteries. Angiographic aspects of coronary fistulas are various; management is controversial and depends on the presence of symptoms.

  10. Discovery and Development of Calcium Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Godfraind

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883. Interest in the intracellular role of calcium arose 60 years later out of Kamada (Japan and Heibrunn (USA experiments in the early 1940s. Studies on pharmacology of calcium function were initiated in the mid 1960s and their therapeutic applications globally occurred in the the 1980s. The first part of this report deals with basic pharmacology in the cardiovascular system particularly in isolated arteries. In the section entitled from calcium antagonists to calcium channel blockers, it is recalled that drugs of a series of diphenylpiperazines screened in vivo on coronary bed precontracted by angiotensin were initially named calcium antagonists on the basis of their effect in depolarized arteries contracted by calcium. Studies on arteries contracted by catecholamines showed that the vasorelaxation resulted from blockade of calcium entry. Radiochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with dihydropyridines allowed their cellular targets to be identified with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. The modulated receptor theory helped the understanding of their variation in affinity dependent on arterial cell membrane potential and promoted the terminology calcium channel blocker (CCB of which the various chemical families are introduced in the paper. In the section entitled tissue selectivity of CCBs, it is shown that characteristics of the drug, properties of the tissue, and of the stimuli are

  11. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography coronary angiography to detect and exclude left main and/or three-vessel coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dharampal, Anoeshka S; Papadopoulou, Stella L; Rossi, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in detecting and excluding left main (LM) and/or three-vessel CAD ("high-risk" CAD) in symptomatic patients and to compare its discriminatory value with the Duke risk score and calcium score....

  12. Biocompatibility of Coronary Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamarasee M. Jeewandara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the dominant cause of mortality in developed countries, with coronary artery disease (CAD a predominant contributor. The development of stents to treat CAD was a significant innovation, facilitating effective percutaneous coronary revascularization. Coronary stents have evolved from bare metal compositions, to incorporate advances in pharmacological therapy in what are now known as drug eluting stents (DES. Deployment of a stent overcomes some limitations of balloon angioplasty alone, but provides an acute stimulus for thrombus formation and promotes neointimal hyperplasia. First generation DES effectively reduced in-stent restenosis, but profoundly delay healing and are susceptible to late stent thrombosis, leading to significant clinical complications in the long term. This review characterizes the development of coronary stents, detailing the incremental improvements, which aim to attenuate the major clinical complications of thrombosis and restenosis. Despite these enhancements, coronary stents remain fundamentally incompatible with the vasculature, an issue which has largely gone unaddressed. We highlight the latest modifications and research directions that promise to more holistically design coronary implants that are truly biocompatible.

  13. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  14. Do calcium-dependent ionic currents mediate ischemic ventricular fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clusin, W T; Bristow, M R; Karagueuzian, H S; Katzung, B G; Schroeder, J S

    1982-02-18

    Calcium ions mediate the adverse effects of myocardial ischemia and have been implicated in the genesis of arrhythmias. Calcium influx blocking drugs protect against early ventricular arrhythmias during experimental coronary occlusion, and recent studies suggest that this effect is at least partly due to inhibition of myocardial cell calcium influx. Most of the pharmacologic maneuvers used to simulate acute ischemic arrhythmias in vivo also produce intracellular calcium overload. Production of calcium overload in small myocardial cell clusters causes fibrillatory electrical and mechanical activity similar to that recorded from fibrillating hearts. Fibrillation in these cell clusters is mediated not by reentrant conduction, but by the same subcellular processes that give rise to depolarizing afterpotentials and abnormal automaticity. Agents favoring calcium influx, such as beta adrenergic agonists, accentuate these processes, while agents that depress calcium influx inhibit them. Although the relation of these experimental models to clinical ischemic arrhythmias has not been fully delineated, calcium influx blocking drugs may prove useful in reducing the incidence of sudden cardiac death.

  15. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  16. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  17. Progression of coronary artery calcification in black and white women: do the stresses and rewards of multiple roles matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Matthews, Karen A; Hollenberg, Steven M; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2012-02-01

    Black women experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white women, though evidence for racial differences in subclinical CVD is mixed. Few studies have examined multiple roles (number, perceived stress, and/or reward) in relation to subclinical CVD, or whether those effects differ by race. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple roles on 2-year progression of coronary artery calcium. Subjects were 104 black and 232 white women (mean age 50.8 years). Stress and reward from four roles (spouse, parent, employee, caregiver) were assessed on five-point scales. Coronary artery calcium progression was defined as an increase of ≥10 Agatston units. White women reported higher rewards from their multiple roles than black women, yet black women showed cardiovascular benefits from role rewards. Among black women only, higher role rewards were related significantly to lower progression of coronary artery calcium, adjusting for body mass index, blood pressure, and other known CVD risk factors. Blacks reported fewer roles but similar role stress as whites; role number and stress were unrelated to coronary artery calcium progression. Rewarding roles may be a novel protective psychosocial factor for progression of coronary calcium among black women.

  18. 个性化膳食指导对壮族乳母膳食结构及乳汁钙铁锌含量影响的分析%Influence of Individual Diet Instruction on Thelastria Diettary Pattern and Calcium Iron Zinc Contents in Breast Milk in Zhuang Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫洁玲; 黄颖红; 周容; 韦兰荣; 袁梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨个性化膳食指导对乳母膳食结构和乳汁中钙、铁、锌含量的影响。方法将南宁市100例壮族乳母随机分为对照组和实验组,每组50例,实验组接受个性化膳食指导,对照组给予普通膳食指导,于干预前后调查两组膳食结构,测定乳汁中钙、铁、锌含量。结果两组乳母干预前膳食结构不均衡;干预后,对照组水果及奶类摄入量增加,其余膳食种类摄入量无明显变化;实验组禽肉类摄入量明显降低,除粮谷类、奶类和大豆坚果外,其余均达哺乳期妇女平衡膳食宝塔推荐值;对照组乳汁中锌含量增加,但钙、铁含量无明显变化;实验组乳汁中钙、锌含量增加,铁含量无明显变化。结论通过个性化膳食指导,可以改善乳母的膳食结构,增加营养素及矿物质的摄入量,提高乳汁中钙、锌的含量,但铁含量无明显变化。%Objective To study the effect of individual diet instruction on thelastria dietary pattern and calcium , iron,zinc contents in breast milk .Methods One hundred lactating women of Zhuang nationality in Nanning City were randomly divided into control group and experimental group ,50 cases in each group .The experimental group received the individual diet instruction while the control group received the ordinary diet instruction .To investigate the dietary patterns in two groups before and after intervention .The calcium,iron,zinc contents in breast milk were detected .Results The dietary patterns of lactating women showed an imbalance in both groups.After intervention,the intakes of fruit and milk increased in the control group,but the rest intakes showed no significant changes.The poultry intake reduced significantly in the experimental group,except for cereal ,milk and soy nuts intakes ,the rest intakes achieved the recommendation for lactating women from Chinese Nutrition Society .The zinc content in breast milk increased

