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Sample records for coronada harpyhaliaetus coronatus

  1. Pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus and Fusarium solani in mouse models.

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    Li, Yadi; Fang, Xiangang; Zhou, Xiaoqian; Geng, Suying; Wang, Yuxin; Yang, Xiumin

    2017-06-01

    To study the pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus (C. coronatus) and Fusarium solani (F. solani) in animal models. Immunocompromised mice were treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone via intraperitoneal injection before and after inoculation. According to pathogenic characteristics of different fungi, C. coronatus was used to infect mice via intravenous inoculation, intraperitoneal inoculation, gastrointestinal infusion and intradermal inoculation methods. And F. solani was used to infect mice by inoculation via the abraded or normal skin. In the group of immunocompromised mice, C. coronatus was isolated from the lung tissues of one mouse on day 7 and another on day 10 respectively. The corresponding histopathology revealed infiltration of local inflammatory cells in the lung tissue. Pathogenic lesions were observed in all normal and immunocompromised mice infected with F. solani via abraded skin. The lesions in the immunocompromised mice were more severe and persisted longer than those in the normal mice. Moreover, hyphae were mostly observed in the histopathological examination and fungal culture from the immunocompromised mouse. The pathogenicity of C. coronatus was relatively weak as it did not induce local infections and did not disseminate the disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Therefore, F. solani is a type of opportunistic pathogenic fungus, and abraded skin is one of the causative routes of infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Concurrent Infections of Conidiobolus Coronatus with Disseminated Tuberculosis Presenting as Bilateral Orbital Cellulitis

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    John, Deepa; Irodi, Aparna; Michael, Joy Sarojini

    2016-01-01

    Zygomycetes species contains two orders of organisms that infect humans, namely Mucorales and Entomophthorales. Entomophthorales cause chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, invading subcutaneous tissues but are non-angioinvasive. This includes Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus coronatus. We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis with Conidiobolus coronatus infection presenting as orbital cellulitis in an adolescent.

  3. Rhinoentomophthoromycosis due to Conidiobolus coronatus. A case report and an overview of the disease in India.

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    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Randhawa, H S; Khan, Z U; Ahmad, S; Khanna, G; Gupta, R; Chakravarti, A; Roy, P

    2010-09-01

    Rhinoentomophthoromycosis due to Conidiobolus coronatus is a rare, chronic, granulomatous disease, occurring mainly in tropical Africa, South and Central America and south-east Asia, including India. We report a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis in a 30-year-old male farmer, a resident of Gorakhpur city in Uttar Pradesh, which was diagnosed by histopathology and isolation C. coronatus in culture. The patient presented with a swollen nose with obstruction that had progressed slowly over one year. His nasal swelling was bilateral, diffuse, mildly tender, erythematous, non-pitting, with mucosal crusting and hypertrophy of inferior turbinates but no regional lympha-denopathy. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan revealed bilateral pan-sinusitis with nasoethmoid polyposis. Culture of tissue from the nasal biopsy on Sabouraud glucose agar yielded multiple colonies of a mold with satellite smaller colonies at periphery. The isolate demonstrated the macroscopic and microscopic morphologic characteristics of C. coronatus. Its identity was further confirmed by direct DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and D1/D2 regions of rDNA. Haemotoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections of the skin biopsy revealed irregular epidermal acanthosis, marked inflammatory and granulomatous reaction with sparse, non-septate hyphae. The patient was treated successfully with a combination therapy of oral saturated potassium iodide solution, itraconazole, and intravenous infusion of amphotericin B. An overview of rhinoentomophthoromycosis cases reported to-date in India is presented.

  4. Primer registro de Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en crías experimentales de dos especies plaga del maíz: Delphacodes kuscheli y D. haywardi (Hemiptera: Delphacidae en la Argentina First record of Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in experimental breeding of two pest species of corn: Delphacodes kuscheli and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentine

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    A. V. Toledo

    Full Text Available Se investigó la ocurrencia natural del hongo entomopatógeno Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en adultos de Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah y D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, criados sobre Hordeum vulgare L. bajo condiciones de invernadero. Los insectos muertos, por una sospechada infección fúngica, fueron recolectados, esterilizados superficialmente, y examinados en el laboratorio. Conidiobolus coronatus fue aislado en cultivos puros, descrito morfológicamente y depositado en colecciones micológicas. Este trabajo presenta el primer registro de C. coronatus contra insectos perjudiciales en la Argentina.The natural occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, reared on Hordeum vulgare L. under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. Dead insects, suspected of fungal infection, were collected, surface sterilized, and examined in the laboratory. Conidiobolus coronatus was isolated in pure cultures, described morphologically, and deposited in mycological collections. This paper presents the first record of C. coronatus against harmful insects in Argentina.

  5. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

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    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs.

  6. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Conidiobolus coronatus and its inhibition by an inhibitor from insect hemolymph.

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    Bania, Jacek; Samborski, Jaroslaw; Bogus, Mieczyslawa; Polanowski, Antoni

    2006-08-01

    The relatively little-investigated entomopathogen Conidiobolus coronatus secretes several proteinases into culture broth. Using a combination of ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, we purified to homogeneity a serine proteinase of Mr 30,000-32,000, as ascertained by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed subtilisin-like activity. It very effectively hydrolyzed N-Suc-Ala(2)-Pro-Phe-pNa with a Km-1.36 x 10(-4) M and Kcat-24 s(-1), and N-Suc-Ala(2)-Pro-Leu-pNa with Km-6.65 x 10(-4) M and Kcat-11 s(-1). The specificity index k(cat)/K(m) for the tested substrates was calculated to be 176,340 s(-1) M(-1) and 17,030 s(-1) M(-1), respectively. Using oxidized insulin B chain as a substrate, the purified proteinase exhibited specificity to aromatic and hydrophobic amino-acid residues, such as Phe, Leu, and Gly at the P1 position, splitting primarily the peptide bonds: Phe(1)-Val(2), Leu(15)-Tyr(16), and Gly(23)-Phe(24). The proteinase appeared to be sensitive to the specific synthetic inhibitors of the serine proteinases DFP (diisopropyl flourophosphate) and PMSF (phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride) as well as to some naturally occurring protein inhibitors of chymotrypsin. It is worth noting that the enzyme exhibited the highest sensitivity to inhibition by AMCI-1 (with an association constant of 3 x 10(10) M(-1)), an inhibitor of cathepsin G/chymotrypsin from the larval hemolymph of Apis mellifera, reinforcing the possibility of involvement of inhibitors from hemolymph in insect innate immunity. The substrate specificity and proteinase inhibitor effects indicate that the purified proteinase from the fermentation broth of Conidiobolus coronatus is a subtilisin-like serine proteinase.

  7. Entomophthoramycosis by Conidiobolus coronatus. Report of a case successfully treated with the combination of itraconazole and fluconazole Entomoftoramicose por Conidiobolus coronatus. Relato de um caso tratado com a associação de itraconazol com fluconazol

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    Antonio Carlos Francesconi do VALLE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoentomophthoramycosis caused by Conidiobolus coronatus in a 61-year old woman was unsuccessfully treated during 8 years with all the antifungals available in the Brazilian market, including potassium iodide for 1 month, sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim for 2 months, amphotericin B, total dose of 1130 mg, cetoconazole, 400 mg/day for 6 months, fluconazole, 200 mg/day, for at least 2 months and, itraconazole, 400 mg/day for 2 months, followed by 200 mg/day for 4 more months. Complete clinical and mycological cure was achieved using itraconazol 400 mg/day in association with fluconazol 200 mg/day during 24 months. After cure she was submitted to plastic surgery to repair her facial deformation. Today she remains clinically and mycologically cured after 59/60 months (5 years! without any specific antifungal. We thus suggest the use of the combination of itraconazole and fluconazole as an additional option for the treatment of this mycosis.É relatado um caso de rinoentomoftoramicose por Conidiobolus coronatus em mulher de 61 anos submetida a tratamento com todos os antifúngicos disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, durante 8 anos, sem sucesso, incluindo iodeto de potássio por 1 mês, sulfametoxazol associado ao trimetoprim por 2 meses, anfotericina B em dose total de 1130 mg, cetoconazol, 400 mg/dia por 6 meses, fluconazol, 200 mg/dia, por pelo menos 2 meses, e itraconazol, 400 mg/dia, por 2 meses, seguido de 200 mg/dia por mais 4 meses. A cura clínica e micológica completa foi obtida com a associação de itraconazol 400mg/dia com fluconazol 200 mg/dia, durante 24 meses. Após a cura a paciente foi submetida a cirurgia restauradora. Atualmente a paciente encontra-se há 59 meses sem medicação específica permanecendo clínica e micologicamente curada.

  8. The ruby-crowned tanager Tachyphonus coronatus Vieillot, 1822 (Passeriformes: Thraupidae) as a new host for Isospora ramphoceli Berto, Flausino, Luz, Ferreira, Lopes, 2010 in Brazil.