  19. Lead removal in rats using calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olga V; Sgrebneva, Marina N; Kiselev, Vladimir I; Khotimchenko, Yuri S

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure, even at low levels, causes a variety of health problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the tissue distribution of lead in the bodies of rats, to evaluate lead removal from the internal organs and bones using calcium alginate in doses of 500, 200 and 100 mg/kg per day for 28 days and to assess the impact of calcium alginate on the level of essential elements. Lead (Pb), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels in the blood, hearts, kidneys, livers and femurs of the experimental animals were measured using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The results revealed that lead acetate exposure increased the levels of Pb in the blood and organs of the animals and significantly reduced contents of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Treatment with calcium alginate in dose 500 mg/kg contributed to significant decreases in the amount of lead in the kidney, heart and bones of animals and a slight increase in the content of essential elements in the liver, kidneys and heart, although these changes were not significant. Decreasing of lead was not significant in the internal organs, bones and blood of animals treated with calcium alginate 200 and 100 mg/kg. Consequently, calcium alginate dose of 500 mg/kg more efficiently removes lead accumulated in the body. Calcium alginate does not have negative effect on level of essential elements quite the contrary; reducing the levels of lead, calcium alginate helps normalize imbalances of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The results of this study suggest that calcium alginate may potentially be useful for the treatment and prevention of heavy metal intoxications.

  20. Distal coronary hemoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deMuinck, ED; denHeijer, P; vanDijk, RB; Crijns, HJGM; Hillige, HL; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Distal coronary hemoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)-with an autoperfusion balloon or active system-facilitates prolonged balloon inflation. Prolonged inflations may tack up intimal dissections and improve the primary angioplasty result in complex lesions. Addit

  1. Integumentary loss of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Margen, S; Calloway, D H; Costa, F M

    1979-08-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 +/- 1.9 mg/m2 per day (average 15.8 mg/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0.1 to 2.3 g/day). In contrast to urinary calcium excretion, which is directly related to protein intake, there was no significant change in integumentary calcium loss with varying protein intakes (1 to 96 g nitrogen per day). No compensatory relationship between urinary and integumentary calcium excretion was noted. During strenuous exercise calcium loss increased to an average of 25 mg in 40 min. There was no compensatory decrease in urinary excretion on the day of strenuous exercise. It was also noted that integumentary calcium loss was not affected by general calcium balance.

  2. Coronary plaque characterization of nonculprit or nontarget lesions assessed by analysis of in vivo intracoronary ultrasound radio-frequency data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-liang; ZHANG Jiao; MA Dong-xing; LUO Jian-ping; YANG Sheng-li; HAN Wei; LIU Ying; JING Li-min; MENG Rong-ying

    2009-01-01

    Background Unheralded sudden death and acute myocardial infarction are common manifestations of coronary atherosclerosis. Such events are related to thrombotic occlusion at the site of non-flow limiting atheroscterotic plaques in epicardial coronary arteries. This study aimed to assess plaque characterization of nonculprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with those with stable angina pectoris (SAP) determined by analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radiofrequency (RF) data.Methods In 81 patients, nonculprit vessels with <50% diameter stenosis and nontarget segment of culprit vessels with <50% diameter stenosis were studied with IVUS. Tissue maps were reconstructed from RF data using IVUS-Virtual Histology software.Results Mean lipid core percentage was significantly higher in patients with ACS than in those with SAP ((25.78±6.30)% vs (9.11±4.90)%, P <0.001). In addition, patients with SAP showed more fibrotic vessels ((59.66±16.87)% vs (49.07±10.20)%, P <0.001). There was no significant difference in either mean calcium ((4.37±2.40)% vs (5.12±3.00)%, P=0.225) or fibrolipid ((24.94±9.40)% vs (25.82±13.60)%, P=0.731) percentages in nonculprit vessels, but the mean calcium percentage was significantly higher in nontarget lesions of culprit vessels ((5.51±3.29)% vs (3.57±2.10)%, P=0.003). In addition, there was a positive correlation between lipid core and remodeling index (RI) (r=0.847, P<0.001) and a negative correlation between fibrous tissue and RI (r=-0.946, P<0.001).Conclusions In this study, in both nonculprit vessels and nontarget lesion of culprit vessels, plaque characterization of nonculprit lesions determined by spectral analysis of IVUS RF data was significantly different in patients with ACS. The percentage of lipid core was significantly higher in patients with ACS than in those with SAP. Conversely, SAP patients showed more fibrotic content. In vivo plaque composition and morphological changes were

  3. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  4. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  5. Dual anterior descending coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Luciane da L. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a male with risk factors for coronary artery disease, who was referred for cardiac catheterization after acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall. The patient underwent transluminal coronary angioplasty in the right coronary artery with successful stent implantation.

  6. Distal coronary hemoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muinck, Ebo Derk de

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis several aspects of passive and active coronary perfusion during coronary angioplasty are investigated. The autoperfusion balloon catheters that were evaluated are the Stack® and the RX-60® catheters (Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, inc., Santa Clara, California, U.S.A). The coronary

  7. Distal coronary hemoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muinck, Ebo Derk de

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis several aspects of passive and active coronary perfusion during coronary angioplasty are investigated. The autoperfusion balloon catheters that were evaluated are the Stack® and the RX-60® catheters (Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, inc., Santa Clara, California, U.S.A). The coronary

  8. Current Indications for Coronary Arteriography

    OpenAIRE

    Dodek, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    Coronary arteriography is not necessary in all patients with angina pectoris. Angiography is indicated to define coronary anatomy in patients who have persistent angina despite full medication. It is also indicated in patients with a markedly positive stress test, unstable angina pectoris, positive stress test following myocardial infarction, variants of angina, ventricular aneurysm complications, and in the young coronary patient. Coronary arteriography may clarify the diagnosis in patients ...

  9. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  10. PROLONGED MULTIPLE SPASMS OF SMOOTH CORONARY ARTERIES PRESENTING AS ACUTE MIOCARDIAL INFARCTION, COMPLETE AV BLOCK AND SYNCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Cesar

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. A variant form of angina pectoris (VAP is caused by coronary vessel spasm and occures in patients with and without varying degrees of obstructive coronary artery disease. Although the prognosis of VAP without significant organic stenosis is generally good, multivessel spasm is associated with a high risk of life-threatening abnormalities of rhythm and conduction.Patient and methods. We describe a patient who presented with prolonged chest pain, associated with hypotension, lost of consciousness, complete AV block and widespread ST segment elevations consistent with inferoanterior acute myocardial infarction. Urgent selective coronary angiography revealed spasms in right coronary artery and in left circumflex artery that were relieved by intracoronary injection of nitroglycerin. All coronary arteries were otherwise patient, without signs of atherosclerosis. The patient was treated with diltiazem and nitrates. She made a complete recovery and resumed her normal activities.Conclusions. Simultaneous multiple spasms of native coronary arteries represent a rare syndrome characterized by significantly higher incidence of potentially life-threatening arrhythmia. Less commonly, prolonged coronary spasm may mimic acute myocardial infarction. Modern management of acute coronary syndromes, including urgent coronarography, enables a prompt differentiation between prolonged coronary spasm and atherosclerotic coronary disease, warranting different treatment strategies. Medical treatment with nitrates and calcium channel blockers in most cases prevents recurrence of vasospasms and arrhythmias.

  11. Aplicação foliar de cálcio em pessegueiro na Serra Gaúcha: avaliação do teor de nutrientes na folha, no fruto e produção Foliar application of calcium in peach in Serra Gaúcha: evaluation of content of nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-06-01

    calcium in Peach tree in the Southern Brasil is used during productive cycle, without any information about calcium content and other nutrients in the leaves, fruits and yield. Two experiments were carried out in 2003/2004 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different sources of calcium in its content and other nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield of peach trees, Chimarrita cultivar, at an Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Pinto Bandeira city. The treatments in the experiment 1 were three foliar applications of calcium chloride, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%.Experiment 2 were three foliar applications of calcium nitrate, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications and three plants for treatment. Leaves were collected, oven-dried and analyzed total calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. In the maturation, fruits were collected and determined the mass, yield and total content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. The results showed that foliar applications of calcium in the form of chloride and nitrate in peach tree, increase calcium content in the leaves, but did not affect the content of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the leaves, content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the fruit and yield.

  12. Association between epicardial fat volume and coronary plaques diagnosed by multislice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morán Quijada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary atherosclerotic disease is a major cause of death in Cuba and elsewhere. The volume of epicardial fat is considered a new cardiovascular risk factor because of its association with coronary atherogenesis.Objective: To determine, by multislice computed tomography, the association between epicardial fat volume and the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.Method: A descriptive study was conducted with a universe of 130 patients with chest pain suggestive of ischemic heart disease, of which 117 were selected by opinion sampling. These patients underwent a calcium score study, a coronary angiography and a measurement of the epicardial fat volume.Results: Male patients predominated (54.7% and those aged 60-69 years (32.5%. A high volume of epicardial fat was found in 51.3% of patients, affecting 52.8% of women; 78.9% of patients with a calcium score between 100 and 399 UH had a high volume of epicardial fat, just as 71.2% of those with plaques and 100% of those with 4 or 5 plaques; 41% of patients had various types of plaque, which were mainly located in the anterior descending artery (88.1%.Conclusions: The measurement of the volume of epicardial fat is a useful tool to estimate the presence of coronary disease. When it was high, it was associated with older age, female gender and the presence of a higher calcium score, more plaques, more injuries and a greater involvement of the anterior descending artery.

  13. What Is Coronary Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy ... medical procedures can help prevent or treat coronary heart disease. These treatments may reduce the risk of related ...

  14. Nuclear cardiology and coronary surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, R.; Andersen, L.I.; Hesse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rising age, repeated percutaneous coronary revascularizations, and co-morbidity such as overweight, diabetes, and hypertension, characterize a change over the last 20-30 years in coronary patients referred to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This patient group represents a great part of to...

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of 64-Slice MDCT Coronary Angiography for the Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sung Moon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is well known to be a useful noninvasive form of angiography for the general population, but not for certain patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and usefulness of 64-slice MDCT coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery disease in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsA total of 240 patients were included, 74 of whom had type 2 diabetes (M:F=40:33; 41.8±9.5 years. We compared significant coronary stenosis (>50% luminal narrowing in MDCT with invasive coronary angiography (ICA by segment, artery, and patient. We also evaluated the influence of obesity and coronary calcium score on MDCT accuracy.ResultsOf the 4,064 coronary segments studied, 4,062 segments (T2DM=1,109 were assessed quantitatively by both MDCT and ICA, and 706 segments (T2DM=226 were detected as a significant lesion by ICA in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values for the presence of significant stenosis in T2DM were: by segment, 89.4%, 96.4%, 85.8%, and 97.4%, respectively; by artery (n=222, 95.1%, 92.9%, 94.4%, and 93.8%, respectively; by patients (n=74, 98.4%, 100.0%, 98.4%, and 90.0%, respectively. Regardless of presence of diabetes, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy. Obesity (≥25 kg/m2 and coronary calcium score did not also affect the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT.ConclusionThe 64-slice MDCT coronary angiography was found to have similar diagnostic accuracy with ICA, regardless of diabetes. These results suggest MDCT may be helpful to reduce unnecessary invasive studies for patients with diabetes.

  16. Effect of L-lactic acid on the absorption of calcium in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1998-12-01

    The effect of dietary L-lactic acid (LA), (0.5, 1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet) on the absorption of calcium in gastrectomized rats was evaluated for 28 d. Calcium phosphate was used as a source of calcium. The apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of the femur and tibia in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet were significantly less than those in sham-operated rats. In the gastrectomized rats, the apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of bone in the rats fed the lower doses of LA diets (LA 0.5 or 1.0 g/100 g of diet) were not affected; however, the apparent calcium absorption ratio and the calcium contents of bone in the rats fed the highest doses of LA diet (LA 2.5 g/100 g of diet) were greater than those in gastrectomized rats fed the control diet. Dietary LA (2.5 g/100 g of diet) also enhanced the phosphorus absorption and bone phosphorus content in the gastrectomized rats. We speculated that the highest dose of dietary LA might be associated with the dissolving of a water-insoluble form of calcium salt in the diet, thereby facilitating the calcium absorption and resulting in increased bone calcium content in gastrectomized rats.