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    Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; de Pinho, Irlane Faria; da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Lopes, Bruno doBomfim; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Berto, Bruno Pereira

    2017-06-01

    Despite 12 coccidian species had been recorded from passerines of the Thraupidae family, none of them has been reported in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, in Southeastern Brazil. This locality is a protected area with a high degree of vulnerability, and is considered a "conservation island" of biodiversity. The aim of the current work was describe Isospora ramphoceli Berto, Flausino, Luz, Ferreira, Lopes, 2010 from ruby-crowned tanagers Tachyphonus coronatus Vieillot, 1822 in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia. The oocysts of I. ramphoceli are subspheroidal, 23.1 × 22.1 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall. Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or ovoidal, 16.2 × 10.8 μm. Stieda body is knob-like and substieda body is large and homogeneous. Sporocyst residuum is composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites are vermiform with a posterior refractile body and a nucleus. In addition to new locality, this is the first description of I. ramphoceli from T. coronatus.

  9. Oxyuricassis coronatus n. gen. n. sp. and O. hexaspinatus n. sp. (Oxyurida: Pharyngodonidae): Parasites of Lasiancistrus saetiger (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in Freshwater Rivers of the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Rodrigues, Allan R O; Furtado, Adriano P; Melo, Francisco T V; Santos, Jeannie N

    2017-08-01

    A new nematode genus is described from intestines of Lasiancistrus saetiger Ambruster from freshwater rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. Oxyuricassis n. gen. is characterized by a cephalic cone, small buccal cavity, long esophagus with a well-developed isthmus, and a conical tail with spines. Two new species are described: Oxyuricassis coronatus n. sp. is characterized by the absence of lateral alae, a conical tail with truncated extremity with spine-like sclerotized projections around the tail tip, and caudal alae in males expanded. Oxyuricassis hexaspinatus n. sp. is characterized by lateral alae, a conical tail with tapered extremity, with 2 pairs of proximal spines at the posterior extremity of the tail, 1 dorsal pair and 1 ventral pair, plus a pair of lateral spines that vary in position between sexes, and male of O. hexaspinatus has narrow caudal alae. Both species were found co-parasitizing all of the analyzed host specimens.

  10. Coronatin-1 isolated from entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus kills Galleria mellonella hemocytes in vitro and forms potassium channels in planar lipid membrane.

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    Wieloch, Wioletta; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Ligęza, Marta; Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Szewczyk, Adam

    2011-09-15

    Entomopathogenic fungi are important natural regulatory factors of insect populations and have potential as biological control agents of insect pests. The cosmopolitan soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Entomopthorales) easily attacks Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) larvae. Prompt death of invaded insects is attributed to the action of toxic metabolites released by the invader. Effect of fungal metabolites on hemocytes, insect blood cells involved in innate defense response, remains underexplored to date. C. coronatus isolate 3491 inducing 100% mortality of G. mellonella last instar larvae exposed to sporulating colonies, was cultivated at 20 °C in minimal medium. Post-incubation filtrates were used as a source of fungal metabolites. A two-step HPLC (1 step: Shodex KW-803 column eluted with 50 mM KH(2)PO(4) supplemented with 0.1 M KCl, pH 6.5; 2 step: ProteinPak™ CM 8HR column equilibrated with 5 mM KH(2)PO(4), pH 6.5, proteins eluted with a linear gradient of 0.5 M KCl) allowed the isolation of coronatin-1, an insecticidal 36 kDa protein showing both elastolytic and chitinolytic activities. Addition of coronatin-1 into primary in vitro cultures of G. mellonella hemocytes resulted in rapid disintegration of spherulocytes freely floating in culture medium and shrinkage of plasmatocytes adhering to the bottom of culture well. Coronatin-1 stimulated pseudopodia atrophy and, in consequence, disintegration of nets formed by cultured hemocytes. After incorporation of coronatin-1 into planar lipid membrane (PLM) ion channels selective for K(+) ions in 50/450 mM KCl solutions were observed. Potassium current flows were recorded in nearly 70% of experiments with conductance from 300 pS up to 1 nS. All observed channels were active at both positive and negative membrane potentials. Under experimental conditions incorporated coronatin-1 exhibited a zero current potential (E(rev)) of 47.7 mV, which indicates K(+)-selectivity of this protein. The success of the

  11. Gestion en métapopulation de Propithecus coronatus: une approche originale et multidisciplinaire pour la conservation d’une espèce en danger à Madagascar Metapopulation management of Propithecus coronatus : an original and multidisciplinary approach for the conservation of an endangered species in Madagascar

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    Delphine Roullet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le propithèque couronné, Propithecus coronatus, est l’un des lémuriens les plus menacés à Madagascar. Un projet de conservation a été créé par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP et The Aspinall Foundation en partenariat avec le Programme d’Elevage Européen de l’espèce après la découverte de plusieurs groupes de propithèques couronnés isolés au Centre de Madagascar. L’isolement total de ces groupes dans des fragments de forêt dégradée et soumis à de fortes pressions anthropiques a conduit à l’élaboration d’une stratégie de conservation originale et unique à Madagascar de ces groupes dont la conservation séparée n’a pas de sens. Il s’agit de mettre en place une gestion en métapopulation de ces groupes dont l’objectif est de les connecter à nouveau entre eux. C’est un projet multidisciplinaire qui concerne l’ensemble des populations de propithèques couronnés sauvages et captives et qui implique la recherche et la protection de nouveaux groupes, des études sur les populations isolées, mais également sur celle préservée du Nord-Ouest de Madagascar, sur les habitats, des suivis écologiques, des projets d’éducation environnementale, des projets de cogestion avec la population locale, et une collaboration inédite avec le Programme d’Elevage Européen. Ce projet pourra également servir de modèle pour la conservation d’autres espèces dans la même situation que les propithèques couronnés.The crowned sifaka, Propithecus coronatus, is one of the most endangered lemur species in Madagascar. A conservation project has been established in partnership between GERP (Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar, The Aspinall Foundation Madagascar and the European Endangered species Programme (EEP following the discovery of isolated crowned sifaka populations along the central highlands of Madagascar. The complete isolation of these

  12. Ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, n. Madagascar. With notes on Sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs.

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    Wilson, J M; Stewart, P D; Ramangason, G S; Denning, A M; Hutchings, M S

    1989-01-01

    Forests of Ankarana limestone massif in northern Madagascar support one of the largest and least disturbed populations of Crowned Lemurs, Lemur coronatus. This paper reports a preliminary study of the ecology of this species in the Ankarana Special Reserve conducted at the end of the dry season in 1986, with additional information collected a year later. Crowned Lemurs occur in very high densities in the semi-deciduous canopy forest and this probably represents a dry season refuge for the species. They also use more open habitats, including sparsely vegetated limestone and degraded forest. Sanford's Lemur, Lemur fulvus sanfordi, also inhabits the Ankarana forests but is most abundant in degraded habitats. Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs had similar patterns of activity, which included nocturnal travelling and feeding bouts. Crowned Lemurs proved to be unusual among Lemur species in displaying low spatial troop cohesion and a lack of obvious troop hierarchy. Stronglyoides-like enteric helminths infested about one third of Crowned Lemurs but were apparently not causing disease. Crowned Lemurs fall prey to the Fosa, Cryptoprocta ferox, and the young possibly also to the largest raptors. A total of seven living lemur species (including the very rare Propithecus diadema perrieri and Daubentonia madagascariensis) were confirmed at Ankarana by the authors, and three further species have been reported by other observers. In addition to these ten extant lemurs, four subfossil species have been discovered: three of them (Hapalemur simus, Palaeopropithecus and Mesopropithecus) by the authors. The possibility that all 14 lemurs were once sympatric is discussed. For the present, the lemurs of Ankarana are protected from hunting by local taboo. Nevertheless they are under severe threat from habitat destruction, despite Ankarana's Special Reserve status. Given the very restricted distributions of Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs, both must be considered as threatened with extinction.

  13. Patrones de distribución y tasas de bioerosión del erizo Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae, en el arrecife de Playa Blanca, Pacífico colombiano

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    Gerardo Toro-Farmer

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Los erizos regulares son uno de los principales grupos de organismos bioerosionadores que destruyen los arrecifes coralinos alrededor del mundo. En el presente estudio se determinaron los patrones de distribución y abundancia y las tasas de carbonato de calcio removido en el arrecife de Playa Blanca por Centrostephanus coronatus, una de las especies de erizos más abundante en este arrecife. Para este fin se realizaron cuatro visitas al arrecife entre 1997 y 1998 durante las cuales se contabilizó el número de individuos en cada una de las principales zonas arrecifales (Trasarrecife, Plataforma-Cresta, Frente, y Talud. Las tasas de erosión fueron determinadas por medio del análisis del contenido estomacal de un número representativo de individuos colectados en cada zona. Cada sistema digestivo fue calcinado para eliminar la materia orgánica y conservar solamente la porción inorgánica de carbonato de calcio. C. coronatus presentó sus mayores densidades hacia las zonas centrales del arrecife (12.4 ind/m² ; rango 0-48 ind/m² . La tasa de bioerosión promedio más alta de C. coronatus fue de 0.103 kgCaCo3 /m² /año en la Plataforma-Cresta (rango 0 a 0.69 kgCaCo3 /m² /año. En las otras zonas (trasarrecife y frente las tasas promedio de erosión fueron 0.071 (0-0.39 y 0.052 (0-0.31 kgCaCo3 /m² /año respectivamente. De acuerdo con estos datos fue posible comprobar que la destrucción de esqueletos de corales en este arrecife por esta especie de erizo es baja, comparada con la acción abrasionadora de este tipo de organismos en otras partes del mundo. Sin embargo, la acción combinada de C. coronatus con otros organismos bioerosionadores y con algunos factores ambientales adversos para los corales, puede estar provocando un desbalance entre los procesos normales de contrucción-destrucción arrecifal en la Isla GorgonaRegular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance

  14. Rhinofacial zygomycosis caused by conidiobolus coronatus

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    Nayak, D. R.; Pillai, S; Rao, L

    2004-01-01

    Fungal infections are common in a tropical country like India. Among the Zygomycosis infections, those caused by Mucorales are more prevalent. However, there exists another order of zygomycetes, the Entomophthorales, which rarely cause clinical disease. We report a rare cause of fungal infection of the maxillo-facial region and the oropharynx in a previously healthly male adult caused by Conidiobolus coronata of the order Entomophthorales to highlight the clinical presentation and treatment o...