  17. The haemodynamic effects of nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem in patients with coronary artery disease. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Soward; G.L.J. Vanhaleweyk; P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractOf the 3 most widely used calcium antagonists--nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem--nifedipine is the most potent arterial vasodilator. Increases in cardiac output and coronary blood flow following nifedipine administration result in part from the afterload reduction. Reflex adrenergic s

  18. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  19. [Formulation of calcium carbonate tablets with various binding substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazikalović, E; Obrenović, D; Nidzović, Z; Toskić-Radojicić, M

    1996-01-01

    The test results of calcium carbonate tablets, made of different binding substances (microcrystal cellulose, gelatin, 7pp sodium carboxymethylcellulose and starch) were presented. The content of calcium-carbonate in tablets as well as varying, solidity, prodigality and aptness to decay was determined. The best properties were observed in tablets made with starch.

  20. Case Report: Coronary arterial spasm in single right coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhi JIA; Qi-jun SHAN; Zhi-jian YANG; Tie-bing ZHU; Lian-sheng WANG; Ke-jiang CAO; Wen-zhu MA

    2009-01-01

    We presented a case of anomalous single-coronary artery detected incidentally during routine coronary angiography. A 32-year-old male Chinese patient presented with recurrent pre-syncope and six episodes of syncope. Coronary angiography and coronary-computed tomography (CT)-angiography performed by a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) revealed that the patient had a single large right coronary artery. A moderately large branch originated from the proximal part of the single right coronary artery and extended to the left, passing the anterior to the pulmonary artery, and divided into the anterior descending artery branch and circumflex branch at the base of the left auricular appendage. The episodes of the syncope were suspected to be caused by coronary arterial spasm, so this patient was on a regimen of 30 mg of diltiazem every 6 h and had no recurrence of syncope during follow-up.

  1. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery from left coronary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alex; Estarán, Rafael; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Voces, Roberto; Aramendi, José I

    2008-08-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is uncommon but clinically significant. Manifestations vary from asymptomatic patients to those who present with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, syncope, arrhythmias, and sudden death. We describe 4 patients, aged 34 to 59 years, who were diagnosed with right coronary artery arising from the left sinus of Valsalva, confirmed by coronary angiography, which was surgically repaired. Three patients presented dyspnea and angina, and one with acute myocardial infarction. At operation, the right coronary artery was dissected at the take-off from the intramural course, and reimplanted into the right sinus of Valsalva. There was no mortality. One patient had associated coronary artery disease that required stent placement postoperatively. This reimplantation technique provides a good physiological and anatomical repair, eliminates a slit-like ostium, avoids compression of the coronary artery between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, and gives superior results to coronary artery bypass grafting or the unroofing technique.

  2. Coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950286 Percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasty for unstable angina.LIU Meilin(刘梅林),et.al.1st Teach Hosp,Beijing Med Univ,Beijing,100034.Chin J Intern Med 1995;34(3):169-172.Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty(PTCA) was performed in 190 patients with 250 dis-eased vessels and 278 lesions from Dec.1987 to Feb.1994.All the patients had unstable angina (UA).There were 52(18.7%) type A lesions,175(62.9%)type B lesions and 51(18.3%) type C lesions.Of the

  3. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Bots

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence,and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC, relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and ECG abnormalities with CAC.Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study.Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle was obtained using electrocardiography.Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detectorrow computed tomography (MDCT scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16 to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantifyCAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assessthe relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification.Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15 of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34, whereas 8.5% (n = 48 had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2. Similarly,compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1.Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  4. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); A. Colombo (Antonio); D.R. Holmes Jr (David); M.J. Mack (Michael); E. Stahle (Elisabeth); T.E. Feldman (Ted); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); E.J. Bass (Eric); N. van Dyck (Nic); K. Leadly (Katrin); K.D. Dawkins (Keith); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involving drug-eluting stents is increasingly used to treat complex coronary artery disease, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the treatment of choice historically. Our trial compared PCI and CABG for treating pat

  5. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  6. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Does the quantitative assessment of coronary artery dimensions predict the physiologic significance of a coronary stenosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zijlstra (Felix); J.C.W. van Ommeren (Jan-Kees); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relationship between the quantitatively assessed coronary artery dimensions and the regional coronary flow reserve as measured by digital subtraction cineangiography, we investigated 17 coronary arteries with a single discrete proximal stenosis and 12 normal coronary

  8. Composição corporal de cálcio e fósforo do útero gestante e da glândula mamária de ovelhas Santa Inês Calcium and phosphorus content in gravidic uterus and mammary gland of Santa Inês breed ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovelhas Santa Inês com gestação simples e múltipla foram alimentadas com dietas formuladas para atender a 100% - grupo não restrito - e 85% - grupo restrito - das suas necessidades de energia metabolizável (EM e proteína bruta (PB. Os animais foram abatidos aos 140 dias de gestação para a retirada do útero da glândula mamária e do útero gestante, os quais foram analisados para o conteúdo de cálcio e de fósforo em função dos tratamentos. A restrição nutricional não influenciou as concentrações de cálcio e fósforo no feto e no útero gestante. Foi observado um aumento de 11,68 gramas de cálcio e de 6,37 gramas de fósforo para cada quilograma de massa fetal produzido aos 140 dias de gestação. As concentrações de cálcio e de fósforo do útero e das membranas foram mais baixas nas ovelhas gestantes submetidas à restrição nutricional. O número de fetos e o manejo nutricional não resultaram em alterações na concentração nem no conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo nos fluidos fetais. O conteúdo de cálcio e de fósforo no útero gestante teve como principal fator de variação o tamanho da massa fetal produzida.Santa Inês breed ewes with single and multiple gestations were fed diets to meet 100% - Group ad libitum - and 85% - restricted group - of metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP needs. The animals were slaughtered at 140 days of gestation for the removal of the gravidic uterus and mammary gland which were analyzed for calcium and phosphorus content. The nutritional restriction did not influence the calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the fetus and the pregnant uterus. The calcium and phosphorus content in the gravidic utero increased 11.68 grams and 6.37 grams for each kilogram of fetal mass produced at 140 days of gestation respectively. The calcium and phosphorus concentration in the uterus and membranes were lower in pregnant ewes subjected to nutritional restriction. The number of fetuses

  9. Transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; de Melker, E

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty equipment is feasible and that no major puncture site-related complications occur because hemostasis is obtained easily and because no major structures are near the radial artery. With double blood supply to the hand, radial artery occlusion is well tolerated. In 100 patients with collateral blood supply to the right hand, PTCA was attempted with 6F guiding catheters and rapid-exchange balloon catheters for exertional angina (87 patients) or nonexertional angina (13 patients). Angioplasty was attempted in 122 lesions (type A n = 67 [55%], Type B n = 37 [30%], and type C n = 18 [15%]). Pre- and post-PTCA computerized quantitative coronary analysis was performed. Radial artery function and structure were assessed clinically and with Doppler and two-dimensional ultrasound on the day of discharge. Coronary catheterization via the radial artery was successful in 94 patients (94%). The 6 remaining patients had successful PTCA via the femoral artery (n = 5) or the brachial artery (n = 1). Procedural success (120 of 122 lesions) was achieved in 92 patients (98%) via the radial artery and in 98 patients of the total study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Acute coronary syndrome -- 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Dávid; Merkely, Béla

    2012-12-23

    The acute coronary syndrome is the most severe form of coronary artery disease. It is an immediate threat of life and the mortality rate can be high without proper therapy and patient management. Based on the first ECG, two different forms can be distinguished: acute coronary syndrome with and without ST elevation. Besides adequate medication, management of these patients is an essential part of treatment. In case of ST elevation, coronarography and percutaneous coronary intervention is needed in general, within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. When ST elevation is not detected on the ECG, individual ischemic risk factors and predictable mortality of the patient may define the necessity and the date of the invasive examination. The Hungarian hemodynamic laboratory network covers almost the whole country and, therefore, practically each patient may receive a state-of-the-art therapy. Although indicators of cardiovascular diseases are still prominent, the mortality rate of myocardial Infarction is decreasing in Hungary due to the well-organized invasive care.

  11. 糖调节受损对中青年高血压患者冠状动脉钙化积分的影响%The Impact of Coronary Artery Calcium Score in Youth and Middle Aged Essential Hypertension Patients with Impaired Glucose Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彬; 吴沃栋; 黄唤亮; 梁国华; 江魁明

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨糖调节受损对中青年高血压患者冠状动脉钙化积分(Coronary artery calcium score,CACS)的影响.方法:入选的高血压患者分为正常糖调节组(NGR-H)38例; 糖调节受损组(IGR-H)共36例,糖尿病组(DM-H)共42例.比较各组不同CACS积分和FRFC%分层患者分布的比例和各组CACS总积分与HOMA-IR指数的相关性.结果:CACS高危患者比例,IGR-H组或DM-H组均较高于NGR-H组(P<0.01).CACS极高危患者比例IGR-H组或DM-H组均高于NGR-H组(P<0.01).在各CACS危险分层,IGR-H组与DM-H组比较差异无统计学意义.IGR-H组患者CACS总积分与HOMA-IR指数呈正相关,r=0.726,(P<0.01).结论:糖调节受损中青年高血压患者冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)高于正常糖调节的中青年高血压患者,与糖尿病患者CACS积分相近.CACS总积分与HOMA-IR指数呈正相关.%Objective: To explore the changes of CACS in youth and middle aged essential hypertension (EH) patients with impaired glucose regulation ( IGR ) by CTA. Method: EH patients were classified by OGTT, 36 EH patients with IGR (IGR-H) as study group, 42 EH patients with diabetes mellitus (DM-H)and 38 EH patients with normal glucose regulation ( NGR-H) as control groups. The CACS difference or relationship between total CACS and RI in each study and control groups had been compared. Result: The patients rate in high risk CACS, IGR-H group or DM-H group was higher than that in NGR-H group, ( all P <0.01 ). In very high risk CACS, IGR-H group or DM-H group was higher than that in NGR-H group,(all P<0.01). In each CACS risk stratify, there was no significant differences between IGR-H group and DM-H group. The total CACS was positive related to the increased IR in IGR-H or DM-H patients (r=0.726, P<0.01 ). Conclusion: The CACS is significantly higher in IGR EH patients than that in NGR EH patients. The CACS was no significantly differences compared with IGR -H patients and DM -H patients. The total CACS is positive related

  12. [Acute coronary syndrome suspicion in patient with left coronary artery arising from right coronary sinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Adam; Górny, Jerzy; Rzeszowski, Bartłomiej; Witkowska, Ewa; Wasilewski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of 73 year-old patient who underwent coronary angiography due to suspicion of acute coronary syndrome without persistent ST segment elevation. The angiographic result showed no lesions that could cause recurrent chest pain,but it also revealed a seldom coronary artery abnormality - left coronary artery arising from right coronary sinus. Performed computed tomography of the chest confirmed the result of the coronarography. But apart from that it found the signs of neoplastic disease which was probably responsible for clinical presentation.

  13. Impact of coronary tortuosity on coronary pressure: numerical simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary tortuosity (CT is a common coronary angiographic finding. Whether CT leads to an apparent reduction in coronary pressure distal to the tortuous segment of the coronary artery is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of CT on coronary pressure distribution by numerical simulation. METHODS: 21 idealized models were created to investigate the influence of coronary tortuosity angle (CTA and coronary tortuosity number (CTN on coronary pressure distribution. A 2D incompressible Newtonian flow was assumed and the computational simulation was performed using finite volume method. CTA of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° and CTN of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were discussed under both steady and pulsatile conditions, and the changes of outlet pressure and inlet velocity during the cardiac cycle were considered. RESULTS: Coronary pressure distribution was affected both by CTA and CTN. We found that the pressure drop between the start and the end of the CT segment decreased with CTA, and the length of the CT segment also declined with CTA. An increase in CTN resulted in an increase in the pressure drop. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to no-CT, CT can results in more decrease of coronary blood pressure in dependence on the severity of tortuosity and severe CT may cause myocardial ischemia.