  15. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2012 - 31 March 2012.

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    Andris, Malvina; Arias, M C; Barthel, Brandon L; Bluhm, Burton H; Bried, Joël; Canal, D; Chen, X M; Cheng, P; Chiappero, Marina B; Coelho, Manuela M; Collins, Angela B; Dash, M; Davis, Michelle C; Duarte, Margarida; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Françoso, E; Galmes, M A; Gopal, Keshni; Jarne, Philippe; Kalbe, Martin; Karczmarski, Leszek; Kim, Hun; Martella, Mónica B; McBride, Richard S; Negri, Valeria; Negro, J J; Newell, Annakay D; Piedade, Ana F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Raggi, Lorenzo; Samonte, Irene E; Sarasola, J H; See, D R; Seyoum, Seifu; Silva, Mónica C; Solaro, C; Tolley, Krystal A; Tringali, Michael D; Vasemägi, A; Xu, L S; Zanón-Martínez, J I

    2012-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 171 microsatellite marker loci and 27 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bombus pauloensis, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, Cercospora sojina, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, Hordeum vulgare, Lachnolaimus maximus, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Rhea americana, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Schistocephalus solidus, Sousa plumbea and Tursiops aduncus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aquila heliaca, Bulweria bulwerii, Buteo buteo, Buteo swainsoni, Falco rusticolus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Halobaena caerulea, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Oceanodroma castro, Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Puccinia triticina, Rhea pennata and Schistocephalus pungitii. This article also documents the addition of 27 sequencing primer pairs for Puffinus baroli and Bulweria bulwerii and cross-testing of these loci in Oceanodroma castro, Pelagodroma marina, Pelecanoides georgicus, Pelecanoides urinatrix, Thalassarche chrysostoma and Thalassarche melanophrys.

  16. Infección orofacial por Conidiobolus coronatus

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    Diana Carolina Moncada

    2016-04-01

    Dada la poca frecuencia de esta enfermedad, no hay una estrategia de tratamiento establecida; sin embargo, el uso de azoles, como el itraconazol, se señala cada vez más en los diferentes reportes de caso, haya habido tratamiento quirúrgico adyuvante o no. En este reporte de caso se describe, además, la respuesta clínica y terapéutica a largo plazo de esta micosis infrecuente en Colombia.

  17. Rhinoentomophthoromycosis caused by Conidiobolous coronatus in a diabetic patient: the importance of species identification

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    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoentomopthoromycosis usually presents as a chronic inflammatory or granulomatous disease characterized by swelling of nose, paranasal sinuses, and mouth. We present a case of a 43-year-old male who presented with right nasal blockade and paranasal sinus pain since two months. The clinical picture was further complicated by the fact that neither the patient could tolerate plain amphoterecin B nor could he afford its liposomal derivative. Species identification enabled us to successfully treat the patient with cheaper and less toxic alternative like itraconazole and potassium iodide. Our case highlights the importance of species identification in making appropriate choice of therapy in resource poor settings in developing countries.

  18. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae: multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

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    Bermingham Eldredge

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved

  19. Nests and Nest-site Selection of White-crowned Penduline Tit Remiz coronatus in the Northern Xinjiang%新疆北部白冠攀雀的巢与巢址选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宇; 马鸣; 胡宝文; Dusan Brinkhuizen; Tamas Szekely

    2009-01-01

    2008年4-7月,在新疆北部对白冠攀雀巢址选择进行了研究.白冠攀雀的营巢习性特殊,巢呈囊袋状,结构甚为精致.对于白冠攀雀巢的研究,采用总面积调查法,进行地毯式的搜寻,并结合标图法对其进行标记,绘制分布图.研究结果共发现巢125个,营巢位于于临近湖泊、河流等水域附近的柳树、杨树、桦树等阔叶树上.营巢树种以柳树为主,占68.80%.巢的高度平均为(5.3±2.5)m,营巢于乔木的中下部(约1/3处),约70%的巢离河边不足30 m.对于巢址选择的研究,将原始记录中与巢址选择有关的特征变量进行主成分分析,分析表明,影响白冠攀雀巢址选择的主要因素有4种,依次为:郁闭度因素(包括营巢树胸径、巢上郁闭度)、营巢树种因素(包括营巢树种、树高、巢位高度和乔木种类)、方位因素(包括距河边距离和巢向)、食物与巢材因素.

  20. Mamá ceiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Valderrama Andrade

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available El horizonte marino, tenue línea entre dos azules de cielo y agua; el movimiento sucesivo y creciente de las olas, con sus crestas coronadas de espumas y rumores; el retozo de los bufeos a cien brazas de la orilla; el desplazamiento en parejas de los sábalos, manchas alargadas y movibles bajo el verde transparente y esmeralda del mar en los bajos.

  1. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...

  2. Antología didáctica de la poesía extremeña

    OpenAIRE

    José Soto Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Reseña bibliográfica.Mª Begoña García Quintás, María Coronada Carrillo Romero, Cesárea Rodríguez Contreras, Ana Belén Gemio Macedo, Mª Dolores Rivero Rodríguez, Ramón Pérez Parejo. Antología didáctica de la poesía extremeña. Consejería de Educación de la Junta de Extremadura. Badajoz. 2007. 38 págs. ISBN: 84-96212-97-X

  3. Madruga, en Cuba, festeja a la virgen en primera peregrinación en 52 años

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    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles de fieles recibieron el domingo 4 de septiembre pasado, en las calles del pueblo de Madruga, a 65 km al este de La Habana y tierra natal del poeta cubano Porfirio Robau (1914-1993, la imagen de la Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, Patrona de Cuba, en su primera peregrinación por la isla en 52 años de gobierno comunista. La Virgen, Patrona de Cuba desde 1916 por decreto del Papa Benedicto XV, fue coronada y consagrada el año 1998 por Juan Pablo II durante su visita a la isla.

  4. Estrategias de seducción en un artificio epistolar de Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda: Diario de amor

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar Blanco, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Porque la mujer era hermosa, de grande estatura, de esculturales contornos, de bien moldeados brazos, de cabeza coronada de abundantes rizos y gallardamente colocada sobre los hombros. Su voz era dulce, femenil; sus movimientos lánguidos y mesurados y la acción de sus manos delicada y fl exible; pero la mirada fi rme de sus serenos ojos azules, su escritura briosamente tendida sobre el papel, y los pensamientos varoniles de los vigorosos versos con que se reveló su ingeni...

  5. Conidiobolomycosis: A case report of rare fungal infection from the eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashree Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conidiobolomycosis is a rare chronic subcutaneous mycosis of nose and paranasal sinuse predominately affects the middle age men in tropical countries. It is caused by a saprophytic fungus "Conodiobolus coronatus", which can survives in soils and dried vegetables for long period of time. C. coronatus belongs to the class Zygomycetes, order Entomophthorales. It is a fungus composed of thick- walled, short hyphae that grows at temperatures of 30 to 37 degrees C. Here we report a case of conidiobolomycosis in a 55- year- old farmer presented with a subcutaneous swelling over the left side of nose extending to left cheek.

  6. Different levels of hyphal self-incompatibility modulate interconnectedness of mycorrhizal networks in three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the Glomeraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana

    2016-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with most plant species and produce underground extraradical hyphal networks functional in the uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients from the soil to host plants. This work investigated whether fungal genotype can affect patterns of interconnections and structural traits of extraradical mycelium (ERM), by comparing three Glomeraceae species growing in symbiosis with five plant hosts. An isolate of Funneliformis coronatus consistently showed low ability to form interconnected ERM and self-incompatibility that represented up to 21% of hyphal contacts. The frequency of post-fusion self-incompatible interactions, never detected before in AMF extraradical networks, was 8.9%. In F. coronatus ERM, the percentage of hyphal contacts leading to perfect hyphal fusions was 1.2-7.7, while it ranged from 25.8-48 to 35.6-53.6 in Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae, respectively. Low interconnectedness of F. coronatus ERM resulted also from a very high number of non-interacting contacts (83.2%). Such findings show that AMF genotypes in Glomeraceae can differ significantly in anastomosis behaviour and that ERM interconnectedness is modulated by the fungal symbiont, as F. coronatus consistently formed poorly interconnected networks when growing in symbiosis with five different host plants and in the asymbiotic stage. Structural traits, such as extent, density and hyphal self-compatibility/incompatibility, may represent key factors for the differential performance of AMF, by affecting fungal absorbing surface and foraging ability and thus nutrient flow from soil to host roots.