  14. Study Of Calcium And Potassium Different Nature Strength Gel Kappa-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Васильович Гурський

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain organic and mineral salts of potassium and calcium for strength gel kappa-carrageenan. The influence of the mass concentration of individual calcium for strength gels with different content kappa-carrageenan. Grounded mass concentration of some calcium salts for use in the composition of the jelly for sweet and savory dishes based on kappa-carrageenan

  15. Effect of dietary calcium intake on its retention by caged broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral in bone development and egg shell formation of broiler breeder hens. A study was undertaken to further examine the effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium retention of broiler breeder hens and to investigate the relationship between calcium retention and egg characteristics. Ninety broiler breeder hens were obtained from a previous study and allocated to three dietary treatments, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% calcium level. Feeds were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but differed only in calcium and phosphorus contents. Birds were fed and caged individually with metal trays placed below cages for excreta collection. Excreta samples (30 birds per treatment were collected for calcium and phosphorus determinations during a 7-day period at 3-weekly intervals, i.e., 27, 33, 36 and 42 weeks of age. Other parameters measured included calcium intake of hens, hen day production, egg mass, egg weight, shell weight, shell percentage, shell thickness, egg surface area, shell weight per unit surface area, total calcium retention, shell calcium excretion, shell calcium as a percentage of calcium intake and faecal calcium as percentage of calcium intake. These results showed that dietary calcium level had significant (P<.0001 effect on calcium intake and retention. Dietary calcium level had significant effect on all parameters except egg weight and shell calcium excretion as a percentage of calcium intake. Calcium retention of hens was correlated with age, calcium intake and eggshell characteristics. Age was significantly correlated with all traits except daily calcium intake, calcium retention and shell percentage. The net effect of calcium intake and total calcium excretion was that the 2.5% calcium level (3.8 g calcium /hen/day exhibit a significant (P<.05 higher calcium retention compared to 1.5% calcium level. This suggests that the calcium level of 2.5% and intake of 3.8 g/hen/day is adequate to support egg production, good shell

  16. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  17. CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hagen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Various diagnostic tests including conventional invasive coronary angiography and non-invasive computed tomography (CT coronary angiography are used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD. Research questions: The present report aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of CT coronary angiography versus invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. in October 2010 and was completed with a manual search. The literature search was restricted to articles published from 2006 in German or English. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of the relevant publications. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of diagnostic studies with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard and on diagnostic studies with intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard. Study results were combined in a meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CI. Additionally, data on radiation doses from current non-systematic reviews were taken into account. A health economic evaluation was performed by modelling from the social perspective with clinical assumptions derived from the meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from contemporary German sources. Data on special indications (bypass or in-stent-restenosis were not included in the evaluation. Only data obtained using CT scanners with at least 64 slices were considered. Results: No studies were found regarding the clinical efficacy or prognostic value of CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, 15 systematic reviews with data from 44 diagnostic studies using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard (identification of obstructive

  18. Angiography and coronary function, a clinical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, Martin Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography has the potential to determine coronary function in addition to merely showing coronary anatomy. In this thesis, we describe several facets of angiographic evaluation of coronary flow velocity and function. Measurement of the length of the coronary vessels by means of a guide

  19. Calcium is important forus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利平

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is important for our health.We must have it in our diet to stay well.A good place to get it is from dairy products like milk, cheese and ice cream.One pound of cheese has fifty times the calcium we should have every day.Other foods have less.For example,a pound of beans also has calcium.But it has only three times the amount we ought to have daily.

  20. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effect of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS), which are oligosaccharides that are unhydrolyzed in the small intestine and are fermented by the intestinal bacteria, on calcium absorption was examined in male Wistar rats for 10 days. The apparent calcium absorption ratios and the apparent retention ratios were significantly higher in the rats fed TOS-containing diets (5 or 10 g/100 g of diet). In the second experiment, the cecum was ligated in situ and calcium absorption from the cecum was observed after injecting TOS into the cecal lumen. Four hours after the injection, the calcium concentration in the cecal vein of the rats given TOS was significantly higher than that of the control. The calcium content in the liquid phase of the cecal lumen and the liquid phase weight were also increased by the injection of TOS into the cecum. Although the extent of calcium absorption from the cecum of rats fed TOS is due to overall calcium absorption is not known, under the experimental conditions used in the present study the stimulatory effect of TOS on calcium absorption may be partly associated with increased solubility of calcium and the fluid content in the intestinal lumen.

  1. Effect of Four Calciun Begulators on Calcium and Calmodulin Contents During Flower Bud Differentiation of Guzmania ‘Amaranth’ Inducced by Ethylene%4种钙素调节剂对乙烯诱导的紫花擎天凤梨花芽分化中钙和钙调素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易籽林; 李志英; 何铁光; 丛汉卿; 黄绵佳; 徐立

    2011-01-01

    以紫花擎天凤梨(Guzmania‘Amaranth’)为试材,研究了外源乙烯催花条件下4种钙素调节剂对紫花擎天凤梨花芽分化过程中Ca和CaM(钙调素)含量的影响.结果表明:各处理紫花擎天凤梨花芽中Ca和CaM在花芽孕育期积累,在花芽发端期降低.促进剂A23187处理可显著提高总Ca和CaM的含量,提早CaM峰值出现,促进花芽分化:EGTA处理可显著降低Ca和CaM的含量,推迟Ca峰值出现,延缓花芽分化;而TEP、W-7处理也可显著降低Ca和CaM的含量,延缓花芽分化.研究发现,Ca和CaM参与了乙烯诱导的花芽分化过程.%Using Guzmania 'Amaranth' [G. Wittmackii (Andr6) Andre ex MezxG. Lingulala (Linnaeus) Mez] as the materials, the effects of 4 calcium regulators on the floral buds differentiation and contents of Calcium and Calmodulin of Guzmania 'Amaranth' under exogenous ethylene treatments were studied. A23187 treatment enhanced the contents of Ca and CaM of during the flower bud differentiation, and promoted the flower bud differentiation. EGTA treatment reduced the contents of Ca and CaM during the flower bud differentiation, and delayed the accumulation of Ca and CaM, which inhibited the flower bud differentiation. It showed that Ca and CaM maight be involved in the process of ethylene-induced flower bud differentiation.

  2. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology; Aktueller Stellenwert der MSCTA in der Koronargefaessdiagnostik (2011). Klinischer Leitfaden der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaften fuer Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Landesklinikum St. Poelten (Austria). 3. Medizinische Abt./Kardiologie; Loewe, C. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (AT). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik] (and others)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  3. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bazzi, M D

    1990-08-21

    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  4. Feasibility and accuracy of coronary imaging in elderly patients using the 64-row multi-detector computed tomography: a correlation study with conventional coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ling CHAN; Kui Hian SIM; Chee Khoon LIEW; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Seyfarth Tobias; Yean Yip FONG; Choon Kiat ANG; Houng Bang LIEW; Rapaee ANNUAR

    2006-01-01

    Background Elderly patients generally have higher occurrence of coronary calcification, increased heart rate and difficulty with prolonged breath-holding. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of coronary artery stenoses in elderly patients. Methods One hundred and fifty two patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease were divided into 4 groups according to their age (Group A: 40-49 years,n=34; Group B: 50-59 years, n=57; Group C: 60-69 years, n=48; Group D: 70 years and above; n=13). Coronary CT angiography (CTA) using a 64-row MDCT was performed and the findings were compared with that of conventional coronary angiography (CCA).Using axial images, multi-planar reconstructions (MPR) and maximum intensity projections (MIP), coronary segments of lumen diameter = 1.5mm were analyzed for the presence of significant stenosis (= 50% ). Results Percentages of poor image quality from coronary CTA preventing reliable correlations with CCA were 21%, 14%, 19% and 62% in Groups A to D respectively. Patients in Group D had significantly higher calcium scores compared with the other groups (P<0.001). In patients where CTA images were of acceptable quality, percentages of accurate correlations with CCA were 89.8%, 93.4%, 86.6% and 78.0% for Groups A to D respectively.There were no significant difference in serum creatinine, heart rate and contrast volume between the 4 groups. Conclusions The 64-row MDCT coronary angiography was less accurate and feasible for patients aged 70 years or above due to heavy coronary calcification and inability to perform a satisfactory breath-hold. However, a high diagnostic accuracy with the MDCT is possible in patients aged less than 70 years.

  5. Antioxidant effects of calcium antagonists in rat brain homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K; Ina, Y; Nagashima, K; Ohmori, K; Ohno, T

    2000-06-01

    We studied the antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists against autoxidation in rat brain homogenates. The homogenates were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with or without a calcium antagonist and subsequently assayed for lipid peroxide content. Percent inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was used as an index of the antioxidant effect. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists exhibited concentration-dependent (3-300 micromol/l) inhibitory effects against lipid peroxidation. The relative order of antioxidant potency and associated IC50 values (micromol/l) of the calcium antagonists for inhibition of the lipid peroxidation were as follows: nifedipine (51.5)>barnidipine (58.6)>benidipine (71.2)>nicardipine (129.3)>amlodipine (135.5)>nilvadipine (167.3)>nitrendipine (252.1)> diltiazem (>300)=verapamil (>300). These results suggest that some dihydropyridine calcium antagonists show antioxidant properties. The antioxidant effects of the calcium antagonists may contribute to their pharmacological actions.

  6. Variant angina and coronary artery spasm: the clinical spectrum, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusama, Yoshiki; Kodani, Eitaro; Nakagomi, Akihiro; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Kishida, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    Variant angina is a form of angina pectoris that shows transient ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram during an attack of chest pain. Ischemic episodes of variant angina show circadian variation and often occur at rest from midnight to early morning. Ischemic episodes also occur during mild exercise in the early morning. However, they are not usually induced by strenuous exercise in the afternoon. Other important clinical features of variant angina include the high frequency of asymptomatic ischemic episodes and the syncope that sometimes occur during the ischemic episodes. Syncope is due to severe arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and high-degree atrioventricular block. Coronary artery spasm is the mechanism of ischemic episodes in variant angina. The incidence of coronary artery spasm shows a racial difference and is higher in Japanese than in Caucasians. Coronary arteriograms are normal or near-normal in most Japanese patients with variant angina. Deficient basal release of nitric oxide (NO) due to endothelial dysfunction, and enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility with the involvement of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway are reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm. Other precipitating factors of coronary artery spasm include imbalance in autonomic nervous activity, increased oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammation, magnesium deficiency, and genetic susceptibility. The genetic risk factors associated with coronary artery spasm include gene polymorphisms of endothelial NO synthase (NOS), paraoxonase, and other genes. Calcium channel blockers are extremely effective in preventing coronary spasm. The long-acting nitrate, nicorandil, and Rho-kinase inhibitor are also useful for inhibiting coronary artery spasm. Because variant angina can lead to acute myocardial infarction, fatal arrhythmias, and sudden death, early treatment is important. The prognosis of patients with

  7. Leptin augments coronary vasoconstriction and smooth muscle proliferation via a Rho-kinase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Jillian N; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Kiel, Alexander M; Tune, Johnathan D

    2016-05-01

    Leptin has been implicated as a key upstream mediator of pathways associated with coronary vascular dysfunction and disease. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that leptin modifies the coronary artery proteome and promotes increases in coronary smooth muscle contraction and proliferation via influences on Rho kinase signaling. Global proteomic assessment of coronary arteries from lean swine cultured with obese concentrations of leptin (30 ng/mL) for 3 days revealed significant alterations in the coronary artery proteome (68 proteins) and identified an association between leptin treatment and calcium signaling/contraction (four proteins) and cellular growth and proliferation (35 proteins). Isometric tension studies demonstrated that both acute (30 min) and chronic (3 days, serum-free media) exposure to obese concentrations of leptin potentiated depolarization-induced contraction of coronary arteries. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced leptin-mediated increases in coronary artery contractions. The effects of leptin on the functional expression of Rho kinase were time-dependent, as acute treatment increased Rho kinase activity while chronic (3 day) exposure was associated with increases in Rho kinase protein abundance. Proliferation assays following chronic leptin administration (8 day, serum-containing media) demonstrated that leptin augmented coronary vascular smooth muscle proliferation and increased Rho kinase activity. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced these effects of leptin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that leptin promotes increases in coronary vasoconstriction and smooth muscle proliferation and indicate that these phenotypic effects are associated with alterations in the coronary artery proteome and dynamic effects on the Rho kinase pathway.

  8. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  9. Computed tomography for the measurement of coronary calcification in asymptomatic risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichlbauer, Ernest

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2003 nearly 20% of deaths in Germany were caused by coronary heart disease (CHD. Risk models are used to estimate the ten-year-risk of a coronary event. Coronary calcification may be seen as an additional risk factor. The amount of calcium is correlated with atherosclerotic lesions, but there is no direct correlation with the probability of a plaque rupture. Coronary calcification may be measured either by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT. Objectives: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate the diagnostic validity and cost effectiveness of computed tomography techniques in measuring coronary calcification of asymptomatic risk patients. Ethical aspects are discussed. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed in 35 international databases which yielded 1080 articles. Overall 43 publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: Measuring coronary calcification offers additional information compared with traditional risk factors. Yet at present it cannot be said - according to published literature - which population groups gain most. For determining adequate calcium score thresholds standardisation for age and sex is important. When comparing the reference standard EBCT with MDCT results are inconsistent and depend on the calcium-score value as well as on the scoring method. EBCT as a triage instrument in diagnosing CHD appears to be cost-effective. Yet it is rather not cost-effective as a refinement tool for risk stratification. Discussion: Most of the literature was published in the United States and discusses the use of EBCT as well as (traditional risk stratification by the Framingham Score. Regarding coronary calcification measured by MDCT (which is more widespread in Germany than EBCT and a risk model applicable for European populations clear recommendations based on published literature cannot be made at present

  10. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  11. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge.