  7. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  8. Pollinator deception in the orchid mantis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, James C; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    Mimicry has evolved in contexts such as camouflage, predator deterrence, luring of prey, and pollinator attraction. Mimicry of flowers has until now been demonstrated only in angiosperms, yet it has been hypothesized that the Malaysian orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus mimics a flower to attract pollinators as prey. Despite the popularity of this charismatic insect, this long-discussed hypothesis has never been experimentally investigated. We found that, as predicted for mimicry, the color of H. coronatus is indistinguishable from the color of sympatric flowers for hymenopteran pollinators. Field experiments show that isolated mantises attract wild pollinators at a rate even higher than flowers and capture these pollinators as prey items. After more than a century of conjecture, we provide the first experimental evidence of pollinator deception in the orchid mantis and the first description of a unique predatory strategy that has not been documented in any other animal species.

  9. Rhinoentomophthoromycosis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomophthoromycosis is chronic granulomatous fungal infection with varied presentation as subcutaneous,mucocutaneous and visceral infections. The majority of the subcutaneous infection caused by entomophthoralean fungi involves Basidiobolus spp, C. coronatus, or C. incongruous. A case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis in an immunocompetent male involving maxillary sinus and nose is presented. The patient was clinically diagnosed as malignancy of nose but microscopy and histopathology of the aspirate clinched the diagnosis. The patient responded to antifungal therepy.

  10. Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae

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    Norma Campos Salgado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846 is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S. coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846 and S.(S. wallisi (Mousson, 1869.

  11. Venomic study on cone snails (Conus spp.) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauferstein, Silke; Porth, Christine; Kendel, Yvonne; Wunder, Cora; Nicke, Annette; Kordis, Dusan; Favreau, Philippe; Koua, Dominique; Stöcklin, Reto; Mebs, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    From six Conus species (Conus coronatus, Conus lividus, Conus mozambicus f. lautus, Conus pictus, Conus sazanka, Conus tinianus) collected off the eastern coast of South Africa the venoms were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Between 56 and 151 molecular masses most in a range of 1000 to 2500 Da, were identified. Among the six venoms, between 0 and 27% (C. coronatus versus C. sazanka) of the peptide masses were found to be similar. In a study on venoms from 6 Conus species collected in the Philippines, the percentage of identical masses was between none and 9% only. The venoms from the South African Conus species antagonized the rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) α3β2, α4β2, and α7, except for C. coronatus venom that blocked the α4β2 and α7 nAChRs only. HPLC-fractionation of C. tinianus venom led to the isolation of a peptide that is active on all three receptor subtypes. It consists of 16 amino acid residues cross-linked by two disulfide bridges as revealed by de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry: GGCCSHPACQNNPDYC. Posttranslational modifications include C-terminal amidation and tyrosine sulfation. The new peptide is a member of the α-conotoxin family that are competitive antagonists of nAChRs. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA from numerous Conus species has clarified the evolutionary position of endemic South African Conus species and provided the first evidence for their close genetic relationships.

  12. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A

    2015-03-24

    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given.

  13. Himno a Barranquilla

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    Amira de la Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Barranquilla, prócera e inmortal Ceñida de agua y madurada al sol Savia joven del árbol nacional.   Del jubiloso porvenir crisol Ilusión de Caribe blanco-azul De Colombia tendida en el umbral Da su voz y su músculo al progreso Barranquilla, prócera e inmortal.   Barrancas de San Nicolás con el Magdalena detrás.   Coronada de firme amanecer  te conduce en su espalda el porvenir: las sirenas de fábrica y taller son rumor arterial de tu existir.   Barranquilla sabe cantar  y sobre el yunque martillar.   Tajamares de Bocas de Ceniza Cuchillada del río sobre el mar al Caribe central colombianiza  tu robusta aptitud de navegar.   Amira de la Rosa Poetisa y dramaturga colombiana (1903-1974 (Fundadora del colegio Gabriela Mistral de Barranquilla, 1926

  14. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  15. Male songbird indicates body size with low-pitched advertising songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Hall

    Full Text Available Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis--that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals--has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised.

  16. Estudo do gênero Rhopalias stiles & Hassall, 1898 (Trematoda, Rhopaliasidae The genus Rhopalias Stiles & Hassall, 1898 (Trematoda, Rhopaliasidae

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    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fazem um estudo de todas as espécies do gênero Rhopalias Stiles & Hassall, 1898, ratificando quatro espécies e invalidando duas. Ficando assim o gênero com as espécies R. coronatus (Rudolphi, 1819, R. horridus (Diesing, 1850, R. baculifer Braun, 1901 e R. macracanthus Chandler, 1932, as quais são no presente trabalho bem caracterizadas com descrições, quadros comparativos e figuras. Nesta oportunidade aproveitam para determinar todo material pertencente ao gênero depositado na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.In this papaer the authors make a revision of the genus Rhopalias Stiles & Hassall, 1898, confirm four species and invalidate two. So, under this genus, we have: R. coronatus (Rud., 1819, R. horridus (Diesing, 1850 R. baculifer Braun, 1901 and R. macracanthus Chandler, 1932. All of them are well described by means of comparative tables and drawings.

  17. Composición, estructura y diversidad de la comunidad de Ácaros Mesostigmata de un hayedo natural (Fagus sylvatica del sur de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraza, M. L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, structure and diversity of the soil Mesostigmatid mite’s community was studied in European beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L. in Navarra (Spain, southern Europe. Twelve samples were taken and 653 mites were identified. They represented to 41 species from 14 families, the most abundant species being Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Veigaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 and Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. Haft part of the mites community inhabits the humic layer of the soil. The value of the Shannon’s diversity index (H´ log2 in the forest studied is 4,42, and the equitability (J´ is 0,82.Se estudia la composición específica de la comunidad de ácaros Mesostigmata en una hayedo (Fagus sylvatica L. de Navarra (España, Sur de Europa. Se han identificado 653 ácaros procedentes de 12 muestras. Estos representan a 41 especies de 14 familias y las especies más abundantes son Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Vegaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 y Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. La mitad de la comunidad habita en el horizonte húmico del suelo. En este hayedo el valor de la diversidad de Shannon (H´ log2 es 4,42 y el de la equitabilidad (J´ 0,82.

  18. Phylogeny and character behavior in the family Lemuridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Y; DeSalle, R; Absher, R

    2000-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the family Lemuridae was accomplished using multiple gene partitions and morphological characters. The results of the study suggest that several nodes in the lemurid phylogeny can be robustly resolved; however, the relationships of the species within the genus Eulemur are problematically nonrobust. The genus Varecia is strongly supported as the basal genus in the family. Hapalemur and Lemur catta are strongly supported as sister taxa and together are the sister group to the genus Eulemur. E. mongoz is the most basal species in the genus Eulemur. E. fulvus subspecies form a monophyletic group with three distinct lineages. E. coronatus is strongly supported as the sister taxon to E. macaco. The relationships of E. rubriventer, E. fulvus, and the E. macaco-E. coronatus pair are unresolved. Our combined molecular and morphological analysis demonstrates the lack of influence that morphology has on the simultaneous analysis tree when these two kinds of data are given equal weight. The effects of several extreme weighting schemes (removal of transitions and of third positions in protein-coding regions) and maximum-likelihood analysis were also explored. We suggest that these other forms of inference add little to resolving the problematic relationships of the species in the genus Eulemur.

  19. Rhinoentomophthoromycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mathew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sixty year old patient presented with a slowly progressive swelling of the nose, of one year duration, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of subcutaneous zygomycosis. On investigation, the tissue fungal culture grew Conidiobolus coronatus , confirming the diagnosis as rhinoentomophthoromycosis. He was treated with a combination of oral fluconazole and oral potassium iodide for a total period of 5 months. His symptoms subsided completely. Serial CT scanning of paranasal sinuses showed the gradual resolution of the swelling, in response to the treatment. Early detection of the disease and combination therapy gave rapid and good results. This is the first case of its kind to be reported from Kerala, the southern state of India.

  20. Isolation, identification and culture of entomopathogenic fungi from Sogatella furcifera in Guangdong Province%广东省白背飞虱病原真菌的分离鉴定和培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春生

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the resources of entomopathogenic fungi on Sogatella furcifera in Guangdong Province and their biological characteristics. [Method] Two species of entomopathogenic fungi, isolated from my-cosed adult S. Furcifera in the Qujiang District of Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province, were morphologically described from their host insects and from microscopic preparations. The effects of seven different temperatures (10 ℃, 15℃, 20 ℃, 25℃, 30℃ , 35 ℃ and 37℃) and two different photoperiods (L//D=24 h//0 h and L//D= 0 h//24 h) on radial growth of the two species of entomopathogenic fungi were studied in the laboratory. [Result] The two fungi species isolated from 5. Furcifera were identified as Batkoa major and Conidiobolus coronatus, based on morphological method. They could grow at 15-30℃ , and their growth rates were enhanced as temperature increased. At 35℃ , the growth rate of C. Coronatus began to decrease. At 37 'C ,the growth rate was close to zero. Two different photoperiods insignificantly affected their radial growth. [Conclusion] The entomopathogenic fungi parasiting S. Furcifera were mainly Batkoa major and Conidiobolus coronatus, whose growth were mainly affected by temperature.%[目的]了解广东省白背飞虱(Sogatella furci fera)的昆虫病原真菌资源及其生物学特性.[方法]对从广东韶关市曲江区感染真菌病的白背飞虱中分离出的2种昆虫病原真菌进行了形态学鉴定,并测定了不同温度(10、15、20、25、30、35℃和37℃)和光周期(L∥D=24 h∥9h和L∥D=0h∥24 h)对2种虫生真菌生长的影响.[结果]寄生白背飞虱的2种虫生真菌缰鉴定为大孢巴科霉(Batkoa major)和冠耳霉(Conidiobolus coronatus),对它们的形态特征进行了描述.生物学试验表明,2种真菌在15~30℃均可生长,生长速度随着温度升高而加快.在35℃冠耳霉生长速度开始下降,在37℃其生长速率接近于0.L∥D=24 h∥9h和L∥D=0h∥24 h2

  1. Characterization of a highly repeated DNA sequence family in five species of the genus Eulemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M; Boniotto, M; Cardone, M F; Fulizio, L; Archidiacono, N; Rocchi, M; Crovella, S

    2001-09-19

    The karyotypes of Eulemur species exhibit a high degree of variation, as a consequence of the Robertsonian fusion and/or centromere fission. Centromeric and pericentromeric heterochromatin of eulemurs is constituted by highly repeated DNA sequences (including some telomeric TTAGGG repeats) which have so far been investigated and used for the study of the systematic relationships of the different species of the genus Eulemur. In our study, we have cloned a set of repetitive pericentromeric sequences of five Eulemur species: E. fulvus fulvus (EFU), E. mongoz (EMO), E. macaco (EMA), E. rubriventer (ERU), and E. coronatus (ECO). We have characterized these clones by sequence comparison and by comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in EMA and EFU. Our results showed a high degree of sequence similarity among Eulemur species, indicating a strong conservation, within the five species, of these pericentromeric highly repeated DNA sequences.

  2. Comparison of highly repeated DNA sequences in some Lemuridae and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnon, D; Crovella, S; Rumpler, Y

    1993-01-01

    Highly repeated DNA sequences of Eulemur fulvus mayottensis, E. coronatus, Lemur catta, and Hapalemur griseus griseus have been identified and compared. Sequence analysis of highly repeated DNA fragments isolated from L. catta and Hapalemur showed a high percentage of similarity (nearly 95%), as did fragments isolated from the two very close Eulemur species, whereas comparison of the DNA fragments isolated from the two Eulemur species and the L. catta/Hapalemur group showed a very low percentage (approximately 40%) of identity, as might be expected for distant species. These results confirm our previous data, obtained by Southern blot hybridization techniques on the same species, and strongly support the existence of a common trunk between L. catta and Hapalemur, but different from the leading to the Eulemur species.

  3. A composite molecular phylogeny of living lemuroid primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelPero, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Luca; Masters, Judith C

    2006-01-01

    Lemuroid phylogeny is a source of lively debate among primatologists. Reconstructions based on morphological, physiological, behavioural and molecular data have yielded a diverse array of tree topologies with few nodes in common. In the last decade, molecular phylogenetic studies have grown in popularity, and a wide range of sequences has been brought to bear on the problem, but consensus has remained elusive. We present an analysis based on a composite molecular data set of approx. 6,400 bp assembled from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, including both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and diverse analytical methods. Our analysis consolidates some of the nodes that were insecure in previous reconstructions, but is still equivocal on the placement of some taxa. We conducted a similar analysis of a composite data set of approx. 3,600 bp to investigate the controversial relationships within the family Lemuridae. Here our analysis was more successful; only the position of Eulemur coronatus remained uncertain.

  4. Host-herbivore studies of Stenoscepa sp. (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae), a high-Ni herbivore of the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD; MICHEAL A. DAVIS; MICHAEL A. WALL; KEVIN BALKWILL

    2007-01-01

    Nymphs of Stenoscepa sp. feed on leaves of the Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii at serpentine sites in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. These sites contain Ni hyperaccumulators, Ni accumulators, and plants with Ni concentrations in the normal range. We conducted studies to: (i) determine the whole-body metal concentration of nymphs (including those starved to empty their guts); (ii) compare Stenoscepa sp. nymphs against other grasshoppers in the same habitat for whole-body metal concentrations; and (iii)compare the suitability of Ni hyperaccumulator and Ni accumulator plants as food sources for Stenoscepa sp. and other grasshoppers. Stenoscepa nymphs had extremely high whole-body Ni concentrations (3 500μg Ni/g). This was partly due to food in the gut, as starved insects contained less Ni (950μg Ni/g).Stenoscepa nymphs survived significantly better than other grasshoppers collected from either a serpentine or a non-serpentine site when offered high-Ni plants as food. In a host preference test among four Berkheya species (two Ni hyperaccumulators and two Ni accumulators), Stenoscepa sp. preferred leaves of the Ni hyperaccumulator species. A preference experiment using leaves of three Senecio species (of which one species, Senecio coronatus, was represented by both a Ni hyperaccumulator and a Ni accumulator population) showed that Stenoscepa sp. preferred Ni accumulator Senecio coronatus leaves to all other choices. We conclude that Stenoscepa sp. is extremely Ni-tolerant. Stenoscepa sp. nymphs prefer leaves of hyperaccumulator Berkheya species, but elevated Ni concentration alone does not determine their food preference. We suggest that the extremely high whole-body Ni concentration of Stenoscepa nymphs may affect food web relationships in these serpentine communities.

  5. Combination of sequential chemical extraction and modelling of dam-break wave propagation to aid assessment of risk related to the possible collapse of a roasted sulphide tailings dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Sáez, Reinaldo; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Miguel Nieto, José; Pace, Gaetano

    2009-10-15

    The Sotiel-Coronada abandoned mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt) produced complex massive sulphide ores which were processed by flotation to obtain Cu, Zn and Pb concentrates. The crude pyrite refuses were roasted for sulphuric acid production in a plant located close to the flotation site, and waste stored in a tailing dam. The present study was focused on the measurements of flow properties, chemical characterization and mineralogical determination of the roasted pyrite refuses with the aim of assessing the potential environmental impact in case of dam collapse. Chemical studies include the determination of the total contaminant content and information about their bio-availability or mobility using sequential extraction techniques. In the hypothetical case of the tailing dam breaking up and waste spilling (ca. 4.54Mt), a high density mud flow would flood the Odiel river valley and reach both Estuary of Huelva (Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, 1983) and Atlantic Ocean in matter of a couple of days, as it was predicted by numerical simulations of dam-break waves propagation through the river valley based on quasi-2D Saint-Venant equations. The total amount of mobile pollutants that would be released into the surrounding environment is approximately of 7.1.10(4)t of S, 1.6.10(4)t of Fe, 1.4.10(4)t of As, 1.2.10(4)t of Zn, 1.0.10(4)t of Pb, 7.4.10(3)t of Mn, 2.2.10(3)t of Cu, 1.5.10(2)t of Co, 36t of Cd and 17t of Ni. Around 90-100% of S, Zn, Co and Ni, 60-70% of Mn and Cd, 30-40% of Fe and Cu, and 5% of As and Pb of the mobile fraction would be easily in the most labile fraction (water-soluble pollutants), and therefore, the most dangerous and bio-available for the environment. This gives an idea of the extreme potential risk of roasted pyrite ashes to the environment, until now little-described in the scientific literature.

  6. Cytogenetic data on six leafcutter ants of the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): insights into chromosome evolution and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; Mariano, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Costa, Marco Antonio; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais - Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado - Panama. The number and morphology of the chromosomes were studied and the following banding techniques were applied: C-banding, fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI, as well as the detection of 45S rDNA using FISH technique. All the six species had the same chromosome number observed for already studied species, i.e. 2n = 38. Acromyrmex balzani had a different karyotype compared with other species mainly due to the first metacentric pair. The heterochromatin distribution also showed interspecific variation. Nevertheless, all the studied species had a pair of bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair. The fluorochrome CMA3 visualized bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair for all the six species, while Acromyrmex rugosus and Acromyrmex niger also demonstrated in the other chromosomes. The AT-rich regions with differential staining using DAPI were not observed. 45S ribosomal genes were identified by FISH in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair in Acromyrmex coronatus, Acromyrmex disciger and

  7. Ocorrência de formigas Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865, em alguns municípios do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1322 Occurrence of ants Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 in some cities of Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1322

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    Luiz Carlos Forti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865, foram coletadas em vários municípios do Brasil, nos seguintes estados: de Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Amapá, e também no Paraguai e no Uruguai, visando atualizar a ocorrência das mesmas. Os exemplares coletados nas viagens foram identificados no laboratório da Fca/Unesp/Botucatu-SP. Foram registradas, pela primeira vez, as ocorrências de A. rugosus rugosus (F. Smith, 1858 no Paraná, em Rondônia e em Santa Catarina; de A. subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893 no Amapá e na Bahia; de A. diasi (Gonçalves, 1982 no Rio Grande do Sul e no Paraná; de A. coronatus (Fabricius, 1804 no Paraná; de A. balzani (Emery, 1890 no Amapá e de A. subterraneus brunneus (Forel, 1911 em GoiásIt were collected species of Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 in many brazilian cities from Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Amapá states and in Paraguay and Uruguay, with the purpose to bring up-to-date their occurrence. Specimens collected on trips were identified at laboratory of Fca/Unesp/Botucatu-SP. It were recorded, for the first time, the occurrence of A. rugosus rugosus (F. Smith, 1858 in Paraná, Rondônia and Santa Catarina states; A. subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893 in Amapá and Bahia; A. diasi Gonçalves, 1982 in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states; A. coronatus (Fabricius, 1804 in Paraná; A. balzani (Emery, 1890 in Amapá and A. subterraneus brunneus (Forel, 1911 in Goiás

  8. Revision of Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 (Polychaeta, Flabelligeridae

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    Sergio Salazar-Vallejo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 includes abyssal, fragile benthic species. Most species have large cephalic cages but chaetae are brittle and easily lost which may explain why the original definition included species with a cephalic cage or without it. The type species, I. bythincola Chamberlin, 1919, together with another species (I. pluto Chamberlin, 1919 were described as lacking a cephalic cage whereas a third species (I. ascendens Chamberlin, 1919 was described with one. To clarify this situation, all available type and non-type materials were studied. Ilyphagus is redefined to include species with digitiform bodies, abundant filiform papillae and a thin body wall; their neurochaetae are thick, anchylosed aristate spines, and all species have a cephalic cage (in the type species the presence of a cage is inferred from the remaining chaetal scars. Ilyphagus pluto, which also lacks a a cephalic cage is determined here to be a holothurian. The redefined genus contains I. bythincola (incl. I. ascendens, I. coronatus Monro, 1939, I. hirsutus Monro, 1937, and I. wyvillei (McIntosh, 1885.