  12. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  13. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression manage...

  14. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  15. Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger-Lux, M Janet; Davies, K Michael; Heaney, Robert P

    2005-10-01

    In earlier observational work, the dietary calcium:protein ratio was directly related to bone accrual in healthy postadolescent women. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that augmented calcium intake would increase postadolescent skeletal consolidation, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. We recruited 152 healthy young women (age 23.1 +/- 2.7 y, BMI 22.5 +/- 3.0 kg/m2); their usual diets, as assessed by 7-d food diaries, were low in calcium (605 +/- 181 mg/d; 15.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/d) and in the calcium:protein ratio (10.1 +/- 2.0 mg/g). The subjects were randomly assigned to supplemental calcium [500 mg calcium (12.5 mmol) as the carbonate, 3 times/d, with meals] or placebo capsules identical in appearance; all participants also took a daily multivitamin, and they were followed for up to 36 mo with bone densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) at 6-mo intervals. A total of 121 subjects remained in the study for at least 12 mo (median time in the study, 35 mo), with a mean compliance level (observed/expected tablet consumption) of 87.7%. DXA data for these 121 subjects indicated modest but significant mean rates of increase (i.e., 0.24 to 1.10%/y) in bone mineral content (BMC; total body, total hip, and lumbar spine) and in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) but no change in total hip BMD. None of these rates of change differed by group, i.e., calcium supplementation did not have any measurable effect on bone mass accrual. By midstudy, the calcium content of the subjects' usual diets for both groups had risen by approximately 15%. The combined effect of improved intakes of dietary calcium and the small amount of calcium added by the multivitamin tablets resulted in a mean calcium intake for the control group > 800 mg (20 mmol)/d, possibly at or near the threshold beyond which additional calcium has no further effect on bone accrual.

  16. Associations between Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use with Coronary Artery Plaque among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean G Kelly

    Full Text Available We characterized associations between smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use and coronary plaque by HIV serostatus within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS.MACS participants (N = 1005, 621 HIV+ and 384 HIV- underwent non-contrast CT scanning to measure coronary artery calcium; 764 underwent coronary CT angiograms to evaluate plaque type and extent. Self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, smoked/inhaled cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, marijuana, inhaled nitrites, and erectile dysfunction drugs was obtained at semi-annual visits beginning 10 years prior to CT scanning. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were performed, stratified by HIV serostatus.Among HIV+ men, current smoking, former smoking, and cumulative pack years of smoking were positively associated with multiple coronary plaque measures (coronary artery calcium presence and extent, total plaque presence and extent, calcified plaque presence, and stenosis >50%. Smoking was significantly associated with fewer plaque measures of comparable effect size among HIV- men; current smoking and calcified plaque extent was the only such association. Heavy alcohol use (>14 drinks/week was associated with stenosis >50% among HIV+ men. Among HIV- men, low/moderate (1-14 drinks/week and heavy alcohol use were inversely associated with coronary artery calcium and calcified plaque extent. Few significant associations between other recreational drug use and plaque measures were observed.Smoking is strongly associated with coronary plaque among HIV+ men, underscoring the value of smoking cessation for HIV+ persons. Alcohol use may protect against coronary artery calcium and calcified plaque progression in HIV- (but not HIV+ men. Few positive associations were observed between recreational drug use and coronary plaque measures.

  17. The Severity of Fatty Liver Disease Relating to Metabolic Abnormalities Independently Predicts Coronary Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsiang Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the metabolic disorders presented in liver. The relationship between severity of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains largely unknown. Methods and Materials. We analyzed subjects undergoing coronary calcium score evaluation by computed tomography (MDCT and fatty liver assessment using abdominal ultrasonography. Framingham risk score (FRS and metabolic risk score (MRS were obtained in all subjects. A graded, semiquantitative score was established to quantify the severity of NAFLD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to depict the association between NAFLD and calcium score. Results. Of all, 342 participants (female: 22.5%, mean age: 48.7±7.0 years met the sufficient information rendering detailed analysis. The severity of NAFLD was positively associated with MRS (X2=6.12, trend P<0.001 and FRS (X2=5.88, trend P<0.001. After multivariable adjustment for clinical variables and life styles, the existence of moderate to severe NAFLD was independently associated with abnormal calcium score (P<0.05. Conclusion. The severity of NAFLD correlated well with metabolic abnormality and was independently predict coronary calcification beyond clinical factors. Our data suggests that NAFLD based on ultrasonogram could positively reflect the burden of coronary calcification.

  18. Influence of drug treatment on glucocorticoid receptor levels in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; GUO Wei-zao; YAN Zhi-hong; LI Di; LU Cui-lian

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid signaling exerts major roles in inflammation, metabolism and depression, which are three crucial factors accompanying or underlying coronary heart disease. Although accumulating evidence indicates the influence of glucocorticoids on the pathology and treatment of coronary heart disease, there is still a dearth of pharmaceutical mechanisms for this relationship. This study aimed to investigate the influence of drug treatment on glucocorticoid receptor levels in coronary heart disease.Methods Eighty hospitalized patients (average age (59.0 7.5) years, 46 male and 34 female) with coronary heart disease were categorized into four groups with 20 members in each according to one of the four drugs they were treated with. The four drugs were: nitrated derivative isosorbide dinitrate, the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol, the calcium antagonist nifedipine, and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin. Glucocorticoid receptor protein levels of peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested using immunoblotting analysis before and after one month of treatment. Results Immunoblotting analysis showed increased glucocorticoid receptor levels after treatment with metoprolol and nifedipine. There were no statistically significant changes of glucocorticoid receptor levels after treatment with isosorbide dinitrate or lovastatin, although there were trends of up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression after both treatments.Conclusions Both the beta-blocker and the calcium blocker can increase glucocorticoid receptor levels after chronic administration. This effect suggests a mechanism for their anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic roles for coronary heart disease and comorbid disorders.

  19. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Ro

  20. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Rott

  1. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who particip

  2. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Sekimoto, Teruo; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Suyama, Jumpei; Gokan, Takehiko; Sakai, Koshiro; Kosaki, Ryota; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Tsujita, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Shigeto; Sakurai, Masayuki; Sambe, Takehiko; Oguchi, Katsuji; Uchida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Aoki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2016-06-01

    Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA) in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan) and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.

  3. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Akutsu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.