  9. Zigomicose nasofacial: relato de um caso do estado do Pará, Brasil Nasofacial zygomycosis: case report from Pará, Brazil

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    Mário A. P. Moraes

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de zigomicose nasofacial, causado por Conidiobolus coronatus, é descrito em paciente de 64 anos, do sexo feminino, procedente de Barcarena, Estado do Pará. Trata-se de doença rara na Região Norte do país - a maioria dos casos brasileiros tem sido registrada em Estados da Região Nordeste -, e o achado confirma a ocorrência do agente no Estado do Pará. A resposta ao iodeto de potássio, droga administrada à paciente, logo após a comprovação do diagnóstico pelo isolamento do fungo, foi boa, com resolução parcial das lesões em algumas semanas. A paciente continua ainda em tratamento, tendo-se associado o itraconazol ao iodetoA case of nasofacial zygomycosis in a 64-year-old female patient from Barcarena, State of Pará, is reported. This is the second time that the disease is recognized in Northern Brazil. The diagnosis was initially suspected by the direct observation of broad coenocytic hyphae in biopsy specimens of the nasal cavity mucosa. Later, the cause of the disease was confirmed by the mycologial and histopathological findings. Rapid response to the therapy with potassium iodide was achieved, without however a complete resolution of the lesions. The patient still remains under treatment, with itraconazole and iodide

  10. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  11. [Toxicity and toxin profile of scavenging and carnivorous gastropods from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Sorimachi, Taiki; Sagara, Takefumi; Kubo, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ono, Kaname; Xiao, Ning; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Arakawa, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    From January to June 2009, a total of 64 gastropod specimens of 15 species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and examined for toxicity by means of mouse bioassay. Among the specimens tested, 5 species, Nassarius glans, Nassariuscoronatus, Olivaannulata, Oliva concavospira and Zeuxis sp., were toxic. The toxicity scores of N. glans were very high; 39.6-461 MU/g in muscle, and 98.6-189 MU/g in viscera including digestive gland, followed by Zeuxis sp. (12.7 MU/g in whole body), N. coronatus (5.64-11.1 MU/g in whole body), O. annulata (10.8 MU/g in the whole body), O. concavospira (6.65 MU/g in the muscle). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that the major toxic component was tetrodotoxin (TTX), which accounting for 13-82% of the total toxicity. As for the remaining toxicity in the case of N. glans, 4,9-anhydroTTX, 4-epiTTX and 11-oxoTTX were contributors. Moreover, Niotha albescens showed no toxicity (less than 10 MU/g) in mouse bioassay, but TTX (5.08 MU/g) was detected by LC-MS. Paralytic shellfish poison was not detected in any of the specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD).

  12. Evidence for nonseasonal reproduction in wild aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, E J

    1994-01-01

    The lemurs of Madagascar typically exhibit a strictly seasonal pattern of breeding, with a limited number of successive estrous cycles occurring at a particular time of the year, which varies from species to species. Previous reports indicated that aye-ayes also exhibit such a strictly seasonal polyestrous pattern. Data from the author's 2-year field study of aye-ayes on the island of Nosy Mangabe, combined with information from recently initiated captive breeding programs, now indicate that this species in fact shows an extended breeding season or even year-round breeding. Actual mating or signs of estrus were observed in the field throughout a 5-month period (October-February). Further, data from captured pregnant females and young offspring indicate that births take place during the period from February to September. Apart from aye-ayes, extended breeding periods have been reported for wild Eulemur coronatus and for captive Eulemur fulvus and Mirza coquereli. Analysis of information on seasonal variation in food availability for aye-ayes and other lemurs provides no clear evidence that the degree of seasonality of breeding is directly dependent on ecological factors.

  13. Diet, consumption, and growth of juvenile fringed flounder ( Etropus crossotus); a test of the 'maximum growth/optimum food hypothesis' in a subtropical nursery area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Marcel J. M.

    2003-11-01

    Recent somatic growth of juvenile fringed flounder ( Etropus crossotus) collected in North Inlet (South Carolina, USA) was determined based on the width of the 24 most recently deposited daily increments in sagittal otoliths. Growth rates were estimated using previously published data on the experimentally validated relationship between the daily increment width and the somatic growth. A comparison of the realised growth with experimental data indicated that growth rates in the field were near optimum values determined under ad libitum food conditions. Gut contents analysis of field collected fringed flounder indicated that food consisted predominantly of zooplankton and motile epibenthic prey with calanoid copepods, in particular Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, as the most important food items. There was no clear ontogenetic shift in prey with increasing fish size. Copepods and their eggs remained a significant prey item in even the largest fish examined (>9 cm SL), while larger prey items like polychaete worms, cumaceans, bivalves, and mysids were found in the stomachs of smaller fish. The prey organisms were abundantly available during the period of highest settlement (May through September). Growth rates, biomass, consumption estimates, and prey availability in North Inlet indicated that growth of juvenile fringed flounder is not limited by food, but predominantly determined by water temperature. During the summer months temperature and food supply in North Inlet are near optimal for juvenile fringed flounder. This allows this short-lived species to grow rapidly to attain a mature size and migrate to near-shore waters to reproduce within one growing season.

  14. Revision of Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 (Polychaeta, Flabelligeridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 includes abyssal, fragile benthic species. Most species have large cephalic cages but chaetae are brittle and easily lost which may explain why the original definition included species with a cephalic cage or without it. The type species, Ilyphagus bythincola Chamberlin, 1919, together with another species (Ilyphagus pluto Chamberlin, 1919) were described as lacking a cephalic cage whereas a third species (Ilyphagus ascendens Chamberlin, 1919) was described with one. To clarify this situation, all available type and non-type materials were studied. Ilyphagus is redefined to include species with digitiform bodies, abundant filiform papillae and a thin body wall; their neurochaetae are thick, anchylosed aristate spines, and all species have a cephalic cage (in the type species the presence of a cage is inferred from the remaining chaetal scars). Ilyphagus pluto, which also lacks a a cephalic cage is determined here to be a holothurian. The redefined genus contains Ilyphagus bythincola (incl. Ilyphagus ascendens), Ilyphagus coronatus Monro, 1939, Ilyphagus hirsutus Monro, 1937, and Ilyphagus wyvillei (McIntosh, 1885). PMID:22639528

  15. Asentamiento diario de megalopas de jaibas del género Cancer en un estuario micromareal Daily settlement of Cancer crab megalopae in a microtidal estuary

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    Luis Miguel Pardo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El asentamiento de crustáceos decápodos en ambientes estuarinos, es la última etapa de un complejo proceso en que las especies meroplanctónicas cierran la fase de vida pelágica. Este proceso tiene etapas sucesivas, que comienza con la formación de parches larvales frente a la costa, su transporte hacia las zonas de crianza, exploración de sustrato en busca de un lugar adecuado para el asentamiento y la metamorfosis a juvenil. Las interacciones entre los factores físicos y el comportamiento de las larvas competentes regulan las diversas etapas de este proceso, determinando finalmente las tasas de asentamiento locales. En este estudio se analiza la importancia relativa de las forzantes físicas que actúan a meso-escala (i.e. estrés del viento, nivel del mar y caudal del río y micro-escala (condiciones locales de temperatura, salinidad y tipo de sustrato sobre el asentamiento de megalopas de los braquiuros Cancer edwardsii y C. coronatus, principales jaibas comerciales en la pesca artesanal chilena. Para esto se instalaron colectores larvales pasivos de fondo por 73 días consecutivos en el periodo de máximo reclutamiento (i.e. abundancia de juvenil I, en la desembocadura del estuario del río Valdivia y se dispuso de arena gruesa y un símil de tapiz algal como sustrato. Los resultados mostraron que: a el asentamiento está caracterizado por extensos periodos de escasos asentados alternados por pulsos de máximos, que no necesariamente coinciden entre las especies estudiadas, b el asentamiento de C. edwardsii mostró estar relacionado con múltiples forzantes que generan la advección de aguas cálidas hacia la costa, c el asentamiento de C. coronatus tuvo relación con las forzantes que generan la surgencia costera, d las larvas de ambas especies no difieren en el asentamiento sobre sustratos heterogéneos. Este estudio mostró que los patrones de asentamiento larval son especie específicos, incluso en especies simpátricas y

  16. Garaje para la Universidad de California

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    Lin, T. Y.

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available California University has constructed a two storey garage, with a prestressed concrete structure, at Berkeley. A particular feature of this building is that on the roof a soil layer, 0.45 cm in depth, has been laid, on which there is a grass lawn. The structure consists of a framework of beams, of 7.30 m span, in one direction, and 19 m in the other: this being the maximum separation of the columns in one elevation. Consequently the flooring is made of slabs spanning the shorter 7.30 m distance. The roof slab has been prestressed in two mutually perpendicular directions, hence it is practically impossible for it to develop cracks. This arrangement renders the slab watertight and implies a saving in the cost of applying waterproofing treatment. As the building is surrounded on three sides by three contention walls, advantage has been taken of this to transmit to these the horizontal thrusts due to windage and seismic forces. Most of the structural elements, excepting the flooring, have been prestressed and prefabricated at a workshop 80 Km. away from the site. Many of the constructional units have additional reinforcement, which can be post-tensioned after erection at the working site.La Universidad de California ha construido un garaje, de dos plantas, de hormigón pretensado, en Berkeley, que presenta la particularidad de utilizar la parte superior de su cubierta para colocar sobre ella una capa de tierra, de 0,45 metros de espesor, coronada por un manto de césped. La estructura resistente está constituida por un reticulado de vigas formando crujías de 7,30 m de luz y apoyos espaciados a 19 m. Por tanto, las losas que forman los forjados salvan una, luz de 7,30 m, mientras que las vigas forman pórticos de 19 m de luz máxima. La losa de cubierta se ha pretensado en dos direcciones normales entre sí y, como consecuencia de ello, al hallarse debidamente comprimida en el sentido de estas dos direcciones es prácticamente imposible la

  17. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

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    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  18. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus.

  19. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  20. Two new and two redescribed species of Anonchotaenia (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from South American birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna J; Georgiev, Boyko B; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Mariaux, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Morphological examination of novel specimens of paruterinid cestodes from passerine birds from Brazil and Chile and of museum specimens from Paraguay revealed two new species: Anonchotaenia prolixa sp. n. from Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr from Chile, and Anonchotaenia vaslata sp. n. from Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot) (type host) and Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller) from Paraguay. The generic diagnosis of Anonchotaenia Conn, 1900 is amended, prompted by the presence of the armed cirrus and the elongated cirrus sac of A. prolixa. Two species were redescribed: Anonchotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot) and Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot) (new host records) from Brazil, and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus) and Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus) from Paraguay (new host and geographic records); and Anonchotaenia macrocephala Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot) (new host record) from Brazil, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis) from Chile (new host and geographic record) and Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot) from Paraguay (new host and geographic record). Scanning electron microscopy of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala revealed less microthrix variation than has been reported for other cyclophyllidean taxa. Sequence data were generated for nuclear ssr- and lsr-DNA and mitochondrial rrnL and cox1 for A. prolixa, A. brasiliensis, and A. macrocephala. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses supported each species as distinct, but revealed cryptic diversity among A. brasiliensis specimens from different host families. New host records of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala prompted a formal assessment of host specificity. Anonchotaenia prolixa was found to be oioxenous (HS(S) = 0), A. vaslata and A. macrocephala were found to be metastenoxenous (HS(S) = 3.000 and 3.302, respectively), whereas A. brasiliensis was found to be euryxenous (HS(S) = 5.876). Anonchotaenia brasiliensis has been found parasitising

  1. Phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, J M; Stanger, K F

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. Among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. First, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated DNA fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between Lemur catta and the genus Hapalemur. Moreover, our results indicate that L. catta is nested within the Hapalemur clade as the sister taxon to Hapalemur griseus/Hapalemur aureus. We interpret character states shared between Hapalemur simus and L. catta as primitive retentions by L. catta. Second, our findings agree with the DNA data in proposing a sister group relationship for Eulemur coronatus and Eulemur rubriventer. Third, our results question the validity of assigning Varecia variegata to the Lemuridae. For the characters we examined, Varecia more resembled indrids than lemurids, and the position of Varecia could be swapped with any of our outgroups (Indri, Propithecus, Daubentonia) without affecting tree topology. Previous workers sometimes have linked Varecia with various lemurids on grounds of ambiguously defined characters or on incorrect data gleaned from the literature. In those studies, the placement of Varecia in the Lemuridae usually has depended more on the minimization of character state conflicts (i.e. parsimony), than on demonstrable synapomorphies. In addition, data from DNA research have failed to demonstrate any pattern that links Varecia with Lemur, Hapalemur, or Eulemur. Results of the present study suggest that shared Varecia-indrid character states may be symplesiomorphic retentions in the Indridae, and that Varecia could be phyletically more primitive than either the indrids or lemurids.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among Lemuridae (Primates): evidence from mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorini, Jennifer; Forstner, Michael R J; Martin, Robert D

    2002-10-01

    The family Lemuridae includes four genera: Eulemur, Hapalemur, Lemur,Varecia. Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships between L. catta, Eulemur and Hapalemur, and of Varecia to these other lemurids, continue to be hotly debated. Nodal relationships among the five Eulemur species also remain contentious. A mitochondrial DNA sequence dataset from the ND 3, ND 4 L, ND 4 genes and five tRNAs (Gly, Arg, His, Ser, Leu) was generated to try to clarify phylogenetic relationships w ithin the Lemuridae. Samples (n=39) from all ten lemurid species were collected and analysed. Three Daubentonia madagascariensis were included as outgroup taxa. The approximately 2400 bp sequences were analysed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. The results support monophyly of Eulemur, a basal divergence of Varecia, and a sister-group relationship for Lemur/Hapalemur. Based on tree topology, bootstrap values, and pairwise distance comparisons, we conclude thatVarecia and Eulemur both represent distinct genera separate from L. catta. H. griseus andH. aureus form a clade with strong support, but the sequence data do not permit robust resolution of the trichotomy involving H. simus, H. aureus/H. griseus and L. catta. Within Eulemur there is strong support for a clade containing E. fulvus, E. mongoz and E. rubriventer. However, analyses failed to clearly resolve relationships among those three species or with the more distantly related E. coronatus and E. macaco. Our sequencing data support the current subspecific status of E.m. macaco and E.m. flavifrons, and that of V.v. variegata and V.v. rubra. However, tree topology and relatively large genetic distances among individual V.v. variegata indicate that there may be more phylogenetic structure within this taxon than is indicated by current taxonomy.

  3. Conidiobolomicosis: hallazgos histopatológicos.

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    Jesús A. Pérez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La conidiobolomicosis es una micosis subcutánea que se localiza generalmente en la línea media facial; es causada por un hongo saprófito de suelos y vegetales secos, propio de regiones intertropicales, que afecta principalmente a hombres adultos. El agente etiológico Conidiobolus coronatus pertenece a la clase de los Zigomicetos, orden Entomoftorales; se caracteriza por hifas cortas y gruesas, generalmente aseptadas, que crece entre 30°C y 37°C y produce granulomas nasales. Se informan a continuación los hallazgos histológicos de un caso de conidiobolomicosis en un paciente de 31 años de raza negra, natural y procedente de la región de Urabá, quien presentaba deformidad mediofacial con edema de nariz, labio superior e imágenes polipoides en senos maxilares con destrucción del tabique nasal. La biopsia demostró inflamación granulomatosa necrosante difusa en la dermis profunda e hipodermis asociada con eosinófilos y fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli, en cuya zona central se ubicaban espacios aparentemente vacíos que contenían el hongo que no se tiñó con HE, pero que sí lo hizo con las coloraciones de PAS y Grocott lo cual permitió la observación de hifas de paredes gruesas y rígidas, con torsión central y extremos cónicos.

  4. Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des îles Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote: Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.

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    Meco, J.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 m. y. of continuous activity in the Canary Islands have brought about the fossilization of marine fauna and soils which prove the existence of alternating warm and numid conditions of guinean origen, and also of drier influences from the Sahara, connected with the arrival of cold waters from the Lusitanian Sea. The sea deposits of the lower Pleistocene with Strombus coronatus and those of the upper Pleistocene with Strombus bubonius, which are caracteristically warm and the deposits of middle and upper Pleistoeene and of the Holocene, with various species of Patella and caracteristically cold (Meco, 1977, have already been related to volcanic activities dated by K/Ar (Meco y Steams, 1981 and are new being related to rapid effects of soil formation, the result of evaporation an clayey neoformation of volcanic materials which are constantly being renoved. The fairly rapid fossilization caused by volcanic activity, eliminates some of the effects accumulated over a period of time on the paleosoils, The existence of Saharian quartz, a mineral not found in volcanic products, and the simultaneous existence of more distant matters on the evolution of soilformation, like crusts which contain gypsum or attapulgyte of desert origin and bauxites containing nickel and tale of tropical, humid origin (Pomel, 1985, all this permit to find coherents conclusions.

    Más de 20 m. a. de actividad volcánica continuada ha permitido en las Canarias la fosilización de faunas marinas y suelos que testimonian una alternancia de condiciones cálidas y húmedas, de origen guineano, y de influencias secas, saharianas, relacionadas con aportes de aguas frescas de procedencia lusitana. Los depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior con Strombus coronatus y los del Pleistoceno superior con Strombus bubonius, que revelan un carácter cálido, y los depósitos del Pleistoceno medio y superior y del Holoceno, con varias

  5. Activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: Evidence of cathemerality in Varecia and Lemur catta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Joel; Samson, David R; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-06-01

    Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments. Using MotionWatch 8 ® actigraphy data loggers, we studied 88 lemurs across seven species at the Duke Lemur Center (DLC). Six species were members of the family Lemuridae (Eulemur coronatus, E. flavifrons, E. mongoz, L. catta, V. rubra, V. variegata), while a seventh was strictly diurnal and included as an out-group (Propithecus coquereli). For each 24-hr cycle (N = 503), we generated two estimates of cathemerality: mean night (MN) activity and day/night (DN) activity ratio (day and night cutoffs were based on astronomical twilights). As expected, P. coquereli engaged in the least amount of nocturnal activity according to both measures; their activity was also outside the 95% confidence intervals of all three cathemeral Eulemur species, which exhibited the greatest evidence of cathemerality. By these estimates, Varecia activity was most similar to Eulemur and exhibited substantial deviations from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.22 ± SE 0.12; β (DN) = -0.21 ± SE 0.12). L. catta activity patterns also deviated from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.12 ± SE 0.11; β (DN) = -0.15 ± SE 0.12) but to a lesser degree than either Varecia or Eulemur. Overall, L. catta displayed an intermediate activity pattern between Eulemur and P. coquereli, which is somewhat consistent with wild studies. Regarding Varecia, although additional observations in more diverse wild habitats are needed, our findings support

  6. The examination of ancient DNA: guidelines on precautions, controls, and sample processing

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    Scholz, M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The young discipline of palaeogenetics has developed into a successful and expectant field of archaeobiological research within the last decade. Palaeogenetic investigation (e.g. PCR, DNA sequencing of ancient specimens is, however, susceptible to falsification by the presence of contamination from more recent times. Contamination which can lead to amplification of non-authentic sequences is known to stem from several sources: (i human biomolecules derived from the persons performing the genetic experiments, perhaps also from the archeologists and other persons who have previously handled the specimens or (ii edaphic DNA sequences derived primarily from bacterial or fungal growth upon the specimen. A third source of contamination can arise from (iii substances used for conservation of specimens. Here we give advice on the correct processing of prehistoric bone samples when further molecular biological examination is required. Along with the demonstration of necessary precautions and working conditions, we further explain how an unequivocal DNA contamination monitoring is performed.

    La paleogenética se ha convertido en los últimos años en una disciplina coronada de éxito que ofrece grandes expectativas para el desarrollo de la investigación arqueobiológica. No obstante, la investigación paleogenética (p. ej: PCR, secuenciación del ADN de especímenes antiguos es susceptible de ser falsificada por la presencia de una contaminación más reciente. Actualmente sabemos que la contaminación que provoca la amplificación de secuencias ''no auténticas" procede de las siguientes fuentes: (i las biomoléculas humanas provienen de la persona que realiza el experimento genético o incluso también del arqueólogo u otras personas que previamente hayan tenido contacto con el espécimen; (ii de secuencias de ADN edáficas derivadas básicamente del crecimiento bacterial o fúngico en el seno del espécimen. La tercera fuente de contaminaci

  7. Comparison of gastropod mollusc (Apogastropoda: Hydrobiidae habitats in two crater lakes in Nicaragua

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    Jeffrey K McCrary

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic gastropod mollusc, Pyrgophorus coronatus, may perform an important role in the transmission of an emergent ocular pathology among fishes in Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. This disease emerged after an introduction of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the subsequent loss of Chara sp. beds in the lake. We compared the mollusc population densities in three habitats (sandy/muddy substrates, rocks, and Chara vegetation at varying depths (1.5, 10, 20, and 30 m in two volcanic crater lakes in Nicaragua: Lake Apoyo and Lake Xiloa, where lower numbers of affected fishes were found and tilapia has not been introduced. Duplicate samples at 1.5 m depth were taken in each habitat monthly for a year, and triplicate samples for bathymetric analysis of snail populations were performed during August, 2005. Samples of fixed surface area were filtered in a 0.4 cm size screen and live snails were counted from each sample. The preferred snail habitat in both lakes, Chara beds, was vastly reduced in Lake Apoyo via consumption by introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Structureless sandy substrates (mean ± standard error 3.1±1.3 ind/m² had lower population densities than other habitats in Lake Xiloá (rocks 590.9±185.3 ind/m²; vegetation 3 686.5±698.2 ind/m2; ANOVA I, pEl gasterópodo acuático, Pyrgophorus coronatus, podría jugar un papel importante en la transmisión de una patología ocular emergente entre los peces de la laguna de Apoyo, Nicaragua. Esta enfermedad surgió después de una introducción de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y la subsecuente pérdida de lechos de Chara sp. en la laguna. Comparamos las densidades poblacionales del caracol en tres hábitats (substratos arenosos/lodosos, rocas y vegetación de Chara en dos lagunas cratéricas volcánicas en Nicaragua: La laguna de Apoyo y la laguna de Xiloá, donde no se encuentraron grandes cantidades de peces afectados y donde no se han introducido tilapias. Mensualmente, por un a

  8. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des habitats naturels sur la faune menacée du Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy-Kinkony, Madagascar

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    Rado Hanitriniaina Andriamasimanana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Mahavavy-Kinkony Wetland Complex (MKWC assesses the impacts of habitat change on the resident globally threatened fauna. Located in Boeny Region, northwest Madagascar, the Complex encompasses a range of habitats including freshwater lakes, rivers, marshes, mangrove forests, and deciduous forest. Spatial modelling and analysis tools were used to (i identify the important habitats for selected, threatened fauna, (ii assess their change from 1950 to 2005, (iii detect the causes of change, (iv simulate changes to 2050 and (v evaluate the impacts of change. The approach for prioritising potential habitats for threatened species used ecological science techniques assisted by the decision support software Marxan. Nineteen species were analysed: nine birds, three primates, three fish, three bats and one reptile. Based on knowledge of local land use, supervised classification of Landsat images from 2005 was used to classify the land use of the Complex. Simulations of land use change to 2050 were carried out based on the Land Change Modeler module in Idrisi Andes with the neural network algorithm. Changes in land use at site level have occurred over time but they are not significant. However, reductions in the extent of reed marshes at Lake Kinkony and forests at Tsiombikibo and Marofandroboka directly threaten the species that depend on these habitats. Long term change monitoring is recommended for the Mahavavy Delta, in order to evaluate the predictions through time. The future change of Andohaomby forest is of great concern and conservation actions are recommended as a high priority. Abnormal physicochemical properties were detected in lake Kinkony due to erosion of the four watersheds to the south, therefore an anti-erosion management plan is required for these watersheds. Among the species of global conservation concern, Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri, Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus and dambabe (Paretroplus dambabe are

  9. Hydrobiological characteristics of Shark River estuary, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    Water quality in the Shark River estuary was strongly influenced by seasonal patterns of rainfall, water level and temperature. During the rainy season (summer and early fall) the salinity in the 20-mile long estuary ranged from that of fresh water to half that of sea water while concentrations of dissolved oxygen were low, 2-5 milligrams per liter (mg/l) presumably because, among other factors, microbial activity and respiration were accelerated by high temperatures (30-33 degrees C). During the dry season (late fall through spring) the salinity ranged from 18 grams per liter (g/l) in the headwaters to 36 g/l at the Gulf during a dry year such as 1967 and from 1 to 25 g/l during a wet year such as 1969. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen increased from 2-3 mg/l in the summer of 1967 to 4-7 mg/l in the winter of 1968, and temperature decreased from an average of about 30 degrees C in summer to 20 degrees C in winter. Water level declined 5 to 10 decimeters in the headwaters during the dry season, and salinity and tidal action increased. Large amounts of submerged vegetation died in some headwater creeks at the end of the dry season, presumably killed by salinities above 3 g/l. The decaying organic matter and the decrease in photosynthesis resulted in low dissolved oxygen (1-2 mg/l). Fish died at this time probably as a result of the low dissolved oxygen. Trace elements, heavy metals and insecticides occurred in the waters of the estuary in concentrations below those indicated as harmful for aquatic life by current standards established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (1968). The insecticides detected were concentrated in sediment and in various organisms. The patterns of distribution of planktonic and small nektonic animals in the estuary were related to salinity. Copepods (Arcatia tonsa, Labidocera aestiva, Pseudodiaptomus coronatus), cumaceans (Cyclaspis sp.), chaetognaths (Sagitta hispida), bay anchovies (Anchoa mitchilli), and scaled

  10. Revisão das espécies de Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Revision of the species of Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Benfatti Gonzalez Peronti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo são revisadas. São estudadas 36 espécies de Ceroplastinae, das quais 9 são sinonimizadas, 8 espécies novas são descritas e 19 são redescritas. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 e C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866, mencionadas para o Estado de São Paulo, não foram examinadas, devido a não localização do material tipo ou de outros exemplares. Nossos estudos indicaram que C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 e C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 foram erroneamente citadas por Hempel, 1900 para o estado de São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, atualmente Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871, é transferida para gênero Ceroplastes como Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871 n. comb. C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 é registrada pela primeira vez para o país e C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848, C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 e C. quadratus Green, 1935 são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo. Ceroplastinae é agora representada por 31 espécies no Estado de São Paulo, todas incluídas no gênero Ceroplastes. Ilustrações e uma chave para espécies são incluídas. Novos sinônimos: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848 n. sin. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. sin e C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. sin. Novas espécies descritas: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Esp